WorldWideScience

Sample records for canada water year

  1. NDT in Canada - the next 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittmer, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The theme for the Fifth Canadian Conference on Nondestructive Testing was 'NDT in Canada - The Next 20 years'. The three day conference with 42 presentations provided a short overview of NDT in Canada, a look at NDT in pipeline, materials, offshore, nuclear and training applications, and a glimpse into the next 20 years with recent advances in research and development as related to this 'hi-tech' field of work

  2. Canada`s green plan - The second year. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Canada`s Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan`s goal is `to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.` It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan`s short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities.

  3. Decision year for gas industry. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, L; Rankin, A

    1975-01-20

    This year should be one of decision as far as the Canadian natural gas industry is concerned. There is urgent need to avoid the energy shortage now being experienced in the U.S., inasmuch as this year appears to mark the beginning of increasingly short supplies of gas in many parts of Canada. Increased gas plant construction and rising sulfur sales this year are 2 highlights of this annual natural gas report. A comprehensive listing of natural gas processing plants in Canada is given. Natural gas sales climbed by only 46 billion cu ft to an estimated 2,289 billion cu ft for a growth of 2% from 1973. The decline in exports will accelerate this year and as a result the overall gain this year is expected to be held to a modest 1% with an increase of 71 billion cu ft in the domestic sector and a drop of 58 billion cu ft in exports. Tabular data provide more complete details.

  4. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency at gaged and ungaged sites on streams in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada, based on data through water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; Barth, Nancy A.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2016-03-16

    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are needed across Alaska for engineering design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, flood-plain management, and other water-resource purposes. This report updates methods for estimating flood magnitude and frequency in Alaska and conterminous basins in Canada. Annual peak-flow data through water year 2012 were compiled from 387 streamgages on unregulated streams with at least 10 years of record. Flood-frequency estimates were computed for each streamgage using the Expected Moments Algorithm to fit a Pearson Type III distribution to the logarithms of annual peak flows. A multiple Grubbs-Beck test was used to identify potentially influential low floods in the time series of peak flows for censoring in the flood frequency analysis.For two new regional skew areas, flood-frequency estimates using station skew were computed for stations with at least 25 years of record for use in a Bayesian least-squares regression analysis to determine a regional skew value. The consideration of basin characteristics as explanatory variables for regional skew resulted in improvements in precision too small to warrant the additional model complexity, and a constant model was adopted. Regional Skew Area 1 in eastern-central Alaska had a regional skew of 0.54 and an average variance of prediction of 0.45, corresponding to an effective record length of 22 years. Regional Skew Area 2, encompassing coastal areas bordering the Gulf of Alaska, had a regional skew of 0.18 and an average variance of prediction of 0.12, corresponding to an effective record length of 59 years. Station flood-frequency estimates for study sites in regional skew areas were then recomputed using a weighted skew incorporating the station skew and regional skew. In a new regional skew exclusion area outside the regional skew areas, the density of long-record streamgages was too sparse for regional analysis and station skew was used

  5. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thexton, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type reactors in Canada is traced. What is CANDU? and how does it differ from a pressurized water reactor? Whey did Canada adopt this design? What factors have led to its success? These questions are asked and answered. First the design itself is explained. Technical problems are considered and figures on operating reliability presented. The economic advantages of CANDU are shown by comparing electricity generating costs at CANDU stations with those at coal-fired stations. Future CANDU options are discussed and prospects for CANDU considered. (U.K.)

  6. Canada's green plan - The second year. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan's goal is 'to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.' It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan's short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities

  7. Future development in heavy water reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.; Hart, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    1982 marks the 35th anniversary of the start-up of Canada's first research and test reactor, NRX. Its first power reactor has been operating successfully for the past 20 years. With 5,000 MWe of domestic capacity installed, Canada's major CANDU (Canada Deuterium, Uranium) nuclear program has a further 9,500 MWe under construction in Canada for completion by 1990 as well as committed offshore projects in Argentina, Korea and Romania. The CANDU operating record, by any measure of performance, has been outstanding. This performance is largely due to the discipline imposed on the development, design, construction and operation by two fundamental choices: natural uranium and heavy water. The impact of these two choices on availability, fuel utilization, safety and economics is discussed. Future plans call for building on those characteristics which have made CANDU so successful. When time for change comes, current assessments indicate that it will be possible to convert to more efficient advanced fuel cycles without major changes to the basic CANDU design. Primary attention is being focussed on thorium fuel cycles to ensure an abundant and continuing supply of low cost energy for the long term. The resource savings available from these fuel cycles in expanding systems are reviewed and compared with those available from LWR's and Fast Breeders. The results clearly illustrate the versatility of the CANDU reactor. It can benefit from enrichment plants or get along without them. It can complement LWR's or compete with them. It can complement Fast Breeder Reactors or compete with them as well. In the very long term CANDU's and Fast Breeders combined offer the potential of burning all the world's uranium and all the world's thorium. (author)

  8. Canada's uranium future, based on forty years of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspin, N.; Dakers, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    Canada's role as a major supplier of uranium has matured through the cyclical markets of the past forty years. Present resource estimates would support a potential production capability by the late 1980s 50 per cent greater than the peak production of 12 200 tonnes uranium in 1959. New and improved exploration techniques are being developed as uranium deposits become more difficult to discover. Radiometric prospecting of glacial boulder fields and the use of improved airborne and ground geophysical methods have contributed significantly to recent discoveries in Saskatchewan. Advances have also been made in the use of airborne radiometric reconnaissance, borehole logging, emanometry (radon and helium gas) and multi-element regional geochemistry techniques. Higher productivity in uranium mining has been achieved through automation and mechanization, while improved ventilation systems in conjunction with underground environmental monitoring have contributed to worker health and safety. Improved efficiency is being achieved in all phases of ore processing. Factors contributing to the increased time required to develop uranium mines and mills from a minimum of three years in the 1950s to the ten years typical of today, are discussed. The ability of Canada's uranium refinery to manufacture ceramic grade UO 2 powder to consistent standards has been a major factor in the successful development of high density natural uranium fuel for the CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor. Over 400 000 fuel assemblies have been manufactured by three companies. The refinery is undertaking a major expansion of its capacity

  9. 19 CFR 123.27 - Feeding and watering animals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feeding and watering animals in Canada. 123.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.27 Feeding and watering animals in Canada. If animals in sealed conveyances or compartments...

  10. Forest resources and utilization in Canada to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, G H; Grinnell, H R

    1971-01-01

    This report presents estimates of the relation between the demand for Canada's forest products and the supply of timber available to meet this demand. The future of the Canadian forest products economy is forecast at 5-year intervals from 1975 to 2000, and the demand for individual products and product groups, both domestic and export, is shown. These estimates are then used to derive estimates of roundwood demand for the projection periods. The report then describes the timber resource of Canada, quantitatively and qualitatively, and discusses the factors that influence the growth and mortality of this resource. Factors which might change, and therefore affect the utilization of this forest resource, are also discussed. It is concluded that at the national level of data aggregation, no physical shortage of wood fiber is indicated, although on the bases of region, species, and timber quality, imbalances can exist. One important limiting factor to the supply situation is the inaccessibility of much of Canada's timber. Accessibility is increasing, and utilization is improving through harvesting technology, but the major opportunity for improvement seems to lie in the area of manufacturing technology. If the large hardwood surplus already within allocated forest areas were used in manufacturing, a considerable part of the projected demand could be met without opening up new forest areas. With respect to forest development, serious problems have been observed stemming from inadequate resource data and planning. These problems will have to be remedied if economic supplies are to be available in the future. 37 refs., 16 figs., 54 tabs.

  11. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciej, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  12. Use of economic evaluation guidelines: 2 years' experience in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, J F; Menon, D; Otten, N

    1998-05-01

    Considerable effort has been expended in recent years in the development of methodology guidelines for economic evaluation of pharmaceutical products, driven in part by the desire to improve the rigour and quality of economic evaluations and to help decision making. Canada was one of the first countries to develop such guidelines and to encourage their use. This paper examines the extent to which the economic evaluations that were submitted to the Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment in the last two years adhered to Canadian guidelines. The analytic technique employed by twelve studies as well as the comparator used, the perspective taken, the outcome measure selected, the cost items that were taken into consideration and the extent of sensitivity analyses that were performed are reviewed in this paper. It can be concluded that although studies have been of variable quality, the majority of them were well presented, complete and transparent, due in part to the guidelines. Except for the perspective of the analysis, guidelines were, in many respects, adhered to and did not restrict investigators to specific methodologies or specific techniques. They were also instrumental in ensuring a minimum set of standards.

  13. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.

    1991-01-01

    Canada, while professing a non-nuclear policy for its own armed forces, is, none the less, a member of a nuclear alliance. The security gained through participation in such arrangements does not come cost-free, despite the common view that countries such as Canada enjoy a free ride. Being under the nuclear umbrella, as this paper seeks to illustrate, does generate its own problems and costs. For example, does influence stem from the actual possession of nuclear weapons (albeit under US control), from support of the concept of nuclear deterrence and its infrastructure, or from possessing territory that is of strategic importance to a more powerful ally? Does the Canadian experience serve as a model for countries that are in close proximity to an existing or threshold nuclear power? Much depends on the willingness of a country to participate in the nuclear infrastructure associated with the acquisition of nuclear weapons for security purposes. It must accept the underlying rationale or logic of nuclear deterrence and the constraints on alternative security options that this imposes and it must also recognize that reliance on nuclear deterrence for military security seven if one seeks to emulate Canada and become a non-nuclear weapon state in a nuclear alliance can produce strains in its own right. The case of Canada shows that a country seeking security through such means should be aware of, and reflect upon, the fact that what appears to be a free ride does not come free of charge. However, a country may have other options in it, military security that have neither historically or geostrategically been available to Canada

  14. Water Under Fire: A Seven Part Video Series on Canada's Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, R.; Byrne, J.; Rabe, N.; Gallant, G.

    2003-12-01

    Canada's water is under escalating pressure from a host of threats. Increasingly, our water is being tainted, misused and over allocated. Experts have identified a multitude of threats to water quantity and quality. Among them, climate change impacts on water supply, and the effects of pesticides, pathogens, industrial waste, urban runoff, and rising demands. These and other threats are the roots to a serious shortage of high quality, safe water sources. In the 1990s, waterborne diseases have re-emerged as one of the primary health issues on a national and global scale. This seven-part video series brings science voices together and provides a nationwide context. The first six programs in the series explore regional concerns: Rocky Mountains, Prairie Waters, Northern Waters, Great Lakes Basin, St. Lawrence and Atlantic Canada. The final program covers the national and international perspectives.

  15. Drinking water quality in Indigenous communities in Canada and health outcomes: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Lori E A; Okpalauwaekwe, Udoka; Waldner, Cheryl L; Bharadwaj, Lalita A

    2016-01-01

    Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada. Key search terms were developed and mapped on five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE/PubMED, Web of Knowledge, SciVerse Scopus, Taylor and Francis online journal and Google Scholar). Online searches for grey literature using relevant government websites were completed. Sixteen articles (of 518; 156 bibliographic search engines, 362 grey literature) met criteria for inclusion (contained keywords; publication year 2000-2015; peer-reviewed and from Canada). Studies were quantitative (8), qualitative (5) or mixed (3) and included case, cohort, cross-sectional and participatory designs. In most articles, no definition of "health" was given (14/16), and the primary health issue described was gastrointestinal illness (12/16). Challenges to the study of health and well-being with respect to drinking water in Indigenous communities included irregular funding, remote locations, ethical approval processes, small sample sizes and missing data. Research on drinking water and health outcomes in Indigenous communities in Canada is limited and occurs on an opportunistic basis. There is a need for more research funding, and inquiry to inform policy decisions for improvements of water quality and health-related outcomes in Indigenous communities. A coordinated network looking at First Nations water and health outcomes, a database to store and create access to research findings, increased

  16. Drinking water quality in Indigenous communities in Canada and health outcomes: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori E. A. Bradford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. Objective: The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. Design: A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada. Key search terms were developed and mapped on five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE/PubMED, Web of Knowledge, SciVerse Scopus, Taylor and Francis online journal and Google Scholar. Online searches for grey literature using relevant government websites were completed. Results: Sixteen articles (of 518; 156 bibliographic search engines, 362 grey literature met criteria for inclusion (contained keywords; publication year 2000–2015; peer-reviewed and from Canada. Studies were quantitative (8, qualitative (5 or mixed (3 and included case, cohort, cross-sectional and participatory designs. In most articles, no definition of “health” was given (14/16, and the primary health issue described was gastrointestinal illness (12/16. Challenges to the study of health and well-being with respect to drinking water in Indigenous communities included irregular funding, remote locations, ethical approval processes, small sample sizes and missing data. Conclusions: Research on drinking water and health outcomes in Indigenous communities in Canada is limited and occurs on an opportunistic basis. There is a need for more research funding, and inquiry to inform policy decisions for improvements of water quality and health-related outcomes in Indigenous communities. A coordinated network looking at First Nations water and health outcomes, a

  17. Participatory Water Management Strategies: Contributions for Canada from Brazil’s National Water Resources Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanderson Alberto Medeiros Leitao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Canadian decision-makers are encountering escalating socio-ecological pressures to introduce a national water strategy. Canada lags behind other countries such as Brazil which has had a comprehensive, participatory, watershed-based national strategy for over a decade. Similar to Canada, Brazil is a complex, federal, resource-based economy. These two states are world leaders in terms of possessing the vast quantities of the world’s fresh water supplies and in hydro-electric power production. In both cases, however, water abundance is predominantly concentrated in their northern territories with low population density, whereas in other geographical regions, the water demand associated with high population density lead to drought, shortages and social and economic inequalities. Despite these similarities, there are a number of differences particularly with respect to socio-economic and political structures. An examination ofthe Brazilian national water strategy offers some explanations as to why that federation has been able to develop innovative legislation as an important first step towards water security – a step that Canadahas yet to take. It also offers some very useful examples and lessons about how a federal state such as Canada might introduce and implement its own integrative national water strategy.

  18. Deep waters : the Ottawa River and Canada's nuclear adventure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, F.H.K.

    2004-01-01

    Deep Waters is an intimate account of the principal events and personalities involved in the successful development of the Canadian nuclear power system (CANDU), an achievement that is arguably one of Canada's greatest scientific and technical successes of the twentieth century. The author tells the stories of the people involved and the problems they faced and overcame and also relates the history of the development of the town of Deep River, built exclusively for the scientists and employees of the Chalk River Project and describes the impact of the Project on the traditional communities of the Ottawa Valley. Public understanding of nuclear power has remained confused, yet decisions about whether and how to use it are of vital importance to Canadians today - and will increase in importance as we seek to maintain our standard of living without doing irreparable damage to the environment around us. Deep Waters examines the issues involved in the use of nuclear power without over-emphasizing its positive aspects or avoiding its negative aspects.

  19. Early years of nuclear energy research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    The first experimental attempts in Canada to obtain energy from uranium fission were carried out by the author in the Ottawa laboratories of the National Research Council from 1940 to 42. This program grew into a joint British-Canadian laboratory in Montreal. Work done at this laboratory, which moved to Chalk River in 1946, led to the construction of ZEEP (the first nuclear reactor to operate outside of the United States) NRX, and ultimately to the development of the CANDU power reactors. People involved in the work and events along the way are covered in detail. (LL)

  20. Drinking water intake by infants living in rural Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levallois, Patrick; Gingras, Suzanne; Caron, Madeleine; Phaneuf, Denise

    2008-07-01

    Drinking water is a potential source of toxic contaminant and it is well known that water intake on a body weight basis decreases rapidly with increasing age. Nevertheless, few studies have been conducted on water intake of very young infants who might be particularly sensitive to some toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to describe the mean and distribution of total water intake of 2-month old infants living in agricultural areas. Mothers (n=642) of 8 to 9 week old infants were interviewed by phone to evaluate their feeding practice, including juice and cereal intake. There were 393 infants (61%) who drank some quantity of water and 278 (43%) consumed formula reconstituted with water. For formula-fed infants, the 10, 50 and 90th percentiles of daily water intake were 79, 112, and 179 ml/kg respectively. These values are much higher than the intake recommended by US EPA for infants under one year (US EPA, 1997). This study demonstrates the importance of considering water distribution intake in very young infants who may be particularly susceptible to water contaminants.

  1. Atmospheric mercury accumulation between 5900 and 800 calibrated years BP in the high arctic of Canada recorded by Peat Hummocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givelet, N.; Roos-Barraclough, F.; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first comprehensive long-term record of preanthropogenic rates of atmospheric mercury accumulation in dated peat deposits for the High Arctic of Canada. Geochemical studies of two peat hummocks from Bathurst Island, Nunavut reveal substantial inputs from soil dust...... (titanium), marine aerosols (bromine), and mineral-water interactions (uranium). Mercury, however, was supplied to these peat mounds exclusively by atmospheric deposition. Mercury concentration measurements and age dating of the peat profiles indicate rather constant natural "background" mercury flux of ca....... 1 microgram per square meter per year from 5900 to 800 calibrated years BP. These values are well within the range of the mercury fluxes reported from other Arctic locations, but also by peat cores from southern Canada that provide a record of atmospheric Hg accumulation extending back 8000 years...

  2. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  3. Environmental restoration of uranium mines in Canada: Progress over 52 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasby, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    In Canada, the technology for disposal of uranium mine wastes and reclamation of mines has evolved over a period of 52 years. Early practice involved dumping untreated wastes into the nearest depression or lake and leaving rock and infrastructure in place. Now, the practice is to deposit chemically-stabilized tailings, waste rock and building rubble into highly engineered waste management facilities or mine openings. Similarly the ''footprint'' of the mining activity has been reduced to a very small area and the site is restored as-close-as-possible to pre-mining status. This paper describes the evolution of disposal and reclamation methods and the criteria which have determined the development path followed. Remediation techniques to bring older and now unacceptable tailings deposits into satisfactory compliance with current regulations are reviewed. Some monitoring results are presented. All of the uranium mines in Elliot Lake, Ontario, a large uranium producer since 1957, are now permanently closed. Considerable progress has been made on decommissioning the tailings areas by developing long term maintenance of water covers on some, and water treatment plants and stable soil covers on the others. The innovative methods being used to develop the water covers are described, along with the challenges remaining. Methods now under development in Saskatchewan for subaqueous deposition of paste tailings for permanent disposal in mined out open pits are also described. This method will provide for the first time, ''walkaway'', meaning no long term monitoring and maintenance will be required

  4. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-13

    Recruitment drive for nurse gradutates British Columbia (BC), the westernmost Canadian province, urgently needs 1,500 qualified nurses graduates to staff longterm care and assisted-living beds as well as home care clients. The provincial government has launched a $160,000 (£78,600) marketing campaign called BC Cares. Craig Hebert, dean of development and access training at Northern Lights College in BC, said: 'The industry needs to get the message out to students that there has never been a better time to start a career in senior health care. Graduates who study for about one year, sometimes less, will have their pick of jobs in a number of service environments and can advance relatively quickly to the nursing profession.'

  5. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office: Thirty Years of Experience in Canada - 13308

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Liliana; Gardiner, Mark J.; Zelmer, Robert L. [Natural Resources Canada, 580 Booth Street, Ottawa On. (Canada); Gardiner, Mark J.; Zelmer, Robert L. [Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper reviews thirty years of progress by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO) in developing and implementing low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) remediation projects and environmentally safe co-existence strategies. It reports on the present status and the future of the national historic waste program in Canada. There are over two million cubic metres of historic LLRW in Canada. Historic LLRW is broadly defined as LLRW that was managed in the past in a manner that is no longer considered acceptable and for which the original owner cannot reasonably be held accountable. In many cases, the original owner can not be identified or no longer exists. The LLRWMO was established in 1982 as Canada's agent to carry out the responsibilities of the federal government for the management of historic LLRW. The LLRWMO is operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) through a cost-recovery agreement with Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), the federal department that provides the funding and establishes national policy for radioactive waste management in Canada. The LLRWMO expertise includes project managers, environmental remediation specialists, radiation surveyors, communications staff and administrative support staff. The LLRWMO in providing all aspects of project oversight and implementation contracts additional resources supplementing core staff capacity as project/program demands require. (authors)

  6. Spatial and temporal occurrence of bacterial pathogens in rural water supplies, Southern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, V.; Graham, T. A.; Read, S.; Ziebell, K.; Muckle, A.; Thomas, J.; Selinger, B.; Kienzle, S.; Lapp, S. L.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J.

    2002-12-01

    Southern Alberta has the highest rate of gastrointestinal illness in the province, and some of the highest infection rates in Canada. The region has extensive field crop irrigation system supporting a rapidly expanding animal agriculture industry. Recently, there has been much public concern about the safety and quality of water in this region, particularly with respect to drinking water supplies for farm residences and rural communities, where water treatment may be less than optimal. We have tested raw river and irrigation water in the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta for the presence of bacterial pathogens (E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp ) as well as made counts of total and faecal coliforms over the last two years (2000-2001). E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. isolations and coliform counts peak in raw water from this system during the summer months. E. coli O157:H7 was only isolated from 27/1624 (1.7%) and Salmonella was isolated from 158/1624 (9.7%) of raw water samples over the two year period. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. S. Rublislaw was the most common Salmonella serovar isolated in both years. While this serovar is rarely associated with human or animal disease in Alberta, other Salmonella serovars isolated, such as Typhimurium, are commonly disease-associated. This poster presents initial analyses of the spatial and temporal properties of pathogen occurrences in the Oldman Basin in 2000 and 2001. Seasonal variability in the occurrence of pathogens is particularly interesting and of concern. Early results demonstrate the pathogen occurrences peak during the height of the summer recreation season; posing a substantial infection risk for the public and tourism populations. Human consumption of inadequately treated water in this

  7. Golden Years or Retirement Fears? Private Pension Inequality Among Canada's Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Josh; Lightman, Naomi

    2017-06-01

    Currently, many immigrants are disqualified from Canada's public pension scheme because of residency requirements. In addition, decades of low income and labour market exclusion prohibit many Canadian immigrants from building adequate private pension savings throughout their working life. Together, these factors present serious concerns for immigrant seniors' economic well-being. Using Canadian census data spanning a twenty-year period (1991-2011), we find that income from personal savings plans and investments has declined sharply for both native-born and immigrant Canadians, with recent immigrant cohorts faring worst. However, since 1991, native-born and immigrant men living in Canada for 40-plus years had major gains in private employer pensions (Registered Pension Plans; [RPPs]). Yet RPP income for all other immigrant cohorts remained stable or declined during these decades. Thus, the data demonstrate a worrisome growing private savings gap between native-born men and all others in Canada, with newer immigrants and women faring worst.

  8. Water quality and health in northern Canada: stored drinking water and acute gastrointestinal illness in Labrador Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Carlee J; Sargeant, Jan M; Edge, Victoria L; Ford, James D; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow; Shiwak, Inez; Flowers, Charlie; Harper, Sherilee L

    2017-07-12

    One of the highest self-reported incidence rates of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in the global peer-reviewed literature occurs in Inuit communities in the Canadian Arctic. This high incidence of illness could be due, in part, to the consumption of contaminated water, as many northern communities face challenges related to the quality of municipal drinking water. Furthermore, many Inuit store drinking water in containers in the home, which could increase the risk of contamination between source and point-of-use (i.e., water recontamination during storage). To examine this risk, this research characterized drinking water collection and storage practices, identified potential risk factors for water contamination between source and point-of-use, and examined possible associations between drinking water contamination and self-reported AGI in the Inuit community of Rigolet, Canada. The study included a cross-sectional census survey that captured data on types of drinking water used, household practices related to drinking water (e.g., how it was collected and stored), physical characteristics of water storage containers, and self-reported AGI. Additionally, water samples were collected from all identified drinking water containers in homes and analyzed for presence of Escherichia coli and total coliforms. Despite municipally treated tap water being available in all homes, 77.6% of households had alternative sources of drinking water stored in containers, and of these containers, 25.2% tested positive for total coliforms. The use of transfer devices and water dippers (i.e., smaller bowls or measuring cups) for the collection and retrieval of water from containers were both significantly associated with increased odds of total coliform presence in stored water (OR transfer device  = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-11.7; OR dipper  = 13.4, 95% CI 3.8-47.1). Twenty-eight-day period prevalence of self-reported AGI during the month before the survey was 17.2% (95% CI 13

  9. Pathogen Loading From Canada Geese Faeces in Freshwater: Potential Risks to Human Health Through Recreational Water Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, T J; Lee, J

    2016-05-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) faeces have been shown to contain pathogenic protozoa and bacteria in numerous studies over the past 15 years. Further, increases in both the Canada geese populations and their ideal habitat requirements in the United States (US) translate to a greater presence of these human pathogens in public areas, such as recreational freshwater beaches. Combining these factors, the potential health risk posed by Canada geese faeces at freshwater beaches presents an emerging public health issue that warrants further study. Here, literature concerning human pathogens in Canada geese faeces is reviewed and the potential impacts these pathogens may have on human health are discussed. Pathogens of potential concern include Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Helicobacter canadensis, Arcobacter spp., Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli pathogenic strains, Chlamydia psitacci, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. Scenarios presenting potential exposure to pathogens eluted from faeces include bathers swimming in lakes, children playing with wet and dry sand impacted by geese droppings and other common recreational activities associated with public beaches. Recent recreational water-associated disease outbreaks in the US support the plausibility for some of these pathogens, including Cryptosporidium spp. and C. jejuni, to cause human illness in this setting. In view of these findings and the uncertainties associated with the real health risk posed by Canada geese faecal pathogens to users of freshwater lakes, it is recommended that beach managers use microbial source tracking and conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment to analyse the local impact of Canada geese on microbial water quality during their decision-making process in beach and watershed management. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Electricity, water, and natural gas consumption of a residential house in Canada from 2012 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makonin, Stephen; Ellert, Bradley; Bajić, Ivan V.; Popowich, Fred

    2016-06-01

    With the cost of consuming resources increasing (both economically and ecologically), homeowners need to find ways to curb consumption. The Almanac of Minutely Power dataset Version 2 (AMPds2) has been released to help computational sustainability researchers, power and energy engineers, building scientists and technologists, utility companies, and eco-feedback researchers test their models, systems, algorithms, or prototypes on real house data. In the vast majority of cases, real-world datasets lead to more accurate models and algorithms. AMPds2 is the first dataset to capture all three main types of consumption (electricity, water, and natural gas) over a long period of time (2 years) and provide 11 measurement characteristics for electricity. No other such datasets from Canada exist. Each meter has 730 days of captured data. We also include environmental and utility billing data for cost analysis. AMPds2 data has been pre-cleaned to provide for consistent and comparable accuracy results amongst different researchers and machine learning algorithms.

  11. The occurrence of Campylobacter in river water and waterfowl within a watershed in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, M I; Morton, V K; McLellan, N L; Huck, P M

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative PCR and a culture method were used to investigate Campylobacter occurrence over 3 years in a watershed located in southern Ontario, Canada that is used as a source of drinking water. Direct DNA extraction from river water followed by quantitative PCR analysis detected thermophilic campylobacters at low concentrations (seagulls, ducks and geese) were detected at a similar rate using PCR (32%) and culture-based (29%) methods, and although Campylobacter jejuni was isolated most frequently, C. lari ssp. concheus was also detected. Campylobacter were frequently detected at low concentrations in the watershed. Higher prevalence rates using quantitative PCR was likely because of the formation of viable but nonculturable cells and low recovery of the culture method. In addition to animal and human waste, waterfowl can be an important contributor of Campylobacter in the environment. Results of this study show that Campylobacter in surface water can be an important vector for human disease transmission and that method selection is important in determining pathogen occurrence in a water environment. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Water quality and Inuit health: an examination of drinking water consumption, perceptions, and contamination in Rigolet, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Carlee

    2017-01-01

    Canadian Inuit have often reported concerns about the quality of their municipal drinking water; research has also shown that some Inuit communities experience some of the highest incidence rates of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in Canada and globally. The goal of this thesis research was to investigate drinking water perceptions and consumption patterns, as well as water contamination and potential associations with AGI in the Inuit community of Rigolet, Canada. Three census cross-sectional surveys captured data on AGI, drinking water, and water storage (2012-2014); additionally, bacterial contamination of household drinking water was assessed alongside the 2014 survey. Concerns regarding the taste, smell, and colour of tap water were associated with lower odds of consuming tap water. The use of transfer devices (i.e. small bowls or measuring cups) was associated with household water contamination; while no water-related risk factors for AGI were identified, incidence of AGI was high compared with southern Canada. This thesis research provides a valuable contribution to the limited literature assessing drinking water and health in the Arctic. Ultimately, this work is intended to inform safe water management practices, as well as contextually appropriate drinking water interventions, risk assessments, and public health messaging in the Canadian Arctic.

  13. Damage by pathogens and insects to Scots pine and lodgepole pine 25 years after reciprocal plantings in Canada and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A combined species - provenance - family experiment with Scots pine and lodgepole pine was planted in Canada and Sweden. One aim of the experiment was to evaluate the two species' sensitivities to pathogens and insects 25 years after establishment in their non-native continents. In Canada, Scots pine had better average survival than lodgepole pine, but survival rates among trees from the best seed-lots were equal. In Canada only western gall rust infected Scots pine to some extent, and mounta...

  14. Gulf Canada Resources Ltd. annual information form for the year ended December 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Gulf Canada Resources is a major Canadian explorer and producer of oil and natural gas. Important areas of activity are Western Canada, Indonesia, and Russia. The company has interests in Canadian frontier lands (east coast offshore and Arctic), operates gas processing plants and pipelines, and participates in oil sands projects in Alberta. Gulf Canada activities for 1993 are reviewed, with descriptions of Canadian and international operations along with financial statements and associated information. Key financial actions taken in 1993 included completion of an asset sale program which facilitated the company strategy of focusing on a small number of core properties. Sales volumes reflected those asset sales as well as infrastructure constraints. Gross liquids sales averaged 90,000 bbl/d, down from 91,400 bbl/d in 1992, and gross natural gas sales averaged 270 million ft 3 /d, compared with 292 million ft 3 /d in 1992. The asset sales enabled reduction of net debt by 28% to $947 million. Capital spending increased ca 20% from 1992 levels to $169 million, and western Canada finding and development costs were reduced from 1992 levels to under $4/bbl of oil equivalent. Gross conventional reserves additions replaced ca 125% of production. Total financial loss for the year was $32 million, compared to a loss of $302 million in 1992. 13 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Unintended consequences of regulating drinking water in rural Canadian communities: examples from Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Megan; Castleden, Heather; Gagnon, Graham A

    2011-09-01

    Studies that explore social capital and political will [corrected] in the context of safe drinking water provision in [corrected] Canada are limited. This paper presents findings from a study that examines the capacity of rural Canadian communities to attain regulatory compliance for drinking water. Interviews were conducted with water operators and managers in ten rural communities across Atlantic Canada to identify the burden of compliance arising from the implementation of, and adherence to, drinking water regulations. This research identifies the operator as being particularly burdened by regulatory compliance, often resulting in negative consequences including job stress and a strained relationship with the community they serve. Findings indicate that while regulations are vital to ensuring safe drinking water, not all communities have the resources in place to rise to the challenge of compliance. As a result, some communities are being negatively impacted by these regulations, rather than benefit from their intended positive effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Climate change and water supply and demand in western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawford, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    There is reason to be concerned that water resources on the Canadian Prairies could be at considerable risk due to climatic change. The Canadian Prairies frequently experience variations in the climate, which can reduce crop production by 25-50% and annual volumetric river flows by 70-90%. The potential impacts of climatic change on the Prairies are discussed. Consumptive water uses on the Prairies are dominated by irrigation and the water demands arising from thermal power generation. The overall effect of climatic change on water supplies will depend on the ways in which the various components of the hydrological cycle are affected. At the present time it is unsure whether complementary equations are more realistic in estimating evaporation than mass balance techniques. There is a need to obtain good baseline data which will allow the unequivocal resolution of the most accurate technique for estimating evaporation on the Prairies. Climate change could lead to a decrease in spring runoff, and would also lead to earlier snowmelt and peak flows. This could lead to a longer period of low flows during the summer and fall and a further drawdown of moisture reserves. Some appropriate strategies for adapting to climate change would be: encouraging water conservation; reductions in agricultural water use by developing/utilizing strains of plants with lower water demand; controlling new water developments; and enhancing on-farm retention. 10 refs

  17. The richness of discovery : Amoco's first fifty years in Canada (1948-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie-Brown, P.

    1998-01-01

    A review of Amoco's first fifty years of operations in Canada, including investments, discoveries, and policies was presented. While no claim is made for this attractively produced slim volume to be a definitive history, it does manage to shed light on some of the great achievements and outstanding deeds of the people behind the company. The book provides a glimpse into how Amoco contributed to the growth of the Canadian petroleum industry in diverse areas including the manufacturing sector, the petroleum service sector, oil field technology, oil field infrastructure and petrochemical development. The company enjoyed spectacular success during the 1950s and 1960s. As evidence of that success, in 1997 Amoco Canada was the largest Canadian producer and exporter of natural gas and NGLs, the largest cold producer of heavy oil, the second largest in situ producer of heavy oil, and one of the 10 largest producers of conventional oil. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Lead in school drinking water: Canada can and should address this important ongoing exposure source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barn, Prabjit; Kosatsky, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Reducing all preventable lead exposures in children should be a public health priority given that blood lead levels in children that were once considered "safe" have since been associated with important neuro-developmental deficits. Limited Canadian data indicate that school drinking water can be an important component of children's overall exposure to lead. Outside of Ontario, however, Canadian schools are not required to test for lead in water; in most of Canada, school testing is case by case, typically initiated by parental concerns. Provinces and territories are encouraged to follow Ontario's example by instituting a routine school water lead testing program in order to identify facilities where action can result in a decrease in students' exposure to lead. Testing and remediation frameworks developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Health Canada, and the province of Ontario provide direction to school boards and local and provincial/territorial health authorities.

  19. The Measurable Benefits of a Workplace Wellness Program in Canada: Results After One Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowensteyn, Ilka; Berberian, Violette; Belisle, Patrick; DaCosta, Deborah; Joseph, Lawrence; Grover, Steven A

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an employee wellness program in Canada. A comprehensive program including web-based lifestyle challenges was evaluated with annual health screenings. Among 730 eligible employees, 688 (94%) registered for the program, 571 (78%) completed a health screening at baseline, and 314 (43%) at 1 year. Most (66%) employees tracked their activity for more than 6 weeks. At 1-year follow-up, there were significant clinical improvements in systolic blood pressure -3.4 mm Hg, and reductions in poor sleep quality (33% to 28%), high emotional stress (21% to 15%), and fatigue (11% to 6%). A positive dose-response was noted where the greatest improvements were observed among those who participated the most. The program had high employee engagement. After 1 year, the benefits included clinically important improvements in physical and mental health.

  20. Radioactive waste management in Canada: progress and challenges 15 years after the policy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, D.

    2011-01-01

    'Full text:' Introduction: Canada's Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste Management came into being in 1996, establishing the federal Government's overarching policy on radioactive waste management. Most importantly, the Policy Framework clearly establishes the role of the federal government and the role of the waste producers for radioactive waste management. Since the elaboration of the Policy Framework, there have been major developments on a variety of waste management fronts. The paper will examine those developments and identify the remaining challenges ahead in establishing a Canadian approach to radioactive waste management that is comprehensive. Canada's Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste Management established the Government's overarching policy for radioactive waste management. It was developed and established at a time when there was a fair degree of uncertainty regarding the role of the federal government, the provinces, and the waste producers in the area of radioactive waste management generally, and the management of nuclear fuel waste in particular. The Policy Framework clarified the roles and responsibilities of both the federal government and the operators and, in so doing, contributed to advancing radioactive waste management initiatives across Canada. The Government is responsible for developing policy, regulating, and overseeing that the owners of waste comply with legal requirements and meet their operational responsibilities in accordance with their waste management plans. The owners of the waste are responsible for funding and managing their own radioactive wastes. Over the course of the last 15 years, since the elaboration of the Policy Framework, there have been significant strides in developing long-term management solutions for Canada's radioactive wastes. Key developments in radioactive waste management include legislation in the area of nuclear fuel waste and the associated milestones emanating

  1. Transport Canada : navigable water protection technical paper on boating safety at dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putt, B [Transport Canada, Sarnia, ON (Canada); Di Censo, V M [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Navigable Waters Protection Act (NWPA) was designed to ensure a balance between public rights of navigation and the need to build bridges, dams, and other structures. This paper discussed an owner's guide to navigation safety around water control structures. Developed by Transport Canada, the guide was intended to help owners of water control structures address boating safety matters and assist owners in making applications under the NWPA. The guide was prepared to address amendments made to the NWPA in 2009 as well as to assist owners in identifying potential hazards and interactions by the boating public at water control structures. The guide included information related to signage; navigation aids; barriers and booms; warning alerts and alarms; portage and access around structures; and application requirements. It was concluded that the guide will also provide a summary of legislation that may affect owners of water control structures.

  2. Fracture lines: will Canada's water be protected in the rush to develop shale gas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfitt, Ben [Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    By combining hydraulic fracking with horizontal drilling, the gas industry has been able to unlock significant amounts of natural gas trapped inside deep and densely packed shale rock. The exploitation of shale gas has been a remarkable revolution in the last decade, going from hardly any production in 2000 to 20% of the United States' gas production in 2010. This cheap and abundant resource has been referred to as a game changer by North American industries and governments. However concerns about water usage and groundwater contamination have been raised. Indeed, the shale gas industry is responsible for the contamination of about 1,000 water wells and has been criticized for its important water withdrawals. This report intends to present the effects of shale gas production on the water supplies in Canada. It reviews the state of groundwater mapping in shale rich regions and reviews regulatory frameworks to determine if they are sufficient to protect water resources.

  3. Mortality and potential years of life lost attributable to alcohol consumption in Canada in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Taylor, Benjamin; Kehoe, Tara; Patra, Jayadeep; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-01-31

    Alcohol is a substantial risk factor for mortality according to the recent 2010 World Health Assembly strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol which outlined the need to characterize and monitor this burden. Accordingly, using new methodology we estimated 1) the number of deaths caused and prevented by alcohol consumption, and 2) the potential years of life lost (PYLLs) attributable to alcohol consumption in Canada in 2005. Mortality attributable to alcohol consumption was estimated by calculating Alcohol-Attributable Fractions (AAFs) (defined as the proportion of mortality that would be eliminated if the exposure was eliminated) using data from various sources. Indicators for alcohol consumption were obtained from the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey 2008 and corrected for adult per capita recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption. Risk relations were taken from the Comparative Risk Assessment within the current Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. Due to concerns about the reliability of information specifying causes of death for people aged 65 or older, our analysis was limited to individuals aged 0 to 64 years. Calculation of the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the AAFs was performed using Monte Carlo random sampling. Information on mortality was obtained from Statistics Canada. A sensitivity analysis was performed comparing the mortality results obtained using our study methods to results obtained using previous methodologies. In 2005, 3,970 (95% CI: 810 to 7,170) deaths (4,390 caused and 420 prevented) and 134,555 (95% CI: 36,690 to 236,376) PYLLs were attributable to alcohol consumption for individuals aged 0 to 64 years. These figures represent 7.7% (95% CI: 1.6% to 13.9%) of all deaths and 8.0% (95% CI: 2.2% to 14.1%) of all PYLLs for individuals aged 0 to 64 years. The sensitivity analysis showed that the number of deaths as measured by this new methodology is greater than that if mortality was estimated using previous

  4. Mortality and potential years of life lost attributable to alcohol consumption in Canada in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shield Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a substantial risk factor for mortality according to the recent 2010 World Health Assembly strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol which outlined the need to characterize and monitor this burden. Accordingly, using new methodology we estimated 1 the number of deaths caused and prevented by alcohol consumption, and 2 the potential years of life lost (PYLLs attributable to alcohol consumption in Canada in 2005. Methods Mortality attributable to alcohol consumption was estimated by calculating Alcohol-Attributable Fractions (AAFs (defined as the proportion of mortality that would be eliminated if the exposure was eliminated using data from various sources. Indicators for alcohol consumption were obtained from the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey 2008 and corrected for adult per capita recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption. Risk relations were taken from the Comparative Risk Assessment within the current Global Burden of Disease (GBD study. Due to concerns about the reliability of information specifying causes of death for people aged 65 or older, our analysis was limited to individuals aged 0 to 64 years. Calculation of the 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the AAFs was performed using Monte Carlo random sampling. Information on mortality was obtained from Statistics Canada. A sensitivity analysis was performed comparing the mortality results obtained using our study methods to results obtained using previous methodologies. Results In 2005, 3,970 (95% CI: 810 to 7,170 deaths (4,390 caused and 420 prevented and 134,555 (95% CI: 36,690 to 236,376 PYLLs were attributable to alcohol consumption for individuals aged 0 to 64 years. These figures represent 7.7% (95% CI: 1.6% to 13.9% of all deaths and 8.0% (95% CI: 2.2% to 14.1% of all PYLLs for individuals aged 0 to 64 years. The sensitivity analysis showed that the number of deaths as measured by this new methodology is greater than that if

  5. Learnings from the Monitoring of Induced Seismicity in Western Canada over the Past Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenier, E.; Moores, A. O.; Baturan, D.; Spriggs, N.

    2017-12-01

    In response to induced seismicity observed in western Canada, existing public networks have been densified and a number of private networks have been deployed to closely monitor the earthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing operations in the region. These networks have produced an unprecedented volume of seismic data, which can be used to map pre-existing geological structures and understand their activation mechanisms. Here, we present insights gained over the past three years from induced seismicity monitoring (ISM) for some of the most active operators in Canada. First, we discuss the benefits of high-quality ISM data sets for making operational decisions and how their value largely depends on choice of instrumentation, seismic network design and data processing techniques. Using examples from recent research studies, we illustrate the key role of robust modeling of regional source, attenuation and site attributes on the accuracy of event magnitudes, ground motion estimates and induced seismicity hazard assessment. Finally, acknowledging that the ultimate goal of ISM networks is assisting operators to manage induced seismic risk, we share some examples of how ISM data products can be integrated into existing protocols for developing effective risk management strategies.

