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Sample records for canada-usa salmon shelf

  1. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed

  2. A process risk model for the shelf life of Atlantic salmon fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, S K J; Ross, T; Olley, J; McMeekin, T

    2002-02-25

    The shelf life of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) portions produced for retail distribution is examined and the dominant aerobic spoilage organism is identified. Characterization of the harvesting and processing operations allow the development of a stochastic mathematical model, a process risk model (PRM), which predicts the range of the possible shelf life for the portions under normal retail and distribution. The considered risk is the failure to achieve the nominal 'use by' date. Bacterial counts from surface swabs, water, ice, and fish samples, collected over a period of 9 months, are fitted to distribution functions for use within the model. Comparisons are made between the distributions fitted to the observed bacterial levels and the predicted levels for the slurry water, initial surface contamination on the fish, and for the predicted and observed shelf life. Storage temperature of the packaged salmon portions has the greatest influence on shelf life, with contamination from contact surfaces and other sources being the next most important. The range of bacterial counts on the portions was between -0.6 and 5 log10 cfu/cm2. The model predicts bacterial counts in the slurry water to have an average value of 3.36 log10 cfu/ml, whereas the observed slurry water bacterial counts were 3.35 log10 cfu/ml. The predicted average initial bacterial contamination is 3.31 log10 cfu/cm2 on the fish surface and 3.23 log10 cfu/cm2 on the observed. The average predicted shelf life is 6.5 days, compared to an observed value of 6.2 days at 4 degrees C. PMID:11885573

  3. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (salmo salar)stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 degrees C in relation to the determined microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile o...

  4. Shelf-life extension and improvement of the microbiological quality of smoked salmon by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold-smoked salmon locally available was irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (2-3 degrees C). Microbiological and sensory qualities were studied immediately after irradiation and during storage. Irradiation at 2 kGy caused a great reduction in all the tested microbial population, thus improving the hygienic quality of smoked salmon to meet the microbiological limits for the top-grade quality. Moreover, irradiated samples at 4 kGy were free from coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci and Staph. aureus over the entire storage period. Unirradiated samples reached the maximum accepted mesophilic plate count after only one month of storage, while those irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy reached this level after 3 and 4 months, respectively. No differences in sensory qualities were found by the taste panel between unirradiated samples and those irradiated at 2 kGy, but they observed a distinct loss in normal cherry red color of the samples irradiated at 4 kGy

  5. Application of Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme in shelf-life study of farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdóttir, K.; Martinsdóttir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe; Jørgensen, Bo; Kristbergsson, K.

    2002-01-01

    Salmon (Salmo salar) was stored in ice up to 24 d, and changes during storage were observed with sensory evaluation using the Quality Index Method (QIM), and Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA), total viable counts (TVC), hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing bacteria, and instrumental texture mea......-producing bacteria after 20 d in ice, which was the maximum storage time. Texture measurements indicated softening of salmon flesh with storage...

  6. Application of Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme in shelf-life study of farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdóttir, K.; Martinsdóttir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2002-01-01

    Salmon (Salmo salar) was stored in ice up to 24 d, and changes during storage were observed with sensory evaluation using the Quality Index Method (QIM), and Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA), total viable counts (TVC), hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing bacteria, and instrumental texture mea...

  7. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices. This...... study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium is...... closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  8. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile chum salmon allozyme stock identification, Gulf of Alaska 2000-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Summer surveys (Julyb??August) of juvenile salmon ecology along the continental shelf of the Gulf of Alaska are conducted annually by scientists from the Ocean...

  9. Control of biological hazards in cold smoked salmon production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Jeppesen, V.F.

    1995-01-01

    An outline of the common processing technology for cold smoked salmon in Denmark is presented. The safety hazards related to pathogenic bacteria, parasites and biogenic amines are discussed with special emphasis on hazards related to Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes. Critical...... control points are identified for all hazards except growth of L. monocytogenes. For this reason a limitation of shelf life to three weeks at +5 degrees C far cold smoked vacuum-packed salmon having greater than or equal to 3% water phase salt is recommended...

  10. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pump is now primed. To use the nasal spray, follow these steps: Keep your head up and place the nozzle in one nostril. Press down on the pump ... reach of children. Store unopened calcitonin salmon nasal spray in the ... the nozzle clean. Opened calcitonin salmon stored at room temperature ...

  11. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Brauner, C. J.; Sackville, M.; Gallagher, Z.; Tang, S.; Nendick, L.; Farrell, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse...

  12. CRITICAL ASPECTS IN SCRAPS OF COLD SMOKED SALMON PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bernardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to summarize the critical aspects in the processing of smoked salmon scraps as resulted from seven different lots of samples through microbiological and chemical-physical analysis. Results demonstrate that this product has very variable salt content, high microbial counts influencing the shelf-life, rancidity problems depending on the raw material and is heavily contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes.

  13. CRITICAL ASPECTS IN SCRAPS OF COLD SMOKED SALMON PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, C; B. Ripamonti; M.A. Marzano; Cattaneo, P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to summarize the critical aspects in the processing of smoked salmon scraps as resulted from seven different lots of samples through microbiological and chemical-physical analysis. Results demonstrate that this product has very variable salt content, high microbial counts influencing the shelf-life, rancidity problems depending on the raw material and is heavily contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes.

  14. Heat denaturation of proteins from atlantic salmon (salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Savitri, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Foods preserved by heat treatment have to meet several food safety. These criteria requirements are not easy to meet, as heat causes protein denaturation which is considered to be the one of the main reasons for quality changes in fish muscle. On the other hand consumers demand for fresh or fresh-like and minimally processed foods but also consider microbial safety and shelf life. Denaturation of proteins in Atlantic salmon was studied by differential scanning calorimetry at a consta...

  15. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  16. Atlantic Salmon Smolt Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual data are collected as part of smolt trapping operations using fish trapping methods. Traps collect emigrating salmon smolts to identify cohort...

  17. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  18. Microbial spoilage and formation of biogenic amines in fresh and thawed modified atmosphere-packed salmon ( Salmo salar ) at 2 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Laursen, B.G.; Rathjen, T.;

    2002-01-01

    series of storage trials with naturally contaminated fresh and thawed modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) salmon at 2 degrees C. Photobacterium phosphoreum dominated the spoilage microflora of fresh MAP salmon at more than 106 cfu g-1 and the activity of this specific spoilage organism (SSO) limited the......Aims: To evaluate the microbial spoilage, formation of biogenic amines and shelf life of chilled fresh and frozen/thawed salmon packed in a modified atmosphere and stored at 2 degrees C.Methods and Results: The dominating microflora, formation of biogenic amines and shelf life were studied in two...

  19. Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme developed for farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdóttir, K.; Hyldig, Grethe; Martinsdóttir, E.;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop 'Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme for raw, farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and to evaluate the scheme. in a shelf life study. QIM is based on the evaluation of key parameters in the deterioration of seafood's. Demerit points are assigned to selected...... parameters according to their importance and a Quality Index (QI) is established by cumulating the resulting scores. The maximum storage time in ice was determined with Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) of the salmon after cooking and found to be 20-21 days. This was used as a reference to enable...... prediction of the remaining storage time of raw salmon in ice with QIM. The calculated QI evolved linearly with storage time in ice (QI=0.82x (days in ice)+0.18, R-2=0.97). Individual salmon varied in QI within each storage day. However, the multivariate analysis (PLS1) demonstrated that storage time could...

  20. Salmon spawning studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975 fall chinook salmon population estimates in the Columbia River near Hanford are compared with those of previous years. The current year's spawning population is threefold greater than that observed last year but is less than the brood year of 1971

  1. Infectious Salmon Anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). ISA is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  2. Deepening Thermocline Displaces Salmon Catch On The Oregon Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. S.; Lawson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Establishing a linkage between fish stock distributions and physical oceanography at a fine scale provides insights into the dynamic nature of near-shore ocean habitats. Characterization of habitat preferences adds to our understanding of the ecosystem, and may improve forecasts of distribution for harvest management. The Project CROOS (Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon) Chinook salmon catch data set represents an unprecedented high-resolution record of catch location and depth, with associated in-situ temperature measurements and stock identification derived from genetic data. Here we connect this data set with physical ocean observations to gain understanding of how circulation affects salmon catch distributions. The CROOS observations were combined with remote and in situ observations of temperature, as well as a data assimilative regional ocean model that incorporates satellite and HF radar data. Across the CROOS data set, catch is primarily located within the upwelling front over the seamounts and reef structures associated with Heceta and Stonewall Banks along the shelf break. In late September of 2014 the anomalously warm "blob" began to arrive on the Oregon coast coincident with a strong downwelling event. At this time the thermocline deepened from 20 to 40 m, associated with a deepening of salmon catch depth. A cold "bulb" of water over Heceta Bank may have provided a thermal refuge for salmon during the initial onshore movement of the anomalously warm water. These observations suggest that a warming ocean, and regional warming events in particular, will have large effects on fish distributions at local and regional scales, in turn impacting fisheries.

  3. Biodiesel from Waste Salmon Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon oils separated from salmon processing waste and hydrolysate and their derived methyl esters were analyzed and compared with corn oil and its methyl ester. These materials were characterized for their fatty acid profiles, viscosity, volatility, thermal properties, low temperature properties, o...

  4. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  5. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  6. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-01-01

    Investigations on infectious diseases of Pacific salmon due to micro-organisms other than viruses are reviewed. The etiological agents include trematodes, fungi, protozoa and bacteria. Bacteria have been found to be the most important agents of disease in the several species of Pacific salmon. Kidney disease, due to a small, unnamed Gram-positive diplobacillus, causes serious mortalities in young salmon reared in hatcheries. The disease has also been found in wild fish. Aquatic myxobacteria are important agents of disease both in the hatchery and in the natural habitat. One of the myxobacteria, Chondrococcus columnaris, causes disease at relatively high water temperatures. The problem of the taxonomy of this organism is discussed. Another myxobacterium, Cytophaga psychrophila, has been found responsible for epizootics in coho salmon at lower water temperatures, i.e., in the range of 40° to 55° F. In outbreaks of gill disease in young salmon, myxobacteria of several kinds have been implicated.

  7. Salmon Population Summary - Impacts of climate change on Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This work involves 1) synthesizing information from the literature and 2) modeling impacts of climate change on specific aspects of salmon life history and...

  8. Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsgard, Rolf; Thorstad, Eva B.; Okland, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    infective salmon lice larvae in the laboratory immediately before release in the inner part of the fjord to simulate a naturally high infection pressure. Groups of infected Atlantic salmon (n = 20) and brown trout (n = 12) were also retained in the hatchery to control the infection intensity and lice...... fjord system and had, thus, entered the ocean when the more pathogenic pre-adult and adult lice stages developed. The brown trout, in comparison to Atlantic salmon, remained to a larger extent than Atlantic salmon in the inner part of the fjord system. No effect of salmon lice infection, or protection......, was found in brown trout during the first weeks of their fjord migration. Brown trout will, to a larger extent than Atlantic salmon, stay in the fjord areas when salmon lice infections reach the more pathogenic pre-adult and adult stages. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, they will thereby possess the...

  9. Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Warmer surface temperatures over just a few months in the Antarctic can splinter an ice shelf and prime it for a major collapse, NASA and university scientists report in the latest issue of the Journal of Glaciology. Using satellite images of tell-tale melt water on the ice surface and a sophisticated computer simulation of the motions and forces within an ice shelf, the scientists demonstrated that added pressure from surface water filling crevasses can crack the ice entirely through. The process can be expected to become more widespread if Antarctic summer temperatures increase. This true-color image from Landsat 7, acquired on February 21, 2000, shows pools of melt water on the surface of the Larsen Ice Shelf, and drifting icebergs that have split from the shelf. The upper image is an overview of the shelf's edge, while the lower image is displayed at full resolution of 30 meters (98 feet) per pixel. The labeled pond in the lower image measures roughly 1.6 by 1.6 km (1.0 x 1.0 miles). Full text of Press Release More Images and Animations Image courtesy Landsat 7 Science Team and NASA GSFC

  10. Effects of high-pressure processing on Listeria monocytogenes , spoilage microflora and multiple compound quality indices in chilled cold-smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, R.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) on Listeria monocytogenes, microbial and chemical changes and shelf-life in chilled cold-smoked salmon (CSS).Methods and Results: First, challenge tests with L. monocytogenes were carried out using HPP of the product at 0.1 (control),...

  11. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  12. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamelfot, Maria; McBeath, Alastair; Christiansen, Debes H; Matejusova, Iveta; Falk, Knut

    2015-01-01

    All viruses infecting fish must cross the surface mucosal barrier to successfully enter a host. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of the economically important infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., has been shown to use the gills as its entry point. However, other entry ports have not been investigated despite the expression of virus receptors on the surface of epithelial cells in the skin, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the conjunctiva. Here we investigate the ISAV mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon after experimental immersion (bath) challenge and in farmed fish collected from a confirmed outbreak of ISA in Norway. We show for the first time evidence of early replication in several mucosal surfaces in addition to the gills, including the pectoral fin, skin and GI tract suggesting several potential entry points for the virus. Initially, the infection is localized and primarily infecting epithelial cells, however at later stages it becomes systemic, infecting the endothelial cells lining the circulatory system. Viruses of low and high virulence used in the challenge revealed possible variation in virus progression during infection at the mucosal surfaces. PMID:26490835

  13. Southeast continental shelf studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1979-02-12

    Research efforts on the southeast continental shelf currently describe the manner in which fluctuations in Gulf Stream motion influence biological and chemical processes. Current meter arrays are maintained in the Georgia Bight and in Onslow Bay to describe general circulation patterns and to identify forcing functions. biological studies describe processes affecting temporal and spatial variations on the shelf and have attempted to track the biological history of intruded Gulf Stream water masses. Chemical studies examine the influence of both physical and biological variables on the distribution and fate of trace elements. The current state of knowledge is reviewed, the hypotheses developed and are described, a rationale for testing these hypotheses is given. 1 figure, 1 table.

  14. Distribution, size, and interannual, seasonal and diel food habits of northern Gulf of Alaska juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Janet L.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Cross, Alison D.; Moss, Jamal H.; Davis, Nancy D.; Myers, Katherine W.; Walker, Robert V.; Beauchamp, David A.; Haldorson, Lewis J.

    2005-01-01

    -September. These prey were not necessarily the planktonic species with the greatest biomass or highest abundance on the shelf. Pink salmon fed on prey that were highly visible during daylight hours in the neuston and upper 10 m of the water column. Further work will integrate food habits with fish condition and growth data, zooplankton abundance, and water temperature to develop foraging and bioenergetics models. These models will enable us to assess the habitat quality and growth conditions for juvenile pink salmon and contribute to the goal of understanding how pink salmon and, therefore, tertiary production are affected by changes in ocean conditions.

  15. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    when tidal ranges are more than 1.5 m with higher probability of occurrence with increase in tidal range. Because of the presence of large solitons and macro-tides, mixing of waters is expected to be comparatively more intense on the Ayeyarwady shelf... is more than 70% as organic matter in rivers is not subject to intensive processing and replacement in the floodplains and deltaic regions as well as rapid burial at sea (Ramaswamy et al., 2008). Terrigenous organic carbon content decreases gradually...

  16. Anti-listerial inhibitory lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial cold smoked salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Tome, Elisabetta; Teixeira, Paula; Gibbs, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    The natural microflora of cold-smoked fish at the end of shelf-life are lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Some of these display a capacity to inhibit spoilage as well as several strains of pathogenic micro-organisms, e.g. Listeria monocytogenes which is isolated frequently from cold-smoked salmon (CSS). Eight batches of sliced vacuum-packed CSS from Norway, Scotland and Spain were collected at retail. Packs were stored at 5 1C and examined for chemical and microbiological characteristic...

  17. Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for You Consumers Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Email Print FAQs Main Page What is the shelf life of cosmetics? The shelf life for eye-area ...

  18. Development of performance objectives for Listeria monocytogenes contaminated salmon (Salmo salar) intended used as sushi and sashimi based on analyses of naturally contaminated samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjerdal, Taran; Reitehaug, Elin; Eckner, Karl

    2014-08-01

    Raw salmon is commonly used in sushi and sashimi, indicating that fresh salmon may be considered as a ready-to-eat product. Listeria monocytogenes is occasionally present in fresh salmon, but studies of prevalence and growth of the bacterium in this matrix have been few. In the present study, salmon from a company where L. monocytogenes is present in low levels has been investigated in order to develop performance objectives for L. monocytogenes in fresh salmon intended for use in ready-to-eat products as sushi and sashimi. According to the European Food Law, the maximum level of L. monocytogenes on the last day of shelf life is 100 cfu/g. The variations between and within eight batches have been determined, and the results were used to estimate limit values for L. monocytogenes in salmon and develop a tentative sampling plan for the processing day. Various time-temperature scenarios for storage until the fish is consumed as sushi, sashimi or native fillets have been taken into account. The results indicate that limit values in the range from 0.5 to 10 cfu/g are sufficient to ensure that the regulatory limit of sushi within one week of storage at 4°C after filleting, no samples should have higher levels of L. monocytogenes than 2 cfu/g at the day of filleting. PMID:24784883

  19. Early marine growth of pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal gulf of Alaska during years of low and high survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, A.D.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Myers, K.W.; Moss, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Although early marine growth has repeatedly been correlated with overall survival in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of smolt-to-adult survival. Smolt-to-adult survival of pink salmon O. gorbuscha returning to Prince William Sound was lower than average for juveniles that entered marine waters in 2001 and 2003 (3% in both years), and high for those that entered the ocean in 2002 (9%) and 2004 (8%). We used circulus patterns from scales to determine how the early marine growth of juvenile pink salmon differed (1) seasonally during May-October, the period hypothesized to be critical for survival; (2) between years of low and high survival; and (3) between hatchery and wild fish. Juvenile pink salmon exhibited larger average size, migrated onto the continental shelf and out of the sampling area more quickly, and survived better during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003. Pink salmon were consistently larger throughout the summer and early fall during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003, indicating that larger, faster-growing juveniles experienced higher survival. Wild juvenile pink salmon were larger than hatchery fish during low-survival years, but no difference was observed during high-survival years. Differences in size among years were determined by some combination of growing conditions and early mortality, the strength of which could vary significantly among years. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  20. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  1. On the Shelf Life of Pharmaceutical Products

    OpenAIRE

    Capen, Robert; Christopher, David; Forenzo, Patrick; Ireland, Charles; Liu, Oscar; Lyapustina, Svetlana; O’Neill, John; Patterson, Nate; Quinlan, Michelle; Sandell, Dennis; Schwenke, James; Stroup, Walter; Tougas, Terrence

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes new terminology that distinguishes between different concepts involved in the discussion of the shelf life of pharmaceutical products. Such comprehensive and common language is currently lacking from various guidelines, which confuses implementation and impedes comparisons of different methodologies. The five new terms that are necessary for a coherent discussion of shelf life are: true shelf life, estimated shelf life, supported shelf life, maximum shelf life, and label...

  2. Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A Rogers

    Full Text Available Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity, local host density (measured as cohort surface area, and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

  3. The effects of superchilled storage at -2 C on the microbiological and organoleptic properties of cold-smoked salmon before retail display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaufort, A. [AFSSA Lerqap, 23 avenue du General de Gaulle, FR-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France); Cardinal, M. [IFREMER, STAM, rue de l' Ile d' Yeu, FR- 44311 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Le-Bail, A. [ENITIAA, UMR GEPEA, CNRS 6144, rue de la Geraudiere, BP 82225, FR-44322 Nantes (France); Midelet-Bourdin, G. [AFSSA Lerppe, boulevard du Bassin Napoleon, FR-62200 Boulogne-sur-Mer (France)

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of superchilling (-2 C) on the evolution of Listeria monocytogenes and organoleptic characteristics of cold-smoked salmon samples. An Hadamard matrix experimental design was carried out on artificially inoculated samples stored at +4 C for 10 d and at +8 C for 18 d to know the influence of four factors: salt content, strain, cold stiffening and superchilling time, on the level of L.monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon. The growth of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated cold-smoked salmon and the organoleptic properties were investigated under superchilling conditions. Superchilling (-2 C for 28 d) had a limited impact on some of the organoleptic properties but the level of L. monocytogenes at the end of the shelf-life (4 C for 10 d and 8 C for 18 d) could exceed the microbiological criterion set by the European legislation. (author)

  4. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  5. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental...

  6. Karluk Lake sockeye salmon studies 1984: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on Karluk Lake sockeye salmon. The objectives of the study were to: collect sediment core samples from Karluk Lake...

  7. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  8. Industrial analysis of the farmed salmon industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arnar Sigurjónsson 1982

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a great consolidation of international food processors in the salmon farming industry in form of mergers and acquisitions (M&A). This development has not only been taking place between neighboring countries, but corporations have been investing in other continents. Marine Harvest Group (MHG) is the largest processor of farmed salmon in the world and has been the center of this development. The practical elements of the research are to support Marel, a major ...

  9. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Welch

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River.

  11. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  12. Carotenoid dynamics in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omholt Stig W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are pigment molecules produced mainly in plants and heavily exploited by a wide range of organisms higher up in the food-chain. The fundamental processes regulating how carotenoids are absorbed and metabolized in vertebrates are still not fully understood. We try to further this understanding here by presenting a dynamic ODE (ordinary differential equation model to describe and analyse the uptake, deposition, and utilization of a carotenoid at the whole-organism level. The model focuses on the pigment astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon because of the commercial importance of understanding carotenoid dynamics in this species, and because deposition of carotenoids in the flesh is likely to play an important life history role in anadromous salmonids. Results The model is capable of mimicking feed experiments analyzing astaxanthin uptake and retention over short and long time periods (hours, days and years under various conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the model provides information on where to look for possible genetic determinants underlying the observed phenotypic variation in muscle carotenoid retention. Finally, the model framework is used to predict that a specific regulatory system controlling the release of astaxanthin from the muscle is not likely to exist, and that the release of the pigment into the blood is instead caused by the androgen-initiated autolytic degradation of the muscle in the sexually mature salmon. Conclusion The results show that a dynamic model describing a complex trait can be instrumental in the early stages of a project trying to uncover underlying determinants. The model provides a heuristic basis for an experimental research programme, as well as defining a scaffold for modelling carotenoid dynamics in mammalian systems.

  13. Importance of salmon to wildlife: Implications for integrated management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, G.V.; Farley, Sean D.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Robbins, Charles T.

    2004-01-01

    Salmon (Oncorhynchuss pp.) are an importantr esourcef or terrestriawl ildlife. However, the salmon requirements of wildlife populations and the role wildlife play in nutrient transport across ecosystems are largely ignored in salmon and habitat management. Any activity that reduces the availability of or access to salmon by wildlife may adversely affect wildlife populations and, potentially, ecosystem-level processes. Thus, when the conservation of specific wildlife populations or healthy ecosystems is the management objective, allocation of salmon to wildlife should be considered. We provide an example of how such allocations could be calculated for a hypothetical bear population. Ultimately, salmon allocation for wildlife calls for integrated management of natural resources across agencies, across species, and across ecosystems. We summarize the current state of knowledge relativet o the interactionb etween Pacific salmon and the terrestriael cosystem, with special emphasis on the import of salmon to terrestrialw ildlife and the import of wildlife to terrestriala nd aquatic ecosystems

  14. Shelf response to intense offshore wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoll, Manel; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Espino, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Cross and along-shelf winds drive cross-shelf transport that promotes the exchange of tracers and nutrients to the open sea. The shelf response to cross-shelf winds is studied in the north shelf of the Ebro Delta (Mediterranean Sea), where those winds are prevalent and intense. Offshore winds in the region exhibit strong intensities (wind stress larger than 0.8 Pa) during winter and fall. The monthly average flow observed in a 1 year current meter record at 43.5 m was polarized following the isobaths with the along-shelf variability being larger than the cross-shelf. Prevalent southwestward along-shelf flow was induced by the three-dimensional regional response to cross-shelf winds and the coastal constraint. Seaward near-surface velocities occurred predominantly during offshore wind events. During intense wind periods, the surface cross-shelf water transport exceeded the net along-shelf transport. During typically stratified seasons, the intense cross-shelf winds resulted in a well-defined two-layer flow and were more effective at driving offshore transport than during unstratified conditions. While transfer coefficients between wind and currents were generally around 1%, higher cross-shelf transfer coefficients were observed in the near-inertial band. The regional extent of the resulting surface cold water during energetic cross-shelf winds events was concentrated around the region of the wind jet. Cross-shelf transport due to along-shelf winds was only effective during northeast wind events. During along-shelf wind conditions, the transport was estimated to be between 10 and 50% of the theoretical Ekman transport.

  15. Reconnecting Social and Ecological Resilience in Salmon Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Courtland L. Smith; Simenstad, Charles A.; Kim K. Jones; Daniel L. Bottom

    2009-01-01

    Fishery management programs designed to control Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for optimum production have failed to prevent widespread fish population decline and have caused greater uncertainty for salmon, their ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them. In this special feature introduction, we explore several key attributes of ecosystem resilience that have been overlooked by traditional salmon management approaches. The dynamics of salmon ecosystems involve social–ecologic...

  16. Assessment of the sustainability of organic salmon farming

    OpenAIRE

    Tveterås, Sigbjørn

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and sustainable aspects of food production are receiving increasingly more attention, which is also evident through the increasing demand for organic food products. This paper is concerned with the sustainability of organic salmon farming, an emerging segment of salmon aquaculture. The use of wild fish stocks in salmon feeds, pollution of local environments, escape of farmed salmons, the use of GMO raw materials in the feeds, medication of the fish, waste handling etc. are issue...

  17. Health management of hatched fry for sustainable salmon propagation and provide a "safe and worry-free" salmon product

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimizu, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable propagation of salmonid fish under the ocean ecosystem is essential for salmon industry. Salmonid fish including chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) and masu salmon (O. masou) are important species for hatchery reared and released fish in Japan. Diseases, especially viral and bacterial diseases are serious problems and one of the limitations of successful propagation and/or aquaculture of salmonid fish. Methods currently used to control the diseases in hatc...

  18. Oceanographic conditions beneath Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Einar Povl

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic ice shelves play a key role in the global climate system, acting as important sites for the cooling of shelf waters, thereby facilitating deep and bottom water formation. Many of the processes that take place under large ice shelves can be observed more conveniently beneath smaller ice shelves such as Fimbul Ice Shelf, an ice shelf in the eastern Weddell Sea. Fimbul Ice Shelf and nearby ice shelves might also play a significant regional role: although no bottom water is produced in ...

  19. Water masses of Visakhapatnam shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, V.S.

    The T-S relationships of shelf waters off Visakhapatnam in the Bay of Bengal are studied for the different seasons with the data collected during February 1979 to January 1981. The T-S relationships indicate distinct characteristics of the water...

  20. Comparative diets of subyearling Atlantic salmon and subyearling coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario could potentially be negatively affected by the presence of non-native salmonids that are naturalized in the basin. Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) have been spawning successfully in Lake Ontario tributaries for over 40 years and their juveniles will reside in streams with juvenile Atlantic salmon for one year. This study sought to examine interspecific diet associations between these species, and to compare diets to the composition of the benthos and drift in three Lake Ontario tributaries. Aquatic insects, mainly ephemeropterans and chironomids were the major prey consumed by subyearling Atlantic salmon whereas terrestrial invertebrates made up only 3.7% of the diet. Ephemeropterans and chironomids were the primary aquatic taxa consumed by subyearling coho salmon but, as a group, terrestrial invertebrates (41.8%) were the major prey. In sympatry, Atlantic salmon fed more actively from the benthos whereas the diet of coho salmon was more similar to the drift. The different feeding pattern of each species resulted in low interspecific diet similarity. There is likely little competition between these species for food in Lake Ontario tributaries as juveniles.

  1. Teratological hermaphroditism in the chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1957-01-01

    The anomalous condition of hermaphroditism appears to be no less rare in fish than in other normally dioecious animals. Previous records of bisexuality' in the Pacific salmons, Oncorhynchus spp., are few in number despite the intensive study accorded this group. Rutter (1902) reported the condition in two king salmon (O. tshawytscha); Crawford (1927) reported the condition in a silver salmon (O. kisutch); and Gibbs (1956) described a bisexual steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and briefly noted another instance of hermaphroditism in the king salmon. We wish to record an example of this anomaly in the chum salmon (O. keta).

  2. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  3. Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Peacock, Stephanie J.

    2013-04-01

    The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Evaluation of a chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in both the laboratory and the field. Chinook salmon in laboratory tanks were fed alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), the predominant food of chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. Food consumption and growth by chinook salmon during the experiment were measured. To estimate the efficiency with which chinook salmon retain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from their food in the laboratory, PCB concentrations of the alewife and of the chinook salmon at both the beginning and end of the experiment were determined. Based on our laboratory evaluation, the bioenergetics model was furnishing unbiased estimates of food consumption by chinook salmon. Additionally, from the laboratory experiment, we calculated that chinook salmon retained 75% of the PCBs contained within their food. In an earlier study, assimilation rate of PCBs to chinook salmon from their food in Lake Michigan was estimated at 53%, thereby suggesting that the model was substantially overestimating food consumption by chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. However, we concluded that field performance of the model could not be accurately assessed because PCB assimilation efficiency is dependent on feeding rate, and feeding rate of chinook salmon was likely much lower in our laboratory tanks than in Lake Michigan.

  5. Red salmon survival studies in Karluk Lake, Kodiak Island, 1957: Salmon survival investigations field report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on red salmon survival in Karluk Lake on Kodiak Island. The objectives were to systematically isolate, study, and...

  6. Red salmon investigations: Kodiak red salmon studies, plan of operations, April 1966 to April 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The broad objective of the Karluk research program is to study those aspects of the life cycle and ecology of red salmon pertinent to explaining the long-term...

  7. Salmon vulnerability maps - Effect of Climate Change on Salmon Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other Pacific salmon are threatened by unsustainable levels of harvest, genetic introgression from hatchery stocks and...

  8. Chum and pink salmon genetics - Genetic and life history variation of southern chum and pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The distribution of genetic and life history variation in chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon in their southern range in North America is key to...

  9. Salmon and steelhead genetics and genomics - Epigenetic and genomic variation in salmon and steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct analyses of epigenetic and genomic variation in Chinook salmon and steelhead to determine influence on phenotypic expression of life history traits....

  10. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  11. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  12. Kodiak bear-salmon study, Sulua Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Due to weir failure an accurate escapement figure was not obtained. The total was 14,581 tor all salmon returns at the weir plus upstream surveys totaled 15,008....

  13. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  14. Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Farley, E.V.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.; Walker, R.V.; Myers, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 (P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d-1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d-1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d-1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d-1) and not significantly different (P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks (P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant (P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

  15. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    The GABEX I experiment is designed to provide synoptic coverage of a series of Gulf Stream wave-like disturbances, the effect of these on the circulation of the entire shelf, and on biological and chemical processes. This study was initiated in February 1980 when current meter arrays were deployed. These meters will be removed in July 1980. In April three ships will simultaneously study the effects of Gulf Stream disturbances on the hydrography, chemistry, and biology of the shelf. One vessel will track a specific wave-like disturbance and provide synoptic coverage of the shelf area. The second vessel will determine the effect of shelf break processes on adjacent shelf water; and the third will study trace metal distributions in and outside of disturbances. Research progress is reported in continental shelf studies, nearshore and estuarine studies (diffusion of freshwater out of nearshore zone), tidal currents and material transport, and mixing of inlet plumes.

  16. Breaking through barriers to Norwegian fresh salmon trade with China by a new production technology

    OpenAIRE

    Luan, Lan

    2011-01-01

    Atlantic salmon export plays an important role in the total Norwegian seafood export. EU countries are currently the main markets for Norwegian salmon export. China is one of the countries which are expected to have an increased demand for Norwegian salmon. Norwegian fresh salmon exporters are currently facing the trade barriers with respect to new inspection regime and high transportation costs when they export fresh salmon to China. This study is investigating whether Coolnova salmon, fres...

