Sample records for canada

  1. Uranium industry in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Current state of uranium industry in Canada has been considered. It is shown that in Canada, which is the major supplier of uranium, new methods of prospecting, mining and processing of uranium are developed and the old ones are improved. Owing to automation and mechanization a higher labour productivity in uranium ore mining is achieved. The uranium industry of Canada can satisfy the future demands in uranium but introduction of any new improvement will depend completely on the rate of nuclear power development.

  2. One Canada, Two Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ByMurrayGreig; 赵金前


    Canada is one of the few nations in theworld to have two official languages: Englishand French. There are 10 provinces in thecountry but only one of these--Quebec isknown as "French Canada". This is because itwas founded by French explorers while Britishadventurers discovered the rest.

  3. Canada and veterinary parasitology. (United States)

    Slocombe, J Owen D


    A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.

  4. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.


    Smith, H. J.; Snowdon, K E


    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  5. In Canada: Friendly Fire (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-jane


    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  6. IYPE in Canada (United States)

    Boyd, J.; Nowlan, G.


    The Canadian National Committee picked five of the ten IYPE themes for emphasis in Canada - Water, Hazards, Energy, Resources and Environment. They are summarized in the acronym WHERE - WHERE on Earth, WHERE in Canada. Our committee raised funds from industry, with some generous support from The Geological Survey of Canada. Funds were used for publishing “Four Billion Years and Counting”, a book on Canadian geology designed for the general public. It will be useful to educators who can download many of the illustrations and images for classroom support. Recognizing the looming shortage of Geoscientists, we designed a new careers website to help attract young people to the Earth sciences. It can be seen on our website, The website will be updated regularly. The WHERE Challenge was a national contest for children aged 10 to 14. They were asked to select an object, often something from their household, identify at least one non-renewable resource used to make the object, and submit an entry describing the object, the resources within it, and WHERE they came from. We received entries from more than 1000 students Some of the winning entries are posted on our website. We developed a partnership with Parks Canada called Egoists, which is a series of pamphlets on iconic views within the parks explaining the Earth science behind the views. We also supported the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Burgess Shale by providing funding for the publication of a field guide. At the end of the year all programs will transfer to the Canadian Federation of Earth Sciences. The WHERE Challenge will be repeated in 2010. It, plus our book and careers website will continue our outreach activities.

  7. DEWI partnership in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutilleux, P.; Klug, H.; Molly, J.P. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)


    Canada is with its 9.982.000 km{sup 2} the second largest country in the world. It has plenty of natural resources for a population density of 3 inhabitants per km{sup 2}. Now that the time for wind energy is coming, DEWI is willing to contribute with its know-how to the development of wind energy in this country. In this article we review briefly two of the market drivers for the development of wind energy: the need for additional electricity generation capacity and the political framework. After considering the volume of projects under development, a way is shown how DEWI will be present in Canada in order to support its clients. (orig.)

  8. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions. (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin


    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality.

  9. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Canada Finance Minster:Welcome China's Investment in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan


    @@ To forward the relationship between China and Canada in financial and trade sectors and strengthen the cooperation in avoiding the worse impact of international financial crisis,Canadian financial high-level leaders involving Bank of Canada Governor Mark Carney,Canada's Minister of Finance Jim Flaherty,Federal Superintendent of Financial Institutions Julie well as tive malor banks and the two biggest insurance companies in Canada,who are lpoking to strengthen and expand business ties with China,visited China from August 8 to August 14,2009.

  11. Indicateurs cles au Canada


    Warren, Paul


    Au cours des dernieres annees, on s'est beaucoup interesse sur la scene internationale aux indicateurs cles. Le present document se veut un tour d'horizon des efforts deployes recemment au Canada en vue d'elaborer des indicateurs cles du bien etre economique, social, environnemental et physique. Y sont classifies et examines en detail plus de 40 projets et publications portant sur ce sujet. Y figurent aussi l'enumeration breve de 20 autres projets, ainsi que des renvois a plusieurs enquetes a...

  12. Canada and the Third World. (United States)

    Burghardt, Andrew F.


    Canada did not develop strong ties with the Third World until well after World War II. Three factors that have channeled and limited Canada's relationships with developing nations--location, history, and internal political relationships--are discussed. Also examined are patterns of Canadian foreign aid and investment and peace-seeking efforts. (RM)

  13. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada (United States)

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan


    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  14. Contaminant Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren C.


    Full Text Available Contaminant Research in CanadaPages 9 - 11 (ReportChristopher WrenAbstract:During the 1983/84 and 1984/85 trapping seasons, carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis were collected for contaminant analysis from trappers in Ontario. The studies identified clear differences in tissue levels of Hg, Pb and Cd between different collection areas. There is evidence to support Hg poisoning as the cause of death in at least one otter along this river system. The studies emphasize the potential interactions of toxic chemicals with each other and with natural stresses (e.g. cold, starvation, disease. More research is required along these lines since simultaneous exposure to more than one chemical and other stresses is more typical of conditions in the wild.

  15. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada (United States)


    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Coal facies studies in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, Wolfgang D. [Laboratorio de Carvao e de Petrologia Organica, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    The present study is a compilation of published data on coal facies studies in Canada based on coal petrological and other methods. The geological age of the coals range from the Devonian coal deposits in Arctic Canada to coals of Tertiary age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, intermontane British Columbia and Arctic Canada. In terms of rank, the coal deposits studied range from lignite to low volatile bituminous. Coal petrological methods include maceral and microlithotype analyses, frequently integrated with data from palynological and geochemical analyses. Most recently, a number of studies have applied sequence stratigraphic concepts to the coal-bearing strata including the interpretation of coal petrological data in the context of this concept.

  17. Obstetric medical care in Canada. (United States)

    Magee, Laura A; Cote, Anne-Marie; Joseph, Geena; Firoz, Tabassum; Sia, Winnie


    Obstetric medicine is a growing area of interest within internal medicine in Canada. Canadians continue to travel broadly to obtain relevant training, particularly in the United Kingdom. However, there is now a sufficient body of expertise in Canada that a cadre of 'home-grown' obstetric internists is emerging and staying within Canada to improve maternity care. As this critical mass of practitioners grows, it is apparent that models of obstetric medicine delivery have developed according to local needs and patterns of practice. This article aims to describe the state of obstetric medicine in Canada, including general internal medicine services as the rock on which Canadian obstetric medicine has been built, the Canadian training curriculum and opportunities, organisation of obstetric medicine service delivery and the future.

  18. Canada goose behavior: Fall 1969 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese use four divisions of the Mark Twin NWR: Louisa, Delair, Cannon, and Calhoun. There was a shortage of cultivated crops, corn and soybeans, on all refuge...

  19. A staff shortage in Canada?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, P. [Human Resources Development Canada, Quebec (Canada)


    Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members` future personnel requirements. (author).

  20. Traditional Chinese medicine education in Canada. (United States)

    Du, Huan-bin


    The history of education and legislation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture in Canada is short. The first school of TCM opened its door to the general public in Canada in 1985 and the first legislation of acupuncture was introduced in Alberta, Canada in 1988. Currently, TCM and/or acupuncture have been regulated in five provinces in Canada. The legislation and regulation, as well as education of TCM and acupuncture vary among the five provinces in Canada. Opportunities and challenges facing TCM education exist simultaneously. Strategies are proposed to develop an international standard for TCM education in Canada, and possibly in other English speaking countries as well.

  1. [History of trachoma in canada]. (United States)

    Milot, Jean


    The author retraces the history of trachoma in Canada. The numerous articles in Canadian medical journals from the middle of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century show the remarkable contribution of Canadian ophthalmologists. The clinical symptoms and signs followed by the etiology and the different modes of treatment are reviewed. The presence and prevention of trachoma in Canada, ranging from Montreal to Toronto, also in Halifax with the arrival of the transatlantic immigrants, as well as those reaching the western provinces of Canada are described. How the Canadian Department of Health belatedly introduced a prevention campaign only after a widespread dissemination of trachoma across the country is also examined.

  2. Developing Canada`s climate change strategy : electricity sector table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellan, A. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    Canada`s climate change strategy has been the focus of extensive consultation processes whose objective is to provide recommendations to federal and provincial ministers by the end of 1999. They are also designed to study the impact, the cost and the benefits of implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and to develop immediate actions to provide early reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The development of long-term actions that will result in sustained greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions is also on the agenda. The role of the Electricity Sector Table is to determine the contribution of GHG emissions by power generation, transmission and distribution elements as well as by electricity and cogeneration industries. The contribution of GHG emissions by renewable energy is also being studied. One of the recommended early actions is that the federal government should include solution gas as a qualifying fuel in Class 43.1 of the Income Tax Act to provide incentives to produce electricity from waste solution gas in fossil fuel production. Natural Resources Canada predicts that GHG emissions from the electricity sector will have increased from 94 MT in 1990 to 146 MT by 2020. The current sources of power generation in Canada are as follows: hydroelectric (65 per cent), nuclear (15 per cent), coal (15 per cent), and other (5 per cent).

  3. Canada-U.S. Relations (United States)


    56 RBC Financial Group, Daily Forex Fundamentals, February 27, 2009. [ analysis/daily- forex -fundamentals/canada%27s-fourth%11quarter-current-account-moves-into-deficit-after-nine-years- of-surpluses

  4. Can Canada Avoid Arctic Militarization? (United States)


    Passage is considered an international strait because it joins two high-seas areas used for international navigations.28 Geography is the key to the...2014). 42Roger Howard, 54. 43Sian Griffith, “US-Canada Arctic Border Dispute Key to Maritime Riches,” BBC News , August 2, 2010,, Deputy Chairman of the Russian Duma and a famous Polar scientist, directed a submarine expedition to the North Pole and planted a Russian flag

  5. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships


    Scott Elaine


    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  6. China, Canada Strengthen Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ China and Canada released a joint statement to work together to promote the bilateral cooperation in the oil and gas sector in lateJanuary when Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin paid a state visit to China. Encouraging respective enterprises to expand commercial partnership, the two nations have agreed to take on the energy sector - oil and gas, nuclear energy,energy efficiency and cleaner energy - as "priority areas of long-term mutual cooperation".

  7. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon


    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  8. Suicide policy in Canada: lessons from history. (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Elias, Brenda; Bolton, James M; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender


    In Canada, suicide has transitioned from being a criminal activity with much associated stigma, to being a public health concern that needs to be managed by governments and clinicians in a culturally sensitive manner. In Canada and worldwide, the social attitudes toward and legal interpretation of suicide have been dynamic. Much has been proposed in the development of suicide policy in Canada, however Canada is unique in that it remains one of the only industrialized countries without a national suicide prevention strategy. The current article provides a critical review of the history of suicide in Canada, as well as an appraisal of Canadian suicide prevention policies and key government and political milestones that have impacted suicide policy. Current activity regarding a national suicide prevention strategy in Canada is discussed, as well as potential options for clinician involvement.

  9. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012 (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012


    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  10. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scott


    Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.

  11. History of geriatrics in Canada. (United States)

    Hogan, David B


    Specialization is a pervasive movement in medicine. How specialties develop is a complex phenomenon and does not depend solely on the growth of knowledge. The history of geriatrics in Canada is presented as an example of specialization in our country. The gestation period extended over decades. Practitioners moved from partial specialization to a full-time practice in the care of older patients. Opposition to the emerging specialty was mounted by established fields of practice. The choices made by the leaders of Canadian geriatrics molded the evolution of the specialty and have contributed to its precarious status at the present time.

  12. Canada. (United States)

    Gilham, Virginia


    Annotates 122 publications from the Canadian federal government and from 9 Canadian provinces. Topics include environmental programs and problems, gambling, crime, young offenders, health and welfare issues, use of electronic information, materials on education, employment, tourism, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and issues relating to…

  13. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015 (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne


    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  14. Canada's Changing Geography of Jobs and Trade. (United States)

    Kilgour, David


    Discusses the impact of globalization on the jobs and trade of Canada. Emphasizes new relationships with countries in Latin America and Africa. Notes the types of trade that Canada enjoys with these two areas and encourages expansion of business into them. (DSK)

  15. Historical Empathy and "Canada: A People's History" (United States)

    Bryant, Darren; Clark, Penney


    In this article, we examine the CBC/Radio-Canada series, "Canada: A People's History," for its use of empathy, specifically with regard to its portrayal of Aboriginal people. We call the empathy promoted in the series, emotive empathy, and compare it to the concept of historical empathy constructed by researchers in history education. The emotive…

  16. Cinéma / Canada


    Berthomé, Jean-Pierre; Coulombe, Michel; Dvorak, Marta; Garel, Sylvain; Noguez, Dominique; Suchet, Simone; Vimenet, Pascal


    Longtemps connue en France par le biais de cinéastes québécois tels que Claude Jutra, Gilles Carle, ou Pierre Perrault, l'industrie cinématographique du Canada a dû se développer dans l'ombre d'Hollywood. Elle s'est forgée une réputation internationale d'excellence dans les domaines qui ne concurrençaient pas les studios américains : le documentaire, le court-métrage, et les films d'animation. Nous sommes en présence d'un cinéma fortement subventionné (et même d'un cinéma d'État) qui repose s...

  17. Paint removal activities in Canada (United States)

    Foster, Terry


    Paint removal activities currently under way in Canada include: research and development of laser paint stripping; development and commercialization of a new blasting medium based on wheat starch; commercialization of a new blasting medium and process using crystalline ice blasting for paint removal and surface cleaning; and the development of automated and robotic systems for paint stripping applications. A specification for plastic media blasting (PMB) of aircraft and aircraft components is currently being drafted by NDHQ for use by the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and contractors involved in coating removal for the CAF. Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) is studying the effects of various blast media on coating removal rates, and minimizing the possibility of damage to substrates other than aluminum such as graphite epoxy composite and Kevlar. The effects of plastic media blasting on liquid penetrant detection of fatigue cracks is also under investigation.

  18. Canada's population: growth and dualism. (United States)

    Beaujot, R P


    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  19. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y


    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  20. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011 (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011


    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  1. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009 (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009


    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  2. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Canada. 93.418 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.418 Cattle from Canada. (a) Health certificates. Cattle intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate issued in...

  3. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  4. Cost Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination for Rotavirus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Coyle


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.

  5. Ammi Canada 2015 Annual Conference: Abstract Titles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Abstracts to be presented at the 2015 Annual Conference of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, April 16 to 18, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, alphabetized according to the surname of the first author.

  6. Emerging Churches in Post-Christian Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Studebaker


    Full Text Available The traditional mainline and evangelical churches in Canada, as in most western countries, are either in decline or static. Taken as a measure of the future, the prospects for Christianity in Canada, and more broadly the West, are bleak. Post-Christian Canada, however, contains thriving alternative and innovative forms of church, often called ‘emerging’ churches. They take many forms of expression, but share common theological convictions. Based on site research and personal interviews, this article describes the various types and contexts of these churches in Canada. It then highlights three of their central theological characteristics. First, rejecting the ‘culture wars’ social involvement of Christendom churches, they embrace practices and initiatives that transform their local communities. Second, they embrace an incarnational and contextual understanding of Christian life and ministry. Eschewing mega-church franchise models, they endeavor to shape their ministry to the their local communities. Third, they adopt a comprehensive rather than compartmental spirituality.

  7. Coaxial Connections: Art Education in Canada. (United States)

    Gray, James V.


    Several avenues of communication that bind art education in the United States and Canada are described. Developments of mutual understanding have tightened the art education relationship between the two countries. (RM)

  8. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  9. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  10. Cackling Canada goose nesting populations, Yukon Delta (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Number of potential territories, number of cackling Canada Goose nests, and percent occupancy of available territories from CCG plots on the Yukon Delta National...

  11. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera (United States)

    Price, J.I.


    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  12. Plating effluent management in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, P. [Environment Canada, Hull, PQ (Canada)


    There are some 600 firms in Canada classified as metal finishers, employing about 8,000 people; 60 per cent of these firms are located in Ontario. Annual sales are in the range of $800 million. About 25 per cent of the total effort is devoted to the automotive industry. Regulatory initiatives are based on the Toxic Substance Management Policy 1995 Framework, and involve multi-stakeholder consultation to identify, evaluate and recommend goals, targets, and management options to reduce exposure to hexavalent chromium, maximize the recycling of nickel and minimize the releases of cadmium from industry operations by promoting and encouraging appropriate P2 practices. Other regulatory initiatives follow from the Fisheries Act of 1970, the Metal Finishing Liquid Effluent Guidelines of 1977, and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act of 1988. There are also non-regulatory initiatives, such as the Metal Finishing Industry Pollution Project, a voluntary cooperative effort directed towards formulating plans to reduce toxic effluents from metal finishing operations and to develop and implement site-specific P2 plans. The various treatment technologies such as physico-chemical treatment of multi-metal rinse waters and periodic bath dumpings at on-site waste water treatment plants, water reduction practices to make more effective use of rinse water, evaporation, ion exchange, packed bed scrubbers, fume suppressants, composite mesh pads and separate ventilation for degreasing are also described. Specific case studies are cited to illustrate the various treatment technologies.

  13. Bombardier Inc. Factory, Valcourt, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollick, J. [Solar Wall International Ltd., Downsview (Canada)


    Bombardier Inc. of Montreal, Canada has installed over 15,000 m{sup 2} of unglazed solar air collectors at its various manufacturing plants in Quebec. The solar collectors decrease operating expenses and significantly improve indoor air quality. Bombardier's engineers compared the cost of this system with other methods of recladding and improving ventilation and found the costs to be the same. With no extra costs for free solar heating, the system has an immediate payback, along with other benefits of improved air quality and attractive architecturally designed walls that utilize solar energy. Bombardier's first solar heating installation at their Sea Doo manufacturing plant has a solar wall area of 740 m{sup 2}. The heat-absorbing surface area is 611 m{sup 2} of a custom dark olive-green colour, with the balance being the white canopy plenum along the top and vertical dividers. The entire surface of the solar panel is separated into six sections with one fan per section. Wall-mounted ventilation fans were installed to bring in a total of 71,400 m{sup 3}/h of heated ventilation air. Monitored solar and destratification savings for the year 1993-94 were CA $33,000 (ECU 20,440) based on energy savings of 894,000 kWh. (author)

  14. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, J.T. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs.

  15. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions (United States)

    Hiebert, Al


    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six population…

  16. USArray - Seismic Reconnaissance in Northwest Canada (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Spiers, K.; Murray, M. S.


    This poster describes the results of reconnaissance carried out by the Arctic Institute of North America in summer 2014 in collaboration with USArray and IRIS for deployment of the USArray in northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada. USArray is a 15-year program to place a dense network of permanent and portable seismographs across the continental United States and parts of Canada. The seismographs record local, regional, and distant (teleseismic) earthquakes. The array records seismic waves that propagate through finer and finer slices of the earth enabling scientists to link structures inherited from earlier stages of continental formation to known and potential geologic hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides) ( USArray deployment in Canada will complement existing Canadian seismic network(s). This project will be particularly significant in the St. Elias region of southwest Yukon, northwest British Columbia, and southeast Alaska as this one of the most seismically active areas and tectonically complex areas in Canada . The deployment will complement ongoing geological mapping carried out by both Yukon Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada and several universities. This reconnaissance work is part of a growing portfolio of research conducted by the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary designed to meet needs for information and enable synthesis and transfer of knowledge for problem solving and decision-making in the north.

  17. Demand for human allograft tissue in Canada. (United States)

    Lakey, Jonathan R T; Mirbolooki, Mohammadreza; Rogers, Christina; Mohr, Jim


    There is relatively little known about the demand for allograft tissues in Canada. The Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation (CCDT) is a national advisory body that undertook a comprehensive "market survey" to estimate surgical demand for human allograft tissues in Canada. The report "Demand for Human Allograft Tissue in Canada" reflects survey results sent to 5 prominent User Groups. User Groups were identified as orthopaedic surgeons; neurosurgeons; corneal transplant surgeons; plastic surgeons, specifically those at Canadian Burn Units; and cardiac surgeons (adult and paediatric surgery). The demand for allograft grafts was determined and then extrapolated across the total User Group and then increases in allograft tissue use over the next 1-2 years across User Groups were predicted. The overall response rate for the survey was 21.4%. It varied from a low of 19.6% for the orthopaedic survey to a high of 40.5% for the corneal survey. The estimated current demand for allograft tissue in Canada ranges from a low of 34,442 grafts per year to a high of 62,098 grafts per year. The predicted increase in use of allograft tissue over the next 1-2 year period would suggest that annual demand could rise to somewhere in the range of 42,589-72,210 grafts. The highest rated preferences (98% and 94%) were for accredited and Canadian tissue banks, respectively. This study represents a key step in addressing the paucity of information concerning the demand for allograft tissue in Canada.

  18. William D. Stevenson: Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon. (United States)

    Mukhida, Karim; Mendez, Ivar


    The origins of neurosurgical services in Atlantic Canada are tied to the individual efforts of William D. Stevenson. Born in Hamilton, Ontario, Stevenson completed his senior matriculation in Dunnville, Ontario, before studying medicine at the University of Toronto. He completed the Gallie surgical course in Toronto and then spent 1 year training with Edward Archibald at McGill University. After working for 2 years with the Canadian Mobile Neurosurgical Unit in Europe during the Second World War, Stevenson undertook formal neurosurgical training with Kenneth G. McKenzie, Canada's first neurosurgeon. Stevenson was thereafter recruited to Halifax to start the neurosurgical service at the Victoria General Hospital in January 1948, and he remained head of the division for the next 26 years. His pioneering work laid the foundations for the establishment of a major academic neurosurgical service at Dalhousie University and was crucial for the establishment of neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada. After his retirement, Stevenson moved back to Ontario and began his second career, transferring his passion for neurosurgery to oil painting. His legacy to neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada will be remembered in perpetuity with the annual Neurosurgery Resident Research Award at Dalhousie University, established and named in his honour. This paper focuses on Stevenson's life and work in neurosurgery as Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon.

  19. The Hybridisation of Higher Education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Shale


    Full Text Available Canada's postsecondary institutions are becoming increasingly involved with technology enhanced learning, generally under the rubric of distance education. Growth and activity in distance education stems from rapid developments in communication and information technologies such as videoconferencing and the Internet. This case study focuses on the use of new technologies, primarily within the context of higher education institutions operating in Canada's English speaking provinces. Capitalising on the interactive capabilities of "new" learning technologies, some distance education providers are starting to behave more like conventional educational institutions in terms of forming study groups and student cohorts. Conversely, new telecommunications technologies are having a reverse impact on traditional classroom settings, and as a result conventional universities are beginning to establish administrative structures reflective of those used by distance education providers. When viewed in tandem, these trends reflect growing convergence between conventional and distance learning modes, leading to the hybridisation of higher education in Canada.

  20. Satellite mobile data service for Canada (United States)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  1. Critical Energy Infrastructure Protection in Canada (United States)


    que le gouvernement attache beaucoup d’importance à la protection des infrastructures énergétiques essentielles. Neuf ans après les attaques du 11...pour la défense Canada – CARO; Décembre 2010. Différents gouvernements ont prétendu que la gestion des urgences et la protection des...nouvelles menaces globales ont émergé et ainsi persuadé le gouvernement du Canada (GC) qu’une approche plus intégrée en matière de sécurité était

  2. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  3. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada. (United States)


    ... transiting Canada from point to point in the United States will be manifested on United States-Canada Transit... certified. The driver will be allowed to break any seals affixed by Canadian Customs upon presentation of...

  4. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  5. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository? (United States)

    Nariani, Rajiv


    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  6. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.


    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  7. Canada: An Ideal Place for Outbound Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen


    @@ In recent years, bilateral investment between China and Canada has become more and more active. According to the report on overseas investment of Chinese enterprises released by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)at the 4th Chinese Enterprise Outbound Investment Conference, Chinese overseas investment is displayingan increasing trend, with the strength of Chinese enterprises and overseas investment rapidly growing.

  8. Canada thistle phenology in broadbean canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski


    Full Text Available Soine of the developmental stages of Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (I. emergence and early growth, II. shooting, II. budding, IV. flowering, V. fructification, VI. shedding of fruits on the background of development stages of broad-bean, weeded by herbicides and without that weed-killing substances, were presented in the paper. Phenological observations were carried out on the plants growing on alluvial soil developed from light loam in Zakrz6w near Tarnobrzeg. It was proved that phenological development of Canada thistle, during broad-bean vegetation, depended on course of weather conditions and method of crop care. Emergence of the weed occurred earlier than broad-bean plants during warm and rather dry seasons. In every vegetation period, emergence and early vegetation stage (to 4 leaves seedling of Canada thistle lasted about 3 months, until broad-bean got full pod setting. During wet and cold season (in 2001 the weed emerged also early under herbicide (Afalon 1,5 kg ha-1 condition. Until to broad-bean harvest, Canada thistle attained the finish developmental stages, that means fruiting and fruit shedding. Herbicide treatment delayed the last two stages and limited fruit shedding by plants of Cirsium arvense.

  9. Career Development in Canada: A Changing Landscape. (United States)

    Kellett, Ralph

    In Canada, responsibility for the career development delivery system is divided among federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels of government. Education comes under provincial/territorial jurisdiction. Career development varies across provinces and often from school to school. There are eight transition points throughout the school…

  10. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 2. (United States)

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue consists of the following: an article entitled "Suggestopaedia and Language Teaching, International Perspective"; an article which discusses possible adaptations of the Bulgarian Suggestopaedia - A New Method of Teaching Foreign Languages"; and bibliographical notes from Canada and Bulgaria announcing new publications on suggestopedia.…

  11. Information Literacy Training in Canada's Public Libraries (United States)

    Julien, Heidi; Hoffman, Cameron


    The purposes of the study were to explore the role of Canada's public libraries in developing the public's information literacy (IL) skills, to explore current IL training practices, and to explore the perspectives and IL experiences of individuals who visit public libraries to access the Internet. This article documents the second phase of a…

  12. Evolving perspectives on lyme borreliosis in Canada. (United States)

    Sperling, Jlh; Middelveen, Mj; Klein, D; Sperling, Fah


    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis.

  13. Workplace health and safety: report from Canada. (United States)

    Sass, R


    This article represents a critical analysis of the major policy responses to workplace health and safety in Canada. It examines the deficiencies inherent in the legislative development of Joint Health and Safety Committees in most Canadian jurisdictions, the limitations regarding standard-setting of worker exposure to contaminants, and disincentive for employers to positively improve the workplace because of Workers Compensation legislation. Collective bargaining agreements in Canada have had only limited positive effects, while the ultimate legal sanction of criminal prosecution by the regulatory agencies has weakened enforcement and compliance of existing regulations. There has never been a successful criminal prosecution of an employer in Canada, even for multiple deaths. The article suggests the following four reasons for this "underdevelopment" of occupational health and safety in Canada: the concealment of the dimension of the incidence of industrial disease based on Workers Compensation Board statistics; the application of an incorrect theory of causation of both industrial disease and injury by both managers and government administrators of occupational health and safety programs; the resistance of both senior and middle managers against increased worker participation in both work organization and job design questions; and the general "moral underdevelopment," rather than ignorance, of managers in favoring economic considerations or values at the expense of worker health and safety. In light of the magnitude of the problem and the deficiencies of existing policy approaches, the author proposes the need for greater workplace democratization of production and industry as a necessary and sufficient reform of workplace health and safety.

  14. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.


    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  15. Greeks in Canada (an Annotated Bibliography). (United States)

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    This bibliography on Greeks in Canada includes annotated references to both published and (mostly) unpublished works. Among the 70 entries (arranged in alphabetical order by author) are articles, reports, papers, and theses that deal either exclusively with or include a separate section on Greeks in the various Canadian provinces. (GC)

  16. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon


    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties…

  17. Prediction of Hepatitis C Burden in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimian Zou


    Full Text Available To assess the risk of hepatitis C in Canada and to predict the burden that this disease may pose to the Canadian society in the near future, expected numbers of persons at different stages of the disease currently and in the next decade were estimated by simulation using a published hepatitis C natural history model with no treatment effect being applied. Based on the estimate of 240,000 persons who are currently infected with the hepatitis C virus in Canada, the simulation analysis demonstrated that the number of hepatitis C cirrhosis cases would likely increase by 92% from 1998 to the year 2008. It was also projected that the number of liver failures and hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C would increase by 126% and 102%, respectively, in the next decade. The number of liver-related deaths associated with hepatitis C is expected to increase by 126% in 10 years. The medical and social care systems in Canada may not be ready to support these large increases. These results highlight the importance of both the control of disease progression of hepatitis C virus-infected persons and the primary prevention of hepatitis C infections in Canada.

  18. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon


    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties has not been…

  19. Zoonotic diseases in Canada: an interdisciplinary challenge.



    Although zoonotic diseases are generally rare in Canada, a wide range of pathogens can be transmitted from animal reservoirs to humans through insect vectors or direct contact with wild and domestic animals. Across the country researchers with backgrounds ranging from wildlife biology to parasitology and epidemiology are tracking a variety of zoonotic diseases, some of which are causing increasing concern among public health officials.

  20. First China-Canada Cultural Dialogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>An official visit to China in December 2009 by Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper and the holding of the First China-Canada Cultural Dialogue in Beijing a month earlier gave the two countries unique opportunities to further promote friendly cooperation. The two sides agreed to make concerted efforts to safeguard and consolidate the non-governmental basis

  1. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany. (United States)

    Hufeisen, Britta


    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  2. Return migration from Canada to Britain. (United States)

    Richmond, A H


    Abstract Statistics of migrants returning from Canada to Britain and re-registering for national insurance purposes are compared with labour force immigrants entering Canada between 1956 and 1965. Short and long-term indices are calculated which suggest that return migration has been increasing since 1960. A sample survey carried out in 1962-63 distinguishes three types of returning migrant: (a) quasi-migrants who originally planned to return to Britain; (b) permanent repatriates who originally intended to settle in Canada but now expect to remain in Britain; (c) transilient migrants who exhibit a high propensity to move backwards and forwards between two or more countries without becoming permanently rooted in anyone. The demographic, economic and social characteristics of the three types are described. A further comparison is made between migrants who plan to settle in Britain, those who intend to come back again to Canada, and those who are uncertain of their future plans or who intend to move on to a third country.

  3. Canada,China,Closer in Hard Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin


    @@ Facing the current global financial storm,more posSible economic and trade cooperation and promotion worldwide is being sought by nations to walk out the hard time.The 2nd Canada China Business Forum held in Beijing,on November 3,is an example to a closer tie of both countries.

  4. The core health science library in Canada. (United States)

    Huntley, J L


    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists.

  5. The Core Health Science Library in Canada * (United States)

    Huntley, June Leath


    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482

  6. Illegal Immigrants in Canada: Recent Developments. (United States)

    Robinson, W. G.


    Naturally protected by its distance from most migrant routes and with a long undefended border with the U.S., a parliamentary system capable of responding rapidly to problems, and a small legal and even smaller illegal immigrant population, Canada has experimented with novel immigration policies to encourage and control its population increase.…

  7. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL (United States)

    Jambor, Paul Z.


    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  8. Reforming health care in Canada: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Enis


    Full Text Available This paper examines the current health care reform issues in Canada. The provincial health insurance plans of the 1960s and 1970s had the untoward effects of limiting the federal government's clout for cost control and of promoting a system centered on inpatient and medical care. Recently, several provincial commissions reported that the current governance structures and management processes are outmoded in light of new knowledge, new fiscal realities and the evolution of power among stake-holders. They recommend decentralized governance and restructuring for better management and more citizen participation. Although Canada's health care system remains committed to safeguarding its guiding principles, the balance of power may be shifting from providers to citizens and "technocrats". Also, all provinces are likely to increase their pressure on physicians by means of salary caps, by exploring payment methods such as capitation, limiting access to costly technology, and by demanding practice changes based on evidence of cost-effectiveness.

  9. Giardiasis in pinnipeds from eastern Canada. (United States)

    Measures, L N; Olson, M


    Cysts of Giardia sp. were detected in feces from the rectum of 20 of 74 pinnipeds examined from the eastern coast of Canada in 1997 and 1998 using a monoclonal antibody technique. Infected pinnipeds included 15 adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), four adult grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and one juvenile harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Cysts were not detected in 15 seal pups St. Lawrence. The overall prevalence of Giardia sp. in grey and harbor seals, excluding pups, from the Gulf and St. Lawrence estuary was 23%. Feces from 11 beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and one northern bottle-nosed whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) stranded in the St. Lawrence estuary were negative for Giardia sp. cysts. The significance of Giardia sp. in marine mammals, shown here for the first time in eastern coastal Canada, is unknown.

  10. GEOID '88: A gravimetric geoid for Canada (United States)

    Nagy, Dezso


    Using Stokes' formula, a gravimetric geoid was calculated for Canada. The input data are as follows: 15 x 15' block averages were used for Canada and the USA and 1 x 1 deg block averages and satellite model (GEM-T1) provided values for the remaining part of the Earth. The geoid was calculated at 6398 points covering the area within the points rho(sub i)(phi sub i; lambda sub i) (lambda is + west): rho sub 1(40,125); rho sub 2(75,184); rho sub 3(75,10); and rho sub 4(40,60). The computed geoid refers to the GRS1980 and reaches a local minimum of -47.3 meters around the western part of Hudson Bay. A contour map of the geoid is shown.

  11. Biomaterials in Canada: the first four decades. (United States)

    Brash, John L


    Biomaterials research in Canada began in the 1960s. Over the past four decades significant contributions have been made across a broad spectrum covering dental, orthopaedic, cardiovascular, neuro, and ocular biomaterials. Canadians have also been active in the derivative area of tissue engineering. Biomaterials laboratories are now established in universities and research institutes from coast to coast, supported mainly by funding from the Federal and Provincial Governments. The Canadian Biomaterials Society was formed in 1971 and has played an important role in the development of the field. The Society played host to the 5th World Biomaterials Congress in Toronto in 1996. The work of Canadian researchers over the past four decades is summarized briefly. It is concluded that biomaterials and tissue engineering is a mature, strong area of research in Canada and appears set to continue as such into the future.

  12. Canada: An Ideal Place for Outbound Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen


    @@ In recent years,bilateral investment between China and Canada has become more and more active.According to the report on overseas investment of Chinese enterprises released by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)at the 4th Chinese Enterprise Outbound Investment Conference,Chinese overseas investment is displaying an increasing trend,with the strength of Chinese enterprises and overseas investment rapidly growing.

  13. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome: case description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Da Porto


    Full Text Available We present the case of an 80-year old woman affected by the Cronkhite-Canada syndrome. This rare disease was described for the first time in 1955. It is characterized by the growth of multiple polyps in the gastroenteric tract, leading to diarrhea, alopecia, dystrophy of nails and hyper-pigmented skin. In this article, we describe the patient’s clinical picture and report the results of laboratory tests and imaging assessments.

  14. Harnessing Canada's wind resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.


    Canada's latest wind farm, the 20-turbine Magrath Wind Power project, a $48 million joint venture between Suncor, EHN Wind Power Canada Inc., and Enbridge Inc. is described. This latest addition to Canada's growing renewable energy generation capacity is situated near the town of Magrath in Alberta, 40 km south of Lethbridge. The 20 turbines are erected along a distance of eight kilometres; they are capable of generating enough electricity to light approximately 13,000 homes. Each hub stands 65 metres above the ground, equivalent in height to a 23-story building; the turbine's bladespan is 34 metres, which is close to the wingspan of a Boeing 737-900 airliner. The Magrath is Suncor's second wind power project, and is part of the oil giant's continuing commitment to the development of renewable energy sources as a means of providing a reliable source of electricity and protect the environment at the same time. The construction activity took three months over a 12-month period and provided employment for 70 people at the peak construction period. Each turbine generates 1.5 megawatts of energy, and will offset 82,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually (equivalent to the removal of 12,000 cars from Canadian roads). At present, the cost of generating wind energy ranges between 6 cents and 12 cents per kilowatt-hour, depending on location, compared to about 5 cents for electricity generated by hydro power. The Magrath Wind Power project joins 30 other wind farms currently in operation in Canada.

  15. A history of neurosurgery in Canada. (United States)

    Weir, Bryce


    Canada existed for more than half a century before there were glimmerings of modern neurosurgical activity. Neurosurgery had advanced significantly in Europe and the United States prior to its being brought to Toronto and Montreal from American centers. The pioneers responsible for the rapid evolution in practice, teaching and research are described. The interplay of scientific, professional, demographic and economic forces with general historical trends has produced dramatic changes in the way that neurosurgery is now practiced.

  16. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada. (United States)


    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  17. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch


    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  18. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada (United States)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael


    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  19. An emissions trading regime for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.L. [National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    In 1998, over twelve papers were published on emissions trading regimes in Canada by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), a federal government agency whose members represent stakeholders as varied as business, environmental groups, academics, aboriginal groups and others. One of the recommendations that emerged was for the computer modelling of the possibilities that had been identified for a domestic trading regime in Canada for greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether the modelling was ever performed as the file was taken over by the Finance Department under the umbrella of a special emission trading table that examined Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. The author examined questions pertaining to whether a domestic trading regime is essential, and what its characteristics should be in case it was deemed essential or advisable to have one. The upstream versus downstream application was looked at, as well as grand-fathering versus auction. Provincial issues were then addressed, followed by meshing with a credit system. International systems were reviewed. Early action was discussed, whereby an emitter seeks credit for action taken toward reductions since the original reference year of 1990. The case of emitters having bought or sold permits since the original reference years will also want those trades recognized under a trading regime. The author indicated that it seems probable that an emission trading system will eventually be implemented and that a debate on the issue should be initiated early.

  20. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber


    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  1. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada (United States)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.


    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  2. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.


    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  3. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les


    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  4. The Disturbed Legislation of Same-sex Marriage in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In July 2005, Canada became the fourth country in the world, after the Netherlands, Belgium, and Spain, to legalize same-sex marriages nationwide. This new legal status for gays and lesbians has been a controversial issue in Canada, both in the public and in Parliament. This article provides a historical and legal overview of same-sex marriage in Canada. It outlines briefly the legal process of same-sex marriage in this country.