  6. Gulf Canada Resources Ltd. annual information form for the year ended December 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Gulf Canada Resources Limited is a major explorer and producer of oil and natural gas. Important areas of activity are Western Canada, the Beaufort Sea, the Newfoundland offshore, and Indonesia and Russia. The company also operates gas processing plants and pipelines, and participates in oil sands projects in Alberta and a coal mine in British Columbia. This report reviews the company's activities over the year, providing descriptions of Canadian and international operations along with financial statements and associated information. Some highlights included an increase in liquids production from 92,600 bbl/d in 1991 to 96,800 bbl/d in 1992, a drop in natural gas production from 338 to 319 million cubic feet/day, and cancellation of the commitment to the Hibernia project. Also described are incorporation information, general development of the business, a narrative description of the business, selected consolidated financial information, management's discussion and analysis of financial conditions and results of operations, market for securities, directors and officers, and supplementary oil and gas information

  7. Neonicotinoid pesticides in drinking water in agricultural regions of southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Kleywegt, Sonya; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2018-07-01

    Because of the persistence and solubility of neonicotinoid insecticides (NNIs), there is concern that these compounds may contaminate sources of drinking water. The objective of this project was to evaluate the distribution of NNIs in raw and treated drinking water from selected municipalities that draw their water from the lower Great Lakes in areas of southern Ontario, Canada where there is high intensity agriculture. Sites were monitored using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) and by collecting grab samples at six drinking water treatment plants. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin and imidacloprid were detected in both POCIS and grab samples of raw water. The frequency of detection of NNIs was much lower in treated drinking water, but some compounds were still detected at estimated concentrations in the low ng L -1 range. Thiamethoxam was detected in one grab sample of raw drinking water at a mean concentration of 0.28 μg L -1 , which is above the guidelines for drinking water recommended in some jurisdictions, including the European Union directive on pesticide levels water intended for human consumption. Further work is required to determine whether contamination of sources of drinking water with this class of insecticides is a global problem in agricultural regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Site-specific estimates of water yield applied in regional acid sensitivity surveys across western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff or water yield is an important input to the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC model for estimating critical loads of acidity. Herein, we present site-specific water yield estimates for a large number of lakes (779 across three provinces of western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia using an isotope mass balance (IMB approach. We explore the impact of applying site-specific hydrology as compared to use of regional runoff estimates derived from gridded datasets in assessing critical loads of acidity to these lakes. In general, the average water yield derived from IMB is similar to the long-term average runoff; however, IMB results suggest a much larger range in hydrological settings of the lakes, attributed to spatial heterogeneity in watershed characteristics and landcover. The comparison of critical loads estimates from the two methods suggests that use of average regional runoff data in the SSWC model may overestimate critical loads for the majority of lakes due to systematic skewness in the actual runoff distributions. Implications for use of site-specific hydrology in regional critical loads assessments across western Canada are discussed.

  9. Monitoring water quality in Sydney Harbour using blue mussels during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R; MacAskill, Devin

    2014-03-01

    Using mussels as monitoring tools we measured water quality in Sydney Harbour during a large scale, multi-year remediation project of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STPs); one of Canada's most contaminated sites. Chemical contaminants were measured in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in Sydney Harbour, which were used as monitoring tools to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); metals (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) and lipid content during baseline and 3 years of remediation. The overall spatio-temporal distribution of chemicals in mussels was also compared to contaminants in other marine indicators (e.g., sediment, water and crab tissue). Measured metal concentrations in mussels showed some minor temporal variability (4 years), but these did not appear to be directly related to remediation activities, with the highest concentrations of As, Hg and Zn measured at reference stations. Most measured contaminants showed stable or potentially decreasing concentrations during the study, except Pb and Zn. Individual PAH compounds were mostly undetected during baseline and remediation, except for fluoranthene and pyrene. Concentrations of fluoranthene in mussels and deep water samples were moderately related. Generally, PCBs were undetected (remediation at some near-field stations. Contaminants measured during this study were at much lower concentrations than previously reported in other studies of mussels in Sydney Harbour and eastern Canada. This is likely due to the ongoing natural recovery of Sydney Harbour and to a lesser extent because of the environmental mitigation protection measures implemented during remediation activities at the STPs. The lack of detection of most individual PAHs and PCBs, plus relatively low bio-accumulation of metals observed during baseline and remediation attest to the effectiveness of using mussels as monitoring tools for environmental quality.

  10. Drinking Water Management and Governance in Canada: An Innovative Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Framework for a Safe Drinking Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Rodriguez, Manuel J.; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water management in Canada is complex, with a decentralized, three-tiered governance structure responsible for safe drinking water throughout the country. The current approach has been described as fragmented, leading to governance gaps, duplication of efforts, and an absence of accountability and enforcement. Although there have been no major waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada since 2001, a lack of performance improvement, especially in small drinking water systems, is evident. The World Health Organization water safety plan approach for drinking water management represents an alternative preventative management framework to the current conventional, reactive drinking water management strategies. This approach has seen successful implementation throughout the world and has the potential to address many of the issues with drinking water management in Canada. This paper presents a review and strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis of drinking water management and governance in Canada at the federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels. Based on this analysis, a modified water safety plan (defined as the plan-do-check-act (PDCA)-WSP framework) is proposed, established from water safety plan recommendations and the principles of PDCA for continuous performance improvement. This proposed framework is designed to strengthen current drinking water management in Canada and is designed to fit within and incorporate the existing governance structure.

  11. Drinking Water Management and Governance in Canada: An Innovative Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Framework for a Safe Drinking Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water management in Canada is complex, with a decentralized, three-tiered governance structure responsible for safe drinking water throughout the country. The current approach has been described as fragmented, leading to governance gaps, duplication of efforts, and an absence of accountability and enforcement. Although there have been no major waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada since 2001, a lack of performance improvement, especially in small drinking water systems, is evident. The World Health Organization water safety plan approach for drinking water management represents an alternative preventative management framework to the current conventional, reactive drinking water management strategies. This approach has seen successful implementation throughout the world and has the potential to address many of the issues with drinking water management in Canada. This paper presents a review and strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis of drinking water management and governance in Canada at the federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels. Based on this analysis, a modified water safety plan (defined as the plan-do-check-act (PDCA)-WSP framework) is proposed, established from water safety plan recommendations and the principles of PDCA for continuous performance improvement. This proposed framework is designed to strengthen current drinking water management in Canada and is designed to fit within and incorporate the existing governance structure.

  12. The surface water submodel for the assessment of Canada's nuclear fuel waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, G.A.; Stephenson, M.; Cornett, R.J.

    1992-12-01

    A requirement in assessing the safety of Canada's nuclear fuel waste management concept is the prediction of radiological doses to humans and other biota, which may occur far in the future as a result of releases of nuclides to the biosphere. A biosphere model has been developed, consisting of four integrated submodels describing surface water, soil, atmosphere, and food-dose components. This report documents the surface water submodel, which is a simple, generic mass balance model of a Canadian Shield lake. Nuclide input to the lake is the time-dependent mass output from the geosphere model. Nuclides enter the lake from compacted sediments. The surface water submodel calculates nuclide concentrations in lake water and sediment. These concentrations are used in the other biosphere submodels to predict the radiological dose to biota. Selection of parameter values for the model is based on the literature, our own data, and conservative assumptions to ensure that doses are not underestimated. MOst parameters are represented by log normal. This probabilistic approach of using distributed parameter values accounts for variability and uncertainty in parameter values, and short-term environmental fluctuations. Long-term environmental changes, such as glaciation, are not considered in the model. Sensitivity analysis indicates that nuclide concentrations in lake water and sediment are governed primarily by hydrological flushing, with lake catchment area being the most important parameter. When catchment area is held constant, as would occur at a specific site, lake area and nuclide transfer rate from water to sediment strongly influence concentrations in both water and sediment. Sediment accumulation rate also strongly influences sediment nuclide concentrations. Validation of model predictions using published studies and other data demonstrates that our model is realistic and suitable for assessing Canada's disposal concept. (Author)

  13. Differences in Water Consumption Choices in Canada: the Role of Socio-demographics, Experiences, and Perceptions of Health Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Diane P. Dupont; W.L. Adamowicz; Alan Krupnick

    2009-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001 Canadians were shocked by water contamination events that took place in two provinces. In 2004 we undertook an Internet-based survey across Canada that asked respondents to identify in percentage terms their total drinking water consumption according to one of three sources: tap water, bottled water, and home filtered water (either some type of container or an in-tap filter device). In this paper we investigate the determinants of these choices and whether choosing to either ...

  14. Microbial water quality communication: public and practitioner insights from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, G; Henrich, N; Holmes, B; Harris, L; Prystajecky, N

    2014-09-01

    This work examines the communication interactions of water suppliers and health authorities with the general public regarding microbial source water quality for recreational and drinking water. We compare current approaches to risk communication observable in British Columbia (BC), Canada, with best practices derived from the communications literature, finding significant gaps between theory and practice. By considering public views and government practices together, we identify key disconnects, leading to the conclusion that at present, neither the public's needs nor public health officials' goals are being met. We find: (1) there is a general lack of awareness and poor understanding by the public of microbial threats to water and the associated health implications; (2) the public often does not know where to find water quality information; (3) public information needs are not identified or met; (4) information sharing by authorities is predominantly one-way and reactive (crisis-oriented); and (5) the effectiveness of communications is not evaluated. There is a need for both improved public understanding of water quality-related risks, and new approaches to ensure information related to water quality reaches audiences. Overall, greater attention should be given to planning and goal setting related to microbial water risk communication.

  15. Summer Season Water Temperature Modeling under the Climate Change: Case Study for Fourchue River, Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kwak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is accepted that human-induced climate change is unavoidable and it will have effects on physical, chemical, and biological properties of aquatic habitats. This will be especially important for cold water fishes such as trout. The objective of this study is to simulate water temperature for future periods under the climate change situations. Future water temperature in the Fourchue River (St-Alexandre-de-Kamouraska, QC, Canada were simulated by the CEQUEAU hydrological and water temperature model, using meteorological inputs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 climate change scenarios. The result of the study indicated that water temperature in June will increase 0.2–0.7 °C and that in September, median water temperature could decrease by 0.2–1.1 °C. The rise in summer water temperature may be favorable to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis growth, but several days over the Upper Incipient Lethal Temperature (UILT are also likely to occur. Therefore, flow regulation procedures, including cold water releases from the Morin dam may have to be considered for the Fourchue River.

  16. Water Governance in Chile and Canada: a Comparison of Adaptive Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot A. Hurlbert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We compare the structures and adaptive capacities of water governance regimes that respond to water scarcity or drought in the South Saskatchewan River Basin (SSRB of western Canada and the Elqui River Basin (EB in Chile. Both regions anticipate climate change that will result in more extreme weather events including increasing droughts. The SSRB and the EB represent two large, regional, dryland water basins with significant irrigated agricultural production but with significantly different governance structures. The Canadian governance situation is characterized as decentralized multilevel governance with assigned water licenses; the Chilean is characterized as centralized governance with privatized water rights. Both countries have action at all levels in relation to water scarcity or drought. This structural comparison is based on studies carried out in each region assessing the adaptive capacity of each region to climate variability in the respective communities and applicable governance institutions through semistructured qualitative interviews. Based on this comparison, conclusions are drawn on the adaptive capacity of the respective water governance regimes based on four dimensions of adaptive governance that include: responsiveness, learning, capacity, including information, leadership, and equity. The result of the assessment allows discussion of the significant differences in terms of ability of distinct governance structures to foster adaptive capacity in the rural sector, highlights the need for a better understanding of the relationship of adaptive governance and good governance, and the need for more conceptual work on the interconnections of the dimensions of adaptive governance.

  17. Surface-Water Data, Georgia, Water Year 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, S. Jack; Landers, Mark N.; McCallum, Brian E.

    1999-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1999 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in one volume in a digital format on a CD-ROM. This volume contains discharge records of 121 gaging stations; stage for 13 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water quality records for 10 stations; and the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 75 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Records of discharge and stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological water-supply papers entitled, 'Surface-Water Supply of the United States.' Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were in an annual series and then in a 5-year series for 1961-65 and 1966-70. Records of chemical quality, water temperature, and suspended sediment were published from 1941 to 1970 in an annual series of water-supply papers entitled, 'Quality of Surface Waters of the United States.' Records of ground-water levels were published from 1935 to 1974 in a series of water-supply papers entitled, 'Ground-Water Levels in the United States.' Water-supply papers may be consulted in the libraries of the principal cities in the United States or may be purchased from the U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Information Services, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225. For water years 1961 through 1970, streamflow data were released by the U.S. Geological Survey in annual reports on a State-boundary basis prior to the two 5-year series water-supply papers, which cover this period. The data contained in the water-supply papers are considered the official record. Water-quality records for water years 1964 through 1970 were similarly released

  18. Surface-Water Conditions in Georgia, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jaime A.; Landers, Mark N.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Georgia Water Science Center-in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies-collected surface-water streamflow, water-quality, and ecological data during the 2005 Water Year (October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005). These data were compiled into layers of an interactive ArcReaderTM published map document (pmf). ArcReaderTM is a product of Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc (ESRI?). Datasets represented on the interactive map are * continuous daily mean streamflow * continuous daily mean water levels * continuous daily total precipitation * continuous daily water quality (water temperature, specific conductance dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity) * noncontinuous peak streamflow * miscellaneous streamflow measurements * lake or reservoir elevation * periodic surface-water quality * periodic ecological data * historical continuous daily mean streamflow discontinued prior to the 2005 water year The map interface provides the ability to identify a station in spatial reference to the political boundaries of the State of Georgia and other features-such as major streams, major roads, and other collection stations. Each station is hyperlinked to a station summary showing seasonal and annual stream characteristics for the current year and for the period of record. For continuous discharge stations, the station summary includes a one page graphical summary page containing five graphs, a station map, and a photograph of the station. The graphs provide a quick overview of the current and period-of-record hydrologic conditions of the station by providing a daily mean discharge graph for the water year, monthly statistics graph for the water year and period of record, an annual mean streamflow graph for the period of record, an annual minimum 7-day average streamflow graph for the period of record, and an annual peak streamflow graph for the period of record. Additionally, data can be accessed through the layer's link

  19. Small-scale variability in peatland pore-water biogeochemistry, Hudson Bay Lowland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowski, T A; Branfireun, B A

    2013-06-01

    The Hudson Bay Lowland (HBL) of northern Ontario, Manitoba and Quebec, Canada is the second largest contiguous peatland complex in the world, currently containing more than half of Canada's soil carbon. Recent concerns about the ecohydrological impacts to these large northern peatlands resulting from climate change and resource extraction have catalyzed a resurgence in scientific research into this ecologically important region. However, the sheer size, heterogeneity and elaborate landscape arrangements of this ecosystem raise important questions concerning representative sampling of environmental media for chemical or physical characterization. To begin to quantify such variability, this study assessed the small-scale spatial (1m) and short temporal (21 day) variability of surface pore-water biogeochemistry (pH, dissolved organic carbon, and major ions) in a Sphagnum spp.-dominated, ombrotrophic raised bog, and a Carex spp.-dominated intermediate fen in the HBL. In general, pore-water pH and concentrations of dissolved solutes were similar to previously reported literature values from this region. However, systematic sampling revealed consistent statistically significant differences in pore-water chemistries between the bog and fen peatland types, and large within-site spatiotemporal variability. We found that microtopography in the bog was associated with consistent differences in most biogeochemical variables. Temporal changes in dissolved solute chemistry, particularly base cations (Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)), were statistically significant in the intermediate fen, likely a result of a dynamic connection between surficial waters and mineral-rich deep groundwater. In both the bog and fen, concentrations of SO4(2-) showed considerable spatial variability, and a significant decrease in concentrations over the study period. The observed variability in peatland pore-water biogeochemistry over such small spatial and temporal scales suggests that under-sampling in

  20. Association between perceptions of public drinking water quality and actual drinking water quality: A community-based exploratory study in Newfoundland (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoo, Benjamin; Valcour, James; Sarkar, Atanu

    2017-11-01

    Studying public perception on drinking water quality is crucial for managing of water resources, generation of water quality standards, and surveillance of the drinking-water quality. However, in policy discourse, the reliability of public perception concerning drinking water quality and associated health risks is questionable. Does the public perception of water quality equate with the actual water quality? We investigated public perceptions of water quality and the perceived health risks and associated with the actual quality of public water supplies in the same communities. The study was conducted in 45 communities of Newfoundland (Canada) in 2012. First, a telephone survey of 100 households was conducted to examine public perceptions of drinking water quality of their respective public sources. Then we extracted public water quality reports of the same communities (1988-2011) from the provincial government's water resources portal. These reports contained the analysis of 2091 water samples, including levels of Disinfection By-Products (DBPs), nutrients, metals, ions and physical parameters. The reports showed that colour, manganese, total dissolved solids, iron, turbidity, and DBPs were the major detected parameters in the public water. However, the majority of the respondents (>56%) were either completely satisfied or very satisfied with the quality of drinking water. Older, higher educated and high-income group respondents were more satisfied with water quality than the younger, less educated and low-income group respondents. The study showed that there was no association with public satisfaction level and actual water quality of the respective communities. Even, in the communities, supplied by the same water system, the respondents had differences in opinion. Despite the effort by the provincial government to make the water-test results available on its website for years, the study showed existing disconnectedness between public perception of drinking water

  1. Twelve years' experience with direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs in Canada: a cautionary tale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mintzes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA of prescription drugs is illegal in Canada as a health protection measure, but is permitted in the United States. However, in 2000, Canadian policy was changed to allow 'reminder' advertising of prescription drugs. This is a form of advertising that states the brand name without health claims. 'Reminder' advertising is prohibited in the US for drugs that have 'black box' warnings of serious risks. This study examines spending on DTCA in Canada from 1995 to 2006, 12 years spanning this policy shift. We ask how annual per capita spending compares to that in the US, and whether drugs with Canadian or US regulatory safety warnings are advertised to the Canadian public in reminder advertising.Prescription drug advertising spending data were extracted from a data set on health sector spending in Canada obtained from a market research company, TNS Media Inc. Spending was adjusted for inflation and compared with US spending. Inflation-adjusted spending on branded DTCA in Canada grew from under CAD$2 million per year before 1999 to over $22 million in 2006. The major growth was in broadcast advertising, accounting for 83% of spending in 2006. US annual per capita spending was on average 24 times Canadian levels. Celebrex (celecoxib, which has a US black box and was subject to three safety advisories in Canada, was the most heavily advertised drug on Canadian television in 2005 and 2006. Of 8 brands with >$500,000 spending, which together accounted for 59% of branded DTCA in all media, 6 were subject to Canadian safety advisories, and 4 had US black box warnings.Branded 'reminder' advertising has grown rapidly in Canada since 2000, mainly due to a growth in television advertising. Although DTCA spending per capita is much lower in Canada than in the US, there is no evidence of safer content or product choice; many heavily-advertised drugs in Canada have been subject to safety advisories. For governments searching for

  2. Twelve years' experience with direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs in Canada: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara; Morgan, Steve; Wright, James M

    2009-05-27

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs is illegal in Canada as a health protection measure, but is permitted in the United States. However, in 2000, Canadian policy was changed to allow 'reminder' advertising of prescription drugs. This is a form of advertising that states the brand name without health claims. 'Reminder' advertising is prohibited in the US for drugs that have 'black box' warnings of serious risks. This study examines spending on DTCA in Canada from 1995 to 2006, 12 years spanning this policy shift. We ask how annual per capita spending compares to that in the US, and whether drugs with Canadian or US regulatory safety warnings are advertised to the Canadian public in reminder advertising. Prescription drug advertising spending data were extracted from a data set on health sector spending in Canada obtained from a market research company, TNS Media Inc. Spending was adjusted for inflation and compared with US spending. Inflation-adjusted spending on branded DTCA in Canada grew from under CAD$2 million per year before 1999 to over $22 million in 2006. The major growth was in broadcast advertising, accounting for 83% of spending in 2006. US annual per capita spending was on average 24 times Canadian levels. Celebrex (celecoxib), which has a US black box and was subject to three safety advisories in Canada, was the most heavily advertised drug on Canadian television in 2005 and 2006. Of 8 brands with >$500,000 spending, which together accounted for 59% of branded DTCA in all media, 6 were subject to Canadian safety advisories, and 4 had US black box warnings. Branded 'reminder' advertising has grown rapidly in Canada since 2000, mainly due to a growth in television advertising. Although DTCA spending per capita is much lower in Canada than in the US, there is no evidence of safer content or product choice; many heavily-advertised drugs in Canada have been subject to safety advisories. For governments searching for compromise

  3. Twelve Years' Experience with Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs in Canada: A Cautionary Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara; Morgan, Steve; Wright, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs is illegal in Canada as a health protection measure, but is permitted in the United States. However, in 2000, Canadian policy was changed to allow ‘reminder’ advertising of prescription drugs. This is a form of advertising that states the brand name without health claims. ‘Reminder’ advertising is prohibited in the US for drugs that have ‘black box’ warnings of serious risks. This study examines spending on DTCA in Canada from 1995 to 2006, 12 years spanning this policy shift. We ask how annual per capita spending compares to that in the US, and whether drugs with Canadian or US regulatory safety warnings are advertised to the Canadian public in reminder advertising. Methodology/Principal Findings Prescription drug advertising spending data were extracted from a data set on health sector spending in Canada obtained from a market research company, TNS Media Inc. Spending was adjusted for inflation and compared with US spending. Inflation-adjusted spending on branded DTCA in Canada grew from under CAD$2 million per year before 1999 to over $22 million in 2006. The major growth was in broadcast advertising, accounting for 83% of spending in 2006. US annual per capita spending was on average 24 times Canadian levels. Celebrex (celecoxib), which has a US black box and was subject to three safety advisories in Canada, was the most heavily advertised drug on Canadian television in 2005 and 2006. Of 8 brands with >$500,000 spending, which together accounted for 59% of branded DTCA in all media, 6 were subject to Canadian safety advisories, and 4 had US black box warnings. Conclusions/Significance Branded ‘reminder’ advertising has grown rapidly in Canada since 2000, mainly due to a growth in television advertising. Although DTCA spending per capita is much lower in Canada than in the US, there is no evidence of safer content or product choice; many heavily-advertised drugs in Canada have

  4. Assessment of food-water nexus by water footprint: a case study in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Si, B.

    2016-12-01

    It is important but challengeable to understand the water-food nexus complexity. The water footprint (WF), a relatively new index, is a comprehensive indicator that can be used to evaluate crop water production. This paper aims to 1) determine how water footprint changes at different crop rotational types; 2) investigate what is difference if WF is calculated by yield-based or protein-based; and 3) explore how virtual water flows are responding to regional meteorological, agricultural, and socio-economic factors. The result provided the water footprint and virtual water flow exemplified for Saskatchewan agri-food production industries. By using the water footprint, we determined the best rotation for pulse crops in terms of efficiency of water productivity and water-saving opportunity. While yield is a comprehensive index to assess the productivity (yield-based WF), it underestimated the contribution of some crops, such as pulse crops with relatively low yield but high protein contents (protein-based WF). Consequently, we concluded that water-saving benefits can be achieved by the development and adoption of water efficient technology and better virtual water flows may be achieved by increased area of low water footprint in Saskatchewan. Our finding improves the current concepts of water and food security, informs production and trade decisions, and thus suggests optimal strategies by reduced water footprints in terms of agricultural management.

  5. Community Response and Engagement During Extreme Water Events in Saskatchewan, Canada and Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Dena W.; Sammel, Alison J.; Arbuthnott, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Technology alone cannot address the challenges of how societies, communities, and individuals understand water accessibility, water management, and water consumption, particularly under extreme conditions like floods and droughts. At the community level, people are increasingly aware challenges related to responses to and impacts of extreme water events. This research begins with an assessment of social and political capacities of communities in two Commonwealth jurisdictions, Queensland, Australia and Saskatchewan, Canada, in response to major flooding events. The research further reviews how such capacities impact community engagement to address and mitigate risks associated with extreme water events and provides evidence of key gaps in skills, understanding, and agency for addressing impacts at the community level. Secondary data were collected using template analysis to elucidate challenges associated with education (formal and informal), social and political capacity, community ability to respond appropriately, and formal government responses to extreme water events in these two jurisdictions. The results indicate that enhanced community engagement alongside elements of an empowerment model can provide avenues for identifying and addressing community vulnerability to negative impacts of flood and drought.

  6. Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 2 : a review of emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    This review was conducted to identify candidate treatment technologies for treating oil sands process water. The oil sands industry in Canada uses large volumes of fresh water in order to extract bitumen deposits. The development of process water treatment technologies has become a critical issue for the industry, particularly as oil sand production is expected to triple in the next decade. However, treatment technologies must be adapted to consider the fouling potential of bitumens and fine clays as well as the effect of alkaline process water on treatment performance. The review included developments in chemical modifications to membranes and adsorbents designed to improve pollutant removal and reduce fouling; hybridization technologies designed to enhance the biological treatment of toxic feedwaters; recent advances in photocatalytic oxidation technologies for organic compounds; and new designs for large-scale treatment wetlands for polluted waste waters. It was concluded that major knowledge gaps must be optimized and preliminary studies must be conducted in order to understand how the treatment technologies will be affected by the chemical and physical characteristics of oil sands process water. 188 refs., 8 tabs

  7. Sources and circulation of water and arsenic in the Giant Mine, Yellowknife, NWT, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian D; Raven, Kenneth G

    2004-06-01

    Recovery of gold from arsenopyrite-hosted ore in the Giant Mine camp, Yellowknife, NWT, Canada, has left a legacy of arsenic contamination that poses challenges for mine closure planning. Seepage from underground chambers storing some 237,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust, has As concentrations exceeding 4000 ppm. Other potential sources and sinks of As also exist. Sources and movement of water and arsenic are traced using the isotopes of water and sulphate. Mine waters (16 ppm As; AsV/AsIII approximately 150) are a mixture of two principal water sources--locally recharged, low As groundwaters (0.5 ppm As) and Great Slave Lake (GSL; 0.004 ppm As) water, formerly used in ore processing and discharged to the northwest tailings impoundment (NWTP). Mass balance with delta18O shows that recirculation of NWTP water to the underground through faults and unsealed drillholes contributes about 60% of the mine water. Sulphate serves to trace direct infiltration to the As2O3 chambers. Sulphate in local, low As groundwaters (0.3-0.6 ppm As; delta34SSO4 approximately 4% and delta18OSO4 approximately -10%) originates from low-temperature aqueous oxidation of sulphide-rich waste rock. The high As waters gain a component of 18O-enriched sulphate derived from roaster gases (delta18OSO4) = + 3.5%), consistent with their arsenic source from the As2O3 chambers. High arsenic in NWTP water (approximately 8 ppm As; delta18OSO4 = -2%) derived from mine water, is attenuated to close to 1 ppm during infiltration back to the underground, probably by oxidation and sorption by ferrihydrite. Copyright 2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd.

  8. Ten years of Brazilian ballast water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Cecilia Trindade; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Poggian, Cecília Fonseca; Fileman, Timothy W.

    2018-03-01

    In 2005, Brazil addressed the environmental challenges posed by ballast water through a unilateral regulation, called the Maritime Standard N° 20 (NORMAM-20), applied to all shipping in her waters. This world-leading decision was the culmination of a process that started during the 1990‧s. Here, we summarize how these ballast water regulations were brought in and adopted and present the findings of 10 years of enforcement (2005-2015) in 39 ports along the Brazilian coast. We show that compliance with the Brazilian standard has increased significantly since the regulations were implemented (p < 0.001). After five years of implementation, non-compliance decreased probably reflecting an increase in awareness of the Brazilian Standard and a shift in the shipping industry commitment to minimize and control the spread of invasive species through ballast water. The Brazilian experience shows that very high levels (97%) of compliance with ballast water management regulations can be made to work in a region of global importance to the maritime industry. In the last decade, the rules governing ballast water in Brazil have evolved to address the demands from the maritime community and to provide updates such as imminent requirements for the use of ballast water management systems on board ships. These regulations are rarely cited when ballast water regulations are discussed internationally, yet there is much to learn from the proactive approach taken by Brazil such as what is feasible and enforceable.

  9. Assessing climate change impacts on fresh water resources of the Athabasca River Basin, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Du, Xinzhong; Wang, Junye

    2017-12-01

    Proper management of blue and green water resources is important for the sustainability of ecosystems and for the socio-economic development of river basins such as the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) in Canada. For this reason, quantifying climate change impacts on these water resources at a finer temporal and spatial scale is often necessary. In this study, we used a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess climate change impacts on fresh water resources, focusing explicitly on the impacts to both blue and green water. We used future climate data generated by the Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4) with a spatial resolution of 0.22°×0.22° (~25km) for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). Results projected the climate of the ARB to be wetter by 21-34% and warmer by 2-5.4°C on an annual time scale. Consequently, the annual average blue and green water flow was projected to increase by 16-54% and 11-34%, respectively, depending on the region, future period, and emission scenario. Furthermore, the annual average green water storage at the boreal region was expected to increase by 30%, while the storage was projected to remain fairly stable or decrease in other regions, especially during the summer season. On average, the fresh water resources in the ARB are likely to increase in the future. However, evidence of temporal and spatial heterogeneity could pose many future challenges to water resource planners and managers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cooperative and adaptive transboundary water governance in Canada's Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada's Mackenzie River Basin (MRB is one of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in North America. Home to indigenous peoples for millennia, the basin is also the site of increasing resource development, notably fossil fuels, hydroelectric power resources, minerals, and forests. Three provinces, three territories, the Canadian federal government, and Aboriginal governments (under Canada's constitution, indigenous peoples are referred to as "Aboriginal" have responsibilities for water in the basin, making the MRB a significant setting for cooperative, transboundary water governance. A framework agreement that provides broad principles and establishes a river basin organization, the MRB Board, has been in place since 1997. However, significant progress on completing bilateral agreements under the 1997 Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement has only occurred since 2010. We considered the performance of the MRB Board relative to its coordination function, accountability, legitimacy, and overall environmental effectiveness. This allowed us to address the extent to which governance based on river basin boundaries, a bioregional approach, could contribute to adaptive governance in the MRB. Insights were based on analysis of key documents and published studies, 19 key informant interviews, and additional interactions with parties involved in basin governance. We found that the MRB Board's composition, its lack of funding and staffing, and the unwillingness of the governments to empower it to play the role envisioned in the Master Agreement mean that as constituted, the board faces challenges in implementing a basin-wide vision. This appears to be by design. The MRB governments have instead used the bilateral agreements under the Master Agreement as the primary mechanism through which transboundary governance will occur. A commitment to coordinating across the bilateral agreements is needed to enhance the prospects for

  11. New and prevalent patients with end-stage renal disease in Canada. A portrait of the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmeules, M; Schaubel, D; Fenton, S S; Mao, Y

    1995-01-01

    The number of patients initiating treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has increased dramatically in Canada and other countries. To assist healthcare planners, the prevalence of ESRD in Canada has been projected to the year 2000 using a Markov modelling technique. Significant increases in ESRD are expected in Canada during the next decade, particularly among the elderly and diabetic populations: estimated increases in prevalence rates of ESRD between 1992 and the year 2000 were 78% and 154% for non diabetic and diabetic populations respectively. These expected increases did not differ significantly between the treatment groups, except among patients with diabetes, in whom projected increases in the prevalence of functioning transplant was smaller than for hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Because the current Canadian prevalence rates are lower than those of some other countries, such as the United States and Japan, these expected trends in prevalence appear reasonable, and illustrate the growing healthcare needs of the ESRD population in Canada during the next decade.

  12. The surface water model for assessing Canada's nuclear fuel waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, G.A.; Stephenson, M.; Cornett, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (NFWMP) is investigating the concept of disposal of nuclear fuel waste in a vault excavated deep in crystalline rock on the Canadian Shield. Probabilistic vault, geosphere, and biosphere models are implemented using Monte Carlo simulation techniques to trace nuclides transported in groundwater to the surface environment and humans far into the future. This paper describes the surface water submodel and its parameter values, sensitivity analysis, and validation. The surface water model is a simple, time-dependent, mass balance model of a lake that calculates radioactive and stable isotope contaminant concentrations in lake water and sediment. These concentrations are input to the other submodels and used to predict the radiological dose to humans and other biota. Parameter values in the model are based on the literature and the author's own data, and are generic to Canadian Shield lakes. Most parameters are represented by log normally distributed probability density functions. Sensitivity analysis indicates that nuclide concentrations in lake water and sediment are governed primarily by hydrological flushing with catchment area being the most important parameter. When catchment area is held constant lake area and nuclide transfer rate from water to sediment strongly influence concentrations in both water and sediment. For volatile nuclides, gaseous evasion also has a marked influence on concentrations in both water and sediment, whereas sedimentation rate strongly influences sediment nuclide concentrations. Validation tests demonstrate that the models predictions for 60 Co, 134 Cs, 3 H, P, Cd and Ca are consistent with empirical data when uncertainties are taken into account

  13. Hydrogen co-production from subcritical water-cooled nuclear power plants in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanapragasam, N.; Ryland, D.; Suppiah, S., E-mail: gnanapragasamn@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Subcritical water-cooled nuclear reactors (Sub-WCR) operate in several countries including Canada providing electricity to the civilian population. The high-temperature-steam-electrolysis process (HTSEP) is a feasible and laboratory-demonstrated large-scale hydrogen-production process. The thermal and electrical integration of the HTSEP with Sub-WCR-based nuclear-power plants (NPPs) is compared for best integration point, HTSEP operating condition and hydrogen production rate based on thermal energy efficiency. Analysis on integrated thermal efficiency suggests that the Sub-WCR NPP is ideal for hydrogen co-production with a combined efficiency of 36%. HTSEP operation analysis suggests that higher product hydrogen pressure reduces hydrogen and integrated efficiencies. The best integration point for the HTSEP with Sub-WCR NPP is upstream of the high-pressure turbine. (author)

  14. Antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater treatment systems and receiving waters in Arctic Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neudorf, Kara D.; Huang, Yan Nan; Ragush, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic wastewater discharges may adversely impact arctic ecosystems and local indigenous people, who rely on being able to hunt and harvest food from their local environment. Therefore, there is a need to develop efficient wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which can be operated in remote...... communities under extreme climatic conditions. WWTPs have been identified as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this work was to quantify the presence of nine different ARG markers (int1, sul1, sul2, tet(O), erm(B), mecA, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and qnr(S)) in two passive systems...... (waste stabilization ponds [WSPs]) and one mechanical filtration plant operating in two smaller and one large community, respectively, in Nunavut, Canada. Measurement of water quality parameters (carbonaceous oxygen demand, ammonia, total suspended solids, Escherichia coli and total coliforms) showed...

  15. Eighty years of cooperative water science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.

    2017-05-09

    The Equus Beds aquifer in south-central Kansas is a primary water source for the city of Wichita. The Equus Beds aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project was developed to help the city of Wichita meet increasing current and future demands. The Equus Beds ASR project is a recent part of an 80-year cooperative water science effort with the city of Wichita. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Kansas Water Science Center characterizes river and aquifer water-quality and quantity and evaluates changes that may or may not be related to ASR. The USGS data are used by the city of Wichita to make informed management decisions, satisfy regulatory requirements, and serve as a baseline to detect any subsequent changes that may be related to ASR.

  16. Use of water isotope tracers to characterize present and past hydrology of northern boreal freshwater landscapes in Canada (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, B. B.; Brock, B. E.; Yi, Y.; Turner, K. W.; Dobson, E. M.; Farquharson, N. M.; Edwards, T. W.; Hall, R. I.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of climate change and variability on water resources is a pressing issue for northern boreal freshwater landscapes in Canada. Water in this region plays a central role in maintaining the ecological integrity of ecosystems, economic development and prosperity, and traditional use of the land and its resources by indigenous communities. In the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River Corridor in western Canada, shrinking headwater glaciers, decreasing alpine snowmelt runoff, and declining river discharges impact sustainability of hydroelectric and oil sands production and the vitality of floodplain ecosystems of the Peace-Athabasca and Slave river deltas. In the Old Crow Flats of northern Yukon Territory, declining lake and river water levels threaten wildlife populations and cultural activities of the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation. In Wapusk National Park in northeastern Manitoba, over 10,000 lakes provide key habitat for large populations of wildlife, but their hydrological fate under conditions of continued warming is uncertain. Inadequate short- and long-term understanding of hydrological variability and its relationship to climate change hamper informed stewardship of water resources in these remote landscapes and presents a significant challenge to managers and policy-makers. Over the past decade, our research has targeted these critical water-related issues. Investigations have focused on integrating contemporary hydroecological studies with long-term (past centuries to millennia) records of hydroecological changes derived from analyses of lake sediment cores using multi-proxy techniques. Spearheaded by the use of water isotope tracers, these leading-edge approaches to water science have provided critical new knowledge to inform stewardship of these important landscapes to contemporary conditions and in light of projected future scenarios. For example, water isotope tracers were used to map the spatial extent of river flooding in the Slave River Delta over a

  17. Distribution of acidic and neutral drugs in surface waters near sewage treatment plants in the lower Great Lakes, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris D; Miao, Xiu-Sheng; Koenig, Brenda G; Struger, John

    2003-12-01

    Prescription and nonprescription drugs have been detected in rivers and streams in Europe and the United States. Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are an important source of these contaminants, but few data exist on the spatial distribution of drugs in surface waters near STPs. Samples of surface water were collected in the summer and fall of 2000 at open-water sites in the lower Great Lakes (Lake Ontario and Lake Erie), at sites near the two STPs for the city of Windsor (ON, Canada), and at sites in Hamilton Harbour (ON, Canada), an embayment of western Lake Ontario that receives discharges from several STPs. In a follow-up study in the summer of 2002, samples of surface water and final effluent from adjacent STPs were collected from sites in Hamilton Harbour and Windsor. In addition, surface water and STP effluent samples were collected in Peterborough (ON, Canada). All samples of surface water and STP effluents were analyzed for selected acidic and neutral drugs. In the survey of Hamilton Harbour and Windsor conducted in 2000, acidic drugs and the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine were detected at ng/L concentrations at sites that were up to 500 m away from the STP, but the hydrological conditions of the receiving waters strongly influenced the spatial distribution of these compounds. Drugs were not detected at open-water locations in western Lake Erie or in the Niagara River near the municipality of Niagara-on-the-Lake (ON, Canada). However, clofibric acid, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, and carbamazepine were detected in samples collected in the summer of 2000 at sites in Lake Ontario and at a site in the Niagara River (Fort Erie, ON, Canada) that were relatively remote from STP discharges. Follow-up studies in the summer of 2002 indicated that concentrations of acidic and neutral drugs in surface waters near the point of sewage discharge into the Little River (ON, Canada) STP were approximately equal to the concentrations in the final effluent from the STP. Caffeine and

  18. Multicenter Collaborative Quality Assurance Program for the Province of Ontario, Canada: First-Year Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Létourneau, Daniel; McNiven, Andrea; Jaffray, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work was to develop a collaborative quality assurance (CQA) program to assess the performance of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning and delivery across the province of Ontario, Canada. Methods and Materials: The CQA program was designed to be a comprehensive end-to-end test that can be completed on multiple planning and delivery platforms. The first year of the program included a head-and-neck (H and N) planning exercise and on-site visit to acquire dosimetric measurements to assess planning and delivery performance. A single dosimeter was used at each institution, and the planned to measured dose agreement was evaluated for both the H and N plan and a standard plan (linear-accelerator specific) that was created to enable a direct comparison between centers with similar infrastructure. Results: CQA program feasibility was demonstrated through participation of all 13 radiation therapy centers in the province. Planning and delivery was completed on a variety of infrastructure (treatment planning systems and linear accelerators). The planning exercise was completed using both static gantry and rotational IMRT, and planned-to-delivered dose agreement (pass rates) for 3%/3-mm gamma evaluation were greater than 90% (92.6%-99.6%). Conclusions: All centers had acceptable results, but variation in planned to delivered dose agreement for the same planning and delivery platform was noted. The upper end of the range will provide an achievable target for other centers through continued quality improvement, aided by feedback provided by the program through the use of standard plans and simple test fields

  19. Origin and geochemistry of saline spring waters in the Athabasca oil sands region, Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, Anita E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Grasby, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Saline groundwater enters the Athabasca and Clearwater rivers in the AOSR via springs. • High TDS is due to subsurface dissolution of Devonian evaporites and carbonates. • Low δ 18 O values, and 3 H and 14 C data suggest some Laurentide glacial meltwater input. • Bacterial sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and CH 4 oxidation were identified. • Metal and PAH contents are reported; bitumen does not appear to be major influence. - Abstract: The geochemistry of saline spring waters in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) in Alberta (Canada) discharging from Devonian carbonate rocks into the Athabasca and Clearwater rivers was characterized for major ions, trace elements, dissolved gases, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In addition, stable isotope analyses of H 2 O, SO 4 , dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Sr, and CH 4 were used to trace the sources of spring waters and their dissolved solutes, and to identify subsurface processes affecting water chemistry. The spring waters had δ 18 O values as low as −23.5‰, suggesting they are composed of up to 75% Laurentide glacial meltwater. Tritium and radiocarbon age-dating results, analyzed for three spring waters, supported a glacial origin. The high salinity of the spring waters (TDS 7210–51,800 mg/L) was due to dissolution of Devonian evaporite and carbonate deposits in the subsurface. Spring waters were affected by bacterial (dissimilatory) sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and methane oxidation. Trace elements were present in spring waters at varying concentrations, with only one spring containing several predominant oil sands metals (As, Fe, Mo, Ni, Se, Zn) suggesting bitumen as a source. Five springs contained elements (Al, As, B, Fe, Se) at concentrations exceeding water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Seven PAHs were detected in spring waters (total PAH concentrations ranged from 7.3 to 273.6 ng/L), but most springs contained a maximum of two PAHs

  20. Implementing Suicide Prevention Programs: Costs and Potential Life Years Saved in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lesage, Alain; Latimer, Eric; Seguin, Monique

    2015-09-01

    ,979 per life year saved. Suicide prevention programs such as the NAD trial are cost-effective and can result in important potential cost-savings due to averted suicide deaths and reduced life years lost. Implementation of suicide prevention programs at the population level in Canada is cost-effective. Community mental health programs aimed at increasing awareness and the treatment of depression and better follow-up of high risk individuals for suicide are associated with a minimal per capita investment. These programs can result in important potential cost-savings due to averted suicide deaths and decreased disability due to depression. Additional research should focus on whether the outcomes of multi-modal suicide programs are specific or synergistic and most effective for which population subgroups. This may help inform how best to invest resources for the highest return.