  17. Size as indicator of origin of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nordhagen, J.R.; Heuch, P. A.; Schram, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) from farmed Atlantic salmon have been implicated in the drastic sea trout and salmon stock declines found in Ireland and Norway. Can salmon lice from farmed and wild fish be distinguished? The hypothesis has been advanced that the treatment of salmon infested with salmon lice with organophosphate pesticides has resulted in the evolution of early maturing, smaller female lice, which are favoured because they have the chance to reproduce before...

  18. The weeding handbook a shelf-by-shelf guide

    CERN Document Server

    Vnuk, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    "No! We can't rid of that!" Vnuk, author of the popular "Weeding Tips" column on Booklist Online, is here to show you that yes, you can. A library is an ever-changing organism; when done the right way, weeding helps a library thrive by focusing its resources on those parts of the collection that are the most useful to its users. Her handbook takes the guesswork out of this delicate but necessary process, giving public and school library staff the knowledge and the confidence to effectively weed any collection, of any size. Going through the proverbial stacks shelf by shelf, Vnuk: Explains why weeding is important for a healthy library, demonstrating that a vibrant collection leads to robust circulation, which in turn affects library budgets Walks readers through a library's shelves by Dewey area, with recommended weeding criteria and call-outs in each area for the different considerations of large collections and smaller collections Features a chapter addressing reference, media, magazines and newspapers, e-b...

  19. Shelf life of electronic/electrical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses inconsistencies which exist between various industry practices regarding the determination of shelf life for electrical and electronic components. New methodologies developed to evaluate the shelf life of electrical and electronic components are described and numerous tests performed at Commonwealth Edison Company's Central Receiving Inspection and Testing (CRIT) Facility are presented. Based upon testing and analysis using the Arrhenius methodology and typical materials used in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic components, shelf life of these devices was determined to be indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite shelf life are presented to ultimately reduce inventory and operating costs at nuclear power plants

  20. Columbia River basin fish and wildlife program strategy for salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three species of Snake River salmon have been listed as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act. In response, the Northwest Power Planning Council worked with the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington, Indian tribes, federal agencies and interest groups to address the status of Snake River salmon runs in a forum known as the Salmon Summit. The Summit met in 1990 and 1991 and reached agreement on specific, short-term actions. When the Summit disbanded in April 1991, responsibility for developing a regional recovery plan for salmon shifted to the Council. The Council responded with a four-phased process of amending its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The first three phases. completed in September 1992, pertain to salmon and steelhead. Phase four, scheduled for completion in October 1993, will take up issues of resident fish and wildlife. This paper deals with the first three phases, collectively known as Strategy for Salmon

  1. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  2. Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Bölscher; Erik van Slobbe; Michelle T.H. van Vliet; Saskia E. Werners

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon reintroduction because of projected increases in water temperatures in a changing climate. This suggests a need to rethink the current salmon reintroduction ambitions or to start developing adaptiv...

  3. Cathepsin activity and texture in Atlantic salmon muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Yuancheng

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsins, a family of lysosomal proteases, are believed to play a role in muscle tenderization. In the present study the activity of cathapsin B+L in Atlantic salmon muscle and a possible influence on the textural quality was studied. Total of 98 Atlantic salmon from 10 families were slaughtered and pre-rigor filleted. This salmon fillet texture was measured instrumentally at 5 days post-mortem. The cathapsin activities were measured on muscle samples frozen immediately after slaughter. Sta...

  4. Genetic differentiation between Atlantic salmon populations in the Windermere catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, S.E.; Pickering, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic analysis, using single locus probes for genomic DNA, revealed that the juvenile Atlantic salmon populations in the Rivers Leven, Rothay and Troutbeck were related but genetically distinct. This genetic differentiation is greater than might be expected (by comparison with other salmon populations in the UK) and it is recommended that no action is taken which might promote genetic exchange between the three rivers. Thus, future fisheries management practices should treat the salmon from...

  5. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confir...

  6. Consumption of salmon. A survey of supermarkets in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lingling

    2003-01-01

    To keep up with the recent trends in consumer demand for salmon product in supermarkets, an understanding of the relationship between consumption and variation of lifestyle is needed. The present paper seeks to address this question by hypothesizing that consumption is strongly influenced by consumers’ sociodemograhic status, experience of salmon, beliefs with salmon’s attributes and preference for the preferred type of salmon. Understanding the main lifestyle factors influe...

  7. Reconnecting Social and Ecological Resilience in Salmon Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtland L. Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fishery management programs designed to control Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. for optimum production have failed to prevent widespread fish population decline and have caused greater uncertainty for salmon, their ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them. In this special feature introduction, we explore several key attributes of ecosystem resilience that have been overlooked by traditional salmon management approaches. The dynamics of salmon ecosystems involve social–ecological interactions across multiple scales that create difficult mismatches with the many jurisdictions that manage fisheries and other natural resources. Of particular importance to ecosystem resilience are large-scale shifts in oceanic and climatic regimes or in global economic conditions that unpredictably alter social and ecological systems. Past management actions that did not account for such changes have undermined salmon population resilience and increased the risk of irreversible regime shifts in salmon ecosystems. Because salmon convey important provisioning, cultural, and supporting services to their local watersheds, widespread population decline has undermined both human well-being and ecosystem resilience. Strengthening resilience will require expanding habitat opportunities for salmon populations to express their maximum life-history variation. Such actions also may benefit the “response diversity” of local communities by expanding the opportunities for people to express diverse social and economic values. Reestablishing social–ecological connections in salmon ecosystems will provide important ecosystem services, including those that depend on clean water, ample stream flows, functional wetlands and floodplains, intact riparian systems, and abundant fish populations.

  8. A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Ford

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries.

  9. The quality of cold smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this Ph. D. thesis was to study the liquid holding capacity/liquid loss of raw and smoked salmonids as affected by raw material and chill storage of the cold smoked product. The liquid holding capacity is an important quality parameter for cold smoked salmon. This study has shown...... potential as a fast and non-destructive method to measure liquid holding capacity in fatty fish. In conclusion, this study has shown that the ability of the salmonid muscle to hold liquid is a complex property influenced by many factors. The experiments in this thesis have shown that raw material and chill...... storage of the smoked product affected the liquid holding capacity. Thus, the producers of cold smoked salmon should be aware of this and should have a careful control of the raw material especially regarding the lipid content....

  10. Swell transformation across the continental shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Tinder, Cynthia Viernes

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of swell decay across the continental shelf was conducted using data from the SHOaling Waves EXperiment (SHOWEX). Six Datawell Directional Waverider buoys were deployed along a cross-shelf transect, offshore of Duck, North Carolina during an active hurricane season in the fall of 1999.

  11. Off-the-Shelf Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier

    some of the challenges introduced by the use of low-cost and off-the-shelf components for gaze interaction. The main contributions are: - Development and performance evaluation of the ITU Gaze Tracker, an off-the-shelf gaze tracker that uses an inexpensive webcam or video camera to track the user’s eye...

  12. Ethics and credibility of organic salmon regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Aarset, Bernt

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this report is to establish how important standardisations of regulations is for the credibility of organic fish products, from the viewpoint of consumers, producers, animal welfare groups, and environmentalists. Establish what constitutes ethical (or acceptable) regulations of organic fish farming, and in particular of organic salmon farming from a viewpoint of consumers, animal welfare groups and environmentalists in Norway. The views that are presented here are based on in...

  13. Holocene marine tephrochronology on the Iceland shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guomundsdottir, Esther Ruth; Eiriksson, Jón; Larsen, Guorun

    2012-01-01

    Currently the Late-glacial and Holocene marine tephrochronology on the shelf around Iceland comprises 130 tephra layers from 30 sediment cores ranging in age from 15,000 years cal. BP to AD 1947. A vast majority of the cores and tephra layers are from the North Iceland shelf Much fewer tephra...... layers have been found on the South and West Iceland shell The early Holocene Saksunarvatn ash and Vedde Ash are the only tephra layers identified on all investigated shelf areas. For the last 15,000 years correlated tephra layers from the shelf sediments around Iceland to their terrestrial counterparts...... both in Iceland and overseas are 40 of which 26 are terrestrially dated tephra markers. Thirty correlations are within the last 7050 years. The terrestrially dated tephra markers found on the shelf have been used to constrain past environmental variability in the region, as well as marine reservoir age...

  14. Chinook salmon foraging patterns in a changing Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Claramunt, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Since Pacific salmon stocking began in Lake Michigan, managers have attempted to maintain salmon abundance at high levels within what can be sustained by available prey fishes, primarily Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are the primary apex predators in pelagic Lake Michigan and patterns in their prey selection (by species and size) may strongly influence pelagic prey fish communities in any given year. In 1994–1996, there were larger Alewives, relatively more abundant alternative prey species, fewer Chinook Salmon, and fewer invasive species in Lake Michigan than in 2009–2010. The years 2009–2010 were instead characterized by smaller, leaner Alewives, fewer alternative prey species, higher abundance of Chinook Salmon, a firmly established nonnative benthic community, and reduced abundance of Diporeia, an important food of Lake Michigan prey fish. We characterized Chinook Salmon diets, prey species selectivity, and prey size selectivity between 1994–1996 and 2009–2010 time periods. In 1994–1996, Alewife as prey represented a smaller percentage of Chinook Salmon diets than in 2009–2010, when alewife comprised over 90% of Chinook Salmon diets, possibly due to declines in alternative prey fish populations. The size of Alewives eaten by Chinook Salmon also decreased between these two time periods. For the largest Chinook Salmon in 2009–2010, the average size of Alewife prey was nearly 50 mm total length shorter than in 1994–1996. We suggest that changes in the Lake Michigan food web, such as the decline in Diporeia, may have contributed to the relatively low abundance of large Alewives during the late 2000s by heightening the effect of predation from top predators like Chinook Salmon, which have retained a preference for Alewife and now forage with greater frequency on smaller Alewives.

  15. Effects of high-pressure processing on Listeria monocytogenes , spoilage microflora and multiple compound quality indices in chilled cold-smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, R.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2004-01-01

    did not inactivate L. monocytogenes but significant lag phases of 17 and 10 days were observed at ca 5 and 10degreesC, respectively. HPP with 200 MPa had a marked effect on both colour and texture of CSS.Conclusions: High-pressure processing was unable to prevent growth of L. monocytogenes or spoilage...... of chilled CSS. Existing mathematical models allowed growth rates of L. monocytogenes and shelf-life of samples without high-pressure treatments to be predicted.Significance and Impact of the Study: High-pressure processing seems more appropriate for new types of salmon products than for a classical...

  16. Australia's North West Shelf Venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North West Shelf Venture is based in Karratha, 1500 km north of Perth in Western Australia. At a cost of $A12bn, it is the biggest and one of the most important natural resource developments in Australia. Originally constructed in 1984 to supply gas to the West Australian domestic and industrial market, the Venture is now the third-largest LNG exporter in the Asia-Pacific region, generating more than $A1.5bn a year in export income. The Venture supplies about 15 percent of Japan's LNG demand, or 7.5 million tonnes a year, to eight Japanese power and gas utilities under 20-year contracts. In addition, 'spot' sales have been made to Spain, South Korea, Turkey and the United States. The Venture also supplies more than 70 percent of Western Australia's domestic gas requirements and exports LPG, condensate and crude oil to global markets

  17. Microbial and sensorial models for head-on and gutted (HOG) Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) stored from 0 to 15 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Olivia J; Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Powell, Shane M; Tamplin, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    Predictive models offer efficient means to manage the quality and safety of highly perishable seafood. Salmon is an increasingly popular seafood, and relies on well managed domestic and international supply chains to minimize growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. While the literature describes predictive models for smoked and modified atmosphere packaged salmon, there are no reported models for spoilage bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes on head-on and gutted (HOG) aerobically-stored Atlantic salmon. Predictive models were developed for microbial and sensorial degradation of HOG Atlantic salmon stored at 0-15 °C until the end of shelf-life. Total Viable Count (TVC) and Pseudomonas spp. had similar growth rates at 0, 5 and 10 °C, but TVC rate was higher at 15 °C. L. monocytogenes growth rate at 0 °C was 0.004 log10 cfu/h, and showed a log-linear increase (R(2) = 0.99) to 0.079 log10 cfu/h at 15 °C. Sensory Quality Index (QI) scores were 2.4, 4.5, and 7.2 times greater at 5, 10 and 15 °C, respectively, compared to 0 °C. QI and TVC rates had a relatively strong relationship at 5 (R(2) = 0.87), 10 (R(2) = 0.80) and 15 °C (R(2) = 0.78), compared to 0 °C (R(2) = 0.50). These models are potential tools to manage the safety and quality of HOG Atlantic salmon in supply chains. PMID:27052713

  18. Estuarine Habitats for Juvenile Salmon in the Tidally-Influenced Lower Columbia River and Estuary : Reporting Period September 15, 2008 through May 31, 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, António M. [Oregon Health & Science University, Science and Technology Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction

    2009-08-02

    This work focuses on the numerical modeling of Columbia River estuarine circulation and associated modeling-supported analyses conducted as an integral part of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional effort led by NOAA's Northwest Fisheries Science Center. The overall effort is aimed at: (1) retrospective analyses to reconstruct historic bathymetric features and assess effects of climate and river flow on the extent and distribution of shallow water, wetland and tidal-floodplain habitats; (2) computer simulations using a 3-dimensional numerical model to evaluate the sensitivity of salmon rearing opportunities to various historical modifications affecting the estuary (including channel changes, flow regulation, and diking of tidal wetlands and floodplains); (3) observational studies of present and historic food web sources supporting selected life histories of juvenile salmon as determined by stable isotope, microchemistry, and parasitology techniques; and (4) experimental studies in Grays River in collaboration with Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) and the Columbia Land Trust (CLT) to assess effects of multiple tidal wetland restoration projects on various life histories of juvenile salmon and to compare responses to observed habitat-use patterns in the mainstem estuary. From the above observations, experiments, and additional modeling simulations, the effort will also (5) examine effects of alternative flow-management and habitat-restoration scenarios on habitat opportunity and the estuary's productive capacity for juvenile salmon. The underlying modeling system is part of the SATURN1coastal-margin observatory [1]. SATURN relies on 3D numerical models [2, 3] to systematically simulate and understand baroclinic circulation in the Columbia River estuary-plume-shelf system [4-7] (Fig. 1). Multi-year simulation databases of circulation are produced as an integral part of SATURN, and have multiple applications in understanding estuary

  19. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  20. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  1. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  2. Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  3. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  4. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  5. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  6. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  7. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (56 FR 14920, 14921). Following five-year reviews... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (71 FR 7512). The Commission is now conducting...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ \\1\\ No response to this request...

  8. Characterization of bone from red salmon and Pacific cod frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2008 estimated harvests of Pacific cod and all salmon species from Alaska waters was 207,000 mt and 322,000 mt, respectively. If all the harvest would be processed to boneless fillets it is estimated the amounts of frames produced would be 37,000 mt from cod and 58,000 mt from salmon. There is ...

  9. Size as indicator of origin of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordhagen, J.R.; Heuch, P.A.; Schram, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) from farmed Atlantic salmon have been implicated in the drastic sea trout and salmon stock declines found in Ireland and Norway. Can salmon lice from farmed and wild fish be distinguished? The hypothesis has been advanced that the treatment of salmo

  10. Antibody against infectious salmon anaemia virus among feral Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Archived sera from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that returned to the Penobscot River (Maine), Merrimack River (Massachusetts), and Connecticut River (in Massachusetts) from 1995 to 2002 were analysed for antibodies against infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Up to 60 samples were archived per river system per year. In a given year, the number of fish sampled by ELISA for ISAV antibodies in the Penobscot River ranged from 2.9 to 11.2, and the range of salmon sampled in the Merrimack River and the Connecticut River was 31.3-100 and 20.0-67.5, respectively. Archived sera were not available for the 1995 and 2002 year classes from the Connecticut River. In all, 1141 samples were processed; 14 serum samples tested positive for antibodies to ISAV. In the Penobscot River, serum from one fish tested positive in each of the 1995 and 1999 year-class returns, and sera from two fish tested positive in the 1998 returns. In the Merrimack River, sera from four fish tested positive in each of the 1996 and 1997 returns, and sera from two fish were positive in the 2002 return. None of the archived sera from Atlantic salmon that returned to the Connecticut River tested positive. ?? 2009 United States Government, Department of the Interior.

  11. Salmon Futures: Stakeholder-driven salmon management scenarios under changing environmental conditions on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, E. J.; Krupa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the adaptive capacity of individuals within natural resource management agencies is a key component of assessing the vulnerability of salmon to future environmental change. We seek to explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula by exploring the drivers and implications of different salmon allocation scenarios through participatory workshops with managers. We present here the initial results from the first workshop, which explores the various drivers responsible for changes in salmon allocation. Ranging from global to local, and biophysical to socioeconomic, these drivers are also linked to specific actors in the region. These complex interactions comprise the Kenai Peninsula's social-ecological system and determine its ability to react to change. Using a stakeholder-driven scenario framework, we aim to: 1) explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies in the region by exploring and exposing managers to different but logically coherent salmon allocation scenarios; 2) build stakeholder confidence in the science of environmental change on the Kenai Peninsula; and 3) develop a decision support tool that helps regional resource managers better understand their changing environment. We utilize and present the scenario framework as a platform for integrating hydrologic, landscape, and cultural change information into actionable decisions, crafted by the stakeholders, so that landscape change on the Kenai becomes more coordinated.

  12. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  13. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  14. The shelf life of dyed polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term stability of the radiation response of Harwell Red 4034 and Amber 3042 Perspex Dosimeters has been monitored for more than 15 years, and the resulting data used in the justification of their shelf-life specifications

  15. Continental Shelf Boundary - Alaska NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundaries (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  16. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  17. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  18. Modified, Packaged Tortillas Have Long Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Charles; Glaus-Late, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Tortillas made from modified recipe and sealed in low-pressure nitrogen in foil pouches in effort to increase their shelf life at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that shelf life of these tortillas at least five months; in contrast, commercial tortillas last only few days. Part of water in recipe replaced with glycerin. Particularly necessary to avoid Clostridium botulinum, which grows in anaerobic environments and produces deadly toxin that causes botulism.

  19. Boron/aluminum shelf for shuttle orbiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron/aluminum skins and channels were used in the fabrication of a prototype honeycomb sandwich avionics shelf. The avionic shelves are stiffness-critical and must be vibration tolerant. In conjunction with the shelf mounting system, they must isolate the avionics equipment from the severe vibration of the primary and secondary structure nearby. Design rationale, fabrication procedures, vibration test criteria and test results are presented. (9 fig) (U.S.)

  20. Radurisation of broilers for shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radurization is discussed as a method for the shelf life extension of refrigerated chicken carcasses. One of the advantages is that radurization eliminates potential food pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella in the chicken carcasses. Materials and methods for the radurization of chicken are discussed. The objective of the investigation was to determine the influence of different irradiation doses and storage conditions on the microbiological shelf life and organoleptic quality of fresh broilers

  1. Freshwater peat on the continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, K.O.; Wigley, R.L.; Bartlett, A.S.; Rubin, M.; Barghoorn, E.S.

    1967-01-01

    Freshwater peats from the continental shelf off northeastern United States contain the same general pollen sequence as peats from ponds that are above sea level and that are of comparable radiocarbon ages. These peats indicate that during glacial times of low sea level terrestrial vegetation covered the region that is now the continental shelf in an unbroken extension from the adjacent land areas to the north and west.

  2. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  3. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  4. Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) habitat/limnologic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock

  5. Radio telemetry data - Characterizing migration and survival for juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon between the upper Salmon River basin and Lower Granite Dam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project estimates survival and characterizes the migration of juvenile sockeye salmon between the upper Salmon River basin in central Idaho and Lower Granite...

  6. Chemical data for 7 streams in Salmon River Basin - Importance of biotic and abiotic features of salmon habitat implications for juvenile Chinook and steelhead growth and survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a large-scale, long-term comparative study that includes many streams (20+ streams in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho, including a few non-salmon streams for...

  7. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shelf-life codes. 101-27...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use of a one-digit code to provide for uniform coding of shelf-life materials by all agencies. (a)...

  8. Comparative transcriptomics of Atlantic Salmo salar, chum Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon O. gorbuscha during infections with salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, Ben JG; Koczka, Kim W; Yasuike, Motoshige; Jantzen, Stuart G; Yazawa, Ryosuke; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon RM

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmon species vary in susceptibility to infections with the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Comparing mechanisms underlying responses in susceptible and resistant species is important for estimating impacts of infections on wild salmon, selective breeding of farmed salmon, and expanding our knowledge of fish immune responses to ectoparasites. Herein we report three L. salmonis experimental infection trials of co-habited Atlantic Salmo salar, chum Oncorhynchus keta and pink...

  9. Physiological and biochemical basis of salmon young ifshes migratory behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-01-01

    The review presents data on structural changes, physiological and biochemical reactions occurring at salmon young fishes during smoltification. It is shown, that young salmon fishes located in fresh water, in the process of smoltification undergo a complex of structural, physiological and biochemical changes directed on preparation of the organism for living in the sea. These changes cause stress reaction which excites young fishes to migrate down the river towards the sea. Measures to improve reproduction of young salmon fishes at fish farms are offered.

  10. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTIOUS SALMON ANEMIA (ISA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Østergaard, Peter;

    The first outbreak of ISA on the Faroe Islands was diagnosed in March 2000. Despite intensive surveillance, control and eradication of ISA, the disease has since spread to most of the Faroe Islands affecting about half of the 23 aquaculture farms. Sampling and laboratory diagnosis of ISA is perfo......The first outbreak of ISA on the Faroe Islands was diagnosed in March 2000. Despite intensive surveillance, control and eradication of ISA, the disease has since spread to most of the Faroe Islands affecting about half of the 23 aquaculture farms. Sampling and laboratory diagnosis of ISA...... of freedom of ISA should be established in order to prevent further spread of the disease. In order to harmonise diagnostic procedures for ISA recurrent international inter-laboratory proficiency tests will be organised. References: Mjaaland, S., Rimstad, E., Falk, K. & Dannevig B.H. (1997). Genomic...... characterisation of the virus causing infectious salmon anemia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L): an orthomyxo-like virus in a teleost....

  11. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1986-04-01

    This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

  12. AFSC/ABL: Adult Pink Salmon Predation in Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska, 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project objectives were to assess potential salmon predation impact on juvenile salmon and herring by: (1) comparing diets of adult pink salmon during their...

  13. Localised Infection of Atlantic Salmon Epithelial Cells by HPR0 Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aamelfot

    Full Text Available Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA is an important, systemic viral disease of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Endothelial cells are the main target cells for highly virulent HPR-deleted ISA virus (ISAV types. Here we examine the pathogenesis of non-virulent ISAV HPR0 infections, presenting evidence of an epithelial tropism for this virus type, including actual infection and replication in the epithelial cells. Whereas all HPR0 RT-qPCR positive gills prepared for cryosection tested positive by immunohistochemistry (IHC and immunofluorescent labelling, only 21% of HPR0 RT-qPCR positive formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gills were IHC positive, suggesting different methodological sensitivities. Only specific epithelial cell staining was observed and no staining was observed in endothelial cells of positive gills. Furthermore, using an ISAV segment 7 RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated splicing of HPR0, suggesting initial activation of the replication machinery in the epithelial gill cells. Immunological responses were investigated by the expression of interferon-related genes (e.g. Mx and γIP and by ELISA for presence of anti-ISAV antibodies on samples taken sequentially over several months during an episode of transient HPR0 infection. All fish revealed a variable, but increased expression of the immunological markers in comparison to normal healthy fish. Taken together, we conclude that HPR0 causes a localized epithelial infection of Atlantic salmon.

  14. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  15. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  16. 1982 Aleutian Islands salmon stock assessment study: Legislative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a comprehensive research study of the Aleutian Islands salmon resources in 1982. The study encompassed the area west of Unimak Pass to Attu...

  17. AFSC/ABL: Movements of Yukon River Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, relatively pristine river basin. A total of...

  18. Isotopes - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  19. Diet - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  20. Costs of climate change: Economic value of Yakima River salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.M.; Shankle, S.A.; Scott, M.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Chatters, J.C.

    1992-07-01

    This work resulted from a continuing multidisciplinary analysis of species preservation and global change. The paper explores the economic cost of a potential regional warming as it affects one Pacific Northwest natural resource, the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshcawytscha). Climate change and planned habitat improvements impact the production and economic value of soling chinook salmon of the Yakima River tributary of the Columbia River in eastern Washington. The paper presents a derivation of the total economic value of a chinook salmon, which includes the summation of the existence, commercial, recreational, and capital values of the fish. When currently available commercial, recreational, existence, and capital values for chinook salmon were applied to estimated population changes, the estimated change in the economic value per fish associated with reduction of one fish run proved significant.

  1. Costs of climate change: Economic value of Yakima River salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work resulted from a continuing multidisciplinary analysis of species preservation and global change. The paper explores the economic cost of a potential regional warming as it affects one Pacific Northwest natural resource, the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshcawytscha). Climate change and planned habitat improvements impact the production and economic value of soling chinook salmon of the Yakima River tributary of the Columbia River in eastern Washington. The paper presents a derivation of the total economic value of a chinook salmon, which includes the summation of the existence, commercial, recreational, and capital values of the fish. When currently available commercial, recreational, existence, and capital values for chinook salmon were applied to estimated population changes, the estimated change in the economic value per fish associated with reduction of one fish run proved significant

  2. Habitat Areas for the Puget Sound Chinook Salmon ESU

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These GIS data contain stream reaches that were identified as habitat areas for the Puget Sound Chinook Salmon (CKPUG) Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). These...

  3. Sockeye Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SOCKEYE SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  4. Pink Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for PINK SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  5. AFSC/ABL: 2007-2013 Chinook Salmon Bycatch Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analyses of samples from the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bycatch from the 2007-2013 Bering Sea-Aleutian Island and Gulf of Alaska trawl...

  6. AFSC/ABL: Sockeye salmon genetics - 1986 mixed stock fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incidence of four discrete characters of individual sockeye salmon -two genetically inherited proteins (PGM-1and PGM-2) , freshwater age at migration, and the...

  7. Juvenile Salmon Scale Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  8. Fish Health data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  9. Light Experiment data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  10. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  11. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  12. 1992 Columbia River salmon flow measures Options Analysis/EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described

  13. Critical Habitat for the Lower Columbia River Chinook Salmon ESU

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These GIS data contain stream reaches that were designated as "critical habitat" for the Lower Columbia River (LCR) Chinook salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit...

  14. Critical Habitat for the Columbia River Chum Salmon ESU

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These GIS data contain stream reaches that were designated as "critical habitat" for the Columbia River (CR) Chum salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The...

  15. Critical Habitat for the Ozette Lake Sockeye Salmon ESU

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These GIS data contain stream reaches that were designated as "critical habitat" for the Ozette Lake (OL) Sockeye salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The...

  16. Puget Sound Chinook Salmon Nearshore Marine Area Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nearshore marine areas within the Puget Sound have been designated as Critical Habitat for the Puget Sound (PS) Chinook salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit...

  17. Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery Land Status Map [1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  18. SALMON RECOVERY: DEFENDING REALITY, DELUSIONS, AND OTHER ASSORTED TRUTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are professional fisheries scientists collectively guilty of encouraging delusions about the possibilities for restoring wild salmon to the Pacific Northwest? Do they perpetuate the fantasy that the Pacific Northwest will (or could, absent pervasive life-style changes) support w...

  19. Near coastal ocean attributes of salmon - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  20. AFSC/ABL: Naknek sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Naknek River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game....

  1. AFSC/ABL: Ugashik sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 b?? 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Ugashik River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and...

  2. Air flotation treatment of salmon processing waste water

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses methods for the reduction of the pollution strength of salmon processing waste water. Past research has indicated the success of air pressure...

  3. Kidney disease postorbital lesions in spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Jerry D.; Leek, Steve L.

    1975-01-01

    Gross exophthalmos in one or both eyes of yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was caused by postorbital, granulomatous inflammatory tissue that developed in response to invasion of the site by Corynebacterium sp., the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease.

  4. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  5. Critical Habitat for the Upper Willamette River Chinook Salmon ESU

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These GIS data contain stream reaches that were designated as "critical habitat" for the Upper Willamette River (UWR) Chinook salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit...

  6. Critical Habitat for the Puget Sound Chinook Salmon ESU

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These GIS data contain stream reaches that were designated as "critical habitat" for the Hood Canal Summer-run (HCS) chum salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit...

  7. Critical Habitat for the Puget Sound Chinook Salmon ESU

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These GIS data contain stream reaches that were designated as "critical habitat" for the Puget Sound (PS) Chinook salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The...

  8. Social Behavior - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  9. ESA Critical Habitat for the Oregon Coast Coho Salmon ESU

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These GIS data contain stream reaches that were designated as "critical habitat" for the Oregon Coast coho salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The...

  10. Why are not there more Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, D. L. [Vermont Univ., School of Natural Resources, Vermont Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Burlington, VT (United States); Behnke, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Gephard, S. R. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmnetal Protection, Fisheries Div., Old Lyme, CT (United States); McCormick, S. D. [Anadromous Fish Research Center, USGS/Biological Resources Div., Turners Falls, MA (United States); Reeves, G. H. [USDA Forest Service, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The causes of decline and extirpation of salmon on a global scale are investigated. In some cases single factors such as dams, pollution and dewatering, increased density of humans near salmon rivers, overfishing, changes in ocean conditions or intensive aquaculture could be identified as likely causes. The available evidence is not sufficient to link cause and effect for most declines because they are the result of multiple factors, and data that would help to discriminate factors on scales of space or time are lacking. For this reason, it is not possible to allocate the proportional impact of multiple factors that contribute to the the demise of salmon populations. More rigorous methodologies, including more effective sampling techniques, testing of multiple effects integrated across space and time, and adaptive management are needed to account for the continuing decline of salmon.

  11. Chum Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for CHUM SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  12. Coho Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for COHO SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  13. Chinook Bycatch - Contemporary Salmon Genetic Stock Composition Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to measure and monitor impacts on ESA-listed populations and to estimate overall Chinook salmon stock composition in bycatch...

  14. AFSC/ABL: Karluk sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To better understand how density-dependent growth of ocean-dwelling Pacific salmon varied with climate and population dynamics, we examined the marine growth of...

  15. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  16. [Microbiological rationale for using whey on salting salmon caviar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I N; Shtan'ko, T I

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides a rationale for the use of whey to salt salmon fishes instead of traditional preservatives, including those exported from low industrial potential countries, which do not undergo comprehensive sanitary and hygienic tests. On the basis of the performed studies, the authors recommend to use whey to salt salmon caviar, which ensures the ecological purity of the product containing the minimum amount of preservatives and other substances that fail to affect its organoleptic properties. PMID:21598650

  17. Scientific Considerations for Generic Synthetic Salmon Calcitonin Nasal Spray Products

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sau L.; Yu, Lawrence X.; Cai, Bing; Johnsons, Gibbes R.; Rosenberg, Amy S.; Cherney, Barry W.; Guo, Wei; Raw, Andre S.

    2010-01-01

    Under the Abbreviated New Drug Application pathway, a proposed generic salmon calcitonin nasal spray is required to demonstrate pharmaceutical equivalence and bioequivalence to the brand-name counterpart or the reference listed drug. This review discusses two important aspects of pharmaceutical equivalence for this synthetic peptide nasal spray product. The first aspect is drug substance sameness, in which a proposed generic salmon calcitonin product is required to demonstrate that it contain...

  18. Comparative Resilience in Five North Pacific Regional Salmon Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Courtland L. Smith; Xanthippe Augerot

    2010-01-01

    Over the past century, regional fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) have been managed primarily for their provisioning function, not for ecological support and cultural significance. We examine the resilience of the regional salmon fisheries of Japan, the Russian Far East, Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington-Oregon-California (WOC) in terms of their provisioning function. Using the three dimensions of the adaptive cycle—capital, connectedness, and resilience—we i...