  5. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay


    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  6. Canada : oil, gas, and the new Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Centre for Military and Strategic Studies


    This presentation provided a broad overview of the geopolitical issues affecting the massive transformation of the Arctic resulting from resource development, globalization, and climate change. Two Arctics are emerging, notably one European and one North American. Oil and gas companies are investing heavily in the North, and there is continued debate over pipelines and projects, but the viability of projects can shift abruptly from technological and political change. Recent examples include the emergence of shale gas, the possibility of the United States becoming a gas exporter, and the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In terms of Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries, a comparison was presented regarding the Canadian and Russian claims to the continental shelf. International cooperation and a commitment to peaceful means can be seen in the Ilulissat Declaration, the acceptance of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea as rules, the scientific cooperation of Canada, the United States, and Denmark, and the recent boundary agreement between Russia and Norway. The positions of the main players in the new geopolitics of the North were outlined, particularly with respect to Russia, the United States, Norway, Denmark, and Canada. Their recent policy statements and developing arctic force capabilities were summarized. Canada's more assertive Arctic policy was outlined in more detail along with the country's base locations and recent security actions in the North. The main issues facing nations with interests in the North will be maritime and aerospace; understanding the new players on the scene; and new technological developments. 10 figs., 5 refs.

  7. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  8. Canada Aids Chinese Women~! s Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    "THE Canada-China Women in Development Project is like a seed which, after being nurtured by women’s federations across China, has grown, fruited and expanded." Diane Tyler, co-manager of the CCWID Project, which was established in 1990 and is slated to be completed this late year, described the project to our staff reporter at the end of March. Tyler comes from the Association of Canadian Community Colleges; she had just finished her work on the project and was leaving for her home country. In 1994, at the CCWID Project’s

  9. The Evolution of Elderly Poverty in Canada


    Kevin Milligan


    The drop in income poverty among the elderly in Canada over the last generation has been well-documented. In this paper, I extend the calculation of head-count measures of poverty to all currently available microdata, spanning the years 1973 to 2003. I then generate consumption poverty measures spanning 1969 to 2004 and compare to the income poverty results. For both income and consumption, I implement a relative poverty measure that uses the wellbeing of working age families as a benchmark f...

  10. Black gold rush in Canada[Tar sand oil]; Svart gullrush i Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundersen, Ina


    In Alberta, Canada, oil companies are competing for licences to extract oil from the tar sand deposits. The occurrences cover an area equal to Belgium, and the total of recoverable oil is estimated to around 1700 million barrels. Descriptions of the recovery process and the competing companies are given.

  11. Some Numbers behind Canada's Decision to Adopt an Orphan Drug Policy: US Orphan Drug Approvals in Canada, 1997-2012. (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Krahn, Timothy Mark


    We examined whether access to US-approved orphan drugs in Canada has changed between 1997 (when Canada chose not to adopt an orphan drug policy) and 2012 (when Canada reversed its policy decision). Specifically, we looked at two dimensions of access to US-approved orphan drugs in Canada: (1) regulatory access; and (2) temporal access. Whereas only 63% of US-approved orphan drugs were granted regulatory approval in 1997, we found that regulatory access to US-approved orphan drugs in Canada increased to 74% between 1997 and 2012. However, temporal access to orphan drugs is slower in Canada: in a head-on comparison of 40 matched drugs, only two were submitted and four were approved first in Canada; moreover, the mean review time in Canada (423 days) was longer than that in the US (mean = 341 days), a statistically significant difference (t[39] = 2.04, p = 0.048). These results raise questions about what motivated Canada's apparent shift in orphan drug policy.

  12. The osteoporosis care gap in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulos P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of a fragility fracture is a major risk factor for osteoporosis, and should be an indicator for osteoporosis diagnosis and therapy. However, the extent to which patients who fracture are assessed and treated for osteoporosis is not clear. Methods We performed a review of the literature to identify the practice patterns in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in adults over the age of 40 who experience a fragility fracture in Canada. Searches were performed in MEDLINE (1966 to January 2, 2003 and CINAHL (1982 to February 1, 2003 databases. Results There is evidence of a care gap between the occurrence of a fragility fracture and the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in Canada. The proportion of individuals with a fragility fracture who received an osteoporosis diagnostic test or physician diagnosis ranged from 1.7% to 50%. Therapies such as hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates or calcitonin were being prescribed to 5.2% to 37.5% of patients. Calcium and vitamin D supplement intake was variable, and ranged between 2.8% to 61.6% of patients. Conclusion Many Canadians who experience fragility fracture are not receiving osteoporosis management for the prevention of future fractures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Simeon


    Full Text Available This article analyses the capacity of Canadian federalism to articulate andaccommodate the dual and regionalist character defining Canada througha range of arguments and opinions both for and against that have been generatedboth within the Canadian Federation and abroad. From the standpointof the Quebec sovereignists, federalism is highly restrictive of the Quebecnation’s freedom to express itself, by itself, within the Canadian contextas well as within international ambits; for Quebec nationalists, the termQuebec “nation” implies—indeed, requires—a “Quebec state”. But, fromthe standpoint of the Quebec federalists (a good number of whom understandQuebec as a sociological and political nation, the future of Quebeclies with its membership of the Canadian Federation, however much this hasto recognise Quebec as a “differential society” within Canada, and howevermuch it has to ensure that Quebec will develop and promote its interests asa nation. For yet others, the decentralist character of Canadian federalism,and the extensive provisions for asymmetry built into the system, mean that Quebec is already perhaps the most powerful sub-national government inthe world, such that it already has the powers necessary to fulfil its nationaldestiny, within the federation. Opinion outside Quebec ranges from thosewho accept this view, and embrace asymmetry, to those who argue that Quebecis simply one of ten existing provinces, each of which is distinct, andwhich should all be treated as equals in accordance with the constitutionaland political framework.

  14. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany


    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (, and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  15. Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project: International Partnerships in Education. (United States)

    Yule, Alix

    The Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project (CIICP) is a joint venture by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges and the governments of India and Canada designed to contribute to human resource development in India's polytechnic system. Specifically, the project seeks to develop replicable models of institutional development in 13…

  16. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 2. (United States)

    Sullivan, Susan, Ed.; Bose, Kathy, Ed.; Levesque, Lise, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  17. Revisiting Academic Capitalism in Canada: No Longer the Exception (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott


    In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and perhaps never…

  18. Revisiting Academic Capitalism in Canada: No Longer the Exception (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott


    In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and…

  19. Quality of Life and Perceptions of Crime in Saskatoon, Canada (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison


    This article investigates the relationship between crime and quality of life in Saskatoon, Canada. The city has one of the highest crime rates in the country and has been referred to as the "Crime Capital of Canada", a label that comes as a surprise to many residents and causes considerable concern among others. The aim of this research…

  20. The DELF in Canada: Perceptions of Students, Teachers, and Parents (United States)

    Vandergrift, Larry


    The "Diplôme d'études de langue française" (DELF) has recently gained attention in Canada for its potential as a national French second language (FSL) proficiency test. This article explores the perceptions of students, teachers, and parents in various school jurisdictions across Canada on a range of issues related to the DELF test and…

  1. Epidemiology of the Antibiotic Resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo A Fallone


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rate of Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics determines the cure rate of treatment regimens containing such antibiotics. AIMS: To review the literature to determine the rates of H pylori resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin in Canada, and whether these rates vary in different regions of Canada.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Air Canada, together with its regional airline subsidiary, Air Canada Jazz, provides scheduled and charter air transportation for passengers and cargo to more than 150 destinations,vacation packages to over 90 destinations, as well as maintenance, ground handling and train ing services to other airlines.

  3. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada (United States)


    .... 319.40-3 of the regulations lists the IPPC requirements, which include either heat treatment or... of Wood Packaging Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... unmanufactured wood articles to remove the exemption that allows wood packaging material from Canada to enter...

  4. Female First Nations Chiefs and the Colonial Legacy in Canada (United States)

    Voyageur, Cora J.


    The social, economic, and political regulation of Canada's First Nations was codified in the Indian Act. Rooted in colonialism and paternalism, the Indian Act was created by the government of Canada to fulfill three functions: (1) to define who was and was not an Indian; (2) to civilize the Indian; and (3) to manage the Indian people and their…

  5. Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome: Gastric Involvement Diagnosed by MDCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Samet


    Full Text Available Chronkhite-Canada is a rare nonfamilial polyposis syndrome that usually presents as chronic malabsorption in adults. We present a case of a-73-year old woman with chronic gastrointestinal bleeding and malnutrition. On CT imaging she was found to have massive gastric polyps, which on biopsy was most consistent with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome.

  6. Open Source in Canada's Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Leibovitch


    Full Text Available The story of the growth of open source use in Canada has been far more a matter of evolution than revolution, so quiet in its pace that its progress has been difficult to measure. This has posed many challenges to Canadian open source advocates in their efforts to ensure that their country does not lag behind the rest of the world in understanding the social and business benefits open source provides. Perhaps some of the leading soldiers in the trenches might be our civil servants who protect the public purse. In addition to managing and minimizing the costs of delivering necessary services, public sector projects should also advance the social good through the delicate balance of transparency and efficiency.

  7. ATLAS Canada lightpath data transfer trial

    CERN Document Server

    Kost, C J; Caron, B; Hong, W


    Emerging grids play a significant role in the computational, data, storage, and network requirements of high energy physics experiments coming online in the next few years. One such requirement, the bulk transfer of data over advanced high speed optical networks is necessary as such experiments are highly distributed with resources and participants from research laboratories and institutions spanning the globe. This trial at the iGrid 2002 conference attempts to stress the feasibility of high speed bulk data transfer over an end-to-end lightpath, a dedicated point-to-point optical link. Specifically, the objective was to transfer 1 TB of Monte Carlo data from TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, to CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. A rate equivalent to transferring a full CD of data every 8 s was achieved. (15 refs).

  8. Future directions of dam safety in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verzeni, Gerard [Hydro Quebec, QC, (Canada)


    Gerard Verzeni, former director of the dam safety & environment at Hydro-Quebec introduced the future directions of dam safety in Canada. New and numerous challenges are emerging for the dam safety community. Measurable effects of climate changes illustrate that hydraulic forecasts would change drastically. Loads with times and amplitudes which are different from the actual knowledge will apply on dams. The development of new types of dams using recent technologies raises several issues, for example the longevity of such installations. The installations are becoming old and soon will require complete renovation and update for regulation and standards compliance. Concrete dams already need efforts and investment to maintain then in a safe state. Various factors will influence these challenges such as human resources in the dam safe community. In these conditions, it is important that organizations like CDA play an important role in providing support and reference and in being a driver for the whole industry.

  9. Hydrail : a parade Canada can lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S. [Mooresville-South Iredell Economic Development Corp., NC (United States). Hydrogen Economy Advancement Team


    This paper suggested that Canada can play a leading role in the development of hydrogen railways. Canadian scientists were among the first to test and develop the world's first hydrogen locomotive, and Canadian rail firms are now in a position to play a prominent role in the passenger hydrogen rail equipment market. A hydrogen railway will be built as part of Vancouver's 2010 winter olympics infrastructure. The Fraser Valley Heritage Railway Society is planning to use hydrogen to power vintage inter-urban trolley cars connecting Surrey communities. A Canadian manufactured hybrid locomotive will be modified to create the world's first hydrogen rail switch engine. It was concluded that hydrogen's storage capacity makes it an enabling technology for other other renewable energy technologies. Future hydrogen storage technologies will probably be hybridized with fuel cells in highly efficient applications. 1 ref.

  10. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)


    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  11. Distributive justice and infertility treatment in Canada. (United States)

    Nisker, Jeff


    An exploration of distributive justice in Canadian infertility treatment requires the integration of ethical, clinical, and economic principles. In 1971, American philosopher John Rawls proposed a theoretical model for fair decision-making in which "rational" and "self-interested" citizens are behind a "veil of ignorance" with respect to both their own position and the position of other decision-makers. Rawls proposed that these self-interested decision-makers, fearing that they are among the least advantaged persons who could be affected by the decision, will agree only upon rules that encode equality of opportunity and that bestow the greatest benefit on the least advantaged citizens. Regarding health policy decision-making, Rawls' model is best illustrated by Canadian philosopher Warren Bourgeois in his panel of "volunteers." These rational and self-interested volunteers receive an amnestic drug that renders them unaware of their health, social, and financial position, but they know that they are representative of diverse spheres of citizens whose well-being will be affected by their decision. After describing fair decision-making, Bourgeois considers the lack of a distributive justice imperative in Canada's Assisted Human Reproduction Act, in contrast to legislation in European nations and Australia, summarizes the economic and clinical considerations that must be provided to the decision-makers behind the "veil of ignorance" for fair decisions to occur, and considers altruism in relation to equality of access. He concludes by noting that among countries with legislation governing assisted reproduction Canada is alone in having legislation that is void of distributive justice in providing access to clinically appropriate infertility care.

  12. Transforming the market : recent developments with Canada Green Building Council and LEED{sup R} Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, A. [Canada Green Building Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Green buildings use design and construction practices that reduce or eliminate the negative impact of buildings on the environment and their occupants. This paper discusses the aims of the Green Building Council and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), and the current contexts in which both organizations operate in the Canadian construction industry. Some of the reasons to use green building practices were discussed, including moral obligations, compliance and the opportunity for increased revenue and profits. LEED informs purchasing decisions, and its certification process signals environmental credentials about the public sector to voters, linking well to policy instruments. A list of projects and accredited buildings was provided, as well as a forecast for future projects and market shares. A comprehensive list of adaptations to Canadian building codes, standards and regulations was provided, with reference to site selection, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, and indoor environmental quality. Some of the challenges facing both organizations include the existence of other rating systems already extant in Canada, partnership with federal government, the size of non-residential buildings in Canada, and residential market challenges. Case studies of projects in Canada and internationally were provided, with an overview of construction techniques and sustainable development programs. tabs., figs.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012 (United States)

    Higley, Debra


    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  14. Illicit traffic and abuse of cannabis in Canada. (United States)

    Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C; Vigeant, H


    In 1984 cannabis derivatives, in particular marijuana, hashish and liquid hashish, continued to be the most readily available drugs of abuse in Canada. Marijuana originating in Colombia decreased on the illicit marijuana market in Canada from an estimated 45 per cent in 1983 to 30 per cent in 1984, but it remained the largest source of marijuana supply. Marijuana originating in Thailand remained at approximately the same level (20 per cent) in 1984 as in 1983, while marijuana of Jamaican origin increased its share in the illicit market from 10 per cent in 1983 to 20 per cent in 1984. Approximately 10 per cent of marijuana on the illicit market originated in Canada, 10 per cent in Mexico, and 10 per cent in the United States of America. In 1984 an estimated 85 per cent of hashish on the illicit market in Canada originated in Lebanon (55 per cent in 1983), 10 per cent in India or Pakistan (31 per cent in 1983) and 5 per cent in Jamaica (2 per cent in 1983). Illicit shipments in tonnes of hashish originating in Lebanon made this the dominant source of supply of the drug. Liquid hashish originating in Jamaica shared 88 per cent of the illicit market of this drug in Canada during 1984, while 10 per cent of the drug originated in Lebanon and 2 per cent in Canada. In 1984 an estimated 40 per cent of smuggled marijuana entered the illicit market in Canada by air and approximately the same amount by sea, while 20 per cent was smuggled over land. During the same year, hashish was smuggled into Canada primarily by sea, while air accounted for 5 per cent and land for 1 per cent only. Liquid hashish, in contrast, entered Canada primarily by air, and only 9 per cent by land and 1 per cent by sea.

  15. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  16. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD (United States)


    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (SESCO Canada) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...-297, which authorized SESCO Canada to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as...

  17. Averting Canada's water Armageddon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrilli, J. F.


    Water conservation policies in Canada are examined in expectation of an imminent water crisis in the world, a crisis resulting from scarcity and aggravated by deteriorating quality. Despite Canada's seemingly abundant water resources, recent events, particularly in Ontario, give reason to be concerned that the province that spawned the common sense revolution is quite capable of sparking a national water crisis all by itself. Significant drop in water levels in the Great Lakes, the Walkerton debacle of E. coli contamination of the water supply which resulted in at least seven deaths and over 1000 serious illnesses, the massive housing development proposal that threatens the area known as the Oak Ridges Moraine, a source of groundwater that supplies much of southern Ontario, and the government's action (later reversed) to issue a licence to an Ontario company to withdraw 600 million litres of water annually from Lake Superior for export to Asia, are some of the examples cited as indicators of the fragile state of water supply and the many threats posed to both water quantity and quality. Having examined some of the dangers facing our water supply, the author provides some suggestions of how to resolve first, the issue of overlapping jurisdictions and the tangled constitutional framework for managing the nation's water resources and second, some steps that should be taken to stop mega-diversions and mega-consumptive use, and to make certain that even the most modest project in this area proceeds only after the fullest environmental and public scrutiny. Provincial laws must also link land use changes and development to protection of provincial waters, proactively encourage water conservation, repair past mistakes by requiring the restoration and enhancement of the water regime where it has been damaged by human activity, establish a water superfund to pay for effective water conservation planning, and recognize the public's right to a significant

  18. Biology of nesting Aleutian Canada goose, summer 1975 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1974 and 1975 breeding Aleutian Canada geese, Branta canadensis leucopareia, were studied at Buldir Island, western Aleutian Islands. Buldir is the only known...

  19. [Analysis of Canada goose banding at Fish Springs NWR (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing an analysis of the Canada goose banding data from Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Banding data is analyzed for the following...

  20. Transatlantic Cooperation in Space: Eu-Canada Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Weber-Steinhaus


    Full Text Available National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA, and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of the Canada-European Union (EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA. The agreement covers most aspects of the EU-Canada bilateral economic relationship and includes space. The paper focuses on international space policies, strategic bilateral co-operation, and technical accomplishments. It takes a closer look at German-Canadian collaboration in space programs and offers some reflection on the effect of both the EU and ESA’S transatlantic involvement in space.

  1. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada. (United States)

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others


    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  2. Pacific Flyway management plan for the dusky Canada goose (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan for the dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) is a revision of earlier plans adopted by the Pacific Flyway Council (1973, 1985,...

  3. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  4. Ecology of Aleutian Canada geese at Buldir Island, Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....

  5. Dusky Canada goose breeding population survey, May 16 1989 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dusky Canada goose breeding ground surveys were initiated on the Copper River Delta near Cordova, Alaska during the 1970's by the Waterfowl Division of the Alaska...

  6. Dusky Canada goose breeding population survey, May 18 1990 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dusky Canada goose breeding ground surveys were initiated on the Copper River Delta near Cordova, Alaska during the 1970's by the Waterfowl Division of the Alaska...

  7. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada. (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J


    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence.

  8. 78 FR 38546 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters (United States)


    ... Information The subject of this AD is addressed in Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) AD No. CF-2009-07, dated March 6, 2009. You may view the TCCA AD at by searching for...

  9. Second Language Education in Canada: Innovation, Research, and Policies. (United States)

    Stern, H. H. (David)


    This paper gives an overview of language teaching in Canada today and describes some general trends in language pedagogy. Current issues in the field are highlighted. Included is a two-page comment by Birgit Harley. (MT)

  10. Canada goose transplant program progress report - May 1964 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Following is a report of progress on the Canada goose transplant program involving certain Federal and State refuges in the Mississippi Flyway in 1963-64.

  11. Canada's constitutional separation of (wind) power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Scott Victor [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)


    This paper investigates the impact that a federal government structure has on strategic selection of renewable energy policy instruments. The context for this study centers on wind power development in Canada. Canada is a nation that is blessed by all the attributes necessary to catalyze global leadership in installed wind power capacity. Unfortunately, the constitutional separation of powers that underpins Canada's federal system impedes the creation of a national wind power development strategy because Canada's provinces have constitutional authority over electricity governance. The insights gleaned from the case study are used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the impact that federal structure has on policy instrument selection and efficacy under areas of federal, regional and concurrent policy jurisdiction. Finally, this framework is re-applied to identify specific approaches the Canadian federal government could take to resolve what currently amounts to be a fragmented, ineffective approach to wind power development planning. (author)

  12. Status of southern James Bay population of Canada geese (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides background on the southern James Bay population (SJBP) of Canada geese, as well as a summary of problems confronting SJBP and recommendations...

  13. Canada Goose Production Workshop draft proceedings : May 1971 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary and review of the Canada Goose Production Workshop held in Jamestown, North Dakota on May 4th, 5th, and 6th, 1971. This workshop provided sessions about...

  14. [Hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies in Eastern Canada]. (United States)

    Dupré, N; Chrestian, N; Thiffault, I; Brais, B; Rouleau, G A; Bouchard, J-P


    It has been demonstrated, for many inherited diseases, that historical events have shaped the various regional gene pools of Eastern Canada. In so doing, it has given rise to the increased prevalence of some rare diseases due, to founder effects. The following neurogenetic disorders were first identified in patients from Eastern Canada: AOA-2, Arsacs, HSN-2, Arca-1, HMSN/ACC and Arsal. The population of Eastern Canada, we are convinced, will still allow the identification of new rare forms of hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies as well as contribute to the uncovering of their mutated genes. We have summarized our current knowledge of the various hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies in Eastern Canada. The study of the more common and homogenous features of these diseases has been largely completed.

  15. Snowfall and Snow Depth for Canada 1943-1982 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data include monthly snowfall and end-of-month snow depth for 140 stations across Canada. Stations that maintained at least 20 years of data were chosen. The...

  16. A report on the Agassiz flock of Canada geese (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the history of Canada goose production by the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) flock from 1955 to 1964. Attached is a nesting structure...

  17. CANADA: designing nucleic acid sequences for nanobiotechnology applications. (United States)

    Feldkamp, Udo


    The design of nucleic acid sequences for a highly specific and efficient hybridization is a crucial step in DNA computing and DNA-based nanotechnology applications. The CANADA package contains software tools for designing DNA sequences that meet these and other requirements, as well as for analyzing and handling sequences. CANADA is freely available, including a detailed manual and example input files, at

  18. Air Canada Selects Boeing 777s and 787 Dreamliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.,the parent company of Air Canada, and Boeing today announced a wide-body fleet renewal plan for the airline that includes up to 36 Boeing 777s and up to 60 Boeing 787Dreamliners. Air Canada will use the airplanes to modernize its existing fleet and improve operating efficiencies, creating one of the world's youngest and most simplified airline fleets.……

  19. Air Canada Selects Boeing 777s and 787 Dreamliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.,the parent company of Air Canada, and Boeing today announced a wide-body fleet renewal plan for the airline that includes up to 36 Boeing 777s and up to 60 Boeing 787Dreamliners. Air Canada will use the airplanes to modernize its existing fleet and improve operating efficiencies, creating one of the world's youngest and most simplified airline fleets.

  20. The Estimation of Food Demand Elasticities in Canada


    Pomboza, Ruth; Mbaga, Msafiri Daudi


    Changing consumer and market demands is an important driver behind the challenges and opportunities that are facing the agriculture and agri-food sector in Canada and that will influence the sector's profitability and competitiveness in the future. It is therefore important to understand developments in the consumer demand for agriculture and agri-food products. The report provides updated demand elasticities for fourteen food groups in Canada. The estimates are useful for conducting analysis...

  1. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.


    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a >700,000 sq. km. remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed across the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-83.5 Ma. Canada Basin was filled by Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Beaufort-Mackenzie Deltaic System, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. The basin contains roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. Three fourths or more of this volume generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemipelagic deposits, which contain lenses to extensive interbeds of moderate amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits.Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin is correlative with stratigraphic sequences in these areas that contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks. In addition, worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas windows. Structural, stratigraphic and combined structural and stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin, and at least one of these contains bright spots. However, deep water (to almost 4000 m), remoteness from harbors and markets, and thick accumulations of seasonal to permanent sea ice (until its possible removal by global warming later this century) will require the discovery of very large deposits for commercial success in most parts of Canada Basin. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The Framework for US-Canada Defense and Security Cooperation (United States)


    scores of departments and agencies. Bringing to mind President George H. Bush’s “thousand points of light”, Allan Gotlieb (1991, p. 191), former...US and Canada have established nothing that far reaching (McDougall 2006, p. 190). Allan Gottlieb (2003, p. 20-21) writes that throughout the post...inspections at the point of entry ( POE ) and their mission includes detaining people who may pose a threat 45 to Canada, removing people who are inadmissible

  3. PASC ⅩⅩⅦ held in Vancouver Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The 27th Pacific Area Standards Congress (PSAC ⅩⅩⅦ) was held in Vancouver Canada on May 24-27. It was hosted by SCC (Standards Council of Canada). About 70 delegates from 20 countries attended the meeting and representatives of the international standards organizations like ISO, IEC and ITU were invited. Chinese delegation led by is Mr. Shi Baoquan from the Standardization Administration of China attended the meeting.

  4. Assessing evidence, arguments, and inequality in Bedford v. Canada


    Waltman, Max


    Until recently, Canada criminalized anyone who lived "wholly or in part on the avails of prostitution of another person,” and anyone who kept, controlled, or knowingly permitted a “bawdy-house” for prostitution. The Supreme Court of Canada found that these laws prevented brothel management, escort agencies, bodyguards, or drivers from enhancing the safety and well-being of prostituted persons in indoor locations. This article assesses the evidence relied on by courts to strike down the laws, ...

  5. Evaluating the Cost-effectiveness of Pharmaceuticals in Canada


    Katherine Boothe


    Canada adopted guidelines for the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in 1994, and a central process for drug assessment in 2003. The context and the way the issue reached the agenda in the two time periods differed. The guidelines were adopted amidst growing academic interest in methods for economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in Canada and internationally, and were first promoted by an entrepreneur from the pharmaceutical industry. The Common Drug Review (CDR) was adopted in a context ...

  6. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  7. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization. (United States)

    Riley, R; Paddon, P


    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  8. Upper Paleozoic evaporites of southeastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howie, R.D.


    Atlantic Canada's evaporites were deposited on folded and faulted Lower Paleozoic rocks in a series of basins during two extended intervals of the Late Paleozoic. Minor salt deposits containing glauberite accumulated locally and are preserved as part of continental sequences in Horton Group rocks. The overlying Windsor Group contains thick deposits of salt. Temporary tectonic stability, abnormally high temperatures, a nearly land-locked marine setting and semiarid conditions resulted in the rhythmic deposition of Windsor Group evaporites over a wide area. These evaporites, preserved as outliers in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and in a northeast-trending basin beneath the Gulf of St. Lawrence, are erosional remnants of a much larger evaporite basin. The salt occurs as bedded deposits or within flow structures that vary in thickness from a few centimetres to over 4,573 m in structurally thickened sections. The variation in local thickness of these rocks is a function of both environment of deposition and tectonism. In some areas the salt is pure enough to be mined and, locally, contains significant amounts of potash. Some of these mines have the potential for development of underground storage sites for hydrocarbons and industrial waste. 261 refs., 94 figs.

  9. Black-White Health Inequalities in Canada. (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry; Patterson, Andrew C


    Little is known about Black-White health inequalities in Canada or the applicability of competing explanations for them. To address this gap, we used nine cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey to analyze multiple health outcomes in a sample of 3,127 Black women, 309,720 White women, 2,529 Black men and 250,511 White men. Adjusting for age, marital status, urban/rural residence and immigrant status, Black women and men were more likely than their White counterparts to report diabetes and hypertension, Black women were less likely than White women to report cancer and fair/poor mental health and Black men were less likely than White men to report heart disease. These health inequalities persisted after controlling for education, household income, smoking, physical activity and body-mass index. We conclude that high rates of diabetes and hypertension among Black Canadians may stem from experiences of racism in everyday life, low rates of heart disease and cancer among Black Canadians may reflect survival bias and low rates of fair/poor mental health among Black Canadian women represent a mental health paradox similar to the one that exists for African Americans in the United States.

  10. Women in academic psychiatry in Canada. (United States)

    Penfold, P S


    A comparison of numbers of women psychiatrists with faculty appointments and women residents in Departments of Psychiatry in Canada in 1975 and 1985 showed that the average percentage of women faculty has increased from 11.4% to 14.3% and of women residents from 23.5% to 43.4%. Some departments appeared to be oblivious to the special educational role of women faculty and had not discussed the discrepancy between the numbers of faculty and residents. Only two departments were actively recruiting women faculty. The study also demonstrated a continued concentration of women in the lower ranks. Barriers to recruiting women faculty include lack of academic role models, job advertising not specifically designed to attract women candidates, rigid requirements for appointments, women's lack of access to male corridors of power, pervasive underlying doubts about women's abilities and competence based on cultural stereotypes, female socialization which does not lend itself readily to roles of authority, assertiveness and leadership, and the role strain that ensues when women psychiatrists try to combine career, marriage and motherhood. If women psychiatrists are to fill some of the positions in Departments of Psychiatry, which will fall vacant over the next decade, much more attention must be paid to eliminating or diminishing the multiple obstacles for women who chose a career in academic psychiatry.

  11. Writing requirements across nursing programs in Canada. (United States)

    Andre, Jo-Anne D; Graves, Roger


    The emphasis on scholarship in nursing, demands for evidence-based practice, and attention to writing have raised the profile of academic writing within nursing curricula. This article provides a comprehensive review of English and writing course requirements across 81 English-language baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada. The data were gathered from a review of nursing programs and curriculum information from university and college Web sites. Of the 81 programs, 39 (48.1%) require neither an English literature course nor a writing course, 15 (18.5%) require an English literature course, and 32 (39.5%) require a writing course, including five programs that require a discipline-specific writing course. Discipline-specific writing courses appear to be useful adjuncts to writing-across-the-curriculum initiatives in nursing and will help students to develop the research and writing skills needed to succeed both academically and in a career in which nursing scholarship and evidence-informed practice are increasingly valued and expected.

  12. The beginnings of mineral processing research in Canada (part 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habashi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering


    This article presented the historical aspects regarding Canadian research in mineral processing and ore refining. It highlighted the career of Eugene Haanel, the first director of Canada's Department of Mines. The events that led to the creation of the Canadian Bureau of Mines and the Energy Branch at the turn of the 1900s were described along with the creation of the first assay office to deal with the large amounts of gold produced in British Columbia and the Yukon. In order to encourage the exploitation of Canada's iron ore deposits and the abundant electrical energy from Niagara Falls, Haanel organized a mission to Europe to study steel production using electric furnaces. He sought ways to secure a supply of the reducing agent and the fuel that metallurgical processes required in great quantities. Noting that Canada was spending millions to import coal and coke, he promoted the exploitation of the large deposits of peat in Ontario and Quebec. He also drew attention to the need to stop using wood as a fuel to conserve the forests. In 1905, the Mining Section was commissioned to evaluate nonferrous metal deposits in Canada, including lead-zinc, cobalt, asbestos, mica, graphite and raw materials for cement manufacture. Serious hydrometallurgical research in Canada began in 1921 at the Ministry of Mines, followed by pyrometallurgical research in 1922. The radioactivity division was created in 1948. The article also described the reorganization of extractive metallurgical research in Canada. 9 figs.

  13. 2012-2013 CAUT Almanac of Post-Secondary Education in Canada = 2012-2013 Almanach de l'enseignement postsecondaire au Canada de l'ACPPU (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013


    In previous editions of the CAUT Almanac, data for provincial postsecondary education expenditures, total expenditures and university and college revenues and expenditures was reported from Statistics Canada's Financial Management System (FMS), which Statistics Canada last published for the 2008-2009 fiscal year. Statistics Canada will be adopting…

  14. Multicultural Policies and Interethnic Relations: Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Čičak-Chand


    Full Text Available The Canadian policy of multiculturalism recognised the positive and permanent influence of immigration on Canadian society and accepted “nation”-formation based on a model of cultural pluralism. Thus it assumed a radical “modification” of Canadian cultural definitions, instead of a formal adoption of certain “major” national cultural traditions. Canadian society, at the same time, experienced a growing divergence between the official policy of inclusion, and the increasing social exclusion of new immigrants – primarily “visible” minority groups – from economic spheres and from public life in general. In fact, the existing deep tensions in the society between two value systems – on the one hand, the reality of wide-spread racism, and on the other hand, the commitment to an ideology of liberal democracy, as well as poor results in integration policies, as indicated by marked unemployment, low incomes and poverty, especially in immigrant communities – have led to more and more frequent references to a prevailing “democratic racism” in Canada. With regard to the mentioned context, this paper first of all aims to indicate certain specificities in the development of ethnic relations and of multicultural policy, which are engrained and at the same time limited by their particular historical origin. Next, the paper intends to say something about the power of influence of the government’s multicultural policy, and the role of political correctness, as a concrete form of social action, in interethnic relations and in the opinions of the majority society in regard to ethnic minorities, and especially in regard to “visible” groups.

  15. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Breiner, Ari; Widdifield, Jessica; Katzberg, Hans D; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Tu, Karen


    Incidence and prevalence estimates in myasthenia gravis have varied widely. Recent studies based on administrative health data have large sample sizes but lack rigorous validation of MG cases, and have not examined the North American population. Our aim was to explore trends in MG incidence and prevalence for the years 1996-2013 in the province of Ontario, Canada (population 13.5 million). We employed a previously validated algorithm to identify MG cases. Linking with census data allowed for the calculation of crude- and age/sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates for the years 1996-2013. The regional distribution of MG cases throughout the province was examined. Mean age at the first myasthenia gravis encounter was 60.2 ± 17.1 years. In 2013, there were 3611 prevalent cases in Ontario, and the crude prevalence rate was 32.0/100,000 population. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates rose consistently over time from 16.3/100,000 (15.4-17.1) in 1996 to 26.3/100,000 (25.4-27.3) in 2013. Standardized incidence rates remained stable between 1996 (2.7/100,000; 95% CL 2.3-3.0) and 2013 (2.3/100,000; 2.1-2.6). Incidence was highest in younger women and older men, and geographic variation was evident throughout the province. In conclusion, this large epidemiological study shows rising myasthenia gravis prevalence with stable incidence over time, which is likely reflective of patients living longer, possibly due to improved disease treatment. Our findings provide accurate information on the Canadian epidemiology of myasthenia gravis and burden for health care resources planning for the province, respectively.

  16. Child maltreatment in Canada: an understudied public health problem. (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O


    Child maltreatment is a major public health problem associated with impairment in childhood, adolescence, and extending throughout the lifespan. Within Canada, high-quality child maltreatment studies have been conducted and are critical for informing prevention and intervention efforts. However, compared to other parts of the world (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Mexico), the number of studies conducted in Canada is far fewer and the data used to study this important public health problem are less diverse. Importantly, to date, representative data on child maltreatment from the general population at the national level in Canada do not exist. This means that many questions regarding child maltreatment in Canada remain unanswered. To advance our understanding of child maltreatment in Canada and to make significant strides towards protecting Canadian children and families, research using Canadian data is essential. To begin to meet these important public health goals, we need to invest in collecting high-quality, nationally representative Canadian data on child maltreatment. Solutions for the barriers and challenges for the inclusion of child maltreatment data into nationally representative Canadian surveys are provided.

  17. The Emergence of Flood Insurance in Canada: Navigating Institutional Uncertainty. (United States)

    Thistlethwaite, Jason


    Flood insurance has remained unavailable in Canada based on an assessment that it lacks economic viability. In response to Canada's costliest flood event to date in 2013, the Canadian insurance industry has started to develop a framework to expand existing property insurance to cover flood damage. Research on flood insurance has overlooked why and how insurance systems transition to expand insurance coverage without evidence of economic viability. This article will address this gap through a case study on the emergence of flood insurance in Canada, and the approach to its expansion. Between 2013 and 2016, insurance industry officials representing over 60% of premiums collected in Canada were interviewed. These interviews revealed that flood insurance is being expanded in response to institutional pressure, specifically external stakeholder expectations that the insurance industry will adopt a stronger role in managing flood risk through coverage of flood damage. Further evidence of this finding is explored by assessing the emergence of a unique flood insurance model that involves a risk-adjusted and optional product along with an expansion of government policy supporting flood risk mitigation. This approach attempts to balance industry concerns about economic viability with institutional pressure to reduce flood risk through insurance. This analysis builds on existing research by providing the first scholarly analysis of flood insurance in Canada, important "empirical" teeth to existing conceptual analysis on the availability of flood insurance, and the influence of institutional factors on risk analysis within the insurance sector.

  18. Bioethanol from lignocellulosics: Status and perspectives in Canada. (United States)

    Mabee, W E; Saddler, J N


    Canada has invested significantly in the development of a domestic bioethanol industry, and it is expected that bioethanol from lignocellulosics will become more desirable to the industry as it expands. Development of the Canadian industry to date is described in this paper, as are examples of domestic research programs focused on both bioconversion and thermochemical conversion to generate biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. The availability of lignocellulosic residues from agricultural and forestry operations, and the potential biofuel production associated with these residues, is described. The policy tools used to develop the domestic bioethanol industry are explored. A residue-based process could greatly extend the potential of the bioethanol industry in Canada. It is estimated that bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic feedstocks could provide up to 50% of Canada's 2006 transportation fuel demand, given ideal conversion and full access to these feedstocks. Utilizing lignocellulosic biomass will extend the geographic range of the bioethanol industry, and increase the stability and security of this sector by reducing the impact of localized disruptions in supply. Use of disturbance crops could add 9% to this figure, but not in a sustainable fashion. If pursued aggressively, energy crops ultimately could contribute bioethanol at a volume double that of Canada's gasoline consumption in 2006. This would move Canada towards greater transportation fuel independence and a larger role in the export of bioethanol to the global market.

  19. The Supreme Court of Canada Ruling on Physician-Assisted Death: Implications for Psychiatry in Canada. (United States)

    Duffy, Olivia Anne


    On February 6, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the prohibition of physician-assisted death (PAD) was unconstitutional for a competent adult person who "clearly consents to the termination of life" and has a "grievous and irremediable (including an illness, disease, or disability) condition that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition." The radically subjective nature of this ruling raises important questions about who will be involved and how this practice might be regulated. This paper aims to stimulate discussion about psychiatry's role in this heretofore illegal practice and to explore how psychiatry might become involved in end-of-life care in a meaningful, patient-centred way. First, I will review existing international legislation and professional regulatory standards regarding psychiatry and PAD. Second, I will discuss important challenges psychiatry might face regarding capacity assessment, the notion of rational suicide, and the assessment of suffering.