  1. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited monitoring tritiated water in air and water effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.; Tepley, N.W

    1978-01-01

    Current on-line methods of monitoring effluents for tritium (as tritiated water, HTO) measure concentrations in air above 250 nCi/m 3 (approx. 10 kBq/m 3 ) and in water above 1 uCi/kg (approx. 40 kBq/kg). Some of the problems encountered in such monitoring are the presence of fission and activation products in the effluents and, particularly in water monitoring, the often dirty quality of the sample. In a new design of monitor, HTO is collected directly from air by a flow of liquid scintillator (LS). For water monitoring a flow of air continuously samples the water and transports HTO to the LS. The key features of the new design are that the high detection efficiency of LS is realizable, that the rate of use of LS is only approx. 2 mm 3 /s, that the controlled evaporation and metering of air provides the low flow of HTO needed for mixing with LS, and that accurate metering of a dirty effluent is not needed. The sensitivities for detecing tritium on-line are improved by at least an order of magnitude

  2. Drivers of Change in a 7300-Year Holocene Diatom Record from the Hemi-Boreal Region of Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen K Beck

    Full Text Available A Holocene lake sediment record spanning the past 7300 years from Wishart Lake in the Turkey Lakes Watershed in the Hemi-Boreal of central Ontario, Canada, was used to evaluate the potential drivers of long-term change in diatom assemblages at this site. An analysis of diatom assemblages found that benthic and epiphytic taxa dominated the mid-Holocene (7300-4000 cal yr BP, indicating shallow, oligotrophic, circum-neutral conditions, with macrophytes present. A significant shift in diatom assemblages towards more planktonic species (mainly Cyclotella sensu lato, but also several species of Aulacoseira, and Tabellaria flocculosa occurred ~4000 cal yr BP. This change likely reflects an increase in lake level, coincident with the onset of a more strongly positive moisture balance following the drier climates of the middle Holocene, established by numerous regional paleoclimate records. Pollen-inferred regional changes in vegetation around 4000 yrs BP, including an increase in Betula and other mesic taxa, may have also promoted changes in diatom assemblages through watershed processes mediated by the chemistry of runoff. A more recent significant change in limnological conditions is marked by further increases in Cyclotella sensu lato beginning in the late 19th century, synchronous with the Ambrosia pollen rise and increases in sediment bulk density, signaling regional and local land clearance at the time of Euro-Canadian settlement (1880 AD. In contrast to the mid-Holocene increase in planktonic diatoms, the modern increase in Cyclotella sensu lato likely indicates a response to land use and vegetation change, and erosion from the watershed, rather than a further increase in water level. The results from Wishart Lake illustrate the close connection between paleoclimate change, regional vegetation, watershed processes, and diatom assemblages and also provides insight into the controls on abundance of Cyclotella sensu lato, a diatom taxonomic group

  3. Drinking water management: health risk perceptions and choices in First Nations and non-First Nations communities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Diane; Waldner, Cheryl; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Plummer, Ryan; Carter, Blair; Cave, Kate; Zagozewski, Rebecca

    2014-05-30

    The relationship between tap water and health has been a topic of public concern and calls for better management in Canada since well-publicized contamination events in two provinces (Ontario and Saskatchewan) in 2000-2001. This study reports the perspectives on health risks from tap water and corresponding use of, and spending on, bottled water in a number of different communities in Canada. In 2009-2010, four First Nations communities (three from Ontario and one from Saskatchewan) and a geographically diverse sample of non-First Nations Canadians were surveyed about their beliefs concerning health risks from tap water and their spending practices for bottled water as a substitute. Responses to five identical questions were examined, revealing that survey respondents from Ontario First Nations communities were more likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe bottled water is safer than tap water (OR 1.6); more likely to report someone became ill from tap water (OR 3.6); more likely to express water and health concerns related to tap water consumption (OR 2.4); and more likely to spend more on bottled water (OR 4.9). On the other hand, participants from one Saskatchewan First Nations community were less likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe that someone had become ill from drinking tap water (OR 3.8), less likely to believe bottled water is safer than tap (OR 2.0), and less likely to have health concerns with tap water (OR 1.5). These differences, however, did not translate into differences in the likelihood of high bottled water expenditures or being a 100% bottled water consumer. The paper discusses how the differences observed may be related to water supply and regulation, trust, perceived control, cultural background, location, and past experience.

  4. Drinking Water Management: Health Risk Perceptions and Choices in First Nations and Non-First Nations Communities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Diane; Waldner, Cheryl; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Plummer, Ryan; Carter, Blair; Cave, Kate; Zagozewski, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between tap water and health has been a topic of public concern and calls for better management in Canada since well-publicized contamination events in two provinces (Ontario and Saskatchewan) in 2000–2001. This study reports the perspectives on health risks from tap water and corresponding use of, and spending on, bottled water in a number of different communities in Canada. In 2009–2010, four First Nations communities (three from Ontario and one from Saskatchewan) and a geographically diverse sample of non-First Nations Canadians were surveyed about their beliefs concerning health risks from tap water and their spending practices for bottled water as a substitute. Responses to five identical questions were examined, revealing that survey respondents from Ontario First Nations communities were more likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe bottled water is safer than tap water (OR 1.6); more likely to report someone became ill from tap water (OR 3.6); more likely to express water and health concerns related to tap water consumption (OR 2.4); and more likely to spend more on bottled water (OR 4.9). On the other hand, participants from one Saskatchewan First Nations community were less likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe that someone had become ill from drinking tap water (OR 3.8), less likely to believe bottled water is safer than tap (OR 2.0), and less likely to have health concerns with tap water (OR 1.5). These differences, however, did not translate into differences in the likelihood of high bottled water expenditures or being a 100% bottled water consumer. The paper discusses how the differences observed may be related to water supply and regulation, trust, perceived control, cultural background, location, and past experience. PMID:24886757

  5. Preparing Canada`s power systems for transition to the Year 2000: Y2K readiness assessment results for Canadian electric utility companies: second quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-25

    The report describes the state of readiness of Canadian electric utility companies with respect to the Year 2000 computer challenge. It complements the North American Electric Reliability Council Report entitled `Preparing the Electric Power Systems of North America for Transition to the Year 2000: A Status and Work Plan.` Two surveys were employed to gather information for this report. The first, a detailed survey prepared by NERC, was forwarded to all major electric utilities that comprise the Bulk Electricity System in North America. CEA has removed the Canadian findings from the overall North American results, and has presented those findings in this report. The second was a shorter, more simplified study, conducted by CEA and Natural Resources Canada. Whereas small companies involved only in the distribution aspect of the electricity business were not asked to complete the NERC assessment, all Canadian electric utility companies were part of the shorter survey. Chapter 2 covers specifically the readiness status and project management for non-nuclear generation, nuclear generation, energy management systems, telecommunications systems, substation controls, system protection and distribution systems, business information systems, and small distribution companies.

  6. Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 1 : target pollutants and treatment objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    The continuous recycling of tailings pond water in the oil sands industry has contributed to an overall decline in water quality used for bitumen recovery, general water consumption, and remedial activities. This paper reviewed process water quality and toxicity data from 2 long-term oil sands operations. The aim of the study was to determine potential roles for water treatment and provide benchmarks for the selection of candidate water treatment technologies in the oil sands region of Alberta. An overview of the oil sands industry was provided as well as details of bitumen recovery processes. The study examined target pollutants and exceedances identified in environmental and industrial water quality guidelines. The study demonstrated that the salinity of tailings pond water increased at a rate of 75 mg per litre per year between 1980 and 2001. Increases in hardness, chloride, ammonia, and sulphates were also noted. Naphthenic acids released during bitumen extraction activities were determined as the primary cause of tailings pond water toxicity. A summary of recent studies on experimental reclamation ponds and treatment wetlands in the oil sands region was included. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

  7. Permafrost distribution in peatlands of west-central Canada during the Holocene warm period 6000 years BP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoltai, S.C. [Canadian Forest Service, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The extent and timing of permafrost development in peatlands of west-central Canada are examined. The floristic composition of the permafrost peatlands was determined from macrofossil samples of cores drilled at 161 locations. Radiocarbon dating of substantial changes in the peat sequences and of basal peat deposition was used to provide chronological control. The reconstructed paleoenvironments show the presence or absence of permafrost at the time of peat formation. Permafrost distribution in peatlands is estimated during the warm period 6000 years BP. It is estimated that the mean annual temperature was approximately 5{degree}C warmer than at present. 42 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Recent drought-induced decline of forests along a water-balance tipping point for ecosystems in western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, E. H.; Michaelian, M.

    2017-12-01

    In western Canada, the forest-prairie boundary corresponds to a hydrologically-defined ecosystem "tipping point" where long-term precipitation is barely sufficient to meet the water use requirements of healthy, closed-canopy forests. In the province of Alberta, the severe subcontinental drought of 2001-2002 heralded the beginning of a 15-year dry period, representing a northward incursion of prairie-like climates into boreal and cordilleran forests. This poses a significant concern for ecosystem functioning of these forests, given GCM projections for continued warming and drying under anthropogenic climate change during this century. Through a multi-scale monitoring approach, we have examined the regional-scale impacts of recent droughts and associated climatic drying on the productivity and health of two important boreal tree species: aspen (Populus tremuloides) and white spruce (Picea glauca). For aspen, the 2016 re-measurement of a regional network of 150 ground plots revealed that tree mortality has escalated, especially in stands exposed to the combined impacts of multi-year drought and insect defoliation. On average, mortality losses exceeded growth gains during 2000-2016 for the 54 aspen plots in Alberta, leading to a net multi-year decline in the aboveground biomass of these stands. For white spruce, tree-ring analysis of 40 stands across Alberta revealed that the prolonged dry period led to a 38% decline in average, tree-level growth in aboveground biomass. In both species, stand age was not a significant factor affecting forest sensitivity to drought and climatic drying, suggesting that these forests are at risk if the trend toward more frequent, severe drought continues in the region.

  9. Bottled water, spas, and early years of water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William; Landa, Edward R.; Meeks, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Although hot springs have been used and enjoyed for thousands of years, it was not until the late 1700s that they changed the course of world civilization by being the motivation for development of the science of chemistry. The pioneers of chemistry such as Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Henry were working to identify and generate gases, in part, to determine their role in carbonated beverages. In the 18th century, spas in America were developed to follow the traditional activities of popular European spas. However, they were to become a dominant political and economic force in American history on three major points: (1) By far the most important was to provide a place for the leaders of individual colonies to meet and discuss the need for separation from England and the necessity for the Revolutionary War; (2) the westward expansion of the United States was facilitated by the presence of hot springs in many locations that provided the economic justification for railroads and settlement; and (3) the desire for the preservation of hot springs led to the establishment of the National Park Service. Although mineral springs have maintained their therapeutic credibility in many parts of the world, they have not done so in the United States. We suggest that the American decline was prompted by: (1) the establishment of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1893; (2) enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907; and (3) the remarkable achievement of providing safe water supplies for American cities by the end of the 1920s. The current expanding market for bottled water is based in part on bottled water being an alternative beverage Ito alcohol and sweetened drinks and the inconsistent palatability and perceived health hazards of some tap waters.

  10. International year of planet earth 7. Oceans, submarine land-slides and consequent tsunamis in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Canada has the longest coastline and largest continental margin of any nation in the World. As a result, it is more likely than other nations to experience marine geohazards such as submarine landslides and consequent tsunamis. Coastal landslides represent a specific threat because of their possible proximity to societal infrastructure and high tsunami potential; they occur without warning and with little time lag between failure and tsunami impact. Continental margin landslides are common in the geologic record but rare on human timescales. Some ancient submarine landslides are massive but more recent events indicate that even relatively small slides on continental margins can generate devastating tsunamis. Tsunami impact can occur hundreds of km away from the source event, and with less than 2 hours warning. Identification of high-potential submarine landslide regions, combined with an understanding of landslide and tsunami processes and sophisticated tsunami propagation models, are required to identify areas at high risk of impact.

  11. Fracture lines: will Canada's water be protected in the rush to develop shale gas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfitt, Ben [Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    By combining hydraulic fracking with horizontal drilling, the gas industry has been able to unlock significant amounts of natural gas trapped inside deep and densely packed shale rock. The exploitation of shale gas has been a remarkable revolution in the last decade, going from hardly any production in 2000 to 20% of the United States' gas production in 2010. This cheap and abundant resource has been referred to as a game changer by North American industries and governments. However concerns about water usage and groundwater contamination have been raised. Indeed, the shale gas industry is responsible for the contamination of about 1,000 water wells and has been criticized for its important water withdrawals. This report intends to present the effects of shale gas production on the water supplies in Canada. It reviews the state of groundwater mapping in shale rich regions and reviews regulatory frameworks to determine if they are sufficient to protect water resources.

  12. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) Flame Retardant in Top Predator Fish across Canada and its 36-Year Temporal Trends for Lake Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guanyong; McGoldrick, Daryl; Clark, Mandi G; Evans, Marlene; Gledhill, Melissa; Garron, Christine; Armellin, Alain; Backus, Sean; Letcher, Robert J

    2018-05-08

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a high concern environmental pollutant due to its persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties. The spatial distribution of HBCDD was investigated in top predator fish (Lake Trout, Walleye or Brook Trout) collected in 2013 (n=165) from nineteen sampling sites and in 2015 (n=145) from twenty sites across Canada. HBCDD was measurable in at least one sample at each sampling site regardless of sampling year with the exception of Walleye from the south basin of Lake Winnipeg (2013). Sampling sites in or near the Laurentian Great Lakes had greater HBCDD concentrations compared to locations to the west or east. The greatest mean HBCDD concentration was 72.6 ng/g lw in fish from Lake Huron-Goderich (2015). Regardless of the sampling sites, α-HBCDD was the dominant congener followed by γ-HBCDD, whereas β-HBCDD was barely detectable. In fish from the same waterbody there were comparable α/γ isomer concentration ratios. The greatest ratio was 20.8 in fish from Lake Ontario, whereas the lowest ratio was 6.3 for fish from Lac Memphrémagog (Québec) likely related to more recent emissions of technical HBCDD mixture. Temporal trends of HBCDD in Lake Trout from Lake Ontario showed a significant decreasing trend for γ-HBCDD with a half-life estimate of 10 years over a 36-year period (1979-2015), and for -HBCDD with a half-life of 11 years over the years of 2008 to 2015. The proportion of α-HBCDD to ΣHBCDD increased significantly during 1979 to 2015. The present study provided novel information on the isomer-specific HBCDDs in Canada freshwater fish.

  13. The Great Basin Canada goose in southcentral Washington: A 40-year nesting history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Gray, R.H.

    1991-04-01

    Overall, the nesting population of Great Basin Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State is doing well and appears to be increasing. The average annual total nests for the period 1981 through 1990 was 215 nests, which is slightly above the average reported for the period 1950 through 1970. The nesting population has shifted its nucleus from upriver islands (1--10) to the lower river islands (11--20) with over 70% of the present-day nesting occurring on Islands 17, 18, 19, 20. The annual percent-successful nests from 1981 through 1990 was 80%. This is above the 71% reported for 1950 to 1970, but is below the 82% reported for 1971 to 1980. Average annual clutch size for 1981 to 1990 was 6.05, which is above the 1971-to-1980 average of 5.6 and the 1950-to-70 average of 5.5. Next desertions for 1981 to 1990 averaged 8%. This rate is well below the 14% reported for 1950 to 1970. Predators were responsible for an annual predation rate of 9% from 1981 to 1990. This is below the 1950-to-1970 annual average predation rate of 14%. Flooding losses to nests were low during the 1980s, except for 1989 and 1990 when 6% and 9% of the total nests, respectively, were destroyed by flooding. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Five-year performance monitoring of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) cover system at a reclaimed mine waste rock pile in the Sydney Coalfield (Nova Scotia, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Christopher; Ramasamy, Murugan; MacAskill, Devin; Shea, Joseph; MacPhee, Joseph; Mayich, David; Baechler, Fred; Mkandawire, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Cover systems are commonly placed over waste rock piles (WRPs) to limit atmospheric water and oxygen ingress and control the generation and release of acid mine drainage (AMD) to the receiving environment. Although covers containing geomembranes such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) exhibit the attributes to be highly effective, there are few, if any, published studies monitoring their performance at full-scale WRPs. In 2011, a HDPE cover was installed over the Scotchtown Summit WRP in Nova Scotia, Canada, and extensive field performance monitoring was conducted over the next five years. A range of parameters within the atmosphere, cover, waste rock, groundwater and surface water, were monitored and integrated into a comprehensive hydrogeochemical conceptual model to assess (i) atmospheric ingress to the waste rock, (ii) waste rock acidity and depletion and (iii) evolution of groundwater and surface water quality. Results demonstrate that the cover is effective and meeting site closure objectives. Depletion in oxygen influx resulted in slower sulphide oxidation and AMD generation, while a significant reduction in water influx (i.e. 512 to 50 mm/year) resulted in diminished AMD release. Consistent improvements in groundwater quality (decrease in sulphate and metals; increase in pH) beneath and downgradient of the WRP were observed. Protection and/or significant improvement in surface water quality was evident in all surrounding watercourses due to the improved groundwater plume and elimination of contaminated runoff over previously exposed waste rock. A variably saturated flow and contaminant transport model is currently being developed to predict long-term cover system performance.

  15. Water quality for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, A.

    1991-01-01

    Under an umbrella labeled Water Quality 2000, 86 organizations - ranging from the Natural Resources Defense Council to the Chemical Manufacturers Association - have reached a consensus on the major water quality problems currently facing the US. Their broad-based conclusions have been released in a report entitled Challenges for the Future, which represents one step in an ongoing discussion among representatives of these diverse groups on improving water quality. Although the report presents a long-term view, William Matuszeski from EPA described the document as a superb background for the upcoming debate over reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. In general terms, the report cites the major sources of current water problems as agricultural and urban runoff, especially following storms; airborne pollutants; continued dumping of toxic wastes; accidental spills; overharvesting of fish and shellfish; habitat competition from exotic species; and land and water use practices. This article summarizes some of the findings

  16. A 10-year population based study of 'opt-out' HIV testing of tuberculosis patients in Alberta, Canada: national implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Long

    Full Text Available Compliance with the recommendation that all tuberculosis (TB patients be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has not yet been achieved in Canada or globally.The experience of "opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients in the Province of Alberta, Canada is described over a 10-year period, 2003-2012. Testing rates are reported before and after the introduction of the "opt-out" approach. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity are described and demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of TB patients who were newly diagnosed versus previously diagnosed with HIV are compared. Genotypic clusters, defined as groups of two or more cases whose isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis had identical DNA fingerprints over the 10-year period or within 2 years of one another, were analyzed for their ability to predict HIV co-infection.HIV testing rates were 26% before and 90% after the introduction of "opt-out" testing. During the "opt-out" testing years those 64 years of age at diagnosis were less likely to have been tested. In those tested the prevalence of HIV was 5.6%. In the age group 15-64 years, risk factors for HIV were: age (35-64 years, Canadian-born Aboriginal or foreign-born sub-Saharan African origin, and combined respiratory and non-respiratory disease. Compared to TB patients previously known to be HIV positive, TB patients newly discovered to be HIV positive had more advanced HIV disease (lower CD4 counts; higher viral loads at diagnosis. Large cluster size was associated with Aboriginal ancestry. Cluster size predicted HIV co-infection in Aboriginal peoples when clusters included all cases reported over 10 years but not when clusters included cases reported within 2 years of one another."Opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients is effective and well received. Universal HIV testing of TB patients (>80% of patients tested has immediate (patients and longer-term (TB/HIV program planning benefits.

  17. The association between campylobacteriosis, agriculture and drinking water: a case-case study in a region of British Columbia, Canada, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, E; Mak, S; Otterstatter, M; Taylor, M; Zubel, M; Takaro, T K; Kuo, M; Michel, P

    2014-10-01

    We studied the association between drinking water, agriculture and sporadic human campylobacteriosis in one region of British Columbia (BC), Canada. We compared 2992 cases of campylobacteriosis to 4816 cases of other reportable enteric diseases in 2005-2009 using multivariate regression. Cases were geocoded and assigned drinking water source, rural/urban environment and socioeconomic status (SES) according to the location of their residence using geographical information systems analysis methods. The odds of campylobacteriosis compared to enteric disease controls were higher for individuals serviced by private wells than municipal surface water systems (odds ratio 1·4, 95% confidence interval 1·1-1·8). In rural settings, the odds of campylobacteriosis were higher in November (P = 0·014). The odds of campylobacteriosis were higher in individuals aged ⩾15 years, especially in those with higher SES. In this region of BC, campylobacteriosis risk, compared to other enteric diseases, seems to be mediated by vulnerable drinking water sources and rural factors. Consideration should be given to further support well-water users and to further study the microbiological impact of agriculture on water.

  18. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface and treated waters of Louisiana, USA and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Glen R; Reemtsma, Helge; Grimm, Deborah A; Mitra, Siddhartha

    2003-07-20

    A newly developed analytical method was used to measure concentrations of nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in samples from two surface water bodies, a sewage treatment plant effluent and various stages of a drinking water treatment plant in Louisiana, USA, and from one surface water body, a drinking water treatment plant and a pilot plant in Ontario, Canada. The analytical method provides for simultaneous extraction and quantification of the following broad range of PPCPs and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: naproxen; ibuprofen; estrone; 17beta-estradiol; bisphenol A; clorophene; triclosan; fluoxetine; and clofibric acid. Naproxen was detected in Louisiana sewage treatment plant effluent at 81-106 ng/l and Louisiana and Ontario surface waters at 22-107 ng/l. Triclosan was detected in Louisiana sewage treatment plant effluent at 10-21 ng/l. Of the three surface waters sampled, clofibric acid was detected in Detroit River water at 103 ng/l, but not in Mississippi River or Lake Pontchartrain waters. None of the other target analytes were detected above their method detection limits. Based on results at various stages of treatment, conventional drinking-water treatment processes (coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation) plus continuous addition of powdered activated carbon at a dosage of 2 mg/l did not remove naproxen from Mississippi River waters. However, chlorination, ozonation and dual media filtration processes reduced the concentration of naproxen below detection in Mississippi River and Detroit River waters and reduced clofibric acid in Detroit River waters. Results of this study demonstrate that existing water treatment technologies can effectively remove certain PPCPs. In addition, our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining data on removal mechanisms and byproducts associated with PPCPs and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals in drinking water and sewage treatment processes.

  19. Cumulative impact of 40 years of industrial sulfur emissions on a forest soil in west-central Alberta (Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prietzel, Joerg; Mayer, Bernhard; Legge, Allan H.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of 40 years of sulfur (S) emissions from a sour gas processing plant in Alberta (Canada) on soil development, soil S pools, soil acidification, and stand nutrition at a pine (Pinus contorta x Pinus banksiana) ecosystem was assessed by comparing ecologically analogous areas subjected to different S deposition levels. Sulfur isotope ratios showed that most deposited S was derived from the sour gas processing plant. The soil subjected to the highest S deposition contained 25.9 kmol S ha -1 (uppermost 60 cm) compared to 12.5 kmol S ha -1 or less at the analogues receiving low S deposition. The increase in soil S pools was caused by accumulation of organic S in the forest floor and accumulation of inorganic sulfate in the mineral soil. High S inputs resulted in topsoil acidification, depletion of exchangeable soil Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ pools by 50%, podzolization, and deterioration of N nutrition of the pine trees

  20. Shigellosis on Indian reserves in Manitoba, Canada: its relationship to crowded housing, lack of running water, and inadequate sewage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, T; Kendall, O; Blanchard, J; Martel, S; Wakelin, C; Fast, M

    1997-09-01

    This study compares incidence and hospitalization rates for shigellosis between Indians and the rest of the population in Manitoba, Canada. It examines the relationship between shigellosis and environmental conditions on reserves. Rates were calculated with surveillance data and a survey of environmental infrastructure was done. Indians had shigellosis incidence and hospitalization rates that were 29 and 12 times as high, respectively, as those of the rest of the population. Household crowding, lack of piped water, and inadequate sewage disposal were significantly associated with an increased incidence of shigellosis on reserves. Many cases of shigellosis may be prevented by improving living conditions on Indian reserves.

  1. Water quality impact assessment of agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) simulated for a regional catchment in Quebec, Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Alain N.; Hallema, Dennis W.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Savary, Stéphane; Hould Gosselin, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Water quality has become a matter of increasing concern over the past four decades as a result of the intensification of agriculture, and more particularly so in Canada where agriculture has evolved into the largest non-point source of surface water pollution. The Canadian WEBs project (Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices, BMPs) was initiated in order to determine the efficiency of BMPs in improving the surface water quality of rural catchments, and the economic aspects related to their implementation on the same scale. In this contribution we use the integrated watershed modelling platform GIBSI (Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé) to evaluate the effects of various BMPs on sediment and nutrient yields and, in close relation to this, the surface water quality for the Beaurivage River catchment (718 km2) in Quebec, eastern Canada. A base scenario of the catchment is developed by calibrating the different models of the GIBSI platform, namely HYDROTEL for hydrology, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) for soil erosion, the Erosion-Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for contaminant transport and fate, and QUAL2E for stream water quality. Four BMPs were analysed: (1) vegetated riparian buffer strips, (2) precision slurry application, (3) transition of all cereal and corn fields to grassland (grassland conversion), and (4) no-tillage on corn fields. Simulations suggest that riparian buffer strips and grassland conversion are more effective in terms of phosphorus, nitrogen and sediment load reduction than precision slurry application and no-tillage on corn fields. The results furthermore indicate the need for a more profound understanding of sediment dynamics in streams and on riparian buffer strips.

  2. Water resources data, Iowa, water year 2001, Volume 2. surface water--Missouri River basin, and ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalley, G.M.; Gorman, J.G.; Goodrich, R.D.; Miller, V.E.; Turco, M.J.; Linhart, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, county, municipal, and other Federal agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Iowa each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make this data readily available to interested parties outside of the Geological Survey, the data is published annually in this report series entitled “Water Resources Data - Iowa” as part of the National Water Data System. Water resources data for water year 2001 for Iowa consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report, in two volumes, contains stage or discharge records for 132 gaging stations; stage records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 4 gaging stations; sediment records for 13 gaging stations; and water levels for 163 ground-water observation wells. Also included are peak-flow data for 92 crest-stage partial-record stations, water-quality data from 86 municipal wells, and precipitation data collected at 6 gaging stations and 2 precipitation sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published here as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Iowa.Records of discharge or stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey water-supply papers entitled “Surface Water Supply of the United States.” Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were published in an annual series; during 1961-65 and 1966-70, they

  3. Physical activity and sedentary behavior during the early years in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity and sedentary behavior habits are established during early childhood, yet only recently has objectively measured data been available on children aged 5 years and younger. This study presents data on the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of Canadian children aged 3–5 years. Methods Data were collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey between 2009 and 2011. A nationally-representative sample (n = 459) of children aged 3–5 years wore Actical accelerometers during their waking hours for 7 consecutive days. Data were collected in 60-sec epochs and respondents with ≥4 valid days were retained for analysis. Parents reported their child’s physical activity and screen time habits in a questionnaire. Results Eighty-four percent of 3–4 year old children met the physical activity guideline of 180 minutes of total physical activity every day while 18% met the screen time target of physical activity guideline of 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while 81% met the screen time target of physical activity and 66 minutes of MVPA while 5 year old children accumulated an average of 342 min/d of total physical activity and 68 minutes of MVPA. Children were sedentary for approximately half of their waking hours and spent an average of 2 hours per day in front of screens. Only 15% of 3–4 year olds and 5% of 5 year olds are meeting both the physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines. Conclusions Promoting physical activity while reducing sedentary behavior is important at all stages of life. The findings of the present study indicate that there remains significant room for improvement in these behaviors among young Canadian children. PMID:23642258

  4. Isolation and characterization of coliforms from glacial ice and water in Canada's High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, S J; Shears, P; Platt, D J

    1997-05-01

    Ellesmere Island is the northern most member of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago with over one-third of the land mass covered by ice. A joint services expedition to the island's Blue Mountains offered a unique opportunity for microbiological studies of resident bacteria in an environment uninhabited by man. Over 100 samples of water and ice were collected from stream, lake and glacier and the filtrate cultured under canvas. Bacterial growth was harvested onto swabs for transport back to the UK and 50 coliforms chosen at random for identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Most of the glacial strains were capsulated, pigmented and some over 2000 years old. Genera such as Serratia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Yersinia were found; speciation was inconclusive and some organisms remain unidentified. Ampicillin resistance was evident in 80% of water isolates as opposed to 30% of the glacial organisms, but the isolates were generally exquisitely susceptible to antibiotics. The facility for ampicillin resistance did not appear to be transferable. Plasmid DNA was found in 33% of the glacial organisms and over 50% of the water isolates. Similar profiles were identified within and apparently between species and required plasmid restriction analysis to help establish identity. Plasmid-free Serratia spp. were subjected to genomic fingerprinting. Indistinguishable patterns were found within sets of isolates both widely spaced by distance and collection date and it was postulated that coliforms able to survive an Arctic environment had spread extensively throughout the expedition area. In conclusion, this study contributes towards knowledge of naturally occurring antibiotic resistance, confirms the presence of plasmids and genotypic data provided evidence that potentially ancient organisms from glaciers can be cultured from water samples significantly distant.

  5. Spawning Cisco investigations in Canada waters of Lake Superior during 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Addison, Peter A.; Cullis, Ken I.

    2008-01-01

    Cisco Coregonus artedi form pre-spawning aggregations in Lake Superior during November with the bulk of spawning occurring during late November through early December (Dryer and Beil 1964). Eggs are broadcast into open water (Smith 1956) with fertilized eggs settling to the lakebed (Dryer and Beil 1964). Peak hatching occurs the following May (United States Geological Survey – Great Lakes Science Center, GLSC, unpublished data). Interannual variability in year class strength is high, but tends to be synchronous across different regions of Lake Superior (Bronte et al. 2003). November 2005 sampling of Thunder Bay showed 14 year-classes were present with the oldest fish being from the 1984 year-class (Yule et al. 2008). The ciscoes sampled were predominantly from five year classes that hatched during 1988, 1989, 1990, 1998, and 2003. These same strong year-classes were found in the western arm of Lake Superior during November 2006 (GLSC, unpublished data). Growth is rapid in the first few years of life with minimal growth after age-8 (Yule et al. 2008). Ciscoes exceeding 250 mm total length (TL) are typically sexually mature (Yule et al. 2006b, 2008). Thunder Bay ciscoes have high annual survival with rates for females and males averaging 0.80 and 0.75, respectively; females have higher rates of fishing-induced mortality compared to males but lower rates of natural mortality (Yule et al. 2008). Some Lake Superior stocks are currently commercially fished with the bulk of harvest occurring during November when fishers target females for their roe. The bulk of fish are harvested from Thunder Bay using suspended gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 79-89 mm stretch measure. Ciscoes younger then age-5 make up a very small proportion (<0.1%) of the harvest (Yule, et al. 2008).

  6. Implementing Indigenous and Western Knowledge Systems in Water Research and Management (Part 1: A Systematic Realist Review to Inform Water Policy and Governance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Castleden

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis/Metis peoples in Canada experience persistent and disproportionate water-related challenges compared to non-Indigenous Canadians. These circumstances are largely attributable to enduring colonial policies and practices. Attempts for redress have been unsuccessful, and Western science and technology have been largely unsuccessful in remedying Canada’s water-related challenges. A systematic review of the academic and grey literature on integrative Indigenous and Western approaches to water research and management identified 279 items of which 63 were relevant inclusions; these were then analyzed using a realist review tool. We found an emerging trend of literature in this area, much of which called for the rejection of tokenism and the development of respectful nation-to-nation relationships in water research, management, and policy.

  7. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, Fiscal Year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes water-resources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1992. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress, plans for fiscal year 1993, and completed and planned report products.

  8. Preparing Canada's power systems for transition to the year 2000 : Y2K readiness assessment results for Canadian electric utility companies : first quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The effort made by Canadian electric utilities to minimize any power disruptions during the year 2000 (Y2K) transition is discussed and the state of readiness of the electric power industry with respect to the Y2K computer challenge is outlined. Canadian utilities started addressing Y2K issues several years ago, and today, reports show that every major electric utility in Canada is either on, or ahead of schedule to meet the industry established milestones for Y2K readiness. This report includes the assessment of all of Canada's large electric utilities, plus about 95 per cent of Canada's small distribution utilities. On average, the bulk electric utilities in Canada expect to be Y2K ready by mid-June 1999. This means that equipment and systems will operate properly for all dates including Y2K, or that there will be an operating strategy in place to mitigate the effects of any improper operations of equipment or systems. In terms of overall preparations for Y2K, Canada is ahead of the North American averages. Bulk electric utilities for non-nuclear generation are now 100 per cent complete in the inventory phase, 99 per cent complete in the assessment phase, and 91 per cent complete in the remediation/testing phase. For nuclear generation, completion rates are the same except for the remediation/testing phase which is 97 per cent complete. 1 tab., 21 figs

  9. Five years of research in energy plantation in southern Quebec (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrecque, M.; Teodorescu, T.I. [Jardin Botanique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Since 1989, short rotation and intensive culture (SRIC) techniques have been experimented to grow various fast growing species of trees and shrubs for energy plantation or environmental purposes. The objectives were to evaluate the biomass productivity with respect to (1) different weed control methods during the establishment phase; (2) drainage conditions and soil quality of the plantation site; and (3) frequency of coppicing. Native or introduced species of willows and various species of shrubs, such as honeysuckle and cornel, were grown in an experimental design in the nursery of the Montreal Botanical Garden on former agricultural land. Productivity, in tons of dry material per hectare, was evaluated and compared by harvesting shoot and branch samples at the end of each growing season. Weed control is essential to the establishment of trees in SRIC. When weed repression was applied during the two first growing seasons, biomass productivity was 4 to 5 times greater than the biomass produced on the control plot of the well drained site. With good weed control, willows can yield more than 20 tons of dry material on well drained site and near 15 tons on a poorly drained site, only two years after plantation. The growth potential of shrub species is also interesting. Some of them were able to produce up to 10 tons of dry biomass per hectare per year, which is appreciable considering that such species can be used on marginal lands and for the fixation of river banks. Frequency of coppicing also influences productivity. For willows, we determined that three-year rotation cycle allowed the highest biomass productivity. Shrubs should be coppiced each year to obtain the best results. Fast growing species and SRIC techniques are not only a good way of producing wood and alcohol for energy but they also represent a way of rapidly colonizing degraded or marginal sites and of fixing river banks.

  10. Integrated fate modeling for exposure assessment of produced water on the Sable Island Bank (Scotian shelf, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jody A; Wells, Peter G

    2004-10-01

    Produced water is the largest waste discharge from the production phase of oil and gas wells. Produced water is a mixture of reservoir formation water and production chemicals from the separation process. This creates a chemical mixture that has several components of toxic concern, ranging from heavy metals to soluble hydrocarbons. Analysis of potential environmental effects from produced water in the Sable Island Bank region (NS, Canada) was conducted using an integrated modeling approach according to the ecological risk assessment framework. A hydrodynamic dispersion model was used to describe the wastewater plume. A second fugacity-based model was used to describe the likely plume partitioning in the local environmental media of water, suspended sediment, biota, and sediment. Results from the integrated modeling showed that the soluble benzene and naphthalene components reach chronic no-effect concentration levels at a distance of 1.0 m from the discharge point. The partition modeling indicated that low persistence was expected because of advection forces caused by tidal currents for the Sable Island Bank system. The exposure assessment for the two soluble hydrocarbon components suggests that the risks of adverse environmental effects from produced water on Sable Island Bank are low.

  11. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

    1987-11-01

    Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

  12. Cultural Industries and Policy In Mexico and Canada After 20 Years of NAFTA

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Rodrigo; Muñoz Larroa, Argelia

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to present an analysis of 20 years of the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in the area of cultural policies, specifically, those related to cultural industries. Our main focus is to compare the positions that the Canadian and Mexican governments have taken vis-à-vis the world's number-one audiovisual power, the United States. Within this scenario, we have spotlighted the Mexican case. El objetivo principal de este artículo es presentar un aná...

  13. A FOUR-YEAR CHRONOLOGY WITH NATIONAL TEAM BOXING IN CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Schinke

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Applied sport psychologists tend to begin their consulting relationships with national teams having formalized skills, and often, limited contextual and sport- specific understanding. The present report overviews the first four years of a long-term consulting relationship one practitioner developed with the Canadian National Boxing Team. From the vantage of an applied sport psychology consultant, I overview how a limited consulting role expanded into increased responsibilities and opportunities. Suggestions are provided for the aspiring sport psychology consultant interested in working with athletes and coaches within the combative sport of elite amateur boxing

  14. The Legacy of Arsenic Contamination from Giant Mine, Northern Canada: An Assessment of Impacts Based on Lake Water and Lake Sediment Core Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, J. M.; Korosi, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Giant Mine, which operated between 1948 and 2004 and located near the City of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), has left a legacy of arsenic, antimony, and mercury contamination extending to the present day. Over 20,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust was released from roaster stack emissions during its first 10 years of operations, leading to a significant contamination of the surrounding landscape. Here we present a summary of impacts by the recent contamination from Giant Mine on the surrounding region. A survey we conducted of 25 lakes of the region in 2010 revealed that most lake water within a 15 km radius of the roaster stack had arsenic concentrations in water > 10 mg/L, the standard for drinking water, with concentrations declining exponentially with increasing distance from the roaster stack. Sediment cores from lakes were collected near the Giant Mine roaster stack and radiometrically dated by 137Cs and excess 210Pb. Arsenic concentrations in these sediments increased by 1700% during the 1950s and 60s, consistent with the history of arsenic releases from roaster emissions. Correspondingly, pelagic diatoms and cladocerans were extirpated from one lake during this period, based on microfossil analysis of lake sediment deposits. Sediment core analysis further showed that this lake ecosystem has not recovered, even ten years after closure of the mine. Likely causes for the lack of recent recovery are explored with the use of sediment toxicity bioassays, using a novel paleo-ecotoxicological approach of using toxicity assessments of radiometrically dated lake sediment horizons.

  15. Burkholderia species infections in patients with cystic fibrosis in British Columbia, Canada. 30 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlosnik, James E A; Zhou, Guohai; Brant, Rollin; Henry, Deborah A; Hird, Trevor J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Chilvers, Mark A; Wilcox, Pearce; Speert, David P

    2015-01-01

    We have been collecting Burkholderia species bacteria from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) for the last 30 years. During this time, our understanding of their multispecies taxonomy and infection control has evolved substantially. To evaluate the long-term (30 year) epidemiology and clinical outcome of Burkholderia infection in CF, and fully define the risks associated with infection by each species. Isolates from Burkholderia-positive patients (n=107) were speciated and typed annually for each infected patient. Microbiological and clinical data were evaluated by thorough review of patient charts, and statistical analyses performed to define significant epidemiological factors. Before 1995, the majority of new Burkholderia infections were caused by epidemic clones of Burkholderia cenocepacia. After implementation of new infection control measures in 1995, Burkholderia multivorans became the most prevalent species. Survival analysis showed that patients with CF infected with B. cenocepacia had a significantly worse outcome than those with B. multivorans, and a novel finding was that, after Burkholderia infection, the prognosis for females was significantly worse than for males. B. multivorans and B. cenocepacia have been the predominant Burkholderia species infecting people with CF in Vancouver. The implementation of infection control measures were successful in preventing new acquisition of epidemic strains of B. cenocepacia, leaving nonclonal B. multivorans as the most prevalent species. Historically, survival after infection with B. cenocepacia has been significantly worse than B. multivorans infection, and, of new significance, we show that females tend toward worse clinical outcomes.

  16. A 4-year study of avian influenza virus prevalence and subtype diversity in ducks of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Wille, Michelle; Dobbin, Ashley; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

    2013-10-01

    The island of Newfoundland, Canada, is at the eastern edge of North America and has migratory bird connections with the continental mainland as well as across the North Atlantic Ocean. Here, we report a 4-year avian influenza virus (AIV) epidemiological study in ducks in the St. John's region of Newfoundland. The overall prevalence of AIV detection in ducks during this study was 7.2%, with American Black Ducks contributing the vast majority of the collected samples and the AIV positives. The juvenile ducks showed a significantly higher AIV detection rate (10.6%) compared with adults (3.4%). Seasonally, AIV prevalence rates were higher in the autumn (8.4%), but positives were still detected in the winter (4.6%). Preliminary serology tests showed a high incidence of previous AIV infection (20/38, 52.6%). A total of 43 viruses were characterized for their HA-NA or HA subtypes, which revealed a large diversity of AIV subtypes and little recurrence of subtypes from year to year. Investigation of the movement patterns of ducks in this region showed that it is a largely non-migratory duck population, which may contribute to the observed pattern of high AIV subtype turnover. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 H1N1 and one H5N4 AIVs showed these viruses were highly similar to other low pathogenic AIV sequences from waterfowl in North America and assigned all gene segments into American-avian clades. Notably, the H1N1 viruses, which were identified in consecutive years, possessed homologous genomes. Such detection of homologous AIV genomes across years is rare, but indicates the role of the environmental reservoir in viral perpetuation.

  17. Examining job tenure and lost-time claim rates in Ontario, Canada, over a 10-year period, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassaei, Sara; Breslin, F Curtis; Shen, Min; Smith, Peter M

    2013-03-01

    We sought to examine the association between job tenure and lost-time claim rates over a 10-year period in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from workers' compensation records and labour force survey data from 1999 to 2008. Claim rates were calculated for gender, age, industry, occupation, year and job tenure group. A multivariate analysis and examination of effect modification were performed. Differences in injury event and source of injury were also examined by job tenure. Lost-time claim rates were significantly higher for workers with shorter job tenure, regardless of other factors. Claim rates for new workers differed by gender, age and industry, but remained relatively constant at an elevated rate over the observed time period. This study is the first to examine lost-time claim rates by job tenure over a time period during which overall claim rates generally declined. Claim rates did not show a convergence by job tenure. Findings highlight that new workers are still at elevated risk, and suggest the need for improved training, reducing exposures among new workers, promoting permanent employment, and monitoring work injury trends and risk factors.

  18. A 50 to 70-year-old-oil-spill : Bluefish Creek, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstrom, C.B. [Imperial Oil Resources, Cold Lake, AB (Canada); Jensen, P.K. [Imperial Oil Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1991, an oil spill was discovered in Bluefish Creek near Fort Norman, Northwest Territories. It was estimated that the spill was between 50 to 70 years old. The spill was discovered in an excavated area that appeared to be a drilling sump. The old spill exhibited an unusual occurrence of patterned partitioning of translucent wax-like material. Gas chromatography found the substance to be consistent with a paraffin based crude oil similar to Norman Wells crude oil. It is possible that Norman Wells crude was used for drilling purposes at the site. It is not likely that the Bluefish wells were the source of the oil because they were both dry holes and there were no records of hydrocarbons being encountered during drilling. Imperial Oil Resources (NWT) Ltd., and Fort Norman Band have made joint efforts in removing 118 barrels of oily debris and have successfully restored the site. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Mapping risk to water provision in Canada using a socio-hydrological approach based on ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet Dallaire, C.; Bennett, E.; Lehner, B.