  19. Salmon, Science, and Reciprocity on the Northwest Coast

    OpenAIRE

    D. Bruce Johnsen

    2009-01-01

    Severe depletion of many genetically distinct Pacific salmon populations has spawned a contentious debate over causation and the efficacy of proposed solutions. No doubt the precipitating factor was overharvesting of the commons beginning along the Northwest Coast around 1860. Yet, for millenia before that, a relatively dense population of Indian tribes managed salmon stocks that have since been characterized as “superabundant.” This study investigates how they avoided a tragedy o...

  20. A highly redundant BAC library of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar: an important tool for salmon projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koop Ben F

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As farming of Atlantic salmon is growing as an aquaculture enterprise, the need to identify the genomic mechanisms for specific traits is becoming more important in breeding and management of the animal. Traits of importance might be related to growth, disease resistance, food conversion efficiency, color or taste. To identify genomic regions responsible for specific traits, genomic large insert libraries have previously proven to be of crucial importance. These large insert libraries can be screened using gene or genetic markers in order to identify and map regions of interest. Furthermore, large-scale mapping can utilize highly redundant libraries in genome projects, and hence provide valuable data on the genome structure. Results Here we report the construction and characterization of a highly redundant bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library constructed from a Norwegian aquaculture strain male of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The library consists of a total number of 305 557 clones, in which approximately 299 000 are recombinants. The average insert size of the library is 188 kbp, representing 18-fold genome coverage. High-density filters each consisting of 18 432 clones spotted in duplicates have been produced for hybridization screening, and are publicly available 1. To characterize the library, 15 expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived overgos and 12 oligo sequences derived from microsatellite markers were used in hybridization screening of the complete BAC library. Secondary hybridizations with individual probes were performed for the clones detected. The BACs positive for the EST probes were fingerprinted and mapped into contigs, yielding an average of 3 contigs for each probe. Clones identified using genomic probes were PCR verified using microsatellite specific primers. Conclusion Identification of genes and genomic regions of interest is greatly aided by the availability of the CHORI-214 Atlantic salmon BAC

  1. Isolation of the promoters of Atlantic salmon MHCII genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Mohasina; Vestrheim, Olav; Mikkelsen, Birthe; Lundin, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) has a central role in the immune response of vertebrates with its function of presenting antigenic peptides to the T-cell receptors. We have isolated the promoters and intron 1 of MHCIIalpha and MHCIIbeta genes of Atlantic salmon. To isolate these promoters, we constructed an Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) promoter finder kit (analogous to the commercially available "human promoter finder kit"). By nucleotide sequence alignment of known MHCII promoter regions, we identified the 3 conserved regulatory X, X2, and Y boxes in the salmon promoters. The W box was not found. In contrast, a salmon-specific putative W box was identified. Both of the isolated Atlantic salmon MHCIIalpha and beta promoters (included in patent applications by Genomar A/S, Oslo, Norway) were found to be functional since they both gave positive yellow fluorescence protein signal when inserted as promoters in the pEYFP-1 reporter plasmid and transfected into the salmon head kidney cell line (SHK-1). PMID:14502397

  2. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  3. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  4. Comparative diets of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in the Salmon River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) have established naturalized populations throughout the Great Lakes. Young-of-year of these species occur sympatrically for about one month in Lake Ontario tributaries. This study examined the diets of subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead relative to available food in the Salmon River, New York. Terrestrial invertebrates and trichopterans were the major prey of Chinook salmon, whereas steelhead fed primarily on baetid nymphs and chironomid larvae. Diet overlap was low (0.45) between the species. The diet of Chinook was closely associated to the composition of the drift (0.88). Steelhead diet drew equally from the drift and benthos during the first year of the study, but more closely matched the benthos during the second year. Differences in prey selection, perhaps associated with differences in fish size, in addition to apparent differences in feeding mode (drift versus benthic), likely reduce competitive interactions between these species.

  5. Looking for sustainable solutions in salmon aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Bailey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development poses highly complex issues for those who attempt to implement it. Using the Brundtland Commission’s definition of sustainable development as a vantage point, this article discusses the issues posed by the production of one kind of food, farmed Atlantic salmon, as a means of illustrating the complexity, interconnectedness and high-data requirements involved in assessing whether a given industry is sustainable. These issues are explored using the three commonly accepted aspects of sustainability – its environmental, social and economic aspects – and the dilemmas posed by the need to make the trade-offs necessary among these. It concludes by arguing that decisions of this complexity require complex and multiple decision-making structures and suggests four that are essential for the task.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v8i1.1801

  6. Diet composition and feeding periodicity of wild and hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Diel feeding periodicity, daily ration, and diet composition of wild and hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were examined in Lake Ontario and the Salmon River, New York. The diet of wild riverine salmon was composed mainly of aquatic invertebrates (63.4%), mostly ephemeropterans (25.8%), chiromomids (15.8%), and trichopterans (8.3%). The diet of riverine Chinook was more closely associated with the composition of drift samples rather than bottom samples, suggesting mid-water feeding. In Lake Ontario terrestrial invertebrates were more important in the diet of hatchery Chinook (49.0%) than wild salmon (30.5%) and diet overlap between hatchery and wild salmon was low (0.46%). The diet of both hatchery and wild Chinook salmon was more closely associated with the composition of mid-water invertebrate samples rather than benthic core samples, indicating mid-water and surface feeding. Hatchery Chinook salmon consumed significantly less food (P Ontario consumed more food than wild salmon in the Salmon River. Peak feeding of wild Chinook salmon occurred between 1200-1600 hours in Lake Ontario and between 1600-2000 hours in the Salmon River; there was no discernable feeding peak for the hatchery Chinook in Lake Ontario. Hatchery Chinook salmon also had the least diverse diet over the 24-hour sample period. These results suggest that at 7 days post-stocking hatchery Chinook salmon had not yet fully adapted to their new environment.

  7. Space-time modelling of the spread of salmon lice between and within Norwegian marine salmon farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magne Aldrin

    Full Text Available Parasitic salmon lice are potentially harmful to salmonid hosts and farm produced lice pose a threat to wild salmonids. To control salmon lice infections in Norwegian salmonid farming, numbers of lice are regularly counted and lice abundance is reported from all salmonid farms every month. We have developed a stochastic space-time model where monthly lice abundance is modelled simultaneously for all farms. The set of farms is regarded as a network where the degree of contact between farms depends on their seaway distance. The expected lice abundance at each farm is modelled as a function of i lice abundance in previous months at the same farm, ii at neighbourhood farms, and iii other, unspecified sources. In addition, the model includes explanatory variables such as seawater temperature and farm-numbers of fish. The model gives insight into factors that affect salmon lice abundance and contributing sources of infection. New findings in this study were that 66% of the expected salmon lice abundance was attributed to infection within farms, 28% was attributed to infection from neighbourhood farms and 6% to non-specified sources of infection. Furthermore, we present the relative risk of infection between neighbourhood farms as a function of seaway distance, which can be viewed as a between farm transmission kernel for salmon lice. The present modelling framework lays the foundation for development of future scenario simulation tools for examining the spread and abundance of salmon lice on farmed salmonids under different control regimes.

  8. AFSC/ABL: Chum salmon bycatch genetic stock identification 1994-1995 Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In some years, the Bering Sea trawl fishery incidentally harvests (bycatch) large numbers of chum salmon. Because chum salmon were declining in some western Alaska...

  9. Innovations and guidelines for evaluating salmon enhancement channel sites in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the innovations and guidelines for evaluating salmon enhancement of channel sites in Alaska. An alternative salmon enhancement approach is that...

  10. AFSC/ABL: Genetic Analysis of Immature Bering Sea Chum Salmon: Part I. Baseline Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chum salmon populations from across their geographic distribution have been analyzed with a set of SNP and microsatellite markers. As is typical for chum salmon...

  11. Kudoa Images (Prevalence of Kudoa in Puget Sound salmon net pens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of this study is to assess the extent that net pen salmon in Puget Sound are infected with the Kudoa parasite. Farming Atlantic salmon is a major...

  12. Product Quality (Prevalence of Kudoa in Puget Sound salmon net pens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of this study is to assess the extent that net pen salmon in Puget Sound are infected with the Kudoa parasite. Farming Atlantic salmon is a major...

  13. Seabottom backscatter studies in the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    The study is initiated to observe the interaction effects of the sound signal with three different sediment bottoms in the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore in the western continental shelf of India. An echo signal acquisition system has been...

  14. Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics by month and summarized annually. Outer Continental Shelf consists of Gulf of Mexico, Pacific and...

  15. Migration problems of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in flow regulated rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Rivinoja, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Migration patterns of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and smolts of salmon and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied in the flow controlled areas of two northern Swedish rivers. Fish behaviour and migration success at passages of various hydropower facilities were evaluated in different flow regimes. In addition, the impacts of the power-stations on the salmon populations were modelled. On average, 30% (annual mean 0-47%) of the upstream migrating salmon that were captured at the mouth ...

  16. Reduced trace element concentrations in fast-growing juvenile Atlantic salmon in natural streams

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Darren M.; Keith H Nislow; Celia Y. Chen; Folt, Carol L

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of rapid individual growth on trace element concentrations in fish, we measured concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cd, Cs, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn) in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from 15 sites encompassing a 10-fold range in salmon growth. All salmon were hatched under uniform conditions, released into streams, and sampled ~120 days later for trace element analysis. For most elements, element concentrations in salmon tracked those in their prey. Fast-gro...

  17. The causal relationship between salmon prices and share prices. Price analysis on the Oslo Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira, Raquel Mosquera

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic salmon ((Salmo salar, Linneaus,1758)) is a commodity traded globally and salmon exports are one of the main sources of income for Norway. Despite the great growth both in supply and the demand in the last decades, there is still a substantial variability in industry profits level and an important part of such variability is due to fluctuation in salmon prices. This Master Thesis analyse whether this fluctuation is cause of the variability in share prices, for salmon producer compan...

  18. Elephant teeth from the atlantic continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, F.C., Jr.; Emery, K.O.; Cooke, H.B.S.; Swift, D.J.P.

    1967-01-01

    Teeth of mastodons and mastodons have been recovered by fishermen from at least 40 sites on the continental shelf as deep as 120 meters. Also present are submerged shorelines, peat deposits, lagoonal shells, and relict sands. Evidently elephants and other large mammals ranged this region during the glacial stage of low sea level of the last 25.000 years.

  19. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  20. Unacknowledged Health Benefits Of Genetically Modified Food - Salmon And Heart Disease Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Lutter, Randall; Tucker, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Randall Lutter and Katherine Tuckerargue that the marketing of GM salmon will lower salmon prices and increase consumption of salmon, an exceptionally good source of omega-3 fatty acids linked to lower risk of heart disease.The authors estimateestimate that the resulting increase in omega-3 intake will prevent between 600 and 2600 deaths per year in the U.S.

  1. Norwegian Salmon Goes to Market: The Case of the Austevoll Seafood Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyne, John; Hovgaard, Gestur; Hansen, Gard

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the globalisation of the farmed salmon commodity chain upon farmed salmon production in the western Norwegian municipality of Austevoll. On the basis of field research conducted in 2002 and 2003, we conclude that salmon farming in Austevoll has responded to the challenges of "buyer-driven" food chains by virtue of…

  2. MODELING THE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES AND NATIVE MICROFLORA IN SMOKED SALMON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoked salmon contaminated with L. monocytogenes has been implicated in foodborne listeriosis. The objectives of this study were to model the growth characteristics and examine the growth relationship of L. monocytogenes and native microflora in smoked salmon. Smoked salmon samples with a native m...

  3. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  4. Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bölscher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon reintroduction because of projected increases in water temperatures in a changing climate. This suggests a need to rethink the current salmon reintroduction ambitions or to start developing adaptive action. The paper shows that the moment at which salmon reintroduction may fail due to climate change can only be approximated because of inherent uncertainties in the interaction between salmon and its environment. The added value of the assessment presented in this paper is that it provides researchers with a set of questions that are useful from a policy perspective (by focusing on the feasibility of a concrete policy ambition under climate change. Thus, it offers opportunities to supply policy makers with practical insight in the relevance of climate change.

  5. Wild Steelhead Studies, Salmon and Clearwater Rivers, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubetz, Terry B; Leth, Brian D.

    1997-05-01

    To enumerate chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss adult escapements, weirs were operated in Marsh, Chamberlain, West Fork Chamberlain, and Running creeks. Beginning in late July 1994, a juvenile trap was installed in Running Creek to estimate juvenile outmigrants. Plans have been completed to install a weir in Rush Creek to enumerate steelhead adult escapement beginning in spring 1995. Design and agreements are being developed for Johnson Creek and Captain John Creek. Data collected in 1993 and 1994 indicate that spring chinook salmon and group-B steelhead populations and truly nearing extinction levels. For example, no adult salmon or steelhead were passed above the West Fork Chamberlain Creek weir in 1984, and only 6 steelhead and 16 chinook salmon were passed into the important spawning area on upper Marsh Creek. Group-A steelhead are considerably below desirable production levels, but in much better status than group-B stocks. Production of both group-A and group-B steelhead is being limited by low spawning escapements. Studies have not been initiated on wild summer chinook salmon stocks.

  6. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... n/a 18010102 CA Mad-Redwood Chinook and coho salmon Robert W. Matthews Dam 18010103 CA Upper Eel....) 18050006 CA San Francisco-Coastal South Coho salmon n/a 18020101 CA Sac.-Lower Cow-Lower Clear Chinook... CA Upper Cow - Battle Creek Chinook salmon n/a 18020119 CA Mill - Big Chico Chinook salmon...

  7. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  8. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  9. Subinertial and tidal currents on the Abrolhos Bank shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Belmiro M.; Dottori, Marcelo; Pereira, Adriene F.

    2013-11-01

    Analysis of simultaneous current measurements in the middle (point PA1) and outer (point PA2) Abrolhos Bank shelf showed different characteristics and forcing mechanisms between the two shelf regions. The mean currents at both positions point generally southwestward but are weak due to the high time variability; at PA1, the mean along-shelf currents are almost one order of magnitude larger than the mean cross-shelf currents, while at PA2, both mean current components exhibit the same order of magnitude. At both points, the tidal currents are more important in the cross-shelf direction than they are in the along-shelf direction. The subinertial currents are mainly barotropic and along-shelf at PA1, while at PA2, the baroclinic first mode dominates the subinertial variability, especially in the cross-shelf direction, though the currents are also more energetic in the along-shelf direction. Correlations are significant between the along-shelf subinertial currents and synoptic winds at PA1, showing a local response (almost in phase) to the wind stress. At PA2, the correlations between winds and currents are generally not significant, showing that the subinertial current variability near the shelf break is forced by other mechanisms; the mesoscale variability of the Brazil Current is most likely important at this position. A simple frictional balance model allows a dynamical interpretation of the significant correlations between winds and currents at PA1.

  10. Salmon caviar-induced anaphylactic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flais, Michael J; Kim, Susan S; Harris, Kathleen E; Greenberger, Paul A

    2004-01-01

    Foods, particularly shellfish and nuts, are commonly implicated as causes of anaphylaxis. Salmon caviar, to our knowledge, is an exceedingly rare cause of anaphylactic shock. This study describes a patient who experienced anaphylactic shock on her initial ingestion of caviar. Skin testing and inhibition assays using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed. On the percutaneous test, the patient had a 7 x 9 mm/15 x 55 mm wheal/ erythema reaction to caviar liquid. Caviar liquid caused 68, 73, and 73% inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/mL in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. There was no evidence for IgE antibodies that could be demonstrated to bind to the caviar eggs. Despite using both metoprolol and lisinopril, the patient responded promptly to subcutaneous epinephrine. This report indicates that an IgE-mediated response occurred after caviar ingestion. Although she experienced anaphylactic shock, the patient recovered quickly after epinephrine administration despite routine use of a 3-adrenergic blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. PMID:15510582

  11. Salmon calcitonin: conformational changes and stabilizer effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Yang Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic activity of peptides or protein drugs is highly dependent on their conformational structure. The protein structure is flexible and responds to external conditions, which may compromise the protein's native conformation and influence its physical and chemical stability. The physical and chemical stability of peptides or protein drugs are important characteristics of biopharmaceutical products. Calcitonin (CT is a polypeptide hormone that participates in diverse physiological functions in humans; therefore, it is a potentially useful protein for investigations of different aspects of pharmacology and drug delivery systems. Of the different types of CT available for clinical use, salmon CT (sCT is one of the most potent. In this review article, the commercially available sCT was selected as a suitable peptide candidate for the discussion of its stability and conformational changes in the aqueous and solid states using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic analysis under different external conditions, including pH, temperature, drying method, and added excipients. Particularly, excipients that have been optimized as stabilizers of sCT in aqueous solution and as lyophilized and spray-dried drug formulations are also discussed.

  12. Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum antigen in migrating adult chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, M; Atsuta, S; Kobayashi, M

    1992-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum antigen was detected in the kidney of migrating chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) using the indirect dot blot assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test. The adult chum salmon had migrated into a bay in which cultured coho salmon infected with R. salmoninarum were present. Antigen was detected in 5% of the chum salmon although they did not have clinical signs of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). This report describes the first case of R. salmoninarum antigen detection among wild chum salmon populations in eastern Asia. PMID:1548789

  13. Salmon, Science, and Reciprocity on the Northwest Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bruce Johnsen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe depletion of many genetically distinct Pacific salmon populations has spawned a contentious debate over causation and the efficacy of proposed solutions. No doubt the precipitating factor was overharvesting of the commons beginning along the Northwest Coast around 1860. Yet, for millenia before that, a relatively dense population of Indian tribes managed salmon stocks that have since been characterized as “superabundant.” This study investigates how they avoided a tragedy of the commons, where in recent history, commercial ocean fishers guided by scientifically informed regulators, have repeatedly failed. Unlike commercial fishers, the tribes enjoyed exclusive rights to terminal fisheries enforced through rigorous reciprocity relations. The available evidence is compelling that they actively husbanded their salmon stocks for sustained abundance.

  14. Evidence for a carrier state of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Hilaire, S; Ribble, C; Traxler, G; Davies, T; Kent, M L

    2001-10-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is prevalent in wild sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and has caused disease in seawater net-pen reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. In this study, chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha experimentally exposed to an isolate of IHNV found in British Columbia became carriers of the virus. When Atlantic salmon were cohabited with these virus-exposed chinook salmon, IHNV was isolated from the Atlantic salmon. Identification of chinook salmon populations that have been exposed to IHNV may be difficult, as virus isolation was successful only in fish that were concurrently infected with either Renibacterium salmoninarum or Piscirickettisia salmonis. Also, IHNV-specific antibodies were detected in only 2 of the 70 fish experimentally exposed to the virus. Two samples collected from chinook salmon exposed to IHNV while at a salt water net-pen site had a seroprevalence of 19 and 22%; however, the inconsistencies between our laboratory and field data suggest that further research is required before we can rely on serological analysis for identifying potential carrier populations. Because of the difficulty in determining the exposure status of populations of chinook salmon, especially if there is no concurrent disease, it may be prudent not to cohabit Atlantic salmon with chinook salmon on a farm if there is any possibility that the latter have been exposed to the virus. PMID:11710551

  15. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, D.J.; Wipfli, M.S.; Stricker, C.A.; Heintz, R.A.; Rinella, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  16. Selective breeding can increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia and infectious pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøglum, Sissel; Henryon, Mark; Aasmundstad, Torunn;

    2008-01-01

    We reasoned that by challenging large numbers of Atlantic salmon families with the causative agents of furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), we could show unequivocally that resistance to these diseases expresses moderate-to-high levels of additive...... genetic variation, and that the resistances are weakly correlated genetically. We tested this reasoning by challenging Atlantic salmon from 920 (approximately) full-sib families with the causative agents of furunculosis and ISA, and fish from 265 of these families with the causative agent of IPN. Additive...... genetic variation and genetic correlations were estimated by fitting a threshold liability model to the resistances assessed as binary traits. Resistance to furunculosis, ISA and IPN was moderate â€"to highly heritable. The marginal posterior means for heritability on the underlying liability scale were 0...

  17. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2015-12-01

    Salmon are a valuable cultural and economic resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  18. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  19. Unique Views of a Shattered Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Both single and multi-angle views of the breakup of the northern section of the Larsen B ice shelf are shown in this image pair from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer. The Larsen B ice shelf collapsed and broke away from the Antarctic Peninsula during February and March, 2002 -- a progression observed by Terra's Moderate-resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) and analyzed at the University of Colorado's National Snow and Ice Data Center. The collapse is thought to have been accelerated by warm summer temperatures which caused meltwater to fill crevasses along the landward side of the Larsen shelf, leading to intensified pressures within the sheet structure.In the left-hand view, spectral variations across the scene are highlighted by using near-infrared, red and blue data from MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera. Here, the ice within the disintegrating ice shelf appears vibrant blue. Water has an intrinsic blue color due to the selective absorption of longer wavelengths such as red and infrared, and the translucent properties of ice within the collapsing shelf enables this absorption to be observed. The use of the near-infrared band within this false-color composite accentuates the effect. Light brownish streaks across the splintering sheet can also be discerned, and probably indicate regions where rocks and morainal debris were exposed from the interior of the shelf.On the right, data from three different view angles and only one color channel were combined to create a multi-angle composite. This image displays red-band data from MISR's 46-degree forward, nadir, and 46-degree backward-viewing cameras as red, green and blue, respectively. Here, the disintegrating ice shelf and the rough crevasses of glaciers appear orange. In contrast to the spectral composite, which provides information on the chemical composition of water ice, the colors in the right-hand image represent properties related to its physical nature. Because vertical protrusions or

  20. Ice shelf structure derived from dispersion curve analysis of ambient seismic noise, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, A.; Bromirski, P. D.; Gerstoft, P.; Stephen, R. A.; Anthony, R. E.; Aster, R. C.; Cai, C.; Nyblade, A.; Wiens, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    An L-configured, three-component short period seismic array was deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica during November 2014. Polarization analysis of ambient noise data from these stations shows linearly polarized waves for frequency bands between 0.2 and 2 Hz. A spectral peak at about 1.6 Hz is interpreted as the resonance frequency of the water column and is used to estimate the water layer thickness below the ice shelf. The frequency band from 4 to 18 Hz is dominated by Rayleigh and Love waves propagating from the north that, based on daily temporal variations, we conclude were generated by field camp activity. Frequency-slowness plots were calculated using beamforming. Resulting Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were inverted for the shear wave velocity profile within the firn and ice to ˜150 m depth. The derived density profile allows estimation of the pore close-off depth and the firn-air content thickness. Separate inversions of Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves give different shear wave velocity profiles within the firn. We attribute this difference to an effective anisotropy due to fine layering. The layered structure of firn, ice, water and the seafloor results in a characteristic dispersion curve below 7 Hz. Forward modelling the observed Rayleigh wave dispersion curves using representative firn, ice, water and sediment structures indicates that Rayleigh waves are observed when wavelengths are long enough to span the distance from the ice shelf surface to the seafloor. The forward modelling shows that analysis of seismic data from an ice shelf provides the possibility of resolving ice shelf thickness, water column thickness and the physical properties of the ice shelf and underlying seafloor using passive-source seismic data.

  1. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains reports on subprojects involving the determining of alternatives to enhance salmonid habitat on patented land in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, coordination activities for habitat projects occurring on streams within fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribes, and habitat and fish inventories in the Salmon River. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports. (ACR)

  2. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SALMON RECOVERY: AN IRRECONCILABLE CONFLICT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the southern region of western North America, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline was induced by an extensively studied and reasonably well understood combination of causal agents. The public appears to support reversing the d...

  3. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  4. Effects of salmon calcitonin on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to explore the effects of salmon calcitonin on the healing process of osteoporotic fractures in ovariectomized rats. We performed this study in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhaou Medical College, Guangzhaou, China during the period March 2002 to December 2004. We used 120 female adult Wistar rats in this experiment, among which 90 underwent ovariectomy (OVX) and the other 30 had shamoperation. All rats had their left tibias fractured 3 months later. The 90 OVX rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 in each, while the 30 shamoperated rats served as control group. After the fracture rats had subcutaneous injection of normal saline, salmon calcitonin and estrogen, respectively. X-ray film, histological examination, bone mineral density (BMD) measurement and biomechanics testing were carried out to evaluate the fracture healing. Compared with OVX rats treated normal saline, the rats with salmon calcitonin had significantly higher BMD values in the left tibia, higher max torque, shear stress of the left tibia 8 weeks after fracture (p<0.05), and presented with stronger callus formation, shorter fracture healing time and faster normalization of microstructure of bone trabeculae. Salmon calcitonin can, not only increase in osteoporotic bone biomechanical properties and improve the process of fractured osteoporotic bone. (author)

  5. Adaptive potential of a Pacific salmon challenged by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nicolas J.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Heath, John W.; Neff, Bryan D.

    2015-02-01

    Pacific salmon provide critical sustenance for millions of people worldwide and have far-reaching impacts on the productivity of ecosystems. Rising temperatures now threaten the persistence of these important fishes, yet it remains unknown whether populations can adapt. Here, we provide the first evidence that a Pacific salmon has both physiological and genetic capacities to increase its thermal tolerance in response to rising temperatures. In juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a 4 °C increase in developmental temperature was associated with a 2 °C increase in key measures of the thermal performance of cardiac function. Moreover, additive genetic effects significantly influenced several measures of cardiac capacity, indicative of heritable variation on which selection can act. However, a lack of both plasticity and genetic variation was found for the arrhythmic temperature of the heart, constraining this upper thermal limit to a maximum of 24.5 +/- 2.2 °C. Linking this constraint on thermal tolerance with present-day river temperatures and projected warming scenarios, we predict a 17% chance of catastrophic loss in the population by 2100 based on the average warming projection, with this chance increasing to 98% in the maximum warming scenario. Climate change mitigation is thus necessary to ensure the future viability of Pacific salmon populations.

  6. Halogenated contaminants in farmed salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, S P J; van Velzen, M J M; Swart, C P; van der Veen, I; Traag, W A; de Boer, J

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America. Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations than omnivorous species. (ii) Contaminant concentrations generally decreased per species in the following order of salmon > trout > tilapia approximately equal to pangasius approximately equal to shrimp. (iii) Most contaminant concentrations decreased in the following order of PCBs approximately equal to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) > hexachlorobenzene approximately equal to pentachlorobenzene approximately equal to dieldrin approximately equal to PBDEs approximately equal to alpha-HBCD approximately equal to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) > World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ) [PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs]. (iv) Contaminant concentrations were very low (mostly <1 ng/g wet weight) and far below the European and Dutch legislative limits. (v) Contaminant concentrations in farmed shrimp, pangasius, and tilapia were lower than those in wild fish, whereas contaminant concentrations in farmed salmon and trout were higher than those in lean wild marine fish. From the five species investigated, salmon is predominantly responsible (97%) for human exposure to the sum of the investigated contaminants. The contribution of trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp is small (3%) because contaminant concentrations and consumption volumes were much lower. PMID:19569323

  7. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 166) and determined on April 8, 2011 that it would conduct full reviews (76 FR 22422, April..., 2011 (76 FR 38698). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on November 30, 2011, and all persons who... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record...

  8. Tracing salmon to their birthplace by activable tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activable tracer technique was applied to trace the recurrent migration of white salmons, as a typical example of employing radioactivation analysis to the study of agricultural and marinefields. Europium was adopted because it is easy to use technically with less influence on fish body and easy to detect, and its remaining time is very long. Artificially hatched young white salmons were stocked in the Saibetsu River after being raised for a month with europium-containing feed. These stocked fish were labeled by fin-cutting method. Recurrent salmons (fin cutting-labeled fish) were then collected and dissected. The fishes were divided into otoliths, scales, flesh, internal organs, gills, bones, etc., and irradiated for 5 min in JRR-2 reactor of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Europium was detected from the scales and otoliths of 3 to 4 year stocked adult fishes by γ-spectrometry of Eu. This proved the availability of activable tracer method for tracing the recurrent migration of salmons. (Kobatake, H.)

  9. Historical analysis of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of salmon as a means to deliver biomagnifying contaminants to nursery lakes. There is a lack of studies, however, which demonstrate empirically how this source has varied through time. This is of great significance because past salmon-derived contaminant loading was potentially greater than it is today. By analyzing radiometrically dated sediment cores collected from ten lakes in Alaska and British Columbia (B.C.), we relate historical numbers of sockeye salmon spawners to ΣPCB concentrations and δ15N values (a paleolimnological proxy for past salmon-derived nitrogen) in the sediments. The results confirm that sockeye salmon have provided an important route for PCBs to enter the lakes in the past, a finding that is especially evident when the data of all lakes are pooled. Significant relationships between sockeye salmon numbers and δ15N, as well as ΣPCB concentrations and δ15N in sediments, were also found. However, it is difficult to establish relationships between salmon numbers, ΣPCBs and δ15N in individual lakes. This may be due to a number of factors which may influence contaminant loadings to the lakes. The factors include: a) changing salmon contaminant loads over time resulting from a lag in the upper ocean reservoir and/or changing salmon feeding locations; b) greater importance of atmospheric transport in lakes with relatively low salmon returns; and c) increased PCB scavenging due to higher algae productivity in the lakes in recent years

  10. Norwegian Continental Shelf Petroleum Pipe-It Integrator & Production Forecaster

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    This thesis summarizes and concludes my master thesis research work. The main objective of this research was to develop a rigorous and generic forecast model for all the fields on the Norwegian Continental Shelf based on publically available data and free software. Pipe-It Norwegian Continental Shelf Integrator and Forecaster solution provides the opportunity to forecast oil and gas production rate and economics for all assets on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The solution is automatically ...

  11. Shelf Space Fees and Inter-Brand Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Wang

    2008-01-01

    When in-store display influences consumer choices, shelf space allocation can be strategically used by retailers to extract payments from manufacturers. The paper finds that manufacturers with more popular brands have higher willingness-to-pay for the premium shelf spaces of supermarkets. Shelf space fees soften inter-brand competition and result in higher sale-weighted average retail price as well as inter-brand price differences. The fees increase the industry profit but lower the upstream ...

  12. Recovery and separation of rare Earth elements using salmon milt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Takahashi

    Full Text Available Recycling rare earth elements (REEs used in advanced materials such as Nd magnets is important for the efficient use of REE resources when the supply of several REEs is limited. In this work, the feasibility of using salmon milt for REE recovery and separation was examined, along with the identification of the binding site of REEs in salmon milt. Results showed that (i salmon milt has a sufficiently high affinity to adsorb REEs and (ii the adsorption capacity of the milt is 1.04 mEq/g, which is comparable with that of commercial cation exchange resin. Heavier REEs have higher affinity for milt. A comparison of stability constants and adsorption patterns of REEs discussed in the literature suggests that the phosphate is responsible for the adsorption of REE in milt. The results were supported by dysprosium (Dy and lutetium (Lu LIII-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectroscopy. The REE-P shell was identified for the second neighboring atom, which shows the importance of the phosphate site as REE binding sites. The comparison of REE adsorption pattern and EXAFS results between the milt system and other adsorbent systems (cellulose phosphate, Ln-resin, bacteria, and DNA-filter hybrid revealed that the coordination number of phosphate is correlated with the slope of the REE pattern. The separation column loaded with milt was tested to separate REE for the practical use of salmon milt for the recovery and separation of REE. However, water did not flow through the column possibly because of the hydrophobicity of the milt. Thus, sequential adsorption-desorption approach using a batch-type method was applied for the separation of REE. As an example of the practical applications of REE separation, Nd and Fe(III were successfully separated from a synthetic solution of Nd magnet waste by a batch-type method using salmon milt.

  13. Competitiveness of the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report relates to an initiative from the Ministry of Industry and Energy in Norway to establish a development and operation forum in the petroleum sector. The aim of the forum's work is to identify and to be a contribution to realize measures for the further development of improving the competitiveness on the Norwegian continental shelf. In this connection, the importance is to focus on increased efficiency (included timing), and measures to reduce the level of exploration, development, and operation costs, and to make the Norwegian suppliers more cost efficient. The Ministry emphasizes the fundamental advantage of cooperating the work between the oil companies, suppliers, research centres, and authorities. 4 figs

  14. Augmented Shelf : Digital Enrichment of Library Shelves

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Eike; Schäfer, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Libraries are well known as work places and thus have a common way of everyday use. Unfortunately, there is a gap between the physical and digital contents of a library and its media. By expanding the physical, tangible media with digital information, many new possibilities for interaction would open up for users. With the help of a prototype, we want to show how it is possible to shrink this gap with the use of blends and augmented reality. The Augmented Shelf allows for an overlay of digita...