  20. Endoscopy in Canada: Proceedings of the National Roundtable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Switzer


    Full Text Available This 2014 roundtable discussion, hosted by the Canadian Association of General Surgeons, brought together general surgeons and gastroenterologists with expertise in endoscopy from across Canada to discuss the state of endoscopy in Canada. The focus of the roundtable was the evaluation of the competence of general surgeons at endoscopy, reviewing quality assurance parameters for high-quality endoscopy, measuring and assessing surgical resident preparedness for endoscopy practice, evaluating credentialing programs for the endosuite and predicting the future of endoscopic services in Canada. The roundtable noted several important observations. There exist inadequacies in both resident training and the assessment of competency in endoscopy. From these observations, several collaborative recommendations were then stated. These included the need for a formal and standardized system of both accreditation and training endoscopists.

  1. Collaborative mental health in rural and isolated Canada: stakeholder feedback. (United States)

    Ryan-Nicholls, Kimberley D; Haggarty, John M


    This article presents research findings from the Rural and Isolated Working Group, one of six groups established by the Canadian Collaborative Mental Health Initiative (CCMHI). Funded through Health Canada's Primary Health Care Transition Fund, the goal of the CCMHI is to improve the mental health and well-being of Canadians by increasing collaboration among primary health care and mental health care providers, consumers, families, and caregivers. Qualitative data obtained from mental health care providers and consumers across all regions of Canada are presented in this article. Policy and regulation problems, barriers to mental health care access, service providers' perspectives of the challenges to consumer involvement, and solutions for addressing these issues are discussed. The article concludes by identifying how this research has informed and influenced initial steps toward mental health promotion and treatment of mental illness in rural and isolated Canada.

  2. A discourse on dental hygiene education in Canada. (United States)

    Kanji, Z; Sunell, S; Boschma, G; Imai, P; Craig, B J


    Over the past decade, the discourse on dental hygiene education has gained momentum in Canada. This review provides insights into the evolution of dental hygiene education in Canada, briefly exploring the history and professional influences for diploma and baccalaureate education within the profession. The profession in Canada has yet to implement a national standardized entry-to-practice educational model, but the recent development of national educational competencies may prove to be a promising beginning. The review also discusses efforts to advance dental hygiene education in recent years, while exploring the political and professional pressures and challenges that remain. Further discourse on education and outcomes-related research can be effective in positively influencing governmental, professional and public opinions of higher entry-level education for dental hygiene which may ultimately result in regulatory change and improved client outcomes.

  3. Hot air : meeting Canada's climate change challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.; Jaccard, M.; Rivers, N.


    As a large northern country, Canada will change significantly as a result of climate change. Global warming is expected to cause diminutions of snow and ice changes in the Arctic, as well as changes to glaciers, and the mountain snowpacks that feed rivers, and provide sources of fresh water. This book argued that the effects of global warming have been apparent in Canada for many years. Water levels in lakes and rivers have been falling, and a thawing permafrost has led to difficulties in building and maintaining winter roads in the far north. Disturbances such as the mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in British Columbia have also been attributed to global warming, the beetles are only killed by cold weather. The book also considered Canada's current climate change policies, and discussed attempts to arrive at meaningful and effective strategies. 30 refs.

  4. Canada's Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting System: A Failing Grade. (United States)

    Rawson, Nigel S B


    An article in the National Post on suicidal effects associated with varenicline (Champix) highlights deficiencies in the Canadian spontaneous reporting system (SRS) for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The issues of under-reporting, poor quality information, duplication of reports and lack of a population denominator of drug use are discussed. Canada's SRS is deficient. There are immediate and medium-term actions that could be instituted that would improve pharmacovigilance in Canada. However, education about appropriate prescribing, the recognition of ADRs, and the duty to report them is a key long-term strategy to improving the pharmacovigilance system and should be included at every opportunity in the training of healthcare professionals so that life-long habits are developed. In addition to changes at Health Canada, greater emphasis needs to be placed on training in therapeutics, understanding drug safety, and the responsibility of healthcare providers in reporting risks in the curricula of medical and nursing schools.

  5. Public health reform and health promotion in Canada. (United States)

    Kirk, Megan; Tomm-Bonde, Laura; Schreiber, Rita


    More than 25 years have passed since the release of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This document represented a substantial contribution to public health in its emphasis on the economic, legal, political and cultural factors that influence health. With public health renewal underway across Canada, and despite overwhelming support in the public health community for the Ottawa Charter, how much its principles will be included in the renewal process remains unclear. In this paper, we present the historical understanding of health promotion in Canada, namely highlighting the contributions from the Lalonde Report, Alma Ata Declaration, the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the more recent population health movement. We discuss public health renewal, using the province of British Columbia in Canada as an example. We identify the potential threats to health promotion in public health renewal as it unfolds.

  6. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.


    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets

  7. Placebo Trends across the Border: US versus Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory S Harris

    Full Text Available Physicians around the world report to using placebos in a variety of situations and with varying degrees of frequency. Inconsistent methodologies, however, complicate interpretation and prevent direct comparisons across studies. While US- and Canada-based physicians share similar professional standards, Canada harbours a less-litigious universal healthcare model with no formal placebo-related policy-factors that may impact how physicians view and use placebos.To compare American and Canadian data, we circulated an online survey to academic physicians practicing in Canada, collected anonymous responses, and extracted those of internists and rheumatologists for comparison to US data obtained through parallel methodologies.Whereas our data show overall concordance across the border-from definitions to ethical limitations and therapeutic potential-differences between American- and Canadian-based placebo practices merit acknowledgement. For example, compared to 45%-80% among US-based respondents, only 23±7% of Canada-based respondents reported using placebos in clinical practice. However, 79±7% of Canada-respondents-a figure comparable to US data-professed to prescribing at least one form of treatment without proven or expected efficacy. Placebo interventions including unwarranted vitamins and herbal supplements (impure placebos as well as sugar pills and saline injections (pure placebos appear more common in Canada, where more doctors described placebos as "placebos" (rather than "medications" and used them as a "diagnostic" tool (rather than a means of placating patient demands for treatment.Cross-border variation in the use of clinical placebos appears minor despite substantial differences in health care delivery system, malpractice climate, and placebo-related policy. The prevalence of impure placebos in both Canadian and US clinics raises ethical and practical questions currently unaddressed by policy and warranting investigation.

  8. Canada and the International Space Station Program: Overview and Status (United States)

    Sachdev, Savi


    The twelve months since IAC 2001 have been some of the most exciting and rewarding with regards to Canada's participation in the International Space Station Program. Canada's contribution to the ISS is the Mobile Servicing System (MSS), the external robotic system that is key to the successful assembly of the Space Station, the maintenance of its external systems, astronaut EVA support, and the servicing of external science payloads. Between April and July 2001 the first flight-element,Canadarm2 (Space Station Remote Manipulator System), of Canada's contribution to the ISS was the successfully launched, checked out and then used for assembly of the Station's Airlock. In April 2002 the US supplied MSS Mobile Transporter was positioned on-orbit paving the way for the launch, in June, of the next element of Canada's Mobile Servicing System, the MSC Base System. During the June mission a roll wrist joint on Canadarm2 was also replaced - a first ever EVA repair of this type. The paper provides an overview of Canada's on-orbit and ground segment contributions to the International Space Station and describes the on-orbit assembly and operations to date of the flight elements. The MSS ground segment that supports MSS operations, training, sustaining engineering, and logistics activities has reached maturity. The ongoing activities involving the MSS ground segment as well as the Canadian Payloads Telescience Operations Center are outlined. The paper includes an account of the Canadian astronaut and utilization ISS activities. The paper concludes with Canada's views and participation in the NASA activities to bring its portion of the program back within budget. "Copyright 2002 by Graham Gibbs (Canadian Space Agency). Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. Released to IAF/IAA/AIAA to publish in all forms."

  9. Transfusion and Risk of Infection in Canada: Update 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available In Canada and other countries, many steps are taken to minimize the risk of infection through the transfusion of blood or blood products (1. However, the infection risk can never be zero because these are biological products that are taken from living donors who are never 'germ free' (2. This is in contrast to drugs that can be manufactured de novo under sterile conditions in a laboratory. The present note provides an update on transfusion infection risks in Canada. It replaces the 2004 note (3 and may be helpful to practitioners in discussions with patients and parents toward obtaining informed consent before blood or blood product administration.

  10. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd


    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  11. Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011


    Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe


    The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...

  12. Development of EIA Issues in Canada and Practices in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr. Robert C. Lao


    @@ 1 Introduction The requirement for conducting environmental impact assessment (EIA) for all economic and construction development projects and activities in Canada is based on the law. The federal government of Canada, and all provincial and territorial governments have developed relevant processes and procedures to meet this legal obligation. As early as in 1973, the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP) was established, and in 1984 the Guidelines Order issued was by the federal cabinet which clarified roles and responsibilities of various parties and stakeholders for participating and/or implementing EARP.

  13. Resource allocation for health care in Canada: philosophy, ethics, and law (United States)

    Joshi, Vihar; Mukhedkar, Dinkar; Laxminarayan, Swamy; Lambert Torres, Germano


    This paper presents some legal aspects of " rationing model'' for health care in Canada context. More questions are raised than answered. In appendix statistical tables are provided for health care costs in Canada. 1.

  14. Canada - Mexico Agricultural Economies and Trade Under Closer North American Relations


    Mitura, Verna; Alhassan, Iddi; Romero, Fernando


    Continued expansion of economic and security relations between Canada, United States, and Mexico are expected in the years to come. The United States is by far the largest export market for both Canada and Mexico with each nation exporting over 80% of their products to this large economy. However, trade between Canada and Mexico has also grown significantly since the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) a decade ago. The two-way trade between Canada and Mexico has...

  15. 78 FR 56148 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ...-2009-32, dated July 24, 2009, issued by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada, to correct an unsafe condition for the specified Bell model ] helicopters. TCCA... operation in the United States. Pursuant to our bilateral agreement with Canada, TCCA has notified us of...

  16. 19 CFR 123.26 - Transshipment of merchandise moving through Canada or Mexico. (United States)


    ... or Mexico. 123.26 Section 123.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.26 Transshipment of merchandise moving through Canada or Mexico....

  17. 19 CFR 123.63 - Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. 123...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.63 Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. (a) Opening vehicle or compartment to examine baggage. Customs officers...

  18. 75 FR 70900 - Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's... certain iron construction castings (``castings'') from Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China... were the orders to be revoked. See Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and...

  19. 77 FR 23238 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Citigroup Energy Canada ULC (United States)


    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Citigroup Energy Canada ULC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to.... EA-326 authorizing CECU to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  20. 75 FR 80482 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. (United States)


    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (TCPM) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada..., which authorized TCPM to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power...

  1. 78 FR 42512 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Royal Bank of Canada (United States)


    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Royal Bank of Canada AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the... transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a five-year term...

  2. Official Language Bilingualism for Allophones in Canada: Exploring Future Research (United States)

    Mady, Callie; Turnbull, Miles


    This article offers a review of policy and research as they relate to Allophones and their access to French Second Official Language (FSOL) programs in English-dominant Canada. Possible areas of future research are woven throughout the review as questions emerge in the summary of relevant literature. (Contains 3 notes.)

  3. History of Education in Canada: Historiographic "Turns" and Widening Horizons (United States)

    Bruno-Jofré, Rosa


    This paper explores major historiographic "turns" in history of education with a focus, although not exclusively, on English-speaking Canada. It addresses the transformative intellectual impact of the turn toward social history on the history of education, the impact of cultural history and the linguistic turn, the reception of Michel…

  4. Mutual Intercultural Relations among University Students in Canada (United States)

    Gui, Yongxia; Safdar, Saba; Berry, John


    The current study examies the views of both international and domestic students in Canada using the conceptual and empirical framework from the MIRIPS (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies) project ( Two hypotheses were examined. First is the "multiculturalism hypothesis"…

  5. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie


    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  6. Battered Women, Their Siblings and Batterers in Canada. (United States)

    Edinboro, Lawrie M.

    The violence women experience in battering is both physical and psychological. A study in 1980 found that 1 in 10 women was hit, kicked, beaten, punched and terrorized by her husband or partner in Canada. Children living in battered homes may suffer a higher risk of direct physical or sexual abuse and many are neglected. Some progress has been…

  7. Probing the Future of Mandatory Retirement in Canada (United States)

    Ibbott, Peter; Kerr, Don; Beaujot, Roderic


    The future of mandatory retirement is at least partly driven by changing demographics. In Canada, these demographics include slowing population growth, rapid aging, declining rates of labour force participation, and slowing labour force growth. After reviewing the demographic trends and considering alternate scenarios in labour force…

  8. Storied Understandings: Bringing Aboriginal Voices to Canada's Multicultural Discourse (United States)

    Syed, Khalida Tanvir


    This article discusses the implications and complexities of Canada's multicultural policies for aboriginal students in its post-secondary education systems. The author, a Pakistani-Canadian multicultural educator, interviewed an Aboriginal-Canadian multicultural educator, to discuss the cultural differences, divisions, and resistances between…

  9. Service Delivery Reviews in Canada and the U.K.


    World Bank


    This brief describes in detail Canada's policy on alternative service delivery and service delivery reviews in the UK, such as the prior options reviews, better quality services and best value reviews, market testing, and fundamental expenditure reviews. Links are provided to relevant documents and case studies.

  10. Going Wi-Fi in Canada: municipal and community initiatives


    Powell, Alison; Shade, Leslie Regan


    Urban community Wi-Fi in Canada is at a nascent stage; active non-profit groups through dedicated volunteers, support the development or deployment of Wi-Fi services in community spaces throughout their regions. This article discusses recent initiatives.

  11. Offering sanctuary to failed refugee claimants in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Marshall


    Full Text Available Despite the anti-refugee sentiment demonstrated by Canada’s recent legislative changes and the government’s hardening attitude towards those in sanctuary, the spirit of resistance and community engagement is alive and well in Canada.

  12. Factors Related to Union Formation among Single Mothers in Canada. (United States)

    Le Bourdais, Ciline; And Others


    Using data on 1,257 women from a 1984 survey, attempts to identify factors associated with union formation among single mothers in Canada. Found that the age of mothers at the beginning of their first episode of single parenthood appears closely related to their chances of forming a union. Other results are discussed. (RJM)

  13. Situating Nunavut Education with Indigenous Education in Canada (United States)

    McGregor, Heather Elizabeth


    Recognizing that educational change in Nunavut has not been extensively documented, this article provides an entry point for considering how Nunavut can be better understood and situated with scholarship on Indigenous education in Canada. Comparing the history of education in Nunavut with key turning points in First Nations education, the article…

  14. Achieving Equity through Innovation: A Canada-U.S. Dialogue (United States)

    Levin, Ben


    Canadians often assume that what is said about education south of the U.S. border applies north of it as well. However Canada's international rankings are consistently higher than those of the U.S., primarily because of different social conditions (less inequality, less child poverty, etc.) and different educational policies (more equitable…

  15. Economics of afforestation for carbon sequestration in western Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Stennes, B.; Krcmar-Nozic, E.; Gorkom, van R.


    The Kyoto Accord on climate change requires developed countries to achieve CO2-emissions reduction targets, but permits them to charge uptake of carbon (C) in terrestrial (primarily forest) ecosystems against emissions. Countries such as Canada hope to employ massive afforestation programs to achiev

  16. Oh Canada! Too many children in poverty for too long. (United States)

    Rothman, Laurel


    Despite continued economic growth, Canada's record on child poverty is worse than it was in 1989, when the House of Commons unanimously resolved to end child poverty by the year 2000. Most recent data indicate that nearly 1.2 million children - almost one of every six children - live in low-income households. Campaign 2000 contends that poverty and income inequality are major barriers to the healthy development of children, the cohesion of our communities and, ultimately, to the social and economic well-being of Canada. Canada needs to adopt a poverty-reduction strategy that responds to the UNICEF challenge to establish credible targets and timetables to bring the child poverty rate well below 10%, as other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development nations have done. Campaign 2000 calls on the federal government to develop a cross-Canada poverty-reduction strategy in conjunction with the provinces, territories and First Nations, and in consultation with low-income people. This strategy needs to include good jobs at living wages that ensure that full-time work is a pathway out of poverty; an effective child benefit of $5,100 that is indexed; a system of affordable, universally accessible early learning and child care services available to all families irrespective of employment status; an affordable housing program that creates more affordable housing and helps to sustain existing stock; and affordable and accessible postsecondary education and training programs that prepare youth and adults for employment leading to economic independence.

  17. Defining and Responding to Issues of Canada's Coastal Zones. (United States)

    Diamond, Lawrence


    Defines and discusses critical issues for each of Canada's coastal regions (Pacific, Arctic, Atlantic, and Great Lakes) in environmental, technological, social, and political contexts; reviews recent efforts to obtain and use environmental information; and highlights alternative ways of achieving better stewardship. (Author/DH)

  18. Portrayal of Canada in the Dutch print media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Bosman, J.A.M.


    This article is devoted to the nature of recent news coverage of Canada in the on-line versions of eight Dutch newspapers. The research literature points to five recurrent frames in news reporting: conflict, human interest, economic impact, morality, and responsibility. Our central research question

  19. "The Freedom to Choose": Neoliberalism, Feminism, and Childcare in Canada (United States)

    McKenna, Emma


    In the second-wave women's movement in Canada (1965-1985), the rhetoric of ''freedom'' and ''choice'' occupied a prominent position in public discourses. Waged as rallying points to resist entrenched forms of gender inequality in all areas of social, economic, and political culture, this language asserted a desire for an alternative social order…

  20. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration (United States)

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun


    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept…

  1. Psychiatry Residency Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future (United States)

    Saperson, Karen


    Objective: This article provides a brief overview of the history of psychiatry residency training in Canada,and outlines the rationale for the current training requirements, changes to the final certification examination,and factors influencing future trends in psychiatry education and training. Method: The author compiled findings and reports on…

  2. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada. (United States)

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael


    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  3. Knowledge Matters: Skills and Learning for Canadians. Canada's Innovation Strategy. (United States)

    Human Resources Development Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This paper outlines the skills and learning challenges that Canada faces to ensure it meets its skills and learning requirements for the 21st century. It proposes a series of national goals and milestones against which progress can be measured over time and reported on regularly to Canadians. Following an introduction, Sections 2-5 discuss the…

  4. Steroid responsive mononeuritis multiplex in the Cronkhite-Canada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YL Lo


    Full Text Available The Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS is a rare disorder of unknown origin characterized by generalized gastrointestinal polyposis, alopecia, hyperpigmentation and onychodystrophy. We report a case of CCS with concomitant presentation of mononeuritis multiplex. The electrophysiological findings and steroid responsiveness suggests presence of an autoimmune mechanism.

  5. Internationalization in Australia and Canada: Lessons for the Future (United States)

    Shaw, Kelly


    This paper examines the internationalization of postsecondary education in Australia and Canada. The author discusses the contextual similarities and differences between the two countries, the shifting rationale "from aid to trade" behind Australia's internationalization attempts and some of the reasons for Australia's success.…

  6. Insights from the French Immersion Experience in Canada. (United States)

    Safty, Adel

    Canada's French immersion program began in 1965 in response to anglophone parent demand for bilingual French/English instruction. Instruction entirely in French begins in kindergarten, and formal English instruction begins in third grade. The program's popularity has caused rapid expansion, with success attributed to changing attitudes toward…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Leontiivna TOTSKA


    Full Text Available n this article an author conducted the analysis of labour in the public sector of Canada after such nine subgroups of establishments: 1 federal general government; 2 provincial and territorial general government; 3 health and social service institutions (provincial and territorial; 4 universities, colleges, vocational and trade institutes (provincial and territorial; 5 local general government; 6 local school boards; 7 federal government business enterprises; 8 provincial and territorial government business enterprises; 9 local government business enterprises. On the basis of statistical information about these sub-groups for 2007-2011 from a web-site «Statistics Canada» the maximal and minimum values of such three indexes are found: amount of employees, general annual sums of wages and annual sums of wages per employee. Rating for nine sub-groups of establishments of public sector of Canada on these indexes is certain. The got results testify, that during an analysable period most of the employees of public sector was concentrated in health and social service institutions, the least – in local government business enterprises. In 2007– 2011 a most general sum was earned also by the employees of health and social service institutions, the least – by the employees of local government business enterprises. At the same time in an analysable period among the state employees of Canada a most wage in a calculation on one person was got by the employees of federal general government, the least – by the employees of local general government.

  8. Outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education in Canada. (United States)

    Kanji, Zul; Sunell, Susanne; Boschma, Geertje; Imai, Pauline; Craig, Bonnie J


    There is little published literature about the outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education, particularly in Canada. Since there are various dental hygiene entry-to-practice educational models in Canada, exploring baccalaureate dental hygiene education is becoming an increasingly important subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the personal outcomes and dental hygiene practice outcomes of dental hygiene degree-completion education in Canada from the perspectives of diploma dental hygienists who have continued their education to the bachelor's degree level. This study employed a qualitative phenomenological design, using a maximum variation purposeful sampling strategy. Data generation occurred with sixteen dental hygienists across Canada through individual semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for data analysis, involving pattern recognition and thematic development. Themes that emerged included changes in self-perception, values, and knowledge base. Changes in self-perception were reflected in a reported increase in self-confidence and perceived credibility. Changes in values included a greater appreciation for lifelong learning. Advancements in knowledge strengthened the development of specific abilities that ultimately influenced participants' dental hygiene practice. These abilities included an increased ability to think critically, to make evidence-based decisions, and to provide more comprehensive care. Participants also commented on having more career opportunities available to them outside of the private clinical practice setting. These results reveal important insights into the impact of earning a dental hygiene baccalaureate degree on oneself and one's dental hygiene practice.

  9. Learning to Be. A Perspective from British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Halbert, Judy; Kaser, Linda


    This article describes how "learning to be", with a specific focus on social-emotional competencies, has become part of the educational mindset--and educational policy--in British Columbia, Canada. The development of a set of learning progressions for social responsibility, an emphasis on social emotional learning in the new curriculum…

  10. Canada and Mexico: the comparative and joint politics of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, E.J.; Costain, W.D.; Hampson, F.; McKinsey, L.


    Topics covered at the symposium include: the national energy policies; political constraints on national policies; the production of electricity, potential for international cooperation; oil, gas, and synthetic fuels, development and exchange; academic views of North America; the future of energy for Canada and Mexico. (GHT)

  11. Drama and Theatre Education in Canada: A Snapshot (United States)

    Carter, Mindy R.


    This "Note from the Field" provides an overview of what is happening in Kindergarten to University drama and theatre education across Canada. In addition to this snapshot I offer some considerations for extending this discipline and its potential impact on curriculum, policy and practice.

  12. Comparing population health in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet Nathalie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the paper is to compare population health in the United States (US and Canada. Although the two countries are very similar in many ways, there are potentially important differences in the levels of social and economic inequality and the organization and financing of and access to health care in the two countries. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health 2002/03. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall health-related quality of life (HRQL. Mean HUI3 scores were compared, adjusting for major determinants of health, including body mass index, smoking, education, gender, race, and income. In addition, estimates of life expectancy were compared. Finally, mean HUI3 scores by age and gender and Canadian and US life tables were used to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE. Results Life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. For those Conclusions The population of Canada appears to be substantially healthier than the US population with respect to life expectancy, HRQL, and HALE. Factors that account for the difference may include access to health care over the full life span (universal health insurance and lower levels of social and economic inequality, especially among the elderly.

  13. Coal in Canada : production staying strong in the west

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlotnikov, D.


    Most coal operations in Canada are in Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, with some ongoing coal production in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. This article discussed the factors that influence the growth distribution of coal. While metallurgical coal produced in British Columbia is primarily exported, Canada's thermal coal production is largely consumed internally, nearly exclusively for power generation purposes. Thermal coal in the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Saskatchewan and Alberta has increased steadily. Although Ontario is a big coal consumer, it has seen a reduced consumption in recent years due to a higher output from its nuclear fleet. Coal is evaluated by a set of properties, including its thermal content and the nature of impurities in the coal such as ash, moisture and sulphur. Quality and heating value are important because each power plant is designed for certain coal characteristics. Most of Canada's thermal coal production is directed to mine-mouth operations, notably power plants that were built in the immediate vicinity of a mine in order to keep transportation costs as low as possible. The single largest driver for the revival of seaborne thermal and metallurgical coal markets is the pronounced growth in China and the associated demand for raw materials to fuel the growth. This article listed the major coal producers in Canada along with their production capacity. 3 figs.

  14. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada. (United States)




    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Dionne


    Full Text Available This article studies the historical representation of the two main national communities in Canada; that is, the English-Canadian and the French-Canadian.Throughout the history of the English Canadian community, one cansee an ambitious national project. The national construction of Canada suggests the existence of a neutral model of government but, when looking at this carefully, it is possible to see something quite different. English-speaking historians from Canada have normally introduced the concept of a unitary federalism as the most perfect form of the Canadian integration project. This integrating federalism, that does not lead to emancipation, stems from thecentralist views of John Macdonald, one of the fathers of Canadian federalism. This approach has been kept for over 140 years of common history and, to this date, continues to be one of the main obstacles for minority nations within Canada. To strengthen their thesis, the authors base their work on an extensive analysis exploring the three big strategies used by the central government to assert its authority on the member States of the Canadian Federation in the long term: using the judicial power, centralizing powers andglobalization. The strategies used have varied depending on the economic scenario, political leaders and the political power relations regarding the links between the Federation and the provinces.

  16. Spatial and seasonal variations in evapotranspiration over Canada's landmass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wang


    Full Text Available A 30 yr (1979–2008 dataset of actual evapotranspiration (ET at 1 km resolution was generated over Canada's landmass by integrating remote sensing land surface data and gridded climate data using the EALCO model run at 30 min time step. This long-term high resolution dataset was used to characterize the spatiotemporal variations in ET across Canada. The results show that annual ET varied from 600 mm yr−1 over several regions in the south to less than 100 mm yr−1 in the northern arctic. Nationally, ET in summer (i.e., June to August comprised 65% of the annual total amount. ET in the cold season remained mostly below 10 mm month−1 over the country. Negative monthly ET was obtained over the arctic region in winter, indicating EALCO simulated a larger amount of condensation than ET. Overall, the mean ET over the entire Canadian landmass for the 30 yr was 239 mm yr−1, or 44% of its corresponding precipitation. Comparisons of available ET studies in Canada revealed large uncertainties in ET estimates associated with using different approaches. The scarcity of ET measurements for the diverse ecosystems in Canada remains a significant challenge for reducing the uncertainties; this gap needs to be addressed in future studies to improve capabilities in climate/weather modelling and water resource management.

  17. Organized Crime Offenders in Canada: Risk, Reform, and Recidivism (United States)

    Stys, Yvonne; Ruddell, Rick


    This study extends our knowledge about the rehabilitation of criminal organization offenders by focusing on their community outcomes upon release, and identifying the risk factors related to reoffending for 332 organized crime offenders released from federal penitentiaries in Canada prior to March 31, 2009. Of that group, 12.7% were readmitted to…

  18. Parental Cognitive Impairment and Child Maltreatment in Canada (United States)

    McConnell, David; Feldman, Maurice; Aunos, Marjorie; Prasad, Narasimha


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of parental cognitive impairment in cases opened for child maltreatment investigation in Canada, and to examine the relationship between parental cognitive impairment and maltreatment investigation outcomes including substantiation, case disposition and court application. Methods:…

  19. Canada's Fashion Industry--Can It Be Environmentally Responsible? (United States)

    Wrobel, Kim; Capjack, Linda


    Consumers must realize how vital the fur industry is to Canada, and those within the industry must educate consumers about both sides of the environmental story. The Canadian textile and apparel industries also must take a proactive role in promoting environmentally responsible actions. (JOW)

  20. An Evaluation of Environmental Sustainability Reporting in Canada


    Ellis, Erin


    This study describes and evaluates the environmental sustainability reporting practices of the federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada. Public reporting on progress towards environmental sustainability enhances government accountability, provides accessible, authoritative, and scientific information to stakeholders, and is an important part of the larger environmental sustainability planning systems of governments. Background information on environmental sustainability repor...

  1. Catalyst or Caterpillar? On the State of History in Canada. (United States)

    Osborne, Ken


    Asserts that the two problems with history teaching in Canada are the failure of historians to engage with the schools and the inability of many history teachers to feel at home in their subject. Reviews five crises in the teaching of history over the last 100 years. (CMK)

  2. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie


    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  3. A History of the Original Peoples of Northern Canada. (United States)

    Crowe, Keith J.

    The document was prepared persuant to the Man in the North Conference (Inuvik, November 1970), where northern Indian participants identified a history of the native peoples of Canada as a most important priority. Since existing books on Canadian history are essentially European in nature, this classroom text endeavored to provide a history of the…

  4. Information Literacy Policy Development in Canada: Is It Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Bradley


    Full Text Available This article examines policy issues related to information literacy in Canada. It provides some background on the information literacy concept, reflecting on popular definitions offered by American, British, and Australian library associations, before advocating for a broader definition that views information literacy as a human right. Information literacy is also considered in relationship to the proliferation of other “literacies,” such as digital, web, media, and information technology, that are the subject of increased advocacy and attention from interest groups and educators. The ongoing need for improved information literacy levels is analyzed not only in the context of inputs (the increasing complexity of the information environment but also in terms of potential personal, social, and economic outcomes that can be realized through widespread information literacy education efforts. The paper argues that information literacy must become a priority not only among academic librarians but also school, public, and special librarians, as well as others outside of the library sector, if significant improvements in information literacy levels are to be realized. Such a coordinated approach can only be achieved in the context of policies that require, and adequately support, widespread efforts at improving information literacy levels. After a review of the ad-hoc state of information literacy education in Canada today, this paper analyzes information literacy-related policy development efforts in Canada to date in the four arenas where one would expect to see such activity: the Government of Canada, provincial governments, library associations, and other stakeholder groups. This article aims to start a wide-reaching discussion about information literacy and associated policy issues in Canada.

  5. Bilinguisme et traduction au Canada. Role sociolinguistique du traducteur. (Bilingualism and Translation in Canada. The Sociolinguistic Role of the Translator). (United States)

    Juhel, Denis

    This study concerns the problems posed by modes of interlinguistic communication, translation, and individual bilingualism, on which depend the quality of relationships between two ethnic communities belonging to a single political entity. It also addresses a frequent question about the need for translation in a bilingual country like Canada. The…

  6. Les droits linguistiques et scolaires au Quebec et au Canada (Linguistic and Educational Rights in Quebec and Canada). (United States)

    Tetley, William

    A review of the language laws and conventions in Canada and the province of Quebec focuses on: Canadian constitutional law concerning education and language, including the 1867 constitution, the 1960 declaration of linguistic rights, and a 1969 law on official languages; the language of government and instruction in Manitoba; language usage in the…

  7. Prepuce health and childhood circumcision: Choices in Canada (United States)

    Abara, Emmanuel O.


    Introduction: Worldwide, almost 100% of boys are born with penises with a “hood” called prepuce or foreskin. In the course of the boy’s life, the prepuce can be circumcised, can become affected by diseased (e.g., phimosis), or a can become infected and hurt the neonate (and his sexual partner) in adulthood. The objectives of this report are to: 1) review the state, function, fate, and care of the prepuce in childhood, with focus on the neonate, in Canada; 2) understand the current practice of childhood male circumcision in terms of age, indications, performers, techniques, outcomes, and education; and 3) consider ways to sustain a good healthcare professional-parental dialogue for safe practices that are accessible, acceptable, and culturally sensitive in the care of the prepuce. Methods: A literature review was carried out in the English language through the major databases: PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science (WOS) Core Collection, LILAC, WHO/UNAIDS, Clinical Trials (, Google Scholar, and grey literature. Search words included: prepuce, diseases of prepuce, prepuce in the neonate, prepuce in the neonate in Canada, male circumcision, childhood male circumcision, neonatal circumcision, neonatal circumcision in Canada, complications of neonatal circumcision in Canada, and circumcision adverse events. Results: From 1970–1999, three of 10 Canadian newborn males were circumcised for religious, cultural, and medical reasons. The rest of the neonates, if alive, are living with their prepuce; <4% expected to require treatment for afflictions of the prepuce at some point. There are several providers of circumcision with different levels of training and competencies and using a diversity of devices and techniques. Neonatal and childhood circumcision in Canada is carried out to fulfill parental wishes, as well as for medical, religious, and cultural reasons. Appropriate informed consent and education regarding

  8. Wrench faulting in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Hutchinson, D. R.; Jackson, H. R.; Shimeld, J.; Houseknecht, D. W.; Chian, D.; Li, Q.; Saltus, R. W.; Oakey, G. N.


    Synthesis of seismic velocity, potential field, and geologic data from within the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean and its surrounding margins suggests that a northeast-trending structural fabric has influenced the origin, evolution, and current tectonics of the basin. This fabric is defined by a diverse set of observations, including (1) a magnetic lineament extending from offshore Prince Patrick Island to the bend in the Canada Basin Gravity Low that separates higher magnetic amplitudes to the northwest from a region of more subdued anomalies to the southeast; (2) the orientation of the 600-km long Northwind Escarpment along the edge of the Canada Basin; (3) a large, linear, positive magnetic anomaly that parallels Northwind Escarpment; (4) negative flower structures along the base of the Northwind Escarpment identified in seismic reflection profiles; (5) the edges of a linear, 150-km-long by 20-km-wide by 2000-m deep, basin in the Chukchi Plateau; (6) the sub-parallel ridges of Sever Spur along the Canadian margin north of Prince Patrick Island; (7) an oblong gravity low interpreted to indicate thick sediments beneath an inferred rift basin at 78oN in ~3600 m water depth; (8) the offshore extensions of the Canning sinistral and Richardson dextral fault zones; (9) the offshore extension of the D3 magnetic terrain of Saltus et al. (2011); and (10) the association of dredged rocks of the Chukchi Borderland with the Pearya terrane ~2000 km northeast of its present location (Brumley et al., 2015). Ongoing deformation of the Beaufort margin by impingement of the Brooks Range tectonic front is recorded by modern seismicity along the Canning and Richardson fault zones, which imply that deformation is accommodated by slip along the northeast-trending fabric. Together, these features are interpreted to indicate long-lived northeast-southwest oriented tectonic fabric in the development of the Canada Basin from initial rifting to modern deformation of the Beaufort margin

  9. Third China-Canada Cultural Dialogue Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>The Third China-Canada Cultural Dialogue, co-sponsored by the CPAFFC and the Canadian Fund for International Understanding Through Culture (Can4Culture), was held in Beijing June 25-26. Ms. Lin Yi, Secretary General of the CPAFFC, Dr. Nelly Ng, Chair of Can4Culture, Mr. Mark McDowell, Counselor of the Canadian Embassy in China, Mr. John McAvity, Executive Director of the Canadian Museums Association, among the 100 attendees, who included representatives from the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Culture, State Administration of Cultural Heritage, China Soong Ching Ling Foundation, China National Academy of Painting, China National Center for the Performing Arts, the Canadian Museums Association, Canada Science and Technology Museum, as well as from other museums, universities and cultural organizations of both countries.

  10. Foodborne outbreaks in Canada linked to produce: 2001 through 2009. (United States)

    Kozak, G K; MacDonald, D; Landry, L; Farber, J M


    Foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables have been increasing in occurrence worldwide. Canada has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of fresh fruits and vegetables in the world. In this article, we review the foodborne disease outbreaks linked to produce consumption in Canada from 2001 through 2009. The 27 produce-related outbreaks included an estimated 1,549 cases of illness. Bacterial infection outbreaks represented 66% of the total. Among these, Salmonella was the most frequent agent (50% of outbreaks) followed by Escherichia coli (33%) and Shigella (17%). Cyclospora cayetanensis was the only parasite detected and was associated with seven outbreaks. Among the foodborne viruses, only hepatitis A was implicated in two outbreaks. The food vehicles most commonly implicated in outbreaks were leafy greens and herbs (26% of outbreaks), followed by seed sprouts (11%). Contamination sources and issues related to the future control of fresh produce-related foodborne disease outbreaks also are discussed.

  11. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity surveillance in Canada. (United States)

    Allen, Victoria M; Campbell, Melanie; Carson, George; Fraser, William; Liston, Robert M; Walker, Mark; Barrett, Jon


    The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System has provided a comprehensive review of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada, and has identified several important limitations to existing national maternal data collection systems, including variability in the detail and quality of mortality data. The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System report recommended the establishment of an ongoing national review and reporting system, as well as consistency in definitions and classifications of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity, in order to enhance surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. Using review articles and studies that examined maternal mortality in general as opposed to maternal mortality associated with particular management strategies or conditions, maternal mortality and severe morbidity classifications, terminology, and comparative statistics were reviewed and employed to evaluate deficiencies in past and current methods of data collection and to seek solutions to address the need for enhanced and consistent national surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada.

  12. Nuclear waste management in Canada : critical issues, critical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, D.; Fuji Johnson, G. (eds.)


    As Canada plans to build more nuclear reactors to increase energy production, the benefits and hazards of nuclear power and nuclear waste management continue to be debated. This book provided a discerning opposition to the supportive position taken by government and industry regarding the management of high-level nuclear fuel waste and the nuclear generation of electricity. The contributors explored key issues associated with nuclear energy development, such as safety, risk assessment, site selection and the public consultation process in Canada and its failure to address ethical and social issues. The technical challenges of nuclear waste management were reviewed along with the nature and means of developing social and ethical frameworks within which to assess technical options, consultative practices and decision-making processes. Strategies for thinking of the long term were also discussed. refs.

  13. Bone fluoride concentrations in beluga whales from Canada. (United States)

    Mikaelian, I; Qualls, C W; De Guise, S; Whaley, M W; Martineau, D


    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary have been reported to have dental and bone abnormalities. To determine whether these lesions could be caused by high exposure to fluorides, we measured bone fluoride levels in eight beluga whales stranded on the shores of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada), and in nine beluga whales killed by Inuit hunters in the Hudson Bay (North Western Territories, Canada). In both groups, fluoride concentrations were higher than those found in terrestrial mammals intoxicated by fluorides. Unexpectedly, fluoride concentration was significantly higher in beluga whales from the Hudson Bay (mean +/- SD: 10.365 +/- 1.098 ppm) than in beluga whales from the St. Lawrence Estuary (4.539 +/- 875 ppm) and was positively correlated with age in the latter population. Differences in diet might explain the differences in fluoride concentrations found between these two populations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Borta


    Full Text Available The international trade for wide world countries in the means more growth, more jobs and access on more products at competitive prices. The European Union is a major economy and an important trading partner for many countries and regions in the world. To stimulate growth and to create jobs in the Union, this economy has concluded multilateral trade agreement (under the World Trade Organisation and a number of bilateral (preferential trade agreements. The aim of this paper is to present an example of fully elimination of tariffs and tariff lines under a bilateral trade agreement. In this case, we have analysed Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA negotiated by the European Union and Canada. For both sides of Atlantic, the CETA is supposed to bring the solution for today's issues concerning the important trading aspects and, also, to facilitate the EU-Canada bilateral trade by creating competition.