    2017-12-01

    Canadian rivers are under threat from climate and other anthropogenic changes, which will have important repercussion on the provision of water. Ensuring the long-term provision of this ecosystem services (ES) necessitates integrative and sustainable management of river systems. Because of rivers' highly connected nature, freshwater management must consider the spatial configuration of river systems to account for the upstream/downstream connections of the beneficiaries. To answer this need, we developed a spatial and hydrological approach to measure capacity for, demand for and pressure from ES linked to river systems. We applied this method to all Canadian rivers for the provision of water and analyzed the intensity of interactions among four beneficiaries: agriculture, municipalities, industries and hydropower. As such this is a first-ever cartography of capacity for, demand for and pressure from water provision and their interactions at large scale. In Canada, rivers under high interactions are located in three main regions: the Prairies where demand for and pressure from water provision for agriculture is high, southern Ontario and Québec where demand for and pressure from water provision for municipalities and industries is high, and in Northern large rivers, especially in Québec, where pressures from water provision for hydropower production is high. The distribution of capacity, demand and pressure shows an intense but concentrated reliance on small rivers to provide water for downstream users. For Canadian large rivers, interactions among capacity, demand and pressure are moderate but constant. This cartography can inform freshwater management by identifying rivers where water provisioning is at risk, for example, where capacity cannot meet the demand or where water use has negative consequences on downstream ES.

  20. Work-related burn injuries in Ontario, Canada: a follow-up 10-year retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouatre, Elsa; Gomez, Manuel; Banfield, Joanne; Jeschke, Marc G

    2013-01-01

    Work-related burn injuries contribute to a quarter of all burn injuries in USA. In 2009, the provincial Workplace Safety and Insurance Board reported 64,824 work-related injuries that resulted in time-lost, 1188 injuries (2%) were a result of burns. There have been two previous studies performed at a regional burn centre (1984-1990 and 1998-2000) looking at incidence and characteristics of work-related burns. There was no significant change between these two groups. The purpose of this study was to identify the recent pattern of work-related burns from 2001 to 2010 and to compare it to the previous studies. During the study period, 1427 patients were admitted for an acute injury to the regional burn centre. Of these, 330 were due to a work-related incident (23%). The mean age of patients was 40.5±11.9 years, 95% were male. The mean total body surface area burn was 11.9±16.2%. The most common mechanism of burn injury was flame (32.7%) followed by electrical (27%) and scald (19.7%), inhalation injury was present in 4.8% of patients and the mortality was 1.8%. Our study has shown that there has been a significant decrease in the incidence in work-related burns treated at the regional burn centre (23.1%, vs. 28.2% vs. 30.2% pburns have now become the leading cause of injury, there was a significant reduction in inhalation injury (4.8% vs. 23% vs. 14.8%, pburns, improvement in burn care, and that prevention strategies may have been more effective. PMID:23352030

  1. Effects of the Terra Nova offshore oil development on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years of development drilling on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Michael D.; DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Pocklington, Patricia; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Gregory Janes, G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes effects of drilling with water and synthetic-based drilling muds on benthic macro-invertebrates over 10 years at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. As such, the paper provides insight on the effects of relatively new synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs), and makes an important contribution to our understanding of the long-term chronic effects of drilling on benthic communities. The Terra Nova Field is located approximately 350 km offshore on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada). Sediment and invertebrate samples were collected in 1997 (baseline) prior to drilling, and subsequently in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations were sampled in each year at distances of less than 1 to approximately 20 km from drill centres. Summary benthic invertebrate community measures examined were total abundance, biomass, richness, diversity and multivariate measures of community composition based on non-Metric Dimensional Scaling (nMDS). Decreases in abundance, biomass and richness were noted at one station located nearest (0.14 km) to a drill centre in some environmental effects monitoring (EEM) years. These decreases coincided with higher levels of tracers of drill muds in sediments (barium and >C10-C21 hydrocarbons). Abundances of selected individual taxa were also examined to help interpret responses when project-related effects on summary measures occurred. Enrichment effects on some tolerant taxa (e.g., the polychaete family Phyllodocidae and the bivalve family Tellinidae) and decreased abundances of sensitive taxa (e.g., the polychaete families Orbiniidae and Paraonidae) were detected to within approximately 1-2 km from discharge source. Lagged responses three to five years after drilling started were noted for Phyllodocidae and Tellinidae, suggesting chronic or indirect effects. Overall, results of benthic community analyses at Terra Nova indicate that effects on summary measures of community composition were

  2. Resource utilization and costs during the initial years of lung cancer screening with computed tomography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Sonya; Lam, Stephen; Tammemagi, Martin C; Evans, William K; Leighl, Natasha B; Regier, Dean A; Bolbocean, Corneliu; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Manos, Daria; Liu, Geoffrey; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Cromwell, Ian; Johnston, Michael R; Mayo, John R; McWilliams, Annette; Couture, Christian; English, John C; Goffin, John; Hwang, David M; Puksa, Serge; Roberts, Heidi; Tremblay, Alain; MacEachern, Paul; Burrowes, Paul; Bhatia, Rick; Finley, Richard J; Goss, Glenwood D; Nicholas, Garth; Seely, Jean M; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S; Yee, John; Amjadi, Kayvan; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Ionescu, Diana N; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Martel, Simon; Soghrati, Kamyar; Sin, Don D; Tan, Wan C; Urbanski, Stefan; Xu, Zhaolin; Peacock, Stuart J

    2014-10-01

    It is estimated that millions of North Americans would qualify for lung cancer screening and that billions of dollars of national health expenditures would be required to support population-based computed tomography lung cancer screening programs. The decision to implement such programs should be informed by data on resource utilization and costs. Resource utilization data were collected prospectively from 2059 participants in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Participants who had 2% or greater lung cancer risk over 3 years using a risk prediction tool were recruited from seven major cities across Canada. A cost analysis was conducted from the Canadian public payer's perspective for resources that were used for the screening and treatment of lung cancer in the initial years of the study. The average per-person cost for screening individuals with LDCT was $453 (95% confidence interval [CI], $400-$505) for the initial 18-months of screening following a baseline scan. The screening costs were highly dependent on the detected lung nodule size, presence of cancer, screening intervention, and the screening center. The mean per-person cost of treating lung cancer with curative surgery was $33,344 (95% CI, $31,553-$34,935) over 2 years. This was lower than the cost of treating advanced-stage lung cancer with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or supportive care alone, ($47,792; 95% CI, $43,254-$52,200; p = 0.061). In the Pan-Canadian study, the average cost to screen individuals with a high risk for developing lung cancer using LDCT and the average initial cost of curative intent treatment were lower than the average per-person cost of treating advanced stage lung cancer which infrequently results in a cure.

  3. Arsenic and antimony geochemistry of mine wastes, associated waters and sediments at the Giant Mine, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, Skya E.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Antimony and arsenic were speciated in sediments and pore waters near Giant Mine. • Sediments will continue to be a source of arsenic and antimony to overlying water. • Aquatic vegetation traps contaminated sediment and takes up antimony and arsenic. - Abstract: Elevated levels of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in water and sediments are legacy residues found downstream from gold-mining activities at the Giant Mine in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. To track the transport and fate of As and Sb, samples of mine-waste from the mill, and surface water, sediment, pore-water, and vegetation downstream of the mine were collected. Mine waste, pore-water, and sediment samples were analyzed for bulk chemistry, and aqueous and solid-state speciation. Sediment and vegetation chemistry were evaluated using scanning electron microscope imaging, synchrotron-based element mapping and electron microprobe analysis. The distributions of As and Sb in sediments were similar, yet their distributions in the corresponding pore-waters were mostly dissimilar, and the mobility of As was greater than that of Sb. Competition for sorption sites is the most likely cause of elevated Sb concentrations in relatively oxidized pore-water and surface water. The aqueous and solid-state speciation of As and Sb also differed. In pore-water, As(V) dominated in oxidizing environments and As(III) in reducing environments. In contrast, the Sb(V) species dominated in all but one pore-water sample, even under reducing conditions. Antimony(III) appears to preferentially precipitate or adsorb onto sulfides as evidenced by the prevalence of an Sb(III)-S secondary solid-phase and the lack of Sb(III)(aq) in the deeper zones. The As(V)–O solid phase became depleted with depth below the sediment–water interface, and the Sb(V)–O phase persisted under relatively reducing conditions. In the surficial zone at a site populated by Equisetum fluviatile (common horsetail), As and

  4. The biogeochemistry and occurrence of unusual plant species inhabiting acidic, metal-rich water, Red Mountain, Bonnifield district, Alaska Range: Chapter J in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Larry P.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents results on the occurrence and biogeochemistry of unusual plant species, and of their supporting sediment, in an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Tintina Gold Province (see fig. 1 of Editors’ Preface and Overview). The extraordinary plant assemblage found growing in the acidic metal-rich waters that drain the area is composed predominantly of bryophytes (liverworts and mosses). Ferricrete-cemented silty alluvial sediments within seeps and streams are covered with the liverwort Gymnocolea inflata, whereas the mosses Polytrichum commune and P. juniperinum inhabit the area adjacent to the water and within the splash zone. Both the liverwort-encrusted sediment and Polytrichum thalli have high concentrations of major- and trace-metal cations (for example, Al, As, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Pb, and Zn). Soils in the area do not reflect the geochemical signature of the mineral deposit, and we suspect that they are most influenced by the chemistry of airborne dust (aeolian material) derived from outside the area.

  5. Seasonal variability in physicochemical characteristics of small water bodies across a High Arctic wetland, Polar Bear Pass, Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.; Shakil, S.; Young, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Small water bodies (lakes, ponds) in permafrost environments make up roughly half of the total area of surface water, but their relevance to nutrient and carbon fluxes on a landscape scale still remains largely unknown. Small variations in pond water balance as a result of seasonal changes in precipitation, evaporation, or drainage processes have the potential to produce considerable changes in the carbon and nutrient budgets as small changes in the water level can have a major effect on volumes and surface areas of ponds. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrology both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured physicochemical variables; and (3) to detect seasonal trends in the hydrological and chemical characteristics of ponds located in an extensive low-gradient High Arctic wetland. We conducted detailed limnological surveys of 50 wetland ponds located at Polar Bear Pass (PBP), Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2007-2010. The results indicate large seasonal variability in physicochemical parameters that is associated with pond water budget changes, especially for ponds with steady water levels vs. dynamic ponds (fluctuating water levels). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the datasets indicated that major ion content, specifically calcium (Ca2+), was responsible for much of the variability among the ponds in both 2008 and 2009. Additionally in 2009 most of the variability was also due to specific conductivity in the summer and magnesium (Mg2+) in the fall. These trends are typically identified as a result of dilution or evapo-concentration processes in small water bodies. In 2007, a warm and dry year, pH and potassium (K+) were responsible for much of variation between ponds. This is attributed to high vegetation growth in ponds and a longer growing season. While no trend was identified in 2010 (PCA analysis), calculations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 50

  6. Field Performance of Nine Soil Water Content Sensors on a Sandy Loam Soil in New Brunswick, Maritime Region, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Stevens

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors, regardless of installation depths and soil water regimes, CS615, Trase, and Troxler performed the best with the factory calibrations, with a relative root mean square error (RRMSE of 15.78, 16.93, and 17.65%, and a r2 of 0.75, 0.77, and 0.65, respectively. TRIME, Moisture Point (MP917, and Gopher performed slightly worse with the factory calibrations, with a RRMSE of 45.76, 26.57, and 20.41%, and a r2 of 0.65, 0.72, and 0.78, respectively, while the Gypsum, WaterMark, and Netafim showed a frequent need for calibration in the application in this region.

  7. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  8. Arsenic and antimony geochemistry of mine wastes, associated waters and sediments at the Giant Mine, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Skya E.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in water and sediments are legacy residues found downstream from gold-mining activities at the Giant Mine in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. To track the transport and fate of As and Sb, samples of mine-waste from the mill, and surface water, sediment, pore-water, and vegetation downstream of the mine were collected. Mine waste, pore-water, and sediment samples were analyzed for bulk chemistry, and aqueous and solid-state speciation. Sediment and vegetation chemistry were evaluated using scanning electron microscope imaging, synchrotron-based element mapping and electron microprobe analysis. The distributions of As and Sb in sediments were similar, yet their distributions in the corresponding pore-waters were mostly dissimilar, and the mobility of As was greater than that of Sb. Competition for sorption sites is the most likely cause of elevated Sb concentrations in relatively oxidized pore-water and surface water. The aqueous and solid-state speciation of As and Sb also differed. In pore-water, As(V) dominated in oxidizing environments and As(III) in reducing environments. In contrast, the Sb(V) species dominated in all but one pore-water sample, even under reducing conditions. Antimony(III) appears to preferentially precipitate or adsorb onto sulfides as evidenced by the prevalence of an Sb(III)-S secondary solid-phase and the lack of Sb(III)(aq) in the deeper zones. The As(V)–O solid phase became depleted with depth below the sediment–water interface, and the Sb(V)–O phase persisted under relatively reducing conditions. In the surficial zone at a site populated by Equisetum fluviatile (common horsetail), As and Sb were associated with organic material and appeared mobile in the root zone. In the zone below active plant growth, As and Sb were associated primarily with inorganic phases suggesting a release and reprecipitation of these elements upon plant death. The co-existence of reduced

  9. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, fiscal year 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes waterresources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1990. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress in fiscal year 1990, plans for fiscal year 1991, completed and planned report products, and the name of the project chief.

  10. A summary of water chemistry changes following hydroelectric development in northern Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, D.A.; Ralley, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed summary is provided from five major water quality studies undertaken in northern Manitoba to assess the effects of hydroelectric projects on water quality. Physical changes occurring with the area affected by both the Churchill River diversion and Lake Winnipeg regulation have led to water quality changes in many cases. Phosphorus appeared to increase at some sites while decreasing at others, reflecting a new balance between erosion of new P sources and later uptake or deposition. Color declined at all sites except at Red Head Rapids. Turbidity increased in Southern Indian Lake and in the Burntwood River at Thompson in response to the Churchill diversion, but turbidity has historically exceeded drinking water quality objectives. It is unclear whether the observed changes in water chemistry may have the potential to directly impact aquatic life and wildlife. A major limitation of the water quality data set is the lack of pre-development data for many of the trace elements analyzed. Relative to an upstream reference site, concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn were slightly higher at some sites affected by hydroelectric development, but it is not known whether this condition existed prior to development. Exceedances of water quality objectives for some trace elements occurred intermittently at some sites but it is not possible to determine whether these exceedances occurred infrequently historically as a result of natural variability. 34 refs., 1 fig., 13 tabs

  11. Alterations in bottom sediment physical and chemical characteristics at the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the grand banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes sediment composition at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, at an approximate water depth of 100 m. Surface sediment samples (upper 3 cm) were collected for chemical and particle size analyses at the site pre-development (1997) and in 2000-2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations have been sampled in each program year, with stations extending from less than 1 km to a maximum of 20 km from source (drill centres) along five gradients, extending to the southeast, southwest, northeast, northwest and east of Terra Nova. Results show that Terra Nova sediments were contaminated with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium-the two main constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site. Highest levels of contamination occurred within 1 to 2 km from source, consistent with predictions from drill cuttings dispersion modelling. The strength of distance gradients for >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, and overall levels, generally increased as drilling progressed but decreased from 2006 to 2010, coincident with a reduction in drilling. As seen at other offshore oil development sites, metals other than barium, sulphur and sulphide levels were elevated and sediment fines content was higher in the immediate vicinity (less than 0.5 km) of drill centres in some sampling years; but there was no strong evidence of project-related alterations of these variables. Overall, sediment contamination at Terra Nova was spatially limited and only the two major constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site, >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, showed clear evidence of project-related alternations.

  12. Audit of Caesarean Section Births in Small Private Maternity Homes: Analysis of 15-Year Data Applying the Modified Robson Criteria, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnurkar, Kishore B; Mahale, Arun R

    2016-10-01

    To audit the data of caesarean sections carried out in single-handed-run small private hospitals on the basis of the modified Robson criteria (Canada), to know the changing trends of caesarean sections over a considerable duration of time (15 years) in private sector, and to focus on a particular group out of the classification of caesarean section in the efforts to reduce the caesarean section rate. It is a retrospective observational study of 7342 caesarean section cases carried out in different small private maternity hospitals over a period of 15 years. The data analysed by applying the modified Robson criteria (Canada) and the changing trends were studied in the view of reducing caesarean section rate. Statistically significant increasing trend was observed in groups of both primary and repeat caesarean section cases done before the onset of labour in the last 5 years. Auditing the data of caesarean sections on the basis of the modified Robson criteria (Canada) is a better way of classification as compared to Ten Group Classification System (TGCS). The change in trends is seen only in the last 5 years, which suggests that there is shift in attitude of the obstetricians of small private hospitals in performing caesarean sections before onset of labour than performing it after the onset of labour. Our analysis suggests the obstetricians from small private hospitals to target groups 2B, 4B and 5C.

  13. Precipitation and stream water stable isotope data from the Marys River, Oregon in water year 2015.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Water stable isotope data collected from a range of streams throughout the Marys River basin in water year 2015, and precipitation data collected within the basin at...

  14. Dendrohydrology in Canada's western interior and applications to water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauchyn, David; Vanstone, Jessica; St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Sauchyn, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Across the southern Canadian Prairies, annual precipitation is relatively low (200-400 mm) and periodic water deficits limit economic and environmental productivity. Rapid population growth, economic development and climate change have exposed this region to increasing vulnerability to hydrologic drought. There is high demand for surface water, streamflow from the Rocky Mountains in particular. This paper describes the application of dendrohydrology to water resource management in this region. Four projects were initiated by the sponsoring organizations: a private utility, an urban municipality and two federal government agencies. The fact that government and industry would initiate and fund tree-ring research indicates that practitioners recognize paleohydrology as a legitimate source of technical support for water resource planning and management. The major advantage of tree-rings as a proxy of annual and seasonal streamflow is that the reconstructions exceed the length of gauge records by at least several centuries. The extent of our network of 180 tree-ring chronologies, spanning AD 549-2013 and ∼20° of latitude, with a high density of sites in the headwaters of the major river basins, enables us to construct large ensembles of tree-ring reconstructions as a means of expressing uncertainty in the inference of streamflow from tree rings. We characterize paleo-droughts in terms of modern analogues, translating the tree-ring reconstructions from a paleo-time scale to the time frame in which engineers and planners operate. Water resource managers and policy analysts have used our paleo-drought scenarios in their various forms to inform and assist drought preparedness planning, a re-evaluation of surface water apportionment policy and an assessment of the reliability of urban water supply systems.

  15. Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E. Flint

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first comprehensive examination of long-haul cattle being transported across Canada and off-loaded for feed, water and rest. A total of 129 truckloads were observed at one of two commercial rest stations near Thunder Bay, Ontario. Data collected included information regarding the truck driver, the trailer, the trip, the animals and animal handling. The majority of the loads stopping were feeder calves (60.94% while 21.09% were weaned calves, and the remaining 14.84% were market weight cattle. The truck loads surveyed were in transit for, on average, 28.2 ± 5.0 hours before stopping and cattle were rested for an average of 11.2 ± 2.8 hours. These data suggest that loads stopping at the rest station were adhering to the regulations stated in the Health of Animals Act, which outline a maximum of 48 hours in transit before a mandatory stop of at least 5 hours for feed, water and rest. There was a large amount of variability around how well recommendations, such as stocking density were followed. Further research is required to assess how well cattle are coping with long-distance transport under current regulations and industry practices.

  16. Water and peat chemistry comparisons of natural and peat-harvested peatlands across Canada and their relevance to peatland restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windmulder, H.L.; Rochefort, L.; Vitt, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Water and peat chemistry comparisons of four post-harvested and neighbouring, undisturbed peatlands across Canada show that harvesting alters chemical conditions. Commercial harvesting removes the surface peat and exposes layers farther down the peat deposit. The newly exposed peat layers that were formed in earlier developmental stages of the peatland can be more minerotrophic and/or more variable in chemical composition than undisturbed bog peat. All the harvested sites were originally bogs. Only one site, which had minimal peat removed, presently has chemical conditions somewhat similar to the original surface, with low elemental levels typical of bogs. Two sites are now chemically similar to poor fens and one site is similar to a moderate-rich fen. Levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphate and chloride in three of the harvested sites are higher than normal values found in natural, unharvested bogs, and result from the exposure of fen peat. Higher levels of ammonium-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen in the peat and water of all the harvested sites are present, with higher ammonium associated with wetter sites and higher nitrate levels associated with drier sites

  17. Vernacular Knowledge and Water Management – Towards the Integration of Expert Science and Local Knowledge in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Simpson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex environmental problems cannot be solved using expert science alone. Rather, these kinds of problems benefit from problem-solving processes that draw on 'vernacular' knowledge. Vernacular knowledge integrates expert science and local knowledge with community beliefs and values. Collaborative approaches to water problem-solving can provide forums for bringing together diverse, and often competing, interests to produce vernacular knowledge through deliberation and negotiation of solutions. Organised stakeholder groups are participating increasingly in such forums, often through involvement of networks, but it is unclear what roles these networks play in the creation and sharing of vernacular knowledge. A case-study approach was used to evaluate the involvement of a key stakeholder group, the agricultural community in Ontario, Canada, in creating vernacular knowledge during a prescribed multi-stakeholder problem-solving process for source water protection for municipal supplies. Data sources – including survey questionnaire responses, participant observation, and publicly available documents – illustrate how respondents supported and participated in the creation of vernacular knowledge. The results of the evaluation indicate that the respondents recognised and valued agricultural knowledge as an information source for resolving complex problems. The research also provided insight concerning the complementary roles and effectiveness of the agricultural community in sharing knowledge within a prescribed problem-solving process.

  18. Mortality among residents of shelters, rooming houses, and hotels in Canada: 11 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Stephen W; Wilkins, Russell; Tjepkema, Michael; O'Campo, Patricia J; Dunn, James R

    2009-10-26

    To examine mortality in a representative nationwide sample of homeless and marginally housed people living in shelters, rooming houses, and hotels. Follow-up study. Canada 1991-2001. 15 100 homeless and marginally housed people enumerated in 1991 census. Age specific and age standardised mortality rates, remaining life expectancies at age 25, and probabilities of survival from age 25 to 75. Data were compared with data from the poorest and richest income fifths as well as with data for the entire cohort Of the homeless and marginally housed people, 3280 died. Mortality rates among these people were substantially higher than rates in the poorest income fifth, with the highest rate ratios seen at younger ages. Among those who were homeless or marginally housed, the probability of survival to age 75 was 32% (95% confidence interval 30% to 34%) in men and 60% (56% to 63%) in women. Remaining life expectancy at age 25 was 42 years (42 to 43) and 52 years (50 to 53), respectively. Compared with the entire cohort, mortality rate ratios for men and women, respectively, were 11.5 (8.8 to 15.0) and 9.2 (5.5 to 15.2) for drug related deaths, 6.4 (5.3 to 7.7) and 8.2 (5.0 to 13.4) for alcohol related deaths, 4.8 (3.9 to 5.9) and 3.8 (2.7 to 5.4) for mental disorders, and 2.3 (1.8 to 3.1) and 5.6 (3.2 to 9.6) for suicide. For both sexes, the largest differences in mortality rates were for smoking related diseases, ischaemic heart disease, and respiratory diseases. Living in shelters, rooming houses, and hotels is associated with much higher mortality than expected on the basis of low income alone. Reducing the excessively high rates of premature mortality in this population would require interventions to address deaths related to smoking, alcohol, and drugs, and mental disorders and suicide, among other causes.

  19. Time-series measurements of methane (CH4) distribution during open water and ice-cover in lakes throughout the Mackenzie River Delta (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, H.; Lapham, L.; Orcutt, B.; Wheat, C. G.; Lesack, L.; Bergstresser, M.; Dallimore, S. R.; MacLeod, R.; Cote, M.

    2016-12-01

    Arctic lakes are known to emit large amounts of methane to the atmosphere and their importance to the global methane (CH4) cycle has been recognized. It is well known CH4 builds up in Arctic lakes during ice-cover, but the amount of and when the CH4 is released to the atmosphere is not well known. Our preliminary results suggest the largest flux of CH4 from lakes to the atmosphere occurs slightly before complete ice-out; while others have shown the largest flux occurs when lakes overturn in the spring. During ice-out, CH4 can also be oxidized by methane oxidizing bacteria before it can efflux to the atmosphere from the surface water. In order to elucidate the processes contributing to Arctic lake CH4 emissions, continuous, long-term and large scale spatial sampling is required; however it is difficult to achieve in these remote locations. We address this problem using two sampling techniques. 1) We deployed osmotically powered pumps (OsmoSamplers), which were able to autonomously and continuously collect lake bottom water over the course of a year from multiple lakes in the Mackenzie River Delta. OsmoSamplers were placed in four lakes in the mid Delta near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada, two lakes in the outer Delta, and two coastal lakes on Richard's Island in 2015. The dissolved CH4 concentration, stable isotope content of CH4 (δ13C-CH4), and dissolved sulfate concentrations in bottom water from these lakes will be presented to better understand methane dynamics under the ice and over time. 2) Along with the time-series data, we will also present data from discrete samples collected from 40 lakes in the mid Delta during key time periods, before and immediately after the spring ice-out. By determining the CH4 dynamics throughout the year we hope to improve predictions of how CH4 emissions may change in a warming Arctic environment.

  20. Hydrologic conditions in New Hampshire and Vermont, water year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiah, Richard G.; Jarvis, Jason D.; Hegemann, Robert F.; Hilgendorf, Gregory S.; Ward, Sanborn L.

    2013-01-01

    Record-high hydrologic conditions in New Hampshire and Vermont occurred during water year 2011, according to data from 125 streamgages and lake gaging stations, 27 creststage gages, and 41 groundwater wells. Annual runoff for the 2011 water year was the sixth highest on record for New Hampshire and the highest on record for Vermont on the basis of a 111-year reference period (water years 1901–2011). Groundwater levels for the 2011 water year were generally normal in New Hampshire and normal to above normal in Vermont. Record flooding occurred in April, May, and August of water year 2011. Peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at 38 streamgages, 25 of which had more than 10 years of record. Flooding in April 2011 was widespread in parts of northern New Hampshire and Vermont; peak-of-record streamflows were recorded at nine streamgages. Flash flooding in May 2011 was isolated to central and northeastern Vermont; peakof- record streamflows were recorded at five streamgages. Devastating flooding in August 2011 occurred throughout most of Vermont and in parts of New Hampshire as a result of the heavy rains associated with Tropical Storm Irene. Peak-ofrecord streamflows were recorded at 24 streamgages.

  1. Pharmaceuticals, hormones and bisphenol A in untreated source and finished drinking water in Ontario, Canada - Occurrence and treatment efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleywegt, Sonya; Pileggi, Vince; Yang, Paul; Hao Chunyan; Zhao Xiaoming; Rocks, Carline; Thach, Serei; Cheung, Patrick; Whitehead, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) conducted a survey in 2006 on emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) which included pharmaceuticals, hormones and bisphenol A (BPA). The survey collected 258 samples over a 16 month period from selected source waters and 17 drinking water systems (DWSs), and analyzed them for 48 EOCs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) for the highest precision and accuracy of analytical data possible. 27 of the 48 target EOCs were detected in source water, finished drinking water, or both. DWSs using river and lake source water accounted for > 90% detections. Of the 27 EOCs found, we also reported the first detection of two antibiotics roxithromycin and enrofloxacin in environmental samples. The most frequently detected compounds (≥ 10%) in finished drinking water were carbamazepine (CBZ), gemfibrozil (GFB), ibuprofen (IBU), and BPA; with their concentrations accurately determined by using IDMS and calculated to be 4 to 10 times lower than those measured in the source water. Comparison of plant specific data allowed us to determine removal efficiency (RE) of these four most frequently detected compounds in Ontario DWSs. The RE of CBZ was determined to be from 71 to 93% for DWSs using granulated activated carbon (GAC); and was 75% for DWSs using GAC followed by ultraviolet irradiation (UV). The observed RE of GFB was between 44 and 55% in DWSs using GAC and increased to 82% when GAC was followed by UV. The use of GAC or GAC followed by UV provided an RE improvement of BPA from 80 to 99%. These detected concentration levels are well below the predicted no effect concentration or total allowable concentration reported in the literature. Additional targeted, site specific comparative research is required to fully assess the effectiveness of Ontario DWSs to remove particular compounds of concern. - Research Highlights: → Occurrence and typical range of 45 selected

  2. Pharmaceuticals, hormones and bisphenol A in untreated source and finished drinking water in Ontario, Canada - Occurrence and treatment efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleywegt, Sonya; Pileggi, Vince [Standards Development Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 40 St. Clair Avenue West, Toronto, Ontario, M4V 1M2 (Canada); Yang, Paul, E-mail: paul.yang@ontario.ca [Laboratory Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada); Hao Chunyan; Zhao Xiaoming [Laboratory Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada); Rocks, Carline [Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada); Thach, Serei [Laboratory Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada); Cheung, Patrick; Whitehead, Brian [Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) conducted a survey in 2006 on emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) which included pharmaceuticals, hormones and bisphenol A (BPA). The survey collected 258 samples over a 16 month period from selected source waters and 17 drinking water systems (DWSs), and analyzed them for 48 EOCs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) for the highest precision and accuracy of analytical data possible. 27 of the 48 target EOCs were detected in source water, finished drinking water, or both. DWSs using river and lake source water accounted for > 90% detections. Of the 27 EOCs found, we also reported the first detection of two antibiotics roxithromycin and enrofloxacin in environmental samples. The most frequently detected compounds ({>=} 10%) in finished drinking water were carbamazepine (CBZ), gemfibrozil (GFB), ibuprofen (IBU), and BPA; with their concentrations accurately determined by using IDMS and calculated to be 4 to 10 times lower than those measured in the source water. Comparison of plant specific data allowed us to determine removal efficiency (RE) of these four most frequently detected compounds in Ontario DWSs. The RE of CBZ was determined to be from 71 to 93% for DWSs using granulated activated carbon (GAC); and was 75% for DWSs using GAC followed by ultraviolet irradiation (UV). The observed RE of GFB was between 44 and 55% in DWSs using GAC and increased to 82% when GAC was followed by UV. The use of GAC or GAC followed by UV provided an RE improvement of BPA from 80 to 99%. These detected concentration levels are well below the predicted no effect concentration or total allowable concentration reported in the literature. Additional targeted, site specific comparative research is required to fully assess the effectiveness of Ontario DWSs to remove particular compounds of concern. - Research Highlights: {yields} Occurrence and typical range of 45

  3. Fish mercury levels appear to be increasing lately: a report from 40 years of monitoring in the province of Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nilima; Tang, Rex W K; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Arhonditsis, George B

    2014-05-20

    Recent mercury levels and trends reported for North America suggest a mixed (positive/negative) outlook for the environmental mercury problem. Using one of the largest consistent monitoring data sets in the world, here we present long-term and recent mercury trends in Walleye, Northern Pike, and Lake Trout from the Province of Ontario, Canada, which contains about one-third of the world's fresh water and covers a wide geographical area (1.5 and 3 times larger than France and Germany, respectively). Overall, the results indicate that the fish mercury levels either declined (0.01-0.07 μg/g decade) or remained stable between the 1970s and 2012. The rates of mercury decline were substantially greater (mostly 0.05-0.31 μg/g decade) during the 1970s/80s possibly in response to reductions in mercury emissions. However, Walleye and Pike levels have generally increased (0.01-0.27 μg/g decade) in recent years (1995-2012), especially for northern Ontario (effect sizes for differences between the two periods ranged from 0.39 to 1.04). Proportions of Walleye and Pike locations showing a flat or increasing trend increased from 26-44% to 59-73% between the 1970s/80s and 1995-2012. Mercury emissions in North America have declined over the last few decades, and as such it is logical to expect recovery in fish mercury levels; however, other factors such as global emissions, climate change, invasive species, and local geochemistry are likely affecting the response time and magnitude.

  4. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  5. Comparison of 2002 Water Year and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Population growth and changes in land-use practices have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local sponsors, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, and Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations, stations that are considered as long term and stations that are rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions have changed over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short term concerns. Another group of stations (rotational group 2) will be chosen and sampled beginning in water year 2004. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality sampling in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water year 2002. The introduction provides a map of the sampling locations, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water year 2002 are compared to historical data (data collected for this network since 1995), state water-quality standards, and federal water-quality guidelines

  6. Simulation of the water balance of boreal watersheds of northeastern British Columbia, Canada using MIKE SHE, an integrated hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadzadesahraei, S.; Déry, S.; Rex, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Northeastern British Columbia (BC) is undergoing rapid development for oil and gas extraction, largely depending on subsurface hydraulic fracturing (fracking), which relies on available freshwater. Even though this industrial activity has made substantial contributions to regional and provincial economies, it is important to ensure that sufficient and sustainable water supplies are available for all those dependent on the resource, including ecological systems. Further, BC statistics predict that the northeastern region's population will increase by 30% over the next 25 years, thereby amplifying the demands of domestic and industrial water usage. Hence, given the increasing demands for surface water in the complex wetlands of northeastern BC, obtaining accurate long-term water balance information is of vital importance. Thus, this study aims to simulate the 1979-2014 water balance at two boreal watersheds using the MIKE SHE model. More specifically, this research intends to quantify the historical, and regional, water budgets and their associated hydrological processes at two boreal watersheds—the Coles Lake and Tsea Lake watersheds—in northeastern BC. The development of coupled groundwater and surface water model of these watersheds are discussed. The model setup, calibration process, and results are presented, focusing on the water balance of boreal watersheds. Hydrological components within these watersheds are quantified through a combination of intensive fieldwork, observational data, analysis and numerical modeling. The output from the model provides important information for decision makers to manage water resources in northeastern BC. Keywords: Northeastern BC; boreal watershed; water balance; MIKE SHE hydrological model.

  7. Lessons of the 11 years of environmental monitoring of the Phase 1 LaGrande complex, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, C.

    1993-01-01

    Phase 1 of the LaGrande complex involves creation of five hydroelectric reservoirs covering 11,335 km 2 in northwestern Quebec. Environmental studies began in 1973, at the same time as construction started. Since 1978, when the first reservoir was filled, an environmental monitoring network has been in place to follow the evolution of the aquatic environment. The network has shown that the water quality has remained adequate for the survival of aquatic organisms. The observed modifications have generally been of weak amplitude in the productive zone of water habitats and have reached their maximum 2-3 y after installation of facilities. For most of the LaGrande reservoirs, the modifications in water quality are related to decomposition of submerged organic matter. In most of the modified environments, an increase in zooplankton biomass has been noted which reached a maximum in the fourth summer season after reservoir filling. Fish populations, after an initial decrease in density, increased in subsequent years to reach a maximum and then declined to a level slightly above the pre-reservoir population

  8. Fifty Years of Water Sensitive Urban Design, Salisbury, South Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John C.Radcliffe; Declan Page; Bruce Naumann; Peter Dillon

    2017-01-01

    Australia has developed extensive policies and guidelines for the management of its water.The City of Salisbury,located within metropolitan Adelaide,South Australia,developed rapidly through urbanisation from the 1970s.Water sensitive urban design principles were adopted to maximise the use of the increased run-off generated by urbanisation and ameliorate flood risk.Managed aquifer recharge was introduced for storing remediated low-salinity stormwater by aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in a brackish aquifer for subsequent irrigation.This paper outlines how a municipal government has progressively adopted principles of Water Sensitive Urban Design during its development within a framework of evolving national water policies.Salisbury's success with stormwater harvesting led to the formation of a pioneering water business that includes linking projects from nine sites to provide a non-potable supply of 5 × 106 m3 ·year-1.These installations hosted a number of applied research projects addressing well configuration,water quality,reliability and economics and facilitated the evaluation of its system as a potential potable water source.The evaluation showed that while untreated stormwater contained contaminants,subsurface storage and end-use controls were sufficient to make recovered water safe for public open space irrigation,and with chlorination,acceptable for third pipe supplies.Drinking water quality could be achieved by adding microfiltration,disinfection with UV and chlorination.The costs that would need to be expended to achieve drinking water safety standards were found to be considerably less than the cost of establishing dual pipe distribution systems.The full cost of supply was determined to be AUD$1.57 m-3 for non-potable water for public open space irrigation,much cheaper than mains water,AUD $3.45 m-3 at that time.Producing and storing potable water was found to cost AUD$1.96 to $2.24 m-3.

  9. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

  10. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  11. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, K.M.; Gowland, J.A.; Dillon, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 μg/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment

  12. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, K.M. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Gowland, J.A. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Dillon, P.J. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)]. E-mail: pdillon@trentu.ca

    2006-10-15

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 {mu}g/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment.

  13. Improving gridded snow water equivalent products in British Columbia, Canada: multi-source data fusion by neural network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauffer, Andrew M.; Hsieh, William W.; Cannon, Alex J.; Schnorbus, Markus A.

    2018-03-01

    Estimates of surface snow water equivalent (SWE) in mixed alpine environments with seasonal melts are particularly difficult in areas of high vegetation density, topographic relief, and snow accumulations. These three confounding factors dominate much of the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. An artificial neural network (ANN) was created using as predictors six gridded SWE products previously evaluated for BC. Relevant spatiotemporal covariates were also included as predictors, and observations from manual snow surveys at stations located throughout BC were used as target data. Mean absolute errors (MAEs) and interannual correlations for April surveys were found using cross-validation. The ANN using the three best-performing SWE products (ANN3) had the lowest mean station MAE across the province. ANN3 outperformed each product as well as product means and multiple linear regression (MLR) models in all of BC's five physiographic regions except for the BC Plains. Subsequent comparisons with predictions generated by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model found ANN3 to better estimate SWE over the VIC domain and within most regions. The superior performance of ANN3 over the individual products, product means, MLR, and VIC was found to be statistically significant across the province.

  14. A geochemical characterization of cold-water natural acid rock drainage at the Zn–Pb XY deposit, Yukon, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gault, Kristen B.; Gammon, Paul; Fortin, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterizes the waters and minerals of a natural acid rock drainage (ARD). • Demonstrates that cold climate ARD is mostly similar to temperate systems. • Cold-climate differences impact kinetic rates and hydrologic seasonality. • Demonstrates that thermodynamic equilibrium governs the ARD system. • Demonstrates that extraneous inputs can be detected in the system. - Abstract: Acid rock drainage (ARD) is considered to be temperature-limited due to the diminished activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing microbes at low temperatures. Nonetheless, ARD streams are present in cold climates. This study presents a geochemical characterization of a cold climate ARD creek at the Zn–Pb XY deposit in Yukon, Canada, which showed highly elevated concentrations of dissolved zinc (up to 475 mg/L). Acid rock drainage at the XY deposit is likely generated via subsurface abiotic and biotic oxidation of sulfide minerals, and then exits as seeps at the headwaters of the creek. The uppermost reaches of the creek have the lowest pH levels (pH 3.3) and highest metal concentrations, with prolific precipitation of iron-hydroxysulfate and -oxyhydroxide mineral precipitates (schwertmannite, jarosite, and goethite), present as terraced iron formations (TIFs) at one sampling location. The lower reaches of the creek show a progressive pH increase (up to pH level 4.9) which occurs due to Fe(III)- and Al-hydrolysis, the neutralizing influence of carbonate-rich strata and/or ground waters, and dilution by surface waters entering the creek. Progressive pH neutralization causes a change in precipitate mineralogy to X-ray amorphous Al-hydroxysulfates, with a composition similar to aluminite and hydrobasaluminite, and amorphous Al(OH)_3. Natural attenuation of Cd, Zn, and Pb occurred downstream from the headwater seeps, which was likely influenced by adsorption reactions involving both metal-sulfate anions and metal-sulfate ternary complexes. Generally, the concentrations of Cd, Zn, and

  15. Multiple stressor effects on water quality in Poplar Bay, Lake of the Woods, Canada: a midge-based assessment of hypolimnetic oxygen conditions over the last two centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie C. Summers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid and Chaoborus (midge remains preserved in a dated sediment core from Poplar Bay, Lake of the Woods (LOW, Ontario, Canada, were used to assess the effects of multiple stressors (e.g., recent warming and shoreline development on water quality over the past ~200 years. As monitoring data for LOW do not extend beyond recent decades, paleolimnological methods are used to reconstruct long-term limnological trends and to establish pre-disturbance conditions. The effects of recent warming and shoreline development on Poplar Bay water quality are examined using an index of hypolimnetic oxygen (O2 status based on the ratio of Chaoborus to chironomid remains (chaob:chir and a midge-inferred volume-weighted hypolimnetic oxygen (VWHO model. Our paleolimnological data indicate that hypolimnetic [O2] in Poplar Bay have been historically hypoxic (1-4 mg O2 L-1 but have declined further (generally <2 mg O2 L-1 over the last few decades. Significant relationships between air temperature and midge data indicate that substantial warming starting in the late-1970s has triggered a marked response in the midge assemblages that pre-dates the onset of cottage development (mid-1990s. These findings complement a diatom-based study on the same sediment core, likewise suggesting that recent warming has played a prominent role in structuring limnetic communities. However, it is likely that the full, compounded effects of recent warming and shoreline development have not yet been realized. Our study highlights the complexity of multiple stressor systems, such as Poplar Bay, and emphasizes the benefits of using multiple, independent lines of paleoenvironmental evidence in gaining a more complete understanding of historical water quality.

  16. A Systematic Review of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Small Non-Community Drinking Water Systems in Canada and the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Pons

    Full Text Available Reports of outbreaks in Canada and the United States (U.S. indicate that approximately 50% of all waterborne diseases occur in small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs. Summarizing these investigations to identify the factors and conditions contributing to outbreaks is needed in order to help prevent future outbreaks.The objectives of this study were to: 1 identify published reports of waterborne disease outbreaks involving SDWSs in Canada and the U.S. since 1970; 2 summarize reported factors contributing to outbreaks, including water system characteristics and events surrounding the outbreaks; and 3 identify terminology used to describe SDWSs in outbreak reports.Three electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched for outbreak reports involving SDWSs throughout Canada and the U.S. from 1970 to 2014. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data related to water system characteristics and outbreak events. The data were analyzed descriptively with 'outbreak' as the unit of analysis.From a total of 1,995 citations, we identified 50 relevant articles reporting 293 unique outbreaks. Failure of an existing water treatment system (22.7% and lack of water treatment (20.2% were the leading causes of waterborne outbreaks in SDWSs. A seasonal trend was observed with 51% of outbreaks occurring in summer months (p<0.001. There was large variation in terminology used to describe SDWSs, and a large number of variables were not reported, including water source and whether water treatment was used (missing in 31% and 66% of reports, respectively.More consistent reporting and descriptions of SDWSs in future outbreak reports are needed to understand the epidemiology of these outbreaks and to inform the development of targeted interventions for SDWSs. Additional monitoring of water systems that are used on a seasonal or infrequent basis would be worthwhile to inform future protection efforts.