  15. Carbon Dynamics on the Louisiana Continental Shelf and Cross-Shelf Feeding of Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale hypoxia regularly develops during the summer on the Louisiana continental shelf. Traditionally, hypoxia has been linked to the vast winter and spring nutrient inputs from the Mississippi River and its distributary, the Atchafalaya River. However, recent studies indica...

  16. Surveys on Gyrodactylus parasites onwild Atlantic salmon in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    on several occasions in Danish rainbow trout farms but has never been recorded as a pathogenic parasite on Danish wild salmon. In the present study the occurrence of G. salaris and other Gyrodactylus parasites on wild Danish salmon fry and parr were monitored. Electrofishing was conducted in three......Gyrodactylus salaris is a monogenean ectoparasite parasitizing salmonids in freshwater. This parasite is highly pathogenic to both Norwegian and Scottish salmon and has decimated the salmon populations in 45 Norwegian rivers after anthropogenic transfer from Sweden. G. salaris has also been found...... river-systems (River Skjern, Ribe and Varde) and 0+ and 1+ salmon were collected and sacrificed using an overdose of MS222. During spring or summer time more salmon fry and parr will be collected. The fins were excised and fins and body were conserved separately in 96% ethanol. In the laboratory, the...

  17. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout

  18. Status and restoration of salmon (Salmo salar L.) stocks in the Nemunas River Basin, Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Vytautas Kesminas

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of salmon resources is of a great importance to most countries in the Baltic Sea region, including Lithuania. Currently, human activity is the main cause of negative impact on salmon stocks status mainly through habitat loss. Salmon restocking program started in 1998 with the aim to recover stocks in the Nemunas River basin. The program involved artificial rearing, construction of fish ladders, protection of spawning grounds, stock monitoring, fishery regulation in the sea and rivers...

  19. Genetic Analysis of a Population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.)in the Rhine System

    OpenAIRE

    Papa, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The present study was developed under the guidelines of a regional project to support the management of the anadromous salmonids in the Rhine, particularly the reintroduction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) The main aim was to assign the salmons ascending to the Iffezheim lock to salmons used for reintroduction in the Rhine. It was analysed if such an assignment was reasonably possible. Furthermore, we wanted to find out if an established Rhine population already exists. The Ph.D. st...

  20. Price and Quality Effects of Generic Advertising: The Case of Norwegian Salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Myrland, Oystein; Dong, Diansheng; Kaiser, Harry M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a two-equation sample selection model is used to estimate a household demand function for salmon incorporating domestic generic advertising. The twoequation estimation procedure, based on purchase and unit value equations, allows us to handle heavily censored panel data for salmon purchases by Norwegian households and the quality effects simultaneously. Unit values of the aggregated salmon commodity calculated from the observed expenditures and quantities are hypothesized to re...

  1. Fate of chlorinated fatty acids in migrating sockeye salmon and their transfer to arctic grayling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Ewald, G.; Nilsson, E.;

    2004-01-01

    that of the unchlorinated fatty acids. Lipids of the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus), a fish resident to the spawning lake of the salmon, contained higher concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids than grayling in a lake without migratory salmon. This may reflect a food-chain transfer of the...... chlorinated fatty acids originating from the salmon, demonstrating a long-range transport route for this type of pollutants to pristine areas....

  2. Disease resistance is related to inherent swimming performance in Atlantic salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Vicente; Grisdale-Helland Barbara; Jørgensen Sven M; Helgerud Jan; Claireaux Guy; Farrell Anthony P; Krasnov Aleksei; Helland Ståle J; Takle Harald

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Like humans, fish can be classified according to their athletic performance. Sustained exercise training of fish can improve growth and physical capacity, and recent results have documented improved disease resistance in exercised Atlantic salmon. In this study we investigated the effects of inherent swimming performance and exercise training on disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were first classified as either poor or good according to their swimming p...

  3. Comparison of Atlantic salmon net pen and recirculating aquaculture systems: economical, technological and environmental issues

    OpenAIRE

    Dekhtyarev, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    The modern aquaculture industry is a rapidly developing sector of the fisheries industry. Among the fish species reared in marine waters Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) shares a significant part. Nowadays, the largest salmon producing countries are Norway, Chile and Scotland. The common technology used in the salmon production is a sea cage, which is presented in a form of floating plastic rings or robust metal installations fastened to a barge. In both cases, the fish is placed ...

  4. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Ruth B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon

  5. Development of a Conceptual Chum Salmon Emergence Model for Ives Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Christopher J.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Bott, Yi-Ju; Nabelek, Marc A.

    2011-02-09

    The objective of the study described herein was to develop a conceptual model of chum salmon emergence that was based on empirical water temperature of the riverbed and river in specific locations where chum salmon spawn in the Ives Island area. The conceptual model was developed using water temperature data that have been collected in the past and are currently being collected in the Ives Island area. The model will be useful to system operators who need to estimate the complete distribution of chum salmon emergence (first emergence through final emergence) in order to balance chum salmon redd protection and power system operation.

  6. Commercial biopreservatives combined with salt and sugar to control Listeria monocytogenes during smoked salmon processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Raquel; Bravo, Daniel; Medina, Margarita

    2013-08-01

    Three commercial antimicrobials, applied during the salting stage in the preparation of cold-smoked salmon, were investigated for their effect on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes. Fresh salmon inoculated with L. monocytogenes INIA 2530 was treated with three bacteriocin-based commercial biopreservatives, which were applied in combination with a salt-sugar mix. The product was kept at 8°C for 7 days. L. monocytogenes grew by approximately 3 log CFU/g in control salmon (without the salt-sugar mix or biopreservatives). Pathogen levels were reduced by the three biopreservatives investigated. After 7 days at 8°C, L. monocytogenes counts in salmon treated with biopreservatives combined with the salt-sugar mix were significantly lower than those observed in salmon treated with only salt and sugar. At the end of storage, salmon treated with biopreservative derived from Pediococcus acidilactici had pathogen levels 3.6 log CFU/g lower than in control salmon (without the salt-sugar mix) and 1.5 log CFU/g lower than in the samples treated with only salt and sugar. The application of commercial biopreservatives to fresh salmon during the dry-salting stage might help control L. monocytogenes growth, thus enhancing the safety of cold-smoked salmon during refrigerated storage. PMID:23905807

  7. Post-Closure Inspection, Sampling, and Maintenance Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 annual inspection, sampling, measurement, and maintenance activities performed at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Salmon site1). The draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities with the results of sample analyses. The Salmon site consists of 1,470 acres. The site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 10 miles west of Purvis, Mississippi, and about 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi.

  8. Norwegian salmon goes to market: The case of the Austevoll seafood cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Gestur

    2006-01-01

    challenges of 'buyer-driven' food chains by virtue of its history as a seafood cluster. Despite this era of 'homogenised globalisation'. Nevertheless, recent changes in the global farmed salmon supply chain may result in the imposition of vertical relations in the Austevoll cluster. We conclude with......This paper examines the impact of the globalisation of the farmed salmon comodity chain upon farmed salmon production in the western Norwegian municipality of Austevoll. On the basis of field research conducted in 2002 and 2003, we conclude that salmon farming in Austevoll has responded to the...

  9. Lice pressure from salmon farms on wild sea trout (Salmo trutta in a Norwegian fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arechavala-Lopez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are external parasites on salmonids in the marine environment. However, during recent years, salmon lice abundance has increased due to the presence of salmon farming. Scientific studies shows that salmon farming increases the abundance of lice in the marine habitat and that salmon lice in the most intensively farmed areas have negatively affected wild fish populations. The present study assesses the spatiotemporal distribution of salmon lice infestations on wild sea trout population in the Romsdalsfjord region (Norway, and the potential relationship with fish-farming activity and environmental parameters in this area. Salmon lice at farms varied among localities or farming areas, although infestation levels were under the safety established thresholds (max: 0.5 adult females per fish in most of the cases. However, salmon farms with these levels might produce and release millions of copepods, potentially infecting wild salmonids. In accordance, low lice loads were recorded on wild sea trout captured in areas with low farming activity, while higher mean loads were recorded in areas with higher farming activity. A clear seasonal pattern and a positive correlation between lice on sea trout and sea water temperature were observed throughout the study period. The estimated production of copepods at farms and the mobile lice counted on wild sea trout one month later were correlated, suggesting the potential use of lice monitoring on sea trout as a proxy indicator of salmon lice infestation risks.

  10. Land use, fishing, climate change, and decline of Thompson River, British Columbia, coho salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, M. J.; Irvine, J. R. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)

    2000-01-01

    Reasons for the decline in abundance of Pacific salmon population in the Thompson River watershed in British Columbia was investigated. Results suggests that the decline could be the result of a declining trend in productivity related to changes in ocean conditions, overfishing, and changes in the freshwater habitat. The abundance of salmon correlated with agricultural land use, road density, and qualitative changes in stream habitat status; logging appeared to have had no such effect. It was concluded that salmon populations will continue to decline unless limits on fishing are strictly enforced, and unless salmon producing watersheds are restored and ocean conditions are significantly improved . 12 refs., 2 figs.

  11. The Statoil/Hydro fusion in a continental shelf perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article analysis the consequences of the Statoil/Hydro merger on the development on the Norwegian continental shelf. Various indicators of results of the market power the merger are presented and the effects of reduced competition on the markets are discussed. The advantages of the merger on the activities on the shelf are analyzed. (tk)

  12. Financial strength on the continental shelf. Petroleum industry's financial capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper relates to accounts analysis by evaluating the petroleum industry's financial capacity on the Norwegian continental shelf. Calculations of future earnings from the shelf are based on historical and published data, and they are executed in a simple way to show trends and to highlight the comprehensive picture. 1 tab

  13. Postharvest biology, quality and shelf-life of buckwheat microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwheat microgreens are rich in antioxidants and provitamins/vitamins, including flavonoids, carotenoids, and a-tocopherol. However, short shelf life has limited their commercial use. The purpose of this study was to optimize storage conditions to extend the shelf life of buckwheat microgreens. St...

  14. Retention controls on-shelf hypoxia in coastal upwelling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. S.; Long, M. C.; Hales, B. R.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Samelson, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    A maximally simple, coupled physical-biogeochemical box model is used to examine interactions controlling seasonal hypoxia over the continental shelf in an idealized Eastern Boundary upwelling system (EBUS). On-shelf bottom oxygen drawdown is controlled by the balance between flushing with offshore source waters and the degree to which surface particulate organic carbon (POC) production and its subsequent sinking and respiration are retained over the shelf and focused on the bottom. In the model, POC production is controlled by wind-driven upwelling of a generic nutrient to the surface, balanced by respiration and sinking. The degree to which this production occurs over shelf is a balance between the net POC growth rate η, and the upwelling driven shelf flushing rate λ, equivalent to the Ekman upwelling index scaled by the shelf width and surface layer depth. Initial oxygen drawdown follows this exponential rate of surface POC accumulation over shelf (α=η-λ), and so is slower for rapid upwelling (large λ) or nutrient limited conditions (small η). Retention efficiency indicates that up to 40% or more of upwelled nutrients can be retained over the shelf and contribute to oxygen drawdown. Fluctuations in the amplitude of the upwelling forcing can systematically reduce the potential for oxygen depletion below these estimates, especially when surface sinking export is rapid or forcing is strong.

  15. Shelf break exchange events near the De Soto Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Peter; Speer, Kevin; Snyder, Richard; Wienders, Nicolas; Leben, Robert R.

    2015-11-01

    Observations of currents, temperature, sea-surface height, sea-surface temperature and ocean color, derived from moorings, surface and deep drifters, hydrographic surveys, and satellites, are used to characterize shelf-slope exchange events near the apex of the De Soto Canyon in the northeast Gulf of Mexico. During the winter of 2012-2013, shelf-break time series showed a number of events where cold shelf water extruded over the slope. These events were largely consistent with slope eddies of both signs influencing shelf break currents. Larger-scale circulations, derived from the Loop Current and a separating Loop Current eddy, strongly influenced circulation over the De Soto slope during summer 2012, with flow patterns consistent with potential vorticity conservation over shoaling topography. Statistical investigation into shelf-slope exchange using large numbers of surface drifters indicated that export from the shelf is larger than vice-versa, and is more uniformly distributed along the shelf break. Import onto the shelf appears to favor a region just east of the Mississippi Delta, which is also consistent with the observed onshore transport of surface oil from the Deepwater Horizon disaster.

  16. Assessments to determine the effect of current and alternate ladder operations on brood stock collection and behavior of hatchery fall Chinook Salmon at Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery during 2004-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production of upriver bright fall Chinook salmon at Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery was introduced as part of the John Day Dam mitigation program in the...

  17. Multi-shelf domestic solar dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar dryer described in this paper can be used for drying various products at home under hygienic conditions with the self guarantee of adulteration free product. This solar dryer is of multi-shelf design, consisting of three perforated trays arranged one above the other. The drying air flows through the product by natural circulation. One of its novel features is variable inclination to capture more solar energy in different seasons. Another novel feature is the option to dry product under shade or without shade as per requirement. The rate of drying is uniform in all the trays due to heating of the air by solar energy in between the trays. The maximum stagnation temperature of this solar dryer was found to be 100 deg. C in the month of November at Ludhiana (31oN). The moisture evaporation on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd drying day for drying fenugreek leaves was 0.23, 0.18 and 0.038 kg/m2 h. To overcome the problem of reduction in efficiency on the second and third drying day, a semi-continuous mode of loading has been investigated, in which the efficiency remains almost the same on all drying days. The drying rate in the dryer was more than double that in open shade drying. Moreover, the final moisture content of the product was low enough (7.3% wb) for grinding it to a powder form and for good shelf life (1 year). An uncertainty analysis was performed, and the uncertainty in the efficiency was found to be 1.35%. An economic analysis was performed by three methods. The cost of drying fenugreek leaves in the domestic solar dryer turned out to be about 60% of that in an electric dryer. The cumulative present worth of the savings are much higher (18,316 Rupees) than the capital cost of the dryer (1600 Rupees). The payback period is also very low (<2 years) as compared to the life of the dryer (20 years), so the dryer will dry product free of cost during almost its entire life period. The quality and shelf life of the dried products are comparable to those of branded

  18. Multi-shelf domestic solar dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Parm Pal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (India)]. E-mail: ppsingh11@rediffmail.com; Singh, Sukhmeet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (India); Dhaliwal, S.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (India)

    2006-08-15

    The solar dryer described in this paper can be used for drying various products at home under hygienic conditions with the self guarantee of adulteration free product. This solar dryer is of multi-shelf design, consisting of three perforated trays arranged one above the other. The drying air flows through the product by natural circulation. One of its novel features is variable inclination to capture more solar energy in different seasons. Another novel feature is the option to dry product under shade or without shade as per requirement. The rate of drying is uniform in all the trays due to heating of the air by solar energy in between the trays. The maximum stagnation temperature of this solar dryer was found to be 100 deg. C in the month of November at Ludhiana (31{sup o}N). The moisture evaporation on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd drying day for drying fenugreek leaves was 0.23, 0.18 and 0.038 kg/m{sup 2} h. To overcome the problem of reduction in efficiency on the second and third drying day, a semi-continuous mode of loading has been investigated, in which the efficiency remains almost the same on all drying days. The drying rate in the dryer was more than double that in open shade drying. Moreover, the final moisture content of the product was low enough (7.3% wb) for grinding it to a powder form and for good shelf life (1 year). An uncertainty analysis was performed, and the uncertainty in the efficiency was found to be 1.35%. An economic analysis was performed by three methods. The cost of drying fenugreek leaves in the domestic solar dryer turned out to be about 60% of that in an electric dryer. The cumulative present worth of the savings are much higher (18,316 Rupees) than the capital cost of the dryer (1600 Rupees). The payback period is also very low (<2 years) as compared to the life of the dryer (20 years), so the dryer will dry product free of cost during almost its entire life period. The quality and shelf life of the dried products are comparable to those

  19. Antibodies recognizing both IgM isotypes in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedfors, Ida Aagård; Bakke, Hege; Skjødt, Karsten; Grimholt, Unni

    2012-01-01

    defined, mostly due to the lack of appropriate working tools like antibodies and functional assays. Membrane bound molecules like immunoglobulins (Ig) serve as cell surface markers for specific cell subsets and the identification of cells relies upon the production of specific antibodies towards these...... molecules. The present study aimed at identifying tools to separate IgM positive (IgM(+)) B cells from IgM negative (IgM(-)) non-B cell populations using flow cytometry. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and one polyclonal antibody (pAb) to both rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon...... IgM(+) cells in the respective tissues in salmon. To our surprise, this seemingly simple task did not reveal similar staining patterns for all antibodies as expected, but rather large differences in the number of positively stained cells were discovered. In short, positively stained cells by each...

  20. Gene-expression signatures of Atlantic salmon's plastic life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered a surprisingly large gene set that was differentially regulated-at similar magnitudes, yet in opposite direction-in both life history transitions. We suggest that this co-variation is not a consequence of many independent cellular and molecular switches in the same direction but rather represents the molecular equivalent of a physiological shift orchestrated by one or very few master regulators. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Price premium of organic salmon in Danish retail sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    The year 2016 will be pivotal for organic aquaculture producers in EU, because it represents the deadline for implementing the complete organic life cycle in aquaculture production. Depending on the sturdiness of farms already producing, such a shift in the industry may affect production costs of...... exclusively using organic fry for production. If the profitability of the primary organic aquaculture producers should be maintained, then farmers must be able to correspondingly receive higher prices, transmitted through the value chain from the retail market. This study identifies the price premium for...... organic salmon in Danish retail sale using consumer panel scanner data from households by applying a random effect hedonic price model that permits unobserved household heterogeneity. A price premium of 20% was identified for organic salmon. The magnitude of this premium is comparable to organic labeled...

  2. Development of rations for the enhanced survival of salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and ''fitness'' of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected 1982 through September 1990

  3. Man's impact on the Columbia River stocks of salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of man on the salmon and steelhead of the Columbia River includes 35 years of effort to prevent declines in the stocks. Between 1866 and 1940, the commercial fishery harvested an annual average of 29 million pounds of salmon and steelhead, but in the next 35 years the annual average harvest dropped to 8 million pounds. During these 35 years the habitat for anadromous fishes dropped from 163,200 to 72,800 square miles. Various approaches to mitigation were tried, but the cumulative effects of the impacts were not compensated for and the runs declined. The productivity in terms of returning adults per spawner has become less than 1 for the upper river stocks. The management flexibility of allowing additional losses at any stage in the life history of these stocks has been lost. Thus, a policy of zero impact for all new developments has been adopted

  4. Physiological disturbances in Atlantic salmon exposed to crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Southern Australia, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming is undertaken in marine areas where extensive oil exploration, exploitation and transport are taking place. Pen-reared juvenile fish are at high risk of oil exposure through frequent small spills or major accidents. When exposed, commercial fisheries have to face million-dollar loses due to potential tainting of their stocks. In this study, juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed to Bass Strait light crude oil in a fashion simulating an accidental oil spill at sea i.e. exposure to crude oil followed by a deputation period. Temporal trends in enzymatic bioindicators of exposure were investigated through exposure and deputation periods, as well as several biochemical and chemical measurements. The main objective of the study was to relate tainting with easily measured biological indicators of exposure to crude oil. Good correlations between bioindicators of exposure and tainting could assist fish farming industry to decide on the fate of fish stocks affected by oil taint

  5. Weight loss and fillet quality characteristics of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after purging for 5, 10, 15 or 20 days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, are typically cultured in marine net pens. However, technological advancements in recirculating aquaculture systems have increased the feasibility of culturing Atlantic salmon in land-based systems to alleviate environmental and disease issues limiting sustainability. ...

  6. Hollow rhodoliths increase Svalbard's shelf biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    Rhodoliths are coralline red algal assemblages that commonly occur in marine habitats from the tropics to polar latitudes. They form rigid structures of high-magnesium calcite and have a good fossil record. Here I show that rhodoliths are ecosystem engineers in a high Arctic environment that increase local biodiversity by providing habitat. Gouged by boring mussels, originally solid rhodoliths become hollow ecospheres intensely colonised by benthic organisms. In the examined shelf areas, biodiversity in rhodolith-bearing habitats is significantly greater than in habitats without rhodoliths and hollow rhodoliths yield a greater biodiversity than solid ones. This biodiversity, however, is threatened because hollow rhodoliths take a long time to form and are susceptible to global change and anthropogenic impacts such as trawl net fisheries that can destroy hollow rhodoliths. Rhodoliths and other forms of coralline red algae play a key role in a plurality of environments and need improved management and protection plans.

  7. Modeling the dynamics of continental shelf carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Eileen E; Cahill, Bronwyn; Fennel, Katja; Friedrichs, Marjorie A M; Hyde, Kimberly; Lee, Cindy; Mannino, Antonio; Najjar, Raymond G; O'Reilly, John E; Wilkin, John; Xue, Jianhong

    2011-01-01

    Continental margin systems are important contributors to global nutrient and carbon budgets. Effort is needed to quantify this contribution and how it will be modified under changing patterns of climate and land use. Coupled models will be used to provide projections of future states of continental margin systems. Thus, it is appropriate to consider the limitations that impede the development of realistic models. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of modeling carbon cycling on continental margins as well as the processes and issues that provide the next challenges to such models. Our overview is done within the context of a coupled circulation-biogeochemical model developed for the northeastern North American continental shelf region. Particular choices of forcing and initial fields and process parameterizations are used to illustrate the consequences for simulated distributions, as revealed by comparisons to observations using quantitative statistical metrics. PMID:21329200

  8. The Atlantic salmon genome provides insights into rediploidization

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Sigbjorn; Koop, Ben F; Sandve, Simen R.; Miller, Jason R.; Kent, Matthew P.; Nome, Torfinn; Hvidsten, Torgeir R.; Leong, Jong S; Minkley, David R; Zimin, Aleksey; Grammes, Fabian; Grove, Harald; Gjuvsland, Arne; Walenz, Brian; Hermansen, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    The whole-genome duplication 80 million years ago of the common ancestor of salmonids (salmonid-specific fourth vertebrate whole-genome duplication, Ss4R) provides unique opportunities to learn about the evolutionary fate of a duplicated vertebrate genome in 70 extant lineages. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and show that large genomic reorganizations, coinciding with bursts of transposon-mediated repeat expansions, were crucial for the post-...

  9. Evolutionary history of Pacific salmon in dynamic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Waples, Robin S.; George R. Pess; Beechie, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary evolution of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) is best viewed in the context of the evolutionary history of the species and the dynamic ecosystems they inhabit. Speciation was complete by the late Miocene, leaving c. six million years for intraspecific diversification. Following the most recent glacial maximum, large areas became available for recolonization. Current intraspecific diversity is thus the product of recent evolution overlaid onto divergent historical lineages forge...

  10. The relative stability of salmon redds and unspawned streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Todd H.; Buffington, John M.; Yager, Elowyn M.; Hassan, Marwan A.; Fremier, Alexander K.

    2015-08-01

    Where female salmon build nests ("redds"), streambed material is mixed, fine sediment is winnowed, and bed material is moved into a tailspill mound resembling the shape of a dune. Completed redd surfaces are coarser and better sorted than unspawned beds, which is thought to increase redd stability because larger grains are heavier and harder to move, and sorting increases friction angles for mobility. However, spawning also loosens sediment and creates topography that accelerates flow, which can increase particle mobility. We address these factors controlling the relative stability of redds and unspawned beds in flume experiments where redds were constructed with a dynamic technique that mimics the nesting behavior of female salmon. Although redds exhibited relatively coarse surfaces, measured entrainment forces indicate particle loosening by spawning lowered grain resistance to motion by 12-37% on average compared to unspawned beds. In addition, for the same discharges, boundary shear stress was 13-41% higher on a redd due to flow convergence on the tailspill. Visual measurements of particle entrainment further indicated redd instability, as bed-average shear stress was 22% lower at incipient motion and 29% lower at the discharge that mobilized all grain sizes on a redd. Overall, results demonstrate that redds are unstable compared to unspawned beds, which increases the risk of scour for buried eggs but may facilitate fine sediment flushing and improve the quality of spawning gravels for future generations of spawners. Therefore, managing salmon returns to increase streambed disturbance may be an effective tool for reducing sedimentation impacts on salmon reproduction.

  11. Telemetry link for an automatic salmon migration monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, H. A.; Freyman, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The antenna and transmitter described in this report were designed for integration into the remote acoustic assessment system for detection of sockeye salmon in the Bristol Bay region of the Bering Sea. The assessment system configuration consists of an upward directed sonar buoy anchored 150 ft below the surface and attached by cable to a spar buoy tethered some 300 ft laterally. The spar buoy contains a telemetry transmitter, power supply, data processing electronics, an antenna and a beacon light.

  12. Studies of lipid oxidation in Salmon by Near infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Cheau Ling

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy which is a rapid and non-destructive method, can be used to determine primary and secondary lipid oxidation products in salmon oils. PV (peroxide value) and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were used as chemical measures of lipid oxidation. PV measures the degree of primary oxidation products, while TBARS measures the degree of secondary oxidation products formed from the oil. NIR spectroscopy with tra...

  13. Development of a vaccine for bacterial kidney disease in salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the executive summary and background review for the final report of ''Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon''. A description of the disease is provided, with microbiological characterization of the infective agent. A brief discussion of attempts to eradicate the disease is included. Recent progress in vaccine development and attempts to control the disease through pharmacological means are described, along with potential ways to break the cycle of infection. 80 refs

  14. Juvenile salmon investigations River Wenning catchment 1981-86

    OpenAIRE

    Ingersent, B.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the River Lune juvenile salmonid investigation, a number of sites on the River Wenning catchment were electrofished annually from 1981 - 1985. Particularly low Salmon parr populations were evident for much of the Wenning catchment which has caused some concern. All the Wenning catchment electrofishing results are reported in this paper and comparisons are made with designated groups of sites on the remainder of the Lune catchment. These groups of sites are: River Lune and t...

  15. Mutation accumulation and the catastrophic senescence of Pacific salmon

    CERN Document Server

    Penna, T J P; Stauffer, D; Stauffer, Dietrich

    1995-01-01

    The bit-string model of biological aging is used to simulate the catastrophic senescence of Pacific Salmon. We have shown that reproduction occuring only once and at a fixed age is the only ingredient needed to explain the catastrophic senescence according the mutation accumulation theory. Several results are presented, some of them with up to 10^8 fishes, showing how the survival rates in catastrophic senescence are affected by changes in the parameters of the model.

  16. Proteomic analysis of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ovarian fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Johnson

    Full Text Available The ovarian, or coelomic, fluid that is released with the egg mass of many fishes is increasingly found to play an important role in several biological processes crucial for reproductive success. These include maintenance of oocyte fertility and developmental competence, prolonging of sperm motility, and enhancing sperm swimming speed. Here we examined if and how the proteome of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ovarian fluid varied among females and then sought to examine the composition of this fluid. Ovarian fluid in chinook salmon was analyzed using 1D SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS tryptic digest screened against Mascot and Sequest databases. We found marked differences in the number and concentrations of proteins in salmon ovarian fluid across different females. A total of 174 proteins were identified in ovarian fluid, 47 of which were represented by six or more peptides, belonging to one of six Gene Ontology pathways. The response to chemical stimulus and response to hypoxia pathways were best represented, accounting for 26 of the 174 proteins. The current data set provides a resource that furthers our understanding of those factors that influence successful egg production and fertilisation in salmonids and other species.

  17. Project Dribble (Salmon event). Project manager's report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1966-07-01

    The Salmon experiment detonated Oct. 22, 1964, was the first of three originally proposed underground nuclear detonations to be conducted as part of Project Dribble. The principal purpose of the Salmon experiment was to determine the seismic propagation factor out of Tatum Dome and study seismic wave propagation in the mantle of the earth from a nuclear explosion in the Southeastern United States. These measurements were then combined with a calculation of the seismic source strength from a 5-kt decoupled detonation at that site to give the amplitudes of distant seismic signals from such a decoupled detonation for comparison with detonations in other media. Other objectives of the Salmon detonation were concerned with measuring seismic waves, comparing them with signals generated from similar detonations in other media, and determining the accuracy with which the location could be determined by seismic measurements. Scientists were also interested in determining the condition of the cavity, which was created by the detonation, and assessing the feasibility of reusing the cavity for futher experiments. The administration, operational planning engineering, construction, public safety, and logistics performed by NV00 in support of the technical and scientific experiments carried out are presented. (TFD)

  18. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: → Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. → Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. → Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. → Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. → Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  19. Adaptive divergence in embryonic thermal plasticity among Atlantic salmon populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côte, J; Roussel, J-M; Le Cam, S; Guillaume, F; Evanno, G

    2016-08-01

    In the context of global changes, the long-term viability of populations of endangered ectotherms may depend on their adaptive potential and ability to cope with temperature variations. We measured responses of Atlantic salmon embryos from four populations to temperature variations and used a QST -FST approach to study the adaptive divergence among these populations. Embryos were reared under two experimental conditions: a low temperature regime at 4 °C until eyed-stage and 10 °C until the end of embryonic development and a high temperature regime with a constant temperature of 10 °C throughout embryonic development. Significant variations among populations and population × temperature interactions were observed for embryo survival, incubation time and length. QST was higher than FST in all but one comparison suggesting an important effect of divergent selection. QST was also higher under the high-temperature treatment than at low temperature for length and survival due to a higher variance among populations under the stressful warmer treatment. Interestingly, heritability was lower for survival under high temperature in relation to a lower additive genetic variance under that treatment. Overall, these results reveal an adaptive divergence in thermal plasticity in embryonic life stages of Atlantic salmon suggesting that salmon populations may differentially respond to temperature variations induced by climate change. These results also suggest that changes in temperature may alter not only the adaptive potential of natural populations but also the selection regimes among them. PMID:27177256

  20. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin and heparin from farmed Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flengsrud, Ragnar

    2016-04-01

    The heparin disaccharides detected in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) gills and intestines have, with one exception, been reported in porcine heparin. The relative amounts of disaccharides appear to be very different in the two species. Two chondroitin disaccharides with a proposed essential role in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) development and differentiation are detected in farmed Atlantic salmon. In addition, most of the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate and heparin disaccharides detected here have been reported in zebrafish, in support of the claims of the heparin presence in fish. The same chondroitin/dermatan disaccharides were detected in the bones of bony fishes. The rare disaccharide UA2S-GalNAc that was found in trace amounts in all 5 bony fishes was found in relative high amounts in gills and in significant amounts in intestines. The rare heparin disaccharide UA2S-GlcN was in relative highest amounts both in gills and intestines. In context with our previous reports, this communication suggests that glycosaminoglycans in farmed Atlantic salmon heparin need further studies in order to clarify structure and function. PMID:26993287

  1. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, D.P., E-mail: dweston@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Asbell, A.M., E-mail: aasbell@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Hecht, S.A., E-mail: scott.hecht@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources, 510 Desmond Drive S.E., Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Scholz, N.L., E-mail: nathaniel.scholz@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Lydy, M.J., E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, 171 Life Sciences II, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: > Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. > Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. > Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. > Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. > Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  2. Responses of pink salmon to CO2-induced aquatic acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Michelle; Hamilton, Trevor J.; Eom, Junho; Lyall, Emily M.; Gallup, Joshua; Jiang, Amy; Lee, Jason; Close, David A.; Yun, Sang-Seon; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification negatively affects many marine species and is predicted to cause widespread changes to marine ecosystems. Similarly, freshwater ecosystems may potentially be affected by climate-change-related acidification; however, this has received far less attention. Freshwater fish represent 40% of all fishes, and salmon, which rear and spawn in freshwater, are of immense ecosystem, economical and cultural importance. In this study, we investigate the impacts of CO2-induced acidification during the development of pink salmon, in freshwater and following early seawater entry. At this critical and sensitive life stage, we show dose-dependent reductions in growth, yolk-to-tissue conversion and maximal O2 uptake capacity; as well as significant alterations in olfactory responses, anti-predator behaviour and anxiety under projected future increases in CO2 levels. These data indicate that future populations of pink salmon may be at risk without mitigation and highlight the need for further studies on the impact of CO2-induced acidification on freshwater systems.