  15. The right to a healthy environment: A prescription for Canada. (United States)

    Boyd, David R


    This invited commentary summarizes the need for stronger Canadian environmental laws and policies. The environmental burden of disease in Canada is substantial. In part this is due to environmental laws and policies that are significantly weaker and less effective than corresponding rules in other wealthy industrialized nations. One promising approach is recognition of the right to live in a healthy environment. In particular, constitutional recognition of this right in 100 nations has led to stronger environmental laws, better enforcement of those laws, enhanced public participation in environmental decision-making, and superior environmental outcomes (e.g., faster progress in reducing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions). In light of Canada's weak environmental record, this potentially transformative approach is particularly promising.

  16. Warm water geothermal and cold energy in western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peachey, B. [New Paradigm Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)]|[Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The Petroleum Technology Alliance of Canada's low carbon futures study was discussed along with a study in which scenarios were developed for three resources, notably bitumen in carbonate reservoirs; conventional heavy oil; and warm water geothermal energy from operating oil wells. The presentation provided an overview of geothermal systems including hot dry rock; dry steam resources; hot water resources; warm water resources; and low temperature systems. A warm water geothermal study for the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was also presented. Although high quality geothermal energy sources are rare in Canada, there are large warm water geothermal reservoirs, ranging in temperature from 50 to 180 degrees C in the WCSB. This presentation focused on the potential for recovery of the warm water geothermal energy already being brought to surface from the WCSB's oil wells. Several energy approaches were also presented, such as warm geothermal or produced water being used for heating an oil reservoir; using produced mechanical energy for field pumping; and producing renewable electricity from binary plants with propane. Illustrations were also provided for the organic Rankine cycle; low pump geothermal power; and no pump geothermal system. Combined geothermal and oil production were also discussed. Other topics that were presented included industrial cooling; municipal cooling; mined oilsands barriers and tailings; containment of in-situ oilsands; and rural freeze desalination. The report concluded with discussions of the Canadian minerals industry; cold Arctic construction; and ice roads in the North. It was concluded that there is potential for warm water geothermal in existing oilfield operations in Canada. tabs., figs.

  17. On The Eve Of IYA2009 In Canada (United States)

    Hesser, James E.; Breland, K.; Hay, K.; Lane, D.; Lacasse, R.; Lemay, D.; Langill, P.; Percy, J.; Welch, D.; Woodsworth, A.


    Local events organized by astronomy clubs, colleges and universities across Canada will softly launch IYA on Saturday, 10 January and begin building awareness of opportunities for every Canadian to experience a `Galileo Moment’ in 2009. The launch typifies our `grass roots’ philosophy based upon our strong partnership of amateurs and professionals which already represents an IYA legacy. In this poster we anticipate the activities of the first half of 2009 and exhibit the educational and public outreach materials and programs we have produced in both official languages, e.g., Astronomy Trading Cards, Mary Lou's New Telescope, Star Finder, etc. Some of these play central roles in our tracking of participation, including allowing people to register to have their name launched into space in 2010. Several contests for youth are underway, with the prize in one being an hour of Gemini telescope observing. In the first half of 2009 some 30,000 grade 6 students will experience `Music of the Spheres’ astronomical orchestral programming conducted by Galileo (a.k.a. Tania Miller, Victoria Symphony). Audiences in Canada and the US will experience Taflemusik's marvelous new soundscape of music and words exploring the deep connections between astronomy and Baroque-era music. An Astronomy Kit featuring Galileoscope for classroom and astronomy club EPO will be tested. Canada Post will issue two stamps during 100 Hours of Astronomy. A new production, Galileo Live!, by Canadian planetaria involving live actors will premier, as will the national Galileo Legacy Lectures in which top astronomers familiarize the public with forefront research being done in Canada. Image exhibits drawing upon material generated by Canadian astronomers and artists, as well as from the IAU Cornerstones, FETTU and TWAN, are opening in malls and airports early in 2009. We will present the latest information about these and other events.

  18. Current Trends in Graduate Education in Astronomy in Canada (United States)

    Percy, J. R.; Douglas, K. A.


    We begin by describing the infrastructure for graduate education and research in astronomy in Canada. We then describe recent and current trends and issues, including facilities, funding, curriculum, and job prospects. This information has been collected through two channels: through graduate coordinators in astronomy departments and groups in Canadian universities, and through the Graduate Student Committee of the Canadian Astronomical Society (CAS). We emphasize the benefits of having a graduate student chapter in societies such as the CAS and the AAS.

  19. Epidemiology and clinical management of tuberculosis in children in Canada


    Shaun K Morris; Demers, Anne-Marie; Lam, Ray; Pell, Lisa G; Giroux, Ryan JP; Kitai, Ian


    Although often regarded as a foreign disease, latent tuberculosis or tuberculosis disease will be encountered in many clinical situations by the Canadian child health practitioner. There are key differences between tuberculosis in children and adults. In the present article, the changing epidemiology of tuberculosis in children in Canada and around the world, the pathogenesis of infection, diagnostic tests, and clinical management of childhood latent tuberculosis and tuberculosis disease are ...

  20. Distribution of crustal types in Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Chian, D.; Jackson, H. R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Shimeld, J. W.; Oakey, G. N.; Lebedeva-Ivanova, N.; Li, Q.; Saltus, R. W.; Mosher, D. C.


    Seismic velocities determined from 70 sonobuoys widely distributed in Canada Basin were used to discriminate crustal types. Velocities of oceanic layer 3 (6.7-7.1 km/s), transitional (7.2-7.6 km/s) and continental crust (5.5-6.6 km/s) were used to distinguish crustal types. Potential field data supports the distribution of oceanic crust as a polygon with maximum dimensions of 340 km (east-west) by 590 km (north-south) and identification of the ocean-continent boundary (OCB). Paired magnetic anomalies are associated only with crust that has oceanic velocities. Furthermore, the interpreted top of oceanic crust on seismic reflection profiles is more irregular and sometimes shallower than adjacent transitional crust. The northern segment of the narrow Canada Basin Gravity Low (CBGL), often interpreted as a spreading center, bisects this zone of oceanic crust and coincides with the location of a prominent valley in seismic reflection profiles. Data coverage near the southern segment of CBGL is sparse. Velocities typical of transitional crust are determined east of it. Extension in this region, close to the inferred pole of rotation, may have been amagmatic. Offshore Alaska is a wide zone of thinned continental crust up to 300 km across. Published longer offset refraction experiments in the Basin confirm the depth to Moho and the lack of oceanic layer 3 velocities. Further north, toward Alpha Ridge and along Northwind Ridge, transitional crust is interpreted to be underplated or intruded by magmatism related to the emplacement of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). Although a rotational plate tectonic model is consistent with the extent of the conjugate magnetic anomalies that occupy only a portion of Canada Basin, it does not explain the asymmetrical configuration of the oceanic crust in the deep water portion of Canada Basin, and the unequal distribution of transitional and continental crust around the basin.

  1. Argentina-Canada from 1870: Explaining the dynamics of divergence


    González, Germán; Viego, Valentina


    Argentina and Canada started their industrialization processes while exporting natural resources and importing capital goods. These two nations were sparsely populated but received significant inflows of European immigrants since the second half of the nineteenth century. Until the start of World War II, both economies experienced similar per-capita GDPs. However, the gap between both per-capita GDPs began to grow, widening throughout the century. We carry out an empirical study of the deep d...

  2. Canada. National Biotechnology Advisory Committee: Annual report 1985-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Committee is to recommend, to the Minister of State for Science and Technology, policies and focused strategies for the continued economic growth of Canada by enhancing the international competitiveness of Canadian industry through the development, application and commercialization of biotechnology. This annual report includes a list of members, and Committee activities. It discusses research, technology transfer, precommercial development, and marketing and commercialization. Next, it looks at opportunities in agriculture, forestry and health care. Finally, the document touches on future activities.

  3. China-Canada Project Teaches Wuyi Women Tailoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    HOT as it was, He Suhua was exceptionally happy at the opening ceremony of the Seventh Dress-making Training Class in Wuyi County, as part of the China Canada Women in Development Project. He, a head of women at Huaifu Village, dressed in clothes made by a woman who had studied in the third dress-making training class, led 11 new trainees to the county seat

  4. Towards 250 m mapping of terrestrial primary productivity over Canada (United States)

    Gonsamo, A.; Chen, J. M.


    Terrestrial ecosystems are an important part of the climate and global change systems. Their role in climate change and in the global carbon cycle is yet to be well understood. Dataset from satellite earth observation, coupled with numerical models provide the unique tools for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of territorial carbon cycle. The Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is a remote sensing based approach to quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle by that gross and net primary productivity (GPP and NPP) and terrestrial carbon sinks and sources expressed as net ecosystem productivity (NEP). We have currently implemented a scheme to map the GPP, NPP and NEP at 250 m for first time over Canada using BEPS model. This is supplemented by improved mapping of land cover and leaf area index (LAI) at 250 m over Canada from MODIS satellite dataset. The results from BEPS are compared with MODIS GPP product and further evaluated with estimated LAI from various sources to evaluate if the results capture the trend in amount of photosynthetic biomass distributions. Final evaluation will be to validate both BEPS and MODIS primary productivity estimates over the Fluxnet sites over Canada. The primary evaluation indicate that BEPS GPP estimates capture the over storey LAI variations over Canada very well compared to MODIS GPP estimates. There is a large offset of MODIS GPP, over-estimating the lower GPP value compared to BEPS GPP estimates. These variations will further be validated based on the measured values from the Fluxnet tower measurements over Canadian. The high resolution GPP (NPP) products at 250 m will further be used to scale the outputs between different ecosystem productivity models, in our case the Canadian carbon budget model of Canadian forest sector CBM-CFS) and the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon model (InTEC).

  5. The Employment-Impact of Automation in Canada



    Standard neoclassical models of labour demand predict that automation does not produce long-term increases in unemployment. Supporting evidence in Canada between 1970 and 2008 is explained by the reallocation of labour from industries with high levels of automation such as Manufacturing to industries with low levels of automation such as Retail and Wholesale Trade, and Business Services. Recent evidence indicates however that on-going technological advances are now driving labour automation i...

  6. Trends in extinction risk for imperiled species in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Favaro

    Full Text Available Protecting and promoting recovery of species at risk of extinction is a critical component of biodiversity conservation. In Canada, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC determines whether species are at risk of extinction or extirpation, and has conducted these assessments since 1977. We examined trends in COSEWIC assessments to identify whether at-risk species that have been assessed more than once tended to improve, remain constant, or deteriorate in status, as a way of assessing the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation in Canada. Of 369 species that met our criteria for examination, 115 deteriorated, 202 remained unchanged, and 52 improved in status. Only 20 species (5.4% improved to the point where they were 'not at risk', and five of those were due to increased sampling efforts rather than an increase in population size. Species outcomes were also dependent on the severity of their initial assessment; for example, 47% of species that were initially listed as special concern deteriorated between assessments. After receiving an at-risk assessment by COSEWIC, a species is considered for listing under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA, which is the primary national tool that mandates protection for at-risk species. We examined whether SARA-listing was associated with improved COSEWIC assessment outcomes relative to unlisted species. Of 305 species that had multiple assessments and were SARA-listed, 221 were listed at a level that required identification and protection of critical habitat; however, critical habitat was fully identified for only 56 of these species. We suggest that the Canadian government should formally identify and protect critical habitat, as is required by existing legislation. In addition, our finding that at-risk species in Canada rarely recover leads us to recommend that every effort be made to actively prevent species from becoming at-risk in the first place.

  7. Friendship Spanning Two Centuries Between China and Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu; Zhang


    <正>Xinchang,in Dayi County of Chengdu,Sichuan Province,is a beautiful town with quaint residential houses,winding corridors,verdant trees,stone bridges and rippling streams.In June,it greeted a26-member delegation of descendants of Canadian friends on a"home coming"visit,the fifth of its kind.The Chinese and Canadian Governments designated 2013 as the China-Canada Year of Culture to deepen

  8. Canada, Empire and Indigenous People in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Gordon


    Full Text Available This article argues that Canada is an imperial power in the global order, and that more traditional notions of Canada as a rich dependency or arguments that call for a project to defend Canadian sovereignty fail to properly account for this. Central to the Canadian state project, both in its historical and contemporary manifestations, is an agenda of accumulation by dispossession, in which Indigenous nations are a central target. In the period of neoliberalism, Canadian capital, facilitated by the state, is searching out new spaces of accumulation in Canada and abroad, particularly in Latin America, and Indigenous land and labour are crucial to its success. Instead of defending Canadian sovereignty, the Left must respond by developing a sharp anti-imperialist analysis of Canada’s role in the global economy. This article will draw on the policies and strategies of Canada’s mining industry, which is a powerful actor at home and abroad, as one important example of the imperialist dynamics it is tracing.

  9. Stroke rehabilitation in Canada: a work in progress. (United States)

    Teasell, Robert; Meyer, Matthew J; Foley, Norine; Salter, Katherine; Willems, Deb


    Stroke rehabilitation in Canada continues to function under models and practices that have changed little in the last four decades and struggles to implement new evidence-based or best practices. Ontario, Canada's largest province, has had a coordinated stroke strategy since 2000. The Ontario Stroke System has developed an extensive infrastructure of research syntheses, consensus panel recommendations, practice guidelines, standards of care, and centralized data collection across the continuum of stroke care. This has produced a solid foundation upon which an evidence-based stroke rehabilitation system can be developed. However, failure to invest in stroke rehabilitation or provide incentives to implement change has resulted in the stroke rehabilitation system and critical outcomes remaining largely unchanged. Improvements in time to admission have been countered by rising admission FIM scores such that severe stroke patients often cannot access the stroke rehabilitation system. Many stroke patients are still rehabilitated on general rehabilitation units, therapy intensities remain unacceptably low, and many outpatient programs are being reduced or even closed. Although there are pockets of innovation, the stroke rehabilitation system continues to function more according to traditional ways of practicing. The hope is that with appropriate investments and incentives, Canadians and Ontarians can build upon the existing infrastructure to ensure stroke patients receive optimal rehabilitative care based on best evidence. In the meantime, stroke rehabilitation in Canada remains a work in progress.

  10. Comparative Intergovernmental Politics: CETA Negotiations between Canada and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. D'Erman


    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA between Canada and the European Union (EU required long-term negotiations between two major polities of the industrialized world. During the negotiations, Canada acquiesced to the EU’s demand that Canadian provinces participate directly in discussions, setting an important precedent in the dynamics of Canadian external trade. This paper examines the dynamics of intergovernmentalism in the policy area of external trade within the settings of the Canadian provinces and the EU member states, and uses the findings to suggest that in this realm the EU is a stronger example of federal synthesis of decision-making than is Canada. This is significant because it contradicts many established theories of federalism within political science, and implies that the EU could become a strong source of normative example for federal-style polities in the globalized world. As well, the strength of the EU’s single market lends credence to the institutions embedded within the supranational polity, and gives the EU significant normative power as a prototype for other experiments in regional integration.

  11. Falling behind - Canada's lost clean energy jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With the depletion of conventional resources and the increasing concerns about the environment, emphasis has been put on developing clean energy. Clean energy is expected to become one of the main industrial sectors within the next decade, thus creating numerous jobs. While significant investments have been made by several countries to shift to clean energy, Canada is investing in highly polluting resources such as the tar sands. It is shown that if Canada were to match U.S. efforts in terms of clean energy on a per person basis, they would need to invest 11 billion additional dollars and this would result in the creation of 66,000 clean energy jobs. This paper showed that Canada is falling behind in terms of clean energy and the authors recommend that the Canadian government match U.S. investments and design policies in support of clean energy and put a price on carbon so as to favor the development of the clean energy sector and its consequent job creation.

  12. Using microsimulation to reassess aging trends in Canada. (United States)

    Légaré, Jacques; Décarie, Yann; Bélanger, Alain


    Population aging is the population issue of the XXI century and many indices are used to measure its level and pace. In Science (2010), Sanderson and Scherbov suggested improvements to the measure of elderly dependency ratio. They identified several limitations to the use of chronological age as the main variable and proposed a new index, the Adult Disability Dependency Ratio, defined as the number of adults at least 20 years old with disabilities divided by the number of similarly aged adults without disabilities. They used the Sullivan prevalence-based method by multiplying derived disability rates to macro population projections. They showed results for several ECE and OECD countries; results for Canada (see online annex, available at were derived using coefficients of Italy. However, disability is a complex multidimensional process (see Carrière, Keefe, Légaré, Lin, & Rowe, 2007; Légaré and Décarie, 2011), and microsimulation can take into account its implied complexity. Our results for Canada, presented here, exceed those in Science to show how more-sophisticated projections of disabled older adults can improve the analysis. We used LifePaths, a Statistics Canada's microsimulation model, to provide a perspective of the phenomena unobtainable with prevalence-based methods.

  13. Mining dams safety regulations : where does Canada stand?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priscu, C. [AMEC, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Small, A. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Lupo, J. [AMEC, Englewood, CO (United States); Diaz, M. [AMEC, Ashford, Kent (United Kingdom); Davies, M. [AMEC, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Musse, M. [AMEC, Santiago (Chile)


    While many jurisdictions in Canada use the Canadian Dam Association (CDA) dam safety guidelines, their applicability to the safety of mining dams is limited. Mining dams are some of the largest containment structures in the world, and impound millions of cubic meters of mine process residues in both solid and liquid form. This study presented a review of dam safety regulatory frameworks for mining dams located in various countries. The aim of the study was to compare the Canadian framework with various dam safety legislations in order to evaluate Canada's current status and recommend best practices in dam safety regulations. The study reviewed incremental consequence classifications; best practices in operation, surveillance and maintenance manuals and procedures; emergency preparedness plans; and dam safety inspections. The study showed that Canada has limited documentation regulating the safe management of tailings facilities, and does not have an all-encompassing national guideline for mining dams. It was concluded that an incremental consequence classification (ICC) system should be developed specifically for mining dams. 12 refs.

  14. Update: outbreaks of cyclosporiasis -- United States and Canada, 1997. (United States)


    Since April 1997, CDC has received reports of outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in the United States and Canada (1,2). As of June 11, there have been 21 clusters of cases of cyclosporiasis reported from eight states (California, Florida, Maryland, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, Rhode Island, and Texas) and one province in Canada (Ontario). These clusters were associated with events (e.g., receptions, banquets, or time-place-related exposures [meals in the same restaurant on the same day]) that occurred during March 19-May 25 and comprise approximately 140 laboratory-confirmed and 370 clinically defined cases of cyclosporiasis. In addition, four laboratory-confirmed and approximately 220 clinically defined cases have been reported among persons who, during March 29-April 5, were on a cruise ship that departed from Florida. Approximately 70 laboratory-confirmed sporadic cases (i.e., cases not associated with events, the cruise, or recent overseas travel) have been reported in the United States and Canada. The most recent laboratory-confirmed sporadic case occurred in a person who had onset of symptoms on June 3.

  15. Canada and access to medicines in developing countries: intellectual property rights first. (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel


    Canadian reports have recommended that health as a human right must be Canada's overarching global commitment and that the primacy of human rights should be prioritized over other elements of international law including international trade and investment law as it applies to access to pharmaceuticals. This paper uses a series of case reports to examine Canada's commitment to this goal. Specifically it examines cases where improved access has been in conflict with increased intellectual property rights. The 6 cases are: Canada's position when 39 pharmaceutical companies took South Africa to court in 1998 over its legislation to allow parallel importation of patented medicines and to regulate the price of medications; the stance that Canada took in the negotiations around the Doha Declaration in 2001; the passage of Canada's Access to Medicines Regime in 2004 and subsequent attempts to amend the legislation in 2011 and 2012; Canada's involvement in the final declaration at the United Nations High-Level meeting on non-communicable diseases in 2012; Canada's views about the terms in the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement as expressed in 2009; and Canada's 2013 position on the extension of the exemption for least developed countries from having to comply with the terms of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement. In the first case Canada was neutral but in the remaining 5 cases Canada prioritized intellectual property rights over access. This position is consistent with how Canada has acted around domestic issues involving intellectual property rights for pharmaceutical products. Canada has supported strengthened rights despite the fact that their touted benefits have not been realized either domestically or in developing countries. As a result Canada has failed in its humanitarian duty to protect the human right to health in the form of safe and low cost medicines for the people in developing countries.

  16. From sea to sea: Canada's three oceans of biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Archambault

    Full Text Available Evaluating and understanding biodiversity in marine ecosystems are both necessary and challenging for conservation. This paper compiles and summarizes current knowledge of the diversity of marine taxa in Canada's three oceans while recognizing that this compilation is incomplete and will change in the future. That Canada has the longest coastline in the world and incorporates distinctly different biogeographic provinces and ecoregions (e.g., temperate through ice-covered areas constrains this analysis. The taxonomic groups presented here include microbes, phytoplankton, macroalgae, zooplankton, benthic infauna, fishes, and marine mammals. The minimum number of species or taxa compiled here is 15,988 for the three Canadian oceans. However, this number clearly underestimates in several ways the total number of taxa present. First, there are significant gaps in the published literature. Second, the diversity of many habitats has not been compiled for all taxonomic groups (e.g., intertidal rocky shores, deep sea, and data compilations are based on short-term, directed research programs or longer-term monitoring activities with limited spatial resolution. Third, the biodiversity of large organisms is well known, but this is not true of smaller organisms. Finally, the greatest constraint on this summary is the willingness and capacity of those who collected the data to make it available to those interested in biodiversity meta-analyses. Confirmation of identities and intercomparison of studies are also constrained by the disturbing rate of decline in the number of taxonomists and systematists specializing on marine taxa in Canada. This decline is mostly the result of retirements of current specialists and to a lack of training and employment opportunities for new ones. Considering the difficulties encountered in compiling an overview of biogeographic data and the diversity of species or taxa in Canada's three oceans, this synthesis is intended to

  17. A Synthesis of Human-related Avian Mortality in Canada

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    Anna M. Calvert


    Full Text Available Many human activities in Canada kill wild birds, yet the relative magnitude of mortality from different sources and the consequent effects on bird populations have not been systematically evaluated. We synthesize recent estimates of avian mortality in Canada from a range of industrial and other human activities, to provide context for the estimates from individual sources presented in this special feature. We assessed the geographic, seasonal, and taxonomic variation in the magnitude of national-scale mortality and in population-level effects on species or groups across Canada, by combining these estimates into a stochastic model of stage-specific mortality. The range of estimates of avian mortality from each source covers several orders of magnitude, and, numerically, landbirds were the most affected group. In total, we estimate that approximately 269 million birds and 2 million nests are destroyed annually in Canada, the equivalent of over 186 million breeding individuals. Combined, cat predation and collisions with windows, vehicles, and transmission lines caused > 95% of all mortality; the highest industrial causes of mortality were the electrical power and agriculture sectors. Other mortality sources such as fisheries bycatch can have important local or species-specific impacts, but are relatively small at a national scale. Mortality rates differed across species and families within major bird groups, highlighting that mortality is not simply proportional to abundance. We also found that mortality is not evenly spread across the country; the largest mortality sources are coincident with human population distribution, while industrial sources are concentrated in southern Ontario, Alberta, and southwestern British Columbia. Many species are therefore likely to be vulnerable to cumulative effects of multiple human-related impacts. This assessment also confirms the high uncertainty in estimating human-related avian mortality in terms of species

  18. Wheat Production and Wheat Rust Management in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Allen G; Chi Dawn T; Zhang Shu-zhen; Li Zuo-fu


    Wheat is Canada's the largest crop with most of the production in the western Canadian Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. There were approximately 10 million (M) hectares (hm2) seeded to wheat in Canada, including 7 M hm2 of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 2 M hm2 of durum wheat (T. turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.), and 1 M hm2 of winter wheat (T. aestivum). Within hexaploid wheat there has been diversification into a number of market classes based on different end-use quality criteria. The predominant spring bread wheat class has been the Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) class. Historically, the disease of major concern in wheat was stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. The first significant stem rust resistant cultivar in Canada was Thatcher, grown extensively from 1939 until the early 1970s. Thatcher, however, was very susceptible to leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina. Over years, improved resistance to both stem and leaf rust was achieved with the release of cultivars with additional genes for resistance, primarily Sr2, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr9b, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16, and Lr34. The genetic resistance has adequately controlled stem rust but leaf rust continues to cause significant loss, partially due to changes in the P. triticina population which reduced the effectiveness of resistance genes such as Lr13 and Lr16. Stripe rust on wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, was historically a problem under irrigation in southern Alberta, but since 2000, it has been found annually in the central Canadian prairies and southern Ontario. The genetic basis of resistance to stripe rust in most Canadian wheat cultivars has not been determined, although Yr18 provides partial resistance in many cultivars. In the future, other rust diseases, such as wheat stripe rust, or highly virulent new pathotypes of current rust pathogens, such as P. graminis f. sp. tritici race Ug-99, may pose

  19. Climatic Redistribution of Canada's Water Resources (CROCWR): An analysis of spatial and temporal hydrological trends and patterns in western Canada (United States)

    Bawden, A. J.; Burn, D. H.; Prowse, T. D.


    Climate variability and change can have profound impacts on the hydrologic regime of a watershed. These effects are likely to be especially severe in regions particularly sensitive to changes in climate, such as the Canadian north, or when there are other stresses on the hydrologic regime, such as may occur when there are large withdrawals from, or land-use changes within, a watershed. A recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stressed that future climate is likely to accelerate the hydrologic cycle and hence may affect water security in certain locations. For some regions, this will mean enhanced access to water resources, but because the effects will not be spatially uniform, other regions will experience reduced access. Understanding these patterns is critical for water managers and government agencies in western Canada - an area of highly contrasting hydroclimatic regimes and overlapping water-use and jurisdictional borders - as adapting to climate change may require reconsideration of inter-regional transfers and revised allocation of water resources to competing industrial sectors, including agriculture, hydroelectric production, and oil and gas. This research involves the detection and examination of spatial and temporal streamflow trends in western Canadian rivers as a response to changing climatic factors, including temperature, precipitation, snowmelt, and the synoptic patterns controlling these drivers. The study area, known as the CROCWR region, extends from the Pacific coast of British Columbia as far east as the Saskatchewan-Manitoba border and from the Canada-United States international border through a large portion of the Northwest Territories. This analysis examines hydrologic trends in monthly and annual streamflow for a collection of 34 hydrometric gauging stations believed to adequately represent the overall effects of climate variability and change on flows in western Canada by means of the Mann-Kendall non

  20. Neurological Diseases, Disorders and Injuries in Canada: Highlights of a National Study. (United States)

    Bray, Garth M; Huggett, Deanna L


    The National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions, a partnership between Neurological Health Charities Canada and the Government of Canada, was the largest study of neurological diseases, disorders, and injuries ever conducted in Canada. Undertaken between 2009 and 2013, the expansive program of research addressed the epidemiology, impacts, health services, and risk factors of 18 neurological conditions and estimated the health outcomes and costs of these conditions in Canada through 2031. This review summarizes highlights from the component projects of the study as presented in the synthesis report, Mapping Connections: An Understanding of Neurological Conditions in Canada. The key findings included new prevalence and incidence estimates, documentation of the diverse and often debilitating effects of neurological conditions, and identification of the utilization, economic costs, and current limitations of related health services. The study findings will support health charities, governments, and other stakeholders to reduce the impact of neurological conditions in Canada.

  1. Evidence-informed health policy making in Canada: past, present, and future. (United States)

    Boyko, Jennifer A


    Evidence-informed health policy making (EIHP) is becoming a necessary means to achieving health system reform. Although Canada has a rich and well documented history in the field of evidence-based medicine, a concerted effort to capture Canada's efforts to support EIHP in particular has yet to be realized. This paper reports on the development of EIHP in Canada, including promising approaches being used to support the use of evidence in policy making about complex health systems issues. In light of Canada's contributions, this paper suggests that scholars in Canada will continue engaging in the field of EIHP through further study of interventions underway, as well as by sharing knowledge within and beyond Canada's borders about approaches that support EIHP.

  2. Implications and reflections on the 2010 Supreme Court ruling on Canada's AHR Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonandan R


    Full Text Available Raywat Deonandan, Tarun RahmanInterdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: In December, 2010, Canada's 6 year old Assisted Human Reproduction Act was successfully challenged in the Supreme Court of Canada. There may be important implications for public health and the evolution of reproductive technologies in this country.Keywords: public health, reproductive medicine, IVF, ART, in vitro fertilization (IVF

  3. Chapter 34: Geology and petroleum potential of the rifted margins of the Canada Basin (United States)

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.


    Three sides of the Canada Basin are bordered by high-standing, conjugate rift shoulders of the Chukchi Borderland, Alaska and Canada. The Alaska and Canada margins are mantled with thick, growth-faulted sediment prisms, and the Chukchi Borderland contains only a thin veneer of sediment. The rift-margin strata of Alaska and Canada reflect the tectonics and sediment dispersal systems of adjacent continental regions whereas the Chukchi Borderland was tectonically isolated from these sediment dispersal systems. Along the eastern Alaska-southern Canada margin, termed herein the 'Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin', the rifted margin is deformed by ongoing Brooks Range tectonism. Additional contractional structures occur in a gravity fold belt that may be present along the entire Alaska and Canada margins of the Canada Basin. Source-rock data inboard of the rift shoulders and regional palaeogeographic reconstructions suggest three potential source-rock intervals: Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian-Albian), Upper Cretaceous (mostly Turonian) and Lower Palaeogene. Burial history modelling indicates favourable timing for generation from all three intervals beneath the Alaska and Canada passive margins, and an active petroleum system has been documented in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources indicates the greatest potential in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin and significant potential in the Canada and Alaska passive margins. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  4. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell


    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  5. An assessment of antimicrobial resistant disease threats in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Garner

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR of infectious agents is a growing concern for public health organizations. Given the complexity of this issue and how widespread the problem has become, resources are often insufficient to address all concerns, thus prioritization of AMR pathogens is essential for the optimal allocation of risk management attention. Since the epidemiology of AMR pathogens differs between countries, country-specific assessments are important for the determination of national priorities.To develop a systematic and transparent approach to AMR risk prioritization in Canada.Relevant AMR pathogens in Canada were selected through a transparent multi-step consensus process (n=32. Each pathogen was assessed using ten criteria: incidence, mortality, case-fatality, communicability, treatability, clinical impact, public/political attention, ten-year projection of incidence, economic impact, and preventability. For each pathogen, each criterion was assigned a numerical score of 0, 1, or 2, and multiplied by criteria-specific weighting determined through researcher consensus of importance. The scores for each AMR pathogen were summed and ranked by total score, where a higher score indicated greater importance. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effects of changing the criteria-specific weights.The AMR pathogen with the highest total weighted score was extended spectrum B-lactamase-producing (ESBL Enterobacteriaceae (score=77. When grouped by percentile, ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium difficile, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were in the 80-100th percentile.This assessment provides useful information for prioritising public health strategies regarding AMR resistance at the national level in Canada. As the AMR environment and challenges change over time and space, this systematic and transparent approach can be adapted for use by other stakeholders domestically and

  6. Framing ethical acceptability: a problem with nuclear waste in Canada. (United States)

    Wilding, Ethan T


    Ethical frameworks are often used in professional fields as a means of providing explicit ethical guidance for individuals and institutions when confronted with ethically important decisions. The notion of an ethical framework has received little critical attention, however, and the concept subsequently lends itself easily to misuse and ambiguous application. This is the case with the 'ethical framework' offered by Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), the crown-corporation which owns and is responsible for the long-term management of Canada's high-level nuclear fuel waste. It makes a very specific claim, namely that it is managing Canada's long-lived radioactive nuclear fuel waste in an ethically responsible manner. According to this organization, what it means to behave in an ethically responsible manner is to act and develop policy in accordance with its ethical framework. What, then, is its ethical framework, and can it be satisfied? In this paper I will show that the NWMO's ethical and social framework is deeply flawed in two respects: (a) it fails to meet the minimum requirements of a code of ethic or ethical framework by offering only questions, and no principles or rules of conduct; and (b) if posed as principles or rules of conduct, some of its questions are unsatisfiable. In particular, I will show that one of its claims, namely that it seek informed consent from individuals exposed to risk of harm from nuclear waste, cannot be satisfied as formulated. The result is that the NWMO's ethical framework is not, at present, ethically acceptable.

  7. Power Imbalances, Food Insecurity, and Children's Rights in Canada. (United States)

    Blay-Palmer, Alison


    Increasingly, food is provided through an industrial food system that separates people from the source of their food and results in high rates of food insecurity, particularly for the most vulnerable in society. A lack of food is a symptom of a lack of power in a system that privileges free market principles over social justice and the protection of human rights. In Canada, the high rates of food insecurity among Canadian children is a reflection of their lack of power and the disregard of their human rights, despite the adoption of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991 and ratification of the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights in 1976, which established the right to food for all Canadians. Dueling tensions between human rights and market forces underpin this unacceptable state of affairs in Canada. Gaventa's "power cube" that describes different facets of power - including spaces, levels, and forms - is used to help understand the power imbalances that underlie this injustice. The analysis considers the impact of neoliberal free market principles on the realization of human rights, and the negative impacts this can have on health and well-being for the most vulnerable in society. Canadian case studies from both community organizations provide examples of how power can be shifted to achieve more inclusive, rights-based policy and action. Given increased global pressures toward more open trade markets and national austerity measures that hollow out social supports, Canada provides a cautionary tale for countries in the EU and the US, and for overall approaches to protect the most vulnerable in society.

  8. Characterizing the forest fragmentation of Canada's national parks. (United States)

    Soverel, Nicholas O; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A


    Characterizing the amount and configuration of forests can provide insights into habitat quality, biodiversity, and land use. The establishment of protected areas can be a mechanism for maintaining large, contiguous areas of forests, and the loss and fragmentation of forest habitat is a potential threat to Canada's national park system. Using the Earth Observation for Sustainable Development of Forests (EOSD) land cover product (EOSD LC 2000), we characterize the circa 2000 forest patterns in 26 of Canada's national parks and compare these to forest patterns in the ecological units surrounding these parks, referred to as the greater park ecosystem (GPE). Five landscape pattern metrics were analyzed: number of forest patches, mean forest patch size (hectare), standard deviation of forest patch size (hectare), mean forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio (meters per hectare), and edge density of forest patches (meters per hectare). An assumption is often made that forests within park boundaries are less fragmented than the surrounding GPE, as indicated by fewer forest patches, a larger mean forest patch size, less variability in forest patch size, a lower perimeter-to-area ratio, and lower forest edge density. Of the 26 national parks we analyzed, 58% had significantly fewer patches, 46% had a significantly larger mean forest patch size (23% were not significantly different), and 46% had a significantly smaller standard deviation of forest patch size (31% were not significantly different), relative to their GPEs. For forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio and forest edge density, equal proportions of parks had values that were significantly larger or smaller than their respective GPEs and no clear trend emerged. In summary, all the national parks we analyzed, with the exception of the Georgian Bay Islands, were found to be significantly different from their corresponding GPE for at least one of the five metrics assessed, and 50% of the 26 parks were significantly

  9. Constructing medical social authority on dress in Victorian Canada. (United States)

    O'Connor, Eileen


    During the late-Victorian period, campaigns to "reform" middle-class women's dress were grounded in discourses on health, eugenics, declining birth rates, comfort, and aesthetics. In Britain, the United States and Germany, organized "dress reform" movements emerged in the latter half of the 19th century, while in Canada the campaign was led primarily by physicians through public health education. This article explores the discussion on women's dress in public health literature in Canadian circulation between 1860-1900 and interprets findings within a feminist poststructuralist framework that posits the understanding of women's bodies and gender regulation to be central to knowledge construction on women's dress.

  10. Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada


    Turcotte, A.-M.; Scott, P. M.


    In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46–61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OT...

  11. Electrical conductivity in the precambrian lithosphere of western canada (United States)

    Boerner; Kurtz; Craven; Ross; Jones; Davis


    The subcrustal lithosphere underlying the southern Archean Churchill Province (ACP) in western Canada is at least one order of magnitude more electrically conductive than the lithosphere beneath adjacent Paleoproterozoic crust. The measured electrical properties of the lithosphere underlying most of the Paleoproterozoic crust can be explained by the conductivity of olivine. Mantle xenolith and geological mapping evidence indicate that the lithosphere beneath the southern ACP was substantially modified as a result of being trapped between two nearly synchronous Paleoproterozoic subduction zones. Tectonically induced metasomatism thus may have enhanced the subcrustal lithosphere conductivity of the southern ACP.

  12. The Development and Role of the Court Administrator in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Ryder-Lahey


    Full Text Available By the turn of the millennium most courts in Canada had court administrators managing their operations and their staff. As a rule, the court administrators worked in a partnership with the chairmen of their courts, who typically delegated some of their official responsibilities. But the mere presence of court administrators, not to speak of their broad range of functions, was still relatively new. Only in the 1970s did most courts acquire administrators, and it took at least another decade before they were fully accepted by judges and entered into a position of equality with some, if not many, chairs of courts.