  17. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  18. Methylmercury in water, sediment, and invertebrates in created wetlands of Rouge Park, Toronto, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Kathleen A.; Xie Qun; Mitchell, Carl P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of hectares of wetlands are created annually because wetlands provide beneficial ecosystem services. Wetlands are also key sites for production of the bioaccumulative neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), but little is known about MeHg production in created systems. Here, we studied methylmercury in sediment, water, and invertebrates in created wetlands of various ages. Sediment MeHg reached 8 ng g −1 in the newest wetland, which was significantly greater than in natural, control wetlands. This trend was mirrored in several invertebrate taxa, whose concentrations reached as high as 1.6 μg g −1 in the newest wetland, above levels thought to affect reproduction in birds. The MeHg concentrations in created wetland invertebrate taxa generally decreased with increasing wetland age, possibly due to a combination of deeper anoxia and less organic matter accumulation in younger wetlands. A short-term management intervention and/or improved engineering design may be necessary to reduce the mercury-associated risk in newly created wetlands. - Highlights: ► Investigated methylmercury accumulation in created wetland ecosystems. ► Concentrations and bioaccumulation significantly elevated in new created wetlands. ► Short-term effect may be due to deeper anoxia, less organic matter in new wetlands. ► Intervention or improved design required to reduce short-term ecological risk. - Sediment methylmercury concentrations and bioaccumulation in many invertebrate taxa are significantly elevated in newly created wetlands.

  19. Adaptation potential to climate change of the Peribonka River (Quebec, Canada) water resources system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minville, M.; Krau, S.; Brissette, F.; Leconte, R.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of climatic change on the Peribonka water resources system. The impacts of climatic change on hydroelectric power reservoir operations in the region were assessed using a set of operating rules optimized for future hydrological regimes. Thirty climate change projections from 5 climate models, 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and 3 temporal horizons were used in the study. Climatic change projections were then downscaled using the Delta approach and coupled to a stochastic weather generator developed to account for natural variabilities in local climates. A lumped hydrological model was used to simulate future hydrological regimes. A stochastic dynamic programming technique was then used to optimize reservoir operating rules for various time series of future river flows. The operating rules were then used in conjunction with a river system simulation tool in order to determine reservoir and hydroelectric production scenarios under different climatic change regimes. Results of the study showed significant increases in hydroelectricity production for most of the climate change projections. However, nonproductive spillage was also increased. Reservoir reliability was also reduced. tabs., figs

  20. Water balance along a chain of tundra lakes: A 20-year isotopic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. J.; Reid, R.

    2014-11-01

    Stable isotope measurements and isotope mass balance (IMB) calculations are presented in support of an unprecedented 20-year water balance assessment for a tailings pond and a chain of downstream lakes at the Salmita-Tundra mine site, situated near Courageous Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada (65°03‧N; 111°11‧W). The method is shown to provide a comprehensive annual and interannual perspective of water balance fluxes along a chain of lakes during the period 1991-2010, without the need for continuous streamflow gauging, and reveals important lake-order-dependent patterns of land-surface runoff, discharge accumulation, and several key diagnostic ratios, i.e., evaporation/inflow, evaporation/evapotranspiration, land-surface-runoff/precipitation and discharge/ precipitation. Lake evaporation is found to be a significant component of the water balance, accounting for between 26% and 32% of inflow to natural lakes and between 72% and 100% of inflow to mine-tailings ponds. Evaporation/evapotranspiration averages between 7% and 22% and is found to be higher in low-precipitation years, and in watersheds with a higher proportion of lakes. Runoff ratios for land-surface drainages and runoff ratios for watersheds (including lakes) ranged between 14-47% and 20-47%, respectively, and were higher in low precipitation years, in watersheds with a higher proportion of lakes, and in watersheds less affected by mining development. We propose that in general these two runoff ratios will likely converge as lake order increases and as land cover conditions become regionally representative. Notably, the study demonstrates application of IMB, validated with streamflow measurements, to constrain local water balance in a remote low-arctic region. For IMB chain-of-lakes applications, it underlines the importance of accounting for evaporatively-enriched upstream sources to avoid overestimation of evaporation losses.

  1. Global change and water resources in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hirsch, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    We are in the midst of a continental-scale, multi-year experiment in the United States, in which we have not defined our testable hypotheses or set the duration and scope of the experiment, which poses major water-resources challenges for the 21st century. What are we doing? We are expanding population at three times the national growth rate in our most water-scarce region, the southwestern United States, where water stress is already great and modeling predicts decreased streamflow by the middle of this century. We are expanding irrigated agriculture from the west into the east, particularly to the southeastern states, where increased competition for ground and surface water has urban, agricultural, and environmental interests at odds, and increasingly, in court. We are expanding our consumption of pharmaceutical and personal care products to historic high levels and disposing them in surface and groundwater, through sewage treatment plants and individual septic systems. These substances are now detectable at very low concentrations and we have documented significant effects on aquatic species, particularly on fish reproduction function. We don’t yet know what effects on human health may emerge, nor do we know if we need to make large investments in water treatment systems, which were not designed to remove these substances. These are a few examples of our national-scale experiment. In addition to these water resources challenges, over which we have some control, climate change models indicate that precipitation and streamflow patterns will change in coming decades, with western mid-latitude North America generally drier. We have already documented trends in more rain and less snow in western mountains. This has large implications for water supply and storage, and groundwater recharge. We have documented earlier snowmelt peak spring runoff in northeastern and northwestern States, and western montane regions. Peak runoff is now about two weeks earlier than it was

  2. A Systematic Review of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Small Non-Community Drinking Water Systems in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Wendy; Young, Ian; Truong, Jenifer; Jones-Bitton, Andria; McEwen, Scott; Pintar, Katarina; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Reports of outbreaks in Canada and the United States (U.S.) indicate that approximately 50% of all waterborne diseases occur in small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs). Summarizing these investigations to identify the factors and conditions contributing to outbreaks is needed in order to help prevent future outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify published reports of waterborne disease outbreaks involving SDWSs in Canada and the U.S. since 1970; 2) summarize reported factors contributing to outbreaks, including water system characteristics and events surrounding the outbreaks; and 3) identify terminology used to describe SDWSs in outbreak reports. Three electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched for outbreak reports involving SDWSs throughout Canada and the U.S. from 1970 to 2014. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data related to water system characteristics and outbreak events. The data were analyzed descriptively with 'outbreak' as the unit of analysis. From a total of 1,995 citations, we identified 50 relevant articles reporting 293 unique outbreaks. Failure of an existing water treatment system (22.7%) and lack of water treatment (20.2%) were the leading causes of waterborne outbreaks in SDWSs. A seasonal trend was observed with 51% of outbreaks occurring in summer months (pwater source and whether water treatment was used (missing in 31% and 66% of reports, respectively). More consistent reporting and descriptions of SDWSs in future outbreak reports are needed to understand the epidemiology of these outbreaks and to inform the development of targeted interventions for SDWSs. Additional monitoring of water systems that are used on a seasonal or infrequent basis would be worthwhile to inform future protection efforts.

  3. Variations in statewide water quality of New Jersey streams, water years 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckathorn, Heather A.; Deetz, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical analyses were conducted for six water-quality constituents measured at 371 surface-water-quality stations during water years 1998-2009 to determine changes in concentrations over time. This study examined year-round concentrations of total dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen; concentrations of dissolved chloride were measured only from January to March. All the water-quality data analyzed were collected by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the cooperative Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Stations were divided into groups according to the 1-year or 2-year period that the stations were part of the Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Data were obtained from the eight groups of Statewide Status stations for water years 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001-02, 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08, and 2009. The data from each group were compared to the data from each of the other groups and to baseline data obtained from Background stations unaffected by human activity that were sampled during the same time periods. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether median concentrations of a selected water-quality constituent measured in a particular 1-year or 2-year group were different from those measured in other 1-year or 2-year groups. If the median concentrations were found to differ among years or groups of years, then Tukey's multiple comparison test on ranks was used to identify those years with different or equal concentrations of water-quality constituents. A significance level of 0.05 was selected to indicate significant changes in median concentrations of water-quality constituents. More variations in the median concentrations of water-quality constituents were observed at Statewide Status stations (randomly chosen stations scattered throughout the State of New Jersey) than at Background stations

  4. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  5. Three-dimensional hydrogeological modeling to assess the elevated-water-table technique for controlling acid generation from an abandoned tailings site in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Marie-Pier; Bussière, Bruno; Broda, Stefan; Aubertin, Michel

    2018-01-01

    The Manitou Mine sulphidic-tailings storage facility No. 2, near Val D'Or, Canada, was reclaimed in 2009 by elevating the water table and applying a monolayer cover made of tailings from nearby Goldex Mine. Previous studies showed that production of acid mine drainage can be controlled by lowering the oxygen flux through Manitou tailings with a water table maintained at the interface between the cover and reactive tailings. Simulations of different scenarios were performed using numerical hydrogeological modeling to evaluate the capacity of the reclamation works to maintain the phreatic surface at this interface. A large-scale numerical model was constructed and calibrated using 3 years of field measurements. This model reproduced the field measurements, including the existence of a western zone on the site where the phreatic level targeted is not always met during the summer. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the response of the model to varying saturated hydraulic conductivities, porosities, and grain-size distributions. Higher variations of the hydraulic heads, with respect to the calibrated scenario results, were observed when simulating a looser or coarser cover material. Long-term responses were simulated using: the normal climatic data, data for a normal climate with a 2-month dry spell, and a simplified climate-change case. Environmental quality targets were reached less frequently during summer for the dry spell simulation as well as for the simplified climate-change scenario. This study illustrates how numerical simulations can be used as a key tool to assess the eventual performance of various mine-site reclamation scenarios.

  6. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change.

  7. Fluorescence characterization of the natural organic matter in deep ground waters from the Canadian Shield, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois Caron; Stefan Siemann; Karen Sharp-King; Scott Smith, D.

    2010-01-01

    Deep groundwater samples from a deep borehole in the Canadian Shield, Ontario, Canada, have been analyzed by fluorometry, to determine the difference in character of the natural organic matter (NOM) with depth. This work was done to obtain a set of geochemical characteristics of deep groundwaters at the site. The fluorescence signal is a complex signature of excitation and emission of light from fluorescent molecules which are part of all natural waters. Fluorescent components have characteristic excitation/emission components, defined as a humic-like (C1), fulvic-like (C2), and protein-like (C3); these are found in various proportions in natural samples. Changes in relative fluorescence intensities of these components have been used in the past to determine the origin and/or processes of the NOM between sampling locations. In this work, six samples were taken at different depths, from ∼108 to 650 m below the surface in the borehole. The fluorescence signals of the samples showed three main patterns: (1) the shallower samples (∼108, 139 and 285 m) had a pattern similar to that of surface groundwaters, dominated by components C1 and C2; (2) the samples in deep groundwaters (∼620 and 650 m) had a weak overall signal, dominated by component C3; finally (3) the mid-depth sample (∼503 m) had a component pattern intermediate between the shallower and deeper zones. This set of data is consistent with other data for the groundwaters from this borehole, such as chlorinity, suggesting that the three sampling intervals represent three different types of groundwaters. (author)

  8. Year-long metagenomic study of river microbiomes across land use and water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea eVan Rossum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Select bacteria, such as Escherichia coli or coliforms, have been widely used as sentinels of low water quality; however, there are concerns regarding their predictive accuracy for the protection of human and environmental health. To develop improved monitoring systems, a greater understanding of bacterial community structure, function and variability across time is required in the context of different pollution types, such as agricultural and urban contamination. Here, we present a year-long survey of free-living bacterial DNA collected from seven sites along rivers in three watersheds with varying land use in Southwestern Canada. This is the first study to examine the bacterial metagenome in flowing freshwater (lotic environments over such a time span, providing an opportunity to describe bacterial community variability as a function of land use and environmental conditions. Characteristics of the metagenomic data, such as sequence composition and average genome size, vary with sampling site, environmental conditions, and water chemistry. For example, average genome size was correlated with hours of daylight in the agricultural watershed and, across the agriculturally and urban-affected sites, k-mer composition clustering corresponded to nutrient concentrations. In addition to indicating a community shift, this change in average genome size has implications in terms of the normalisation strategies required, and considerations surrounding such strategies in general are discussed. When comparing abundances of gene functional groups between high- and low-quality water samples collected from an agricultural area, the latter had a higher abundance of nutrient metabolism and bacteriophage groups, possibly reflecting an increase in agricultural runoff. This work presents a valuable dataset representing a year of monthly sampling across watersheds and an analysis targeted at establishing a foundational understanding of how bacterial lotic communities

  9. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1987-01-01

    This report contains information on the 34 new projects funded by the United States Geological Survey 's Water Resources Research Grant Program in fiscal year 1987 and on 3 projects completed during the year. For the new projects, the report gives the grant number, project title, performing organization, principal investigator(s), and a project description that includes: (1) identification of water related problems and problem-solution approach (2) contribution to problem solution, (3) objectives, and (4) approach. The 34 projects include 12 in the area of groundwater quality problems, 12 in the science and technology of water quality management, 1 in climate variability and the hydrologic cycle, 4 in institutional change in water resources management, and 5 in surface water management. For the three completed projects, the report furnishes the grant number; project title; performing organization; principal investor(s); starting data; data of receipt of final report; and an abstract of the final report. Each project description provides the information needed to obtain a copy of the final report. The report contains tables showing: (1) proposals received according to area of research interest, (2) grant awards and funding according to area of research interest, (3) proposals received according to type of submitting organization, and (4) awards and funding according to type of organization. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Photosynthetic Response of Soybean to Microclimate in 26-Year-Old Tree-Based Intercropping Systems in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaobang; Thevathasan, Naresh V; Gordon, Andrew M; Mohammed, Idris; Gao, Pengxiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of light competition and microclimatic modifications on the net assimilation (NA), growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L.) as an understory crop, three 26-year-old soybean-tree (Acer saccharinum Marsh., Populus deltoides X nigra, Juglans nigra L.) intercropping systems were examined. Tree competition reduced photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) incident on soybeans and reduced net assimilation, growth and yield of soybean. Soil moisture of 20 cm depth close (tree rows was also reduced. Correlation analysis showed that NA and soil water content were highly correlated with growth and yield of soybean. When compared with the monoculture soybean system, the relative humidity (RH) of the poplar-soybean, silver maple-soybean, and black walnut-soybean intercropped systems was increased by 7.1%, 8.0% and 5.9%, soil water content was reduced by 37.8%, 26.3% and 30.9%, ambient temperature was reduced by 1.3°C, 1.4°C and 1.0°C, PAR was reduced by 53.6%, 57.9% and 39.9%, and air CO2 concentration was reduced by 3.7μmol·mol(-1), 4.2μmol·mol(-1) and 2.8μmol·mol(-1), respectively. Compared to the monoculture, the average NA of soybean in poplar, maple and walnut treatments was also reduced by 53.1%, 67.5% and 46.5%, respectively. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that PAR, ambient temperature and CO2 concentration were the dominant factors influencing net photosynthetic rate.

  11. The Year Without a Ski Season: An Analysis of the Winter of 2015 for Three Ski Resorts in Western Canada Using Historical and Simulation Model Forecasted Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidwirny, M. J.; Goode, J. D.; Pedersen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The winter of 2015 will go down as "the year without a ski season" for many ski resorts located close to the west coast of Canada and the USA. During this winter season, a large area of the eastern North Pacific Ocean had extremely high sea surface temperatures. These high sea surface temperatures influenced weather patterns on the west coast of North America producing very mild temperatures inland. Further, in alpine environments precipitation that normally arrives in the form of snow instead fell as rain. This research examines the climate characteristics of the winter of 2015 in greater detail for three ski resorts in British Columbia, Canada: Mount Washington, Cypress Mountain and Hemlock Valley. For these resorts, historical (1901 to 2013) and IPCC AR5 climate model forecasted climate data (RCP8.5 for 2025, 2055, and 2085) was generated for the variable winter degree days climate database ClimateBC. A value for winter degree days climate data at nearby meteorological stations for comparative analysis. For all three resorts, the winter of 2015 proved to be warmer than any individual year in the period 1901 to 2013. Interpolations involving the multi-model ensemble forecast means suggest that the climate associated with winter of 2015 will become the average normal for these resorts in only 35 to 45 years under the RCP8.5 emission scenario.

  12. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1981 on bottled mineral waters and in conjunction with unusual occurences at nuclear reactor sites and a uranium refinery. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  13. Streamflow of 2016—Water year summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Xiaodong; Wolock, David M.; Lins, Harry F.; Brady, Steven J.

    2017-09-26

    The maps and graphs in this summary describe national streamflow conditions for water year 2016 (October 1, 2015, to September 30, 2016) in the context of streamflow ranks relative to the 87-year period of 1930–2016, unless otherwise noted. The illustrations are based on observed data from the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Streamflow Network. The period of 1930–2016 was used because the number of streamgages before 1930 was too small to provide representative data for computing statistics for most regions of the country.In the summary, reference is made to the term “runoff,” which is the depth to which a river basin, State, or other geographic area would be covered with water if all the streamflow within the area during a specified period was uniformly distributed on it. Runoff quantifies the magnitude of water flowing through the Nation’s rivers and streams in measurement units that can be compared from one area to another.In all the graphics, a rank of 1 indicates the highest flow of all years analyzed and 87 indicates the lowest flow of all years. Rankings of streamflow are grouped into much below normal, below normal, normal, above normal, and much above normal based on percentiles of flow (less than 10 percent, 10–24 percent, 25–75 percent, 76–90 percent, and greater than 90 percent, respectively). Some of the data used to produce the maps and graphs are provisional and subject to change.

  14. Quality-assurance results for routine water analysis in US Geological Survey laboratories, water year 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, T.J.; Ludtke, A.S.; Krizman, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    The US. Geological Survey operates a quality- assurance program based on the analyses of reference samples for the National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado, and the Quality of Water Service Unit in Ocala, Florida. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and low ionic-strength constituents are prepared and disguised as routine samples. The program goal is to determine precision and bias for as many analytical methods offered by the participating laboratories as possible. The samples typically are submitted at a rate of approximately 5 percent of the annual environmental sample load for each constituent. The samples are distributed to the laboratories throughout the year. Analytical data for these reference samples reflect the quality of environmental sample data produced by the laboratories because the samples are processed in the same manner for all steps from sample login through data release. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System. During water year 1991, 86 analytical procedures were evaluated at the National Water Quality Laboratory and 37 analytical procedures were evaluated at the Quality of Water Service Unit. An overall evaluation of the inorganic (major ion and trace metal) constituent data for water year 1991 indicated analytical imprecision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for 5 of 67 analytical procedures: aluminum (whole-water recoverable, atomic emission spectrometric, direct-current plasma); calcium (atomic emission spectrometric, direct); fluoride (ion-exchange chromatographic); iron (whole-water recoverable, atomic absorption spectrometric, direct); and sulfate (ion-exchange chromatographic). The results for 11 of 67 analytical procedures had positive or negative bias during water year 1991. Analytical imprecision was indicated in the determination of two of the five National Water Quality Laboratory nutrient constituents: orthophosphate as phosphorus and

  15. Canada's steps towards nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1958-09-01

    This paper describes the policy development of nuclear power in Canada. Canada has a natural abundance of coal, oil, natural gas, water power and uranium. It was recognized that the demand for nuclear power would only materialize if it met an economically competitive range.

  16. Comparing the risk associated with psychosocial work conditions and health behaviours on incident hypertension over a nine-year period in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter M; Mustard, Cameron A; Lu, Hong; Glazier, Richard H

    2013-01-07

    Hypertension is an increasingly important health concern in Canada. This paper examines the risks associated with psychosocial working conditions compared to health behaviours on the risk of hypertension over a 9-year period in Ontario, Canada. We used data from Ontario respondents to the 2000-01 Canadian Community Health Survey linked to the Ontario Health Information Plan database covering physician services and the Canadian Institute for Health Information database for hospital admissions. We focused on labour market participants aged 35 to 60, who had not been previously diagnosed with hypertension, were not self-employed, and were working more than 10 hours per week, more than 20 weeks in the previous 12 months (N = 6,611). Subjects were followed for a nine-year period to ascertain incidence of hypertension. Low job control was associated with an increased risk of hypertension among men, but not among women. The population attributable fraction associated with low job control among males was 11.8% in our fully adjusted model. There was no consistent pattern of increased risk of hypertension across different levels of health behaviours. Primary prevention efforts to reduce the incidence of hypertension predominantly target modifiable health behaviours. Evidence from this longitudinal cohort suggests that modifiable characteristics of the work environment should also be considered in the design of cardiovascular disease prevention programs, in particular for male labour market participants.

  17. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2004-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2002.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 28 streamflow stations, 27 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 17 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 102 observation wells.

  18. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 23 streamflow stations, 20 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 103 observation wells.

  19. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  20. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water, and Hibernia mud cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.; Fancey, L.; Andrews, C.; Meade, J.; Power, F.; Veinot, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Science Branch; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Quality Laboratory

    2001-04-01

    The authors studied the short term effects on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods (Calanus finmarchicus), juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) and ctenophores (Pleurobrachius pileus) of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings. In this report, they presented the data collected, including data on the water solubility of Petro-Canada drill mud fluid IA-35 and metal analysis of production water from the Sable Island Offshore Exploration Project. Low acute toxicity potential for drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill cuttings for the species and life stages tested were revealed. The hypothesis to the effect that wastes pose very little or no risk of an acute toxic nature to the marine environment were reinforced by the results from this study. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  1. Effects of forest harvesting on summer stream temperatures in New Brunswick, Canada: an inter-catchment, multiple-year comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P.-A. Bourque

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pre- and post-harvest comparison of stream temperatures collected in five neighbouring streams (sub-catchments over a period of five years (1994-1998. The aim of the study was to determine whether land cover changes from clear cutting in areas outside forest buffer zones (applied to streams >0.5 m wide might contribute to an increase in summer mean stream temperatures in buffered streams downslope by infusion of warmed surface and sub-surface water into the streams. Specific relationships were observed in all five forest streams investigated. To assist in the analysis, several spatially-relevant variables, such as land cover change, mid-summer potential solar radiation, flow accumulation, stream location and slope of the land were determined, in part, from existing aerial photographs, GIS-archived forest inventory data and a digital terrain model of the study area. Spatial calculations of insolation levels for July 15th were used as an index of mid-summer solar heating across sub-catchments. Analysis indicated that prior to the 1995 harvest, differences in stream temperature could be attributed to (i topographic position and catchment-to-sun orientation, (ii the level of cutting that occurred in the upper catchment prior to the start of the study, and (iii the average slope within harvested areas. Compared to the pre-harvest mean stream temperatures in 1994, mean temperatures in the three streams downslope from the 1995 harvest areas increased by 0.3 to 0.7°C (representing a 4-8% increase; p-value of normalised temperatures Keywords: terrain attributes, solar radiation, land cover, forest buffers, New Brunswick regulations, spatial modelling, DEM, forest covertypes

  2. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  3. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water years 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.

    2017-05-25

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2012 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012, is called “water year 2012.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information on

  4. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.

    2017-05-25

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a database for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2014 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the periodOctober 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014, is called “water year 2014.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus, and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during nonfrozen periods are included for many lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes the location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information

  5. Global change and water resources in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.; Hirsch, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    We are in the midst of a continental-scale, multi-year experiment in the United States, in which we have not defined our testable hypotheses or set the duration and scope of the experiment, which poses major water-resources challenges for the 21st century. What are we doing? We are expanding population at three times the national growth rate in our most water-scarce region, the southwestern United States, where water stress is already great and modeling predicts decreased streamflow by the middle of this century. We are expanding irrigated agriculture from the west into the east, particularly to the southeastern states, where increased competition for ground and surface water has urban, agricultural, and environmental interests at odds, and increasingly, in court. We are expanding our consumption of pharmaceutical and personal care products to historic high levels and disposing them in surface and groundwater, through sewage treatment plants and individual septic systems. These substances are now detectable at very low concentrations and we have documented significant effects on aquatic species, particularly on fish reproduction function. We don’t yet know what effects on human health may emerge, nor do we know if we need to make large investments in water treatment systems, which were not designed to remove these substances. These are a few examples of our national-scale experiment. In addition to these water resources challenges, over which we have some control, climate change models indicate that precipitation and streamflow patterns will change in coming decades, with western mid-latitude North America generally drier. We have already documented trends in more rain and less snow in western mountains. This has large implications for water supply and storage, and groundwater recharge. We have documented earlier snowmelt peak spring runoff in northeastern and northwestern States, and western montane regions. Peak runoff is now about two weeks earlier than it was

  6. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  7. Fusion Canada issue 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs.

  8. Water resources data for Virginia, water year 1991. Volume 2. Ground-water-level and ground-water-quality records. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugh, B.J.; Powell, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Virginia consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The report (Volume 2. Ground-Water-Level and Ground-Water-Quality Records) contains water levels at 356 observation wells and water quality at 2 wells. Locations of these wells are given in the report

  9. Toward the second 50 years of Water Resources Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, H.

    2014-12-01

    Since the first issue in 1965, 49 volumes and 464 issues of Water Resources Research (WRR) have been published, including more than 13,800 contributions that received more than 380,000 citations. WRR has always maintained a forward-looking vision, providing an interdisciplinary platform to nurture the initiation and development of numerous sub-disciplines and research themes in hydrology, water resources, and earth sciences and over the last 50 years. This vision, supported in no small measure by a dedicated community of researchers who submitted their best research to WRR, have helped the journal maintain its international leadership in this field. As we enter the second 50 years of WRR, new trends in scientific publishing, open access publication and web-based discussion forums, pose challenges (and opportunities) for sustaining WRR's leadership role. In this presentation, we will present the vision of the present editorial board for the future of WRR, and discuss several steps we are undertaking to adapt the journal to modern trends in communicating scientific research. This includes the introduction of new article types, such as the forthcoming "Debates on Water Resources", targeted special sections, and efforts to improve the timeliness of the review process. We humbly stand on the shoulders of the thirty-four dedicated previous editors of WRR, and remain open to receiving suggestions from the AGU hydrologic community.

  10. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  11. Temperature impacts on the water year 2014 drought in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Safeeq, Mohammad; AghaKouchak, Amir; Guan, Kaiyu; Funk, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    California is experiencing one of the worst droughts on record. Here we use a hydrological model and risk assessment framework to understand the influence of temperature on the water year (WY) 2014 drought in California and examine the probability that this drought would have been less severe if temperatures resembled the historical climatology. Our results indicate that temperature played an important role in exacerbating the WY 2014 drought severity. We found that if WY 2014 temperatures resembled the 1916–2012 climatology, there would have been at least an 86% chance that winter snow water equivalent and spring-summer soil moisture and runoff deficits would have been less severe than the observed conditions. We also report that the temperature forecast skill in California for the important seasons of winter and spring is negligible, beyond a lead-time of one month, which we postulate might hinder skillful drought prediction in California.

  12. Estimates of water and solute release from a coal waste rock dump in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, S A; Barbour, S L; Hendry, M J; Carey, S K

    2017-12-01

    Long term (1999 to 2014) flow and water quality data from a rock drain located at the base of a coal waste rock dump constructed in the Elk Valley, British Columbia was used to characterize the release of three solutes (NO 3 - , Cl - and SO 4 2- ) from the dump and obtain whole dump estimates of net percolation (NP). The concentrations of dump derived solutes in the rock drain water were diluted by snowmelt waters from the adjacent natural watershed during the spring freshet and reached a maximum concentration during the winter baseflow period. Historical peak baseflow concentrations of conservative ions (NO 3 - and Cl - ) increased until 2006/07 after which they decreased. This decrease was attributed to completion of the flushing of the first pore volume of water stored within the dump. The baseflow SO 4 2- concentrations increased proportionally with NO 3 - and Cl - to 2007, but then continued to slowly increase as NO 3 - and Cl - concentrations decreased. This was attributed to ongoing production of SO 4 2- due to oxidation of sulfide minerals within the dump. Based on partitioning of the annual volume of water discharged from the rock drain to waste rock effluent (NP) and water entering the rock drain laterally from the natural watershed, the mean NP values were estimated to be 446±50mm/a (area normalized net percolation/year) for the dump and 172±71mm/a for the natural watershed. The difference was attributed to greater rates of recharge in the dump from summer precipitation compared to the natural watershed where rainfall interception and enhanced evapotranspiration will increase water losses. These estimates included water moving through subsurface pathways. However, given the limitations in quantifying these flows the estimated NP rates for both the natural watershed and the waste rock dump are considered to be low, and could be much higher (e.g. ~450mm/a and ~800mm/a). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Paleoenvironmental inference models from sediment diatom assemblages in Baffin Island lakes (Nunavut, Canada) and reconstruction of summer water temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joynt, E. H. III; Wolfe, A. P. [Colorado Univ., Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Lake sediments are attractive repositories for paleoclimate proxy data because they are temporally continuous, undisturbed and datable. It is particularly true of lakes which are ubiquitous throughout the Arctic regions, enabling dense spatial coverage of sampling sites. In more recent times diatoms have been applied to a a variety of paleoenvironmental questions. However, these studies have been of limited usefulness because they lack a regional training set that would facilitate making quantitative paleoenvironmental inferences. This article provides this inferential tool, together with an example of its application. Conductivity, pH, summer lake water temperature, and mean annual air temperature have been identified as the significant controls over diatom assemblages from the surface sediments of 61 lakes on Baffin Island. Using weighted-averaging regression and calibration, predictive models for these parameters have been developed. Results show that the summer lake water temperature model provides realistic reconstructions when compared with other paleoenvironmental records. Over the past 5000 years the amplitude of reconstructed summer lake water temperature was found to be on the order of 4 degrees C, expressed primarily as progressive neoglacial cooling culminating in the Little Ice Age. Diatom-inferred summer water temperatures have increased by about 2 degrees C in the past 150 years, which is also in agreement with independent paleoclimatic reconstructions. The data obtained in this study complements similar efforts from the western Canadian Arctic and the northern reaches of Scandinavia, however, this is the first training set developed for lakes situated entirely north of the tree line. As such, it extends the applicability of diatoms for paleotemperature reconstructions well into the Arctic tundra biome. 45 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs., 1 appendix.

  14. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Material and Methods Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. Results A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720 had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754 were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373 were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L. Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. Conclusions The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis.

  15. Comparison between Radiology Science Laboratory, Brazil (LCR) and National Research Council, Canada (NRC) of the absorbed dose in water using Fricke dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salata, Camila; David, Mariano Gazineu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de

    2014-01-01

    The absorbed dose to water standards for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry developed by the Radiology Science Laboratory, Brazil (LCR) and the National Research Council, Canada (NRC), were compared. The two institutions have developed absorbed dose standards based on the Fricke dosimetry system. There are significant differences between the two standards as far as the preparation and readout of the Fricke solution and irradiation geometry of the holder. Measurements were done at the NRC laboratory using a single Ir-192 source. The comparison of absorbed dose measurements was expressed as the ratio Dw(NRC)/Dw(LCR), which was found to be 1.026. (author)

  16. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Canadian uranium exploration and development efforts in 1985 and 1986 resulted in a significant increase in estimates of measured uranium resources. New discoveries have more than made up for production during 1985 and 1986, and for the elimination of some resources from the overall estimates, due to the sustained upward pressure on production costs and the stagnation of uranium prices in real terms. Canada possesses a large portion of the world's uranium resources that are of current economic interest and remains the major focus of inter-national uranium exploration activity. Expenditures for uranium exploration in Canada in 1985 and 1986 were $32 million and $33 million, respectively. Although much lower than the $130 million total reported for 1979, expenditures for 1987 are forecast to increase. Exploration and surface development drilling in 1985 and 1986 were reported to be 183 000 m and 165σ2 000 m, respectively, 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada has maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium. By the year 2000, Canada's annual uranium requirements will be about 2 100 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or expected to be in service by the late 1990s. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Annual sales currently approach $1 billion, of which exports account for 85 per cent. Forward domestic and export contract commitments totalled 73 000 tU and 62 000 tU, respectively, as of early 1987

  17. Canada's Response to the Recommendations in the Tenth Biennial Report on Great Lakes Water Quality of the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Government of Canada and Ontario are currently renegotiating the Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem (COA). They are committed to restoring and maintaining the basin's chemical, physical and biological integrity and ensuring that it has a healthy, sustainable future. The COA has established a strategic framework for coordinated federal-provincial responsibilities regarding the Great Lakes basin ecosystem. This document presents responses to the recommendations of the International Joint Commission's (IJC) Tenth Biennial Report on how to improve the performance and effectiveness of government programs such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. According to the IJC, there are many challenges ahead, including: cleanup of Canadian Areas of Concern; controlling and preventing the further introduction of exotic species; mitigating the impact of rapid urban growth on environmental conditions throughout the basin; and reducing contaminants transported in the atmosphere over long distances to the Great Lakes. This document presented the government's responses to each of the following IJC recommendations regarding remedial action plans, threats to human health with respect to consumption of fish, contaminated sediment, airborne toxic substances, Great Lakes binational toxics strategy, land use, alien invasive species, and information and data management. IJC also recommended that indicators should be reported regarding whether the Great Lakes surface waters are suitable for drinking, swimming and whether fish are edible.

  18. Pediatric Burns from Glass-Fronted Fireplaces in Canada: A Growing Issue Over the Past 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Jay; Crain, Jennifer; Kelly, Charis; Verchere, Cindy; Fish, Joel

    2016-01-01

    There is an alarming lack of public awareness surrounding the safety of glass-fronted fireplaces. This has resulted in an active campaign from the American Burn Association Prevention Committee. One issue encountered while advocating for prevention among manufacturers is the lack of corroborating and accurate data. The purpose of this study was to examine the annual trends and epidemiology of glass-fronted fireplace-related burn injuries to children less than 15 years old, who presented to Canadian emergency departments between 1990 and 2010. Records of pediatric burn injuries related to glass-fronted fireplaces were extracted from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program database for the study period (1990-2010). Cases were analyzed in terms of anatomic area affected, demographics, seasonality, safety device use, and injury severity. A total of 616 cases of burns from glass-fronted fireplaces were identified. The incidence increased at an average of 2.7 cases per year. This is a greater than 20-fold increase over 20 years. Seventy-five percentage of the cases occurred in children less than 2 years, and 95% occurred in children less than 5 years. The study demonstrated a growing risk from glass-fronted fireplace burns, likely due to the increasing popularity of household gas fireplace units. These units are a particular risk to children less than 2 years, attributable to their developing mobility and reduced reaction time. This is a preventable injury that should be addressed through changes to legislation and manufacturing.

  19. Impact of a commercial peat moss operation on water quality and biota in a small tributary of the Richibucto River, Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surette, C; Brun, G L; Mallet, V N

    2002-05-01

    The St-Charles Plain (Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada) commercial peat moss operation has been ongoing since 1983. To process the peat, a dry extraction method is used that requires extensive drainage of the peat bog. The water is directed toward sedimentation ponds, where it drains into a small brook, which feeds into a river affected by tidal salt water. Water discharge from the bog contains large amounts of peat particles that deposit in the surrounding watershed. As a result, the pH of the freshwater sites that receive the drainage water from the commercial operation, is fairly acidic (pH 3.9-4.7). Water samples from or near the peat moss operation have a higher concentration of total phosphorous and total organic carbon. The peat particles contain relatively high levels of total mercury, as reflected by analysis of peat sediments. However, the water samples contained low levels of dissolved mercury. Indigenous samples of biota-namely, sand shrimps (Crangon septemspinosa) and mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus)-did not contain mercury levels higher in the impacted sites than in the reference sites. Introduced blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) did not accumulate significant amounts of mercury during a 62-day exposure in the study area. Overall, the data suggest that although relatively large amounts of mercury-containing peat particles are discharged into the ecosystem, bioaccumulation of mercury in the biota does not occur.

  20. Lower Charles River Bathymetry: 108 Years of Fresh Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, M.; Sacarny, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Lower Charles River is a heavily utilized urban river that runs between Cambridge and Boston in Massachusetts. The recreational usage of the river is dependent on adequate water depths, but there have been no definitive prior studies on the sedimentation rate of the Lower Charles River. The river transitioned from tidal to a freshwater basin in 1908 due to the construction of the (old) Charles River Dam. Water surface height on the Lower Charles River is maintained within ±1 foot through controlled discharge at the new Charles River Dam. The current study area for historical comparisons is from the old Charles River Dam to the Boston University Bridge. This study conducted a bathymetric survey of the Lower Charles River, digitized three prior surveys in the study area, calculated volumes and depth distributions for each survey, and estimated sedimentation rates from fits to the volumes over time. The oldest chart digitized was produced in 1902 during dam construction deliberations. The average sedimentation rate is estimated as 5-10 mm/year, which implies 1.8-3.5 feet sedimentation since 1908. Sedimentation rates and distributions are necessary to develop comprehensive management plans for the river and there is evidence to suggest that sedimentation rates in the shallow upstream areas are higher than the inferred rates in the study area.

  1. Evaluation of a Low-Threshold/High-Tolerance Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clinic in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada: One Year Retention Rate and Illicit Drug Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy K. S. Christie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the one-year retention rate and the prevalence of illicit opioid use and cocaine use in the Low-Threshold/High-Tolerance (LTHT methadone maintenance treatment (MMT clinic located in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Methods. A description of the LTHT MMT clinic is provided. The one-year retention rate was determined by collecting data on patients who enrolled in the LTHT MMT clinic between August 04, 2009 and August 04, 2010. The prevalence of illicit drug use was determined using a randomly selected retrospective cohort of 84 participants. For each participant the results of six consecutive urine tests for the most recent three months were compared to the results of the first six consecutive urine tests after program entry. Results. The one-year retention rate was 95%, 67% of the cohort achieved abstinence from illicit opioids and an additional 13% abstained from cocaine use. Conclusion. The novel feature of the LTHT MMT clinic is that patients are not denied methadone because of lack of ancillary services. Traditional comprehensive MMT programs invest the majority of financial resources in ancillary services that support the biopsychosocial model, whereas the LTHT approach utilizes a medical model and directs resources at medical management.

  2. Decreasing soil water Ca2+ reduces DOC adsorption in mineral soils: implications for long-term DOC trends in an upland forested catchment in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jason Grainger; Eimers, M Catherine

    2012-06-15

    Positive trends in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration have been observed in surface waters throughout North America and northern Europe. Although adsorption in mineral soils is an important driver of DOC in upland streams, little is known about the potential for changes in DOC adsorption to contribute to these trends. We hypothesized that long-term declines in soil water Ca(2+) levels, in response to declining acid deposition, might influence DOC adsorption and that this could contribute to long-term DOC trends in an upland forested catchment in south-central Ontario, Canada. Between 1987 and 2009, DOC concentrations increased significantly (pDOC concentration (DOC(np)), which is a measure of the soil water DOC concentration at equilibrium with the soil, ranged from 1.27 to 3.75 mg L(-1) in B horizon soils. This was similar to the mean DOC concentrations of B horizon soil water (2.04-6.30 mg L(-1)) and stream water (2.20 mg L(-1)), indicating that soil and stream water DOC concentrations are controlled by equilibrium processes at the soil-water interface. Adsorption experiments using variable Ca(2+) concentrations demonstrated that as Ca(2+) decreased the DOC(np) increased (1.96 to 4.74 mg L(-1)), which was consistent with the observed negative correlation between DOC and Ca(2+) in B horizon soil water (pDOC adsorption (p>0.05), indicating that changes in DOC adsorption might be related to cation bridging. We conclude that declines in soil water Ca(2+) concentration can contribute to increasing DOC trends in upland streams by reducing DOC adsorption in mineral soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Water Quality in the Tanana River Basin, Alaska, Water Years 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.

    2007-01-01

    OVERVIEW This report contains water-quality data collected from 84 sites in Tanana River basin during water years 2004 through 2006 (October 2003 through September 2006) as part of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) Alaska Monitoring and Assessment Program (AKMAP), supported in part through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Office of Water, Cooperative Assistance Agreement X7-97078801. A broad range of chemical analyses are presented for 93 sets of samples collected at 59 tributaries to the Tanana River and at 25 locations along the mainstem. These data are to provide a means to assess baseline characteristics and establish indicators that are ecologically important, affordable, and relevant to society.

  4. Meeting new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and associations with adiposity among toddlers living in Edmonton, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Hesketh, Kylie D; Hunter, Stephen; Kuzik, Nicholas; Rhodes, Ryan E; Rinaldi, Christina M; Spence, John C; Carson, Valerie

    2017-11-20

    Canada has recently released guidelines that include toddler-specific recommendations for physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and sleep. This study examined the proportions of toddlers meeting the new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years) and associations with body mass index (BMI) z-scores in a sample from Edmonton, Canada. Participants included 151 toddlers (aged 19.0 ± 1.9 months) for whom there was complete objectively measured physical activity data from the Parents' Role in Establishing healthy Physical activity and Sedentary behaviour habits (PREPS) project. Toddlers' physical activity was measured using ActiGraph wGT3X-BT monitors. Toddlers' screen time and sleep were measured using the PREPS questionnaire. Toddlers' height and weight were objectively measured by public health nurses and BMI z-scores were calculated using World Health Organization growth standards. Meeting the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines was defined as: ≥180 min/day of total physical activity, including ≥1 min/day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity; no screen time per day (for those aged 12-23 months) or ≤1 h/day of screen time per day (ages 24-35 months); and 11-14 h of sleep per 24-h period. Frequency analyses and linear regression models were conducted. Only 11.9% of toddlers met the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, but this finding was largely driven by screen time. The majority of toddlers met the individual physical activity (99.3%) and sleep (82.1%) recommendations, while only 15.2% of toddlers met the screen time recommendation. No associations were observed between meeting specific and general combinations of recommendations within the guidelines and BMI z-scores. Most toddlers in this sample were meeting physical activity and sleep recommendations but were engaging in more screen time than recommended. Consequently, only a small proportion of toddlers met the overall guidelines. Based on

  5. Canada's nuclear achievement. Technical and economic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummery, T.E.; Macpherson, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Canada's leading role and eminent accomplishments in nuclear development now span more than half a century. They encompass aspects as diverse as the design and sale of nuclear power reactors and research reactor technology, to the establishment of a corps of scientists, engineers and technologists with the expertise to address a wide scope of important nuclear science issues. The success of a country of modest technical and financial resources, like Canada, in the highly technical and very competitive nuclear field is surprising to many Canadians, and does not fit the usual image we have of ourselves as 'drawers of water and hewers of wood'. For this reason alone, Canada's nuclear achievement makes an interesting and timely story. To address the many facets of Canada's nuclear activities over the past 50 years would obviously require space far beyond that available in this paper. We have therefore limited this review to highlights we judge to be the most pertinent and interesting from an historical, technical and economic perspective. We also indicate briefly our view of the future of nuclear power in the overall context of energy needs in a world that is becoming more industrial and increasingly environmentally conscious. (author) 22 refs., 7 figs

  6. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiley Daley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Objectives: Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Methods: Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Results: Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. Conclusions: The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in

  7. Advancing smoke-free public spaces: the challenge of water-pipe in the Canadian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley James

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, Canada has made great strides in securing further protection with regard to water-pipe tobacco. The battle is not yet over, and large communities within Canada continue to be without regulation. Cases from across Canada can serve as useful lessons to make progress in the rest of the country and in the global context.