  3. Migratory characteristics of spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents our research to examine in detail the migration of juvenile and adult spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River. We seek to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to oxygen supplementation practices at Willamette Hatchery, and to identify potential sources of adult spring chinook mortality in the Willamette River above Willamette Falls and use this information towards analysis of the study on efficiency of oxygen supplementation. The majority of juvenile spring chinook salmon released from Willamette hatchery in 1991 begin downstream movement immediately upon liberation. They travel at a rate of 1.25 to 3.5 miles per hour during the first 48 hours post-release. Considerably slower than the water velocities available to them. Juveniles feed actively during migration, primarily on aquatic insects. Na+/K+ gill ATPase and cortisol are significantly reduced in juveniles reared in the third pass of the Michigan series with triple density and oxygen supplementation, suggesting that these fish were not as well developed as those reared under other treatments. Returning adult spring chinook salmon migrate upstream at an average rate of about 10 to 20 miles per day, but there is considerable between fish variation. Returning adults exhibit a high incidence of wandering in and out of the Willamette River system above and below Willamette Falls

  4. Analysis of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation, 1990 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William H.; Coley, Travis C.; Burge, Howard L.

    1990-09-01

    Supplementation or planting salmon and steelhead into various locations in the Columbia River drainage has occurred for over 100 years. All life stages, from eggs to adults, have been used by fishery managers in attempts to establish, rebuild, or maintain anadromous runs. This report summarizes and evaluates results of past and current supplementation of salmon and steelhead. Conclusions and recommendations are made concerning supplementation. Hatchery rearing conditions and stocking methods can affect post released survival of hatchery fish. Stress was considered by many biologists to be a key factor in survival of stocked anadromous fish. Smolts were the most common life stage released and size of smolts correlated positively with survival. Success of hatchery stockings of eggs and presmolts was found to be better if they are put into productive, underseeded habitats. Stocking time, method, species stocked, and environmental conditions of the receiving waters, including other fish species present, are factors to consider in supplementation programs. The unpublished supplementation literature was reviewed primarily by the authors of this report. Direct contact was made in person or by telephone and data compiled on a computer database. Areas covered included Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Alaska, California, British Columbia, and the New England states working with Atlantic salmon. Over 300 projects were reviewed and entered into a computer database. The database information is contained in Appendix A of this report. 6 refs., 9 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Comparative Resilience in Five North Pacific Regional Salmon Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtland L. Smith

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, regional fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. have been managed primarily for their provisioning function, not for ecological support and cultural significance. We examine the resilience of the regional salmon fisheries of Japan, the Russian Far East, Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington-Oregon-California (WOC in terms of their provisioning function. Using the three dimensions of the adaptive cycle—capital, connectedness, and resilience—we infer the resilience of the five fisheries based on a qualitative assessment of capital accumulation and connectedness at the regional scale. In our assessment, we evaluate natural capital and connectedness and constructed capital and connectedness. The Russian Far East fishery is the most resilient, followed by Alaska, British Columbia, Japan, and WOC. Adaptive capacity in the fisheries is contingent upon high levels of natural capital and connectedness and moderate levels of constructed capital and connectedness. Cross-scale interactions and global market demand are significant factors in reduced resilience. Greater attention to ecological functioning and cultural signification has the potential to increase resilience in Pacific salmon ecosystems.

  6. Abundance, Timing of Migration, and Egg-to-Smolt Survival of Juvenile Chum Salmon, Kwethluk River, Alaska, 2007 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.; U.S. Geological Survey; Gillikin, Daniel; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    2010-01-01

    To better understand and partition mortality among life stages of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), we used inclined-plane traps to monitor the migration of juveniles in the Kwethluk River, Alaska in 2007 and 2008. The migration of juvenile chum salmon peaked in mid-May and catch rates were greatest when water levels were rising. Movement of chum salmon was diurnal with highest catch rates occurring during the hours of low light (that is, 22:00 to 10:00). Trap efficiency ranged from 0.37 to 4.04 percent (overall efficiency = 1.94 percent). Total abundance of juvenile chum salmon was estimated to be 2.0 million fish in 2007 and 2.9 million fish in 2008. On the basis of the estimate of chum salmon females passing the Kwethluk River weir and age-specific fecundity, we estimated the potential egg deposition (PED) upstream of the weir and trapping site. Egg-to-smolt survival, calculated by dividing the estimate of juvenile chum salmon emigrating past the weir site by the estimate of PED, was 4.6 percent in 2007 and 5.2 percent in 2008. In addition to chum salmon, Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), as well as ten other fish species, were captured in the traps. As with chum salmon, catch of these species increased during periods of increasing discharge and peaked during hours of low light. This study successfully determined the characteristics of juvenile salmon migrations and estimated egg-to-smolt survival for chum salmon. This is the first estimate of survival for any juvenile salmon in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region of Alaska and demonstrates an approach that can help to partition mortality between freshwater and marine life stages, information critical to understanding the dynamics of salmon in this region.

  7. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  8. Merits and Limits of Ecosystem Protection for Conserving Wild Salmon in a Northern Coastal British Columbia River

    OpenAIRE

    Jack A. Stanford; Bonnie K. Ellis; Thomas S. Bansak; Aaron C. Hill

    2010-01-01

    Loss and degradation of freshwater habitat reduces the ability of wild salmon populations to endure other anthropogenic stressors such as climate change, harvest, and interactions with artificially propagated fishes. Preservation of pristine salmon rivers has thus been advocated as a cost-effective way of sustaining wild Pacific salmon populations. We examine the value of freshwater habitat protection in conserving salmon and fostering resilience in the Kitlope watershed in northern coastal B...

  9. Using grizzly bears to assess harvest-ecosystem tradeoffs in salmon fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Taal; Darimont, Chris T; Macduffee, Misty; Mangel, Marc; Paquet, Paul; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) requires a clear conceptual and quantitative framework for assessing how different harvest options can modify benefits to ecosystem and human beneficiaries. We address this social-ecological need for Pacific salmon fisheries, which are economically valuable but intercept much of the annual pulse of nutrient subsidies that salmon provide to terrestrial and aquatic food webs. We used grizzly bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance, as surrogates for "salmon ecosystem" function. Combining salmon biomass and stock-recruitment data with stable isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities for six sockeye salmon stocks in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and British Columbia (BC), Canada. For the coastal stocks, we find that both bear densities and fishery yields would increase substantially if ecosystem allocations of salmon increase from currently applied lower to upper goals and beyond. This aligning of benefits comes at a potential cost, however, with the possibility of forgoing harvests in low productivity years. In contrast, we detect acute tradeoffs between bear densities and fishery yields in interior stocks within the Fraser River, BC, where biomass from other salmon species is low. There, increasing salmon allocations to ecosystems would benefit threatened bear populations at the cost of reduced long-term yields. To resolve this conflict, we propose an EBFM goal that values fisheries and bears (and by extension, the ecosystem) equally. At such targets, ecosystem benefits are unexpectedly large compared with losses in fishery yields. To explore other management options, we generate tradeoff curves that provide stock-specific accounting of the expected loss to fishers and gain to bears as more salmon escape the fishery. Our approach, modified to suit multiple scenarios, provides a generalizable method

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-06-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU); The Tribe's long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through their Integrated Fish and Wildlife Program. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2004 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit Lake; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Fishhook Creek; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye salmon and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation

  11. In situ localisation of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II and CD8 positive cells in infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV)-infected Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Dyveke Lem; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Skjødt, Karsten;

    2010-01-01

    the early viraemia of ISAV was undertaken. Immunohistochemical investigations of spleen, head kidney and gills using monoclonal antibodies against recombinant proteins from MHC I, II and CD8 were performed on tissues from Atlantic salmon collected day 17 post-challenge in a cohabitant infection model...... MHC I, MHC II and CD8 positive cell populations differed between control salmon and cohabitant salmon in the early stages of ISAV infection. The changes in MHC I labelled cells differed between organs in ISAV cohabitants but all investigated organs showed a decreased presence of MHC II labelled cells...

  12. Saprolegnia parasitica en salmones y truchas del sur de Chile Saprolegnia parasitica in salmon and trout from southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zaror

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 35 cepas de Saprolegnia, aisladas de Salmón y Trucha, provenientes de dos laboratorios ictiopatológicos de Castro y Puerto Montt, de Chile. Las cepas fueron obtenidas de ovas, branquias y aletas de alevines y "smolt", de distintas especies de salmonídeos: salmón del Atlántico, salmón coho y trucha arco iris. Se reaislaron las cepas y se purificaron en agar Sabouraud, agar Lactrimel y agar MAO, con antimicrobianos. Saprolegnia fue cultivada en agua destilada y semillas de cáñamo, para la producción de estructuras sexuales y posterior identificación morfológica, según Dick (1973 y Seymour (1970. De las cepas estudiadas, las 35 correspondieron a Saprolegnia parasitica, única especie aislada, conformando el 100 % del total. El 34% de las cepas presentó estructuras sexuadas y el 100% se desarrolló a 30ºC.Thirty five strains of Saprolegnia were isolated from salmon and trout, obtained from the IX, X and XII regions in southern Chile. The strains were obtained from eggs, gills and fins of alevins and smolt phase of different species of salmonids: Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon; Oncorhynchus kisutch (Coho salmon and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout. The strains were re-isolated and purified in Sabouraud agar, Lactrimel and MAO agar, supplemented with antibiotics. The strains were cultured in distilled water and hemp seeds, for the production of sexual structures, and for their morphological identification. All strains collected, were identified as Saprolegnia parasitica. This species was the only one isolated of its genus.

  13. Neural Network Modeling to Predict Shelf Life of Greenhouse Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chin Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse-grown butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. can potentially be stored for 21 days at constant 0°C. When storage temperature was increased to 5°C or 10°C, shelf life was shortened to 14 or 10 days, respectively, in our previous observations. Also, commercial shelf life of 7 to 10 days is common, due to postharvest temperature fluctuations. The objective of this study was to establish neural network (NN models to predict the remaining shelf life (RSL under fluctuating postharvest temperatures. A box of 12 - 24 lettuce heads constituted a sample unit. The end of the shelf life of each head was determined when it showed initial signs of decay or yellowing. Air temperatures inside a shipping box were recorded. Daily average temperatures in storage and averaged shelf life of each box were used as inputs, and the RSL was modeled as an output. An R2 of 0.57 could be observed when a simple NN structure was employed. Since the "future" (or remaining storage temperatures were unavailable at the time of making a prediction, a second NN model was introduced to accommodate a range of future temperatures and associated shelf lives. Using such 2-stage NN models, an R2 of 0.61 could be achieved for predicting RSL. This study indicated that NN modeling has potential for cold chain quality control and shelf life prediction.

  14. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon during Barge Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Skalski, J. R.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-12-01

    To mitigate for fish losses related to passage through the Federal Columbia River Power System, an extensive fish transportation program using barges and trucks to move fish around and downstream of dams and reservoirs was implemented in 1981. Population modeling and other analyses to support Pacific salmon recovery efforts have assumed that the survival of juvenile salmonids during the transportation experience was 98%. To estimate survival during barge transport from Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to a release area downstream of Bonneville Dam, a distance of 470 km, we used a novel adaptation of a release-recapture model with acoustic-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts. A total of 1,494 yearling Chinook salmon were surgically implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponders (PIT) and divided into three groups. The three tagged groups consisted of; (1) a group which was released into the raceway with the population of fish which were later loaded into transportation barges (R{sub B}), (2) a group which was held in a net-pen suspended within the general barge population until 5-6 h prior to barge evacuation, at which time they were confirmed to be alive and then released into the general barge population (R{sub A}), and (3) to validate a model assumption, a group which was euthanized and released into the barge population 2-8 h prior to barge evacuation (R{sub D}). Six replicates of these groups were loaded onto fish transport barges that departed Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River between 29 April and 13 May, 2010. Acoustic receiver arrays between 70 and 220 km downstream of the barge evacuation site were used to detect tagged fish and served as the basis for estimation of survival within the barge. Tag-life-corrected estimates of reach survival were calculated for barged and control fish in each of the six replicate trials. The ratio of survival from

  15. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix B (Part 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  16. Foraging and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon after tidal restoration of a large river delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Aaron T.; Ellings, Christopher; Woo, Isa; Simenstad, Charles A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Turner, Kelley L.; Smith, Ashley L.; Takekawa, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether restoring tidal flow to previously diked estuarine wetlands also restores foraging and growth opportunities for juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Several studies have assessed the value of restored tidal wetlands for juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., but few have used integrative measures of salmon performance, such as habitat-specific growth potential, to evaluate restoration. Our study took place in the Nisqually River delta, Washington, where recent dike removals restored tidal flow to 364 ha of marsh—the largest tidal marsh restoration project in the northwestern contiguous United States. We sampled fish assemblages, water temperatures, and juvenile Chinook Salmon diet composition and consumption rates in two restored and two reference tidal channels during a 3-year period after restoration; these data were used as inputs to a bioenergetics model to compare Chinook Salmon foraging performance and growth potential between the restored and reference channels. We found that foraging performance and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon were similar between restored and reference tidal channels. However, Chinook Salmon densities were significantly lower in the restored channels than in the reference channels, and growth potential was more variable in the restored channels due to their more variable and warmer (2°C) water temperatures. These results indicate that some—but not all—ecosystem attributes that are important for juvenile Pacific salmon can recover rapidly after large-scale tidal marsh restoration.

  17. Genetic stock identification of immature chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) in the western Bering Sea, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minho; Kim, Suam; Low, Loh-Lee

    2016-03-01

    Genetic stock identification studies have been widely applied to Pacific salmon species to estimate stock composition of complex mixed-stock fisheries. In a September-October 2004 survey, 739 chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) specimens were collected from 23 stations in the western Bering Sea. We determined the genetic stock composition of immature chum salmon based on the previous mitochondria DNA baseline. Each regional estimate was computed based on the conditional maximum likelihood method using 1,000 bootstrap resampling and then pooled to the major regional groups: Korea - Japan - Primorie (KJP) / Russia (RU) / Northwest Alaska (NWA) / Alaska Peninsula - Southcentral Alaska - Southeast Alaska - British Columbia - Washington (ONA). The stock composition of immature chum salmon in the western Bering Sea was a mix of 0.424 KJP, 0.421 RU, 0.116 NWA, and 0.039 ONA stocks. During the study period, the contribution of Asian chum salmon stocks gradually changed from RU to KJP stock. In addition, North American populations from NWA and ONA were small but present near the vicinity of the Russian coast and the Commander Islands, suggesting that the study areas in the western Bering Sea were an important migration route for Pacific chum salmon originating both from Asia and North America during the months of September and October. These results make it possible to better understand the chum salmon stock composition of the mixed-stock fisheries in the western Bering Sea and the stock-specific distribution pattern of chum salmon on the high-seas.

  18. 77 FR 19605 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic..., then enter NOAA-NMFS-2011-0295 in the keyword search. Locate the ] document you wish to comment on from... FMP are available for public review and comment. The salmon fisheries in the exclusive economic...

  19. 78 FR 39282 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Willingness to Pay Survey for Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Willingness to Pay Survey for Salmon...), ``Willingness to Pay Survey for Salmon Recovery in the Willamette Watershed'' (EPA ICR No. 2489.01, OMB Control... estimated via a willingness to pay mail survey instrument. There are two effluent- dominated...

  20. Effect of temperature and salt on thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon Roe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a potentially fatal foodborne pathogen that can be found in ready-to-eat seafood products, such as fresh salmon roe. Once contaminated, salmon roe must be decontaminated prior to human consumption. This study was conducted to determine the thermal inactivation kinetics of...

  1. Neural Network Modeling to Predict Shelf Life of Greenhouse Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Chin Lin; Block, Glen S.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) can potentially be stored for 21 days at constant 0°C. When storage temperature was increased to 5°C or 10°C, shelf life was shortened to 14 or 10 days, respectively, in our previous observations. Also, commercial shelf life of 7 to 10 days is common, due to postharvest temperature fluctuations. The objective of this study was to establish neural network (NN) models to predict the remaining shelf life (RSL) under fluctuating postharvest temp...

  2. Geodynamic evolution of the Barents-Kara shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, V.P. [State Academy of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The Barents-Kara shelf and the whole of Russia`s Arctic shelf have focused attention during the last decade for two reasons: firstly, a desire to know the evolution of a poorly studied region, and secondly, the hope - giving way to certainty - that this region is destined to supply oil and gas to this and many other countries during the third millennium. Seen in this context, the present attempt to propose a geodynamic model for the evolution of the Barents-Kara shelf will be both topical and useful. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Streamlining ICAT development through off-the shelf hypermedia systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orey, Michael; Trent, Ann; Young, James; Sanders, Michael

    1993-01-01

    This project examined the efficacy of building intelligent computer assisted training using an off-the-shelf hypermedia package. In addition, we compared this package to an architecture that had been developed in a previous contract which was based in the C programming language. One person developed a tutor in LinkWay (an off-the-shelf hypermedia system) and another developed the same tutor using the ALM C-based architecture. Development times, ease of use, learner preferences, learner options, and learning effectiveness were compared. In all cases, the off-the-shelf package was shown to be superior to the C-based system.

  4. Maximizing Shelf Life of Paneer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sumit; Goyal, Gyanendra Kumar

    2016-06-10

    Paneer resembling soft cheese is a well-known heat- and acid-coagulated milk product. It is very popular in the Indian subcontinent and has appeared in the western and Middle East markets. The shelf life of paneer is quite low and it loses freshness after two to three days when stored under refrigeration. Various preservation techniques, including chemical additives, packaging, thermal processing, and low-temperature storage, have been proposed by researchers for enhancing its shelf life. The use of antimicrobial additives is not preferred because of perceived toxicity risks. Modified atmosphere packaging has been recommended as one of the best techniques for maximizing the shelf life of paneer. PMID:25679043

  5. Heat Flow of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, C.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial heat flow determination is of prime interest for oil industry because it impacts directly maturation histories and economic potential of oil fields. Published systematic heat flow determinations from major oil provinces are however seldom. Robust heat flow determinations in drillholes require logging of undisturbed temperatures and intensive sampling of core material for petrophysical measurements. Temperature logging in exploration drillholes is traditionally conducted during drill breaks or shortly after drilling, resulting in temperatures severely disturbed by mud circulation and coring is restricted to selected intervals. Alternatively, test temperatures, information from electric logs and lithological descriptions of drill cuttings can be used to overcome these limitations. The present contribution introduces new heat flow determinations based on 63 exploration drillholes from the Norwegian North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin and the Barents Shelf. Our analyses are based on released DST temperatures, precise lithological descriptions of drill cuttings, previously measured rock matrix thermal conductivities and established porosity laws. For the sake of comparison, we carefully review previous heat flow studies carried out both onshore and offshore Norway. Our results suggest median heat flow values of 64 mW/m2, 65 mW/m2 and 72 mW/m2 for the North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin (mainly the Trøndelag Platform) and the SW Barents Shelf respectively. In detail, heat flow increases by ~ 10 mW/m2 from the southern Norwegian North Sea towards the Mid Norway Margin. This result appears to be in very good agreement with seismic tomographic studies suggesting northward thinning of the underlying mantle lithosphere. Our results together with published marine heat flow data from the Mid Norway Margin suggest a gradual decrease in heat flow levels from both the North Sea and the Trøndelag Platform towards the centres of the deep Møre and Vøring basins. This latter

  6. Fate of chlorinated fatty acids in migrating sockeye salmon and their transfer to arctic grayling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Ewald, G.; Nilsson, E.; Sundin, P.; Wesen, C.

    2004-01-01

    that of the unchlorinated fatty acids. Lipids of the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus), a fish resident to the spawning lake of the salmon, contained higher concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids than grayling in a lake without migratory salmon. This may reflect a food-chain transfer of the...... organohalogen compounds in the salmon were halogenated fatty acids, predominantly chlorinated species that accounted for up to 35% of the extractable, organically bound chlorine (EOCl) in the fish tissues. The amount of chlorinated fatty acids in the salmon muscle decreased as a result of spawning migration....... The decrease was correlated with that of triacylglycerols in the salmon muscle, indicating the chlorinated fatty acids to be mobilized and metabolized to approximately the same extent as the other fatty acids. Chlorinated fatty acids were also transferred to the maturing roe in a manner similar to...

  7. Gene expression in five salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Krøyer 1837) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Rolf Brudvik; Dalvin, Sussie; Furmanek, Tomasz; Malde, Ketil; Mæhle, Stig; Kvamme, Bjørn Olav; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L, is an important species both for traditional fishery and fish farming. Many Atlantic salmon stocks have been declining and a suspected main contributor to this decline is the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis); a parasitic copepod living off the salmonid hosts epidermal tissues and blood. Contributing to the growing body of knowledge on the molecular biology of the salmon louse we have utilized a microarray containing 11,100 salmon louse genes to study the gene expression patterns in selected tissues. This approach has yielded information about potential functions of the transcripts and tissues. Microarray analyses were preformed on subcuticular and frontal (neuronal and gland enriched tissue) tissues, as well as gut, ovary and testes of adult lice. Tissue specific transcriptomes were evident, allowing us to address main traits of functional partitioning between tissues and providing valuable insight into the biology of the louse. The results furthermore represent an important tool and resource for further experiments. PMID:24999079

  8. [Microbiologic study of low quality raw material obtained from Pacific salmon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shul'gin, Iu P; Galkina, L M; Shul'gina, L V; Pliusnin, V V

    1989-01-01

    The authors examined the microflora in the regions occupied with food fish and food manufacture from Pacific salmon in order to establish its interrelations with other characteristics of the quality. With this purpose in view sea and river water in the places of catching, freshly catched salmon and salted food were studied for the presence of putrefactive bacteria, potentially pathogenic for hydrobionts and man. The data obtained have demonstrated that the main causes of the deterioration of the quality of raw material and food manufactured from Pacific salmon are of bacterial nature. Salmon with micropunctate or large skin ulcerations induced by the causative agent Aeromonas hydrophila was discovered to contain substances with pronounced toxic properties. It is concluded that salmon affected with this microorganism cannot be used for nutrition of the population without thermal treatment. PMID:2660405

  9. Free polyunsaturated fatty acids cause taste deterioration of salmon during frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Brockhoff, P.M.B.; Jensen, Benny

    2000-01-01

    Increased intensity of train oil taste, bitterness, and metal taste are the most pronounced sensory changes during frozen storage of salmon (Refsgaard, H. H. F.; Brockhoff, P. B.; Jensen, B. Sensory and Chemical Changes in Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) during Frozen Storage. J. Agric. Food...... the intensity of train oil taste, bitterness, and metal taste. The added level of each fatty acid (similar to 1 mg/g salmon meat) was equivalent to the concentration of the fatty acids determined in salmon stored as fillet at -10 degrees C for 6 months. The effect of addition of the fatty acids on the intensity...... of train oil taste, bitterness and metal taste was in the order: DHA > palmitoleic acid > linoleic acid > EPA. Formation of free fatty acids was inhibited by cooking the salmon meat before storage. Furthermore, no changes in phospholipid level were observed during frozen storage. The results suggest...

  10. Institutions for Managing Resilient Salmon (Oncorhynchus Spp. Ecosystems: the Role of Incentives and Transaction Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S. Hanna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutions are the mechanisms that integrate the human and ecological spheres. This paper discusses the institutional challenge of integrating salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. ecosystems and human systems in ways that effectively promote resilience. Salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin demonstrates the challenge. Despite the comprehensive scope of Basin salmon management, it has a number of problems that illustrate the difficulties of designing institutions for ecosystem and human system resilience. The critical elements of salmon ecosystem management are incentives and transaction costs, and these comprise a large piece of missing institutional infrastructure. Once the focus is placed on incentives and costs, a number of different management strategies emerge as options for salmon ecosystems, including refugia, property rights to ecosystem goods and services, co-management, and markets in ecosystem services.

  11. PBDEs in salmon - chemical analyses (Effects of emerging chemicals of concern on Puget Sound's pelagic food web: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) influence on Chinook salmon health)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chinook salmon are critical species in the Puget Sound pelagic food web. Puget Sound Chinook are accumulating polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), contaminants...

  12. Water quality issues as potential limiting factors affecting juvenile Atlantic salmon life stages in Maine rivers: A report to the Maine Atlantic Salmon Technical Advisory Committee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Signatories to the Maine Atlantic Salmon Technical Advisory Committee TAC, in a letter to the TAC chair, requested guidance to resolve the issue whether water...

  13. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam Annual Report October 2006 - September 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.; Murray, Katherine J.; Bott, Yi-Ju [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2008-08-08

    From 1999 through 2007, the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Bonneville Power Administration funded a project to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning areas, and the flows necessary to ensure their long-term survival. Data were collected to ensure that established flow guidelines are appropriate and provide adequate protection for the species of concern. The projects objectives are consistent with the high priority placed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Independent Scientific Advisory Board and the salmon managers on determining the importance of mainstem habitats to the production of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Because of the influence of mainstem habitat on salmon production, there is a continued need to better understand the physical habitat variables used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations and the effects of hydropower project operations on spawning and incubation. During FY 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory focused on (1) locating and mapping deep-water fall Chinook salmon and chum salmon spawning areas, (2) investigating the interaction between groundwater and surface water near fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning areas, and (3) providing in-season hyporheic temperature and water surface elevation data to assist state agencies with emergence timing and redd dewatering estimates. This report documents the studies and tasks performed by PNNL during FY 2007. Chapter 1 provides a description of the searches conducted for deepwater redds-adjacent to Pierce and Ives islands for fall Chinook salmon and near the Interstate 205 bridge for chum salmon. The chapter also provides data on redd location, information about habitat associations, and estimates of total spawning populations. Chapter 2 documents the collection of data on riverbed and river temperatures and water surface elevations, from the onset of spawning to the

  14. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1985-1986 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-04-01

    This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, and 1984-brood replicates of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-brood replicates of fall chinook (tule stock salmon; and the 1985-brood of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. The 1985-brood year replicate of coho salmon is presently being reared and has been tagged for release in April 1987. The rearing of the 1986-brood replicate of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon has been initiated. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1984-brood coho and the 1985-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) level, gill Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase, osmoregulatory performance, immunocompetency and total hepatic/gill microsomal lipid content were monitored from early June to mid-October 1986 to assess the physiological condition of fall chinook salmon. Results indicated that on several sampling dates early in the 1986 rearing period fish supplied the control ration were physiologically different than fish receiving the salmon meal ration. Incomplete recovery of coded wire tags from 1982 and 1983-broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock) revealed an improved (P greater than or equal to .05) survival for fish supplied test rations.

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E. [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; Griswold, Robert G. [Biolines Environmental Consulting; Taki, Doug [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes

    2009-07-31

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: the immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency Recovery effort. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2008 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Alturas Lake Creek; (4) monitor, enumerate, and evaluate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  16. HISTOLOGY OF THE JAW DEFORMATION IN SALMON OF SOUTHERN CHILE HISTOLOGÍA DE LA DEFORMACIÓN MANDIBULAR EN SALMONES DEL SUR DE CHILE (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Venegas; Enrique Montiel; Pablo Forno; Mariana Rojas

    2003-01-01

    In adult salmon of the sea centres in southern Chile, a jaw deformation (JD) has been identified. It affects the dental and hyomandibular bones, which bend ventrally up to 90° of their normal position. The deformation affects also the dental articular bone. This pathology is related to weight loss and increased mortality of the salmons. It was empirically postulated that a probable cause for this anomaly was food from vegetal origin in the diet of the fishes (which are carnivores) Therefo...

  17. 41 CFR 101-27.207-3 - Marking material to show extended shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extended shelf life. 101-27.207-3 Section 101-27.207-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.207-3 Marking material to show extended shelf life. When the shelf-life period of Type II material (except for critical end-use items...

  18. Shelf life study on Nuclear Malaysia biofertilizer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate solubilising bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are biofertilizer microorganisms known to increase crop yields. It is important to prepare suitable sterile carriers or substrates for these microorganisms into biofertilizer products with long shelf life. Optimum storage conditions, especially storage temperature is needed to improve shelf life of the products. Isolates of two phosphate solubilising bacteria (AP1 and AP3) and one plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (AP2) have been developed into biofertilizer products in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NuclearMalaysia). These isolates were inoculated into a compost-based carrier, sterilised by gamma irradiation at 50 kGy, from MINTec-SINAGAMA, Nuclear Malaysia. Biofertilizer products kept at low temperatures (9 ± 2 degree C) showed better shelf life (storage for six months) as compared to those stored at room temperatures (28 ± 2 degree C). Further observation of the shelf life is still in progress. (Author)

  19. Manganese, Iron, and sulfur cycling in Louisiana continental shelf sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfate reduction is considered the primary pathway for organic carbon remineralization on the northern Gulf of Mexico Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) where bottom waters are seasonally hypoxic, yet limited information is available on the importance of iron and manganese cyclin...

  20. Sand shoal development on muddy Mississippi river delta shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penland, S.; Suter, J.R.; Moslow, T.F.

    1984-04-01

    Trinity and Ship Shoals are transgressive sand bodies on the Louisiana inner continental shelf, and they represent the reworked sands of the abandoned Holocene Teche and Maringouin deltas. The development of these shoals is initiated by an episode of delta abandonment followed by subsidence-enhanced sea level rise. Through the process of shoreface retreat, the abandoned delta lobe evolves from an erosional headland with flanking barrier islands to a barrier-island arch and finally into a submerged inner-shelf shoal system. Trinity and Ship Shoals represent the final stage in the Mississippi River delta barrier shoreline cycle and provide a possible modern analogue for some Cretaceous shelf sandstones of the Western Interior. More than 1000 km (620 mi) of high-resolution seismic profiles correlated with cores provide the data base for interpretation of the depositional history of sand-body development on the muddy Louisiana shelf.

  1. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Alaska Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Outer Continental Shelf block outlines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. OCS blocks are used to define small geographic...

  2. Biodegradable Long Shelf Life Food Packaging Material Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long shelf life food packaging is a critical to maintaining the crew's well being in NASA's manned missions to the mars. Not only does the packaging have to offer...

  3. Remote Sensing of Shelf Sea Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Otis B.

    This volume, edited by Nihoul, is a collection of papers by participants in the 15th Liege Colloquium, held in 1983. Although the title is somewhat daunting, the premise is a good one, i.e., “What can one learn about the basic theory of shelf-sea hydrodynamics by using remote sensing?” As with any such collection, some papers hit the mark (e.g., T. Nishimura et al., S. Onishi, and J. Witling), others give focus to the work (e.g., J. Nihoul, R. Pingree), while other work seems but distantly related to the subject at hand (e.g., the contributions of J. Gower and of S. Lin et al.). In the following review, I will try to give the reader a flavor for the volume's 18 sections. The book can be split into four themes: introduction to remote sensing, use of remote sensing and models, use of remote sensing to study oceanic variability, and optical oceanography.