  13. Marriage risks, cohabitation and premarital births in Canada. (United States)

    Rao, K V


    "This paper is an attempt to examine the trends in union formation among various cohorts and to identify some of the socio-demographic correlates of marital timing. The data for this study are taken from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984. The results indicate that there is no immediate crisis for the family in Canada, but that many are choosing cohabitation as a preferred mode of first union formation at early stages. Young women (below 25 years of age), residents of large metropolitan areas, those with a university education and those with low religious commitment are more likely than others to be delayers of marriage." (SUMMARY IN FRE)

  14. Genetic analysis of superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada. (United States)

    Jaton, C; Koeck, A; Sargolzaei, M; Malchiodi, F; Price, C A; Schenkel, F S; Miglior, F


    Superovulation of dairy cattle is frequently used in Canada. The cost of this protocol is high, and so is the variability of the outcome. Knowing the superovulatory potential of a donor cow could influence the breeder's decision to superovulate it or not. The main objective of this study was to perform a genetic analysis for superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada, and to investigate if these data could be used for genetic evaluation. Data contained the total number of embryos and the number of viable embryos from every successful flushing performed across Canada. After editing, 137,446 records of superovulation performed between 1992 and 2014 were analyzed. A univariate repeatability animal model analysis was performed for both total number of embryos and number of viable embryos. Because both data and residuals did not follow a normal distribution, records were subject to either logarithmic or Anscombe transformation. Using logarithmic transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.15 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. Using Anscombe transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.17 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. The genetic correlation between the 2 traits was estimated at 0.97 using logarithmic transformation and 0.95 using Anscombe transformation. Breeding values were estimated for 54,463 cows, and 3,513 sires. Only estimated breeding values of sires having a reliability higher than 40% were considered for estimated breeding values correlations with other routinely evaluated traits. The results showed that selection for a higher response to superovulation would lead to a slight decrease in milk production, but an improvement for functional traits, including all reproduction traits. In all cases, the estimated correlations are either low or modest. We conclude that

  15. Older people in Canada: their victimization and fear of crime. (United States)

    Hayman, Stephanie


    Older people are more affected by fear of crime and the possibility of victimization, despite their being at lower risk of harm, than any other population group in Canada. Crime, victimization, and fear are not experienced uniformly among older Canadian citizens and residents, partly because older people do not form a homogeneous group. Being part of an ethnic, religious, or sexual minority, or being mentally frail, can have an impact on an individual's perceptions and experience of risk. This analysis explores older people's victimization and fear of crime, while it highlights the lack of consistency in the available data.

  16. Canada's Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property. (United States)

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor


    Canada's Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process.

  17. Status of the belugas of the St Lawrence estuary, Canada


    Michael CS Kingsley


    A population of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabiting the estuary of the St Lawrence river in Quebec, Canada, was depleted by unregulated hunting, not closed until 1979. Surveys in 1977 showed only a few hundred in the population. Surveys since then have produced increasing estimates of population indices. An estimate of the population, fully corrected for diving animals, was 1,238 (SE 119) in September 1997. The population was estimated to have increased from 1988 through 1997 by 31.4 b...

  18. Recent Developments for Satellite-Based Fire Monitoring in Canada (United States)

    Abuelgasim, A.; Fraser, R.


    Wildfires in Canadian forests are a major source of natural disturbance. These fires have a tremendous impact on the local environment, humans and wildlife, ecosystem function, weather, and climate. Approximately 9000 fires burn 3 million hectares per year in Canada (based on a 10-year average). While only 2 to 3 percent of these wildfires grow larger than 200 hectares in size, they account for almost 97 percent of the annual area burned. This provides an excellent opportunity to monitor active fires using a combination of low and high resolution sensors for the purpose of determining fire location and burned areas. Given the size of Canada, the use of remote sensing data is a cost-effective way to achieve a synoptic overview of large forest fire activity in near-real time. In 1998 the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and the Canadian Forest Service (CFS) developed a system for Fire Monitoring, Mapping and Modelling (Fire M3; Fire M3 automatically identifies, monitors, and maps large forest fires on a daily basis using NOAA AVHRR data. These data are processed daily using the GEOCOMP-N satellite image processing system. This presentation will describe recent developments to Fire M3, included the addition of a set of algorithms tailored for NOAA-16 (N-16) data. The two fire detection algorithms are developed for N-16 day and night-time daily data collection. The algorithms exploit both the multi-spectral and thermal information from the AVHRR daily images. The set of N-16 day and night algorithms was used to generate daily active fire maps across North America for the 2001 fire season. Such a combined approach for fire detection leads to an improved detection rate, although day-time detection based on the new 1.6 um channel was much less effective (note - given the low detection rate with day time imagery, I don't think we can make the statement about capturing the diurnal cycle). Selected validation sites in western

  19. US-Canada Relations: Bridging the Common Border (United States)


    Arthur H. "Canadian Security in a Broadened Context." Canadian Defence Quarterly 26.2 (Winter 1996): 13-14+. Whitaker , Reg. "Keeping Up with the...Changes after September 11th in a Canadian Sample." Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 33.2 (2004): 68-78. Davis, Jerome D. "North American Oil and...Ek, Carl . Canada--U.S. Relations. New York: Novinka, 2003. (E 183.8 .C2 E44 2003) English, John, and Norman Hillmer, eds. Making a Difference

  20. Canada-United States air quality agreement : progress report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This biennial progress report highlighted actions undertaken by Canada and the United States in the last 2 years to address transboundary air pollution within the context of the Air Quality Agreement regarding acid rain and ground-level ozone. The report was divided into 3 sections. The first section provided information concerning commitments to emission reductions in acid rain and ozone annexes. Section 2 provided details of related air quality efforts. Section 3 presented information on scientific and technical cooperation and research, which included details of health effects and acid deposition effects, recovery efforts and critical loads and exceedances. The progress report also included the third 5-year comprehensive review of the Air Quality Agreement, which was organized in a question and answer format to address requirements in the agreement and public comments on the 2004 progress report. In October 2006, Canada's federal government tabled the Clean Air Act as a new legislation that would expand the government's authorities to take action to reduce air emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. The Notice of Intent to develop and implement regulations and other measures to reduce air emissions was also revealed. The regulations would address anthropogenic sources of air pollution, including fossil-fuel electricity production, petroleum industry, smelters, forest products, chemicals production and transportation. The report showed that over the last 2 years, both countries have reduced their emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and have made progress in meeting the requirements of the Ozone Annex to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Actions have focused on reducing emissions from major sources such as electric generating units, industrial sources, and on-road and nonroad transportation. It was concluded that to date, the agreement has provided opportunities for

  1. Psychology departments in medical schools: there's one in Canada, eh? (United States)

    McIlwraith, Robert D


    Comments on the original article by Robiner et al. (see record 2014-07939-001) regarding psychologists in medical schools and academic medical center settings. Robiner et al. reported that their extensive review "revealed no independent departments of psychology in U.S. medical schools." The current authors note north of the border in Canada there is one department of psychology in a medical school. The Department of Clinical Health Psychology has been a department within the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Manitoba since 1995. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Nongastrointestinal helminths in marten (Martes americana) from Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Seville, R S; Addison, E M


    Six species of nongastrointestinal nematodes were recovered from 405 marten, (Martes americana), examined from six areas in Ontario, Canada in 1992 to 1993. Three species (Crenosoma petrowi, Eucoleus aerophilus, Filaroides martis) were found in the respiratory tract, one in the urinary bladder (Pearsonema plica), one in the kidney (Dioctophyme renale), and one in the musculature (Trichinella sp. larvae). This is the first report of F. martis and P. plica from this host. In addition a specimen of Dracunculus insignis collected from a marten pelt was received. Based on our results, martens are primary definitive hosts for few nongastrointestinal nematodes. Animals in more southern areas had greater species richness than those from higher latitudes.

  3. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Lycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Webster


    Full Text Available Eight species of Lycidae are newly recorded from New Brunswick, Canada, bringing the total number of species known from the province to 16. The first documented records from New Brunswick are provided for Greenarius thoracicus (Randall Erotides scuptilis (Say, and Calopteron terminale (Say reported by Majka et al. (2011. Eropterus arculus Green, Lopheros crenatus (Germar, and Calochromus perfacetus (Say are reported for the first time in the Maritime provinces. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species.

  4. Behavioural science at work for Canada: National Research Council laboratories. (United States)

    Veitch, Jennifer A


    The National Research Council is Canada's principal research and development agency. Its 20 institutes are structured to address interdisciplinary problems for industrial sectors, and to provide the necessary scientific infrastructure, such as the national science library. Behavioural scientists are active in five institutes: Biological Sciences, Biodiagnostics, Aerospace, Information Technology, and Construction. Research topics include basic cellular neuroscience, brain function, human factors in the cockpit, human-computer interaction, emergency evacuation, and indoor environment effects on occupants. Working in collaboration with NRC colleagues and with researchers from universities and industry, NRC behavioural scientists develop knowledge, designs, and applications that put technology to work for people, designed with people in mind.

  5. Renewing the Study of Public Sector Unions in Canada

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    David Camfield


    Full Text Available A renewal of the study of public sector unionism in Canada is long overdue. This article explains why public sector unions deserve more attention from researchers than they have received of late and proposes that studies of public sector unions would benefit from adopting a new theoretical framework that conceptualizes contemporary unions as not only labour relations institutions but also as particular kinds of working-class movement organizations within a historically-specific class formation. It also identifies two obstacles to the production of accounts of contemporary public sector unions from this perspective.

  6. Demographics of orofacial clefts in Canada from 2002 to 2008. (United States)

    Pavri, Sabrina; Forrest, Christopher R


    Objective : Orofacial clefts such as cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate are the most frequent congenital anomalies of the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to determine the current demographics for orofacial clefts in Canada. Methods : A request for data from all Canadian provinces (excluding Quebec due to incompatibilities with provincial coding systems) for the fiscal years 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 was submitted to the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Variables evaluated included gender, cleft type, gestational age, birth weight, income quintile, and institution health region. Results : Over the period studied, the prevalence of orofacial clefts ranged from 11.0 to 15.3 per 10,000 live births (1 in 654 to 1 in 909 live births). The distribution of cleft types for live births with orofacial clefts was 17% for cleft lip, 41% for cleft palate, and 42% for cleft lip and palate, of which cleft lip and cleft lip and palate were male dominant (62% and 66% male, respectively) and cleft palate was female dominant (56% female). Saskatchewan and Manitoba had significantly higher cleft birthrates (P orofacial clefting compared with those with no cleft. Conclusions : Canada has one of the highest orofacial cleft birthrates in the world (prevalence of 12.7 per 10,000 live births, approximately 1 in 790 live births). This study presents an updated demographic of orofacial clefts in Canadian newborns and may be useful in predicting the burden of anticipated health care.

  7. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Yusa


    Full Text Available Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases. A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health.

  8. Canada's Composite Learning Index: A path towards learning communities (United States)

    Cappon, Paul; Laughlin, Jarrett


    In the development of learning cities/communities, benchmarking progress is a key element. Not only does it permit cities/communities to assess their current strengths and weaknesses, it also engenders a dialogue within and between cities/communities on the means of enhancing learning conditions. Benchmarking thereby is a potentially motivational tool, energising further progress. In Canada, the Canadian Council on Learning created the world's first Composite Learning Index (CLI), the purpose of which is to measure the conditions of learning nationally, regionally and locally. Cities/communities in Canada have utilised the CLI Simulator, an online tool provided by the Canadian Council on Learning, to gauge the change in overall learning conditions which may be expected depending on which particular indicator is emphasised. In this way, the CLI has proved to be both a dynamic and a locally relevant tool for improvement, moreover a strong motivational factor in the development of learning cities/communities. After presenting the main features of the CLI, the authors of this paper sum up the lessons learned during its first 5 years (2006-2010) of existence, also with a view to its transferability to other regions. Indeed, the CLI model was already adopted in Europe by the German Bertelsmann foundation in 2010 and has the potential to be useful in many other countries as well.

  9. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment for a Site in Eastern Canada (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vikram; Arcos, Maria E. M.; Alcinov, Trajce; Lavine, Alexis; Youngs, Robert; Roussel, Patrick; Mullin, Derek


    Unlike probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), there is not a well-established methodology for probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). The PTHA methodology presented is similar to the widely used PSHA methodology for ground motion, and incorporates both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in calculating the probability of exceeding runup and drawdown values produced by tsunamigenic sources. Evaluating tsunami hazard is more difficult in locations such as the eastern coastline of Canada because of low tsunami recurrence rates and few historical examples. In this study, we evaluated the hazard from local and far-field earthquake and landslide tsunamigenic sources at a site on the Bay of Fundy in New Brunswick, Canada. These sources included local faults, the Puerto Rico subduction zone, fault sources in the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary region, and landslides on the Canadian continental slope and in the Canary Islands. Using a new PTHA methodology that is closely linked to well-established PSHA methodology combined with tide stage probability, we calculated that the return period for a wave runup exceeding the tidal range of +4 m level above mean sea level (highest astronomical tide) is approximately 14,500 years.

  10. Catch history of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Canada

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    Randall R Reeves


    Full Text Available The ringed seal (Phoca hispida has always been a staple in the diet and household economy of Inuit in Canada. The present paper was prepared at the request of the NAMMCO Scientific Committee to support their assessment of ringed seal stocks in the North Atlantic Basin and adjacent arctic and subarctic waters. Specifically, our objective was to evaluate recent and current levels of use of ringed seals by Canadian Inuit. Annual removals probably were highest (possibly greater than 100,000 in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when sealskin prices were particularly strong. Catches declined substantially in the 1980s following a collapse in sealskin prices, presumably related to the European trade ban on skins from newborn harp and hooded seals (Phoca groenlandica and Cystophora cristata, respectively. Recent catch levels throughout Canada (1980s and early 1990s are believed to be in the order of 50,000 to 65,000 ringed seals, with a total average annual kill (including hunting loss in the high tens of thousands. No reliable system is in place to monitor catches of ringed seals, so any estimate must be derived from a heterogeneous array of sources.

  11. Fisheries and Oceans Canada climate change risk assessment initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalpe, R. [Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    This paper provided an overview of an initiative undertaken by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) Canada to assess the risks associated with climate change on Canada's waterways and aquatic resources over the next 10 to 20 years. It discussed the risk associated with changes in water temperature and level in increasing the vulnerability of fish stocks and ecosystems. A decrease in water levels is also an issue as it will render current infrastructure ineffective. Storm surges can also have an impact on coastal community infrastructure. The purpose of the assessment was to provide DFO management with a structured understanding of the major climate change factors that pose risks to DFO's operations and to establish priorities in identifying appropriate risk mitigation responses. The presentation discussed the different stages of the initiative (planning, identification and evaluation of risk, validation, and reporting), its' challenges and benefits, as well as lessons learned from this exercises. Lessons learned from the project are as follows: get senior level buy-in from the outset; engage the right people; make it easy for others to be engaged; validate results and risk management response; be ready for surprises; and build in some flexibility to the process. figs.

  12. Green building challenge 2002 in Canada : an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Green Building Challenge (GBC) in Canada was launched to help the building community meet environmental challenges and improve the environmental performance of buildings. Tools have been made available to the building industry to make informed environmental choices during the conception design stage of a project. The tools help architects, researchers and policy analysts in choosing material mixes and other design options that will minimize a building's potential life cycle environmental impacts and promote sustainable development. Green buildings involve the complete structure and envelope, including cladding, insulation, gypsum wall board, roofing and windows. The type of building and its location is also considered. Long term sustainability also considers energy use and emissions related to a building's energy system. This presentation described the following 3 projects which were selected for assessment in the GBC-2002: (1) the Mayo School in Mayo, Yukon Territory, (2) the Jackson-Triggs Winery in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, and (3) the Red River College in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The GBC-2002 Canadian Team nominated them as the best buildings being designed in Canada.10 figs.

  13. Time dependent seismicity along the western coast of Canada

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    Evangelos V. Christou


    Full Text Available Decelerating generation of intermediate magnitude earthquakes (preshocks in a narrow region (seismogenic region and accelerating generation of relatively larger such earthquakes in a broader region (critical region has been proposed as an appropriate model for intermediate-term earthquake prediction. We examined the seismic activity which preceded the Mw=7.7 (October 28, 2012 thrust event that occurred off the west coast of Haida Gwaii, Canada (formerly the Queen Charlotte islands, by applying the decelerating-accelerating seismic strain model. We found that this mainshock was preceded by a pronounced accelerating seismic sequence with the time to the mainshock, as well as by an equally easily identifiable decelerating seismic sequence. Both precursory seismic sequences occurred in different space, time and magnitude windows. The behavior of previous mainshocks that occurred close to the 2012 earthquake was also examined by the time and magnitude predictable regional model. An attempt was also made to identify such seismic strain patterns, which may also be related to the generation of strong mainshocks along the western coast of Canada.

  14. Severe maternal morbidity in Canada, 1991–2001 (United States)

    Wen, Shi Wu; Huang, Ling; Liston, Robert; Heaman, Maureen; Baskett, Tom; Rusen, I.D.; Joseph, K.S.; for, Michael S. Kramer


    Background Although death rates are often used to monitor the quality of health care, in industrialized countries maternal deaths have become rare. Severe maternal morbidity has therefore been proposed as a supplementary indicator for surveillance of the quality of maternity care. Our purpose in this study was to describe severe maternal morbidity in Canada over a 10-year period, among women with or without major pre-existing conditions. Methods We carried out a retrospective cohort study of severe maternal morbidity involving 2 548 824 women who gave birth in Canadian hospitals between 1991 and 2000. Thirteen conditions that may threaten the life of the mother (e.g., eclampsia) and 11 major pre-existing chronic conditions (e.g., diabetes) that could be identified from diagnostic codes were noted. Results The overall rate of severe maternal morbidity was 4.38 per 1000 deliveries. The fatality rate among these women was 158 times that of the entire sample. Rates of venous thromboembolism, uterine rupture, adult respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary edema, myocardial infarction, severe postpartum hemorrhage requiring hysterectomy, and assisted ventilation increased substantially from 1991 to 2000. The presence of major pre-existing conditions increased the risk of severe maternal morbidity to 6-fold. Interpretation Severe maternal morbidity occurs in about 1 of 250 deliveries in Canada, with marked recent increases in certain morbid conditions such as pulmonary edema, myocardial infarction, hemorrhage requiring hysterectomy, and the use of assisted ventilation. PMID:16186582

  15. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.


    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  16. Environmental Justice, Place and Nuclear Fuel Waste Management in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada)


    The purpose of this paper is to outline the basis of a Nuclear Fuel Waste management strategy for Canada, taking into account the unique legal tenets (Aboriginal rights; federal - provincial jurisdiction) and the orientation that the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has taken to date. The focus of the paper are grounded in notions of environmental justice. Bullard's definition provides a useful guideline: 'the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, colour, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies'. The overriding concern is to work towards a process that is inclusive and just. Prior to developing a specific strategy to site a NFW disposal facility, we maintain that the NWMO needs to first address three fundamental issues: Expand its mandate to include the future of nuclear energy in Canada; Provide an inclusive role for First Nations (Aboriginal people) in all stages of the process; Adhere to the requirement of specifying an economic region and deal more overtly with the transportation of NF.

  17. The Economic Impact of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hilsden


    Full Text Available Longobardi and colleagues examined the effect of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD on employment, using data from 10,891 respondents aged 20 to 64 years from the 1998 cycle of the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS (1. This sample included 187 (1.7% subjects who self-reported IBD or a similar bowel disorder. A significantly greater proportion of IBD than non-IBD respondents reported that they were not in the labour force (28.9% versus 18.5%. Even after adjusting for other factors (age group, level of pain, etc, subjects with IBD had a 2.9% higher nonparticipation rate (21.4%. For example, among people not hospitalized within the past year and with no limitation of activities due to pain, IBD subjects were 1.2 times more likely to be unemployed than those without IBD. Subjects who reported high levels of pain had a very high probability of being out of the labour force. Based on Canadian annual compensation data for all employed persons in Canada, and age- and sex-specific prevalence, and incidence rates for IBD, the authors estimated that there are 119,980 IBD patients between the ages of 20 and 64 years in Canada and that this group includes 3479 people who are not in the labour force. This translates into lost wages of $104.2 million, or $868 per IBD patient

  18. Nuclear waste management in Canada : critical issues, critical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, D.; Fuji Johnson, G. (eds.)


    As oil reserves decline and the environment takes centre stage in public policy discussions, the merits and dangers of nuclear power and nuclear waste management continue to be debated. Canada is intent on building more reactors to increase energy production without destroying the planet, but it and other nuclear energy-producing countries face not only technical problems but also social and ethical issues. This book provides a critical antidote to the favourable position of government and industry. The contributors build their case by exploring key issues and developments. What do frequently used terms such as safety, risk, and acceptability really mean? How and why did the public consultation process in Canada fail to address ethical and social issues? What is the significance and potential of a public consultation process that involves diverse interests, epistemologies, and actors, including Aboriginal peoples? And how do we ensure that our frameworks for discussion are inclusive and ethical? This timely collection defuses the uncertainty, ambiguity, and ignorance that surrounds nuclear energy. It will appeal to academics, students, and stakeholders in public policy or environmental studies who want to think critically and more broadly about how we approach energy generation and waste management.

  19. Multicultural Media in a Post-Multicultural Canada? Rethinking Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augie Fleras


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the post-multicultural challenges that confront the integrative logic of Canada’s multicultural media. Multicultural (or ethnic media once complemented the integrative agenda of Canada’s official multiculturalism, but the drift toward a post-multicultural Canada points to the possibility of a post-multicultural media that capitalizes on the positive aspects of multicultural media. The argument is predicated on the following assumption: an evolving context that no longer is multicultural but increasingly transnational, multiversal, and post-ethnic exposes the shortcomings of a multicultural media when applied to the lived-realities of those who resent being boxed into ethnic silos that gloss over multiple connections and multidimensional crossings. According to this line of argument, both diversity governance and ethnic media must reinvent themselves along more post-multicultural lines to better engage the transnational challenges and multiversal demands of a post-multicultural turn. Time will tell if a post-multicultural media can incorporate the strengths of a multicultural media, yet move positively forward in capturing the nuances of complex diversities and diverse complexities. Evidence would suggest “yes”, and that a post-multicultural media may well represent an ideal that reflects and reinforces the new integrative realities of a post-ethnic Canada.

  20. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese (United States)

    Austin, J.E.


    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  1. Industrial sustainability of competing wood energy options in Canada. (United States)

    Ackom, Emmanuel K; Mabee, Warren E; Saddler, John N


    The amount of sawmill residue available in Canada to support the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry was examined. A material flow analysis technique was employed to determine the amount of sawmill residue that could possibly be available to the ethanol industry per annum. A combination of two key trends--improved efficiency of lumber recovery and increased uptake of sawmill residues for self-generation and for wood pellet production--have contributed to a declining trend of sawmill residue availability. Approximately 2.3 x 10⁶ bone-dry tons per year of sawmill residue was estimated to be potentially available to the cellulosic ethanol industry in Canada, yielding 350 million liters per year of cellulosic ethanol using best practices. An additional 2.7 billion liters of cellulosic ethanol might be generated from sawmill residue that is currently used for competing wood energy purposes, including wood pellet generation. Continued competition between bioenergy options will reduce the industrial sustainability of the forest industry. Recommendations for policy reforms towards improved industrial sustainability practices are provided.

  2. Forensic Occupational Therapy in Canada: The Current State of Practice. (United States)

    Chui, Adora L Y; Wong, Chantal Isabelle; Maraj, Sara A; Fry, Danielle; Jecker, Justine; Jung, Bonny


    Although occupational therapists have been practicing in forensic settings for many years, there is a paucity of literature regarding the nature of this practice in Canada. The purpose of this study was to describe the practices of Canadian occupational therapists in forensic mental health. An online survey was designed based on the Canadian Practice Process Framework. Following purposive and snowball sampling, responses were analysed with descriptive statistics and content analysis. Twenty-seven clinicians responded (56% response rate). Respondents indicated commonalities in workplaces, client caseloads and practice challenges. The outstanding need in Canada to demonstrate client outcomes through the use of evaluation instruments reflects those practice gaps identified internationally. Education, advocacy and research are critical areas for the development of Canadian forensic occupational therapy. Although findings heavily reflect one provincial context and may not be generalizable to nonhospital settings, a number of priority areas were identified. Future efforts should clarify the role of forensic occupational therapy to stakeholders, and validate their contributions through research that evaluates intervention efficacy and meaningful outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Advancing Primary Care Use of Electronic Medical Records in Canada

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    Jennifer Zelmer


    Full Text Available In 2010, the federal government's Economic Action Plan funded Canada Health Infoway to co-invest with provinces, territories, and health care providers in electronic medical records (EMRs in primary care. The goal is to help improve access to care, quality of health services, and productivity of the health system, as well as to deliver economic benefits. The decision to fund EMRs was consistent with a long-term framework for digital health established in consultation with stakeholders across the country, spurred by analysis demonstrating the economic impact of such investments and data on Canada's low rate of EMR use in primary care compared with other countries. The decision reflected widespread public and stakeholder consensus regarding the importance of such investments. EMR adoption has more than doubled since 2006, with evaluations identifying efficiency and patient care benefits (e.g., reduced time managing laboratory test results and fewer adverse drug events in community-based practices. These benefits are expected to rise further as EMR adoption continues to grow and practices gain more experience with their use.

  4. Review of five successful microbial geochemical surface surveys in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munnecke, D.M. [Environmental BioTechnologies Inc., San Carlos, CA (United States)


    The development of a new surface geochemical survey technology to detect hydrocarbon microseeps was discussed. Microbial Exploration Technology (MET) was developed by Environmental BioTechnologies Inc., of San Carlos, California. It is used to determine the near surface soil`s metabolic activity towards metabolism of gaseous hydrocarbons. After several years of testing, the technology was commercialized in Canada in 1996. Since then, more than 3 million acres of land in Canada have been surveyed using MET. Surveys are conducted by collecting soil samples in a quarter by quarter mile grid pattern. The samples are then sent to California for analysis. One of the unique characteristics of MET is that it provides a contour map indicating the percent probability of drilling success. This paper presented the following five MET surveys as examples of what types of results can be obtained from the surveys: (1) Flinton Survey (T11 R6 W2), (2) Elcott Survey (T1-2 R1-3 W2), (3) Silverton Survey (T3 R32 W1), (4) Swift Current Block (T13-15 R10-R13 W3), and (5) Border Block (T1-2 R12-14 W3). Each example demonstrates that MET can be very supportive for oil and gas exploration and exploitation activities. It was suggested that running MET surveys before seismic surveys helps in determining where seismic surveys should be conducted to reduce overall exploration costs by 30 to 60 per cent, while improving drilling success. 6 figs.

  5. From Early Exploration to Space Weather Forecasts: Canada's Geomagnetic Odyssey (United States)

    Lam, Hing-Lan


    Canada is a region ideally suited for the study of space weather: The north magnetic pole is encompassed within its territory, and the auroral oval traverses its vast landmass from east to west. Magnetic field lines link the country directly to the outer magnetosphere. In light of this geographic suitability, it has been a Canadian tradition to install ground monitors to remotely sense the space above Canadian territory. The beginning of this tradition dates back to 1840, when Edward Sabine, a key figure in the “magnetic crusade” to establish magnetic observatories throughout the British Empire in the nineteenth century, founded the first Canadian magnetic observatory on what is now the campus of the University of Toronto, 27 years before the birth of Canada. This observatory, which later became the Toronto Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory, marked the beginning of the Canadian heritage of installing magnetic stations and other ground instruments in the years to come. This extensive network of ground-based measurement devices, coupled with space-based measurements in more modern times, has enabled Canadian researchers to contribute significantly to studies related to space weather.

  6. A Bibliometric Analysis of Digestive Health Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Tuitt


    Full Text Available Measurement of the impact and influence of medical/scientific journals, and of individual researchers has become more widely practiced in recent decades. This is driven, in part, by the increased availability of data regarding citations of research articles, and by increased competition for research funding. Digestive disease research has been identified as a particularly strong discipline in Canada. The authors collected quantitative data on the impact and influence of Canadian digestive health research. The present study involved an analysis of the research impact (Hirsch factor and research influence (Influence factor of 106 digestive health researchers in Canada. Rankings of the top 25 researchers on the basis of the two metrics were dominated by the larger research groups at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario, and the Universities of Calgary (Calgary, Alberta and Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, but with representation by other research groups at the Universities of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Western Ontario (London, Ontario and McGill University (Montreal, Quebec. Female and male researchers had similar scores for the two metrics, as did basic scientists versus clinical investigators. Strategic recruitment, particularly of established investigators, can have a major impact on the ranking of research groups. Comparing these metrics over different time frames can provide insights into the vulnerabilities and strengths of research groups.

  7. Stealth Advertising: The Commercialization of Television News Broadcasts in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Chernov


    Full Text Available This two-phase study deals with the phenomenon of “stealth advertising” in Canada. This concept refers to the encroachment of commercially tinted messages into broadcast news segments. Different theories of commercial speech were used as a theoretical framework. The study combined mixed methods, content analysis and in-depth interviews. The first phase concentrated on the frequency and actual time spent airing commercially influenced messages in television newscast segments. The sample consisted of eight randomly selected English-language markets across Canada including news stations affiliated with CBC, CTV and Global. Seventy-five newscasts were recorded and content-analyzed. The analysis demonstrated that private television stations used more explicit and aggressive stealth advertising than publicly owned ones. In subsequent interviews, the news directors and sales managers of some of these stations denied that they yield to outside commercial pressures but admitted they may include messages with commercial content if these have public interest value. In the second phase thirty-nine newscasts of a news station affiliated with Global were recorded and content-analyzed, showing high numbers of commercially influenced messages and corroborating previous research findings. Subsequent interviews showed some news decision-makers accept the inclusion of commercially tinted news segments, thus eroding the divide between editorial and commercial contents. This study is intended to contribute to the empirical basis for pursuing the question of corruption of news by surreptitious commercial content.

  8. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I. [Atomic Energy of Canad Limited - AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)


    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  9. How Much Language Is Enough? Some Immigrant Language Lessons from Canada and Germany. Discussion Paper. (United States)

    DeVoretz, Don J.; Hinte, Holger; Werner, Christiane

    Germany and Canada are at opposite ends of the debate over language integration and ascension to citizenship. German naturalization contains an explicit language criterion for naturalization. The first German immigration act will not only concentrate on control aspects but also focus on language as a criterion for legal immigration. Canada does…

  10. Geographical variations in the prevalence of atopic sensitization in six study sites across Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan-Yeung, M; Anthonisen, N R; Becklake, M R;


    Geographical variations in atopic sensitization in Canada have not been described previously. This study used the standardized protocol of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey-1 (ECRHS-1) to investigate the distribution and predictors of atopic sensitization in six sites across Canada...

  11. An update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, P.L.; Barker, R.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office


    This paper gives an overview and update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada. To provide a relevant perspective, Canadian data are compared with US data on annual waste arisings and with disposal initiatives of the US compacts and states. Presented also is an assessment of the data and its implications for disposal solutions in Canada.

  12. Paying for Equity: The Role of Taxation in Driving Canada's Educational Success (United States)

    Freiler, Christa


    Using research conducted by the federal government's own finance department, social policy groups released the report, "Paying for Canada: Perspectives on Public Finance and National Programs." It showed that deliberate government policy to reduce taxation levels for some of the most economically advantaged groups in Canada had resulted…

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (United States)


    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-10 Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits and... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada....

  14. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada...; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada. Stone and quarry products from...

  15. Special Education in First Nations Schools in Canada: Policies of Cost Containment (United States)

    Phillips, Ron


    The education of First Nations students in Canada on reserve is the legal responsibility of the federal government. This article reviews and critiques the federal government's past and current special education policies and practices in regard to First Nations schools throughout Canada. The author has found that rather than establishing a…

  16. Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Academic Achievement among Indian Adolescents in Canada and India (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.


    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and academic achievement for the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada in comparison to their counterparts in India. Descriptive discriminant analysis indicated that the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada had higher intrinsic…

  17. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin


    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  18. 78 FR 66252 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... prompted by AD No. CF-2007-13R2, dated November 10, 2009, issued by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada. TCCA issued AD No. CF-2007-13R2 to correct an unsafe condition for certain Model 206B (including those converted from Model 206A) and 206L helicopters....

  19. 78 FR 65202 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ...-2005-24, dated July 4, 2005, issued by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada. TCCA issued AD CF-2005-24 to correct an unsafe condition for Model 230 helicopters. TCCA advises of several failures of third stage turbine wheels used in Rolls Royce 250-C30S and...

  20. 78 FR 54751 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Inc. Helicopters (United States)


    ... June 12, 2012, issued by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada. TCCA issued AD No. CF-2012-19 to correct an unsafe condition for certain serial-numbered BHT... assembly) part number 206-375-017-101 or 206-375-017-103 installed. TCCA advises that these control...

  1. 78 FR 65206 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ...-2005-25, dated July 5, 2005, issued by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada. TCCA issued AD No. CF-2005-25 to correct an unsafe condition for Model 430 helicopters. TCCA advises that several failures of third stage turbine wheels used in Rolls Royce 250-C30S and...

  2. 78 FR 78699 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Helicopters (United States)


    ..., issued by Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada. TCCA issued... through 45790; Model 206L-3, S/N 51001 through 51612; and Model 206L-4, all S/Ns. TCCA advises that AD No... inspection of fitting part number 203-032-409-001 at each 100-hour or annual inspection. The TCCA AD...

  3. 78 FR 65200 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada. TCCA issued AD No. CF-2004-09R1 to correct an unsafe condition for Model 407 helicopters. TCCA advises that several failures... failures have occurred to the 250- C47B engine used by Bell on the Model 407. According to TCCA,...

  4. 77 FR 23388 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Helicopters (United States)


    ... comments. Discussion Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) issued TCCA AD No. CF-2011- 44R1, on February 1.... TCCA advises that there is no reliable inspection method to detect the cracks on these blades before... operation in the United States. Pursuant to our bilateral agreement with Canada, TCCA, its...

  5. 77 FR 64439 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Model Helicopters (United States)


    .... Discussion Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA), which is the aviation authority for Canada, has issued... temperatures to minus 40 degrees Centigrade (-40 C). The TCCA advises that modification to the instrumentation is required to reflect the V ne airspeed values tested at temperatures to -40 C. The TCCA...

  6. French Immersion Research in Canada: Recent Contributions to SLA and Applied Linguistics. (United States)

    Swain, Merrill


    Discusses two questions: (1) What has the recent research conducted in French immersion programs in Canada contributed to understanding of second language acquisition?; and (2) What has it contributed to the broader field of applied linguistics? Considers research in the coming decade, and discusses obstacles that may be faced in Canada in…

  7. The Effect of Domestic and Economic Stress on Suicide Rates in Canada and the United States. (United States)

    Leenaars, Antoon A.; And Others


    Analyzed rates of birth, divorce, marriage, and unemployment in Canada and United States in comparison to rates of suicide from 1950 to 1985. Found no association between marriage and suicide in Canada, in U.S. marriage had protective effect. Divorce rates were associated positively and birth rates associated negatively with suicide in both…

  8. 2013 Graduate Management Education in Canada. GMAC® Data-to-Go Series (United States)

    Graduate Management Admission Council, 2013


    This latest report in the GMAC® Data-to-Go Series provides an overview of trends in graduate management education in Canada and a brief look at jobs and employment trends for recent 2013 business school graduates in Canada. Key themes of internationalization, program portfolio, and student recruitment appear in data throughout. Data presented here…

  9. The Complementarity of Language and Other Human Capital: Immigrant Earnings in Canada. Discussion Paper. (United States)

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W.

    This paper analyzes the effects of language practice on earnings among adult male immigrants in Canada using data from the 1991 Census of Canada. It examines whether destination language skills are complements to or substitutes in generating earnings with respect to other kinds of human capital (schooling and pre- and post-migration labor market…

  10. 19 CFR 12.140 - Entry of softwood lumber products from Canada. (United States)


    ... Number issued by Canada at time of filing entry summary documentation. The 8-digit Canadian-issued Export... alpha-numeric code “P88888888” must be used in the Export Permit Number data entry field on the CBP Form... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry of softwood lumber products from Canada....

  11. Virtual Reference Canada (VRC): A Canadian Service in a Multicultural Environment. (United States)

    Gaudet, Franceen; Savard, Nicolas

    Virtual Reference Canada (VRC) is a digital reference service using World Wide Web technology. It was initiated by the National Library of Canada (NLC) in spring 2001 and went into test mode at the start of 2002. It draws on the contribution of a wide range of Canadian libraries and allied institutions. The development of VRC owes a great deal to…

  12. 76 FR 44604 - Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact... (United States)


    ... National Park Service Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental... (NPS) announces the availability of the Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose... draft Plan/DEIS evaluates the impacts of several management alternatives that address managing...

  13. Negotiating Indigenous Language Narratives from Canada and South Africa: A Comparative Approach (United States)

    Iseke, Judy M.; Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.


    Indigenous cultural and language negotiations ongoing in the contexts of South Africa and Canada are documented in two studies, one sharing narratives from Black parents in South Africa and the other sharing narratives of Métis Elders in Canada. Black parents' perspectives on Indigenous language and cultures and the role of education in…

  14. Pluralism, Identity, and the State: National Education Policy towards Indigenous Minorities in Japan and Canada (United States)

    Takeda, Nazumi; Williams, James


    This paper examines educational policies toward indigenous minorities in Japan and Canada during the period of nation-building, from the latter half of the nineteenth century to the first half of the twentieth century. Both Japan and Canada first segregated indigenous children into separate educational institutions and then tried to assimilate…

  15. 77 FR 26032 - Proposed Information Collection; Control and Management of Resident Canada Geese (United States)


    ...-1232-0000-P2] Proposed Information Collection; Control and Management of Resident Canada Geese AGENCY..., operators, and tenants actively engaged in commercial agriculture to conduct damage management control when... conduct (via the State or tribal wildlife agency) resident Canada goose control and management...

  16. Going beyond Language: Soft Skill-ing Cultural Difference and Immigrant Integration in Toronto, Canada (United States)

    Allan, Kori


    This article traces how a language and soft skills training approach to Canadian immigrant integration emerged with Canada's shift towards a post-industrial tertiary economy. In this economy, soft skills index characteristics of ideal workers that fit the needs of Canada's post-Fordist labour regime. It examines how skills' training is not viewed…

  17. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. (United States)


    ... regulations, 15 CFR part 370. (b) In-transit merchandise exported to Canada or Mexico. Merchandise to be... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit...

  18. The Counselling and Psychotherapy Profession in Canada: Regulatory Processes and Current Status (United States)

    Martin, Lorna; Turcotte, Michel; Matte, Laurent; Shepard, Blythe


    Like the Canadian landscape and culture, the status of professional regulation for counselling and psychotherapy is a mosaic reflecting the unique cultural, linguistic and contextual realities of Canada. Statutory regulation in Canada is constitutionally a provincial/territorial matter. In the past five years, a major movement towards professional…

  19. 75 FR 53014 - Notice and Modification of Action: Canada-Compliance with Softwood Lumber Agreement (United States)


    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Notice and Modification of Action: Canada--Compliance with Softwood Lumber Agreement AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice and modification of action. SUMMARY: Under the 2006 Softwood Lumber Agreement (SLA), Canada agreed to impose export...