  8. Nonnatural deaths of children under the age of 5 years in Ontario, Canada: A retrospective autopsy analysis of 10 years (2006-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Sakina Rizvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to unravel the common patterns observed among nonnatural deaths of children under 5 years and suggest ways to prevent such unnecessary deaths. The study was confined to the province of Ontario to allow the identification of regional specific patterns. The database at the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario was searched for all pediatric deaths from the years 2006-2015. All nonnatural deaths for children under the age of 5 years, including sudden infant death syndrome, were selected for the study. Manner and cause of death along with the corresponding year were recorded in tables. In the 10-year period, 940 nonnatural deaths were identified in Ontario through autopsy records which are equal to approximately 36.7% of the total childhood deaths. There were 295 accidental cases (11.6% and 71 homicides (2.8%. The leading causes of nonnatural childhood deaths in Ontario were drowning, traffic accidents, blunt trauma, and asphyxia. Nonnatural deaths are preventable through education and training of parents. Implementation of educational interventions can significantly reduce nonnatural deaths of children in Ontario.

  9. Controls on the distribution of arsenic in lake sediments impacted by 65 years of gold ore processing in subarctic Canada: the role of organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jennifer; Palmer, Michael; Swindles, Graeme T.; Sanei, Hamed; Jamieson, Heather E.; Parsons, Michael; Macumber, Andrew L.; Patterson, Tim; Falck, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    Gold mines in the Yellowknife region of the Northwest Territories, Canada, operated from 1938 to 2003 and released approximately 20,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide to the environment through stack emissions. This release resulted in highly elevated arsenic concentrations in lake surface waters and sediments relative to Canadian drinking water standards and guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. High northern latitudes are experiencing substantial impacts, including changes in bio-physico-chemical processes, due to climate change. Determining the affect of warming climate on contamination is complicated by the fact that little is known of climate change controls on As mobility and bioavailability. Further, while the role of dissolved organic matter in As cycling is relatively well characterized in soils and wetland sediments, few studies have investigated the role of solid organic matter in lacustrine systems. We use a meta-analytical approach to better understand controls on sedimentary arsenic distribution in lakes within a 50 km2 area of historic mineral processing activities. Arsenic concentrations in near surface sediments of the 100 lakes studied range from 5 mg/kg to over 10,000 mg/kg (median 81 mg/kg). Distance from the historical Giant Mine roaster stack and the amount of labile organic matter (S1 carbon as determined by Rock Eval pyrolysis) in lake sediments are the variables most strongly correlated with sedimentary As concentrations (Spearman's rank correlation As:distance from historic roaster rs=-0.57, pcoating of pre-existing solid-phase As-mineral complexes, direct As-organic matter interactions, and promotion of microbial-mediated reduction and precipitation of As-bearing minerals.

  10. Building the vegetation drought response index for Canada (VegDRI-Canada) to monitor agricultural drought: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tsegaye; Champagne, Catherine; Wardlow, Brian D.; Hadwen, Trevor A.; Brown, Jesslyn; Demisse, Getachew B.; Bayissa, Yared A.; Davidson, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    map with the Canadian Drought Monitor (CDM), an independent drought indicator, showed that the VegDRI-Canada maps depicted key spatial drought severity patterns during the two targeted drought years consistent with the CDM. In addition, VegDRI-Canada was compared with canola yields in the Prairie Provinces at the regional scale for a period from 2000 to 2014 to evaluate the indices’ applicability for monitoring drought impacts on crop production. The result showed that VegDRI-Canada values had a relatively higher correlation (i.e., r > 0.5) with canola yield for nonirrigated croplands in the Canadian Prairies region in areas where drought is typically a limiting factor on crop growth, but showed a negative relationship in the southeastern Prairie region, where water availability is less of a limiting factor and in some cases a hindrance to crop growth when waterlogging occurs. These initial results demonstrate VegDRI-Canada’s utility for monitoring drought-related vegetation conditions, particularly in drought prone areas. In general, the results indicated that the VegDRI-Canada models showed sensitivity to known agricultural drought events in Canada over the 15-year period mainly for nonirrigated areas.

  11. Ten years of integrated care: backwards and forwards. The case of the province of Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vedel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Québec's rapidly growing elderly and chronically ill population represents a major challenge to its healthcare delivery system, attributable in part to the system's focus on acute care and fragmented delivery. Description of policy practice: Over the past few years, reforms have been implemented at the provincial policy level to integrate hospital-based, nursing home, homecare and social services in 95 catchment areas. Recent organizational changes in primary care have also resulted in the implementation of family medicine groups and network clinics. Several localized initiatives were also developed to improve integration of care for older persons or persons with chronic diseases. Conclusion and discussion: Québec has a history of integration of health and social services at the structural level. Recent evaluations of the current reform show that the care provided by various institutions in the healthcare system is becoming better integrated. The Québec health care system nevertheless continues to face three important challenges in its management of chronic diseases: implementing the reorganization of primary care, successfully integrating primary and secondary care at the clinical level, and developing effective governance and change management. Efforts should focus on strengthening primary care by implementing nurse practitioners, developing a shared information system, and achieving better collaboration between primary and secondary care.

  12. Ten years of integrated care: backwards and forwards. The case of the province of Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vedel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Québec's rapidly growing elderly and chronically ill population represents a major challenge to its healthcare delivery system, attributable in part to the system's focus on acute care and fragmented delivery. Description of policy practice: Over the past few years, reforms have been implemented at the provincial policy level to integrate hospital-based, nursing home, homecare and social services in 95 catchment areas. Recent organizational changes in primary care have also resulted in the implementation of family medicine groups and network clinics. Several localized initiatives were also developed to improve integration of care for older persons or persons with chronic diseases.Conclusion and discussion: Québec has a history of integration of health and social services at the structural level. Recent evaluations of the current reform show that the care provided by various institutions in the healthcare system is becoming better integrated. The Québec health care system nevertheless continues to face three important challenges in its management of chronic diseases: implementing the reorganization of primary care, successfully integrating primary and secondary care at the clinical level, and developing effective governance and change management.Efforts should focus on strengthening primary care by implementing nurse practitioners, developing a shared information system, and achieving better collaboration between primary and secondary care.

  13. Packaged solar water heating technology: twenty years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Graham; Wood, Byard

    2000-01-01

    The world market for packaged solar water heaters is reviewed, and descriptions are given of the different types of solar domestic water heaters (SDWH), design concepts for packaged SDWH, thermosyphon SDWH, evacuated insulation and excavated tube collectors, seasonally biased solar collectors, heat pump water heaters, and photovoltaic water heaters. The consumer market value for SDWHs is explained, and the results of a survey of solar water heating are summarised covering advantages, perceived disadvantages, the relative importance of purchase decision factors, experience with system components, and the most frequent maintenance problems. The durability, reliability, and performance of SDWHs are discussed

  14. At the crossroads: Hazard assessment and reduction of health risks from arsenic in private well waters of the northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Ayotte, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This special issue contains 12 papers that report on new understanding of arsenic (As) hydrogeochemistry, performance of household well water treatment systems, and testing and treatment behaviors of well users in several states of the northeastern region of the United States and Nova Scotia, Canada. The responsibility to ensure water safety of private wells falls on well owners. In the U.S., 43 million Americans, mostly from rural areas, use private wells. In order to reduce As exposure in rural populations that rely on private wells for drinking water, risk assessment, which includes estimation of population at risk of exposure to As above the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level, is helpful but insufficient because it does not identify individual households at risk. Persistent optimistic bias among well owners against testing and barriers such as cost of treatment mean that a large percentage of the population will not act to reduce their exposure to harmful substances such as As. If households are in areas with known As occurrence, a potentially large percentage of well owners will remain unaware of their exposure. To ensure that everyone, including vulnerable populations such as low income families with children and pregnant women, is not exposed to arsenic in their drinking water, alternative action will be required and warrants further research.

  15. Evaluation of Multi-Year Continuous Measurements of Ultrafine Particles at Two Near-Road Stations in Toronto, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Sofowote, U.; Debosz, J.; Munoz, T.; Whitelaw, C.

    2013-12-01

    weekends. The observations suggest that UFPs are mostly from traffic emissions. This presentation will provide an overview of the 3-year continuous near-road UPFs monitoring in Toronto and discuss how different factors influence number concentrations and environmental behaviour of UFPs.

  16. Differential recovery of water quality parameters eight years after severe wildfire and salvage logging in Alberta's southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Stone, M.; Emelko, M. B.; Collins, A.; Boon, S.; Williams, C.; Wagner, M. J.; Martens, A. M.; Anderson, A.

    2012-12-01

    Broad regions of western North America rely on water supplies that originate from forested regions of the Rocky Mountain cordillera where landuse pressures, and stresses including changing natural disturbance regimes associated with shifting climates has been impacting critical source water supplies from this region. Increases in magnitude and severity of wildfires along with impacts on downstream water supplies has been observed along the length of the North American Rocky Mountain chain, however, the longevity of these impacts (including impacts to important water quality parameters) remain highly uncertain because processes regulating recovery from such disturbances can span a range of timescales from a few years to decades depending on both the hydro-climatic regime, and which water quality parameters are important. Studies document such long-term changes are few. The Southern Rockies Watershed Project (SRWP) was established to document the magnitude and recovery from the severe 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in the Crowsnest Pass region of southwest Alberta, Canada. Hydrology, water quality (physical & chemical) have been studies in 9 instrumented catchments (4-14 km2) encompassing burned, burned and salvage logged, prescribed burned, and unburned (reference) conditions since late winter 2004. While most important water quality parameters were strongly elevated in burned and burned-salvage logged catchments after the fire, strongly differential rates of recovery were observed for contaminant concentration, export, and yield across a range of water quality parameters (2004-2011). For example, while various nitrogen (N) species (total nitrogen, dissolved nitrogen, NO3-, NH4+) showed 2-7 fold increases in concentration the first 1-2 years after the wildfire, N recovered back to baseline concentrations 4-5 years after the wildfire. In contrast, eight full years after the wildfire (2011), no recovery of sediment or phosphorus (P) production (soluble reactive, total

  17. Fiscal Year 1988 program report: Alaska Water Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The contents of this study includes: water problems and issues of Alaska; program goals and priorities; research project synopses are: radium levels in, and removal from, ground waters of interior alaska; assessment of stream-flow sediment transport for engineering projects; productivity within deep glacial gravels under subarctic Alaska rivers; nitrogen-cycle dynamics in a subarctic lake; and the use of peat mounds for treatment of household waste water

  18. [100 years of drinking water regulation. Retrospective review, current situation and prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Krasovsky, G N; Egorova, N A; Mikhailova, R I

    2014-01-01

    There is considered the history of the development of legislative requirements to the regulation of the quality of drinking water in different countries and international organizations during the period from 1912 to the present time. In terms of comparative analysis there is analyzed the current state of regulatory frameworks of the Russian Federation, WHO, EU, Finland, the UK, Singapore, Australia, Japan, China, Nigeria, the United States and Canada in the field of providing favorable conditions of population drinking water use. There has been noted the significant progress in standardization of the content of the biogenic elements and chemical pollution of drinking water in the absence of uniform requirements to the composition and properties of drinking water globally, that is bound to the need to take into account the national peculiarities of drinking water supply within the separate countries. As promising directions for improving regulation of drinking water quality there are noted: the development of new standards for prioritized water pollution, periodic review ofstandards after appearance of the new scientific data on the biological action of substances, the use of the concept of risk, the harmonization of the normative values and the assessment of the possibility of introduction into the practice the one more criterion of profitableness of population water use--the bioenergetic state of the water.

  19. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log 10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log 10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log 10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log 10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds. Storm water runoff is one of the most prominent non-point sources of biological and chemical contaminants which can

  20. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  1. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of an irrigation system is to apply the desired amount of water, at the correct application rate and uniformly to the whole field, at the right time, with the least amount of non-beneficial water consumption (losses), and as economically as possible. We know that irrigated agriculture plays a major role in the ...

  3. A Two-Year Water Quality Monitoring Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Richard B.; And Others

    The Environmental Protection Agency developed this curriculum to train technicians to monitor water quality. Graduates of the program should be able to monitor municipal, industrial, and commercial discharges; test drinking water for purity; and determine quality of aquatic environments. The program includes algebra, communication skills, biology,…

  4. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  5. Estimating the risk of bladder and kidney cancer from exposure to low-levels of arsenic in drinking water, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Jacques, Nathalie; Brown, Patrick; Nauta, Laura; Boxall, James; Parker, Louise; Dummer, Trevor J B

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water impacts health. Highest levels of arsenic have been historically observed in Taiwan and Bangladesh but the contaminant has been affecting the health of people globally. Strong associations have been confirmed between exposure to high-levels of arsenic in drinking water and a wide range of diseases, including cancer. However, at lower levels of exposure, especially near the current World Health Organization regulatory limit (10μg/L), this association is inconsistent as the effects are mostly extrapolated from high exposure studies. This ecological study used Bayesian inference to model the relative risk of bladder and kidney cancer at these lower concentrations-0-2μg/L; 2-5μg/L and; ≥5μg/L of arsenic-in 864 bladder and 525 kidney cancers diagnosed in the study area, Nova Scotia, Canada between 1998 and 2010. The model included proxy measures of lifestyle (e.g. smoking) and accounted for spatial dependencies. Overall, bladder cancer risk was 16% (2-5μg/L) and 18% (≥5μg/L) greater than that of the referent group (water arsenic-levels within the current the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Looking Upstream: Findings from Focus Groups on Public Perceptions of Source Water Quality in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Henrich

    Full Text Available In association with the development of new microbial tests for source water quality (SWQ, focus groups with members of the public were conducted to gain insight into their perceptions of SWQ, behaviours and contaminants they think pose the greatest threat to its quality, and what/how they want to know about SWQ. Discussions revealed a low concern about SWQ in general, and in particular about microbial contamination. Participants identified behaviours that threaten SWQ, barriers to changing behaviour and suggestions for inducing change. A strong desire was expressed for water quality information to be interpreted and communicated in terms of how SWQ may impact human health and how their actions should be altered in response to test results. The information can be used to inform communication strategies and possibly impact policies associated with water quality testing and implementation of new tests. More broadly, awareness of the public's understanding and beliefs about source water can be used in working with the public to adopt water-friendly behaviours, influence the content and methods of communicating with the public about water issues and water quality, and could contribute to the direction of future research and investment into water technologies to align with the public's priorities.

  7. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrill, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    ; Nuclear Waste Management Organization submitted a report to the federal government in November 2005 providing solutions to managing used fuel. Nuclear research: AECL promoting its Gen III+ Advanced Candu Reactor (ACR); Research continues on improved production and maintenance Competences; Nuclear energy is a $5-billion-a-year industry; Provides 21,000 direct jobs and 10,000 indirect jobs; 17% of the existing workforce is eligible to retire in the next 5 years; 37% by 2014; UNENE and UOIT nuclear universities set up in 2002 to help address the human resource issue; Women make up less than 20% of the nuclear industry in Canada; Women make up 9% of registered apprentices in Canada and 52% of skilled trades people are set to retire by 2015. Innovative new web site; Well established GIRLS Science Club; Focus on attracting women in trades through Skills Canada Young Women's Events; Adopt a Book program promotes science; Best attended Annual Conference; Professional development at 20 quarterly local chapter meetings; Achieved goal of 500 members in 2007 - today 610 members

  8. Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at farm level requires careful consideration of the implications of decisions made during both development (planning and design), and .... water if the emitter package is properly designed and the wind speed is less .... The structure and con-.

  9. Discharge, sediment, and water chemistry in Clear Creek, western Nevada, water years 2013–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Riddle, Daniel J.; Paul, Angela P.

    2018-05-01

    Clear Creek is a small stream that drains the eastern Carson Range near Lake Tahoe, flows roughly parallel to the Highway 50 corridor, and discharges to the Carson River near Carson City, Nevada. Historical and ongoing development in the drainage basin is thought to be affecting Clear Creek and its sediment-transport characteristics. Previous studies from water years (WYs) 2004 to 2007 and from 2010 to 2012 evaluated discharge, selected water-quality parameters, and suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, and yields at three Clear Creek sampling sites. This report serves as a continuation of the data collection and analyses of the Clear Creek discharge regime and associated water-chemistry and sediment concentrations and loads during WYs 2013–16.Total annual sediment loads ranged from 870 to 5,300 tons during WYs 2004–07, from 320 to 1,770 tons during WYs 2010–12, and from 50 to 200 tons during WYs 2013–16. Ranges in annual loads during the three study periods were not significantly different; however, total loads were greater during 2004–07 than they were during 2013–16. Annual suspended-sediment loads in WYs 2013–16 showed no significant change since WYs 2010–12 at sites 1 (U.S. Geological Survey reference site 10310485; Clear Creek above Highway 50, near Spooner Summit, Nevada) or 2 (U.S. Geological Survey streamgage 10310500; Clear Creek above Highway 50, near Spooner Summit, Nevada), but significantly lower loads at site 3 (U.S. Geological Survey site 10310518; Clear Creek at Fuji Park, at Carson City, Nevada), supporting the theory of sediment deposition between sites 2 and 3 where the stream gradient becomes more gradual. Currently, a threshold discharge of about 3.3 cubic feet per second is required to mobilize streambed sediment (bedload) from site 2 in Clear Creek. Mean daily discharge was significantly lower in 2010–12 than in 2004–07 and also significantly lower in 2013–16 than in 2010–12. During this study, lower bedload, and

  10. Hydrogeochemical transport modeling of 24 years of Rhine water infiltration in the dunes of the Amsterdam Water Supply.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breukelen, B.M.; Appelo, C.A.J.; Olsthoorn, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    Water quality changes were modelled along a flowpath in a plume of artificially recharged, pretreated Rhine water in the dunes of the Amsterdam Water Supply, after 24 years of infiltration. The hydrogeochemical transport model PHREEQC was extended with dispersion/diffusion and kinetics for selected

  11. Uranium tailings in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulden, R.S.; Bragg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The last few years have produced significant changes in the way uranium tailings are managed in Canada. This is due both to the development of new technology and to changes in regulatory approach. The interrelationships between these two areas are examined with particular attention paid to the long term and the development of close-out criteria. New technological initiatives are examined including dry placement techniques, pit disposal and deep lake disposal

  12. Southern California Water Bulletin for 1953: General review of the water resources of Southern California for the water year of 1952-53 with special reference to the surface runoff for the water year of 1951-52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Walter; Briggs, R.C.; Littlefield, W.M.

    1954-01-01

    This WATER BULLETTIN is one of a series issued annually since June 1944. Its main purpose is to present a brief analysis of those phases of the local water supply associated with the work of the Geological Survey. The first part of this review deals with the water resources for the water year ending September 30, 1953. It contains a brief analysis of the annual precipitation, the provisional runoff at a few stations, the changes in water reserves both in surface reservoirs and underground, and the imported waters. It concludes by pointing out the deficiences in the local water reserves. This bulletin has been prepared by the Surface Water Branch; the section on ground-water conditions was prepared chiefly from information supplied by the Ground Hater Branch.

  13. Characteristics of the water footprint of rice production under different rainfall years in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Qin, Lijie; He, Hongshi

    2018-06-01

    Rice is a special crop, and its production differs from that of other crops because it requires a thin layer of water coverage for a long period. The calculation of the water footprint of rice production should differ from that of other crops owing to the rice growing process. This study improved the calculation of blue and grey water footprints of rice production and analyzed the variations in the water footprints for rice production under different rainfall years in Jilin Province. In the drought year, the green water footprint was the lowest and the blue water footprint was the highest among the three years, while in the humid year, the green water footprint was the highest and the blue water footprint was not the lowest. The areas with higher water footprints were found in the east and west regions of Jilin Province, while the areas with lower water footprints were found in the middle east and middle regions of Jilin Province. Blue water was the primary water resource for rice production, although more precipitation provided the highest green water in the humid year; also, the spatial distributions of water footprints were not the same under different rainfall years. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A staff shortage in Canada?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, P.

    1995-01-01

    Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members' future personnel requirements. (author)

  15. Canada No. 1 in business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Canada has for the fifth time in a row been chosen the best industrialized country in the world in which to initiate and run a business. The Norwegian interest in Canada has grown strongly the last years and Norwegian companies have invested over 20 billion NOK there. Canada is the perfect gateway to the large markets in the USA. Norway is currently Canada's 15th largest trading partner. In addition to low costs and strategic location, Canada has the most highly educated workforce in the world. A company on the Canadian side of the US border has the same access to the American market as a US-based company. There is even a Norwegian company in Canada that exports 100 per cent of its products across the border to the USA. The trade between the USA and Canada is more extensive than between the USA and all the EU countries together. Furthermore, Canadian companies concentrating on research and education are given a generous tax credit

  16. Perceptions of organizational capacity to promote physical activity in Canada and ParticipACTION's influence five years after its relaunch: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Subha; Faulkner, Guy; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S

    2018-04-01

    ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization relaunched in 2007. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate organizational capacity for physical activity promotion among Canadian organizations, and the influence of ParticipACTION on capacity five years after relaunch. Using a purposive sampling strategy, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 44 key informants representing national, provincial, and local organizations with a mandate to promote physical activity. Interview data were analyzed using a thematic analytic approach. Organizational capacity in terms of partnerships and collaborations, and the general climate for physical activity promotion have improved since ParticipACTION's relaunch. Although financial resources reduced the ability of organizations to fulfil their mandates, internal factors such as skilled employees and sponsorships, and external factors such as technological improvements in communication and information sharing helped to offset this strain. There were mixed feelings on ParticipACTION's contribution to capacity. While ParticipACTION has brought more attention to inactivity, this was perceived as a complement to work already taking place. While some organizations perceived ParticipACTION's relaunch as competition to funding and access to popular media, others found it as an opportunity to co-brand social marketing campaigns, utilizing ParticipACTION's products and reputation. According to participants, organizational capacity to promote physical activity in Canada has increased since 2007 in subtle but important ways because of a strong climate for physical activity promotion, skilled employees, and information sharing technology. Organizational capacity changes were minimally attributed to ParticipACTION.

  17. Perceptions of organizational capacity to promote physical activity in Canada and ParticipACTION’s influence five years after its relaunch: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subha, Ramanathan; Guy, Faulkner; Tanya, Berry; Sameer, Deshpande; Amy E., Latimer-Cheung; Ryan E., Rhodes; John C., Spence; Mark S., Tremblay

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization relaunched in 2007. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate organizational capacity for physical activity promotion among Canadian organizations, and the influence of ParticipACTION on capacity five years after relaunch. Methods: Using a purposive sampling strategy, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 44 key informants representing national, provincial, and local organizations with a mandate to promote physical activity. Interview data were analyzed using a thematic analytic approach. Results: Organizational capacity in terms of partnerships and collaborations, and the general climate for physical activity promotion have improved since ParticipACTION’s relaunch. Although financial resources reduced the ability of organizations to fulfil their mandates, internal factors such as skilled employees and sponsorships, and external factors such as technological improvements in communication and information sharing helped to offset this strain. There were mixed feelings on ParticipACTION’s contribution to capacity. While ParticipACTION has brought more attention to inactivity, this was perceived as a complement to work already taking place. While some organizations perceived ParticipACTION’s relaunch as competition to funding and access to popular media, others found it as an opportunity to co-brand social marketing campaigns, utilizing ParticipACTION’s products and reputation. Conclusion: According to participants, organizational capacity to promote physical activity in Canada has increased since 2007 in subtle but important ways because of a strong climate for physical activity promotion, skilled employees, and information sharing technology. Organizational capacity changes were minimally attributed to ParticipACTION. PMID:29671966

  18. Atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide and methane of a small water body and a floating mat in the Luther Marsh peatland, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Magdalena; Berger, Sina; Blodau, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Recent investigations have suggested that small water bodies cover larger areas in northern peatlands than previously assumed. Their role in the carbon cycle and gas exchange rates are poorly constrained so far. To address this issue we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes on a small water body (ca. 700 m2) and the surrounding floating mat in the Luther Marsh peatland in Ontario, Canada from July to September 2014. To this end we used closed chambers combined with a portable Los Gatos high-resolution trace gas analyzer at different water depths and distances from the shore on the pond and with different dominating plant types on the floating mat surrounding the pond. In addition, CO2 concentrations were recorded in high temporal resolution using an infrared sensor system during selected periods. Air and water temperature, humidity and temperature of the floating mat, wind speed and direction, photosynthetically active radiation, air pressure and relative humidity were also recorded as auxiliary data at the study site. The results show that pond and floating mat were sources of methane throughout the whole measuring period. Methane emissions via the ebullition pathway occurred predominantly near the shore and on the floating mat. During the daytime measurements the floating mat acted as a net sink and the pond as a net source of CO2. The dynamics of CO2 exchange was also strongly time dependent, as CO2 emissions from the pond strongly increased after mid-August. This suggests that photosynthesis was more affected by seasonal decline than respiration process in the pond and that the allochthonous component of the CO2 flux increased in relative importance towards fall.

  19. Comparison of 2006-2007 Water Years and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, P.A.; Moore, Bryan; Smits, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2006 and 2007. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2006 and 2007 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were

  20. Comparison of Water Years 2004-05 and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, Norman E.; Hartle, David M.; Diaz, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2004 and 2005. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2004 and 2005 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were

  1. Estimated quantity of mercury in amalgam waste water residue released by dentists into the sewerage system in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbembo, Albert O; Watson, Philip A

    2004-12-01

    To estimate the quantity of dental amalgam that Ontario dentists release into waste water. Information from a self-administered postal survey of Ontario dentists was combined with the results of other experiments on the weight of amalgam restorations and the quantity of amalgam waste that bypasses solids separators in dental offices. Algorithms were developed to compute the quantity of amalgam waste leaving dental offices when dentists used or did not use ISO 11143 amalgam particle separators. A total of 878 (44.0%) of 1,994 sampled dentists responded to the survey. It was estimated that Ontario dentists removed 1,880.32 kg of amalgam (940.16 kg of mercury) during 2002, of which 1,128.19 kg of amalgam (564.10 kg of mercury) would have been released into waste water in Ontario if no dentists had been using a separator. Approximately 22% of the dentists reported using amalgam particle separators. On the basis of current use of amalgam separators, it was estimated that 861.78 kg of amalgam (430.89 kg of mercury or 170.72 mg per dentist daily) was released in 2002. The use of amalgam separators by all dentists could reduce the quantity of amalgam (and mercury) entering waste water to an estimated 12.41 kg (6.21 kg of mercury, or 2.46 mg per dentist per day). Amalgam particles separators can dramatically reduce amalgam and mercury loading in waste water released from dental offices.

  2. Water in the Cratonic Mantle: Insights from FTIR Data on Lac De Gras Xenoliths (Slave Craton, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Brandon, Alan D.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; O'Reilly, Suzanne Yvette; Griffin, William L.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Agresti, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The mantle lithosphere beneath the cratonic part of continents is the deepest (> 200 km) and oldest (>2-3 Ga) on Earth, remaining a conundrum as to how these cratonic roots could have resisted delamination by asthenospheric convection over time. Water, or trace H incorporated in mineral defects, could be a key player in the evolution of continental lithosphere because it influences melting and rheology of the mantle. Mantle xenoliths from the Lac de Gras kimberlite in the Slave craton were analyzed by FTIR. The cratonic mantle beneath Lac de Gras is stratified with shallow (water contents extending to higher values than those from the shallow ones. The FTIR spectra of olivines from the shallow samples have more prominent Group II OH bands compared to the olivines from the deep samples, consistent with a more oxidized mantle environment. The range of olivine water content is similar to that observed in Kaapvaal craton peridotites at the same depths (129-184 km) but does not extend to as high values as those from Udachnaya (Siberian craton). The Slave, Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons will be compared in terms of water content distribution, controls and role in cratonic root longevity.

  3. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, fiscal year 1994-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1995-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes water-resources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1994. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress, plans for fiscal year 1995, and completed and planned report products.

  4. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-02-02

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2009 through September 2010 (water year 2010) and October 2010 through September 2011 (water year 2011). Major findings for this data-collection effort include Annual precipitation was approximately 4 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2010 and approximately 6 percent below the long-term mean in 2011.

  5. Fiscal Year 1988 program report: Rhode Island Water Resources Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, C.P.C.

    1989-07-01

    The State of Rhode Island is active in water resources planning, development, and management activities which include legislation, upgrading of wastewater treatment facilities, upgrading and implementing pretreatment programs, protecting watersheds and aquifers throughout the state. Current and anticipated state water problems are contamination and clean up of aquifers to protect the valuable groundwater resources; protection of watersheds by controlling non-point source pollution; development of pretreatment technologies; and deterioring groundwater quality from landfill leachate or drainage from septic tank leaching field. Seven projects were included covering the following subjects: (1) Radon and its nuclei parents in bedrocks; (2) Model for natural flushing of aquifer; (3) Microbial treatment of heavy metals; (4) Vegetative uptake of nitrate; (5) Microbial process in vegetative buffer strips; (6) Leachate characterization in landfills; and (7) Electrochemical treatment of heavy metals and cyanide

  6. Trends in Ostracoda and Cladocera distribution and water chemistry in subarctic Canada: Churchill (Manitoba lakes and ponds revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A. Viehberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ponds and lakes distributed across northern treeline in the Hudson Bay Lowlands near Churchill (Manitoba were revisited to analyse and document the local ecoclimatic and limnological changes that occurred over the period 1997-2012. Our analyses revealed that single events may cause significant changes in salinity, pH and silicate content because of the limited buffer capacity of the inter-connected waters. Planktic freshwater microcrustaceans (Cladocera presented less diverse assemblages and appeared to favour waters that are situated in the boreal forest, while the diversity of benthic species assemblages (Cladocera and Ostracoda was highest in waters located closer to the coastline and in open tundra vegetation. We identified three species that are distinctive for the boreal ecozone (i.e., Candona acuta, Can. acutula and Can. decora and two species (i.e., Tonnacypris glacialis and Can. rawsoni that are elements of (sub-arctic landscapes and potentially endangered as the northern treeline expands due to rapid warming. These species are thought to be useful indicators for future ecosystem quality assessments and/or ecosystem service management programs. Our findings were compared to other studies completed in the boreal Yukon Territory and revealed that species diversity is closely linked to landscape history.

  7. Nuclear energy's continuing benefits to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.L.

    1981-06-01

    The goal of the Canadian nuclear power program when it began twenty years ago was to reduce Canadian dependence on imported coal. This goal has been met, with 35 percent of Ontario's electricity being produced by CANDU reactors. These reactors have been proven reliable and safe, and provide a considerable cost advantage over coal. The CANDU reactor was developed with the strengths and limitations of Canadian industry in mind, the newest stations have over 85 percent Canadian-manufactured components. A similar benefit should be found in many countries with manufacturing capabilities comparable to Canada's. The use of natural uranium as a fuel has been a wise choice both technically and economically. A new industry was created in Canada in order to gain an assured supply of heavy water. The personnel brought to or trained in Canada to work in all parts of the nuclear industry represent a valuable asset in themselves. Radioisotope exports are making a significant contribution. Nuclear power is likely to make its greatest impact in the next century, when it will be a necessity

  8. A water-leach procedure for estimating bioaccessibility of elements in soils from transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Robert G.; Hall, G.E.M.; Vaive, J.E.; Pelchat, P.

    2009-01-01

    An objective of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project is to provide relevant data concerning bioaccessible concentrations of elements in soil to government and other institutions undertaking environmental studies. A protocol was developed that employs a 1-g soil sample agitated overnight with 40 mL of reverse-osmosis de-ionized water for 20 h, and determination of 63 elements following three steps of centrifugation by inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry the following day. Statistical summaries are presented for those 48 elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Re, S, Sb, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn, Zr, and pH) for which Ca, Cu, and Pb) along the two transects is discussed in this paper both as absolute amounts liberated by the leach and expressed as a percentage of the total, or near-total, amounts determined for the elements. The Ca data reflect broad trends in soil parent materials, their weathering, and subsequent soil development. Calcium concentrations are generally found to be lower in the older soils of the eastern USA. The Cu data are higher in the eastern half of the USA, correlating with soil organic C, with which it is sequestered. The Pb data exhibit little regional variability due to natural sources, but are influenced by anthropogenic sources. Based on the Pb results, the percentage water-extractable data demonstrate promise as a tool for identifying anthropogenic components. The soil–water partition (distribution) coefficients, Kds (L/kg), were determined and their relevance to estimating bioaccessible amounts of elements to soil fauna and flora is discussed. Finally, a possible link between W concentrations in human urine and water-extractable W levels in Nevada soils is discussed.

  9. Clean Water Act 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters and their Causes of Impairment from All Years

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Waters identified as impaired as well as their associated causes of impairment from all approved Clean Water Act 303(d) lists submitted by the states. Includes all...

  10. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  11. A water-leach procedure for estimating bioaccessibility of elements in soils from transects across the United States and Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, Robert G.; Hall, G.E.M.; Vaive, J.E.; Pelchat, P.

    2009-01-01

    An objective of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project is to provide relevant data concerning bioaccessible concentrations of elements in soil to government and other institutions undertaking environmental studies. A protocol was developed that employs a 1-g soil sample agitated overnight with 40 mL of reverse-osmosis de-ionized water for 20 h, and determination of 63 elements following three steps of centrifugation by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry the following day. Statistical summaries are presented for those 48 elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Re, S, Sb, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn, Zr, and pH) for which d s (L/kg), were determined and their relevance to estimating bioaccessible amounts of elements to soil fauna and flora is discussed. Finally, a possible link between W concentrations in human urine and water-extractable W levels in Nevada soils is discussed.

  12. The stratigraphic imprint of a mid-Telychian (Llandovery, Early Silurian glaciation on far-field shallow-water carbonates, Anticosti Island, Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Clayer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The near-field stratigraphic record of the Early Silurian glaciations is well documented in the literature. Data from far-field areas are, however, sparse. One of the best far-field stratigraphic records of these Llandovery glaciations is exposed on Anticosti Island in eastern Canada. Eight shallow-water paleotropical facies are present close to the mid-Telychian Jupiter–Chicotte formational boundary along the south-central coast of Anticosti Island. These can be grouped into three facies associations that include, from bottom to top: a carbonate facies association (FA-1, a mixed siliciclastic and carbonate facies association (FA-2 and an encrinitic facies association (FA-3. These mid- to outer-ramp strata represent deposition mostly from episodic, high-energy storm events as evidenced by their sharp bases, hummocky cross-stratification, large wave ripples, gutter casts and wave-enhanced sediment gravity flow deposits. Superimposed on a long-term regressive trend, one main transgressive–regressive (TR sequence and four meter-scale TR cycles are evident, indicating a multi-order stratigraphic framework developed under the influence of glacio-eustasy. The Jupiter–Chicotte formational boundary, a regional discontinuity surface caused by a forced regression, corresponds to the onset of a far-field mid-Telychian glaciation.

  13. Speciation of arsenic in water, sediment, and plants of the Moira watershed, Canada, using HPLC coupled to high resolution ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jian; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Dzurko, Mark Stephen [Department of Chemistry, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, K9J 7B8, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-09-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with high-resolution sector field ICP-MS was applied to the speciation of arsenic in environmental samples collected from the Moira watershed, Ontario, Canada. Arsenic contamination in Moira River and Moira Lake from historic gold mine operations is of increasing environmental concern to the local community. In this study, the current arsenic contamination status in water, sediment, and plants was investigated. Elevated levels of arsenic in the surface water of up to 75 ng mL{sup -1} in Moira River and 50 ng mL{sup -1} in Moira Lake were detected, 98% of which was present as arsenate. High concentrations of arsenic (>300 ng mL{sup -1}), mainly present as arsenite, were detected in sediment porewaters. A sediment profile of As from the West basin of Moira Lake showed lower As concentrations compared with data from the 1990s. An optimized extraction procedure using a phosphoric acid-ascorbic acid mixture demonstrated that an unknown ''As-complex'' which may consist of As, sulfide and organic matter is potentially responsible for the release of arsenite from the sediment to the overlying water column. Arsenic concentrations in plant samples ranged from 2.6 to 117 mg kg{sup -1}, dry weight. Accumulation of arsenic was observed in submerged plants collected from Moira River and Moira Lake. Only a small part of the arsenic (6.3-16.1%) in the plants was extractable with methanol-water (9:1), and most of this arsenic (70-93%) was inorganic arsenic. A variety of organic arsenic compounds, including simple methylated compounds (methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid), trimethylarsine oxide, and tetramethylarsonium cation were detected at trace levels. No arsenobetaine and arsenocholine was found in any plant sample. An unknown compound, most probably an arsenosugar was detected in the two submerged plants, coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) and long-stemmed waterwort (Elatine triandra). These

  14. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  15. Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas, 1975-89 water years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, T.L.; Wells, F.C.; Ohe, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas for the 1975-89 water years were investigated in this study. The investigation of sources was confined to distinct geographic patterns in the trend indicators for one constituent or for a group of related constituents.

  16. Extending stakeholder theory to promote resource management initiatives to key stakeholders: a case study of water transfers in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafreniere, Katherine C; Deshpande, Sameer; Bjornlund, Henning; Hunter, M Gordon

    2013-11-15

    Many attempts to implement resource management initiatives in Canadian and international communities have been resisted by stakeholders despite inclusion of their representatives in the decision-making process. Managers' failure to understand stakeholders' perspectives when proposing initiatives is a potential cause of this resistance. Our study uses marketing thought to enhance stakeholder theory by bringing in an audience-centric perspective. We attempt to understand how stakeholders perceive their interests in an organization and consequently decide how to influence that organization. By doing so, we investigate whether a disconnect exists between the perceptions of managers and those of stakeholders. Natural resource managers can utilize this knowledge to garner stakeholder support for the organization and its activities. We support this claim with findings from a water transfer plebiscite held in the Canadian province of Alberta. Sixteen personal interviews employing narrative inquiry were conducted to document voters' (i.e., irrigators') interpretations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and the Methodology for Mitigation and Enhancement in the Flathead Drainage, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.

    1985-01-01

    The lower Flathead System Canada Goose Study was initiated to determine population trends and the effects of water level fluctuations on nest and brood habitat on the southern half of Flathead Lake and the lower Flathead River as a result of the operations of Kerr Dam. This report presents data collected during the 1984 field season as part of an ongoing project. Geese used Pablo, Kicking Horse, Ninepipe Reservoirs heavily during late summer and fall. Use of the river by geese was high during the winter, when the reservoirs were frozen, and during the breeding period. Most breeding geese left the river after broods fledged. Thirteen percent of the artificial tree nest structures on the river were used by nesting geese. Goose nest initiation on the river peaked the last week in March through the first week in April, and hatching peaked the first week in May. Predation was the most significant cause of nest loss on the river, and nest loss by flooding was not observed. Avian predation was the single largest factor contributing to nest loss on the lake. Habitat use was studied in 4 brood areas on the river and 8 brood areas on the lake, and available habitat was assessed for 2 portions of both the lake and the river. Brood habitat use was significantly different from the available habitat in all areas studied. On the lower river, broods used wheat fields, gravel bars, and shrub habitats. On the upper river, coniferous forest and shrub habitats were preferred. On the West Bay of the lake, brood areas consisted primarily of lawns and tall herbaceous habitat, while on the South Bay, marshes dominated the brood areas studied. Water levels on the river and lake affect both accessibility of these areas to brooding geese, and the ecology of the habitats preferred by geese. 43 refs., 24 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. Exploring the short-term impact of community water fluoridation cessation on children's dental caries: a natural experiment in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, L; Patterson, S; Thawer, S; Faris, P; McNeil, D; Potestio, M L; Shwart, L

    2017-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is common and can be serious. Dental caries is preventable, and community water fluoridation is one means of prevention. There is limited current research on the implications of fluoridation cessation for children's dental caries. Our objective was to explore the short-term impact of community water fluoridation cessation on children's dental caries, by examining change in caries experience in population-based samples of schoolchildren in two Canadian cities, one that discontinued community water fluoridation and one that retained it. We used a pre-post cross-sectional design. We examined dental caries indices (deft [number of decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth] and DMFT [number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth]) among grade 2 schoolchildren in 2004/05 and 2013/14 in two similar cities in the province of Alberta, Canada: Calgary (cessation of community water fluoridation in 2011) and Edmonton (still fluoridated). We compared change over time in the two cities. For Calgary only, we had a third data point from 2009/10, and we considered trends across the three points. We observed a worsening in primary tooth caries (deft) in Calgary and Edmonton, but changes in Edmonton were less consistent and smaller. This effect was robust to adjustment for covariates available in 2013/14 and was consistent with estimates of total fluoride intake from biomarkers from a subsample. This finding occurred despite indication that treatment activities appeared better in Calgary. The worsening was not observed for permanent teeth. For prevalence estimates only (% with >0 deft or DMFT), the three data points in Calgary suggest a trend that, though small, appears consistent with an adverse effect of fluoridation cessation. Our results suggest an increase in dental caries in primary teeth during a time period when community fluoridation was ceased. That we did not observe a worsening for permanent teeth in the comparative analysis could

  19. Temporal dynamics of groundwater-surface water interaction under the effects of climate change: A case study in the Kiskatinaw River Watershed, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gopal Chandra; Li, Jianbing; Thring, Ronald W.; Hirshfield, Faye; Paul, Siddhartho Shekhar

    2017-08-01

    Groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interaction plays a vital role in the functioning of riparian ecosystem, as well as sustainable water resources management. In this study, temporal dynamics of GW-SW interaction were investigated under climate change. A case study was chosen for a study area along the Kiskatinaw River in Mainstem sub-watershed of the Kiskatinaw River Watershed, British Columbia, Canada. A physically based and distributed GW-SW interaction model, Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA), was used. Two different greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios (i.e., A2: heterogeneous world with self-reliance and preservation of local identities, and B1: more integrated and environmental friendly world) of SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) from Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were used for climate change study for 2020-2040. The simulation results showed that climate change influences significantly the temporal patterns of GW-SW interaction by generating variable temporal mean groundwater contributions to streamflow. Due to precipitation variability, these contributions varied monthly, seasonally, and annually. The mean annual groundwater contribution to streamflow during 2020-2040 under the A2 and B1 scenarios is expected to be 74.5% (σ = 2%) and 75.6% (σ = 3%), respectively. As compared to that during the base modeling period (2007-2011), the mean annual groundwater contribution to streamflow during 2020-2040 under the A2 and B1 scenarios is expected to decrease by 5.5% and 4.4%, respectively, due to the increased precipitation (on average 6.7% in the A2 and 4.8% in the B1 scenarios) and temperature (on average 0.83 °C in the A2 and 0.64 °C in the B1 scenarios). The results obtained from this study will provide useful information in the long-term seasonal and annual water extractions from the river for future water supply, as well as for evaluating the ecological conditions of the

  20. Tritium activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian tritium activites comprise three major interests: utilites, light manufacturers, and fusion. There are 21 operating CANDU reactors in Canada; 19 with Ontario Hydro and one each with Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power. There are two light manufacturers, two primary tritium research facilities (at AECL Chalk River and Ontario Hydro Technologies), and a number of industry and universities involved in design, construction, and general support of the other tritium activities. The largest tritum program is in support of the CANDU reactors, which generate tritium in the heavy water as a by-product of normal operation. Currently, there are about 12 kg of tritium locked up in the heavy water coolant and moderator of these reactors. The fusion work is complementary to the light manufacturing, and is concerned with tritium handling for the ITER program. This included design, development and application of technologies related to Isotope Separation, tritium handling, (tritiated) gas separation, tritium-materials interaction, and plasma fueling

  1. Canada [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Canada has considerable natural resources and is one of the world's largest producers (ranking 5th) and exporters of energy. Since 1980, Canada's total energy production has almost doubled, reaching 486 Mtoe in 2006, while its total energy consumption has increased by only 44%. Almost all of Canada's energy exports go to the USA. In 2006, the largest source of energy consumption in Canada was oil (32%), followed by hydroelectricity (25%) and natural gas (24%). Both coal (10%) and nuclear (7%) constitute a smaller share of the country's overall energy mix. Electricity production in Canada has been dominated by hydroelectricity, with nuclear and fossil fuels holding a 15-25% share each over the past two decades. Canada has the second-largest petroleum deposits in the world (after Saudi Arabia). Its oil sands produce 1.3 million bbl/d of oil today, up from 600 000 bbl/d in 2000. But the development of oil sands projects has been sharply criticized for its impact on the environment and its intensive use of both water and natural gas. The growth in oil sands exploitation is one of the reasons that Canada has failed to contain its GHG emissions in recent years despite its commitment to do so.