  4. Shelf life of unrefrigerated succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J J; Dutton, D M; Poust, R I

    1984-02-01

    The shelf life of succinylcholine chloride injection at several pH values when stored at room temperature was evaluated. Solutions containing 20 mg/ml of succinylcholine chloride were stored at 25 and 40 degrees C. The reaction was studied at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 4.5. At two-week intervals, the solutions were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The initial amount of succinylcholine chloride in all samples was 100.1 +/- 2.37% of label claim. Hydrolysis of succinylcholine chloride in unbuffered solutions followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The pH range of maximum stability was found to be from 3.75 to 4.50. Succinylcholine chloride decomposed at a considerably higher rate at 40 degrees C. Allowing for the effects of pH adjustment during manufacture and degradation during shipping, losses of 7.0% and 9.0% potency can be expected after storage at 25 degrees C for four and six weeks, respectively. Succinylcholine Chloride Injection, USP, should be stored in the refrigerator; if unbuffered succinylcholine chloride injection complying with USP pH limits must be stored at room temperature, it should not be kept for longer than four weeks. PMID:6702837

  5. Deep ocean exchange with west-European shelf seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Huthnance

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf sea. Mechanisms include: well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain giving exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf; prevailing westerly winds further north driving exchange O(1 m2/s; poleward flow along most of the upper slope with associated secondary circulation O(1 m2/s; meanders and eddies in this poleward flow; eddies shed from slope waters into the Bay of Biscay; local exchanges at shelf spurs and depressions or canyons (e.g. dense-water cascading of order 1 m2/s. Tidal transports are larger; their reversal every six hours makes exchange largely ineffective except where internal tides are large and non-linear, as in the Celtic Sea where solitons carry water with exchange O(1 m2/s. These various physical exchanges amount to an estimated 2–3 m2/s per unit length of shelf, between ocean and shelf; a numerical model estimate is comparable: 2.5×106 m3/s onto and off the shelf from Brittany to Norway. Mixing controls the seasonal thermocline, affecting primary production and hence fluxes and fate of organic matter. Specifically, CO2 take-up by primary production, settling below the thermocline before respiration, and then off-shelf transport, make an effective shelf-sea "pump" (for CO2 from the atmosphere to the deep ocean. However, knowledge of biogeochemical fluxes is generally sparse; there is scope for more measurements, model validation and estimates from models.

  6. Technology transfer equipment qualification methodology for shelf life determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussions with a number of Nuclear Utilities revealed that equipment qualified for 10 to 40 years in the harsh environment of the plant was being assigned shelf lives of only 5 to 10 years in the benign environment of the warehouse, and then the materials were being trashed. One safety-related equipment supplier was assigning a 10-year qualified life, from date of shipment, with no recognition of the difference in the aging rate in the plant vs. that in the warehouse. Many suppliers assign shelf lives based on product warranty considerations rather than actual product degradation. An EPRI program was initiated to evaluate the methods used to assign shelf lives and to adapt the Arrhenius methodology, used in equipment qualification, to assign technically justifiable shelf lives. Temperature is the main factor controlling shelf life; however, atmospheric pressure, humidity, ultraviolet light, ozone and other atmospheric contaminants were also considered. A list of 70 representative materials was addressed in the program. All of these were found to have shelf lives of 14 years to greater than 60 years, except for 19 items. For 18 of these items, there was no data available except for the manufacturer's recommendation

  7. Genetic Variation in DNA of Coho Salmon from the Lower Columbia River : Final Report 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fobes, Stephen; Knudsen, Kathy; Allendorf, Fred

    1993-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop techniques to provide the information needed to determine if Lower Columbia River coho salmon represent a 'species' under the Endangered Species Act. Our report features two new nuclear DNA approaches to the improved detection of genetic variation: (1) Studies of DNA-level genetic variation for two nuclear growth hormone genes; (2) Use of arbitrary DNA primers (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, or 'RAPD' primers) to detect variation at large numbers of nuclear genes. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify variable sections (introns) of two growth hormone genes (GH-I and G/f-Z) in several salmonid species. Coho salmon had three DNA length variants for G/-I intron C. Restriction analysis and sequencing provided valuable information about the mode of evolution of these DNA sequences. We tested segregation of the variants in captive broods of coho salmon, and demonstrated that they are alleles at a single Mendelian locus. Population studies using the GH-1 alleles showed highly significant frequency differences between Lower Columbia River and Oregon Coast coho salmon, and marginal differences among stocks within these regions. These new markers are adequately defined and tested to use in coho salmon population studies of any size. The nature of the variation at GH-1 (Variable Number Tandem Repeats, or 'VNTRs') suggests that more genetic variants will be found in coho salmon from other areas. GH-2 intron C also showed length variation in coho salmon, and this variation was found to be sex-linked. Because PCR methods require minute amounts of tissue, this discovery provides a technique to determine the gender of immature coho salmon without killing them. Chinook salmon had restriction patterns and sequence divergences similar to coho salmon. Thus, we expect that sex linkage of GH-2 alleles predates the evolutionary divergence of Pacific salmon species, and that gender testing with

  8. Red and white Chinook salmon: genetic divergence and mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Sarah J; Pitcher, Trevor E; Devlin, Robert H; Heath, Daniel D

    2016-03-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exhibit extreme differences in coloration of skin, eggs and flesh due to genetic polymorphisms affecting carotenoid deposition, where colour can range from white to bright red. A sympatric population of red and white Chinook salmon occurs in the Quesnel River, British Columbia, where frequencies of each phenotype are relatively equal. In our study, we examined evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the morphs, where we first tested whether morphs were reproductively isolated using microsatellite genotyping, and second, using breeding trials in seminatural spawning channels, we tested whether colour assortative mate choice could be operating to maintain the polymorphism in nature. Next, given extreme difference in carotenoid assimilation and the importance of carotenoids to immune function, we examined mate choice and selection between colour morphs at immune genes (major histocompatibility complex genes: MHC I-A1 and MHC II-B1). In our study, red and white individuals were found to interbreed, and under seminatural conditions, some degree of colour assortative mate choice (71% of matings) was observed. We found significant genetic differences at both MHC genes between morphs, but no evidence of MHC II-B1-based mate choice. White individuals were more heterozygous at MHC II-B1 compared with red individuals, and morphs showed significant allele frequency differences at MHC I-A1. Although colour assortative mate choice is likely not a primary mechanism maintaining the polymorphisms in the population, our results suggest that selection is operating differentially at immune genes in red and white Chinook salmon, possibly due to differences in carotenoid utilization. PMID:26836978

  9. A modeled comparison of direct and food web-mediated impacts of common pesticides on Pacific salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate H Macneale

    Full Text Available In the western United States, pesticides used in agricultural and urban areas are often detected in streams and rivers that support threatened and endangered Pacific salmon. Although concentrations are rarely high enough to cause direct salmon mortality, they can reach levels sufficient to impair juvenile feeding behavior and limit macroinvertebrate prey abundance. This raises the possibility of direct adverse effects on juvenile salmon health in tandem with indirect effects on salmon growth as a consequence of reduced prey abundance. We modeled the growth of ocean-type Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at the individual and population scales, investigating insecticides that differ in how long they impair salmon feeding behavior and in how toxic they are to salmon compared to macroinvertebrates. The relative importance of these direct vs. indirect effects depends both on how quickly salmon can recover and on the relative toxicity of an insecticide to salmon and their prey. Model simulations indicate that when exposed to a long-acting organophosphate insecticide that is highly toxic to salmon and invertebrates (e.g., chlorpyrifos, the long-lasting effect on salmon feeding behavior drives the reduction in salmon population growth with reductions in prey abundance having little additional impact. When exposed to short-acting carbamate insecticides at concentrations that salmon recover from quickly but are lethal to invertebrates (e.g., carbaryl, the impacts on salmon populations are due primarily to reductions in their prey. For pesticides like carbaryl, prey sensitivity and how quickly the prey community can recover are particularly important in determining the magnitude of impact on their predators. In considering both indirect and direct effects, we develop a better understanding of potential impacts of a chemical stressor on an endangered species and identify data gaps (e.g., prey recovery rates that contribute uncertainty to these

  10. Salmon movements in Galway Bay in 1978 and 1979

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978 tagging investigations commenced into the origin of salmon caught in drift nets in Galway Bay. This fishery began in 1969 with a catch of 355 fish and, by 1975 had increased dramatically to 33,607. However the catch declined to less than half the maximum and in 1979 was down to 15,171. There are 76 drift net licences in the Bay which incorporates two fishery districts, Galway and Connemara. The vessels used vary from 5 metre currachs to 20 metre trawlers. The majority of the boats ...

  11. Parasite burdens in experimental families of coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, W.T.; McIntyre, J.D.; Hemmingsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    We examined the possibility that parasites affect survival rates of anadromous hatchery coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch during their period in the wild. Survival was estimated from the rates at which adults returned to the hatchery. The frequency of infection of heart tissue by metacercariae of Nanophyetus sp. was higher in individuals from families with relatively high survival. Various degrees of parasitic and bacterial infection were observed in all groups. We frequently saw extensive infection and tissue reaction to trophozoites of Ceratomyxa sp. (probably C. shasta) in the apparent absence of spores, suggesting that the clinical method now used to determine the presence of Ceratomyxa infection needs to be reassessed.

  12. Landscape Ecotoxicology of Coho Salmon Spawner Mortality in Urban Streams

    OpenAIRE

    Blake E Feist; Buhle, Eric R.; Paul Arnold; Jay W Davis; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2011-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) returning from the ocean to spawn in urban basins of the Puget Sound region have been prematurely dying at high rates (up to 90% of the total runs) for more than a decade. The current weight of evidence indicates that coho deaths are caused by toxic chemical contaminants in land-based runoff to urban streams during the fall spawning season. Non-point source pollution in urban landscapes typically originate...

  13. Price formation of the salmon aquaculture futures market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    3-, 4-, 5-, 9- and 12-months futures contracts provide the expected leadership role in the price discovery function, a case that supports a matured market that can be considered a necessary price risk management tool. The mixed finding is an indication of a maturing or near matured futures market......This study examines price formation of the internationally traded salmon futures exchange. Analyzing data from 2006 to 2015, the study identifies the co-integration relationship between the spot market price and 1–6-, 9- and 12-month futures contract prices. With exception of the 12-month maturity...

  14. Grande Ronde Basin endemic spring chinook salmon supplementation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its responsibilities under the Northwest Power Act (Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) must mitigate the loss of fish, wildlife, and related spawning grounds and habitat attributable to power production at federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The federal dams have been identified as a major source of mortality for the listed Snake River salmon stocks. BPA also has responsibilities under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 to operate in a way that does not jeopardize the continued existence of listed species and to use its agency resources to conserve listed species

  15. Fluorescence of muscle and connective tissue from cod and salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Wold, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Autofluorescence of salmon and cod muscle was measured and compared with autofluorescence of collagen type I and type V. Similarities between fluorescence of fish muscle and collagen were found in that the same peaks were obtained around 390, 430, and 480 nm, These similarities are supported by...... a scale from 0 to 5. There was no relation between texture and fluorescence spectra. Fluorescence of fish muscle could be related to the storage time. However, this relation seemed not to be induced by changes in collagen....

  16. Shelf-stable electrophilic reagents for trifluoromethylthiolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xinxin; Xu, Chunfa; Lu, Long; Shen, Qilong

    2015-05-19

    Fluorine, which is the most electronegative element and has a small atomic radius, plays a key role in pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and materials sciences. One of the fluoroalkyl groups, the trifluoromethylthio group (CF3S-), has been well-recognized as an important structural motif in the design of lead compounds for new drug discovery because of its high lipophilicity (Hansch lipophilicity parameter π = 1.44) and strong electron-withdrawing properties, which could improve the drug molecule's cell-membrane permeability and enhance its chemical and metabolic stability. While classic methods for the preparation of trifluoromethylthiolated compounds typically involve halogen-fluorine exchange reactions of polyhalogenomethyl thioethers or trifluoromethylation of sulfur-containing compounds under harsh reaction conditions, an alternative but more attractive strategy is direct trifluoromethylthiolation of the substrate at a late stage by employing an electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolating reagent. Although several electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolating reagents have been reported previously, these reagents either require a strong Lewis acid/Brønsted acid as an activator or suffer from a toxic nature or limited substrate scope. To address these problems, in late 2011 we initiated a project with the aim to develop new, shelf-stable, and highly reactive electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolating reagents that could easily install the trifluoromethylthio group at the desired positions of the drug molecule at a late stage of drug development. Inspired by the broad reactivity of the hypervalent iodine reagent, we initially discovered a highly reactive trifluoromethylthiolating reagent, trifluoromethanesulfenate 1a. Structure-reactivity studies disclosed that the iodine atom of reagent 1a does not play an important role in this reagent's reactivity. Consequently, a simplified second-generation electrophilic reagent, trifluoromethanesulfenate 1b, was developed. In parallel

  17. Formation waters of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, R. A.; Rein, E.

    2006-03-15

    New and previously published analyses of formation waters for the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have been evaluated and interpreted to determine the compositional distribution of formation waters in the region and factors controlling their compositions, and also to obtain information on subsurface fluid flow. Formation waters in the region are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-type waters that display a wide range of salinity (2500-212000 mg/kg Cl). Generally, the concentrations of most dissolved constituents are positively correlated with Cl so that their distribution in formation waters largely reflects the variations shown by salinity. Exceptions are SO4 which is generally low (less than 40 mg/l) regardless of Cl, and HCO3 and in-situ pH which are negatively correlated with Cl. The main factors determining the compositions of the formation waters are mixing of meteoric water (probably late-Jurassic to Eocene), ancient seawater and primary brine together with diagenetic reactions that have affected each of these components individually as well as mixtures of them. Evaluation of the distribution of salinity has helped us identify where vertical and/or lateral migration of brine from the evaporites has occurred. This has in turn provided us with information on the presence of leak-points and vertical mixing, although further investigation of the location of evaporites and basin palaeohydrogeology are required to determine whether regional lateral advection has occurred in the past. The results of this study may benefit oil exploration and production activities in the NCS including constraint of hydrocarbon migration models, economic evaluation of undrilled prospects, scale management and compartmentalisation studies. (Author)

  18. Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock rearing and research, 1994. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species

  19. Characterisation of the salmon cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein for structural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi L. Pollock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR is a chloride channel highly expressed in the gills of Salmo salar, with a role in osmoregulation. It shares 60% identity with the human CFTR channel, mutations to which can cause the common genetic disorder cystic fibrosis CF. The expression and localisation of salmon CFTR have been investigated, but the isolated protein has not been extensively characterised. Here we present a protocol for the purification of recombinant salmon CFTR, along with biophysical and structural characterisation of the purified protein. Salmon CFTR was overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, solubilised in the detergent LPG-14 and chromatographically purified by nickel-affinity and size-exclusion chromatography methods. Prior to size-exclusion chromatography samples of salmon CFTR had low purity, and contained large quantities of aggregated protein. Compared to size-exclusion chromatography profiles of other orthologues of CFTR, which had less evidence of aggregation, salmon CFTR appeared to have lower intrinsic stability than human and platypus CFTR. Nonetheless, repeated size-exclusion chromatography allowed monodisperse salmon CFTR to be isolated, and multi-angle light scattering was used to determine its oligomeric state. The monodispersity of the sample and its oligomeric state were confirmed using cryo-electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS. These data were also processed to calculate a low-resolution structure of the salmon CFTR, which showed similar architecture to other ATP-binding cassette proteins.

  20. Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research : Annual Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, Scott

    1993-05-01

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock.

  1. A time-lapse photography method for monitoring salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) passage and abundance in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacy, William W; Leacock, William B; Eby, Lisa A; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating population sizes is often a critical component of fisheries research and management. Although there is a growing appreciation of the importance of small-scale salmon population dynamics to the stability of salmon stock-complexes, our understanding of these populations is constrained by a lack of efficient and cost-effective monitoring tools for streams. Weirs are expensive, labor intensive, and can disrupt natural fish movements. While conventional video systems avoid some of these shortcomings, they are expensive and require excessive amounts of labor to review footage for data collection. Here, we present a novel method for quantifying salmon in small streams (<15 m wide, <1 m deep) that uses both time-lapse photography and video in a model-based double sampling scheme. This method produces an escapement estimate nearly as accurate as a video-only approach, but with substantially less labor, money, and effort. It requires servicing only every 14 days, detects salmon 24 h/day, is inexpensive, and produces escapement estimates with confidence intervals. In addition to escapement estimation, we present a method for estimating in-stream salmon abundance across time, data needed by researchers interested in predator--prey interactions or nutrient subsidies. We combined daily salmon passage estimates with stream specific estimates of daily mortality developed using previously published data. To demonstrate proof of concept for these methods, we present results from two streams in southwest Kodiak Island, Alaska in which high densities of sockeye salmon spawn. PMID:27326378

  2. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1986-1987 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, is subject to heat damage during drying and chemical interaction of fat oxidation products with proteins. Protein bioavailability is reduced and dietary stress may be introduced into hatchery feeds. This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. Improved survival production would be better able to reestablish natural runs of salmon in the Columbia River system and maintain and improve the genetic integrity of specific stocks. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985-broods of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986-broods of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1985-brood coho and the 1986-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon.

  3. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  4. A Critical Assessment of the Ecological Assumptions Underpinning Compensatory Mitigation of Salmon-Derived Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Scott F.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2015-09-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  5. Research on Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Penny; Pascho, Ronald; Hershberger, William K. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research on captive broodstock technologies conducted during 1995 under Bonneville Power Administration Project 93-56. Investigations were conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Washington, and Northwest Biological Science Center (US Geological Survey). Studies encompassed several categories of research, including fish husbandry, reproductive physiology, immunology, pathology, nutrition, and genetics. Captive broodstock programs are being developed and implemented to aid recovery of endangered Pacific salmon stocks. Like salmon hatchery programs, however, captive broodstock programs are not without problems and risks to natural salmon populations. The research projects described in this report were developed in part based on a literature review, Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon. The work was divided into three major research areas: (1) research on sockeye salmon; (2) research on spring chinook salmon; and (3) research on quantitative genetic problems associated with captive broodstock programs. Investigations of nutrition, reproductive physiology, fish husbandry, and fish health were integrated into the research on sockeye and spring chinook salmon. A description of each investigation and its major findings and conclusions is presented.

  6. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  7. A time-lapse photography method for monitoring salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) passage and abundance in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacock, William B.; Eby, Lisa A.; Stanford, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately estimating population sizes is often a critical component of fisheries research and management. Although there is a growing appreciation of the importance of small-scale salmon population dynamics to the stability of salmon stock-complexes, our understanding of these populations is constrained by a lack of efficient and cost-effective monitoring tools for streams. Weirs are expensive, labor intensive, and can disrupt natural fish movements. While conventional video systems avoid some of these shortcomings, they are expensive and require excessive amounts of labor to review footage for data collection. Here, we present a novel method for quantifying salmon in small streams (sampling scheme. This method produces an escapement estimate nearly as accurate as a video-only approach, but with substantially less labor, money, and effort. It requires servicing only every 14 days, detects salmon 24 h/day, is inexpensive, and produces escapement estimates with confidence intervals. In addition to escapement estimation, we present a method for estimating in-stream salmon abundance across time, data needed by researchers interested in predator--prey interactions or nutrient subsidies. We combined daily salmon passage estimates with stream specific estimates of daily mortality developed using previously published data. To demonstrate proof of concept for these methods, we present results from two streams in southwest Kodiak Island, Alaska in which high densities of sockeye salmon spawn.

  8. Use of ELISA to monitor bacterial kidney disease in naturally spawning chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Glenda; Hoffnagle, Timothy L

    2007-09-14

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs) is a serious problem among Pacific Northwest salmon hatcheries and has raised concerns that salmon reared in hatcheries may spread BKD to natural populations. In order to monitor the potential spread of this disease to salmon spawning in nature, a method must be available to collect and analyze tissues from naturally spawning salmon. Kidney tissue analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the standard method to detect the presence of Rs in salmon sampled in hatcheries. In this study, we tested the validity of using ELISA on kidney tissue collected from intact carcasses recovered on the spawning grounds to monitor BKD in naturally spawning populations by comparing ELISA optical density (OD) values from kidney tissue that was subjected to conditions that simulated decomposition in a carcass and collection during a spawning ground survey with samples freshly collected from salmon at a hatchery. Mean ELISA OD levels were 1.060 for the samples prepared by the normal preparation and 1.115 for samples prepared by simulating spawning ground survey collection. There was no significant difference in mean ELISA OD between the 2 sample preparations and the relationship did not significantly differ from 1:1 (slope = 0.946). This demonstrates that BKD prevalence in natural populations can be monitored using ELISA conducted on samples from intact carcasses recovered on spawning ground surveys. This will be an important tool for monitoring the effect of hatchery supplementation on naturally spawning salmon populations. PMID:17972755

  9. Impact of Common Kingfisher on a salmon population during the nestling period in southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilches A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fish-eating birds on their fish-prey populations has been a matter of concern to conservationists, anglers and fishery interests, especially when both bird and fish species have conservation status and are afforded some protection by law. Understanding the predator-prey interactions will assist in managing these potential conflicts. This situation could arise with the Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis, whose range covers many important Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar rivers. In order to increase our knowledge on predator-prey interactions between these species, we collected data on the diet and feeding rates of a kingfisher population breeding in an Atlantic salmon river in southern England (River Frome. Results showed that, during nestling period, kingfishers provided a mean of 62 fish per day to the nest and that the mean salmon intake was 2.5% of the entire diet, which is equivalent to 86 salmon parr consumed by each kingfishers pair for the entire breeding period (assuming 2.2 broods/pair/year. The total 0-group salmon population in the River Frome was 63 900. The estimated loss of 0-group salmon parr to the kingfishers over one season was 0.8%, thus supporting the view that the kingfisher has a negligible biological impact over this salmon population.

  10. The impact of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. on catch statistics in Scotland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Green

    Full Text Available In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.. This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible.

  11. Local and systemic gene expression responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. to infection with the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Frank

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salmon louse (SL is an ectoparasitic caligid crustacean infecting salmonid fishes in the marine environment. SL represents one of the major challenges for farming of salmonids, and veterinary intervention is necessary to combat infection. This study addressed gene expression responses of Atlantic salmon infected with SL, which may account for its high susceptibility. Results The effects of SL infection on gene expression in Atlantic salmon were studied throughout the infection period from copepodids at 3 days post infection (dpi to adult lice (33 dpi. Gene expression was analyzed at three developmental stages in damaged and intact skin, spleen, head kidney and liver, using real-time qPCR and a salmonid cDNA microarray (SFA2. Rapid detection of parasites was indicated by the up-regulation of immunoglobulins in the spleen and head kidney and IL-1 receptor type 1, CD4, beta-2-microglobulin, IL-12β, CD8α and arginase 1 in the intact skin of infected fish. Most immune responses decreased at 22 dpi, however, a second activation was observed at 33 dpi. The observed pattern of gene expression in damaged skin suggested the development of inflammation with signs of Th2-like responses. Involvement of T cells in responses to SL was witnessed with up-regulation of CD4, CD8α and programmed death ligand 1. Signs of hyporesponsive immune cells were seen. Cellular stress was prevalent in damaged skin as seen by highly significant up-regulation of heat shock proteins, other chaperones and mitochondrial proteins. Induction of the major components of extracellular matrix, TGF-β and IL-10 was observed only at the adult stage of SL. Taken together with up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP, this classifies the wounds afflicted by SL as chronic. Overall, the gene expression changes suggest a combination of chronic stress, impaired healing and immunomodulation. Steady increase of MMP expression in all tissues except liver was a

  12. Ocean-shelf interaction and exchange (Fridtjof Nansen Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huthnance, John M.

    2016-04-01

    A brief review will be given of physical processes where shallow shelf seas border the deep ocean, including waves that travel and propagate responses around the ocean boundary. Some implications for ocean-shelf exchange of water and its physical and biochemical contents will be discussed, along with an outline of some studies estimating these exchanges. There will be an emphasis on the north-west European shelf edge. A recent study is the project FASTNEt: "Fluxes across sloping topography of the North East Atlantic". This aims to resolve seasonal, interannual and regional variations. Novel and varied measurements have been made in three contrasting sectors of shelf edge: the Celtic Sea south-west of Britain, the Malin-Hebrides shelf west of Scotland and the West Shetland shelf north of Scotland. Previous studies established the existence of flow along the continental slope in these areas, more persistently poleward in northern sectors. Modelling aims to diagnose and estimate the contribution of various processes to transports and to exchange along and across the slope. Estimates obtained so far will be presented; overall transport from drifters and moored current meters; effective "diffusivity" from drifter dispersion and salinity surveys; other estimates of velocity variance contributing to exchange. In addition to transport by the along-slope flow, possible process contributions which may be estimated include internal waves and their Stokes drift, tidal pumping, eddies and Ekman transports, in a wind-driven surface layer and in a bottom boundary layer. Overall estimates of exchange across the shelf edge here are large by global standards, several m**2/s (Sverdrups per 1000 km). However, the large majority of this exchange is in tides and other motion of comparably short period, and is only effective for water properties or contents that evolve on a time-scale of a day or less.

  13. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment

  14. Ocean distribution, feeding ecology, and return of Pacific salmon in the 1997 El Nino event year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeriyama, M. [Hokkaido Tokai Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Urawa, S.; Fukuwaka, M. [National Salmon Resources Centre, Nakanoshima, Sapporo (Japan); Myers, K.W.; Davis, N.D. [Washington Univ., Fisheries Research Inst., Seattle, WA (United States); Takagi, S.; Ueda, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Faculty of Fisheries, Hakodate, Hokkaido (Japan); Nagasawa, K.; Ishida, Y. [National Research Inst. of Far Seas Fisheries, Shimizu, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The impact of the 1997 El Nino event on the offshore distribution, migration and feeding ecology of Pacific salmon in the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea, and on the return pattern of Japanese chum salmon, was studied. The run pattern of adult chum salmon showed extreme fluctuation by area and run timing. The 1997 abundance and return rate of early runs was significantly increased in the Okhotsk and Nemuro regions compared to the previous five-year means but the abundance and return rate of Japan Sea populations and some of the late runs was decreased. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Natural selection constrains personality and brain gene expression differences in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Höglund, Erik; Winberg, Svante

    2015-01-01

    littermates. Taken together, these results suggest that time of emergence, boldness and aggression are linked to each other, forming a behavioural syndrome in juvenile salmon. Differences in brain gene expression between early and late emerging salmon add further support to a relationship between stress...... and more aggressive. In the present study, emerging Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) alevins were sorted into three fractions: early, intermediate and late emerging. At the parr stage, behaviour, stress responses, hindbrain monoaminergic activity and forebrain gene expression were explored in fish...

  16. Lower Columbia River salmon business plan for terminal fisheries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon fishing in the Northwest requires a public-private partnership. The public through its decision-makers, agencies, and laws states it will do all that is necessary to protect and preserve the valuable salmon resource. Yet, the public side of the partnership is broken. The Columbia River salmon fishing industry, with over 140 years of documented history, is at a crossroads. This report explores a variety of issues, concerns, and ideas related to terminal fishery development. In some cases recommendations are made. In addition, options are explored with an understanding that those designated as decision-makers must make decisions following considerable discussion and reflection

  17. Lower Columbia River Salmon Business Plan for Terminal Fisheries : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon For All

    1996-07-01

    Salmon fishing in the Northwest requires a public-private partnership. The public through its decision-makers, agencies, and laws states it will do all that is necessary to protect and preserve the valuable salmon resource. Yet, the public side of the partnership is broken. The Columbia River salmon fishing industry, with over 140 years of documented history, is at a crossroads. This report explores a variety of issues, concerns, and ideas related to terminal fishery development. In some cases recommendations are made. In addition, options are explored with an understanding that those designated as decision-makers must make decisions following considerable discussion and reflection.

  18. Effects of salinity on trace elements in otoliths of Masu salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in otoliths of Masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou masou to examine relationship between trace elements and environmental salinity. The otoliths were removed from salmon juveniles reared in four values of salinity and wild ones. The otolith Sr concentrations of reared individuals are positively related to salinity and there is significant difference between freshwater and seawater. The otoliths of smolts contain more Sr than those of parrs. It seems that the Sr concentrations in otoliths of Masu salmon reflect salinity where they had stayed and show the migration pattern. (author)

  19. Modeling the brain-pituitary-gonad axis in salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonghan; Hayton, William L.; Schultz, Irv R.

    2006-08-24

    To better understand the complexity of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG) in fish, we developed a biologically based pharmacodynamic model capable of accurately predicting the normal functioning of the BPG axis in salmon. This first-generation model consisted of a set of 13 equations whose formulation was guided by published values for plasma concentrations of pituitary- (FSH, LH) and ovary- (estradiol, 17a,20b-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one) derived hormones measured in Coho salmon over an annual spawning period. In addition, the model incorporated pertinent features of previously published mammalian models and indirect response pharmacodynamic models. Model-based equations include a description of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) synthesis and release from the hypothalamus, which is controlled by environmental variables such as photoperiod and water temperature. GnRH stimulated the biosynthesis of mRNA for FSH and LH, which were also influenced by estradiol concentration in plasma. The level of estradiol in the plasma was regulated by the oocytes, which moved along a maturation progression. Estradiol was synthesized at a basal rate and as oocytes matured, stimulation of its biosynthesis occurred. The BPG model can be integrated with toxico-genomic, -proteomic data, allowing linkage between molecular based biomarkers and reproduction in fish.

  20. Atlantic salmon brood stock management and breeding handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Harold L.; Stanley, Jon G.

    1989-01-01

    Anadromus runs of Atlantic salmon have been restored to the Connecticut, Merrimack, Pawcatuck, Penobscot, and St. Croix rivers in New England by the stocking of more than 8 million smolts since 1948. Fish-breeding methods have been developed that minimize inbreeding and domestication and enhance natural selection. Methods are available to advance the maturation of brood stock, control the sex of production lots and store gametes. Current hatchery practices emphasize the use of sea-run brood stock trapped upon return to the rivers and a limited number of captive brood stock and rejuvenated kelts. Fish are allowed to mature naturally, after which they are spawned and incubated artificially. Generally, 1-year smolts are produced, and excess fish are stocked as fry in headwater streams. Smolts are stocked during periods of rising water in spring. Self-release pools are planned that enable smolts to choose the emigration time. Culturists keep good records that permit evaluation of the performance of strains and the effects of breeding practices. As Atlantic salmon populations expand, culturists must use sound breeding methods that enhance biotic potential while maintaining genetic diversity and protecting unique gene pools.

  1. Identification of Saprolegnia Spp. Pathogenic in Chinook Salmon : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisler, Howard C.

    1997-06-01

    This project has developed procedures to assess the role of the fungal parasite, Saprolegnia in the biology of salmon, particularly adult Chinook, in the Columbia River Basin. Both morphological and DNA ``fingerprinting`` surveys reveal that Saprolegnia parasitica (=S. diclina, Type I) is the most common pathogen of these fish. In the first phase of this study 92% of 620 isolates, from salmon lesions, conformed to this taxa of Saprolegnia. In the current phase, the authors have developed variants of DNA fingerprinting (RAPD and SWAPP analysis) that permit examination of the sub-structure of the parasite population. These results confirm the predominance of S. parasitica, and suggest that at least three different sub-groups of this fungus occur in the Pacific N.W., USA. The use of single and paired primers with PCR amplification permits identification of pathogenic types, and distinction from other species of the genus considered to be more saprophytic in character. A year`s survey of saprolegniaceous fungi from Lake Washington indicated that the fish-pathogen was not common in the water column. Where and how fish encounter this parasite can be approached with the molecular tags identified in this project.

  2. Gauging the Reproductive Potential of Salmon Spawning Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, B. T.; Riebe, C. S.; Wooster, J. K.

    2011-12-01

    Millions of dollars are spent annually on revitalizing salmon spawning habitat in rivers where bed-surface sediment is too large for female fish to move as they try to build redds. Yet the conditions necessary for productive spawning remain unclear; there is no method for interpreting grain size in terms of a substrate's capacity for accommodating redds. Hence, river managers lack a quantitative basis for optimizing restoration expenditures and monitoring their effectiveness over time. Here we elaborate on a recently developed model that predicts a substrate's areal density of spawning redds as a continuous function of grain size from measurements of fish length and the grain size indices D50 and D84. Exploration of the model's parameter space reveals previously unrecognized tradeoffs in how a substrate's egg-carrying capacity varies with fish size due to differences in area required per redd, coverage by movable particles, and fecundity. The model indicates that the number of redds a substrate can accommodate is maximized at an intermediate fish length, reflecting a balance between the size of salmon redds and the fraction of the bed that female fish are able to move during redd building. We illustrate how the model can be used to gauge the reproductive potential of spawning substrates and optimize the effectiveness of sediment augmentation in coarse-bedded rivers.