  20. An expanded surface-water palaeotemperature inference model for use with fossil midges from eastern Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, I.R.; Levesque, A.J.; Cwynar, L.C.; Lotter, A.F.


    Using an expanded surface sample data set, representing lakes distributed across a transect from southernmost Canada to the Canadian High Arctic, a revised midge-palaeotemperature inference model was developed for eastern Canada.Modelling trials with weighted averaging (with classical and inverse de

  1. The Teaching of Italian in Institutions of Higher Learning in the United States and Canada. (United States)

    Istituto Italiano di Cultura, New York, NY.

    This booklet contains a list of institutions of higher learning in the United States and Canada which teach Italian. Italian is taught, according to the booklet, in 383 colleges and universities in the United States (including 28 community or junior colleges), and in 15 colleges and universities in Canada. Other information includes the number of…

  2. Foreign–trained medical professionals: Wanted or not? A case study of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Campbell–Page


    Full Text Available Definitions of the term “International Medical Graduate” vary but the Medical Council of Canada defines an IMG to be a graduate of a medical school outside of Canada or the United States, with the exception of US schools of osteopathic medicine.

  3. 75 FR 49945 - Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and China (United States)


    ... iron construction castings from Brazil, Canada, and China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... antidumping duty orders on iron construction castings from Brazil, Canada, and China would likely lead to... construction castings (D & L Foundry Inc., East Jordan Iron Works Inc., Neenah Foundry Co., and U.S....

  4. Tourism Standards: Western Canada. Certification Field Test. Final Report. Formative Evaluation. (United States)

    Alberta Tourism Education Council, Edmonton.

    The Tourism Standards Consortium (TSC) is a partnership of the governments of Canada's western provinces (Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia), the provinces' tourism industries, and the Pacific Rim Institute of Tourism in British Columbia. In an effort to increase professionalism in Western Canada's tourism industry, the TSC…

  5. Educational Discourse and the Making of Educational Legislation in Early Upper Canada (United States)

    Di Mascio, Anthony


    The educational history of Upper Canada is commonly written as the succession of an elite group of educational reformers who advocated a centralized system of mass schooling. However, the recent shift in research on Upper Canada away from the narrative of prominent individuals who controlled the social, political, and economic development of the…

  6. Royal Society of Canada expert panel report : environmental and health impacts of Canada's oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosselin, P. [Inst. national de sante publique, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Hrudey, S.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Div. of Analytical and Environmental Toxicology; Naeth, M.A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Faculty of Agricultural, Life, and Environmental Sciences; Plourde, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Economics; Therrien, R. [Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Van Der Kraak, G. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Integrative Biology; Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). College of Biological Science; Xu, Z. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Faculty of Engineering


    This expert panel report was commissioned by the Royal Society of Canada to provide a comprehensive evidence-based assessment of the environmental and health impacts of Canada's oil sands industry. The report evaluated the feasibility of land reclamation and the impacts of oil sands contaminants on downstream residents. Health impacts on residents living in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo were assessed, and the impacts on regional water supplies were evaluated. Regional water and ground water quantities were examined, and issues related to tailing pond operations and reclamation were examined. Ambient air quality impacts were assessed, as well as potential impacts of the oil sands industry on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The environmental regulatory performance of operators in the industry was also evaluated. A summary of economic and policy issues related to the industry was also provided. The study identified major gaps in the process of assessment, prevention, and mitigation of the health impacts of oil sands exploitation, as as major indirect health impacts linked to past exploitation activities. 672 refs., 11 tabs., 11 figs. 10 appendices.

  7. Report summary Prevalence and monetary costs of dementia in Canada (2016): a report by the Alzheimer Society of Canada. (United States)


    Dementia prevalence estimates vary among population-based studies, depending on the definitions of dementia, methodologies and data sources and types of costs they use. A common approach is needed to avoid confusion and increase public and stakeholder confidence in the estimates. Since 1994, five major studies have yielded widely differing estimates of dementia prevalence and monetary costs of dementia in Canada. These studies variously estimated the prevalence of dementia for the year 2011 as low as 340 170 and as high as 747 000. The main reason for this difference was that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was not consistently included in the projections. The estimated monetary costs of dementia for the same year also varied, from $910 million to $33 billion. This discrepancy is largely due to three factors: (1) the lack of agreed-upon methods for estimating financial costs; (2) the unavailability of prevalence estimates for the various stages of dementia (mild, moderate and severe), which directly affect the amount of money spent; and (3) the absence of tools to measure direct, indirect and intangible costs more accurately. Given the increasing challenges of dementia in Canada and around the globe, reconciling these differences is critical for developing standards to generate reliable information for public consumption and to shape public policy and service development.

  8. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada. (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D


    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  9. Relationship between academic motivation and mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in Canada and India. (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan


    This study examined the relationships between academic motivation-intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation-and mathematics achievement among 363 Indian adolescents in India and 355 Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation were not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in India. In contrast, both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation were statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. While intrinsic motivation was a statistically significant positive predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada, extrinsic motivation was a statistically significant negative predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Amotivation was not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Implications of the findings for pedagogy and practice are discussed.

  10. The impact of the Cyanamid Canada Co. discharges to benthic invertebrates in the Welland River in Niagara falls, Canada. (United States)

    Dickman, M; Rygiel, G


    : In 1986, the International Joint Commission (IJC) recommended that the Niagara River watershed should be declared an Area of Concern (AOC). This IJC recommendation was ratified by the 4 signatories of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. In order to delist an AOC, it is necessary to locate any areas of impairment within the watershed and carry out remediation projects that permit uses that were previously impaired. To this end we attempted to determine whether or not the sediments at 7 study sites near the Cyanamid Canada (Chemical) Co. were contaminated at levels that would result in the impairment of the natural biota which inhabit the watershed.The Cyanamid Canada (Chemical) Co. discharges ammonia wastes, cyanide, arsenic and a variety of heavy metals into treatment systems which ultimately discharge to the Welland River, the major Canadian tributary to the Niagara River. This portion of the Welland River near the factory was designated a Provincially significant (Class one) wetlands by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. In 1986, the mean discharge to a creek from Cyanamid Canada Co. was 27,342 m(3) per day (MOE, 1987). Similar discharge volumes occurred in 1989. In 1991, the total discharge was 25,000 m(3) per day (MOE, 1991).The majority of the benthic invertebrates collected from the study area were pollution tolerant taxa (e.g., sludge worms constituted 68% of all the organisms collected). The lowest chironomid densities were observed at stations 1, 2, and 4, which were the only stations situated close to Cyanamid's discharge pipes. The absence, of clams and mayflies which burrow to greater depths than do chironomids and sludge worms, probably reflects the inability of the deeper dwelling burrowers to tolerate the contaminants which we recorded at these 3 stations. The absence of all crustaceans from these same 3 stations (stations 1, 2 and 4) when coupled with their low biotic diversity and the elevated heavy metal concentrations in the

  11. Identifying spatial and temporal variations in seismicity in eastern Canada (United States)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Atkinson, G. M.; Fereidoni, A.; Bhattacharya, P.; Cho, N.; Kazemian, J.; Vincent, P.; Gonzalez, P. J.


    Natural earthquake fault systems are highly heterogeneous in space; inhomogeneities occur because of the varying internal structures and material strengths that dissipate stress differently. However, because analysis of the actual earthquake fault system remains incomplete due to the inherent difficulty in sampling the solid Earth (Richter, 1958; Kanamori, 1981; Geller et al., 1997), much of the recent research in statistical seismology has centered on investigating the variety of spatial and temporal patterns that exist in local and regional data. In particular, in recent years a combination of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and seismicity data analysis has established the link between variations in seismicity rates and the dynamics of the underlying stress field (Dieterich, 1994; Dieterich et al., 2002; Toda et al., 2002; Rundle et al., 2002; Tiampo et al., 2002, 2006; Schorlemmer and Wiemer, 2005). However, this research has predominantly focused on tectonically-active regions with a relatively high rate of background seismicity. Here we present new work that quantifies seismicity rate changes in the intraplate region of eastern Canada in order to identify spatial and temporal variations in local and regional stress (Tiampo et al, 2002, 2006). Although stable eastern North America generally has much lower seismicity than plate boundary regions, there are areas of substantial seismicity and earthquake hazard. The bulk of the eastern Canadian seismicity is concentrated in both the lower Saint Lawrence seismic zone, downriver from Québec City and the Charlevoix seismic zone to the west of Québec City. Although Mazzotti and Adams (2005) estimate that seismic strain rates in most of eastern Canada are about 10-13 to 10-11/yr, exceptions to these low strain rates can be found in these regions of higher seismic activation. These seismically active zones generally are associated with large lithospheric-scale paleotectonic geologic features and this strong

  12. Bringing patient centricity to diabetes medication access in Canada (United States)

    Glennie, Judith L; Kovacs Burns, Katharina; Oh, Paul


    Canada must become proactive in addressing type 2 diabetes. With the second highest rate of diabetes prevalence in the developed world, the number of Canadians living with diabetes will soon reach epidemic levels. Against international comparisons, Canada also performs poorly with respect to diabetes-related hospitalizations, mortality rates, and access to medications. Diabetes and its comorbidities pose a significant burden on people with diabetes (PWD) and their families, through out-of-pocket expenses for medications, devices, supplies, and the support needed to manage their illness. Rising direct and indirect costs of diabetes will become a drain on Canada’s economy and undermine the financial stability of our health care system. Canada’s approach to diabetes medication assessment and funding has created a patchwork of medication access across provinces. Access to treatments for those who rely on public programs is highly restricted compared to Canadians with private drug plans, as well in contrast with public payers in other countries. Each person living with diabetes has different needs, so a “patient-centric” approach ensures treatment focused on individual circumstances. Such tailoring is difficult to achieve, with the linear approach required by public payers. We may be undermining optimal care for PWD because of access policies that are not aligned with individualized approaches – and increasing overall health care costs in the process. The scope of Canada’s diabetes challenge demands holistic and proactive solutions. Canada needs to get out from “behind the eight ball” and get “ahead of the curve” when it comes to diabetes care. Improving access to medications is one of the tools for getting there. Canada’s “call to action” for diabetes starts with effective implementation of existing best practices. A personalized approach to medication access, to meet individual needs and optimize outcomes, is also a key enabler. PWD and

  13. Newcomers and Old-Timers: The Cultural Production of "Canada" and "Canadians" in an Audio-Visual Text (United States)

    Moffatt, Lyndsay


    This paper examines the cultural production of "Canada" and "Canadians" in "The Newcomers", a 1953 film produced by the National Film Board of Canada. Using a form of discourse analysis that sees talk as social interaction and identity as socially and locally constructed, this study illuminates how "Canada" and "Canadians" are talked into being in…

  14. 19 CFR 123.64 - Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico. (United States)


    ... between ports in Canada or in Mexico. 123.64 Section 123.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... MEXICO Baggage § 123.64 Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico. (a) Procedure. Baggage in transit from point to point in Canada or Mexico through the United...

  15. 19 CFR 123.15 - Vehicles of foreign origin used between communities of the United States and Canada or Mexico. (United States)


    ... communities of the United States and Canada or Mexico. 123.15 Section 123.15 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... CANADA AND MEXICO International Traffic § 123.15 Vehicles of foreign origin used between communities of the United States and Canada or Mexico. Vehicles of foreign origin which are used for...

  16. Recent developments of x-ray lithography in Canada (United States)

    Chaker, Mohamed; Boily, Stephane; Ginovker, A.; Jean, Alain; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Mercier, P. P.; Pepin, Henri; Leung, Pak; Currie, John F.; Lafontaine, Hugues


    An overview of current activities in Canada is reported, including x-ray lithography studies based on laser plasma sources and x-ray mask development. In particular, the application of laser plasma sources for x-ray lithography is discussed, taking into account the industrial requirement and the present state of laser technology. The authors describe the development of silicon carbide membranes for x-ray lithography application. SiC films were prepared using either a 100 kHz plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system or a laser ablation technique. These membranes have a relatively large diameter (> 1 in.) and a high optical transparency (> 50%). Experimental studies on stresses in tungsten films deposited with triode sputtering are reported.

  17. Fault activation by hydraulic fracturing in western Canada (United States)

    Bao, Xuewei; Eaton, David W.


    Hydraulic fracturing has been inferred to trigger the majority of injection-induced earthquakes in western Canada, in contrast to the Midwestern United States, where massive saltwater disposal is the dominant triggering mechanism. A template-based earthquake catalog from a seismically active Canadian shale play, combined with comprehensive injection data during a 4-month interval, shows that earthquakes are tightly clustered in space and time near hydraulic fracturing sites. The largest event [moment magnitude (MW) 3.9] occurred several weeks after injection along a fault that appears to extend from the injection zone into crystalline basement. Patterns of seismicity indicate that stress changes during operations can activate fault slip to an offset distance of >1 km, whereas pressurization by hydraulic fracturing into a fault yields episodic seismicity that can persist for months.

  18. Professional Self-Regulation and the Public Interest in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey L. Adams


    Full Text Available The regulation of professional groups has often been justified as being in the public interest. In recent decades, policymakers in Anglo-American countries have questioned whether self-regulating professions have truly served the public interest, or whether they have merely acted in their own interests. This paper draws on legislative records and policy reports to explore meanings attached to professional self-regulation and the public interest in Canada by state actors over the past 150 years. The findings point to a shift in the definition of the public interest away from service quality and professional interests, towards efficiency, human rights, consumer choice, and in some contexts business interests. Changing views of the public interest contribute to regulatory change.

  19. Privatisation Of Education In Canada: A Survey Of Trends (United States)

    Davidson-Harden, Adam; Majhanovich, Suzanne


    The construct of `neo-liberalism' well defines privatisation within a global convergence of educational policy discourses and practices. This study analyses initiatives for and processes of privatisation in Canadian education from K-12 to post-secondary levels. In considering how privatisation is affecting public education systems in Canada, the authors focus on the commodification and marketisation of education. They also examine issues of equity and the viability of universally accessible and publicly funded education systems. Finally, the study highlights two main interrelated trends: the intrusion of market discourse into education at all levels on one hand and on the other a growing tension between contrasting conceptions of education as a tradable commodity and as a social right.

  20. Top income shares in Canada: recent trends and policy implications. (United States)

    Veall, Michael R


    According to Canadian taxfiler data, over the last thirty years there has been a surge in the income shares of the top 1%, top 0.1% and top 0.01% of income recipients, even with longitudinal smoothing by individual using three- or five-year moving averages. Top shares fell in 2008 and 2009, but only by a fraction of the overall surge. Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario have much more pronounced surges than other provinces. Part of the Canadian surge is likely attributable to U.S. factors, but a comprehensive explanation remains elusive. Even so, I draw implications for policies that might achieve some support from across the political spectrum, including the elimination of tax preferences that favour those with high incomes, the promotion of shareholder democracy and, to maintain Canada's relatively high intergenerational mobility, continued wide accessibility to healthcare and education.

  1. Long-distance induced tremor observed off western Canada (United States)

    Schultz, Colin


    Using seismic observations made near the Queen Charlotte Margin (QCM), a seismically active region off the western coast of Canada, Aiken et al. add to the growing body of research on how large earthquakes can cause tectonic plates to slip half way around the world. Reaching north from the intersection of the Juan de Fuca ridge, the Cascadia subduction zone, and the Queen Charlotte Fault, QCM underlies the islands of Haida Gwaii and was the site of a magnitude 7.7 earthquake in October 2012. Drawing on seismic readings collected from 1990 to 2012 and using a database of major worldwide earthquakes, the authors identified three earthquakes that induced tremors in QCM: the 2002 magnitude 7.9 Denali earthquake, the 2004 magnitude 9.2 Sumatra quake, and the 2011 magnitude 9.1 Tohoku earthquake. The authors observed the induction not of conventional earthquakes but of deep tectonic tremors, slips of tectonic plates with epicenters located far beneath the surface.

  2. Mapping Collaborative Relations among Canada's Chronic Disease Prevention Organizations. (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Hanusaik, Nancy; Maximova, Katerina; Paradis, Gilles; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L


    In the field of chronic disease prevention (CDP), collaborations between organizations provide a vital framework for intersectoral engagement and exchanges of knowledge, expertise and resources. However, little is known about how the structures of preventive health systems actually articulate with CDP capacity and outcomes. Drawing upon data from the Public Health Organizational Capacity Study - a repeat census of all public health organizations in Canada - we used social network analysis to map and examine interorganizational collaborative relationships in the Canadian preventive health system. The network of relationships obtained through our study shows that provincial boundaries remain a major factor influencing collaborative patterns. Not only are collaborations scarce on the interprovincial level but they are also mostly limited to links with federal and multi-provincial organizations. Given this finding, federal or multi-provincial organizations that occupy central bridging positions in the Canadian CDP collaborative structure should serve as key players for shaping CDP practices in the country.

  3. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Canada 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  4. New uses of gas in Canada : oil sands gas demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarta, N. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The relationship between the price of natural gas and the development of oil sands in northern Alberta was discussed with reference to Shell Canada's Athabasca Oil Sands Project (AOSP), its resource base and plans for future expansion. Several graphs were presented, depicting world scale resources, Canadian oil production, and the North American oil market. Graphs depicting future projections for oil sands natural gas demand and cogeneration capacity showed that the trend for both demand and capacity is steadily increasing. The AOSP is a large high quality reserve with low overburden. The project utilizes advanced bitumen clean-up technology and the site is equipped with a highly integrated refinery that exploits infrastructure synergies. Some of the risk factors associated with oil sand development were described as being capital costs, operating costs, commodity prices, labour supply, and the Kyoto Protocol. 24 figs.

  5. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  6. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  7. Health Consequences to Immigrant Family Caregivers in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwal, Juhee Varacharya


    Full Text Available AbstractThis study revisited the “double jeopardy” hypothesis in terms of the health ofimmigrant family caregivers. It also investigated the effect of “reciprocity”(feeling of giving back something on the health of family caregivers. TheGeneral Social Survey 2002 Cycle 16 data were analyzed using χ2-test andLogistic regressions. About 16% of immigrants and 13.6% of non-immigrantssaid that their health was negatively affected as a result of caregiving.Immigrant family caregivers were three times more likely than non-immigrantsto report a health consequence. Reciprocity played a big role in this outcome.Given the fact that an increasing number of culturally diverse immigrants enterCanada every year and that the immigrant population is aging, more caregiverswill be in demand. Policy makers need to find ways to keep immigrantcaregivers healthy so that quality care can be given to immigrant older adultsand also for maintaining an overall healthy Canada.RésuméCette étude réexamine l'hypothèse de «non bis in idem» dans le contexte de lasanté des aidantes et aidants membres de familles immigrantes. Elle étudie aussil'effet de «réciprocité» (le sentiment de rendre quelque chose sur la santé desaidantes et aidants membres de la famille. Les données de l'Enquête socialegénérale 2002, cycle 16 ont été analysées à l'aide du test du χ² et de régressionslogistiques. À peu près 16% des immigrants et 13.6% des non-immigrantes ontreporté que leur santé avait été négativement affectée par leur dispensation desoins. Les aidantes et aidants membres de familles immigrantes avaient troisfois plus de chance de reporter une conséquence sur leur santé que ceux desfamilles non-immigrantes. La réciprocité jouait un rôle important dans cerésultat. Quand on considère qu'un nombre croissant d'immigrants issus decultures diverses entre au Canada chaque année et que la populationimmigrante vieillit, il est clair que plus en plus

  8. Development goals in the post-2015 world: whither Canada? (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald


    A new set of post-2015 development goals for the world is being negotiated. Several potential goals relating to sustainable development, poverty, the economy and health have been identified. Many of them have potential public health gains, although there are inadequacies in how several of them have been defined. In participating in finalization of these goals, Canada should strengthen its commitments to maternal/child health; promote its publicly funded health system as an important model for universal health coverage; incorporate stronger protections for public health in trade and investment treaties; use its foreign aid to help low- and middle-income countries build the transparent and progressive tax systems to mobilize domestic revenues for health; and promote global systems of taxation to prevent tax evasion and illicit capital flight.

  9. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome associated with myelodysplastic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rei Suzuki; Atsushi Irisawa; Takuto Hikichi; Yuta Takahashi; Hiroko Kobayashi; Hiromi Kumakawa; Hiromasa Ohira


    We report a case of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). A 54-year-old woman, diagnosed as MDS the prior year after evaluation of anemia, visited our hospital with the chief complaint of epigastric discomfort. She also had dysgeusia, alopecia, atrophic nail change, and pigmentation of the palm, all of which began several months ago. Blood tests revealed severe hypoalbuminemia. Colonoscopy (CS) showed numerous, dense, red polyps throughout the colon and rectum. Biopsy specimens showed stromal edema, infiltration of lymphocytes, and cystic dilatation of the crypt. Her clinical manifestations and histology were consistent with CCS. We prescribed corticosteroids, which dramatically improved her physical findings, laboratory data, and endoscopic findings. This is the first report of CCS in a patient with MDS.

  10. Methylmercury levels in predatory fish species marketed in Canada. (United States)

    Forsyth, Don S; Casey, V; Dabeka, R W; McKenzie, A


    Mercury was detected in all analysed samples of swordfish, marlin, shark and tuna purchased from major supermarket outlets and fish retailers in three cities across Canada. Total mercury and methylmercury levels ranged up to 3845 and 2346 ng g(-1), respectively. Swordfish contained the highest levels, followed by shark, fresh/frozen tuna and marlin. Levels in canned tuna were considerably less than the other examined samples. Methylmercury was extracted with toluene from enzymatically hydrolysed samples after the addition of sulphuric acid and potassium bromide. An L-cysteine back-extraction was used to separate the methylmercury from most organic co-extractives. Analysis of methylmercury (as methylmercury bromide) was by gas chromatography with pulsed discharge detection.

  11. Indigenous homelessness: perspectives from Canada, Australia and New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Being homeless in one’s homeland is a colonial legacy for many Indigenous people in settler societies. The construction of Commonwealth nation-states from colonial settler societies depended on the dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their lands. The legacy of that dispossession and related...... attempts at assimilation that disrupted Indigenous practices, languages, and cultures—including patterns of housing and land use—can be seen today in the disproportionate number of Indigenous people affected by homelessness in both rural and urban settings. Essays in this collection explore the meaning...... and scope of Indigenous homelessness in the Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. They argue that effective policy and support programs aimed at relieving Indigenous homelessness must be rooted in Indigenous conceptions of home, land, and kinship, and cannot ignore the context of systemic inequality...

  12. Organophosphate insecticide poisoning of Canada geese in the Texas panhandle (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Wynn, L.D.; Flickinger, Edward L.; Kolbe, E.J.


    Sixteen hundred waterfowl, mostly Canada Geese, died near Etter, Texas, in late January 1981 from anticholinesterase poisoning. Winter wheat in the area of the die-off had been treated with organophosphate insecticides to control greenbugs. Cholinesterase (ChE) levels in brains of a sample of geese found dead were 75% below normal, enough to account for death (Ludke et al. 1975). The gastrointestinal (G I) tracts of geese found dead were packed with winter wheat; gas chromatography techniques identified parathion and methyl parathion in the GI tract contents. Residues of both chemicals were confirmed by mass spectrometry. We recommend that less toxic materials, such as malathion, be used on grain crops when waterfowl are in the vicinity of treatment.

  13. Four decades of cannabis criminals in Canada: 1970-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G. Erickson


    Full Text Available

    Canada was one of the first countries in the world to criminalise cannabis in 1923. It was not until the late 1960s and an associated upsurge of youthful cannabis use that the government and various stakeholders seriously interrogated the appropriateness of this punitive prohibition. Nevertheless, despite numerous opportunities for law reform for over four decades, cannabis possession continues to be illegal and as a result, hundreds of thousands of Canadians have received criminal records under these laws. This article reviews federal attempts at cannabis law reform and uses data spanning several decades to examine the characteristics of individuals convicted of cannabis possession and the implications of criminalisation on their lives.

  14. Intensity-based climate change policies in Canada. (United States)

    Rivers, Nic; Jaccard, Mark


    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from large industries the Canadian government proposed using a tradable emissions performance standard approach, where the intensity of emissions, rather than the absolute level, is regulated. Unlike a cap and trade system, an emissions performance standard does not guarantee a certain overall level of emission reductions, a fact that has led to significant criticism. However, because of the dynamics of performance standards, they may reduce concerns over reductions in international competitiveness in cases where a country has climate policies that are more aggressive than those of some of its trade partners. Likewise, a performance standard may mesh more efficiently with existing taxes and therefore cause less overall economic impact than an absolute cap and trade system. This paper considers the theoretical arguments for and against such a performance standard system and evaluates it in comparison to a cap and trade system using a dynamic general equilibrium model applied to Canada.

  15. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka


    Full Text Available The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces.

  16. A Casualty in the Class War: Canada's Medicare. (United States)

    Evans, Robert G


    "There's class warfare, all right, but it's my class, the rich class, that's making war, and we're winning." (Warren Buffett, five years ago.) Last year's Occupy Wall Street movement suggested that people are finally catching on. Note, making war: Buffett meant that there was deliberate intent and agency behind the huge transfer of wealth, since 1980, from the 99% to the 1%. Nor is the war metaphorical. There are real casualties, even if no body bags. Sadly, much Canadian commentary on inequality is pitiably naïve or deliberately obfuscatory. The 1% have captured national governments. The astronomical cost of American elections excludes the 99%. In Canada, parliamentary government permits one man to rule as a de facto dictator. The 1% don't like medicare.

  17. The health of our air : toward sustainable agriculture in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzen, H.H.; Desjardins, R.L.; Asselin, J.M.R.; Grace, B. [eds.


    The interactions between land and atmosphere that occur as a result of agricultural practices in Canada are reviewed and analyzed. While some changes may be benign, or even beneficial to humans and plants, there is evidence to suggest that adverse effects are also occurring. The evidence suggests that these negative changes will continue to increase unless changes are made in the way we manage energy, food and fiber economics. Agriculture is a main source of greenhouse gases, accounting for 25 per cent of carbon dioxide, 50 per cent of methane, and 70 per cent of nitrous oxides released via human activity globally. Agriculture also accounts for more than 50 per cent of ammonia released into the air. The study describes various options available for increasing the efficiency of using agricultural resources. It also examines the feasibility of restoring organic carbon in the soil through conservation tillage and other means, thereby reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Glacier and hydrology changes in future climate over western Canada (United States)

    Winger, Katja; Sushama, Laxmi; Marshall, Shawn


    Glaciers are frozen fresh water reservoirs that respond to changes in temperature and snowfall. Concern is growing about the impact that changes in glaciers may have on water resources in regions such as western Canada that derive a lot of their summer streamflow from glacier melt. Given that RCM projections are an important tool and are increasingly being used in assessing projected changes to water resources, particularly due to its high resolution compared with GCMs, realistic representation of glaciers in RCMs is very important. Currently, glaciers are only represented in an extremely simplified way in the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). This simple approach of representing glaciers as static glacier masks is appropriate for short-term integrations, where the response of glacier to changing atmospheric conditions might still be small due to glacier response times and therefore the feedback of changing glacier extent on large-scale atmospheric flow conditions might be negligible. A new dynamic glacier scheme has been developed for use within CRCM5, based on volume-area relationships. Simulations have been performed with this glacier model and Land Surface Scheme CLASS for the 2000-2100 period over a domain covering western Canada. These simulations were driven by outputs from a CRCM5 transient climate change simulation driven by CanESM2 at the lateral boundaries, for RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. Preliminary results suggest significant decreases to glacier fractions in future climate. Though the glacier contribution to streamflows is found to dramatically decrease in future climate, the total streamflows did not show any dramatic decreases due to the increase in precipitation for these regions.

  19. Recent trends and variability in river discharge across northern Canada (United States)

    Déry, Stephen J.; Stadnyk, Tricia A.; MacDonald, Matthew K.; Gauli-Sharma, Bunu


    This study presents an analysis of the observed inter-annual variability and inter-decadal trends in river discharge across northern Canada for 1964-2013. The 42 rivers chosen for this study span a combined gauged area of 5.26 × 106 km2 and are selected based on data availability and quality, gauged area and record length. Inter-annual variability in river discharge is greatest for the eastern Arctic Ocean (coefficient of variation, CV = 16 %) due to the Caniapiscau River diversion into the La Grande Rivière system for enhanced hydropower production. Variability is lowest for the study area as a whole (CV = 7 %). Based on the Mann-Kendall test (MKT), no significant (p > 0.05) trend in annual discharge from 1964 to 2013 is observed in the Bering Sea, western Arctic Ocean, western Hudson and James Bay, and Labrador Sea; for northern Canada as a whole, however, a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decline of 102.8 km3 25 yr-1 in discharge occurs over the first half of the study period followed by a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase of 208.8 km3 25 yr-1 in the latter half. Increasing (decreasing) trends in river discharge to the eastern Hudson and James Bay (eastern Arctic Ocean) are largely explained by the Caniapiscau diversion to the La Grande Rivière system. Strong regional variations in seasonal trends of river discharge are observed, with overall winter (summer) flows increasing (decreasing, with the exception of the most recent decade) partly due to flow regulation and storage for enhanced hydropower production along the Hudson and James Bay, the eastern Arctic Ocean and Labrador Sea. Flow regulation also suppresses the natural variability of river discharge, particularly during cold seasons.

  20. Projecting the future of Canada's population: assumptions, implications, and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaujot, Roderic


    Full Text Available After considering the assumptions for fertility, mortality and international migration, this paper looks at implications of the evolving demographics for population growth, labour force, retirement, and population distribution. With the help of policies favouring gender equity and supporting families of various types, fertility in Canada could avoid the particularly low levels seen in some countries, and remain at levels closer to 1.6 births per woman. The prognosis in terms of both risk factors and treatment suggests further reductions in mortality toward a life expectancy of 85. On immigration, there are political interests for levels as high as 270,000 per year, while levels of 150,000 correspond to the long term post-war average. The future will see slower population growth, and due to migration more than natural increase. International migration of some 225,000 per year can enable Canada to avoid population decline, and sustain the size of the labour force, but all scenarios show much change in the relative size of the retired compared to the labour force population. According to the ratio of persons aged 20-64 to that aged 65 and over, there were seven persons at labour force ages per person at retirement age in 1951, compared to five in 2001 and probably less than 2.5 in 2051. Growth that is due to migration more so than natural increase will accentuate the urbanization trend and the unevenness of the population distribution over space. Past projections have under-projected the mortality improvements and their impact on the relative size of the population at older age groups. Policies regarding fertility, mortality and migration could be aimed at avoiding population decline and reducing the effect of aging, but there is lack of an institutional basis for policy that would seek to endogenize population.

  1. Occurrence of arsenic contamination in Canada: sources, behavior and distribution. (United States)

    Wang, Suiling; Mulligan, Catherine N


    Recently there has been increasing anxieties concerning arsenic related problems. Occurrence of arsenic contamination has been reported worldwide. In Canada, the main natural arsenic sources are weathering and erosion of arsenic-containing rocks and soil, while tailings from historic and recent gold mine operations and wood preservative facilities are the principal anthropogenic sources. Across Canada, the 24-h average concentration of arsenic in the atmosphere is generally less than 0.3 microg/m3. Arsenic concentrations in natural uncontaminated soil and sediments range from 4 to 150 mg/kg. In uncontaminated surface and ground waters, the arsenic concentration ranges from 0.001 to 0.005 mg/L. As a result of anthropogenic inputs, elevated arsenic levels, above ten to thousand times the Interim Maximum Acceptable Concentration (IMAC), have been reported in air, soil and sediment, surface water and groundwater, and biota in several regions. Most arsenic is of toxic inorganic forms. It is critical to recognize that such contamination imposes serious harmful effects on various aquatic and terrestrial organisms and human health ultimately. Serious incidences of acute and chronic arsenic poisonings have been revealed. Through examination of the available literature, screening and selecting existing data, this paper provides an analysis of the currently available information on recognized problem areas, and an overview of current knowledge of the principal hydrogeochemical processes of arsenic transportation and transformation. However, a more detailed understanding of local sources of arsenic and mechanisms of arsenic release is required. More extensive studies will be required for building practical guidance on avoiding and reducing arsenic contamination. Bioremediation and hyperaccumulation are emerging innovative technologies for the remediation of arsenic contaminated sites. Natural attenuation may be utilized as a potential in situ remedial option. Further

  2. {sup 129}I dispersion and sources in Northwest Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herod, Matthew N., E-mail: [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Marion Hall, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5 (Canada); Clark, Ian D. [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Marion Hall, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5 (Canada); Kieser, W.E. [University of Ottawa, Department of Physics, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Agosta, Sarah [University of Ottawa, Department of Earth Sciences, Marion Hall, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5 (Canada); Zhao Xiaolei [University of Ottawa, Department of Physics, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)


    Radioiodine, {sup 129}I is a biophilic and mobile radionuclide, and a major contaminant of concern for long term radioactive waste disposal. Nuclear fuel reprocessing has released large amounts of anthropogenic {sup 129}I in a number of locations globally; this has led to an increase in the concentration of {sup 129}I and the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio in the environment. Therefore, a detailed understanding of its movement and concentration in the environment is essential. While {sup 129}I dispersion has been examined in the vicinity of nuclear activities, little is known about its accumulation in remote regions. Accordingly, we have undertaken reconnaissance sampling in the Arctic as a location that may be affected by {sup 129}I fallout. Samples from large watersheds were collected in northern Canada on a trajectory starting in Whitehorse, Yukon Territory (60 Degree-Sign 43 Prime 00 Double-Prime N) and moving north to Tsiigehtchic, Northwest Territory (67 Degree-Sign 26 Prime 26 Double-Prime N). Results show concentrations of {sup 129}I up to 27 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} atoms/L are present in Northwest Canada and {sup 129}I/I ratios up to 1.68 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}. Annual {sup 129}I fallout ranges from 2.78 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 7.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} atoms/m{sup 2}/yr, calculated by normalizing the measured values to watershed area and discharge. These quantities substantially exceed literature values for waters containing only geogenic or cosmogenic production and are similar for all watersheds regardless of watershed area or discharge. Anthropogenic releases of {sup 129}I into the atmosphere or oceans are the major potential sources of {sup 129}I in the Arctic.

  3. Home leaving trajectories in Canada: exploring cultural and gendered dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell, Barbara A.


    Full Text Available EnglishIn this exploratory study, we profile variations in home leaving, homereturning,and home staying behaviour among four ethnocultural groups in Canada -British, Chinese, Indian, and South European. Data collected in a 1999-2000survey of 1,907 young adults (ages 19-35 residing in the Vancouver area areused. Our principal foci are ethnocultural and gendered aspects of home leavingtrajectories, specifically: ages at home leaving and returning, and reasons forhome leaving, home returning and home staying. Special attention is paid toreturners/boomerangers, given an increasing overall trend in home returning inCanada. We find that: (a both ethnocultural origin and gender are importantdeterminants of home leaving trajectory, (b there is a distinct (but far from tidydifference between European-origin and Asian-origin groups in home leavingtrajectory, (c British-Canadians leave home at the youngest ages and Indo-Canadians at the oldest ages, (d the main reason for home leaving isindependence for British-Canadians; schooling for Chinese-Canadians, andmarriage for Indo-Canadians, (e among all four groups, home returners leavehome initially at younger ages and, with the exception of Indo-Canadian youngmen, who typically leave home for school, and (f gender differences in homeleaving trajectory are larger among the Chinese and Indo-Canadians than amongpersons of European origins. Overall, we conclude that the theorized trend of theindividualized family life course holds for only some ethnocultural groups inCanada. We conclude with suggestions for future research directions on thetopic of ethnicity and the home leaving life course transitions.FrenchDans cette étude préliminaire, nous donnons le profil de plusieurscomportements relatifs au fait de quitter la maison, d’y retourner et d’y rester dequatre groupes ethnoculturels au Canada, notamment les Britanniques, lesChinois, les Indiens et les ressortissants du sud de l’Europe. On s’est servi


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. Weber


    Full Text Available Disability arises from the dynamic between people’s physical and mental conditions and the physical and attitudinal barriers in the environment. Applying this idea about disability to United States and Canadian immigration law draws attention to barriers to entry and eventual citizenship for individuals who have disabilities. Historically, North American law excluded many classes of immigrants, including those with intellectual disabilities, mental illness, physical defects, and conditions likely to cause dependency. Though exclusions for individuals likely to draw excessive public resources and those with communicable diseases still exist in Canada and the United States, in recent years the United States permitted legalization for severely disabled undocumented immigrants already in the country, and both countries abolished most exclusions from entry for immigrants with specific disabling conditions. Liberalization also occurred with regard to U.S. naturalization requirements.        Challenges continue, however. Under U.S. law, vast discretion remains with regard to the likely-public-charge exclusion, because consular officers abroad decide unilaterally whether to issue immigrant visas. Moreover, conduct related to mental disability, including petty criminality, can result in removal from the United States, and individuals with mental disabilities have only modest safeguards in removal proceedings. In Canada, families who have children with disabilities find themselves excluded from legal status because of supposed excessive demands on public resources, although an individual’s disability may provide grounds for avoiding removal in certain cases. The relaxation of some immigration exclusions in Canada and the U.S. and of some U.S. requirements for citizenship illustrates a significant, though conspicuously incomplete, removal of disability-related barriers in North American law and society.    Le handicap découle de la dynamique

  5. Sex with Neighbors: Canada and Canadians in the "U.S." Homophile Press. (United States)

    Stein, Marc


    This article examines U.S. homophile magazine contributions from and representations of Canada from 1953 to 1964. Drawing on 240 articles, letters, and other items that were published in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder, the essay first reviews Canadian-authored materials and then shows that U.S. gay and lesbian movement periodicals depicted Canada as more sexually conservative than the United States in three ways and more sexually liberal in one way. The magazines presented Canada as more sexually conservative in its failure to develop an organized gay and lesbian movement, its policies and practices of sexual censorship, and its opposition to progressive homosexual law reform. They portrayed Canada as more sexually liberal in the ways that its mainstream media covered homosexuality. The essay argues that U.S. homophile representations of Canada participated in the ongoing construction and reconstruction of U.S. nationalism. In demonstrating that the magazines generally represented Canada as more sexually conservative than the United States in the years from 1953 to 1964, the essay also shows that more recent depictions of Canada as more sexually liberal are relatively new.