  2. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2006 Water Year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.P. Romero, D. Ortiz, G. Kuyumjian

    2007-08-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 44 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs--two that flow into Canon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon--and peak flow data for 44 stations.

  3. Study on characteristics of water resources in Beijing in recent 15 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, L. M.; Zheng, H. G.; Zhao, J. J.; Wang, A. L.; Zhang, X. J.

    2018-02-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of water supply and water usage in Beijing in recent 15 years, a variety of statistical datasets were collected and field investigations were carried out, to analyze the total water resource, the characteristics and trends of water resource supply, utilization and distribution during 2000-2014. The results showed that the total amount of water resources in Beijing is maintained at 1.61~3.95 billion m3, and the surface water accounts for about 1/3, and the groundwater accounts for 2/3. Agricultural water and living water were the dominated consumption in the past 15 years in Beijing, accounted for 35.3% and 38.9% of the total amount, followed by industrial water, which accounting for 17.9% of total water consumption, and water used in environment is relatively small, only accounting for 7.8% of the total amount. This study can provide theoretical support for the establishment and management of water conservation policies and the rational utilization of water resources in Beijing.

  4. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.S.

    1980-12-01

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  5. Comparison of 2008-2009 water years and historical water-quality data, upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Patricia A.; Moore, Bryan; Blacklock, Ty D.

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, U.S. Forest Service, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of sites: (1) sites that are considered long term and (2) sites that are considered rotational. Data from the long-term sites assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational sites assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and address local and short-term concerns. Biannual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for stakeholder discussions regarding the location and purpose of water-quality monitoring sites in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This report compares and summarizes the data collected during water years 2008 and 2009 to the historical data available at these sites. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network sites. The remainder of the report is organized around the data collected at individual sites. Data collected during water years 2008 and 2009 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines

  6. The potential role of electrolytic hydrogen in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerli, M.

    1982-03-01

    The potential role of electrolytic hydrogen in Canada is assessed for the period 1980 to 2025 for large-scale uses only. Present uses of hydrogen, and specifically electrolytic hydrogen, are discussed briefly and hydrogen production processes are summarized. Only hydrogen derived from natural gas, coal, or electrolysis of sater are considered. Cost estimates of electrolytic hydrogen are obtained from a parametric equation, comparing values for unipolar water elecctrklyser technologies with those for bipolar electrolysers. Both by-products of electrolytic hydrogen production, namely heavy water and oxygen, are evaluated. Electrolytic hydrogen, based on non-fossil primary energy sources, is also considered as ankther 'liquid fuel option' for Canada along with the alcohols. The market potential for hydrogen in general and electrolytic hydrogen is assessed. Results show that the market potential for electrolytic hydrogen is large by the year 2025

  7. Evaluation of Subsurface Flow and Free-water Surface Wetlands Treating NPR-3 Produced Water - Year No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J. E.; Jackson, L. M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a summary of some of the activities conducted during the first year of a three-year cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and Texaco relating to the treatment of produced water by constructed wetlands. The first year of the CRADA is for design, construction and acclimation of the wetland pilot units. The second and third years of the CRADA are for tracking performance of pilot wetlands as the plant and microbial communities mature. A treatment wetland is a proven technology for the secondary and tertiary treatment of produced water, storm water and other wastewaters. Treatment wetlands are typically classified as either free-water surface (FWS) or subsurface flow (SSF). Both FWS and SSF wetlands work well when properly designed and operated. This paper presents a collection of kinetic data gathered from pilot units fed a slipstream of Wyoming (NPR-3) produced water. The pilot units are set up outdoors to test climatic influences on treatment. Monitoring parameters include evapotranspiration, plant growth, temperature, and NPDES discharge limits. The pilot wetlands (FWS and SSF) consist of a series of 100-gal plastic tubs filled with local soils, gravel, sharp sand and native wetland plants (cattail (Typha spp.), bulrush (Scirpus spp.), dwarf spikerush (Eleocharis)). Feed pumps control hydraulic retention time (HRT) and simple water control structures control the depth of water. The treated water is returned to the existing produced water treatment system. All NPDES discharge limits are met. Observations are included on training RMOTC summer students to do environmental work

  8. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, P; Williams, C; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N

    2014-01-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  9. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  10. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 1998 Water Year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaull, D.A.; Alexander, M.R.; Reynolds, R.P.; McLean, C.T.; Romero, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 19 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Also included are discharge data from three springs that flow into Caiion de Vane

  11. ASA24-Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  12. 100 years of California’s water rights system: patterns, trends and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Theodore E.; Viers, Joshua H.

    2014-08-01

    For 100 years, California’s State Water Resources Control Board and its predecessors have been responsible for allocating available water supplies to beneficial uses, but inaccurate and incomplete accounting of water rights has made the state ill-equipped to satisfy growing societal demands for water supply reliability and healthy ecosystems. Here, we present the first comprehensive evaluation of appropriative water rights to identify where, and to what extent, water has been dedicated to human uses relative to natural supplies. The results show that water right allocations total 400 billion cubic meters, approximately five times the state’s mean annual runoff. In the state’s major river basins, water rights account for up to 1000% of natural surface water supplies, with the greatest degree of appropriation observed in tributaries to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and in coastal streams in southern California. Comparisons with water supplies and estimates of actual use indicate substantial uncertainty in how water rights are exercised. In arid regions such as California, over-allocation of surface water coupled with trends of decreasing supply suggest that new water demands will be met by re-allocation from existing uses. Without improvements to the water rights system, growing human and environmental demands portend an intensification of regional water scarcity and social conflict. California’s legal framework for managing its water resources is largely compatible with needed reforms, but additional public investment is required to enhance the capacity of the state’s water management institutions to effectively track and regulate water rights.

  13. A review of diazinon use, contamination in surface waters, and regulatory actions in California across water years 1992-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Singhasemanon, Nan; Goh, Kean S

    2017-07-01

    Diazinon is an organophosphorus insecticide that has been widely used in the USA and in California resulting in contamination of surface waters. Several federal and state regulations have been implemented with the aim of reducing its impact to human health and the environment, e.g., the cancellation of residential use products by the USEPA and dormant spray regulations by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. This study reviewed the change in diazinon use and surface water contamination in accordance with the regulatory actions implemented in California over water years 1992-2014. We observed that use amounts began declining when agencies announced the intention to regulate certain use patterns and continued to decline after the implementation of those programs and regulations. The reduction in use amounts led to a downward trend in concentration data and exceedance frequencies in surface waters. Moreover, we concluded that diazinon concentrations in California's surface waters in recent years (i.e., water years 2012-2014) posed a de minimis risk to aquatic organisms.

  14. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    56 RBC Financial Group, Daily Forex Fundamentals, February 27, 2009. [ http...www.actionforex.com/fundamental- analysis/daily- forex -fundamentals/canada%27s-fourth%11quarter-current-account-moves-into-deficit-after-nine-years- of-surpluses...sharing, infrastructure improvements, improvement of compatible immigration databases , visa policy coordination, common biometric identifiers in

  15. Uranium: the nuclear fuel. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E E.N. [Eldorado Nuclear Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1976-05-01

    A brief history is presented of Canadian uranium exploration, production, and sales. Statistics show that Canada is a good customer for its own uranium due to a rapidly expanding nuclear power program. Due to an average 10 year lag between commencement of exploration and production, and with current producers sold out through 1985, it is imperative that exploration efforts be increased.

  16. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  17. Soil water distribution on different number of growing years of alfalfa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... dNational Engineering Research Center for Water-Saving and ... After alfalfa grew for >18 years, the annual recovery of its soil water at 0 - 200 cm soil depth was 1.49%, ... yield of following crops, or even lead to failure of the.

  18. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2013 (October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2013) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB) in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2013 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2013.

  19. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta survival, recovery, and harvest rates derived from 55 years of banding in Prairie Canada, 1960-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake A. Bartzen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern Pintail (Anas acuta; hereafter pintail experienced a significant population decline in North America in the 1980s but did not rebound to the previous population level the way that other prairie dabbling duck species (Anas spp. did once habitat conditions improved. Although the population decline occurred throughout the breeding range of pintails, the decline was most pronounced and sustained in Prairie Canada, i.e., southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Thus, we estimated and examined annual survival, recovery, and harvest rates of pintails banded in Prairie Canada from 1960-2014. Annual survival rates varied by sex but were relatively high compared to those of other dabbling duck species and increased slightly over the study period to end at 0.64 ± 0.13 (SE and 0.74 ± 0.10 for females and males, respectively. Recovery and harvest rates varied over time but generally declined in the 1980s and increased from the early 1990s until the end of the study period. There was no clear evidence that hunting bag limit restrictions affected annual survival, recovery, or harvest rates. In addition, we could find no compelling evidence that harvest mortality was substantially additive to nonharvest mortality for pintails. However, we could not definitively ascertain the effects of the restrictions, and we suggest that a trial basis of liberalized hunting bag limits would do much to improve the understanding of harvest and population dynamics of pintails and pose little risk to the population. Based on our results, we believe that measures other than harvest restrictions will likely have to be taken to elevate the pintail population to the North American Waterfowl Management Plan objective.

  20. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data for water year 1992 from two basins in Central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, P.W.; Oliver, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential repository for high level nuclear waste. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Project, the analog recharge study is providing data for the evaluation of recharge to the Yucca Mountain ground-water system given a cooler and wetter climate than currently exists. The current and climatic conditions are favorable to the isolation of radioactive waste. Because waste isolation from the accessible environment for 10,000 years is necessary, climatic change and the potential for increased ground-water recharge need to be considered as part of the characterization of the potential repository. Therefore, two small basins, measuring less than 2 square miles, were studied to determine the volume of precipitation available for recharge to ground water. The semiarid 3-Springs Basin is located to the east of Kawich Peak in the Kawich Range east of Tonopah, Nevada. Stewart Basin is a subalpine drainage basin north of Arc Dome in the Toiyabe Range north of Tonopah, Nevada. The purpose of this publication is to make available the meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data collected during the study. Meteorological data collected include air temperature, soil temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Stream-discharge data were collected from the surface-water outlet of each basin. Water-quality data are chemical analyses of water samples collected from surface- and ground-water sources. Each basin has a meteorological station located in the lower and upper reaches of the basin. Hydrologic records include stream-discharge and water-quality data from the lower meteorological site and water-quality data from springs within the basins

  2. Evidence for soil water control on carbon and water dynamics in European forests during the extremely dry year: 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granier, A.; Reichstein, M.; Bréda, N.; Janssens, I.A.; Falge, E.; Ciais, P.; Grünwald, T.; Aubinet, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, C.; Buchmann, N.; Facini, O.; Grassi, G.; Heinesch, B.; Ilvesniemi, H.; Keronen, P.; Knohl, A.; Köstner, B.; Lagergren, F.; Lindroth, A.; Longdoz, B.; Loustau, D.; Mateus, J.; Montagnani, L.; Nys, C.; Moors, E.J.; Papale, D.; Peiffer, M.; Pilegaard, K.; Pita, G.; Pumpanen, J.; Rambal, S.; Rebmann, C.; Rodrigues, A.; Seufert, G.; Tenhunen, J.; Vesala, T.; Wang, Q.

    2007-01-01

    The drought of 2003 was exceptionally severe in many regions of Europe, both in duration and in intensity. In some areas, especially in Germany and France, it was the strongest drought for the last 50 years, lasting for more than 6 months. We used continuous carbon and water flux measurements at 12

  3. Water, ice, and meteorological measurements at South Cascade glacier, Washington, balance year 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass-balance quantities for balance year 2003. The 2003 glacier-average maximum winter snow balance was 2.66 meters water equivalent, which was about equal to the average of such balances for the glacier since balance year 1959. The 2003 glacier summer balance (-4.76 meters water equivalent) was the most negative reported for the glacier, and the 2003 net balance (-2.10 meters water equivalent), was the second-most negative reported. The glacier 2003 annual (water year) balance was -1.89 meters water equivalent. The area of the glacier near the end of the balance year was 1.89 square kilometers, a decrease of 0.03 square kilometer from the previous year. The equilibrium-line altitude was higher than any part of the glacier; however, because snow remained along part of one side of the upper glacier, the accumulation-area ratio was 0.07. During September 13, 2002-September 13, 2003, the glacier terminus retreated at a rate of about 15 meters per year. Average speed of surface ice, computed using a series of vertical aerial photographs dating back to 2001, ranged from 2.2 to 21.8 meters per year. Runoff from the subbasin containing the glacier and from an adjacent non-glacierized basin was gaged during part of water year 2003. Air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric water-vapor pressure, wind speed, and incoming solar radiation were measured at selected locations on and near the glacier. Summer 2003 at the glacier was among the warmest for which data are available.

  4. Snow water equivalent monitoring retrieved by assimilating passive microwave observations in a coupled snowpack evolution and microwave emission models over North-Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, A.; Larue, F.; De Sève, D.; Roy, A.; Vionnet, V.; Picard, G.; Cosme, E.

    2017-12-01

    Over northern snow-dominated basins, the snow water equivalent (SWE) is of primary interest for spring streamflow forecasting. SWE retrievals from satellite data are still not well resolved, in particular from microwave (MW) measurements, the only type of data sensible to snow mass. Also, the use of snowpack models is challenging due to the large uncertainties in meteorological input forcings. This project aims to improve SWE prediction by assimilation of satellite brightness temperature (TB), without any ground-based observations. The proposed approach is the coupling of a detailed multilayer snowpack model (Crocus) with a MW snow emission model (DMRT-ML). The assimilation scheme is a Sequential Importance Resampling Particle filter, through ensembles of perturbed meteorological forcings according to their respective uncertainties. Crocus simulations driven by operational meteorological forecasts from the Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale model at 10 km spatial resolution were compared to continuous daily SWE measurements over Québec, North-Eastern Canada (56° - 45°N). The results show a mean bias of the maximum SWE overestimated by 16% with variations up to +32%. This observed large variability could lead to dramatic consequences on spring flood forecasts. Results of Crocus-DMRT-ML coupling compared to surface-based TB measurements (at 11, 19 and 37 GHz) show that the Crocus snowpack microstructure described by sticky hard spheres within DMRT has to be scaled by a snow stickiness of 0.18, significantly reducing the overall RMSE of simulated TBs. The ability of assimilation of daily TBs to correct the simulated SWE is first presented through twin experiments with synthetic data, and then with AMSR-2 satellite time series of TBs along the winter taking into account atmospheric and forest canopy interferences (absorption and emission). The differences between TBs at 19-37 GHz and at 11-19 GHz, in vertical polarization, were assimilated. This assimilation

  5. Soil moisture transport during the 1974--1975 and 1975--1976 water years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Easley, P.G.; Brown, D.J.

    1976-12-01

    The rate and direction of soil moisture movement in Hanford sediments were determined for the 1974-1975 and 1975-1976 water years. The data for these determinations was obtained from two large lysimeters located on the 200 area plateau near the center of the Hanford Reservation. During the 1974-75 water year, meteoric moisture percolated to a depth of 2.5 meters with a peak moisture content of 10.5 volume-percent. This percolation envelope was eliminated by evaporation during the hot dry summer of 1975. The 1975-76 water year had only 70 percent of the normal precipitation, thus the percolation envelope was small and penetrated to a depth of only two meters. However, in spite of this shallow depth and low volume of moisture, the percolation envelope was not eliminated by the end of the water year because of lower seasonal temperatures and higher humidity during the drying season. Moisture content of sediments in the 4-18 meter depth range showed no relative change throughout the two water years, and no moisture accumulated at the bottom of the lysimeters, which indicates there is no deep percolation of meteoric moisture at this site, and no recharge to the ground water

  6. Millennium scale radiocarbon variations in Eastern North Atlantic thermocline waters: 0-7000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, N.; Tisnerat-Laborde, N.; Hatte, C. [LSCE, F-91190 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Colin, C. [Univ Paris 11, IDES, Orsay, (France); Dottori, M.; Reverdin, G. [Univ Paris 06, LOCEAN, F-75252 Paris, (France)

    2009-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Deep water corals are exceptional archives of modern and past ocean circulation as combined U-series and radiocarbon dating allows to reconstruct seawater radiocarbon. Here we present thermocline water radiocarbon concentrations that have been reconstructed for the past {approx} 7000 years for the eastern north Atlantic, based on deep-water corals from Rockall Bank and Porcupine Seabight. We find that thermocline water radiocarbon values follow overall the mean atmospheric long term trend with an average offset of {Delta}{sup 14}C between intermediate water and atmosphere of -55{+-}5 per thousand until 1960 AD. Residual variations are strong ({+-}25 per thousand) over the past 7000 years and there is first evidence that those are synchronous to millennium scale climate variability. Over the past 60 years thermocline water radiocarbon values increase due to the penetration of bomb-radiocarbon into the upper intermediate ocean. Radiocarbon increases by {Delta}{sup 14}C of +95 per thousand compared to +210 per thousand for eastern North Atlantic surface waters. Moreover, bomb-radiocarbon penetration to thermocline depth occurs with a delay of {approx} 10-15 years. Based on high resolution ocean circulation models we suggest that radiocarbon changes at upper intermediate depth are today barely affected by vertical mixing and represent more likely variable advection and mixing of water masses from the Labrador Sea and the temperate Atlantic (including Mediterranean outflow water). Consequently, we assume that residual radiocarbon variations over the past 7000 years reflect millennium scale variability of the Atlantic sub-polar and sub-tropical gyres

  7. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  8. Properties of Concrete Exposed to Running Fresh Water for 24 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2008-01-01

    A total of nine concretes, comprising three cement types, incorporation of fly ash, superplasticized high strength concrete and high performance concrete with microsilica, have been monitored during 24 years of exposure to running fresh water under Danish outdoor climatic conditions....... The compressive strength development has been measured, and durability aspects have been assessed after 6 and 21 years of exposure, with very positive results....

  9. Inventory of pediatric neurology "manpower" in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Daniel L; Humphreys, Peter

    2005-08-01

    To review the demographics and workload characteristics of pediatric neurology in Canada. A standardized survey questionnaire was mailed out to practicing pediatric neurologists in Canada in 2001. Variables examined were age, gender, hours on call, regular hours worked per week, type of practice and projected changes in practice over next five to ten years. Results were compared to the 1994 Pediatric Neurology Manpower Survey which had used the same survey instrument. Fifty-six (70%) pediatric neurologists practicing in Canada returned the survey. As was the case in 1994, no significant differences in workload were found based on age or gender. The average age of the practicing pediatric neurologist in 2001 was 51 years compared to 45 years in 1994. The proportion of physicians over 55 years in 2001 was 35% compared to 25% in 1994. Pediatric neurology in Canada is an aging specialty needing a significant recruitment of new members

  10. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    modules for calculating water withdrawal and consumption for current and planned electric power generation; projected water demand from competing use sectors; and, surface and groundwater availability. WECC's long range planning is organized according to two target planning horizons, a 10-year and a 20-year. This study supports WECC in the 10-year planning endeavor. In this case the water implications associated with four of WECC's alternative future study cases (described below) are calculated and reported. In future phases of planning we will work with WECC to craft study cases that aim to reduce the thermoelectric footprint of the interconnection and/or limit production in the most water stressed regions of the West.

  11. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.

    1995-01-01

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  12. Planning ahead : although Canada could experience a shortage of some 300,000 workers within the next 20 years, long-term strategies can help companies cope : part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.

    2006-12-15

    This article is the first in a 2-part series examining the current labour shortage in the energy industry. Factors that are expected to exacerbate the shortage were reviewed, as well as some of the steps that the petroleum industry is now taking to manage labour challenges in the future. A critical talent crisis is expected to occur in the next 5 to 10 years as baby boomers plan to retire, and fewer graduates are expected to enter the marketplace. While some organizations have responded to shortages by merely offering high salaries to employees, many oil and gas companies are now looking to develop the skills and capabilities of employees in order to retain them. In addition, employers are attempting to strengthen social networks within their organizations by providing coaching and mentoring programs. A recent report published by the Conference Board of Canada has suggested that the oil and gas industry can improve manpower shortages by improving training programs; attracting more immigrants; and creating better mechanisms for recognizing foreign credentials and prior learning assessments. Many organizations are successfully using internal referral programs to hire employees with the appropriate skill levels. Petro-Canada is now using electronic recruiting methods to draw upon a wider resource pool and is currently building relationships with key post-secondary institutions as well as providing programs to give educational awards to students. Devon Canada has recently implemented an employee referral program and has also focused on improving conditions at its Jackfish steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) project at Fort McMurray by hiring certified chefs, installing satellite televisions and providing top-notch recreation facilities. 2 figs.

  13. Responses of forest carbon and water coupling to thinning treatments at both the leaf and individual tree levels in a 16-year-old natural Pinus Contorta stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, A.; del Campo, A.; Li, Q.; Giles-Hansen, K.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale disturbances in Canadian forests, including mountain pine beetle infestation in western Canada, forest fires, timber harvesting and climate change impacts, have significantly affected both forest carbon and water cycles. Thinning, which selectively removes trees at a given forest stand, may be an effective tool to mitigate the effect of these disturbances. Various studies have been conducted to assess the thinning effect on growth, transpiration, and nutrient availability; however, relatively few studies have been conducted to examine its effect on the coupling of forest carbon and water. Thus, the objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of thinning on forest carbon and water coupling at both the leaf and tree levels in a 16-year-old natural Pinus Contorta forest in the interior of British Columbia in Canada. We used water-use efficiency (WUE), the ratio of basal area increment (BA) to tree transpiration (E), as the indicator of the carbon and water coupling at individual tree level, and use intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), the ratio of photosynthesis (A) to stomatal conductance (G), to represent the coupling at the leaf level. Field experiments were conducted in the Upper Penticton Watershed where the mean annual precipitation is 750 mm with seasonal drought during summer. A randomized block design was used, with three blocks each containing two thinning intensities and one unthinned plot (T1: 4,500, T2: 1,100, C: 26,400 trees per ha.). From May to October 2016, basal diameter, sap flow, and environmental conditions were monitored continuously at every 20 minutes, while A and G were measured weekly. Preliminary results showed that thinning significantly increased solar radiation, wind speed, and soil moisture in the treatment plots, where the changes observed were proportional to the intensity of the thinning; but thinning did not change stand level temperature and relative humidity. Thinning also significantly enhanced tree E and BA

  14. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  15. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and

  16. Water, Ice, and Meteorological Measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, Balance Years 2004 and 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass-balance quantities for balance years 2004 and 2005. The North Cascade Range in the vicinity of South Cascade Glacier accumulated smaller than normal winter snowpacks during water years 2004 and 2005. Correspondingly, the balance years 2004 and 2005 maximum winter snow balances of South Cascade Glacier, 2.08 and 1.97 meters water equivalent, respectively, were smaller than the average of such balances since 1959. The 2004 glacier summer balance (-3.73 meters water equivalent) was the eleventh most negative during 1959 to 2005 and the 2005 glacier summer balance (-4.42 meters water equivalent) was the third most negative. The relatively small winter snow balances and unusually negative summer balances of 2004 and 2005 led to an overall loss of glacier mass. The 2004 and 2005 glacier net balances, -1.65 and -2.45 meters water equivalent, respectively, were the seventh and second most negative during 1953 to 2005. For both balance years, the accumulation area ratio was less than 0.05 and the equilibrium line altitude was higher than the glacier. The unusually negative 2004 and 2005 glacier net balances, combined with a negative balance previously reported for 2003, resulted in a cumulative 3-year net balance of -6.20 meters water equivalent. No equal or greater 3-year mass loss has occurred previously during the more than 4 decades of U.S. Geological Survey mass-balance measurements at South Cascade Glacier. Accompanying the glacier mass losses were retreat of the terminus and reduction of total glacier area. The terminus retreated at a rate of about 17 meters per year during balance year 2004 and 15 meters per year during balance year 2005. Glacier area near the end of balance years 2004 and 2005 was 1.82 and 1.75 square kilometers, respectively. Runoff from the basin containing the glacier and from an adjacent nonglacierized basin was

  17. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  18. Fifty years of solid-phase extraction in water analysis--historical development and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, I

    2000-07-14

    The use of an appropriate sample handling technique is a must in an analysis of organic micropollutants in water. The efforts to use a solid phase for the recovery of analytes from a water matrix prior to their detection have a long history. Since the first experimental trials using activated carbon filters that were performed 50 years ago, solid-phase extraction (SPE) has become an established sample preparation technique. The initial experimental applications of SPE resulted in widespread use of this technique in current water analysis and also to adoption of SPE into standardized analytical methods. During the decades of its evolution, chromatographers became aware of the advantages of SPE and, despite many innovations that appeared in the last decade, new SPE developments are still expected in the future. A brief overview of 50 years of the history of the use of SPE in organic trace analysis of water is given in presented paper.

  19. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Meyerhof, D.P.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and asessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1980 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format is used with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  20. Gulf Canada Resources Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A review of operations in 1998 and financial information from Gulf Canada Resources Limited is provided to keep shareholders abreast of company performance. Gulf Canada Resources Limited explores for, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1998, the company's main operating centres were in western Canada (where it owns a nine per cent interest in the Syncrude Joint Venture), Indonesia, the North Sea and Australia. The report summarizes the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed review of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Although Gulf Canada Resources sold $ 1.2 billion worth of non-producing assets during the year, year end proved reserves of 838 million barrels of oil equivalent were less than ten per cent lower than a year earlier, reflecting reserve additions of 100 million barrels of oil equivalent. tabs., figs

  1. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  2. Towards a sunny future for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    This document states the official positions of the Canadian Solar Industries Association regarding where Canada should be heading in terms of renewable energy policy. The main positions can be summarized as follows. Renewable energy policy should be integrated with an overall national energy strategy. Solar projects should be integrated with energy efficiency measures buildings. Government funding of research and development, demonstration projects, and commercialization is needed. In particular the paper cites funding for model solar communities. Finally it calls for the government to account for all hidden health, environmental, and social costs associated with fossil fuel use. The paper criticizes the low level of government funding for photovoltaic research and the lack of any photovoltaic rooftop deployment program. It encourages the establishment of a program to install 80,000 solar domestic hot water heaters in a ten year time frame.

  3. Fiscal Year 1990 program report: New York State Water Resources Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, K.S.

    1991-08-01

    New York has made major strides in reducing or eliminating point sources of water pollutants. Nonpoint sources have become the primary focus of many State water pollution control programs. Among the most critical remaining water pollutant sources in New York are toxics-contaminated sediments in surface water bodies and leaks and spills of toxic and hazardous materials. Contaminated sediments are implicated as a major origin of certain persistent synthetic organics accumulated by higher aquatic organisms, as well as representing an uncertain but large reservoir of contaminants which may be re-released during high flows. Spills and leaks represent threats to both surface and ground water. The State now responds to over 10,000 of these cases each year. A growing number of cases are leaking underground petroleum storage tanks, requiring long and expensive cleanup activities

  4. Tale of two pit lakes: initial results of a three-year study of the Main Zone and Waterline pit lakes near Houston, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusius, John; Pieters, R.; Leung, A.; Whittle, P.; Pedersen, T.; Lawrence, G.; McNee, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Pit lakes are becoming increasingly common in North America as well as in the rest of the world. They are created as openpit mines fill passively with ground water and surface inflows on cessation of mining activity. In many instances, the water quality in these pit lakes does not meet regulatory requirements due to a number of influences. The most important are the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the associated release of acid and metals and the flushing of soluble metals during pit filling. Examples of pit lakes with severe water-quality problems include the Berkeley Pit lake (Butte, MT) and the Liberty Pit lake (Nevada), whose waters are characterized by a pH near 3 and Cu concentrations as high as ~150 mg/L (Miller et al., 1996; Davis and Eary, 1997). The importance of the problem can be seen in the fact that some of these sites in the United States are Superfund sites.

  5. A Road Map for America's Water for the Next 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.; Rising, J.; Ho, M. W.; Josset, L.; Allaire, M.; Troy, T.; Devineni, N.; Ruddell, B. L.; Pal, I.

    2016-12-01

    This talk will present a perspective from the America's Water Initiative team that has been discussing the past, present and future of water in America. Paleoclimate reconstructions reveal dramatic inter-annual to decadal structure in the variation in drought across America and provide a backdrop for increasing climate variability expected in the next century. At the same time our water infrastructure ranging from main pipes to dams is aging and in urgent need of renewal. Non-point source pollution from cities and agriculture continues to be a concern and poses a challenge for water supplies. At the same time, there has been progress on water use efficiency, and on the acceptability of water reuse. To assure water, energy and food security for the future, one needs significant investments in water infrastructure of all types, and the cumulative estimates for these run to nearly $3 trillion over the next 20 years. A discussion on infrastructure provision is not complete without a discussion on how use patterns (e.g., where and which crops are grown and how), economic and financial instruments (e.g., insurance associated with the failure of water supply or with flooding, water pricing and trading, capital for construction), regulatory instruments (e.g., standards and policies), technological innovation (e.g., in sensors to improve water utilization in agriculture or pervasive monitoring of drinking and environmental water quality, nanofiltration and resource extraction from waste streams), and governance of water systems. We present for discussion, a proposal for the next 5 and the next 20 years that lays out an adaptive strategy to apprach these issues, and the associated unknowns and challenges that we need to address. The America's Water initiative was launched by Columbia University in partnership with other Universities and representatives from the public and private sectors. A modeling platform that brings together climate, water, agricultural, energy and urban

  6. Streamflow, water quality and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2016-05-03

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2014 (October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Providence Water Supply Board in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the Providence Water Supply Board and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the U.S. Geological Survey during WY 2014 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the Providence Water Supply Board are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2014.The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey) contributed a mean streamflow of 23 cubic feet per second to the reservoir during WY 2014. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.35 to about 14 cubic feet per second. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms of sodium and 2,100,000 kilograms of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2014; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 7,700 to 45,000 kilograms per year per

  7. Perceptions of organizational capacity to promote physical activity in Canada and ParticipACTION’s influence five years after its relaunch: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Ramanathan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poor diet quality has been shown to increase the risk of common chronic diseases that can negatively impact quality of life and burden the healthcare system. Canada’s Food Guide evidence-based recommendations provide dietary guidance aimed at increasing diet quality. Compliance with Canada’s Food Guide can be assessed with the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI, a diet quality score. The recently designed Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (C-DHQ II, a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire could be used to estimate the C-HEI in Canadian populations with the addition of food group equivalents (representing Canada’s Food Guide servings to the C-DHQ II nutrient database. We describe methods developed to augment the C-DHQ II nutrient database to estimate the C-HEI. Methods: Food group equivalents were created using food and nutrient data from existing published food and nutrient databases (e.g. the Canadian Community Health Survey — Cycle 2.2 Nutrition [2004]. The variables were then added to the C-DHQ II companion nutrient database. C-HEI scores were determined and descriptive analyses conducted for participants who completed the C-DHQ II in a cross-sectional Canadian study. Results: The mean (standard deviation C-HEI score in this sample of 446 adults aged 20 to 83 was 64.4 (10.8. Women, non-smokers, and those with more than high school education had statistically significant higher C-HEI scores than men, smokers and those with high school diplomas or less. Conclusion: The ability to assess C-HEI using the C-DHQ II facilitates the study of diet quality and health outcomes in Canada.

  8. Hydrologic data for the Walker River Basin, Nevada and California, water years 2010–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelko, Michael T.; Orozco, Erin L.

    2015-12-10

    Walker Lake is a threatened and federally protected desert terminal lake in western Nevada. To help protect the desert terminal lake and the surrounding watershed, the Bureau of Reclamation and U.S. Geological Survey have been studying the hydrology of the Walker River Basin in Nevada and California since 2004. Hydrologic data collected for this study during water years 2010 through 2014 included groundwater levels, surface-water discharge, water chemistry, and meteorological data. Groundwater levels were measured in wells, and surface-water discharge was measured in streams, canals, and ditches. Water samples for chemical analyses were collected from wells, streams, springs, and Walker Lake. Chemical analyses included determining physical properties; the concentrations of major ions, nutrients, trace metals, dissolved gases, and radionuclides; and ratios of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Walker Lake water properties and meteorological parameters were monitored from a floating platform on the lake. Data collection methods followed established U.S. Geological Survey guidelines, and all data are stored in the National Water Information System database. All of the data are presented in this report and accessible on the internet, except multiple-depth Walker Lake water-chemistry data, which are available only in this report.

  9. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1990-05-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  10. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1990-05-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  11. Constituent concentrations, loads, and yields to Beaver Lake, Arkansas, water years 1999-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Susan E.; De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Green, W. Reed

    2010-01-01

    Beaver Lake is a large, deep-storage reservoir used as a drinking-water supply and considered a primary watershed of concern in the State of Arkansas. As such, information is needed to assess water quality, especially nutrient enrichment, nutrient-algal relations, turbidity, and sediment issues within the reservoir system. Water-quality samples were collected at three main inflows to Beaver Lake: the White River near Fayetteville, Richland Creek at Goshen, and War Eagle Creek near Hindsville. Water-quality samples collected over the period represented different flow conditions (from low to high). Constituent concentrations, flow-weighted concentrations, loads, and yields from White River, Richland Creek, and War Eagle Creek to Beaver Lake for water years 1999-2008 were documented for this report. Constituents include total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, total organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Linear regression models developed by computer program S-LOADEST were used to estimate loads for each constituent for the 10-year period at each station. Constituent yields and flow-weighted concentrations for each of the three stations were calculated for the study. Constituent concentrations and loads and yields varied with time and varied among the three tributaries contributing to Beaver Lake. These differences can result from differences in precipitation, land use, contributions of nutrients from point sources, and variations in basin size. Load and yield estimates varied yearly during the study period, water years 1999-2008, with the least nutrient and sediment load and yields generally occurring in water year 2006, and the greatest occurring in water year 2008, during a year with record amounts of precipitation. Flow-weighted concentrations of most constituents were greatest at War Eagle Creek near Hindsville

  12. SCWR Concept in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    AECL is designing the Canadian SCWR concept, which has evolved from the well-established pressuretube type CANDU® reactor. The Canadian SCWR is designed to produce electrical energy as the main product, plus process heat, hydrogen, industrial isotopes, and drinking water (through the desalination process) as supplementary products, all within a more compact reactor building. Another potential application of the available co-generated process heat is the extraction and refining of oil sands, which is presently achieved using co-generation with natural gas turbines and process heat. The extraction and upgrading process requires: thermal power to lower the viscosity and extract the oil; electric power for separation and refining equipment; and hydrogen gas for upgrading the oil product prior to transport. A National Program has been established in Canada to support R&D studies for the Canadian SCWR design. It covers key areas of interest (such as thermal hydraulics, safety, materials, and chemistry) to participants in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) SCWR designs. Results generated from the program are contributed to the GIF SCWR project management boards (PMBs). For example, heat transfer correlations have been derived using experimental data primarily obtained from fossil-plant related studies (which were started as early as 1930s. Materials and chemistry studies have evolved from operating experience of fossil-fired power plants to a) develop, and perform targeted testing of, materials for key components, in particular in-core reactor components that will be exposed to conditions not encountered in a fossil-fired boiler (such as irradiation and water radiolysis), and b) develop a suitable water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport.

  13. Canada: The largest uranium producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Despite all the current difficulties, previous erroneous forecasts and other mistakes, the longer term future looks good for uranium mining and for Canada's industry in particular. Saskatchewan continues to offer the most exciting new prospects, the huge and fabulously high grade Cigar Lake deposits being the most spectacular of the recent discoveries. Notwithstanding continuous mining for 30 years from Elliot Lake there still remain there significant uncommitted reserves which can be developed when the market for uranium is in better balance

  14. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Scott,Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  15. Soil water erosion under different cultivation systems and different fertilization rates and forms over 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The action of rain and surface runoff together are the active agents of water erosion, and further influences are the soil type, terrain, soil cover, soil management, and conservation practices. Soil water erosion is low in the no-tillage management system, being influenced by the amount and form of lime and fertilizer application to the soil, among other factors. The aim was to evaluate the effect of the form of liming, the quantity and management of fertilizer application on the soil and water losses by erosion under natural rainfall. The study was carried out between 2003 and 2013 on a Humic Dystrupept soil, with the following treatments: T1 - cultivation with liming and corrective fertilizer incorporated into the soil in the first year, and with 100 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T2 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over five years, and with 75 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T3 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over three years, and with 50 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T4 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over two years, and with 25 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T5 - fallow soil, without liming or fertilization. In the rotation the crops black oat (Avena strigosa , soybean (Glycine max , common vetch (Vicia sativa , maize (Zea mays , fodder radish (Raphanus sativus , and black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris . The split application of lime and mineral fertilizer to the soil surface in a no-tillage system over three and five years, results in better control of soil losses than when split in two years. The increase in the amount of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage cultivation increases phytomass production and reduces soil loss by water erosion. Water losses in treatments under no-tillage cultivation were low in all crop cycles, with a similar behavior as soil losses.

  16. Fusion Canada issue 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  17. Fusion Canada issue 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.

  18. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  19. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  20. Water resources data for Florida, water year 1992. Volume 1B. Northeast Florida ground water. Water-data report (Annual) October 1, 1991-September 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 for northeast Florida include continuous or daily discharge for 140 streams, periodic discharge for 10 streams, miscellaneous discharge for 14 streams, continuous or daily stage for 32 streams, continuous or daily tide stage for 3 sites, periodic stage for 23 streams, peak discharge for 3 streams, and peak stage for 11 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 36 lakes, periodic elevations for 47 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 75 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 123 wells, and miscellaneous water-level measurements for 864 wells; and quality-of-water data for 38 surface-water sites and 66 wells

  1. Wadter Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin and Statewide Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synaptic sites, and partial-record sites; and (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake- and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures ga through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two to three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  2. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  3. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  4. Four years experience with filtration systems in commercial nurseries for eliminating Phytophthora species from recirculation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Ufer; M. Posner; H.-P. Wessels; S. Wagner; K. Kaminski; T. Brand; Werres S.

    2008-01-01

    In a four year project, three different filtration systems were tested under commercial nursery conditions to eliminate Phytophthora spp. from irrigation water. Five nurseries were involved in the project. Slow sand filtration systems were tested in three nurseries. In the fourth nursery, a filtration system with lava grains (Shieer® Bio filtration)...