  3. The complete genome sequence of the Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complete RNA genome of the Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV), isolated from Atlantic salmon suffering from proliferative gill inflammation (PGI), has been determined. The genome is 16,965 nucleotides in length and consists of six nonoverlapping genes in the order 3'- N - P/C/V - M - F - HN - L -5', coding for the nucleocapsid, phospho-, matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and large polymerase proteins, respectively. The gene junctions contain highly conserved transcription start and stop signal sequences and trinucleotide intergenic regions similar to those of other Paramyxoviridae. The ASPV P-gene expression strategy is like that of the respiro- and morbilliviruses, which express the phosphoprotein from the primary transcript, and edit a portion of the mRNA to encode the accessory proteins V and W. It also encodes the C-protein by ribosomal choice of translation initiation. Pairwise comparisons of amino acid identities, and phylogenetic analysis of deduced ASPV protein sequences with homologous sequences from other Paramyxoviridae, show that ASPV has an affinity for the genus Respirovirus, but may represent a new genus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae

  4. Economics of endangered salmon in the Pacific northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under mandate of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), Idaho, Oregon and Washington are developing recovery plans to preserve several threatened and endangered stocks of salmon. These fish, some migrating as much as 900 miles inland to spawn, have been decimated by man's modification of their habitat. Downstream migrating juveniles must navigate through or around eight slackwater pools and hydropower dams. Adult upstream migrants must negotiate fish ladders, and endure modified temperature regimes and severely reduced spawning area and habitat quality. While the ESA says little about economics, economic factors do play important roles in designating endangered species and the design of recovery plans. For species in severe trouble ESA pushes us to drastic strategies such as captive breeding, or cryogenic sperm and egg preservation without paying much attention to whether the cost is worth it. For species in less dire straights, one often faces a menu of possible recovery actions from which the least cost can be set. Economics is important irrespective of the role it plays in decisions to classify salmon as endangered, or decisions about recovery plans. Economic analysis can provide those affected with information about their future. For individuals, communities, and businesses faced with adjusting to ESA actions, more good information is better than less, and economic impact estimates can be a valuable part of this information

  5. Factors influencing Saprolegnia spp. spore numbers in Norwegian salmon hatcheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoen, E; Evensen, Ø; Skaar, I

    2016-06-01

    A quantitative survey of Saprolegnia spp. in the water systems of Norwegian salmon hatcheries was performed. Water samples from 14 salmon hatcheries distributed along the Norwegian coastline were collected during final incubation in the hatcheries. Samples of inlet and effluent water were analyzed to estimate Saprolegnia propagule numbers. Saprolegnia spores were found in all samples at variable abundance. Number of spores retrieved varied from 50 to 3200 L(-1) in inlet water and from 30 to >5000 L(-1) in effluent water. A significant elevation of spore levels in effluent water compared to inlet water was detected. The estimated spore levels were related to recorded managerial and environmental parameters, and the number of spores in inlet water and temperature was the factor having most influence on the spore concentration in the incubation units (effluent water). Further, the relative impact of spore concentration on hatching rates was investigated by correlation analysis. From this was found that even high spore counts did not impact significantly on hatching success. PMID:26123005

  6. Nutritional properties of dried salmon silage for broiler feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Nick; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, energy and amino acid profile of dried salmon silage (DSS) for broilers. The DSS was obtained by acid digestion of salmon mortalities and subsequently co-dried with wheat bran in a 70:30 ratio (70 parts silage and 30 parts wheat bran). Samples of DSS were evaluated for chemical composition, gross energy, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn ), mineral content, total and digestible amino acids for broilers, and amino acid score. The chemical composition of DSS was (mean ± SD): moisture (12.3 ± 0.8%), crude protein (44.0 ± 1.1%), ether extract (5.0 ± 2.4%), crude fiber (3.3 ± 0.4%) and ash (9.4 ± 0.6%). The gross energy and TMEn for broilers were 4 069 kcal/kg and 2 613 kcal/kg, respectively. The DSS mineral composition showed a high content of calcium (1.01%) and phosphorus (1.08%). The DSS had high levels of digestible methionine (0.74%), lysine (2.27%), and threonine (1.16%), and did not present limiting amino acids for broilers. Nutritional composition of DSS showed high protein content with an amino acid profile considered to be suitable as a protein source for broiler feeding. PMID:26259620

  7. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  8. Ross Ice Shelf Seismic Survey and Future Drilling Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haastrecht, Laurine; Ohneiser, Christian; Gorman, Andrew; Hulbe, Christina

    2016-04-01

    The Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) is one of three gateways through which change in the ocean can be propagated into the interior of West Antarctica. Both the geologic record and ice sheet models indicate that it has experienced widespread retreat under past warm climates. But inland of the continental shelf, there are limited data available to validate the models. Understanding what controls the rate at which the ice shelf will respond to future climate change is central to making useful climate projections. Determining the retreat rate at the end of the last glacial maximum is one part of this challenge. In November 2015, four lines of multi-channel seismic data, totalling over 45 km, were collected on the Ross Ice Shelf, approximately 300 km south of Ross Island using a thumper seismic source and a 96 channel snow streamer. The seismic survey was undertaken under the New Zealand Antarctic Research Institute (NZARI) funded Aotearoa New Zealand Ross Ice Shelf Programme to resolve bathymetric details and to image sea floor sediments under a proposed drilling site on the ice shelf, at about 80.7 S and 174 E. The thumper, a purpose-built, trailer mounted, weight-drop seismic source was towed behind a Hägglund tracked vehicle to image the bathymetry and sediments underneath the RIS. Seismic data collection on an ice shelf has unique challenges, in particular strong attenuation of the seismic energy by snow and firn, and complex multiple ray paths. The thumper, which consists of a heavy weight (250kg) that is dropped on a large, ski mounted steel plate, produced a consistent, repeatable higher energy signal when compared to sledge hammer source and allowed for a greater geographic coverage and lower environmental impact than an explosive source survey. Our survey revealed that the seafloor is smooth and that there may be up to 100 m of layered sediments beneath the seafloor and possibly deeper, more complex structures. A multiple generated by internally reflected seismic energy

  9. Sedimentary input of trace metals from the Chukchi Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Islas, A. M.; Seguré, M.; Rember, R.; Nishino, S.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of trace metals in the Arctic Ocean has implications for their global cycles, yet until recently few trace metal observations were available from this rapidly changing ocean. Profiles of dissolved Fe from recent Japanese field efforts in the Western Canada Basin (2008, 2010) indicate the broad Chukchi Shelf as a source of Fe to the halocline of the Western Canada Basin. Here we present dissolved and particulate data for crustal (Al, Mn, Fe) and non-crustal elements (Co, Cu, Zn) from the productive Chukchi Sea to characterize the sedimentary input of these metals to shelf waters contributing to the halocline layer of the Canada Basin. Water column profiles were collected in late summer 2013 onboard the R/V Mirai at 10 stations from the Bering Strait to the slope, and at a time-series (10 days) station located over the outer shelf. A narrow and variable (5-10 m) benthic boundary layer was sampled at the time-series station with highly elevated dissolved and suspended particulate metal concentrations. High metal concentrations were also observed in the subsurface at a station over Barrow Canyon where mixing is enhanced. Reactivity of suspended particulate metals was determined by the leachable vs. refractory fractions. Metal concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. Trace metal transport from the shelf to the interior will be discussed in context with shelf mechanisms contributing to this export, and to expected future changes in the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Shelf life extension of dried shrimps by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By reducing the number of bacteria, irradiation with a dose of 3 kGy increased the shelf life of dried and salted shrimp. Combining radiation with low-temperature storage further increased shelf life. Vacuum packaging the shrimp in polyethylene-laminated polyethylene bags resulted in extension of the shelf life by more than 15 weeks. Packing in tupperware and polyethylene bags was less effective. Most of the bacteria in the dried and salted shrimps were halophiles. Salmonellae and coliforms were not detected in the samples studied. During storage, ammonia was formed in the shrimps. Irradiation caused less ammonia to be formed. Low-temperature storage also reduced ammonia formation. The sensory quality of the shrimps decreased with increasing amounts of ammonia. (author). 9 refs, 25 figs

  11. The Acceptability Limit in Food Shelf Life Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara

    2016-07-26

    Despite its apparently intuitive nature, the acceptability limit is probably the most difficult parameter to be defined when developing a shelf life test. Although it dramatically affects the final shelf life value, it is surprising that discussion on its nature has been largely neglected in the literature and only rare indications about the possible methodologies for its determination are available in the literature. This is due to the fact that the definition of this parameter is a consumer- and market-oriented issue, requiring a rational evaluation of the potential negative consequences of food unacceptability in the actual market scenario. This paper critically analyzes the features of the acceptability limit and the role of the decision maker. The methodologies supporting the choice of the acceptability limit as well as acceptability limit values proposed in the literature to calculate shelf life of different foods are reviewed. PMID:26593702

  12. Ocean mixing beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Dutrieux, Pierre; Jenkins, Adrian; Forryan, Alexander; Naveira Garabato, Alberto; Firing, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    Ice shelves around Antarctica are vulnerable to increase in ocean-driven melting, with the melt rate depending on ocean temperature and strength of sub-ice-shelf-cavity circulations. We present repeated measurements of velocity, temperature, salinity, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and thermal variance dissipation rate beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, collected by CTD, ADCP and turbulence sensors mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The turbulence quantities measured by the AUV outside the ice shelf are in good agreement with ship-based measurements. The highest rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation is found near the grounding line, while its temporal fluctuation over seabed ridge within the cavity corresponds to the tidal fluctuation predicted in the Pine Island Bay to the west. The highest thermal variance dissipation rate is found when the AUV was 0.5 m away from the ice, and the thermal variance dissipation generally increases with decreasing distance between the AUV and ice.

  13. 2013 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  14. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  15. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  16. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  17. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  18. Experimental streams - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  19. Evaluation of a Low-Cost Salmon Production Facility; 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, James M.; Olson, Todd

    1989-05-01

    This fiscal year 1988 study sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration evaluates an existing, small-scale salmon production facility operated and maintained by the Clatsop County Economic Development Committee's Fisheries Project.

  20. Bonneville Power Administration Annual Reports (Growth Modulation in Chinook Salmon Supplementation)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reasonable and Prudent Alternative (RPA) 63.2 of FCRPS Biological Opinion calls for determining the effects of implementing hatchery reforms on salmon and steelhead...

  1. AFSC/ABL: Taku chum salmon project diet and energy database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study is a cooperative effort between Douglas Island Pink in contrast, most wild chum salmon fry had already emigrated from the estuary by the time of late...

  2. Estuary fish data - Juvenile salmon in migratory corridors of lower Columbia River estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling juvenile salmon and associated fishes in open waters of the lower Columbia River estuary. Field work includes bi-weekly sampling during the spring...

  3. AFSC/ABL: Origins of salmon seized from the F/V Arctic Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples of chum (Oncorhynchus keta), sockeye (O. nerka), and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) seized from the F/V Arctic Wind were analyzed to determine their region...

  4. AFSC/ABL: 2013 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch from the 2013 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) trawl fishery was undertaken to...

  5. Tricellulin, occludin and claudin-3 expression in salmon intestine and kidney during salinity adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Molecular regulation of tight junctions in osmoregulatory epithelia of euryhaline fishes must be extensive during ontogeny and acclimation to salinity changes. In this study, five tight junction proteins were examined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): tight junction associated tricellulin, occlud...

  6. AFSC/ABL: 2009 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2009 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  7. Sensory and chemical changes in farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) during frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Brockhoff, P.B.; Jensen, Benny

    1998-01-01

    Farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were stored as fillets at -10 and -20 degrees C and whole at -30 degrees C. The most pronounced sensory changes were first recognized by the assessors, when the salmon samples were in the oral cavity, and were significant increases in train oil taste, metal...... during storage. The content of lipid hydroperoxides and free fatty acids also increased during storage, and the changes were fastest in salmon stored at -10 degrees C. A decrease in highly unsaturated fatty acids was observed in salmon stored at -10 and -20 degrees C. Peroxide values and the content of...... free fatty acids were shown by a partial least-squares analysis to be the best of the instrumental data in describing the sensory changes....

  8. AFSC/ABL: Population structure of odd- and even-broodline Asian pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Electrophoretic analysis of Asian even brood-year pink salmon stocks has shown regional heterogeneity (Noll et al. in review). Hypothetical mixed fisheries were...

  9. Growth, movement and survival - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  10. Salmon habitat improvement reconnaissance, Prince William Sound, Cordova and Anchorage districts, September 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the salmon habitat improvement reconnaissance in the Prince William sound, Alaska. The purpose of the trip was to discover new habitat improvement...

  11. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon (TSG-thermosalinigraph data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  12. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon (Oceanography data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  13. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  14. AFSC/REFM: Amendment 91 Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual series of economic data collected for years 2012 and forward for the Amendment 91 (A91) Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of...

  15. 2012 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  16. PIT Tag data - Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon juveniles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an ongoing Bonneville Power Administration funded project to annually collect, PIT tag, and release wild Chinook salmon parr in up to 17 streams of the...

  17. Water Quality - Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon juveniles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an ongoing Bonneville Power Administration funded project to annually collect, PIT tag, and release wild Chinook salmon parr in up to 17 streams of the...

  18. AFSC/ABL: Stock composition, timing, and spawning distribution of Yukon River Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radio telemetry was used to determine the distribution, locate spawning sites, and evaluate the tagging response of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha...

  19. Salmon hatcheries for the 21st century: A model at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Salmon hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest continue to produce fish for harvest, largely to fulfill a mitigation function. Fisheries management struggles with the...

  20. Culture, canneries and contemporary dynamics of the Bristol Bay salmon fishery: Draft working paper

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The commercial salmon fishery, especially the harvesting sector, is today to major source of earnings and the economic foundation for residents of the Bristol Bay...

  1. AFSC/ABL: Immature chum salmon allozyme ID of mixed stocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Immature chum salmon were collected by the F/V Northwest Explorer between September 5 and October 8, during the 2002 BASIS survey across the eastern Bering Sea...

  2. Critical Habitat for the Upper Columbia River Spring-run Chinook Salmon ESU

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These GIS data contain stream reaches that were designated as "critical habitat" for the Upper Columbia River Spring-run (UCR) Chinook salmon Evolutionarily...

  3. Water chemistry - Investigation of Methods to Improve Homing by Hatchery Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Investigate olfactory imprinting techniques that will improve homing by hatchery salmon to their hatchery of origin, and thereby reduce potential risks from these...

  4. AFSC/ABL: 2011 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch from the 2011 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  5. AFSC/ABL: 2005 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2005 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  6. AFSC/ABL: 2006 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2006 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  7. AFSC/ABL: 2007 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2007 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  8. AFSC/ABL: 2010 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2010 Bering Sea groundfish trawl fishery was undertaken to determine the...

  9. AFSC/ABL: 2008 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2008 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  10. AFSC/ABL: Pink salmon data collected at Sashin Creek Weir 1934-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A database describing a 67-year time series for Sashin Creek pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) data is presented. The database details the survival and other...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all nonmotorized trails on Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  12. Bear-salmon study, 1952, Brown's River, Uyak Bay, Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A relatively small number of unspawned salmon are taken by bear. Although the figures are not as exact as those of the Sulua Creek study, the number represents...

  13. REALITY, DELUSIONS, AND OTHER ASSORTED TRUTHS: THE FUTURE OF SALMON IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are professional fisheries scientists collectively guilty of encouraging delusions about the possibilities for restoring wild salmon to the Pacific Northwest? Do they perpetuate the fantasy that the Pacific Northwest will (or could, absent pervasive life-style changes) support w...

  14. Linking individual migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon to their genetic origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Deacon, M.

    2005-01-01

    Many stocks of fish consist of mixtures of individuals originating from different populations. This is particularly true for many salmon and trout stocks, where fish of different genetic background are being found in the same rivers and/or lakes due to stocking activities or straying caused by...... (fin clip) from each tagged salmon was analysed using microsatellite DNA analysis of 6 loci. Assignment tests were used to infer the population of origin. The results showed that the salmon run was composed of approximately 1/3 “native fish”, 1/3 foreign stocked fish and 1/3 escaped farmed salmon. The...... origin, but the interpretation of the results was hampered by a high mortality of tagged fish. This study demonstrates that the combination of recent genetic methods and telemetry provides a potent tool for better management of mixed stock fisheries...

  15. Stream flow and temperature maps - Effect of Climate Change on Salmon Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other Pacific salmon are threatened by unsustainable levels of harvest, genetic introgression from hatchery stocks and...

  16. Fish abundance, composition, distribution - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  17. Salmon racial sampling in the areas north of Bristol Bay, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers salmon racial sampling in the areas north of Bristol Bay during 1956. Study areas include Kuskokwim river, Yukon river, Unalakleet River, Nome,...

  18. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1994-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

  19. AFSC/ABL: 2012 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch from the 2012 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) trawl fishery was...

  20. Mirror Lake salmon prey and diets - Lower Columbia River Restoration Action Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to measure changes in juvenile salmon habitat occurrence and health following restoration activities at the Mirror Lake Complex...

  1. Mirror Lake salmon growth rate - Lower Columbia River Restoration Action Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to measure changes in juvenile salmon habitat occurrence and health following restoration activities at the Mirror Lake Complex...

  2. Hood Canal Summer-run Chum Salmon Nearshore Marine Area Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nearshore marine areas within the Puget Sound have been designated as Critical Habitat for the Hood Canal Summer-run (HCS) Chum salmon Evolutionarily Significant...

  3. Salmon habitat use, tidal-fluvial estuary - Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuary's contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  4. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  5. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  6. Small-scale variability of the cross-shelf flow over the outer shelf of the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Josh; Hunter, Elias; Huber, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    The importance of cross-shelf transport across the Ross Sea on local and remote processes has been well documented. In the Ross Sea, mid-water intrusions of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) are modified by shelf water near the shelf break to form Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW). In 2010-2011, we deployed multi-platform technologies focused on this MCDW intrusion in the vicinity of Mawson and Pennell Banks to better understand its role in ecosystem processes across the shelf. The high-resolution time and space sampling provided by an underwater glider, a short-term mooring, and a ship-based survey highlight the scales over which these critical cross-shelf transport processes occur. MCDW cores were observed as small-scale well-defined features over the western slopes of Pennell and Mawson Banks. The mean transport along Pennell Bank was estimated to be about 0.24 Sv but was highly variable in time (hours to days). The observations suggest that the core of MCDW is transported by a predominately barotropic flow that follows topography around the banks toward the south until the slope of the bank flattens and the warmer water moves up and over the bank. This pathway is shown to link the source MCDW with an area of high productivity over the shallows of Pennell Bank.

  7. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: An important control on shelf mud belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9-33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9-16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9-16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This "updraft" event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  8. Flesh residue concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in farmed and wild salmon from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Barry C; Ikonomou, Michael G; Higgs, David A; Oakes, Janice; Dubetz, Cory

    2011-11-01

    The present study reports measured levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in commercial salmon feed (n = 8) and farmed Atlantic, coho, and chinook salmon (n = 110), as well as wild coho, chinook, chum, sockeye, and pink salmon (n = 91). Flesh residue concentrations (ng/g wet weight) of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes, chlorobenzenes (CBz) and cyclodiene pesticides (e.g., dieldrin, mirex) were 2 to 11 times higher (p flesh lipid levels. Farmed Atlantic salmon (12-15% lipid) typically exhibited the greatest OCP burdens compared with other salmon species. However, when expressed on a lipid weight basis, concentrations of OCPs (ng/g lipid weight) in wild salmon, in many cases, exceeded those levels in farmed salmon. Observed interspecies and site-specific variations of OCP concentrations in farmed and wild salmon may be attributed to divergent life history, prey/feed characteristics and composition, bioenergetics, or ambient environmental concentrations. Calculated biomagnification factors (BMF = C(F)/C(D), lipid wt) of OCPs in farmed salmon typically ranged between two and five. Biomagnification of chemicals such as DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex was anticipated, because those compounds tend to exhibit high dietary uptake and slow depuration rates in fish because of relatively high octanol-water partition coefficients (K(OW)s > 10⁵). Surprisingly, less hydrophobic pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexanes and endosulfans (K(OW) s  5). This is contrary to previous laboratory and field observations demonstrating fish BMFs less than 1 for low K(OW) chemicals, because of efficient respiratory elimination of those compounds via gills. The results suggest that ambient seawater concentrations and bioconcentration-driven accumulation may play a key role in the bioaccumulation of these relatively more water-soluble contaminants in farmed salmon. Finally, OCP exposure through consumption of British

  9. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  10. Ice shelf melt rates and 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cameron Scott

    Ice shelves are sensitive indicators of climate change and play a critical role in the stability of ice sheets and oceanic currents. Basal melting of ice shelves plays an important role in both the mass balance of the ice sheet and the global climate system. Airborne- and satellite based remote sensing systems can perform thickness measurements of ice shelves. Time separated repeat flight tracks over ice shelves of interest generate data sets that can be used to derive basal melt rates using traditional glaciological techniques. Many previous melt rate studies have relied on surface elevation data gathered by airborne- and satellite based altimeters. These systems infer melt rates by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, an assumption that may not be accurate, especially near an ice shelf's grounding line. Moderate bandwidth, VHF, ice penetrating radar has been used to measure ice shelf profiles with relatively coarse resolution. This study presents the application of an ultra wide bandwidth (UWB), UHF, ice penetrating radar to obtain finer resolution data on the ice shelves. These data reveal significant details about the basal interface, including the locations and depth of bottom crevasses and deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium. While our single channel radar provides new insight into ice shelf structure, it only images a small swatch of the shelf, which is assumed to be an average of the total shelf behavior. This study takes an additional step by investigating the application of a 3D imaging technique to a data set collected using a ground based multi channel version of the UWB radar. The intent is to show that the UWB radar could be capable of providing a wider swath 3D image of an ice shelf. The 3D images can then be used to obtain a more complete estimate of the bottom melt rates of ice shelves.

  11. Status and restoration of salmon (Salmo salar L. stocks in the Nemunas River Basin, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Kesminas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of salmon resources is of a great importance to most countries in the Baltic Sea region, including Lithuania. Currently, human activity is the main cause of negative impact on salmon stocks status mainly through habitat loss. Salmon restocking program started in 1998 with the aim to recover stocks in the Nemunas River basin. The program involved artificial rearing, construction of fish ladders, protection of spawning grounds, stock monitoring, fishery regulation in the sea and rivers. Our study presents data on salmon stocks status and productivity in Lithuania, including abundance of fry and smolts, age composition and genetic structure of the populations. In total, 12 rivers in Lithuania have salmon populations, but the status of the populations varies. Despite the many measures taken, smolt production in Nemunas basin is increasing slowly. Notable increase in production was observed only in recent years. Production increased substantially during 2007- 2010 period, from 13 thousand individuals to over 47 thousand. Salmon parr density in studied rivers varied from 0.3 – 33.7 per 100 m² (mean value 9.8 individuals per 100 m². Mitochondrial, microsatellite and SNP DNA markers were used to investigate genetic structure of salmon populations. MtDNA was subjected to RFLP analysis, 17 microsatellite loci were used as markers, also samples genotyped with 5568 SNPs. Salmon population from the Nemunas basin was fixed at one haplotype for mtDNA and fell into the same group as the populations from Latvia, Estonia, Russia and Southern Sweden. Microsatellite DNA and SNPs demonstrated distinctiveness from other neighboring populations, however it also indicated lower genetic variability, which could be caused by bottleneck event.

  12. Warming Ocean Conditions Relate to Increased Trophic Requirements of Threatened and Endangered Salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Daly

    Full Text Available The trophic habits, size and condition of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha caught early in their marine residence were examined during 19 survey years (1981-1985; 1998-2011. Juvenile salmon consumed distinct highly piscivorous diets in cold and warm ocean regimes with major differences between ocean regimes driven by changes in consumption of juvenile rockfishes, followed by several other fish prey, adult euphausiids and decapod larvae. Notable, Chinook salmon consumed 30% more food in the warm versus cold ocean regime in both May and June. Additionally, there were about 30% fewer empty stomachs in the warm ocean regime in May, and 10% fewer in warm June periods. The total prey energy density consumed during the warmer ocean regime was also significantly higher than in cold. Chinook salmon had lower condition factor and were smaller in fork length during the warm ocean regime, and were longer and heavier for their size during the cold ocean regime. The significant increase in foraging during the warm ocean regime occurred concurrently with lower available prey biomass. Adult return rates of juvenile Chinook salmon that entered the ocean during a warm ocean regime were lower. Notably, our long term data set contradicts the long held assertion that juvenile salmon eat less in a warm ocean regime when low growth and survival is observed, and when available prey are reduced. Comparing diet changes between decades under variable ocean conditions may assist us in understanding the effects of projected warming ocean regimes on juvenile Chinook salmon and their survival in the ocean environment. Bioenergetically, the salmon appear to require more food resources during warm ocean regimes.

  13. The genetic basis of flesh quality traits in farmed Atlantic salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Ashton, Thomas James

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to develop new methods for measuring texture of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fillets and investigate the genetic basis of flesh quality traits. Firstly, a new tensile strength method was developed to quantify the force required to tear a standardized block of salmon muscle with the aim of identifying those samples more prone to factory downgrading as a result of gaping. The repeatability, sensitivity and predictability of the new technique was evaluated against other commo...

  14. Spawning salmon disrupt trophic coupling between wolves and ungulate prey in coastal British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Darimont Chris T; Paquet Paul C; Reimchen Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background As a cross-boundary resource subsidy, spawning salmon can strongly affect consumer and ecosystem ecology. Here we examine whether this marine resource can influence a terrestrial wolf-deer (Canis lupus-Odocoileus hemionus) predator-prey system in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Data on resource availability and resource use among eight wolf groups for three seasons over four years allow us to evaluate competing hypotheses that describe salmon as either an alternate resou...

  15. Fate of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in experimentally challenged blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    OpenAIRE

    Skår, Cecilie Kristin; Mortensen, Stein H.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the potential role of blue mussels Mytilus edulis as a vector of the fish pathogenic infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), we developed an experimental bioaccumulation system in which mussels can accumulate virus during normal filtration. Detection of virus in mussels was performed by means of real-time RT-PCR. ISAV-RNA was detected in the mussels until 72 h post-challenge. Hepatopancreas homogenate from experimentally challenged mussels was injected into salmon. All...

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E. (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-01-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition, the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2003 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook Creek; (3) monitor sockeye salmon smolt migration from the captive rearing program release of juveniles into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (6

  17. Antimicrobial Performance of Two Different Packaging Materials on the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Rollini; Tim Nielsen; Alida Musatti; Sara Limbo; Luciano Piergiovanni; Pilar Hernandez Munoz; Rafael Gavara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research the antimicrobial activity of two active packaging materials on the spoilage microbiota of fresh salmon fillets was tested. A PET-coated film (PET: Polyethylene Terephthalate) containing lysozyme and lactoferrin was tested in parallel with a carvacrol-coextruded multilayer film. Salmon fillet samples were stored up to four days at 0 and 5 °C, comparatively. The carvacrol multilayer film was found effective in preventing mesophiles and psychrotrophs at shorter storage t...

  18. Hepatic gene expression profiling reveals protective responses in Atlantic salmon vaccinated against furunculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen Sven; Škugor Stanko; Gjerde Bjarne; Krasnov Aleksei

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Furunculosis, a disease caused with gram negative bacteria Aeromonas salmonicida produces heavy losses in aquaculture. Vaccination against furunculosis reduces mortality of Atlantic salmon but fails to eradicate infection. Factors that determine high individual variation of vaccination efficiency remain unknown. We used gene expression analyses to search for the correlates of vaccine protection against furunculosis in Atlantic salmon. Results Naïve and vaccinated fish were...

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Gilliland, Kim

    2006-07-14

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2005 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  20. Differential Exploitation of Atlantic Salmon Populations by a Rod Fishery on the River Spey, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Thorley, Joseph L.; Youngson, Alan F.; Laughton, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Due to heritable population differences in run-timing, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) enter Scottish rivers throughout the year. Maintenance of this diversity is vital for the continued commercial and recreational value of the associated rod fisheries, which extend on most rivers from February to September. However, as the data we present demonstrate, management of the rod fishery on the River Spey, Scotland, is complicated by differential exploitation of the Atlantic salmon from the various r...

  1. Dietary histidine supplementation prevents cataract development in adult Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Waagbø, Rune; Tröße, Christiane; Koppe, Wolfgang; Fontanillas, Ramon; Breck, Olav

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the cataract preventive effect of dietary histidine regimes in adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in seawater, both through manipulating the dietary histidine level and feeding period. Mean body weight of individually tagged Atlantic salmon at the start of the experiment was 1662 (SD 333) g. Low prevalence of mild cataracts were recorded in the beginning of June. Three fishmeal and fish oil-based extruded diets (crude protein: 375 g...

  2. Impact of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) on salmon fisheries in Monterey Bay, California

    OpenAIRE

    Weise, Michael J; Harvey, James T.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the impact of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) on salmon fisheries in the Monterey Bay region of California, the percentages of hooked fish taken by sea lions in commercial and recreational salmon fisheries were estimated from 1997 to 1999. Onboard surveys of sea lion interactions with the commercial and recreational f isheries and dockside interviews with fishermen after their return to port were conducted in the ports of Santa Cruz, Moss Landing, and Monterey. Appr...

  3. Sensory and chemical changes in farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) during frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Brockhoff, P.B.; Jensen, Benny

    1998-01-01

    Farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were stored as fillets at -10 and -20 degrees C and whole at -30 degrees C. The most pronounced sensory changes were first recognized by the assessors, when the salmon samples were in the oral cavity, and were significant increases in train oil taste, metal...... free fatty acids were shown by a partial least-squares analysis to be the best of the instrumental data in describing the sensory changes....

  4. Surveillance of the Sensitivity towards Antiparasitic Bath-Treatments in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Peder A; Randi N Grøntvedt; Attila Tarpai; Helgesen, Kari O.; Tor Einar Horsberg

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of drug resistant parasitic sea lice is of major concern to the salmon farming industry worldwide and challenges sustainable growth of this enterprise. To assess current status and development of L. salmonis sensitivity towards different pesticides used for parasite control in Norwegian salmon farming, a national surveillance programme was implemented in 2013. The programme aims to summarize data on the use of different pesticides applied to control L. salmonis and to test L. sa...

  5. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  6. Review of Environmental Issues in Fish Farming: Empirical Evidence from Salmon Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Asche, Frank; Tveteras, Sigbjorn

    2005-01-01

    Intensive fish farming has faced a number of environmental challenges both locally and globally. In this paper we review some of the most important environmental issues that has faced fish farming and then see how the industry has handled these challenges. Salmon aquaculture has probably faces more of these challenges than any other farmed species, with the possible exception of shrimp aquaculture. We concentrate on empirical evidence related to salmon, although the issues related to other fa...

  7. Freshwater Ecosystems and Resilience of Pacific Salmon: Habitat Management Based on Natural Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H Reeves; Dunham, Jason B.; Bisson, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of numerous habitat restoration programs in fresh waters with an aggregate annual funding of millions of dollars, many populations of Pacific salmon remain significantly imperiled. Habitat restoration strategies that address limited environmental attributes and partial salmon life-history requirements or approaches that attempt to force aquatic habitat to conform to idealized but ecologically unsustainable conditions may partly explain this lack of response. Natural watershed process...

  8. Design considerations for community-based stream monitoring to detect changes in Pacific salmon habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Cory R. Lagasse; Wanli Ou; Leah D. Honka; Atlas, William I.; Claire N. Hutton; Jana Kotaska; Hocking, Morgan D.

    2014-01-01

    Communities in the Great Bear Rainforest of British Columbia, Canada are highly dependent on Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and the watersheds that support them, yet current monitoring efforts are likely inadequate for detecting changes in stream habitats that may affect salmon populations. The Coastal First Nations Regional Monitoring System is attempting to address these information gaps through a new stream assessment program that collects baseline information and tracks changes in str...

  9. GENERATION OF NONLINEAR INTERNAL WAVES ON CONTINENTAL SHELF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A 2-D KdV equation is derived under condition of arbitrary continuous density profiles. A non-fission version of initial internal solitary waves propagating onto the continental shelf is studied by means of the 2-D KdV equation. Under non-Bohr and Sommerfeld’s condition, numerical calculations are carried out based on the KdV equation. The results shows that the initial internal solitary waves in deep ocean break down into internal undular bores on the continental shelf. And the bores have a like-soliton leading fronts and undular trails.