  6. Lesbian mommy blogging in Canada: documenting subtle homophobia in Canadian society and building community online. (United States)

    Hunter, Andrea


    This article analyzes how lesbian mommy bloggers in Canada are using their blogs as forums for self-expression and a means to form community, as they record their unique experiences as queer parents. Further, it argues that lesbian mommy blogging is documenting a subtle form of homophobia that exists in Canada in terms of social acceptance. Although there is legal acceptance of queer families, society has not necessarily caught up with the law. These blogs show that lesbian parents in Canada still struggle with issues of equality, including difficulties being "out," invisibility, and having to advocate for the non-birth parent.

  7. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site – Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.


    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  8. Design and Implementation of a Competency-Based Transfusion Medicine Training Program in Canada. (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Sherbino, Jonathan; Whitman, Lucinda; Skeate, Robert; Arnold, Donald M


    Transfusion medicine training in Canada is currently undergoing a transformation from a time- and process-based curriculum to a competency-based medical education framework. Transfusion medicine is the first accredited postgraduate medical education training program in Canada to adopt a purely competency-based curriculum. It is serving as an example for a number of other postgraduate medical training programs undergoing a similar transition. The purpose of this review is to highlight the elements of competency-based medical education, describe its application to transfusion medicine training, and report on the development and implementation of the new transfusion medicine curriculum in Canada.

  9. Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th Century Astrophysics and Technology (United States)

    Hesser, James E.; Bohlender, David; Crabtree, Dennis


    Construction of Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) commenced in 1914 with first light on 6 May 1918. As distinct from the contemporaneous development with private funding of major observatories in the western United States, DAO was (and remains) funded by the federal government. Canada's initial foray into `big science', creation of DAO during the First World War was driven by Canada's desire to contribute significantly to the international rise of observational astrophysics enabled by photographic spectroscopy. In 2009 the Observatory was designated a National Historic Site. DAO's varied, rich contributions to the astronomical heritage of the 20th century continue in the 21st century, with particularly strong ties to Maunakea.

  10. Raising Citizens: Parenting Education Classes and Somali Mothers’ Experiences of Childrearing in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Fellin


    Full Text Available Mothers are viewed as the people who are raising future citizens of Canada; therefore, their parenting practices are being targeted for intervention by civic organizations funded by the state. In this article, I argue that modernity narratives and neoliberalism approaches to mothering inform parenting education classes for Somali refugee women to Canada. Thus, Somali women are often seen as victims. Stereotyped identities conceal their social and historical agency. This research draws on 15 individual interviews with Somali mothers and participant- observation in two parenting education classes in Canada.

  11. Public policy discourse, planning and measures toward sustainable energy strategies in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liming, Huang [Department of International Economics and Trade, Jinan University (China); Haque, Emdad [Natural Resources Institute, The University of Manitoba (Canada); Barg, Stephan [International Institute for Sustainable Development (Canada)


    Since the 1970s, Canada has formulated various strategy measures to accelerate the development of energy efficiency systems and renewable energy technologies and has made significant progress. ''From 1990 to 2003, Canada's energy efficiency improved by an estimated 13%, or 883.3 petajoules, saving Canadians almost $13.4 billion in 2003 alone and reducing annual greenhouse gas emissions by 52.3 megatonnes''. In 2000, about 17% of Canadian primary energy supply came from renewable sources (with hydroelectric, combustible renewables and waste). Canada is a leader in devising and implementing energy options for sustainable development. However, the nation still has great scope for furthering energy efficiency and more use of renewable energy. Canada has a higher aggregate intensity - absolute energy use per capita or per unit of GDP - than most International Energy Agency (IEA) countries, ranking second and fourth, respectively. In 2000, Canada used only a small amount of renewable energy (without hydroelectric, combustible renewables and waste), accounting for 1.3% of its primary energy supply. Canada has made little use of wind power compared to other industrialized countries. By June 2004, Canada's installed capacity was 341 megawatts (MW), compared to 13,407 MW installed by late 2003 in Germany, the country with the largest installed capacity. Canada's current small-scale hydroelectric capacity is about 2000 MW. Canada also has a few grid-connected wood-waste-fired power plants operational or under construction, with a maximum capacity of 60 MW. By 1999, Canada was generating 85.3 MW of electricity from captured municipal landfill gas. It is also worth noting that solar power is now finding niche applications in Canada, despite the fact that its cost remains relatively high (although falling). Canada is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol. It has committed to reducing its emissions to 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. But Canada

  12. Smoking cessation during pregnancy and relapse after childbirth in Canada. (United States)

    Gilbert, Nicolas L; Nelson, Chantal R M; Greaves, Lorraine


    Objectif : Cette analyse a été menée pour déterminer les taux et les déterminants de l’arrêt tabagique pendant la grossesse et de la rechute post-partum au Canada. Méthodes : Nous avons utilisé les données de l’Enquête sur l’expérience de la maternité, soit une étude transversale sur des mères ayant accouché à la suite d’une grossesse simple au Canada en 2006. En tout, 1 586 mères ayant fumé occasionnellement ou quotidiennement avant la grossesse ont été incluses dans l’analyse. Résultats : Le taux d’arrêt tabagique pendant la grossesse était de 53,0 % (IC à 95 %, 50,3 % - 55,7 %). Une consommation de cigarettes plus élevée avant la grossesse, être d’origine inuite, être âgée de 35 ans ou plus, être moins scolarisée, la non-participation à des cours prénataux, le manque de soutien social, le stress avant ou pendant la grossesse et la cohabitation avec un fumeur étaient associés de façon indépendante à un risque accru de poursuite du tabagisme, tandis que le fait d’être issue des Premières Nations (hors-réserve) était associé à un risque moindre. Parmi les mères qui avaient cessé de fumer, 47,1 % (IC à 95 %, 43,5 % - 50,6 %) ont recommencé à fumer après l’accouchement. La cohabitation avec un fumeur, ne pas avoir allaité et avoir cessé d’allaiter étaient associés de façon indépendante à un risque accru de rechute. Conclusion : Cette étude souligne la nécessité d’adapter les interventions d’abandon et de prévention du tabagisme aux groupes de femmes exposées à des risques élevés.

  13. Ocean Networks Canada: Live Sensing of a Dynamic Ocean System (United States)

    Heesemann, Martin; Juniper, Kim; Hoeberechts, Maia; Matabos, Marjolaine; Mihaly, Steven; Scherwath, Martin; Dewey, Richard


    Ocean Networks Canada operates two advanced cabled networks on the west coast of British Columbia. VENUS, the coastal network consisting of two cabled arrays with four Nodes reaching an isolated fjord (Saanich Inlet) and a busy shipping corridor near Vancouver (the Strait of Georgia) went into operation in February 2006. NEPTUNE Canada is the first operational deep-sea regional cabled ocean observatory worldwide. Since the first data began streaming to the public in 2009, instruments on the five active nodes along the 800 km cable loop have gathered a time-series documenting three years in the northeastern Pacific. Observations cover the northern Juan de Fuca tectonic plate from ridge to trench and the continental shelf and slope off Vancouver Island. The cabled systems provide power and high bandwidth communications to a wide range of oceanographic instrument systems which measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological conditions of the dynamic earth-ocean system. Over the years significant challenges have been overcome and currently we have more than 100 instruments with hundreds of sensors reporting data in real-time. Salient successes are the first open-ocean seafloor to sea-surface vertical profiling system, three years of operation of Wally—a seafloor crawler that explores a hydrate mound, and a proven resilient cable design that can recover from trawler hits and major equipment meltdown with minimal loss of data. A network wide array of bottom mounted pressure recorders and seismometers recorded the passage of three major tsunamis, numerous earthquakes and frequent whale calls. At the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge high temperature and diffuse vent fluids were monitored and sampled using novel equipment, including high resolution active acoustics instrumentation to study plume dynamics at a massive sulfide hydrothermal vent. Also, four deep sea cabled moorings (300 m high) were placed in the precipitous bathymetry of the 2200 m

  14. Aleutian Canada geese banding at Chagulak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project captured and banded twenty Aleutian Canada geese on Chagulak Island to help determine their wintering grounds and capture two additional birds for...

  15. Limitations On Canada Goose Production at Fish springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We studied the western Canada goose (B. c. moffitti) population at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in western Utah from March to July in 1996 and 1997 to...

  16. Daily Statistically Downscaled Climate Projections for the US and southern Canada east of the Rocky Mountains. (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily statistically downscaled climate projections for the United States and southern Canada east of the Rocky Mountains at 0.1 degree...

  17. 75 FR 68607 - BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary... Apache Corporation filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission a Joint Petition for...

  18. The status of wintering Canada geese in the "Southern Region" of the Atlantic Flyway (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In our previous descriptions of Canada goose sub-populations, we have found it convenient to generalize about the "southern region"; those wintering birds...

  19. Seal harvest in the United States and Canada: A selection of pertinent materials (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The clubbing of fur seals in Alaska and the killing of baby harp seals in Canada currently are generating numerous requests for information. This compilation of...

  20. Progress report -- February 1983 : Migration and survival of MVP Canada geese (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were (1) to document the variation in numbers, movements, harvest, and survival of MVP Canada geese and (2) to relate variation in these...

  1. Crisis of Identity in a Multi-cultural Society: The Case of Muslims in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam


    Full Text Available A great majority of studies on ethnic identity or ethnic separatism indicate that a minority group dealing with severe deprivation becomes more frustrated, more aggressive, and more demanding of autonomy or separation. However, in a multi-cultural society where the people can live with their both separate and co-existing identities, the minority group usually demands for greater rights within societies, not an exit from them. This is the case of the Muslims in Canada who constitute a tiny minority in the Canadian population. Since Canada is a multicultural country, the Muslims have not demanded any kind of autonomy but have demanded rights to preserve Islamic values, and their own distinct identity as Muslims. In this article some basic questions are raised regarding the Canadian Muslims. When and how did the Muslims arrive in Canada? What types of challenges they are facing? How do they meet these challenges? What is the future of Muslims in Canada?

  2. Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada. (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU)...

  3. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Waterfowl: Dusky Canada Goose Survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Six subspecies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) winter in and around the lower Columbia River Valley. While the overall populations of 5 of these subspecies are...

  4. A harvest management strategy for Canada geese in the western Mississippi Flyway (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) harvest in the Mississippi Flyway became increasingly complex during the 1980s. A strategy for managing harvest was...

  5. Capturing, banding, and transplanting of Aleutian Canada geese, Buldir and Agattu Islands, Alaska, 1982 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to capture 100 Aleutian Canada geese and transplant to Agattu Island to continue efforts to re-establish a nesting population on...

  6. Capturing, banding and transplanting of Aleutian Canada Geese, Buldir and Agattu Islands, Alaska, 1983 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes capturing, banding, and transplanting the Aleutian Canada Good on selected nesting islands in the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime...

  7. One of Canada's oldest and newest digitization initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Bell


    Full Text Available is a new independent, non-profit, alliance of partners, includingLibrary and Archives Canada, from all parts of Canada's cultural, heritage,research, broadcasting and publishing communities, chartered to raise funds,receive donations and grants and to act as the overall coordinator and facilitatorfor digitization initiatives and related enduring access services and preservationinfrastructures. Working with Library and Archives Canada under the frameworkof the Canadian Digital Information Strategy, has a 'masterplan' to facilitate a coherent national digital information strategy. The communityhas developed a bilingual metadata toolkit to suit most types of material as anoption for those who need it. The community also supports a powerful bilingualpublic access Indexing and Discovery Portal system (right now brandedAlouetteCanada to enhance the searching and discovery of local digitalcollections of all types across the country.

  8. Canadian support for population stabilization. The Rome draft Plan of Action. Dr. Jean Augustine, MP (Canada). (United States)


    Canada strongly believes in the central role to be played by the civil sector in the process leading to the World Food Summit. Dr. Augustine, Member of Parliament of Canada, described how the Canadian Government involved 350 national organizations over an eight-month period in the creation of the country's official position on food security. Canada has also negotiated with several other countries and international organizations on issues such as trade, human rights, the right to food, and follow-up to the Plan of Action. Dr. Augustine summarized Canada's 18 priorities for the World Food Summit. The priorities include human rights and good governance; poverty reduction; peace, security and conflict resolution; national responsibility for food security; national and global partnerships; nutrition and health; human resource development; gender equity; population stabilization; trade liberalization; agricultural adjustment to international markets; post-harvest marketing and food marketing; the role of the private sector; capacity building; environment and sustainable production; and research and technology transfer.

  9. 76 FR 5782 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ... United States Pharmacopeia and has been mixed with a functional excipient, such as dextrose or starch... Citrate Salts from Canada and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May...

  10. 77 FR 6061 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... (United States)


    ... United States Pharmacopeia and has been mixed with a functional excipient, such as dextrose or starch... Notice; Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada and the People's Republic of China:...

  11. Observations of Aleutian Canada geese on Little Kiska I. in 1990 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys were conducted in June and August at Little Kiska Island to look for Aleutian Canada geese (Branta Canadensis leucopareia) returning from previous...

  12. In Dr. Norman Bethune’s Hometown——A Visit to Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>At the invitation of the Federation of Canada-China Friendship Associations (FCCFA), a CPAFFC working group paid a goodwill visit to Canada from September 5 to 15, 2008. The two members of the group, who visited Canada for the first time, were deeply impressed by the country’s vast land, tranquil and clear lakes, magnificent undulating mountains and hospitable people of various ethnic groups. During the visit, the group through contacting the Canadian friendship-with-China organizations enhanced mutual understanding, visited the birthplace of Doctor Norman Bethune and the cities where he had studied and worked, and had exchanges and sought cooperation with various sides of Canada for the activities to be held in 2009 in commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the death of Dr. Bethune and the publication of Chairman Mao’s article In Memory of Norman Bethune.

  13. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome associated with carcinoma of the sigmoid colon: report of a case. (United States)

    Nakatsubo, N; Wakasa, R; Kiyosaki, K; Matsui, K; Konishi, F


    Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is generally accepted as being a benign disorder. We herein present a 66-year-old-male patient with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome who had a carcinoma of the sigmoid colon along with multiple colonic polyps, which included juvenile-type polyps, adenomas, and hyperplastic polyps. In the world literature, there have been 34 cases of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome associated with colorectal carcinoma among the 280 reported cases of this syndrome. This report thus adds to the growing evidence that Cronkhite-Canada syndrome may be a premalignant condition for colorectal carcinoma. A periodic examination of the colon is therefore advised in order to detect any development of colorectal carcinoma at an early stage.

  14. Highlights in Resource and Environmental Management of Canada and Enlightenment to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Nailing; Han Yan; Yu Ji; Xia Li


    The main environmental issues Canadian faced at present are of resource management,climate change,air pollution,water pollution and solid waste management.Canada federal government,especially the deputy department such as Natural Resource Canada and Environment Canada make actively responses to these pressures,given the mandate of these departments.Through the establishment of intergovernmental cooperative mechanism,enacting plan such as sustainable development strategy,environment Canada agenda,eco-action plan,Canadian characters brilliantly in dealing with resource and environmental issues.The implement framework and the knowledge gained from the progresses of the plans threw some light on China in dealing with the same issues.

  15. Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree F) for Alaska and Western Canada. (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree F) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS...

  16. Sage-grouse Management Zones in the Western U.S. and Canada - DRAFT (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set depicts a preliminary version of the management zone boundaries for Greater and Gunnison sage-grouse in the western United States and Canada. These...

  17. Native Language Dictionaries and Grammars of Alaska, Northern Canada, and Greenland. (United States)

    Goniwiecha, Mark C.; Hales, David A.


    Describes recent political and social activities aimed at preserving the culture of Native Americans in Alaska, Northern Canada, and Greenland. An annotated bibliography of sources for the Eskimo Aleut, Tsimshian, Haida, Athabascan (Athapascan), Eyak and Tlingit languages is provided. (CLB)

  18. Translocation and banding of Aleutian Canada geese in the western Aleutian Islands in 1990 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In August 1990, 110 Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were captured and banded at Buldir Island. Twenty-five of these geese were translocated to...

  19. Bryophytes from the area drained by the Peel and Mackenzie Rivers, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on bryophytes from the area drained by the Peel and Mackenzie rivers in the Yukon territory of Canada. The distribution and general ecology of 263...

  20. Clean growth 2.0 - how Canada can be a leader in energy and environmental innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Canada is blessed with a variety of natural resources in significant quantities; the country has important reserves of oil, natural gas, uranium and coal as well as a significant potential for renewable energies such as hydroelectricity, biofuels, wind and tidal power. This abundance of natural resources combined with a strategic location from which to access both the United States and Chinese markets play a significant part in contributing to Canada's prosperity. The aim of this paper is to show that Canada can be an energy and resource powerhouse and a leader in energy and environmental innovation. The Canadian Council of Chief Executives believes that government, industry and Canadians need to pull in the same direction in order to achieve it. This document points out that Canada can have an important role in the development of new energy and environmental technologies and 5 recommendations are made on how to achieve this goal.

  1. Plan for Establishment of a Breeding Canada Goose Population on the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines a plan on how to implement a program for the establishment of a breeding Canada Goose population on the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. It...

  2. Back to basics: The current competitive strategy of HSBC Bank Canada


    Sheppard, Christopher Patrick


    This paper analyzes HSBC Bank Canada’s current strategy for competing within the Canadian banking industry. HSBC Bank Canada has enjoyed considerable financial success over the past couple of decades. However, the overall direction of the industry is towards lower, interest-rate spreads and intensified competition. Many of the bank’s primary competitors are reducing costs through a variety of means, such as centralization and automation of processes. In order for HSBC Bank Canada to succeed i...

  3. Canada's maple syrup industry%加拿大枫糖业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Maple syrup is a natural product with no coloring agents or additives. Canada produces about 85 per cent of the world's maple syrup. Marketing has evolved from selling to traditional markets to more value added markets such as blends with other products (cereals, yogurt, etc.). This industry contributes to Canada's value added exports, since more than 60 per cent of maple exports are now shipped in pre packaged containers.

  4. Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report describes the many fundamental issues relating to the strategy being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. It discusses the need for a method for disposal of nuclear fuel waste that would permanently protect human health and the natural environment and that would not unfairly burden future generations. It also describes the background and mandate of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program in Canada.

  5. Dynamics of immigrants' health: Evidence from Canada, 1994-95 to 2002-03. Summary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkins, Russell


    Full Text Available Summary of: Ng, Edward, Russell Wilkins, François Gendron, and Jean-Marie Berthelot.2005. "Dynamics of immigrants' health in Canada: evidence from the NationalPopulation Health Survey." Healthy today, healthy tomorrow? Findings fromthe National Population Health Survey. Ottawa: Statistics Canada catalogue 82-618; 2:1-11. Available free at:

  6. Defining Quality Indicators for Best-Practice Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C Nguyen


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of published data regarding the quality of care of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in Canada. Clinical quality indicators are quantitative end points used to guide, monitor and improve the quality of patient care. In Canada, where universal health care can vary significantly among provinces, quality indicators can be used to identify potential gaps in the delivery of IBD care and standardize the approach to interprovincial management.

  7. Health worker migration in Canada: Histories, geographies, and ethics (Working paper number 12-02)


    Boschma, G.; Santiago, M.L.; Choy, C. C.; Ronquillo, C. E.


    This working paper explores issues of health worker migration through examining the history, geography, and ethics of international recruitment and migration of health workers to Canada, focusing on the experiences of registered nurses from the Philippines. During the past few decades the migration of Filipino nurses to Canada has considerably expanded, with nurses from the Philippines making up the largest group of all immigrant nurses in the Canadian workforce. Derived from presentations, d...

  8. Ethics, Politics, and Religion in Public Health Care: A Manifesto for Health Care Chaplains in Canada. (United States)

    Lasair, Simon


    Health care chaplaincy positions in Canada are significantly threatened due to widespread health care cutbacks. Yet the current time also presents a significant opportunity for spiritual care providers. This article argues that religion and spirituality in Canada are undergoing significant changes. The question for Canadian health care chaplains is, then: how well equipped are they to understand these changes in health care settings and to engage them? This article attempts to go part way toward an answer.

  9. One of Canada's oldest and newest digitization initiatives


    2008-01-01 is a new independent, non-profit, alliance of partners, including Library and Archives Canada, from all parts of Canada’s cultural, heritage, research, broadcasting and publishing communities, chartered to raise funds, receive donations and grants and to act as the overall coordinator and facilitator for digitization initiatives and related enduring access services and preservation infrastructures. Working with Library and Archives Canada under the framework of the Canadian Dig...

  10. Structure and Trends of Rural Employment: Canada in the Context of OECD Countries


    Cunningham, Ron; Bollman, Ray D.


    In 1991, 33 percent of Canada's population lived in predominantly rural regions. Employment growth in rural regions averaged 1.3 percent per year over the 1980s, ranking fourth among OECD countries. In 1991, only 11 percent of the rural workforce in Canada were working in agriculture, forestry or fishing. Within rural regions, employment growth was highest in rural areas adjacent to metropolitan centres. Business services was the fastest growing sector in all types of regions, but rural regio...

  11. Impact of Canada's Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles


    Lutsey, Nicholas P.


    On April 5, 2005, a voluntary agreement between the automobile industry and government officials of Canada was reached to commit to greenhouse gas emission reductions through the year 2010. This report compares Canada's voluntary agreement with other voluntary and mandatory greenhouse gas reduction programs around the world in terms of what technologies are likely to be deployed and how much vehicle fuel consumption is likely to improve. It investigates various methods and measurement approac...

  12. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: A policy and economic comparative analysis for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Husid


    Full Text Available The present work aims to achieve an overall view of Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade in Canada, analyzing both the current situation and the actions and policies being implemented by several provinces to promote this subject. This study will be valuable to companies and governments to understand what has been done and to support strategic planning to invest and trade with Canada, especially for the Brazilian market.

  13. Port and Waterway Safety Assessment: Haro Strait/Boundary Pass USA - Canada Workshop Report (United States)


    Strait. Small vessel operator certifications are highly regulated by Transport Canada. USA tug operators are certified. Crew is STCW certificated...Deep-sea fleet is regulated by PSC. For Alaskan fishing vessels, 90% have STCW certificates on vessels of 200 gross tons and larger. All...Canadian tugboat deck officers are certified in accordance with STCW . In some cases, there are two pilots on 40,000 DWT tankers when transiting (Canada

  14. Renewable energy forecasts for solar applications : an Environment Canada perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, L. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada


    The Meteorological Service of Canada has made weather datasets available in real-time on the Internet, for use by those with an interest in solar applications. Ensemble weather models can be used to produce medium range forecasts of weather events and to predict the likely available kilowatt-hours (kWhrs) of solar energy. As such, solar sites can maximize their harvest and use of solar energy. This presentation highlighted several different types of renewable energy forecasts obtained from weather models, including forecasts of expected kWhrs from solar panels and wind turbines, daily forecasts of expected solar heated water volumes and forecasts of water collection potential from impending precipitation events. The value of renewable energy forecasts in helping the solar energy sector monitor daily energy loads as well as daily and weekly solar energy supply was emphasized. It was suggested that renewable energy forecasts could raise public awareness of the potential of solar energy applications and help promote the solar energy market. Vendors of solar technology can also use the forecasts to help customers harmonize predicted solar energy coming to their sites with daily energy use patterns. figs.

  15. The Dilemma of Physician Shortage and International Recruitment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazrul Islam


    Full Text Available The perception of physician shortage in Canada is widespread. Absolute shortages and relative discrepancies, both specialty-wise and in urban-rural distribution, have been a daunting policy challenge. International Medical Graduates (IMGs have been at the core of mitigating this problem, especially as long as shortage of physicians in rural areas is concerned. Considering such recruitment as historical reality is naïve annotation, but when it is recommended per se, then the indication of interest overweighs the intent of ethically justified solution. Such a recommendation has not only invited policy debate and disagreement, but has also raised serious ethical concerns. Canadian healthcare policy-makers were put into a series of twisting puzzles—recruiting IMGs in mitigating physician shortage was questioned by lack of vision for Canada’s self-sufficiency. In-migration of IMGs was largely attributed to Canada’s point-based physician-friendly immigration system without much emphasizing on IMGs’ home countries’ unfavorable factors and ignoring their basic human rights and choice of livelihood. While policy-makers’ excellence in integrating the already-migrated IMGs into the Canadian healthcare is cautiously appraised, its logical consequence in passively drawing more IMGs is loudly criticised. Even the passive recruitment of IMGs raised the ethical concern of source countries’ (which are often developing countries with already-compromised healthcare system vulnerability. The current paper offers critical insights juxtaposing all these seemingly conflicting ideas and interests within the scope of national and transnational instruments.

  16. Online Airtightness Calculator for the US, Canada and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Ng, Lisa [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD; Emmerich, Steve [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD; Dalgleish, Laverne [Air Barrier Association of America


    The contribution of air leakage to heating and cooling loads has been increasing as the thermal resistance of building envelopes continues to improve. Easy-to-access data are needed to convince building owners and contractors that enhancing the airtightness of buildings is the next logical step to achieve a high-performance building envelope. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Air Barrier Association of America, and the US-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency Consortium partnered to develop an online calculator that estimates the potential energy savings in major US, Canadian, and Chinese cities due to improvements in airtightness. This tool will have user-friendly graphical interface that uses a database of CONTAM-EnergyPlus pre-run simulation results, and will be available to the public at no cost. Baseline leakage rates are either user-specified or the user selects them from the supplied typical leakage rates. Users will enter the expected airtightness after the proper installation of an air barrier system. Energy costs are estimated based on the building location and inputs from users. This paper provides an overview of the methodology that is followed in this calculator, as well as results from an example. The successful deployment of this calculator could influence construction practices so that greenhouse gas emissions from the US, Canada, and China are significantly curtailed.

  17. Wildfire Suppression Costs for Canada under a Changing Climate. (United States)

    Hope, Emily S; McKenney, Daniel W; Pedlar, John H; Stocks, Brian J; Gauthier, Sylvie


    Climate-influenced changes in fire regimes in northern temperate and boreal regions will have both ecological and economic ramifications. We examine possible future wildfire area burned and suppression costs using a recently compiled historical (i.e., 1980-2009) fire management cost database for Canada and several Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate projections. Area burned was modelled as a function of a climate moisture index (CMI), and fire suppression costs then estimated as a function of area burned. Future estimates of area burned were generated from projections of the CMI under two emissions pathways for four General Circulation Models (GCMs); these estimates were constrained to ecologically reasonable values by incorporating a minimum fire return interval of 20 years. Total average annual national fire management costs are projected to increase to just under $1 billion (a 60% real increase from the 1980-2009 period) under the low greenhouse gas emissions pathway and $1.4 billion (119% real increase from the base period) under the high emissions pathway by the end of the century. For many provinces, annual costs that are currently considered extreme (i.e., occur once every ten years) are projected to become commonplace (i.e., occur once every two years or more often) as the century progresses. It is highly likely that evaluations of current wildland fire management paradigms will be necessary to avoid drastic and untenable cost increases as the century progresses.

  18. Real-Time GNSS Positioning Along Canada's Active Coastal Margin (United States)

    Henton, J. A.; Dragert, H.; Lu, Y.


    High-rate, low-latency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data are being refined for real-time applications to monitor and report motions related to large earthquakes in coastal British Columbia. Given the tectonic setting of Canada's west coast, specific goals for real-time regional geodetic monitoring are: (1) the collection of GNSS data with adequate station density to identify the deformation field for regional earthquakes with M>7.3; (2) the robust, continuous real-time analyses of GNSS data with a precision of 1-2 cm and a latency of less than 10s; and (3) the display of results with attending automated alarms and estimations of earthquake parameters. Megathrust earthquakes (M>8) are the primary targets for immediate identification, since the tsunamis they generate will strike the coast within 15 to 20 min. However, large (6.0displacements expected from various offshore events which allows an evaluation of the effectiveness of the current regional coverage. The present distribution and density of real-time sites is largely sufficient for aiding the timely estimation of size, location, and nature of a great (M>8) megathrust earthquake. However, current coverage is inadequate for the unambiguous identification of the same parameters for 7

  19. Future trends in ophthalmology health human resources in Canada. (United States)

    Bellan, Lorne


    Projections of future Canadian ratios of ophthalmologists to population have fluctuated because of changes in numbers of residency spots and retirement rates. Although this ratio plateaued in recent years, the ratio of ophthalmologists to the population over 65 years of age is projected to steadily deteriorate. All graduating residents are going to be needed to meet the upcoming workload, yet current graduates are finding increasing difficulty obtaining full-time positions with operating room privileges. This problem is affecting all specialties who require hospital facilities, and exploration of this problem by the Royal College, Canadian Medical Association (CMA), Resident Doctors of Canada, and council of the Provincial Deputy Ministers of Health is presented. Proposed solutions to the current job shortages include residents starting in positions outside of major metropolitan areas, clinicians in practice giving up some operating room time to make way for new graduates, government increasing infrastructure commensurate with the increased number of medical school positions, and optimizing use of current resources by running operating rooms for longer hours and on the weekends.

  20. Performance of the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire in Canada. (United States)

    Beaulieu, Sylvie; Collet, Jean-Paul; Tu, Le Mai; Macrammalla, Effat; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Corcos, Jacques


    The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ) was developed in the US and has been shown to be a valid and reliable measure of how urinary incontinence (UI) affects a woman's quality of life. This study aimed to test the performance of the IIQ in Canada with English and French-speaking Canadians. The IIQ underwent professional forwards-backwards translation and psychometric testing. Women (36 English and 34 French-speaking) consulting a urologist for stress urinary incontinence underwent routine multichannel urodynamic testing and completed the SF-36 and the IIQ. Test-retest reliability was moderate (ICC =.73) and each IIQ subscale demonstrated good internal consistency (a=.83 to.91). Moderate correlations between IIQ scores and number of pads/day and severity ratings support construct validity in both languages. In English, correlations with Physical and Social Functioning scales of the SF-36 were also moderate. The IIQ has demonstrated strong reliability and adequate validity with English-speaking Canadian women. Moreover, similar psychometric properties in both English and French provide evidence that the IIQ has been successfully translated into Canadian French.

  1. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay


    Full Text Available Objectives. Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Study design and methods. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Results. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. Conclusions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  2. Inventory of anthropogenic sources of mercury in Atlantic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, C.C. [C.C. Doiron and Associates, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Roberts, C.G.; Rutherford, L.A. [Environment Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Environmental Protection Service, Atlantic Region


    An inventory of sources of mercury in Atlantic Canada was undertaken to determine the importance of anthropogenic emissions of mercury in the region. Existing mercury emissions data from the following sources was consolidated: oil and coal-fired power plants, base metal mining and smelting operations, secondary iron and steel mills, foundries, cement plants, chlor-alkali plants, glass factories, municipal solid waste incinerators, hospital waste incinerators, agricultural chemicals, crematories, breakage and disposal of fluorescent lamps, and painted surfaces. The total estimated mercury emission from all Atlantic Canadian anthropogenic sources was 958.3 kilograms per year. The major contributors were: (1) electric power generation (292 kg/y), (2) municipal waste incineration (248.5 kg/y), (3) non-utility fuel oil combustion (133.4 kg/y), and (4) municipal wastewater (94.1 kg/y). The most significant data gaps identified were emissions data associated with abandoned mine tailings generated as a result of past gold amalgamation practices in Nova Scotia. There was also significant variation in available emission factors for the non-utility combustion of fuel oil. Uncertainties also exist regarding mercury emissions from municipal landfills. There is no data available for the waste incinerators in Charlottetown, PEI, and Sydney, NS, or for the coal-fired power stations in Belleduen and Minto, NS. 43 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. US-Canada Great Lakes Regional Specimen Bank Feasibility Study. (United States)

    Kerry, A; Edmonds, C J; Landon, L; Yonker, T L


    A study to examine the feasibility of establishing a Regional Specimen Bank in the Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada has recently been initiated by the Michigan Audubon Society. There are several existing formal and informal specimen banking facilities active in the region but their combined adequacy has not been evaluated. This feasibility study will establish the need and use of a regional bank and the institution(s) necessary to satisfy this need will be recommended. The study will address the scope required to meet present and future needs including the types of specimens to be represented in the bank, geographic coverage and protocols for collection, shipping, processing, analysis and storage. A management policy of the bank will be developed encompassing business operation, costs, governing structure and personnel requirements. The legal requirements of the bank will be determined with regards to the acquisition of samples, transport across national boundaries, access to specimens and information, and liability during operation. An effective information dissemination network will be recommended that is compatible with national and international partners, will facilitate technology and information transfer and support the quality and status of the bank. Determination of secure, long-term funding sources will be one of the key elements to ensuring a safe repository. This feasibility study is funded by the Great Lakes Protection Fund.

  4. Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones in Canada. (United States)

    Patel, Samir N; McGeer, Allison; Melano, Roberto; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Green, Karen; Pillai, Dylan R; Low, Donald E


    Ciprofloxacin, the first fluoroquinolone to be used to treat lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), demonstrates poor potency against Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its use has been associated with the emergence of resistance. During the last decade, fluoroquinolones with enhanced in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae have replaced ciprofloxacin for the treatment of LRTI. Here, we analyzed the impact of more active fluoroquinolone usage on pneumococci by examining the fluoroquinolone usage, prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance, and mutations in the genes that encode the major target sites for the fluoroquinolones (gyrA and parC) in pneumococcal isolates collected in Canada-wide surveillance. A total of 26,081 isolates were collected between 1998 and 2009. During this time period, total per capita outpatient use of fluoroquinolones increased from 64 to 96 prescriptions per 1,000 persons per year. The proportion of prescriptions for respiratory tract infection that were for fluoroquinolones increased from 5.9% to 10.7%, but the distribution changed: the proportion of prescriptions for ciprofloxacin decreased from 5.3% to 0.5%, and those for levofloxacin or moxifloxacin increased from 1.5% in 1999 to 5.9% in 2009. The prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml), levofloxacin resistance, and moxifloxacin resistance remained unchanged at fluoroquinolones did not change during the surveillance period. If fluoroquinolone therapy is required, the preferential use of fluoroquinolones with enhanced pneumococcal activity to treat pneumococcal infections may slow the emergence of resistance in S. pneumoniae.

  5. The discourse of dental hygiene practice in Canada. (United States)

    McKeown, L; Sunell, S; Wickstrom, P


    Recently the discourse in Canada relating to dental hygiene practice has changed. While dentistry still exercises controlling power over the public's oral cavity, dental hygienists have made inroads through legislative changes. A description of Canadian dental hygiene practice is provided to set the stage for a discussion about current discourse in the dental hygiene profession. Although power is often perceived as a shifting changing set of relations, these can be frozen in abstraction. It is rather like taking a photo of a single moment or event in an ongoing activity. This moment provides a starting point, an event that can be analysed. Four such events are evident in Canadian dental hygiene practice; they include, education, recognition of dental hygienists as primary care providers, the culture of dental hygiene and self-regulation. While all the events are important, self-regulation is critical to the viability and development of the profession. It is the central event that provides the backdrop for effecting change. With self-regulation comes responsibility and accountability for professional actions. It also provides possibilities for changing the discourse in oral care. As oral health care discourse is transformed through legislation and public awareness, the public will, hopefully, be able to directly access dental hygiene services, and dental hygienists themselves might increasingly recognise their importance as contributors in the health care system.

  6. Mercury in fog on the Bay of Fundy (Canada) (United States)

    Ritchie, Charles D.; Richards, William; Arp, Paul A.

    Mercury concentrations in fog water, collected during the summer of 2003, were found to vary along a geospatial gradient from Grand Manan (an island at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy, with Hg levels 42-435 ng l -1), the main coastline of New Brunswick at Point Lepreau (2-33 ng l -1), to an inland location in Fredericton, Canada (3.5 ng l -1). Hg concentrations were higher during days when air masses were stationary and fog conditions were extended over several days. High concentrations on Grand Manan were most likely due to continued atmospheric deposition of Hg into fog banks of long duration, high air turbulence along the steep 100 m cliffs, and decreasing droplet size with increasing air temperature during the course of the day. We found that fog Hg deposition was about 0.4-7.5% of wet Hg deposition along the coastal area, whereas on Grand Manan Island, fog Hg deposition from was 31-74% of wet Hg deposition.

  7. Frontier Government: The Folding of the Canada-US Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O'Connor


    Full Text Available In this paper the border is evaluated as a fold of power relations in which sovereign capacity and competence is marshalled alongside strategies of control, surveillance, and risk management to constitute, what we call, a zone of frontier government. We advance the argument that the border is a site for both negative and positive power, for insertion and subtraction, and that the assemblage of surveillance and compliance regimes are "run" not so much in the furtherance of a precautionary or pre-emptive end-state, but as intermediate values that are sufficiently malleable by an invigorated sovereign, expressed in the residue of discretion in and between the many border agencies.  Our analysis is based on extensive policy and program documents, as well as twenty-five interviews with officials in various agencies engaged in the US-Canada and, particularly, the Windsor-Detroit corridor. Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE

  8. Echinococcal disease in Alberta, Canada: more than a calcified opacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Ravi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cases of echinococcal disease (ED acquired in Canada are thought to be due to the sylvatic form of Echinococcus granulosus, which may be more benign than ED due to either Echinococcus multilocularis or the pastoral form of E. granulosus. There are limited descriptions of the clinical course and outcome of Canadian patients with ED in the modern era. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of patients hospitalized with echinococcal disease (ED from 1991 to 2001 in Edmonton, Alberta. Results Forty-two cases of ED were identified of which 19 were definite, 3 probable, and 20 possible. Further analysis was limited to the 22 definite and probable cases, of which 77% were female and 41% aboriginal, with an age range of 5 to 87 years. Nine patients (40% had pulmonary involvement and 11 (50% hepatic involvement. One patient had an intracardiac mass presenting as a cerebrovascular event and one had a splenic cyst. Seven of the 22 patients had combined surgical resection and medical treatment, six had surgical resection of the cyst alone, four had cyst aspiration, one had medical treatment alone and four had no specific treatment. There was no mortality attributable to ED but three patients died of unrelated illnesses. Conclusion Echinococcal disease in northern Alberta has a marked diversity of clinical presentations, and generally has a good prognosis despite a wide variety of therapeutic interventions.