  10. Environmental assessment and development of a shelf system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Joakim H.; Nielsen, Per Henning

    1998-01-01

    The present report on environmental assessment and development of a shelf system is based on the experience gained by Montana Møbler A/S of their use of the EDIP method, a life cycle based environmental assessment method, in their development.......The present report on environmental assessment and development of a shelf system is based on the experience gained by Montana Møbler A/S of their use of the EDIP method, a life cycle based environmental assessment method, in their development....

  11. Shelf life extension for the lot AAE nozzle severance LSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Shelf life extension tests for the remaining lot AAE linear shaped charges for redesigned solid rocket motor nozzle aft exit cone severance were completed in the small motor conditioning and firing bay, T-11. Five linear shaped charge test articles were thermally conditioned and detonated, demonstrating proper end-to-end charge propagation. Penetration depth requirements were exceeded. Results indicate that there was no degradation in performance due to aging or the linear shaped charge curving process. It is recommended that the shelf life of the lot AAE nozzle severance linear shaped charges be extended through January 1992.

  12. Estimating Processed Cheese Shelf Life with Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cascade multilayer artificial neural network (ANN models were developed for estimating the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8oC.Mean square error , root mean square error,coefficient of determination and nash - sutcliffo coefficient were applied in order to compare the prediction ability of the developed models.The developed model with a combination of 5à16à16à1 showed excellent agreement between the actual and the predicted data , thus confirming that multilayer cascade models are good in estimating the shelf life of processed cheese.

  13. Soft Computing Methodology for Shelf Life Prediction of Processed Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Feedforward multilayer models were developed for predicting shelf life of processed cheese stored at 30o C. Input variables were Soluble nitrogen, pH, Standard plate count, Yeast & mould count and Spore count. Sensory score was taken as output parameter for developing feedforward multilayer models. Mean square error, root mean square error, coefficient of determination and nash - sutcliffo coefficient performance measures were implemented for testing prediction potential of the soft computing models. The study revealed that soft computing multilayer models can predict shelf life of processed cheese.

  14. Analyzing shelf life of processed cheese by soft computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goyal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Feedforward soft computing multilayer models were developed for analyzing shelf life of processed cheese. The models were trained with 80% of total observations and validated with 20% of the remaining data. Mean Square Error, Root Mean Square Error, Coefficient of Determination and Nash - Sutcliffo Coefficient were used in order to compare the prediction ability of the developed models. From the study, it is concluded that feedforward multilayer models are good in predicting the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 7-8o C.

  15. Shelf stable intermediate moisture fruit cubes using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process has been developed to prepare shelf stable ready-to-eat (RTE) intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes using radiation technology. The combination of hurdles including osmotic dehydration, blanching, infrared drying, and gamma radiation dose of 1 kGy successfully reduced the microbial load to below detectable limit. The shelf life of the intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes was found to be 40 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2 deg C). The control samples spoiled within 6 days. The RTE intermediate moisture fruit products were found to have good texture, colour and sensory acceptability during this 40 days storage. (author)

  16. Intensive evaluation and monitoring of shinook salmon and steelhead trout production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River sites: annual progress report, January 1, 1995-December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook salmon and steelhead trout adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and develop habitat enhancement mitigation accounting based on increases in wild/natural smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. The project to date has developed good information on the relationship between chinook salmon adult escapement and smolt production at low to medium seeding levels. Adult chinook salmon escapements have been too low for us to test carrying capacity. For steelhead trout, they have developed a relationship between parr populations and smolt production at low to high seeding levels, with limited information on carrying capacity

  17. Salmon nutrients are associated with the phylogenetic dispersion of riparian flowering-plant assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Leslie A; Mooers, Arne Ø; Reynolds, John D; Hocking, Morgan D

    2016-02-01

    A signature of nonrandom phylogenetic community structure has been interpreted as indicating community assembly processes. Significant clustering within the phylogenetic structure of a community can be caused by habitat filtering due to low nutrient availability. Nutrient limitation in temperate Pacific coastal rainforests can be alleviated to some extent by marine nutrient subsidies introduced by migrating salmon, which leave a quantitative signature on the makeup of plant communities near spawning streams. Thus, nutrient-mediated habitat filtering could be reduced by salmon nutrients. Here, we ask how salmon abundance affects the phylogenetic structure of riparian flowering plant assemblages across 50 watersheds in the Great Bear Rainforest of British Columbia, Canada. Based on a regional pool of 60 plant species, we found that assemblages become more phylogenetically dispersed and species poor adjacent to streams with higher salmon spawning density. In contrast, increased phylogenetic clumping and species richness was seen in sites with low salmon density, with steeper slopes, further from the stream edge, and within smaller watersheds. These observations are all consistent with abiotic habitat filtering and biotic competitive exclusion acting together across local and landscape-scale gradients in nutrient availability to structure assembly of riparian flowering plants. In this case, rich salmon nutrients appear to release riparian flowering-plant assemblages from the confines of a low-nutrient habitat filter that drives phylogenetic clustering. PMID:27145619

  18. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  19. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  20. Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheridan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxin and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via ..beta..-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents.

  1. Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxin and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via β-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents

  2. Salmon trypsin stimulates the expression of interleukin-8 via protease-activated receptor-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we focus on salmon trypsin as an activator of inflammatory responses in airway cells in vitro. The rationale behind the investigation is that salmon industry workers are exposed to aerosols containing enzymes, which are generated during industrial processing of the fish. Knowing that serine proteases such as trypsin are highly active mediators with diverse biological activities, the stimulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and interleukin (IL)-8 and the role of protease-activated receptors (PAR) in inflammatory signal mediation were investigated. Protease-activated receptors are considered important under pathological situations in the human airways, and a thorough understanding of PAR-induced cellular events and their consequences in airway inflammation is necessary. Human airway epithelial cells (A549) were exposed to trypsin isolated from fish (Salmo salar), and we observed that purified salmon trypsin could generate secretion of IL-8 in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PAR-2 activation by salmon trypsin is coupled to an induction of NF-κB-mediated transcription using a PAR-2 transfected HeLa cell model. Finally, we show that the release of IL-8 from A549 following stimulation with purified salmon trypsin is mediated through activation of PAR-2 using specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The results presented suggest that salmon trypsin, via activation of PAR-2, might influence inflammation processes in the airways if inhaled in sufficient amounts

  3. The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae life cycle has only two Chalimus stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars A Hamre

    Full Text Available Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838 causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt. Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite.

  4. Diel and seasonal variation in food habits of Atlantic salmon parr in a small stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grader, M.; Letcher, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    The diel and seasonal food habits of young-of-year (YOY) and post-young-of-year (PYOY) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr were assayed over the course of 11 months in the West Brook, Massachusetts USA. Gut fullness of YOY salmon did not vary significantly among months. PYOY salmon exhibited significant seasonal differences in gut fullness, with peak fullness occurring in the spring and late fall. Significant diel differences in PYOY gut fullness occurred in June and April, with peak fullness always occurring at dawn. Prey composition varied substantially among months. Dominant prey items of PYOY salmon were baetid mayflies in June, July, and August, limnephilid caddisflies in October and November, and ephemerellid mayflies in February and April. Few differences in prey composition between PYOY and YOY salmon were observed. Fish growth was unrelated to prey availability, but gut fullness explained up to 97% of growth variation across seasons. Results suggest that spring and fall are critical periods of feeding for PYOY salmon and that diel feeding intensity shifts seasonally.

  5. Hydrography, bacteria and protist communities across the continental shelf and shelf slope of the Andaman Sea (NE Indian Ocean)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Bjørnsen, P.K.; Boonruang, P.;

    2004-01-01

    along 3 transects perpendicular to the shelf break, from the coast across the shelf into deep water. The water column at the nearshore stations was vertically mixed, while the water column at off shore stations was strongly stratified, hence a frontal zone was established at the mid shelf. A prominent...... mixed up in the surface layer. We did not find any relationships between hydrography and the other key components of the microbial food web. No difference in productivity or food web structure was observed between the 2 seasons despite a significant difference in climatic forcing. Pico- and nanoplankton...... dominated the biomass in both seasons and Synechococcus contributed 72 to 74 % of the biomass. Analysis of the microbial food web and establishment of carbon-flow budgets illustrates the importance of the microbial food web for making the primary producers available to the higher trophic levels....

  6. Differences in PAR-2 activating potential by king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus), salmon (Salmo salar), and bovine (Bos taurus) trypsin

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Anett Kristin; Kristiansen, Kurt; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Seternes, Ole Morten; Bang, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Background: Salmon trypsin is shown to increase secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 from human airway epithelial cells through activation of PAR-2. Secretion of IL-8 induced by king crab trypsin is observed in a different concentration range compared to salmon trypsin, and seems to be only partially related to PAR-2 activation. This report aim to identify differences in the molecular structure of king crab trypsin (Paralithodes camtschaticus) compared to salmon (S...

  7. Evidence of salmon lice-induced mortality of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Hardangerfjord, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Skaala, Øystein; Kålås, Steinar; Borgstrøm, Reidar

    2013-01-01

    The Hardangerfjord, western Norway, is an area with a high concentration of salmon farms, high levels of infection of salmon lice in anadromous brown trout, and declining trout populations. This study assessed the marine survival rate of anadromous trout from the River Guddalselva, in the central part of the fjord, and tested the hypothesis that trout populations in this area are depressed by salmon lice infection. From 2001 to 2011, all descending smolts and trout returning from the fjord we...

  8. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

  9. Perception or reality: oil spill risk on salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a tendency in the American scientific community to assume the worst when it comes to the effects of oil spills on the environment. Over the several years of research following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, scientists of the United States National Marine Fisheries Service and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game have reported long-term and continuing negative impacts of the spill on pink salmon. In spite of the substantial evidence to the contrary, neither reassessment of results nor analysis of alternative explanations have been considered by either agency. The motivations behind such unyielding positions are examined and explanations suggested for the singular point of view. (author)

  10. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document

  11. Raman spectroscopic study of plasma-treated salmon DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Kim, Yong Hee; Choi, Eun Ha [Plasma Bioscience Research Center, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Wan [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-14

    In this research, we studied the effect of plasma treatment on the optical/structural properties of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from salmon sperm. DNA-cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) films were obtained by complexation of DNA with CTMA. Circular dichroism (CD) and Raman spectra indicated that DNA retained its double helical structure in the solid film. The Raman spectra exhibited several vibration modes corresponding to the nuclear bases and the deoxyribose-phosphate backbones of the DNA, as well as the alkylchains of CTMA. Dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma treatment induced structural modification and damage to the DNA, as observed by changes in the ultraviolet-visible absorption, CD, and Raman spectra. The optical emission spectra of the DBD plasma confirmed that DNA modification was induced by plasma ions such as reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species.

  12. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave

    2002-12-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time- lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999 and 2001. The adult salmon spawner escapement estimate into Lake Creek in 2001 was 697 fish, the largest escapement since the project began. Jack salmon comprised 10% of the spring migration. Snow pack in the drainage was 38% of the average during the winter of 2000/2001. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 9, 19 days after installation of the fish counting station and two weeks earlier than previously reported. Peak net upstream movement of 52 adults occurred on June 22. Peak of total movement activity was July 3. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 6. Redd count expansion methods were compared to underwater video determined salmon spawner abundance in Lake Creek in 2001. Expanded index area redd count point estimates and intensive area redd counts in 2001, estimated from 1.3 percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2001 there were 2.07 fish per redd. In 1999, there were 3.58 fish per redd, and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek

  13. Implications of climate change on flow regime affecting Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The UKCIP02 climate change scenarios (2070–2100 suggest that the UK climate will become warmer (an overall increase of 2.5–3°C, with temperature increases being greater in the summer and autumn than in the spring and winter seasons. In terms of precipitation, winters are expected to become wetter and summers drier throughout the UK. The effect of changes in the future climate on flow regimes are investigated for the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in a case study in an upland UK river. Using a hydraulic modelling approach, flows simulated across the catchment are assessed in terms of hydraulic characteristics (discharge per metre width, flow depths, flow velocities and Froude number. These, compared with suitable characteristics published in the literature for various life stages of Atlantic salmon, enable assessment of habitat suitability. Climate change factors have been applied to meteorological observations in the Eden catchment (north-west England and effects on the flow regime have been investigated using the SHETRAN hydrological modelling system. High flows are predicted to increase by up to 1.5%; yet, a greater impact is predicted from decreasing low flows (e.g. a Q95 at the outlet of the study catchment may decrease to a Q85 flow. Reliability, Resilience and Vulnerability (RRV analysis provides a statistical indication of the extent and effect of such changes on flows. Results show that future climate will decrease the percentage time the ideal minimum physical habitat requirements will be met. In the case of suitable flow depth for spawning activity at the outlet of the catchment, the percentage time may decrease from 100% under current conditions to 94% in the future. Such changes will have implications for the species under the Habitats Directive and for catchment ecological flow management strategies.

  14. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1994-03-01

    This document is the 1992 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the National Biological Survey (NBS) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon cannot be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  15. Bathymetric Survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico 2001 (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A zone of deep-water reefs is thought to extend from the mid and outer shelf south of Mississippi and Alabama to at least the northwestern Florida shelf off Panama...

  16. Clay mineral distribution in the continental shelf and slope off Saurashtra, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    with relatively low values on the outer shelf. Illite and chlorite contents are high on the outer shelf. These variations are attributed to the influence of depositional environment and individual property of the clay minerals. Distinct differences in the nature...

  17. 41 CFR 101-27.204 - Types of shelf-life items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Types of shelf-life items...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.204 Types of shelf-life items. Shelf-life items are classified as nonextendable (Type I) and extendable (Type II). Type I items have a definite storage life after which the...

  18. Nonlinear internal waves over New Jersey's continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroyer, E. L.; Moum, J. N.; Nash, J. D.

    2011-03-01

    Ship and mooring data collected off the coast of New Jersey are used to describe the nonlinear internal wave (NLIW) field and the background oceanographic conditions that formed the waveguide on the shelf. The subinertial, inertial, and tidal circulation are described in detail, and the background fluid state is characterized using the coefficients of the extended Korteweg-de Vries equation. The utility of this type of analysis is demonstrated in description of an amplitude-limited, flat wave. NLIWs observed over most of the month had typical displacements of -8 m, but waves observed from 17-21 August were almost twice as large with displacements near -15 m. During most of the month, wave packets occurred irregularly at a fixed location, and often more than one packet was observed per M2 tidal period. In contrast, the arrival times of the large-amplitude wave groups observed over 17-21 August were more closely phased with the barotropic tide. The time span in which the largest NLIWs were observed corresponded to neap barotropic conditions, but when the shoreward baroclinic energy flux was elevated. During the time of large NLIWs, near-inertial waves were a dominate contributor to the internal motions on the shelf and apparently regulated wave formation, as destructive/constructive modulation of the M2 internal tide by the inertial wavefield at the shelf break corresponded to stronger/weaker NLIWs on the shelf.

  19. Information Management for Intelligent Retail Environment: The Shelf Detector System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Frontoni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Shelf-out-of-stock is one of the leading motivations of technology innovation in the shelf of the future. The Shelf Detector project described in this paper aims to solve the problem of data knowledge in the shelf-out-of-stock problem. This paper is mainly focused on the information layer of the system and main novelties illustrated in this work are in the information field demonstrating the huge number of insights that can be derived from the use of such a tool able to gather data in real time from the store. The tool presented is the first being installed for a long time in a high number of stores and products, demonstrating the ability to gather data and extract interesting insights. This paper aims to demonstrate the feasibility and the scalability of our system in providing a high number of data and interesting insights for store and marketing teams. The cloud based architecture developed and tested in this project is a key feature of our system together with the ability to collect data from a distributed sensor network.

  20. Speedup and fracturing of George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Holt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available George VI Ice Shelf (GVIIS is located on the Antarctic Peninsula, a region where several ice shelves have undergone rapid breakup in response to atmospheric and oceanic warming. We use a combination of optical (Landsat, radar (ERS 1/2 SAR and laser altimetry (GLAS datasets to examine the response of GVIIS to environmental change and to offer an assessment on its future stability. The spatial and structural changes of GVIIS (ca. 1973 to ca. 2010 are mapped and surface velocities are calculated at different time periods (InSAR and optical feature tracking from 1989 to 2009 to document changes in the ice shelf's flow regime. Surface elevation changes are recorded between 2003 and 2008 using repeat track ICESat acquisitions. We note an increase in fracture extent and distribution at the south ice front, ice-shelf acceleration towards both the north and south ice fronts and spatially varied negative surface elevation change throughout, with greater variations observed towards the central and southern regions of the ice shelf. We propose that whilst GVIIS is in no imminent danger of collapse, it is vulnerable to ongoing atmospheric and oceanic warming and is more susceptible to breakup along its southern margin in ice preconditioned for further retreat.

  1. Organizing information from the shelf to the web

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, G G

    2007-01-01

    LIS professionals will have to be conversant with all the tools and techniques for organizing information in different domains - from traditional library shelf to full-scale digital libraries. This text covers the organization of the entire spectrum of information, and the principles, tools and techniques needed to do this effectively.

  2. Seasonal anoxia over the western Indian continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Naik, H.; Jayakumar, A.; Pratihary, A.K.; Narvenkar, G.; Kurian, S.; Agnihotri, R.; Shailaja, M.S.; Narvekar, P.V.

    -poor, nutrient-rich subsurface waters to the Indian continental shelf that turn anoxic (sulfate-reducing) by late summer due to exhaustion of oxygen and nitrate by heterotrophic microorganisms. This natural oxygen-deficient system, by far the world’s largest...

  3. Significance of peat on the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    Peat layers 2 to 30 cm in thickness, 22 to 46 m below present sea level, are found along the inner shelf of India, up to 27 km from the coast. They are rich in plant debris, organic carbon and sulfur. These organic-rich layers are not sedimentary...

  4. On the freshening of the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Hellmer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed hydrographic data from the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf of three austral winters (1989, 1997 and 2006 and two summers following the last winter cruise. During summer a thermal front exists at ~64° S separating cold southern waters from warm northern waters that have similar characteristics as the deep waters of the central basin of the Bransfield Strait. In winter, the whole continental shelf exhibits southern characteristics with high Neon (Ne concentrations, indicating a significant input of glacial melt water. The comparison of the winter data at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, spanning a period of 17 years, shows a salinity decrease of 0.09 for the whole water column. We interpret this freshening as a reduction in salt input to the water masses being advected northward on the western Weddell Sea continental shelf. Possible causes for the reduced winter salinification are a southward retreat of the summer sea ice edge together with more precipitation in this sector. However, the latter might have happened in conjunction with an increase in ice shelf mass loss, counteracting an enhanced salt input due to sea ice formation in coastal areas formerly occupied by Larsen A and B ice shelves.

  5. On the freshening of the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Hellmer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed hydrographic data from the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf of the three austral winters 1989, 1997, and 2006 and two summers following the last winter cruise. During summer a thermal front exists at ~64° S separating cold southern waters from warm northern waters that have similar characteristics as the deep waters of the central basin of the Bransfield Strait. In winter, the whole continental shelf exhibits southern characteristics with high Neon (Ne concentrations, indicating a significant input of glacial melt water. The comparison of the winter data from the shallow shelf off the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, spanning a period of 17 yr, shows a salinity decrease of 0.09 for the whole water column, which has a residence time of <1 yr. We interpret this freshening as being caused by a combination of reduced salt input due to a southward sea ice retreat and higher precipitation during the late 20th century on the western Weddell Sea continental shelf. However, less salinification might also result from a delicate interplay between enhanced salt input due to sea ice formation in coastal areas formerly occupied by Larsen A and B ice shelves and increased Larsen C ice loss.

  6. Potential power-generating stations on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress toward the installation of floating power plants, which represent a beneficial use of the continental shelf, is presented. The demonstration of the feasibility of such facilities with existing technology, and the thorough support by safety and environmental reviews, have been made possible by the efforts of engineers and scientists working toward supplying the nation's growing energy needs

  7. Magnetic giant magnetoresistance commercial off the shelf for space applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelena, M.D.; Oelschlägel, Wulf; Arruego, I.;

    2008-01-01

    The increase of complexity and miniaturizing level of Aerospace platforms make use of commercial off the shelf (COTS) components constitute a plausible alternative to the use of military or rad-tolerant components. In this work, giant magnetoresistance commercial sensors are studied to be used as...

  8. Shelf morphology as an indicator of sedimentary regimes: A synthesis from a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf on the eastern Brazilian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Alex C.; Quaresma, Valéria S.; Marangoni, Mariana B.; D'Agostini, Danielle P.; Bourguignon, Silvia N.; Cetto, Paulo H.; Silva, Alex E.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Moura, Rodrigo L.; Collins, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Modern shelf morphology is the result of the interplay between short and long term sedimentary processes. The relation between rates of sediment supply/carbonate growth and accommodation space creation will not only control coastal transgression and regression, but will also define the shelf sedimentary regimes acting to shape the seabed. Herein, shelf morphology and sedimentology are investigated in order to discuss how these characteristics can be representative of distinct sedimentary regimes. The study area is the eastern Brazilian shelf where coastal transgression and regression coexist with the most important coral reef system of the South Atlantic. A compilation of existing published and unpublished data was carried out in order to produce morphological and faciological maps and compare the mapped features with high-resolution seismic and sonographic data. The results show three major regions or morphological compartments: Abrolhos Shelf, Doce River Shelf and the Paleovalleys Shelf. In terms of shelf sedimentary domain, rhodolith beds predominate over the outer shelf along the entire area, coralline reefs are present along the northern Abrolhos inner shelf and a significant terrigenous mud deposit is observed associated to the Doce River adjacent inner shelf beds. The rest of the shelf is composed by bioclastic or terrigenous mud sand and gravel. Terrigenous sedimentation is always restricted to the shoreface or inner shelf shallower areas and carbonate sands and gravels are predominant elsewhere. The Abrolhos shelf shows two distinct sectors; the northern area is a typical mixed sediment environment that has a supply regime along the coast/shoreface, mainly due to longshore transport and a carbonate regime along the inner and outer shelf. The southern shelf morphology and sedimentation are controlled by the antecedent topography and is typically a accommodation regime shelf with associated rhodolith beds. The Doce river shelf is a supply regime environment

  9. Exchange across the shelf break at high southern latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Klinck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of water across the Antarctic shelf break has considerable scientific and societal importance due to its effects on circulation and biology of the region, conversion of water masses as part of the global overturning circulation and basal melt of glacial ice and the consequent effect on sea level rise. The focus in this paper is the onshore transport of warm, oceanic Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW; export of dense water from these shelves is equally important, but has been the focus of other recent papers and will not be considered here. A variety of physical mechanisms are described which could play a role in this onshore flux. The relative importance of some processes are evaluated by simple calculations. A numerical model for the Ross Sea continental shelf is used as an example of a more comprehensive evaluation of the details of cross-shelf break exchange. In order for an ocean circulation model simulate these processes at high southern latitudes, it needs to have high spatial resolution, realistic geometry and bathymetry. Grid spacing smaller than the first baroclinic radius deformation (a few km is required to adequately represent the circulation. Because of flow-topography interactions, bathymetry needs to be represented at these same small scales. Atmospheric conditions used to force these circulation models also need to be known at a similar small spatial resolution (a few km in order to represent orographically controlled winds (coastal jets and katabatic winds. Significantly, time variability of surface winds strongly influences the structure of the mixed layer. Daily, if not more frequent, surface fluxes must be imposed for a realistic surface mixed layer. Sea ice and ice shelves are important components of the coastal circulation. Ice isolates the ocean from exchange with the atmosphere, especially in the winter. Melting and freezing of both sea ice and glacial ice influence salinity and thereby the character of shelf water

  10. Exchange across the shelf break at high southern latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Klinck

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of water across the Antarctic shelf break has considerable scientific and societal importance due to its effects on circulation and biology of the region, conversion of water masses as part of the global overturning circulation and basal melt of glacial ice and the consequent effect on sea level rise. The focus in this paper is the onshore transport of warm, oceanic Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW; export of dense water from these shelves is equally important, but has been the focus of other recent papers and will not be considered here. A variety of physical mechanisms are described which could play a role in this onshore flux. The relative importance of some processes are evaluated by simple calculations. A numerical model for the Ross Sea continental shelf is used as an example of a more comprehensive evaluation of the details of cross-shelf break exchange. In order for an ocean circulation model to simulate these processes at high southern latitudes, it needs to have high spatial resolution, realistic geometry and bathymetry. Grid spacing smaller than the first baroclinic radius of deformation (a few km is required to adequately represent the circulation. Because of flow-topography interactions, bathymetry needs to be represented at these same small scales. Atmospheric conditions used to force these circulation models also need to be known at a similar small spatial resolution (a few km in order to represent orographically controlled winds (coastal jets and katabatic winds. Significantly, time variability of surface winds strongly influences the structure of the mixed layer. Daily, if not more frequent, surface fluxes must be imposed for a realistic surface mixed layer. Sea ice and ice shelves are important components of the coastal circulation. Ice isolates the ocean from exchange with the atmosphere, especially in the winter. Melting and freezing of both sea ice and glacial ice influence salinity and thereby the character of shelf

  11. AFSC/ABL: Genetic data for juvenile chum salmon samples collected in the eastern Bering Sea on the U.S. BASIS cruises during 2003-2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) are an important natural resource in western Alaska for subsistence, commercial and cultural reasons. Declines in chum salmon...

  12. 41 CFR 101-27.209 - Utilization and distribution of shelf-life items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution of shelf-life items. 101-27.209 Section 101-27.209 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209 Utilization and distribution of shelf-life items. Where it is determined that specified quantities of both Type I and Type...

  13. 41 CFR 102-36.455 - How do we report excess shelf-life items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shelf-life items? 102-36.455 Section 102-36.455 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling Shelf-Life Items § 102-36.455 How do we report excess shelf-life items? You must identify the property as...

  14. M sub(2) tidal currents on the shelf off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shetye, S.R.

    the continental shelf and the adjacent slope has influenced the amplitude of internal tidal currents. The bottom slope switches from being supercritical to subcritical in the shelf break region during May and remains subcritical all over the shelf and the slope...

  15. 76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that effective with...

  16. The geomorphology of a glaciated continental shelf, Western Scotland, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, John; Dove, Dayton; Bradwell, Tom

    2013-04-01

    We present recently collected swath bathymetry and legacy seismic data from two regions of the north-west UK continental shelf: the Sea of the Hebrides; and the Firth of Lorn, western Scotland. Both regions have experienced extensive Pleistocene ice sheet glaciation and both provide abundant geomorphological evidence of subglacial and postglacial processes. The Sea of the Hebrides bathymetry data cover 2200 km2 and provide new geomorphological evidence for an ice stream flowing from western Scotland and the Inner Hebrides focusing towards a trough-mouth fan (the Barra Fan) at the continental shelf break during the height of the last glaciation. Notably, bedrock structures provide a control on the location and orientation of glacially overdeepened basins and troughs on the inner shelf. Whilst around the Islands of Canna and Rum, convergent seabed glacial lineations and other subglacially streamlined features eroded in bedrock preserve the direction of ice sheet movement - indicating ice streaming in a south-westerly direction across the continental shelf. We propose that this fast-flow zone formed part of a larger convergent ice stream system draining much of western Scotland and the north of Ireland. The Firth of Lorn bathymetry acquisition comprises 553km2 of data, collected as part of the INIS Hydro program (Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland Hydrographic Survey). This region of nearshore continental shelf is revealed as predominantly bedrock-dominated seabed, characterised by a series of narrow, strongly fault-controlled troughs, part of the Great Glen Fault Zone complex. Evidence for glaciation is widespread and well preserved in the Firth of Lorn and surrounding seabed with moraines, bedrock lineations (?megagrooves?) and overdeepened basins common across the area. Initial mapping shows that our understanding of the configuration and style of deglaciation in these sectors of the former British-Irish Ice Sheet can be greatly improved by the collection of

  17. Shelf sediment transport during hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kehui; Mickey, Rangley C.; Chen, Qin; Harris, Courtney K.; Hetland, Robert D.; Hu, Kelin; Wang, Jiaze

    2016-05-01

    Hurricanes can greatly modify the sedimentary record, but our coastal scientific community has rather limited capability to predict hurricane-induced sediment deposition. A three-dimensional sediment transport model was developed in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to study seabed erosion and deposition on the Louisiana shelf in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the year 2005. Sensitivity tests were performed on both erosional and depositional processes for a wide range of erosional rates and settling velocities, and uncertainty analysis was done on critical shear stresses using the polynomial chaos approximation method. A total of 22 model runs were performed in sensitivity and uncertainty tests. Estimated maximum erosional depths were sensitive to the inputs, but horizontal erosional patterns seemed to be controlled mainly by hurricane tracks, wave-current combined shear stresses, seabed grain sizes, and shelf bathymetry. During the passage of two hurricanes, local resuspension and deposition dominated the sediment transport mechanisms. Hurricane Katrina followed a shelf-perpendicular track before making landfall and its energy dissipated rapidly within about 48 h along the eastern Louisiana coast. In contrast, Hurricane Rita followed a more shelf-oblique track and disturbed the seabed extensively during its 84-h passage from the Alabama-Mississippi border to the Louisiana-Texas border. Conditions to either side of Hurricane Rita's storm track differed substantially, with the region to the east having stronger winds, taller waves and thus deeper erosions. This study indicated that major hurricanes can disturb the shelf at centimeter to meter levels. Each of these two hurricanes suspended seabed sediment mass that far exceeded the annual sediment inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, but the net transport from shelves to estuaries is yet to be determined. Future studies should focus on the modeling of sediment exchange between

  18. Assemblages of fish larvae and mesozooplankton across the continental shelf and shelf slope of the Andaman Sea (NE Indian Ocean)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Bjørnsen, Peter Koefoed; Boonruang, P.;

    2004-01-01

    of net tows were carried out, targeting different size ranges of organisms. Plankton were identified to order (invertebrates) or family (fish larvae), and their abundances and biomass estimated. The abundance of both mesozooplankton and fish larvae peaked mid-shelf (50 to 65 m bottom depth...

  19. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake river chinook salmon: A biological-economic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, D.L.; Moore, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  20. Stable Isotope Investigation of Marine-Terrestrial Nitrogen Linkages in Salmon Stream Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, A. M.; Welker, J. M.; Rogers, M.; Rinella, D. J.; Sveinbjornsson, B.; Wipfli, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our research is addressing marine-terrestrial nitrogen linkages using stable isotope techniques (δ15N). Throughout coastal Alaska, salmon migrate each year into riparian systems transporting marine-produced biomass (carbon, phosphorous and nitrogen) that is decomposed, recycled and used by juvenile fish, invertebrates, carnivores and in some cases aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. These inputs of N into the terrestrial landscape have a host of cascading implications including the maintenance of biodiversity, enhanced survivorship of juvenile salmon and support of a complex food web that includes primary and secondary consumers (bears and eagles) and herbivores such as moose. A central question regarding this marine-terrestrial linkage is whether vegetation (aquatic or terrestrial) uses marine-derived N in metabolism and whether this fertilization effect increases leaf N contents, leads to higher rates of plant growth, results in higher rates of leaf gas exchange, and increases forage quantity and quality. By analyzing the δ15N-values of plants we will be able to fingerprint marine N use by plants and the degree to which this N contributes to the nitrogen budget of riparian vegetation.We are quantifying marine N use by aquatic and terrestrial vegetation (trees, shrubs and grasses) within the Kenai River watershed using a comparative approach sampling streams with annual salmon runs and streams without runs (waterfall inhibiting salmon spawning). We will determine the relationship between local hydrology and marine nutrient access using a multi-isotope approach which examines the relationship between plant water sources and relations and marine N use. We will ascertain the ecological importance of this N source by comparing the growth and ecophysiology of riparian vegetation along salmon impacted and non impacted streams. Initial results indicate that riparian vegetation along streams with large salmon runs have higher leaf N contents and enriched δ15N values