  9. Linezolid resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolated in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Patel, Samir N; Memari, Nader; Shahinas, Dea; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J


    Recent studies have described linezolid-resistant MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) occurring worldwide, including an outbreak of linezolid-resistant MRSA. The objective of this study was to determine if linezolid-resistant enterococci are present in clinical isolates in Ontario, Canada. From January 2010 to June 2012, all enterococcal isolates submitted to the Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for confirmation of VRE and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Of 2829 enterococcal isolates tested, 12 Enterococcus faecium were found to be resistant to linezolid. All linezolid-resistant isolates were also resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin. In addition, 33% of isolates were non-susceptible to daptomycin, whereas 41% were resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Molecular characterization of these isolates showed that 8/12 isolates (66.7%) contained the mutation G2576T in 23S rRNA, which has been associated with linezolid resistance. Amplification and sequencing of L3- and L4-coding genes did not reveal mutations associated with linezolid resistance. One isolate contained the cfr gene, which is associated with linezolid resistance, and has been found in staphylococcal species and E. faecalis. These data show that occurrence of linezolid resistance is still rare among enterococcal isolates referred to PHOL though detection of cfr in E. faecium is concerning as it has the potential to disseminate among other enterococci.

  10. Strontium isotope characterization of wines from Quebec, Canada. (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Victor; Stevenson, Ross; Pedneault, Karine; Poirier, André; Hélie, Jean-François; Widory, David


    The (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios were measured on grape, wine and soil samples collected in 13 commercial vineyards located in three major wine producing areas of Quebec (Canada). The soils yield Sr isotope ratios that are intimately related to the local geology and unambiguously discriminate the different producing areas. A strong relationship exists between the (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios of the wine and the grapes. This suggests that the vinification process does not alter the overall Sr budget. Although the Sr isotope ratios of the grapes do not show a strong correlation with the bulk Sr isotope composition of the soil, they do correlate strongly with the Sr isotope composition contained in the labile fraction of the soil. This indicates that the labile fraction of the soil represents the Sr reservoir available to the plant during its growth. This study demonstrates that the Sr isotope approach can be used as a viable tool in forensic science for investigating the provenance of commercial wines.

  11. A Prehistorical Record of Cultural Eutrophication from Crawford Lake, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, E J; Teranes, J; Guilderson, T; Turton, C L; McAndrews, J H; Wittkop, C A; Stoermer, E F


    Cultural eutrophication--the process by which human activities increase nutrient input rates to aquatic ecosystems and thereby cause undesirable changes in surface-water quality--is generally thought to have begun with the start of the industrial era. The prehistoric dimension of human impacts on aquatic ecosystems remains relatively undescribed, particularly in North America. Here we present fossil plankton data (diatoms and rotifers), organic and inorganic carbon accumulations, and carbon isotope ratios from a 1000-yr sediment core record from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada. The data documents increased nutrient input to Crawford Lake caused by Iroquoian horticultural activity from A.D. 1268 to 1486 and shows how this increased nutrient input elevated lake productivity, caused bottom-water anoxia, and irreversibly altered diatom community structure within just a few years. Iroquoian settlement in the region declined in the fifteenth century, yet diatom communities and lake circulation never recovered to the predisturbance state. A second phase of cultural eutrophication starting in A.D. 1867, initiated by Canadian agricultural disturbance, increased lake productivity but had comparatively less of an impact on diatom assemblages and carbon-storage pathways than the initial Iroquoian disturbance. This study deepens our understanding of the impact of cultural eutrophication on lake systems, highlights the lasting influence of initial environmental perturbation, and contributes to the debate on the ecological impacts of density and agricultural practices of native North American inhabitants.

  12. Preliminary Rock Physics Characterization of Mississippian Carbonate Reservoir in Canada (United States)

    Lee, M.; Keehm, Y.; Kim, H.


    The Mississippian formations in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin are known to have large hydrocarbon resources. The Lodgepole formation is the most important reservoir for oil production in Daly and Virden fields. In this study, we performed preliminary reservoir characterization using rock physics modeling. We first delineated the Lodgepole formation by geological information, well-logs and core analysis data. Then, we conducted rock physics analyses such as GR-AI, DEM modeling, porosity-Vp, density-Vp, and porosity-permeability. We identified the Lodgepole formation has different porosity types, volume of shale, and the degree of fractures in difference intervals. In the upper part of the formation, we found that vuggy pores are well developed. Inter-particular porosity and fractures become significant as the depth increases. We found that the lower part can be divided into two groups by acoustic impedance. The prospective reservoir interval, one of the two groups, has higher fracture density, which can be identified by lower acoustic impedance. This result also implies that we could also use AVO analyses to delineate good reservoir intervals. In conclusion, rock physics modeling can be effectively applied to characterize the Lodgepole formation quantitatively with well-log and core analysis data. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2009201030001A).

  13. Cancer risk in aluminum reduction plant workers (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, J.J.; Demers, P.A.; Le, N.D.; Friesen, M.D.; Lorenzi, M.F.; Fang, R.; Gallagher, R.P. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    A 14-year update to a previously published historical cohort study of aluminum reduction plant workers was conducted. All men with three or more years at an aluminum reduction plant in British Columbia (BC), Canada between the years 1954 and 1997 were included; a total of 6,423 workers. A total of 662 men were diagnosed with cancer, representing a 400% increase from the original study. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios were used to compare the cancer mortality and incidence of the cohort to that of the BC population. Poisson regression was used to examine risk by cumulative exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) measured as benzene soluble materials (BSM) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The risk for bladder cancer was related to cumulative exposure to CTPV measured as BSM and BaP (p trends < 0.001), and the risk for stomach cancer was related to exposure measured by BaP (p trend BaP < 0.05). The risks for lung cancer (p trend < 0.001), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (p trend < 0.001), and kidney cancer (p trend < 0.01) also increased with increasing exposure, although the overall rates were similar to that of the general population. Analysis of the joint effect of smoking and CTPV exposure on cancer showed the observed dose-response relationships to be independent of smoking.

  14. Phosphogypsum capping depth affects revegetation and hydrology in Western Canada. (United States)

    Jackson, Mallory E; Naeth, M Anne; Chanasyk, David S; Nichol, Connie K


    Phosphogypsum (PG), a byproduct of phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, is commonly stacked and capped with soil at decommissioning. Shallow (0, 8, 15, and 30 cm) and thick (46 and 91 cm) sandy loam caps on a PG stack near Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada, were studied in relation to vegetation establishment and hydrologic properties. Plant response was evaluated over two growing seasons for redtop ( L.), slender wheatgrass ( (Link) Malte ex H.F. Lewis), tufted hairgrass ( (L.) P. Beauv.), and sheep fescue ( L.) and for a mix of these grasses with alsike clover ( L.). Water content below the soil-PG interface was monitored with time-domain reflectometry probes, and leachate water quantity and quality at a depth of 30 cm was measured using lysimeters. Vegetation responded positively to all cap depths relative to bare PG, with few significant differences among cap depths. Slender wheatgrass performed best, and tufted hairgrass performed poorly. Soil caps <1 m required by regulation were sufficient for early revegetation. Soil water fluctuated more in shallow than in thick caps, and water content was generally between field capacity and wilting point regardless of cap depth. Water quality was not affected by cap depths ≤30 cm. Leachate volumes at 30 cm from distinct rainfall events were independent of precipitation amount and cap depth. The study period had lower precipitation than normal, yet soil caps were hospitable for plant growth in the first 2 yr of establishment.

  15. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts. (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad


    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens' tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada's black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  16. Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsato, J.


    Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

  17. Characterizing fractured plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield for deep geological disposal of Canada`s radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, G.S.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. , Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.


    Since 1978 AECL has been investigating plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield as a potential medium for the disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste. During the last two years this study has been continued as part of Ontario Hydro`s used fuel disposal program. Methods have been developed for characterizing the geotechnical conditions at the regional scale of the Canadian Shield as well as for characterizing conditions at the site scale and the very near-field scale needed for locating and designing disposal vault rooms and waste emplacement areas. The Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba have been extensively used to develop and demonstrate the different scales of characterization methods. At the regional scale, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys combined with LANDSAT 5 and surface gravity survey data have been helpful in identifying boundaries of the plutonic rocks , overburden thicknesses, major lineaments that might be geological structures, lithological contacts and depths of the batholiths. Surface geological mapping of exposed rock outcrops, combined with surface VLF/EM, radar and seismic reflection surveys were useful in identifying the orientation and depth continuity of low-dipping fracture zones beneath rock outcrops to a depth of 500 to 1000 m. The surface time-domain EM method has provided encouraging results for identifying the depth of highly saline pore waters. The regional site scale investigations at the WRA included the drilling of twenty deep boreholes (> 500 m) at seven separate study areas. Geological core logging combined with borehole geophysical logging, TV/ATV logging, flowmeter logging and full waveform sonic logging in these boreholes helped to confirm the location of hydro geologically important fractures, orient cores and infer the relative permeability of some fracture zones. Single-hole radar and crosshole seismic tomography surveys were useful to establish the

  18. Green Building. Sustainable building in the USA and Canada; Green Building. Duurzaam bouwen in de VS en Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wees, G. [Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Washington, DC (United States)


    First, attention is paid to the development and use of new construction techniques, including the use of new building materials, e.g. synthetic materials and the so-called steel frame method. Next, the reduction of the energy consumption during the service life of a house is discussed. The reduction can be realized by means of passive methods, e.g. improved windows, thermal insulation and design, or by means of active methods, e.g. electric load monitoring. The information in this article mainly concerns the housing construction in the USA and Canada. The purpose of this article to contribute to the discussion in the Netherlands on innovation in the building technology, e.g. formulated in the report `Bouwvisie 2010` (Vision on Buildings for the year 2010) of the Dutch Advisory Board Technology Policy for the Building Industry (ARTB, abbreviated in Dutch) and the building technology policy of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (EZ). 4 figs., 2 tabs., 23 refs.

  19. International Reports. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; Canada's Libraries in 2002: A Year of Partnerships; A Golden Celebration: The National Library of Canada at 50. (United States)

    Wiggins, Beacher; Adams, Karen G.; Starr, Mary Jane


    These three reports discuss international library organization issues, including awards and grants, digital technology, and membership; and Canadian library issues, including federal information policy issues, library services, projected shortage of librarians, mergers, digital divide, and a history of the National Library of Canada. (LRW)

  20. History of Pain Research and Management in Canada

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    Harold Merskey


    Full Text Available Scattered accounts of the treatment of pain by aboriginal Canadians are found in the journals of the early explorers and missionaries. French and English settlers brought with them the remedies of their home countries. The growth of medicine through the 18th and 19th centuries, particularly in Europe, was mirrored in the practice and treatment methods of Canadians and Americans. In the 19th century, while Americans learned about causalgia and the pain of wounds, Canadian insurrections were much less devastating than the United States Civil War. By the end of that century, a Canadian professor working in the United States, Sir William Osler, was responsible for a standard textbook of medicine with a variety of treatments for painful illnesses. Yet pain did not figure in the index of that book. The modern period in pain research and management can probably be dated to the 20 years before the founding of the International Association for the Study of Pain. Pride of place belongs to The management of pain by John Bonica, published in Philadelphia in 1953 and based upon his work in Tacoma and Seattle. Ideas about pain were evolving in Canada in the 1950s with Donald Hebb, Professor of Psychology at McGill University in Montreal, corresponding with the leading American neurophysiologist, George H Bishop. Hebb's pupil Ronald Melzack engaged in studies of early experiences in relation to pain and, joining with Patrick Wall at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, published the 1965 paper in Science that revolutionized thinking. Partly because of this early start with prominent figures and partly because of its social system in the organization of medicine, Canada became a centre for a number of aspects of pain research and management, ranging from pain clinics in Halifax, Kingston and Saskatoon - which were among the earliest to advance treatment of pain - to studying the effects of implanted electrodes for neurosurgery. Work in Toronto by Moldofsky

  1. Progress toward integrating care for seniors in Canada

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    Margaret MacAdam


    Full Text Available Introduction: Integrating care is a developing feature of provincial health delivery in Canada for those with chronic conditions. The purposes of this project were to review the conceptual understandings underlying integrated care, examine the features of models of cost-effective care for the elderly, and then ascertain to what extent Canadian provinces were implementing these features.Method: These goals were accomplished through a review of the integrated care literature followed by a survey of the Canadian provinces. A pre-tested questionnaire was sent to each of the ten provincial Ministries of Health in 2008. The questionnaire collected basic background information and then asked a series of open- and close-ended questions about each of the best practice features of integrated care as found in the literature review.Results: System improvements in integrating care for the elderly are being implemented in Canadian provincial health care systems. There has been substantial improvement in the delivery of case management services but the supply of some community services could be improved. As well, the linkages amongst primary, acute and community care remain weak.Discussion and conclusion: Providing an adequate supply of services is an ongoing issue in many provinces and could be the result of either inadequate funding and/or poor targeting of scarce resources. While it is promising that so many provinces are starting to break down the silos amongst types of health care service providers, much remains to be accomplished. These issues are at the core of integrating care and are among the challenges being faced by other countries.

  2. Progress toward integrating care for seniors in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret MacAdam


    Full Text Available Introduction: Integrating care is a developing feature of provincial health delivery in Canada for those with chronic conditions. The purposes of this project were to review the conceptual understandings underlying integrated care, examine the features of models of cost-effective care for the elderly, and then ascertain to what extent Canadian provinces were implementing these features. Method: These goals were accomplished through a review of the integrated care literature followed by a survey of the Canadian provinces. A pre-tested questionnaire was sent to each of the ten provincial Ministries of Health in 2008. The questionnaire collected basic background information and then asked a series of open- and close-ended questions about each of the best practice features of integrated care as found in the literature review. Results: System improvements in integrating care for the elderly are being implemented in Canadian provincial health care systems. There has been substantial improvement in the delivery of case management services but the supply of some community services could be improved. As well, the linkages amongst primary, acute and community care remain weak. Discussion and conclusion: Providing an adequate supply of services is an ongoing issue in many provinces and could be the result of either inadequate funding and/or poor targeting of scarce resources. While it is promising that so many provinces are starting to break down the silos amongst types of health care service providers, much remains to be accomplished. These issues are at the core of integrating care and are among the challenges being faced by other countries.

  3. Digital Curation of Marine Physical Samples at Ocean Networks Canada (United States)

    Jenkyns, R.; Tomlin, M. C.; Timmerman, R.


    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) has collected hundreds of geological, biological and fluid samples from the water column and seafloor during its maintenance expeditions. These samples have been collected by Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), divers, networked and autonomously deployed instruments, and rosettes. Subsequent measurements are used for scientific experiments, calibration of in-situ and remote sensors, monitoring of Marine Protected Areas, and environment characterization. Tracking the life cycles of these samples from collection to dissemination of results with all the pertinent documents (e.g., protocols, imagery, reports), metadata (e.g., location, identifiers, purpose, method) and data (e.g., measurements, taxonomic classification) is a challenge. The initial collection of samples is normally documented in SeaScribe (an ROV dive logging tool within ONC's Oceans 2.0 software) for which ONC has defined semantics and syntax. Next, samples are often sent to individual scientists and institutions (e.g., Royal BC Museum) for processing and storage, making acquisition of results and life cycle metadata difficult. Finally, this information needs to be retrieved and collated such that multiple user scenarios can be addressed. ONC aims to improve and extend its digital infrastructure for physical samples to support this complex array of samples, workflows and applications. However, in order to promote effective data discovery and exchange, interoperability and community standards must be an integral part of the design. Thus, integrating recommendations and outcomes of initiatives like the EarthCube iSamples working groups are essential. Use cases, existing tools, schemas and identifiers are reviewed, while remaining gaps and challenges are identified. The current status, selected approaches and possible future directions to enhance ONC's digital infrastructure for each sample type are presented.

  4. Obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI): Canada's national clinical practice guideline (United States)

    Coroneos, Christopher J; Voineskos, Sophocles H; Christakis, Marie K; Thoma, Achilleas; Bain, James R; Brouwers, Melissa C


    Objective The objective of this study was to establish an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the primary management of obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI). This clinical practice guideline addresses 4 existing gaps: (1) historic poor use of evidence, (2) timing of referral to multidisciplinary care, (3) Indications and timing of operative nerve repair and (4) distribution of expertise. Setting The guideline is intended for all healthcare providers treating infants and children, and all specialists treating upper extremity injuries. Participants The evidence interpretation and recommendation consensus team (Canadian OBPI Working Group) was composed of clinicians representing each of Canada's 10 multidisciplinary centres. Outcome measures An electronic modified Delphi approach was used for consensus, with agreement criteria defined a priori. Quality indicators for referral to a multidisciplinary centre were established by consensus. An original meta-analysis of primary nerve repair and review of Canadian epidemiology and burden were previously completed. Results 7 recommendations address clinical gaps and guide identification, referral, treatment and outcome assessment: (1) physically examine for OBPI in newborns with arm asymmetry or risk factors; (2) refer newborns with OBPI to a multidisciplinary centre by 1 month; (3) provide pregnancy/birth history and physical examination findings at birth; (4) multidisciplinary centres should include a therapist and peripheral nerve surgeon experienced with OBPI; (5) physical therapy should be advised by a multidisciplinary team; (6) microsurgical nerve repair is indicated in root avulsion and other OBPI meeting centre operative criteria; (7) the common data set includes the Narakas classification, limb length, Active Movement Scale (AMS) and Brachial Plexus Outcome Measure (BPOM) 2 years after birth/surgery. Conclusions The process established a new network of opinion leaders and researchers for further

  5. Microsatellite assessment of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus stocks in Canada

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    Aaron BA Shafer


    Full Text Available Walruses in Canada are currently subdivided into seven stocks based on summering areas; Western Jones Sound (WJS, Baffin Bay (BB, Penny Strait-Lancaster Sound (PS-LS, North Foxe Basin (N-FB, Central Foxe Basin (C-FB, Hudson Bay Davis Strait (HB-DS and Southern and Eastern Hudson Bay (SE-HB. In this study, walrus were sampled from six of the seven stocks (SE-HB samples were not available and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. All stocks were genetically diverse (average heterozygosity of 0.58 with no evidence of inbreeding (average FIS of 0.03. We detected significant genetic differentiation among the stocks and a pattern of genetic spatial autocorrelation that suggests a moderate effect of geographic distance on gene flow among stocks. Bayesian clustering suggested the six recognized stocks were elements of two larger genetic clusters - a northern Arctic population (containing BB, WJS, and PS-LS stocks and a central Arctic population (containing C-FB, N-FB, and HB-DS stocks. These populations are moderately differentiated (FST = 0.07, but based on evidence of contemporary movement from assignment tests, are not completely isolated. There was support for maintaining the WJS stock and a combined BB+PS-LS stock, although the latter conclusion is based on a small sample size. Similarly, there was some evidence suggesting separation of the Foxe Basin stocks from the HB-DS but not the N-FB from the C-FB stock. However, given that there are morphological and chemical differences between N-FB and C-FB stocks, there is currently insufficient evidence to support a revision of the current stock designations.

  6. Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada. (United States)

    Turcotte, A-M; Scott, P M


    In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46-61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OTA was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of OTA from spiked cocoa powder (0.5 and 5 ng g(-1)) were 75-84%; while recoveries from chocolate were 93-94%. The optimized method was sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.07-0.08 ng g(-1)), accurate (recovery = 75-94%) and precise (coefficient of variation (CV) < 5%). It is applicable to cocoa and chocolate. Analysis of 32 samples of cocoa powder (16 alkalized and 16 natural) for OTA showed an incidence of 100%, with concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.8 ng g(-1); in six samples the OTA level exceeded 2 ng g(-1), the previously considered European Union limit for cocoa. The frequency of detection of OTA in 28 chocolate samples (21 dark or baking chocolate and seven milk chocolate) was also 100% with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 ng g(-1); one sample had a level higher than the previously considered European Union limit for chocolate (1 ng g(-1)).

  7. Preliminary tsunami hazard assessment in British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.


    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled ocean observatories, is developing a new generation of ocean observing systems (referred to as Smart Ocean Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC Tsunami project is a Smart Ocean Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field tsunami detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant tsunami impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled ocean observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field tsunami events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new tsunami simulations are underway for the BC coast. Tsunami propagation is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD model, for a suite of new source models representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested model grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both tsunami arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in tsunami hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source models developed using the best available data. We will also present a model validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki tsunami recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.

  8. The National DNA Data Bank of Canada: A Quebecer perspective

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    Emmanuel eMilot


    Full Text Available The Canadian National DNA Database was created in 1998 and first used in the mid-2000. Under management by the RCMP, the National DNA Data Bank of Canada offers each year satisfactory reported statistics for its use and efficiency. Built on two indexes (convicted offenders and crime scene indexes, the database not only provides increasing matches to offenders or linked traces to the various police forces of the nation, but offers a memory repository for cold cases. Despite these achievements, the data bank is now facing new challenges that will inevitably defy the way the database is currently used. These arise from the increasing power of detection of DNA traces, the diversity of demands from police investigators and the growth of the bank itself. Examples of new requirements from the database now include familial searches, low-copy-number analyses and the correct interpretation of mixed samples. This paper aims to develop on the original way set in Québec to address some of these challenges. Nevertheless, analytic and technological advances will inevitably lead to the introduction of new technologies in forensic laboratories, such as single cell sequencing, phenotyping, and proteomics. Furthermore, it will not only request a new holistic/global approach of the forensic molecular biology sciences (through academia and a more investigative role in the laboratory, but also new legal developments. Far from being exhaustive, this paper highlights some of the current use of the database, its potential for the future, and opportunity to expand as a result of recent technological developments in molecular biology, including, but not limited to DNA identification.

  9. Competency assessment of microbiology medical laboratory technologists in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Desjardins, Marc; Fleming, Christine Ann


    Accreditation in Ontario, Canada, requires that licensed clinical laboratories participate in external quality assessment (also known as proficiency testing) and perform competency evaluation of their staff. To assess the extent of ongoing competency assessment practices, the Quality Management Program--Laboratory Services (QMP-LS) Microbiology Committee surveyed all 112 licensed Ontario microbiology laboratories. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 21 questions that included yes/no, multiple-choice, and short-answer formats. Participants were asked to provide information about existing programs, the frequency of testing, what areas are evaluated, and how results are communicated to the staff. Of the 111 responding laboratories, 6 indicated they did not have a formal evaluation program since they perform only limited bacteriology testing. Of the remaining 105 respondents, 87% perform evaluations at least annually or every 2 years, and 61% include any test or task performed, whereas 16% and 10% focus only on problem areas and high-volume complex tasks, respectively. The most common methods of evaluation were review of external quality assessment (EQA) challenges, direct observation, and worksheet review. With the exception of one participant, all communicate results to staff, and most take remedial action to correct the deficiencies. Although most accredited laboratories have a program to assess the ongoing competency of their staff, the methods used are not standardized or consistently applied, indicating that there is room for improvement. The survey successfully highlighted potential areas for improvement and allowed the QMP-LS Microbiology Committee to provide guidance to Ontario laboratories for establishing or improving existing microbiology-specific competency assessment programs.

  10. Antibody to Hepatitis C Virus in Risk Groups in Canada

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    RK Chaudhary


    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV was studied in hemophiliacs, hemodialysis patients, intravenous drug abusers, female prisoners, homosexuals, individuals with no markers of recent hepatitis A or B virus infections and normal individuals (federal public servants, by an enzyme immunoassay (Ortho Diagnostic Systems Inc. Repeat positive samples were further tested by recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA HCV (Chiron Corp, California. The number of samples positive for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV was higher with enzyme immunoassay than by RIBA HCV in most cases. A high prevalence of anti-HCV was detected in hemophiliacs by both enzyme immunoassay (68.8% and RIBA HCV (53.7%. Among intravenous drug abusers and female prisoners the prevalence rates for anti-HCV were 42.8% and 29.8%, respectively, by RIBA HCV; the results with enzyme immunoassay were only slightly higher. The prevalence rate was also high by both tests (54.2% in hemodialysis patients’ sera taken during 1980–82, when many cases of non-A,non-B hepatitis were suspected in this group. In contrast, only 14.1% of sera taken during 1990 were positive by RIBA HCV. In individuals with no markers of recent hepatitis A or B infections, 13.4% were positive by enzyme immunoassay, whereas only 4.5% were reactive by RIBA HCV. The lowest prevalence was seen in homosexuals (2.3% and normal individuals (1.2% by RIBA HCV. These results indicate a high prevalence of anti-HCV in high risk groups tested in Canada.

  11. Three Essays on Energy Efficiency and Environmental Policies in Canada (United States)

    Gamtessa, Samuel


    This thesis is organized into five Chapters. In Chapter 1, we provide an introduction. In Chapter 2, we present a study on residential energy-efficiency retrofits in Canada. We describe the EnerGuide for Houses data and model household decisions to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits. Our results show that government financial incentives have important positive effects. The decision to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits is positively related to potential energy cost savings and negatively related to the costs of the retrofits. We find that household characteristics such as the age composition of household members are important factors. All else remaining constant, low income households are more likely to undertake energy-efficiency retrofits. In the third Chapter, we present our study on price-induced energy efficiency improvements in Canadian manufacturing. Our study employs a new approach to the estimation of price-induced energy efficiency improvements and the results have important empirical and policy implications. In the fourth chapter, we present our study on the implications of the "shale gas revolution" on Alberta greenhouse gas emission abatement strategy. Given that the strategy is centered on deployment of CCS technologies, we analyze the effects of the declines in natural gas price on CCS deployment in the electricity sector. We use the CIMS simulation model to simulate various policy scenarios under high and low natural gas price assumptions. Comparison of the results shows that CCS market penetration in the electricity sector is very minimal in the low natural gas price scenario even when a 50% cost subsidy is applied. Accordingly, there is little gain from subsidizing CCS given the "shale gas revolution." We provide a few concluding remarks in Chapter 5.

  12. Status of the belugas of the St Lawrence estuary, Canada

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    Michael CS Kingsley


    Full Text Available A population of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas inhabiting the estuary of the St Lawrence river in Quebec, Canada, was depleted by unregulated hunting, not closed until 1979. Surveys in 1977 showed only a few hundred in the population. Surveys since then have produced increasing estimates of population indices. An estimate of the population, fully corrected for diving animals, was 1,238 (SE 119 in September 1997. The population was estimated to have increased from 1988 through 1997 by 31.4 belugas/yr (SE 13.1. Observations of population age structure, as well as data on age at death obtained from beach-cast carcasses, do not indicate serious problems at the population level, although there are indications that mortality of the oldest animals may be elevated. Few animals appear to live much over 30 years. From examination of beach-cast carcasses, it appears that most deaths are due to old age and disease; hunting is illegal, ship strikes and entrapments in fishing gear are rare, ice entrapments and predation are unknown. Among beach-cast carcasses recovered and necropsied, about 23% of the adults have malignant cancers, while most of the juveniles have pneumonia; other pathological conditions are diverse. No factors are known to be limiting numbers of this population. Habitat quality factors, including persistent contaminants, boat traffic and harassment, may affect the population’s rate of increase, but these effects have not been quantitatively evaluated. Comprehensive legislation exists with powers to protect the population and the environment of which it is a component, but application and enforcement of the laws is not without problems.

  13. Molecular, biochemical and genetic characteristics of BSE in Canada. (United States)

    Dudas, Sandor; Yang, Jianmin; Graham, Catherine; Czub, Markus; McAllister, Tim A; Coulthart, Michael B; Czub, Stefanie


    The epidemiology and possibly the etiology of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have recently been recognized to be heterogeneous. In particular, three types [classical (C) and two atypical (H, L)] have been identified, largely on the basis of characteristics of the proteinase K (PK)-resistant core of the misfolded prion protein associated with the disease (PrP(res)). The present study was conducted to characterize the 17 Canadian BSE cases which occurred prior to November 2009 based on the molecular and biochemical properties of their PrP(res), including immunoreactivity, molecular weight, glycoform profile and relative PK sensitivity. Two cases exhibited molecular weight and glycoform profiles similar to those of previously reported atypical cases, one corresponding to H-type BSE (case 6) and the other to L-type BSE (case 11). All other cases were classified as C-type. PK digestion under mild and stringent conditions revealed a reduced protease resistance in both of these cases compared to the C-type cases. With Western immunoblotting, N-terminal-specific antibodies bound to PrP(res) from case 6 but not to that from case 11 or C-type cases. C-terminal-specific antibodies revealed a shift in the glycoform profile and detected a fourth protein fragment in case 6, indicative of two PrP(res) subpopulations in H-type BSE. No mutations suggesting a genetic etiology were found in any of the 17 animals by sequencing the full PrP-coding sequence in exon 3 of the PRNP gene. Thus, each of the three known BSE types have been confirmed in Canadian cattle and show molecular characteristics highly similar to those of classical and atypical BSE cases described from Europe, Japan and the USA. The occurrence of atypical cases of BSE in countries such as Canada with low BSE prevalence and transmission risk argues for the occurrence of sporadic forms of BSE worldwide.

  14. Molecular, biochemical and genetic characteristics of BSE in Canada.

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    Sandor Dudas

    Full Text Available The epidemiology and possibly the etiology of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE have recently been recognized to be heterogeneous. In particular, three types [classical (C and two atypical (H, L] have been identified, largely on the basis of characteristics of the proteinase K (PK-resistant core of the misfolded prion protein associated with the disease (PrP(res. The present study was conducted to characterize the 17 Canadian BSE cases which occurred prior to November 2009 based on the molecular and biochemical properties of their PrP(res, including immunoreactivity, molecular weight, glycoform profile and relative PK sensitivity. Two cases exhibited molecular weight and glycoform profiles similar to those of previously reported atypical cases, one corresponding to H-type BSE (case 6 and the other to L-type BSE (case 11. All other cases were classified as C-type. PK digestion under mild and stringent conditions revealed a reduced protease resistance in both of these cases compared to the C-type cases. With Western immunoblotting, N-terminal-specific antibodies bound to PrP(res from case 6 but not to that from case 11 or C-type cases. C-terminal-specific antibodies revealed a shift in the glycoform profile and detected a fourth protein fragment in case 6, indicative of two PrP(res subpopulations in H-type BSE. No mutations suggesting a genetic etiology were found in any of the 17 animals by sequencing the full PrP-coding sequence in exon 3 of the PRNP gene. Thus, each of the three known BSE types have been confirmed in Canadian cattle and show molecular characteristics highly similar to those of classical and atypical BSE cases described from Europe, Japan and the USA. The occurrence of atypical cases of BSE in countries such as Canada with low BSE prevalence and transmission risk argues for the occurrence of sporadic forms of BSE worldwide.

  15. Porosity and Velocity Relations of Grosmont Formation, Alberta, Canada (United States)

    Keehm, Y.; Hu, D.


    We present results on porosty-velocity relations of Grosmont formation, Alberta, Canada, which is one of largest bitumen carbonate reservoirs. Grosmont formation is divided into four units: LG; UG-1; UG-2; and UG-3 from the bottom. Two lower units are mainly imestone, while upper units are mostly dolomite with vuggy porosity and fractures, which makes the upper units be a good reservoir. Rock physics modeling was then performed to quantify porosity-velocity relations for the four units, which enables us to predict porosity from seismic data. To incorporate the pore-scale details in the modeling, we used DEM (differential effective medium) models. Two lower units are very similar in velocity-porosity domain, thus the relations can be represented by one velocity-porosity model, which is used as our reference model. For the UG-2 unit, we found that one model cannot represent the unit since the degree of fracturing are heterogeneous from location to location. We thus suggested three different DEM models for the UG-2 unit: vuggy-dominant; mildly-fractured; and heavily-fractured. The UG-3 units can be modeled with vuggy porosity, and fractures were not very noticeable. We also investigated the spatial variation of the UG-2 unit, and found that the degree of fracturing is generally proportional to the proximity to the unconformity boundary, where the fresh water invasion can be dominant. In conclusion, we proposed velocity-porosity relations for the four units in Grosmont formation, and believe that these models can help to characterize the reservoir quality. In addition, since the proximity of reservoir to the unconformity boundary highly affects the degree of fracturing, a careful analysis of spatial variation would be essential for the successful characterization of Grosmont formation. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government

  16. Establishing a pediatric robotic surgery program in Canada. (United States)

    Bütter, Andreana; Merritt, Neil; Dave, Sumit


    Despite the introduction of robotic surgery in 2000, few pediatric surgeons outside the United States have embraced this technology. We discuss our experience with establishing the first Canadian pediatric robotic surgery program. After simulator training, live animal surgery and observation of robotically assisted cases at an outside institution, we performed our first pediatric da Vinci(®) surgery in July 2013. A prospective database was established to assess outcomes. Forty one children have undergone robotically assisted surgery for the following 42 procedures: (a) pyeloplasty (17), (b) ureteral reimplantations (12), (c) uretero-uretostomy (1), (d) cholecystectomies (10), (e) interval appendectomy (1) and (f) distal pancreatectomy (1). The average age was 9.7 years (range 1.6-17.9) and 66% of patients were female. Average operative time was 174 min (range 47-301). Length of stay was 3 days (range 0-20). All procedures were completed without conversion to open or laparoscopy. There were no technical failures. Two post re-implantation patients had urine leaks which required conservative treatment. Despite the lack of haptic feedback, we have noted that the markedly enhanced three-dimensional visualization and instrument dexterity offer significant advantages for complex reconstructive pediatric surgery. This platform may also enable trainees to perform more advanced minimally invasive pediatric surgery. We have successfully established the first pediatric robotic surgery program in Canada. Our da Vinci(®) system is shared with our adult colleagues, which enables more frequent use as well as some cost sharing. A dedicated group of operative nurses and surgeons are required to allow adoption of this new technology.

  17. Education in Canada : in Pursuit of Educational Qualityand Equity

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    Clara Morgan


    Full Text Available Canada is one of the few countries in the world that does not have a national department of education but several provincial departments of education which are responsible for educational governance. The article provides an overview of Canada’s educational systems. It describes the current political, economic and social context and provides a brief historical overview oft he evolution of these systems. The article addresses educational quality and equity by drawing on educational indicators and discusses educational reforms that have taken place. The strengths and weak nesses of Canada’s systems of education are analyzed. The article concludes with remarks on the inter-relationship between educational equality and societal inequalityCanadá es uno de los pocos países en el mundo que no tienen un Ministerio Nacional de Educación sino numerosos departamentos provinciales que son los responsables de la gestión educativa. El artículo proporciona una panorámica de los sistemas educativos canadienses. Describe el actual contexto político, económico y social y ofrece un breve repaso histórico de la evolución de esos sistemas. El artículo enfrenta la cuestión de la calidad y la equidad educativas a través de indicadores referidos a educación y plantea críticamente las reformas educativas que han tenido lugar. Se analizan los puntos fuertes y las debilidades de los sistemas educativos de Canadá. El articulo concluye con interesantes aportaciones sobre la estrecha relación entre equidad educativa e inequidad social.

  18. Holocene climate change in Arctic Canada and Greenland (United States)

    Briner, Jason P.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Axford, Yarrow; Bennike, Ole; Bradley, Raymond S.; de Vernal, Anne; Fisher, David; Francus, Pierre; Fréchette, Bianca; Gajewski, Konrad; Jennings, Anne; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Miller, Gifford; Rouston, Cody; Wagner, Bernd


    This synthesis paper summarizes published proxy climate evidence showing the spatial and temporal pattern of climate change through the Holocene in Arctic Canada and Greenland. Our synthesis includes 47 records from a recently published database of highly resolved Holocene paleoclimate time series from the Arctic (Sundqvist et al., 2014). We analyze the temperature histories represented by the database and compare them with paleoclimate and environmental information from 54 additional published records, mostly from datasets that did not fit the selection criteria for the Arctic Holocene database. Combined, we review evidence from a variety of proxy archives including glaciers (ice cores and glacial geomorphology), lake sediments, peat sequences, and coastal and deep-marine sediments. The temperature-sensitive records indicate more consistent and earlier Holocene warmth in the north and east, and a more diffuse and later Holocene thermal maximum in the south and west. Principal components analysis reveals two dominant Holocene trends, one with early Holocene warmth followed by cooling in the middle Holocene, the other with a broader period of warmth in the middle Holocene followed by cooling in the late Holocene. The temperature decrease from the warmest to the coolest portions of the Holocene is 3.0 ± 1.0 °C on average (n = 11 sites). The Greenland Ice Sheet retracted to its minimum extent between 5 and 3 ka, consistent with many sites from around Greenland depicting a switch from warm to cool conditions around that time. The spatial pattern of temperature change through the Holocene was likely driven by the decrease in northern latitude summer insolation through the Holocene, the varied influence of waning ice sheets in the early Holocene, and the variable influx of Atlantic Water into the study region.

  19. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada (United States)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter


    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  20. A Statistical Comparative Study of the Working Poor in Japan and Canada

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    Masatoshi Murakami


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently in Japan, there has been an increase in the group which is termed the ‘Working Poor’. However, the group’s size and configuration remains unknown. Approach: The purpose of this study is to compare the working poor in Canada and Japan using microdata. First, the definition and method of estimation of the working poor provided by (Iwai and Murakami, 2007 are provided along with later modifications. Second, results of the investigation into data appropriate for use in estimating Canada’s working poor and poverty line are given, as are estimates of Canada’s working poor. Last, the characteristics of unemployment, unstable employment and the labor market are examined for both Canada and Japan and the similarities and differences between the two countries are highlighted. Results: In Canada and Japan, the working poor are most likely to be found among the young, those with a low level of education, those in unstable employment or those working in a company having few employees. As regards the differences between the two countries, males are more likely to be the working poor than females in Canada, though this trend is not seen in Japan; moreover, the percentage of the working poor is high among the 25-34 and 35-44 age groups in Japan, though this is not the case in Canada. Conclusion: As conclusions of this study, the first challenge that lies ahead is to find data from the two countries that allows a more rigorous comparison. The second challenge is to re-evaluate estimates made to date after a full investigation of labor market systems. Statistical Analysis Research Project (2009, we have estimated the working poor of the UK and compared their figures with those of Japan. The third challenge is thus to add the findings of this study to those from the UK/Japan and thereby perform a trilateral comparison.