  5. Simulation of the water-table altitude in the Biscayne Aquifer, southern Dade County, Florida, water years 1945-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    A digital model of the flow system in the highly permeable surficial aquifer of southern Dade County, Florida, was constructed for the purposes of better understanding processes that influence the flow system and of supporting the construction of a subregional model of the transport of brackish water from a flowing artesian well. Problems that needed resolution in this endeavor included the development of methods to represent the influence of flowing surface water in seasonally inundated wetlands and the influence of a network of controlled canals developed in stages during the simulation time period (water years 1945-89). An additional problem was the general lack of natural aquifer boundaries near the boundaries of the study area. The model construction was based on a conceptual description of the Biscayne aquifer developed from the results of previous U.S. Geological Survey investigations. Modifications were made to an existing three- dimensional finite-difference simulator of ground- water flow to enable an upper layer of the grid to represent seasonally occurring overland sheetflow in a series of transient simulations of water levels from 1945 to 1989. A rewetting procedure was developed for the simulator that permitted resaturation of cells in this layer when the wet season recurred. An "equivalent hydraulic conductivity" coefficient was assigned to the overland flow layer that was analogous, subject to various approximations, to the use of the Manning equation. The surficial semiconfining peat and marl layers, levees, canals, and control structures were also represented as part of the model grid with the appropriate choices of hydraulic coefficient values. For most of the Biscayne aquifer grid cells, the value assigned to hydraulic conductivity for model calibration was 30,000 feet per day and the value assigned to porosity was 20 percent. Boundary conditions were specified near data sites having long-term records of surface-water stages or water

  6. Taxi and limousine industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, J.; Civettini, S.

    2007-01-01

    Taxi and limousine service plays an important role in the movement of people within a city. In 2004, the total revenue in this industry in Canada was $1.305 billion, and an estimated 35,339 carriers served the industry. In Canada, economic and safety regulations of taxi supply were imposed in most cities during the 1930s and 1940s and continue to this date. Although the industry is regulated, the competition law also applies. The appropriateness of these regulations continues to be challenged and regulatory reforms in the major cities in Canada have concentrated their efforts on increasing the rate of services, improving the quality of vehicles and enhancing the training of taxi drivers. Indicators for the 1999-2004 period reveal that the taxi and limousine industry in Canada did not perform very well. Revenue increased by only 1.7 per cent per year and margins deteriorated by -1.78 per cent together with the operating ratio. The purpose of this paper was to examine the taxi and limousine industry in Canada. First, the structure of the industry in Canada was examined followed by a review of the economic regulation of the industry. Recent regulatory developments in Canada and in other countries were then reviewed with arguments for or against deregulation. 28 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Petro-Canada 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Petro-Canada is a dominant player in the petroleum industry in Western Canada as well as on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. This report presents a review of operations, provides detailed statements of the corporation's finances, and a wealth of information of interest to shareholders. The report states that in 1997 Petro-Canada achieved record financial results, following a dramatic turnaround over the past five years. Net earnings for 1997 were $306 million, a $59 million increase over 1996. The company's share price appreciated 34 per cent in 1997 and was one of the most heavily traded stocks in Canada. The company plans to maximize shareholder value by reducing its interests in conventional oil from mature fields in western Canada and by re-investing the proceeds in natural gas development. Petro-Canada is also committed to an expansion that will double production at the Syncrude oil sands plant over the next decade and has tested large in-situ oil sands resources for potential development in northeastern Alberta. On the Atlantic coast too, Petro-Canada is delivering leadership with increasing production from Hibernia, and final approvals in place to proceed with development of the Terra Nova field. International operations are also contributing to the Corporation's profitability by delivering new production from oil fields offshore Norway and from the Sahara Desert in North Africa. tabs., figs

  8. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, water year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2018-05-11

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Providence Water Supply Board. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 36 sampling stations by the Providence Water Supply Board and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the U.S. Geological Survey during WY 2015 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the Providence Water Supply Board are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2015.The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey) contributed a mean streamflow of 25 cubic feet per second to the reservoir during WY 2015. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.38 to about 14 cubic feet per second. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,500,000 kilograms of sodium and 2,400,000 kilograms of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2015; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 8,000 to 54,000 kilograms per square mile and from 12,000 to 91

  9. Canada's climate change dilemma and how to solve it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, S.

    2006-01-01

    This article presented a climate change policy plan delivered as part of political campaign for the leadership of the Liberal Party of Canada. The author proposed that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be radically reduced through the implementation of a system of enhanced regulations. It was argued that environmental sustainability has become an economic imperative as the climate changes and energy prices increase. The climate change policy plan addressed different sectors of the Canadian economy. Once enacted, the plan would enable average Canadian household to save $1000 per year on their electricity bills through a system of refundable tax credits for energy-efficient home retrofits and rebates and a new Green Mortgage plan. Targeted tax cuts of up to $2000 for fuel-efficient vehicles were proposed. The plan also included increased funding for research and development into renewable energy technologies; progressive environmental tax reforms; more stringent energy efficiency standards for appliances; and, an expansion of the use of biofuels in Canada by mandating a 10 per cent ethanol standard in gas, and 10 per cent in biodiesel by 2010. The plan would also create a functional carbon emissions market and renewable portfolio standard, as well as an expansion of the Wind Power Production Initiative (WPPI). Significant investment in the Strategic and Municipal Rural Infrastructure Funds to help protect municipal assets against extreme weather was proposed, as well as the development of a cap-and-trade program for smog-forming substances and the establishment of regulatory targets and timelines for the reduction of key air pollutants. A comprehensive water strategy to improve the management of critical water resources was outlined. Expansion of the Municipal Rural Infrastructure Fund, the Canada Strategic Infrastructure Fund, and the Green Municipal Fund was proposed. It was concluded that the new policy plan outlines will provide a roadmap for climate change

  10. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2006 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2006. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 42 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2006. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.60 to 26 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,500,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2006; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 15,000 to 100,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 22,000 to 180,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 24.6 milligrams per liter

  11. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2003 (October 1, 2002, to September 30, 2003). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2003 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2003. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 31 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2003. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.44 to 20 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,900,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2003; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 10,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 21.3 milligrams per liter

  12. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island’s largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2005 (October 1, 2004, to September 30, 2005). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2005 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2005. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 30 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2005. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.42 to 19 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,300,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,000,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2005; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 13,000 to 77,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 19,000 to 130,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 25.3 milligrams per

  13. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2004 (October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2004 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2004. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 27 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2004. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.42 to 19 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,100,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,700,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2004; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 12,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 17,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 24.8 milligrams per liter

  14. Water, ice, and meteorological measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, balance year 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.; Josberger, Edward G.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow and ice ablation were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to estimate glacier mass balance quantities for balance year 2002. The 2002 glacier-average maximum winter snow balance was 4.02 meters, the second largest since 1959. The 2002 glacier summer, net, and annual (water year) balances were -3.47, 0.55, and 0.54 meters, respectively. The area of the glacier near the end of the balance year was 1.92 square kilometers, and the equilibrium-line altitude and the accumulation area ratio were 1,820 meters and 0.84, respectively. During September 20, 2001 to September 13, 2002, the terminus retreated 4 meters, and computed average ice speeds in the ablation area ranged from 7.8 to 20.7 meters per year. Runoff from the subbasin containing the glacier and from an adjacent non-glacierized basin were measured during part of the 2002 water year. Air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric water-vapor pressure, wind speed and incoming solar radiation were measured at selected locations near the glacier.

  15. Twenty years of experience with central softening in The Netherlands : Water quality – Environmental benefits – Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, J.A.M.H.; Kramer, O.J.I.; van der Hoek, J.P.; Nederlof, M; Groenendijk, M

    2006-01-01

    Central softening has been utilized by the Dutch water utilities since the late 1970s. It was introduced in the water treatment process as a method to supply water with an optimum water composition to prevent lead and copper release and to prevent excessive scaling. Twenty years of experience show

  16. Water quality changes in a polluted stream over a twenty-five-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.; Skousen, J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Div. for Plant & Soil Science

    2003-04-01

    The Deckers Creek watershed in northern West Virginia (United States), containing a land area of 166 km{sup 2}, has along history of industrial development and attendant environmental abuses from both land and Water pollution practices. The water in Deckers Creek was sampled in 1974 at 9 locations along the main stem and resampled in 1999-2000 to determine water quality changes over this 25-year period. Water samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, alkalinity, iron, and calcium at both times, while aluminum, manganese, zinc, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria densities were added in 1999-2000. Water at almost all sampling points showed lower acidity and metal contents in 1999-2600 compared with 1974. Water pH increased at the mouth from 5.4 in 1974 to 6.0 in 1999-2000. Acidity and iron concentrations, were decreased an average of 70% in the upper stretches of the creek. however, one major untreated point source of water from an abandoned underground mining complex continues to degrade the quality of-the creek in its lower stretches. In the upper section, the. water quality in Deckers Creek has improved due to decreased surface and underground coal-mining activities, reclamation of abandoned and recently permitted surface mined lands, and natural healing of past land use scars from timbering and mining over time. The decrease in mineral. extraction activities and the reclamation of disturbed lands has occurred due to the passage and enforcement of water quality and land reclamation laws and regulations.

  17. 222Rn in private well water in the vicinity of uranium mines over ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunoki, Eiji; Kataoka, Toshio; Michihiro, Kenshu; Sugiyama, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Mitsuo; Mori, Tadashige

    1994-01-01

    There are many small uranium mines of the sedimentary type in Kamisaibara, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. As inhabitants in Kamisaibara consume water from privately-dug wells, it is important to investigate distributions of 222 Rn in privately-dug well water in the vicinity of the mines. The determination of 222 Rn in well water was carried out from April 1980 to October 1990. Though small in area (16 km 2 ), each well water has its own characteristic activity concentrations of 222 Rn. The activity concentrations of 222 Rn are almost constant for each specific well over a long period (about 10 years). In general, the correlation coefficients for several sampling points are small. As Akawase and Tennoh are situated in the same rock type, the correlation coefficient is the highest value in this area. The estimated dose equivalent for the human stomach is approximately 0.4-54 μSv/year. The type of distribution of 222 Rn in privately-dug well water is log normal. (author)

  18. Rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data for the urban storm-water program in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area, water year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Todd; Romero, Orlando; Jimenez, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization has dramatically increased precipitation runoff to the system of drainage channels and natural stream channels in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area. Rainfall and runoff data are important for planning and designing future storm-water conveyance channels in newly developing areas. Storm-water quality also is monitored in accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority, the City of Albuquerque, and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative program to collect hydrologic data to assist in assessing the quality and quantity of surface-water resources in the Albuquerque area. This report presents water-quality, streamflow, and rainfall data collected from October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004 (water year 2004). Also provided is a station analysis for each of the 18 streamflow-gaging sites and 39 rainfall-gaging sites, which includes a description of monitoring equipment, problems associated with data collection during the year, and other information used to compute streamflow discharges or rainfall records. A hydrographic comparison shows the effects that the largest drainage channel in the metropolitan area, the North Floodway Channel, has on total flow in the Rio Grande.

  19. Characteristics of water, sediment, and benthic communities of the Wolf River, Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, water years 1986-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Herbert S.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Richards, Kevin D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    Analyses and interpretation of water quality, sediment, and biological data from water years 1986 through 1998 indicated that land use and other human activities have had only minimal effects on water quality in the Wolf River upstream from and within the Menominee Indian Reservation in northeastern Wisconsin. Relatively high concentrations of calcium and magnesium (natural hardness), iron, manganese, and aluminum were measured in Wolf River water samples during water years 1986?98 from the three sampled sites and attributed to presence of highly mineralized geologic materials in the basin. Average calcium and magnesium concentrations varied from 22?26 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and 11?13 mg/L, respectively. Average iron concentrations ranged from 290?380 micrograms per liter (?g/L); average manganese concentrations ranged from 53?56 mg/L. Average aluminum concentrations ranged from 63?67 ?g/L. Mercury was present in water samples but concentrations were not at levels of concern. Levels of Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, and orthophosphorus in water samples were often low or below detection limits (0.01? 0.10 mg/L). Trace amounts of atrazine (maximum concentration of 0.031 ?g/L), deethylatrazine (maximum 0.032 ?g/L), and alachlor (maximum of 0.002 ?g/L) were detected. Low concentrations of most trace elements were found in streambed sediment. Tissues of fish and aquatic invertebrates collected once each year from 1995 through 1998 at the Langlade and Keshena sites, near the northern and southern boundaries of the Reservation, respectively, were low in concentrations of most trace elements. Arsenic and silver in fish livers from both sites were less than or equal to 2 ?g/g arsenic and less than 1 ?g/g silver for dry weight analysis, and concentrations of antimony, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and uranium were all below detection limits (less than 1 ?g/g dry weight). Concentrations of most other trace elements in fish

  20. Natural gas potential in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An independent assessment of the undiscovered gas potential in Canada was conducted by a group of volunteer geoscientists. This report is the first of a series of assessments that are planned to be issued every three to four years. Separate assessments were made of conventional gas resources, unconventional gas resources and frontier gas resources. The assessment for conventional gas resources was organized into three categories: (1) gas producing areas where new discoveries can be integrated into existing producing and transportation infrastructure, (2) frontier basins where gas discoveries have been made, but no production is currently underway, and (3) frontier areas where gas-containing sedimentary rocks are known to exist, but where no gas discoveries have been made to date. The committee used year-end 1993 reserves data from discovered pools in each exploration play to predict the undiscovered potential. Information about discovered pools, geological setting, geographic limits and pool sizes of undiscovered pools in each exploration play was provided. Results of the investigation led to the conclusion that the natural gas potential in Canada is in fact larger than hitherto expected. It was estimated that in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin 47 per cent of the total volume of conventional gas is yet to be discovered. 152 figs

  1. A strategic analysis of a service company in the film and television industry in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Nex, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    EP Canada Limited Partnership, a wholly owned subsidiary of Rainmaker Income Fund, is the leading ‘full service’ provider of payroll and employer-of-record services to the film and television industry in Canada. The size of the payroll volume outsourced in the film and television industry in Canada is directly correlated to the level of production activity in Canada. After several consecutive years of growth, the production of feature films and television programs, in Canada, is in ...

  2. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  3. ATLAS-Canada Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, I; Sobie, R J [HEPnet/Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bedinelli, M; Butterworth, S; Groer, L; Kupchinsky, V [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Caron, B; McDonald, S; Payne, C [TRIUMF Laboratory, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chambers, R [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fitzgerald, B [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hatem, R; Marshall, P; Pobric, D [CANARIE Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Maddalena, P; Mercure, P; Robertson, S; Rochefort, M [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); McWilliam, D [BCNet, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Siegert, M [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada)], E-mail: igable@uvic.ca (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The ATLAS-Canada computing model consists of a WLCG Tier-1 computing centre located at the TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, and two distributed Tier-2 computing centres in eastern and western Canadian universities. The TRIUMF Tier-1 is connected to the CERN Tier-0 via a 10G dedicated circuit provided by CANARIE. The Canadian institutions hosting Tier-2 facilities are connected to TRIUMF via 1G lightpaths, and routing between Tier-2s occurs through TRIUMF. This paper discusses the architecture of the ATLAS-Canada network, the challenges of building the network, and the future plans.

  4. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  5. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  6. Radiation oncology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Meredith; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2018-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and the cancer care system in Canada as it pertains to the governance, funding and delivery of radiotherapy programmes. We also review the training and practice for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists in Canada. We describe the clinical practice of radiation medicine from patients' referral, assessment, case conferences and the radiotherapy process. Finally, we provide an overview of the practice culture for Radiation Oncology in Canada. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  8. NPP construction cost in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of capital costs during NPP construction in Canada is considered. Capital costs comprise direct costs (cost of the ground and ground rights, infrastructure, reactor equipment, turbogenerators, electrotechnical equipment, auxiliary equipment), indirect costs (construction equipment and services, engineering works and management services, insurance payments, freight, training, operating expenditures), capital per cents for the period of construction and cost of heavy water storages. It proceeds from the analysis of the construction cost structure for a NPP with the CANDU reactor of unit power of 515, 740 and 880 MW, that direct costs make up on the average 62%

  9. Nitrate exposure from drinking water in Denmark over the last 35 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    users were far more prone to exposure to elevated nitrate concentrations than consumers connected to public supplies. While the fraction exposed to elevated nitrate concentrations amongst public supply users has been decreasing since the 1970s, it has been increasing amongst private well users, leading......In Denmark, drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in a publicly-accessible database. These data were analysed to determine the fraction of population exposed to elevated nitrate concentrations. Data from 2,852 water supply areas from the 98 Danish...... municipalities were collected in one dataset. Public water supplies are extensively registered; private wells supplying only few households are neither monitored nor registered sufficiently. The study showed that 5.1% of the Danish population was exposed to nitrate concentrations 25 mg L−1 in 2012. Private well...

  10. Selected hydrologic data from Fortymile Wash in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, water year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1995-02-01

    Precipitation totals of 245 and 210 mm were measured at UE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 and UE-29 UZN {number_sign}92 respectively, during the 1992 water year, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. Approximately ninety percent of the precipitation fell during the period December 27 to April 2. Localized streamflow was generated in the Fortymile Wash drainage basin during the February 12-15, 1992 and March 31, 1992 precipitation, and infiltrated into the streambed materials. The streamflow went across the UE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 neutron-access borehole location and within several meters of the UE-29 UZN {number_sign}92 location. Neutron logging in these boreholes showed increases in the volumetric water content of the unsaturated alluvium and indicated streamflow infiltrated to a depth of approximately 5 meters. The volumetric water content in the upper 5 meters then gradually decreased during the remaining part of the water year. Ground-water levels rose over one meter in wells UE-29 a{number_sign}1 and UE-29 a{number_sign}2, and one-half meter in neutron-access borehole LJE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 following the streamflows. Water level declines of 0.5 meter in UE-29 a{number_sign}1 and rises of 0.2 meter in UE-29 a{number_sign}2 and 0.1 meter in UE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 coincided with a June 29, 1992 earthquake at the Little Skull Mountain, located approximately 27 kilometers southeast of the wells.

  11. Selected hydrologic data from Fortymile Wash in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, water year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Precipitation totals of 245 and 210 mm were measured at UE-29 UZN number-sign 91 and UE-29 UZN number-sign 92 respectively, during the 1992 water year, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. Approximately ninety percent of the precipitation fell during the period December 27 to April 2. Localized streamflow was generated in the Fortymile Wash drainage basin during the February 12-15, 1992 and March 31, 1992 precipitation, and infiltrated into the streambed materials. The streamflow went across the UE-29 UZN number-sign 91 neutron-access borehole location and within several meters of the UE-29 UZN number-sign 92 location. Neutron logging in these boreholes showed increases in the volumetric water content of the unsaturated alluvium and indicated streamflow infiltrated to a depth of approximately 5 meters. The volumetric water content in the upper 5 meters then gradually decreased during the remaining part of the water year. Ground-water levels rose over one meter in wells UE-29 a number-sign 1 and UE-29 a number-sign 2, and one-half meter in neutron-access borehole LJE-29 UZN number-sign 91 following the streamflows. Water level declines of 0.5 meter in UE-29 a number-sign 1 and rises of 0.2 meter in UE-29 a number-sign 2 and 0.1 meter in UE-29 UZN number-sign 91 coincided with a June 29, 1992 earthquake at the Little Skull Mountain, located approximately 27 kilometers southeast of the wells

  12. Balancing the risks and benefits of drinking water disinfection: disability adjusted life-years on the scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Havelaar, A H; De Hollander, A E; Teunis, P F; Evers, E G; Van Kranen, H J; Versteegh, J F; Van Koten, J E; Slob, W

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of disability adjusted life-years (DALYs) as a measure to compare positive and negative health effects of drinking water disinfection, we conducted a case study involving a hypothetical drinking water supply from surface water. This drinking water supply is typical in The Netherlands. We compared the reduction of the risk of infection with Cryptosporidium parvum by ozonation of water to the concomitant increase in risk of renal cell cancer arising from the produc...

  13. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2012 (October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2012), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2012 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the PWSB were summarized by using values of central tendency and used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2012. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 26 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2012. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.40 to about 17 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,100,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,900,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2012; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 8,700 to 51,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 14,000 to 87,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected

  14. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2011 (October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2011), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2011 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2011. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 37 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2011. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.5 to about 21 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kg (kilograms) of sodium and 2,600,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2011; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 9,800 to 53,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 90,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were

  15. Gas and water permeability tests of 25 year old concrete from the NPD Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, R.H.

    1990-05-01

    Permeability tests on cores recovered from concrete which had been in service for 25 years in the Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) reactor showed rates of mass transfer of gas and water which were greater than young fresh concrete of the same proportions and that reported in previous AECB reports. This transparency of the concrete was also 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of comparable concrete which had been stored in the laboratory atmosphere for 19 years. Analysis of the effluent in water permeability tests revealed the presence of unusual amounts of soluble materials, mainly Na and K but little Ca, in the reactor concrete. This suggested service-related deterioration of the concrete rather than the release of soluble Ca by continuing hydration of cement

  16. Ten years of radiometric monitoring in water samples in Uruguay potables plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perruni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The work exposes the summary of having been radiometrics obtained during the last 10 years in several water treatment plants of the national territory, with the purpose of determining if in the total dose to the one that this exposed one naturally the population of the country, is important the contribution of polluting radioactives in the drinkable water, in function of the geographical area and the time of the year. The investigation is framed inside the Program of Control Radiometrics of Products of Fission in waters, floors, foods and aerosols of the Uruguay developed by the Radiochemistry Department, of the Nuclear Research Center, Montevideo (UY) The samples of water filter, they process and they analyze according to laboratory protocols, had duplicated by each plant, parallel with radio-active, white bottom measures and standards. The results net average obtained for each factory, gave below the one it limits of detection: 2 BQ/Kg for geometry Marinelli and 0.02 BQ/g for plane geometry, with 99,3% of dependability (standard 3 deviations), very below the maximum values admitted by International Organisms (WHO, FAO, ICRP) [es

  17. Canada's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1976-01-01

    Although Canada has developed the CANDU type reactor, and has an ambitious programme of nuclear power plant construction, there has been virtually no nuclear controversy. This progress was seen as a means to bring Canada out of the 'resource cow' era, and onto a more equal footing with technologically elite nations. However the Indian nuclear explosion test, waste storage problems, contamination problems arising from use of uranium ore processing waste as land fill and subsidised sale of nuclear power plants to Argentina and South Korea have initiated public and parliamentary interest. Some economists have also maintained that Canada is approaching over-supply of nuclear power and over-investment in plant. Canada has no official overall energy production plan and alternative sources have not been evaluated. (JIW)

  18. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  19. Water-resources investigations in Dinosaur National Monument, Utah-Colorado, fiscal year 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1971-01-01

    Water-resources data were acquired during fiscal year 1970 by the U.S. Geological Survey at Dinosaur National Monument, Utah-Colorado, for the U.S. National Park Service as part of a continuing project. The data provide a basis for planning the development, management, and use of the available water resources to provide adequate water supplies. Thirty-one springs, 19 in relatively inaccessible areas, were evaluated as sources of water supplies. Seven potential well sites were evaluated for drilling depths in specific aquifers. A well drilled in Echo Park near the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers was tested. The pumping test showed the well to yield 130 gallons per minute with a drawdown of 1.96 feet; specific capacity of the well at 130 gallons per minute is 66 gallons per minute per foot. Water samples for chemical analysis were - collected from nine springs and one well; all except that from Disappointment Spring, were of good chemical quality.

  20. Nitrate exposure from drinking water in Denmark over the last 35 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark, drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in a publicly-accessible database. These data were analysed to determine the fraction of population exposed to elevated nitrate concentrations. Data from 2,852 water supply areas from the 98 Danish municipalities were collected in one dataset. Public water supplies are extensively registered; private wells supplying only few households are neither monitored nor registered sufficiently. The study showed that 5.1% of the Danish population was exposed to nitrate concentrations > 25 mg L −1 in 2012. Private well users were far more prone to exposure to elevated nitrate concentrations than consumers connected to public supplies. While the fraction exposed to elevated nitrate concentrations amongst public supply users has been decreasing since the 1970s, it has been increasing amongst private well users, leading to the hypothesis that the decrease in nitrate concentrations in drinking water is mainly due to structural changes and not improvement of the groundwater quality. A combination of this new drinking water quality map with extensive Danish health registers would permit an epidemiological study on health effects of nitrate, as long as the lack of data on private well users is addressed. (paper)

  1. 11-Year change in water chemistry of large freshwater Reservoir Danjiangkou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Ye, Chen; Zhang, Quanfa

    2017-08-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir, an important drinking water source, has become a hot spot internationally due to its draining catchment has been increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities. However, its natural water chemistry (major elements) received little attention though it is crucial for water quality and aquatic ecology. Major ions during 2004-2014 were determined using stoichiometry to explore their shifts and the driving factors in the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Results show significant differences in monthly, spatial and annual concentrations of major ions. Waters are controlled by carbonate weathering with the dominant ions of Ca2+ and HCO3- total contributing 74% to the solutes, which are consistent with regional geography. Carbonate dissolution was produced by sulfuric acid and carbonic acid in particular. The relative abundance of Ca2+ gradually decreases, Na+ + K+ abundance, however, has doubled in the recent 11 years. Population and human activities were the major drivers for several major ions, i.e., Cl- and Na+ concentrations were explained by population and GDP, and SO42- by GDP, industrial sewage and energy consumption. Estimation indicated that domestic salts and atmospheric deposition contributed 56% and 22% to Cl-, respectively. We conclude waters in the Reservoir are naturally controlled by rock weathering whilst some key elements largely contributed by anthropogenic activities.

  2. Extraction and Preference Ordering of Multireservoir Water Supply Rules in Dry Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new methodology of combined use of the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II and the approach of successive elimination of alternatives based on order and degree of efficiency (SEABODE in identifying the most preferred multireservoir water supply rules in dry years. First, the suggested operation rules consists of a two-point type time-varying hedging policy for a single reservoir and a simple proportional allocation policy of common water demand between two parallel reservoirs. Then, the NSGA-II is employed to derive enough noninferior operation rules (design alternatives in terms of two conflicting objectives (1 minimizing the total deficit ratio (TDR of all demands of the entire system in operation horizon, and (2 minimizing the maximum deficit ratio (MDR of water supply in a single period. Next, the SEABODE, a multicriteria decision making (MCDM procedure, is applied to further eliminate alternatives based on the concept of efficiency of order k with degree p. In SEABODE, the reservoir performance indices and water shortage indices are selected as evaluation criteria for preference ordering among the design alternatives obtained by NSGA-II. The proposed methodology was tested on a regional water supply system with three reservoirs located in the Jialing River, China, where the results demonstrate its applicability and merits.

  3. Wait times in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Janice Christine

    2017-07-01

    A significant barrier to accessing healthcare in Canada is long waiting lists, which can be linked to the way that Medicare was structured. After significant pressure, provincial governments began to address wait times. An example of a successful strategy to reduce wait times for elective surgery is the Saskatchewan Surgical Initiative, which saw wait times in the province change from being among the longest in Canada to the shortest.

  4. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  5. Terrorism in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollek, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.

  6. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    acoustic communications, acoustic navigation, or acoustic remote sensing of the ocean interior . RELATED PROJECTS The 2015 CANAPE pilot study was a...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE...ocean structure. Changes in sea ice and the water column affect both acoustic propagation and ambient noise. This implies that what was learned

  7. Overview of Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1982-06-01

    This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries

  8. Canada's helium output rising fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-12-01

    About 12 months from now, International Helium Limited will be almost ready to start up Canada's second helium extraction plant at Mankota, in Saskatchewan's Wood Mountain area about 100 miles southwest of Moose Jaw. Another 80 miles north is Saskatchewan's (and Canada's) first helium plant, operated by Canadian Helium and sitting on a gas deposit at Wilhelm, 9 miles north of Swift Current. It contains almost 2% helium, some COD2U, and the rest nitrogen. One year in production was apparently enough to convince Canadian Helium that the export market (it sells most of its helium in W. Europe) can take a lot more than it's getting. Construction began this summer on an addition to the Swift Current plant that will raise its capacity from 12 to 36MMcf per yr when it goes on stream next spring. Six months later, International Helium's 40 MMcf per yr plant to be located about 4 miles from its 2 Wood Mountain wells will double Canada's helium output again.

  9. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  10. 226Ra and other radionuclides in water, vegetation, and tissues of beavers (Castor canadensis) from a watershed containing U tailings neat Elliot Lake, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clulow, F.V.; Mirka, M.A.; Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclide levels were measured in tissues, gut contents, diet items, and water at site of capture, of adult beavers from the Serpent River drainage basin which contains U tailings at Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from nearby control sites. Levels of 226 Ra in beaver bone, muscle and kidney were highest in animals from locations close to U tailing; liver levels did not vary by site. Environmental 226 Ra levels were within ranges previously reported at these or similar locations elsewhere; levels in beaver gut contents reflected levels in diet items. Concentration ratios exceeded unity only between some vegetation items and beaver bone at the Elliot Lake site and were less than 0.19 between vegetation and other tissues. In two beavers with tissue levels of 226 Ra higher than others sampled, neither 232 Th nor 230 Th were detected in bone, muscle or liver tissues. U-238 was measurable in bone, muscle and liver; 228 Th in bone, 210 Po bone, muscle and liver; and 210 Pb was measurable only in bone. Estimated yearly intakes of radionuclides by people eating beavers were calculated to be below current allowable levels set by the Canadian regulatory authorities. (author)

  11. Magnitude, frequency, and trends of floods at gaged and ungaged sites in Washington, based on data through water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Tecca, Alison E.

    2016-09-20

    An investigation into the magnitude and frequency of floods in Washington State computed the annual exceedance probability (AEP) statistics for 648 U.S. Geological Survey unregulated streamgages in and near the borders of Washington using the recorded annual peak flows through water year 2014. This is an updated report from a previous report published in 1998 that used annual peak flows through the water year 1996. New in this report, a regional skew coefficient was developed for the Pacific Northwest region that includes areas in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and western Montana within the Columbia River drainage basin south of the United States-Canada border, the coastal areas of Oregon and western Washington, and watersheds draining into Puget Sound, Washington. The skew coefficient is an important term in the Log Pearson Type III equation used to define the distribution of the log-transformed annual peaks. The Expected Moments Algorithm was used to fit historical and censored peak-flow data to the log Pearson Type III distribution. A Multiple Grubb-Beck test was employed to censor low outliers of annual peak flows to improve on the frequency distribution. This investigation also includes a section on observed trends in annual peak flows that showed significant trends (p-value Multivariate regression analysis with measured basin characteristics and the AEP statistics at long-term, unregulated, and un-urbanized (defined as drainage basins with less than 5 percent impervious land cover for this investigation) streamgages within Washington and some in Idaho and Oregon that are near the Washington border was used to develop equations to estimate AEP statistics at ungaged basins. Washington was divided into four regions to improve the accuracy of the regression equations; a set of equations for eight selected AEPs and for each region were constructed. Selected AEP statistics included the annual peak flows that equaled or exceeded 50, 20, 10, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.2 percent

  12. Swine enteric coronavirus disease: A review of 4 years with porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus and porcine deltacoronavirus in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwerder, M C; Hesse, R A

    2018-06-01

    Swine enteric coronaviruses, including porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), have emerged and spread throughout the North American swine industry over the last four years. These diseases cause significant losses within the pork industry and within the first year after PEDV introduction, approximately 10% of the US herd died due to the disease. Similar to other enteric coronaviruses, such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), these emerging swine enteric coronavirus diseases (SECD) are age-dependent, with high morbidity and mortality in neonatal pigs. Since the introduction of SECD, research has focused on investigating viral pathogenesis through experimental inoculation, increasing maternal antibody for neonatal protection, understanding transmission risks through feed and transportation, and outlining the importance of biosecurity in preventing SECD introduction and spread. A survey of swine professionals conducted for this review revealed that the majority of respondents (75%) believe SECD can be eradicated and that most herds have been successful at long-term elimination of SECD after exposure (80%). However, unique properties of SECD, such as ineffective immunity through parenteral vaccination and a low oral infectious dose, play a major role in management of SECD. This review serves to describe the current knowledge of SECD and the characteristics of these viruses which provide both opportunities and challenges for long-term disease control and potential eradication from the US swine population. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Evaluation of Nonpoint-Source Contamination, Wisconsin: Selected Topics for Water Year 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, D.W.; Corsi, Steven R.; Rappold, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMP's) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination in eight rural and four urban watersheds. This report, the fourth in an annual series of reports, presents a summary of the data collected for the program by the U.S. Geological Survey and the results of several detailed analyses of the data. To complement assessments of water quality, a land-use and BMP inventory is ongoing for 12 evaluation monitoring projects to track nonpoint sources of contamination in each watershed and to document implementation of BMP's that were designed to cause changes in the water quality of streams. Each year, updated information is gathered, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base. Summaries of land-use, BMP implementation, and water-quality data collected during water years 1989-95 are presented. Storm loads, snowmelt-period loads, and annual loads of suspended sediment and total phosphorus are summarized for eight rural sites. Storm-load data for suspended solids, total phosphorus, total recoverable lead, copper, zinc, and cadmium are summarized for four urban sites. Quality-assurance and quality-control (QA/QC) samples were collected at the eight rural sites to evaluate inorganic sample contamination and at one urban site to evaluate sample-collection and filtration techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAR's). Some suspended solids and fecal coliform contamination was detected at the rural sites. Corrective actions will be taken to address this contamination. Evaluation of PAR sample-collection techniques did not uncover any deficiencies, but the small amount of data collected was not sufficient to draw any definite conclusions. Evaluation of PAR filtration techniques indicate that water-sample filtration with O.7-um glass-fiber filters in an aluminum filter unit does not result in significant loss

  14. Two-year water degradation of self-etching adhesives bonded to bur ground enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ali I; Feilzer, Albert J

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of water storage on the microshear bond strength to ground enamel of three "all-in-one" self-etch adhesives: Futurabond DC, Clearfil S Tri Bond and Hybrid bond; a self-etching primer; Clearfil SE Bond and an etch-and-rinse adhesive system, Admira Bond. Sixty human molars were used. The root of each tooth was removed and the crown was sectioned into two halves. The convex enamel surfaces were reduced by polishing on silicon paper to prepare a flat surface that was roughened with a parallel-sided diamond bur with abundant water for five seconds. The bonding systems were applied on this surface. Prior to adhesive curing, a hollow cylinder (2.0 mm in height/0.75 mm in internal diameter) was placed on the treated surfaces and cured. A resin composite was then inserted into the tube and cured. For each adhesive, two procedures were carried out: A--the specimens were kept in water for 24 hours, then the tube was removed and the microshear bond strength was determined in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute; B--the specimens were stored in water for two-years before microshear testing. The fractured surface of the bonded specimens after each test procedure was examined by SEM. For the 24-hour control, there was no significant difference in bond strength between the tested adhesives. After two years of water storage, the bond strength of Admira Bond, Clearfil SE Bond and Futurabond DC decreased, but the reduction was not significantly different from that of 24 hours. For Clearfil S Tri Bond and Hybrid Bond, the bond strengths were significantly reduced compared to their 24-hour results.

  15. Trends in overweight prevalence among 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds in 25 countries in Europe, Canada and USA from 2002 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Dalmasso, Paola; Rasmussen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess recent changes in the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) among 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds in 33 countries from 2002 to 2010. METHODS: Data from 25 countries from three consecutive survey cycles (2002, 2006 and 2010) that had at least 80...... and highlight the need to understand cross-national differences by examining macro-level indicators. Such research should feed into developing sound translations and practices to prevent and reduce overweight in youth.......% response rate for self-reported height, weight and age were analysed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Overweight prevalence increased among boys in 13 countries and among girls in 12 countries; in 10 countries, predominantly in Eastern Europe, an increase was observed for both boys and girls...

  16. The health care cost of dying: a population-based retrospective cohort study of the last year of life in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tanuseputro

    Full Text Available Coordinated and appropriate health care across sectors is an ongoing challenge, especially at the end-of-life. Population-level data on end-of-life health care use and cost, however, are seldom reported across a comprehensive array of sectors. Such data will identify the level of care being provided and areas where care can be optimized.This retrospective cohort study identified all deaths in Ontario from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2013. Using population-based health administrative databases, we examined health care use and cost in the last year of life.Among 264,755 decedents, the average health care cost in the last year of life was $53,661 (Quartile 1-Quartile 3: $19,568-$66,875. The total captured annual cost of $4.7 billion represents approximately 10% of all government-funded health care. Inpatient care, incurred by 75% of decedents, contributed 42.9% of total costs ($30,872 per user. Physician services, medications/devices, laboratories, and emergency rooms combined to less than 20% of total cost. About one-quarter used long-term-care and 60% used home care ($34,381 and $7,347 per user, respectively. Total cost did not vary by sex or neighborhood income quintile, but were less among rural residents. Costs rose sharply in the last 120 days prior to death, predominantly for inpatient care.This analysis adds new information about the breadth of end-of-life health care, which consumes a large proportion of Ontario's health care budget. The cost of inpatient care and long-term care are substantial. Introducing interventions that reduce or delay institutional care will likely reduce costs incurred at the end of life.

  17. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    original 4 Mm3. Having a reduced access to water resources, most of the farms during the 90's moved to more efficient water uses (drip irrigation) to save crops from leaf burns or switched to less-water-demanding, but less profitable crops. As a consequence, less competitive areas in the production-distribution chain suffered aquifer' salinisation and were progressively abandoned. As far as drinking water supply, the area is facing water scarcity during the summer period; desalination plants are planned. In one of the plain the water utility pumps out salinised groundwater that is then desalinized with an obvious increase in energy consumption. Although water management needs have grown during the last 50 years and several studies outlined the importance of planning this resource, conflicts among stakeholders and political issues make such problems of difficult solution. Today large dam building seems to be quite unreliable both because of the construction time and the financial issues related. At the same time feasible projects, driven also by innovative and more profitable agricultural development, call for wastewater reuse and artificial aquifer recharge starting at least from pilot tests in priority areas.

  18. Thirteen years of integrated precipitable water derived by GPS at Mario Zucchelli Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierguido Sarti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Italian Antarctic Programme has been funding space geodetic activities based on the use of episodic and permanent global positioning system (GPS observations. As well as their exploitation in geodynamics, these data can be used to sense the atmosphere and to retrieve and monitor its water vapor content and variations. The surface pressure p and temperature Ts at the GPS tracking sites are necessary to compute the zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD, and consequently, the precipitable water. At sites where no surface information is recorded, the p and Ts values can be retrieved from, e.g., global numerical weather prediction models. Alternatively, the site-specific ZHD values can be computed by interpolation of the ZHD values provided in a grid model (2.5° × 2.0°. We have processed the data series of the permanent GPS site TNB1 (Mario Zucchelli Station, Antarctica from 1998 to 2010, with the purpose of comparing the use of grid ZHD values as an alternative to the use of real surface records. With these approaches, we estimate almost 7 × 104 hourly values of precipitable water over 13 years, and we find discrepancies that vary between 1.8 (±0.2 mm in summer and 3.3 (±0.5 mm in winter. In addition, the discrepancies of the two solutions show a clear seasonal dependency. Radiosounding measurements were used to derive an independent series of precipitable water. These agree better with the GPS precipitable water derived from real surface data. However, the GPS precipitable water time series is dry biased, as it is ca. 77% of the total moisture measured by the radiosoundings. Both the GPS and radiosounding observations are processed through the most up-to-date strategies, to reduce known systematic errors.

  19. Natural gas resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component in many of the technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In order to understand the role that natural gas can play, it is important to know how much may be present, where it is, when can it be accessed and at what cost. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee has completed its second report 'Natural Gas Potential in Canada - 2001' (CGPC, 2001). This comprehensive study of exploration plays in Canada addresses the two issues of 'how much may be present' and 'where is it'. The Report deals with both conventional gas and non-conventional gas. One hundred and seven Established Conventional Exploration Plays, where discoveries of gas exist, have been assessed in all of the sedimentary basins in Canada. In addition, where sufficient information was available, twelve Conceptual Exploration Plays, where no discoveries have been made, were assessed. Sixty-five other Conceptual Plays were described and qualitatively ranked. An experienced volunteer team of exploration professionals conducted assessments of undiscovered gas potential over a four-year period. The team used technical judgment, statistical techniques and a unique peer review process to make a comprehensive assessment of undiscovered gas potential and estimates of the size of individual undiscovered gas accumulations. The Committee assessed all gas in place in individual exploration plays. For Established Plays, estimates of Undiscovered Nominal Marketable Gas are based on the percentage of the gas in place that is marketable gas in the discovered pools in a play. Not all of the Nominal Marketable Gas will be available. Some underlies areas where exploration is not possible, such as parks, cities and other closed areas. Some will be held in gas pools that are too small to be economic and some of the pools will never be found. In some areas no production infrastructure will be available. Detailed studies of individual exploration plays and basins will be required

  20. All projects related to canada | Page 12 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-11-01

    Integrated Nutrient and Water Management for Sustainable Food Production in the Sahel (CIFSRF) ... equality") is an important principle of Canada's international cooperation program. Start Date: November 1, 2011. End Date: March 31, 2015.

  1. Prediction in ungauged basins: approaches for Canada's cold regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pietroniro, Alain; Pomeroy, John Willard; Spence, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In March, 2004, Water Survey of Canada and the Canadian Society for Hydrological Sciences co-hosted a workshop in Yellowknife to discuss how to improve our community's abilities to predict streamflow...

  2. Canada-South Africa trilateral Research Chair in climate change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-South Africa trilateral Research Chair in climate change and ... Decreasing food availability for wildlife is likely to exacerbate the impacts of climate change ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  3. Recent U.S. Geological Survey Studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada-Results of a 5-Year Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents summary papers of work conducted between 2002 and 2007 under a 5-year project effort funded by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program, formerly entitled 'Tintina Metallogenic Province: Integrated Studies on Geologic Framework, Mineral Resources, and Environmental Signatures.' As the project progressed, the informal title changed from 'Tintina Metallogenic Province' project to 'Tintina Gold Province' project, the latter being more closely aligned with the terminology used by the mineral industry. As Goldfarb and others explain in the first chapter of this report, the Tintina Gold Province is a convenient term used by the mineral exploration community for a 'region of very varied geology, gold deposit types, and resource potential'. The Tintina Gold Province encompasses roughly 150,000 square kilometers, bounded by the Kaltag-Tintina fault system on the north and the Farewell-Denali fault system on the south. It extends westward in a broad arc, some 200 km wide, from northernmost British Columbia, through the Yukon, through southeastern and central Alaska, to southwestern Alaska. The climate is subarctic and, in Alaska, includes major physiographic delineations and ecoregions such as the Yukon-Tanana Upland, Tanana-Kuskokwim Lowlands, Yukon River Lowlands, and the Kuskokwim Mountains. Although the Tintina Gold Province is historically important for some of the very first placer and lode gold discoveries in northern North America, it has recently seen resurgence in mineral exploration, development, and mining activity. This resurgence is due to both new discoveries (for example, Pogo and Donlin Creek) and to the application of modern extraction methods to previously known, but economically restrictive, low-grade, bulk-tonnage gold resources (for example, Fort Knox, Clear Creek, and Scheelite Dome). In addition, the Tintina Gold Province hosts numerous other mineral deposit types, possessing both high and low sulfide content, which

  4. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, January - June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for the first half of 1979 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  5. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1973-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. This report summarizes the results obtained during 1973-1976 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides. During this period, all radioactivity levels were below the maximum permissible limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (Auth)

  6. CHANGES OF WATER BALANCE COMPONENTS OF MIDFOREST POND IN A HYDROLOGICAL YEARS OF A DIFFERENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITION COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Korytowski

    2014-10-01

    years. Evaporation from pond surface which was from 408 mm (2009/2010 to 835 mm (2002/2003 was the dominant factor of outgoing part of water balance. Outflow from the pond to neighboring areas had significant participation – about 44% of precipitation, in water balance in wet 2009/2010 hydrological year.

  7. How does the media portray drinking water security in Indigenous communities in Canada? An analysis of Canadian newspaper coverage from 2000-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drinking water insecurity and related health outcomes often disproportionately impact Indigenous communities internationally. Understanding media coverage of these water-related issues can provide insight into the ways in which public perceptions are shaped, with potential implications for decision-making and action. This study aimed to examine the extent, range, and nature of newspaper coverage of drinking water security in Canadian Indigenous communities. Methods Using ProQuest database, we systematically searched for and screened newspaper articles published from 2000 to 2015 from Canadian newspapers: Windspeaker, Toronto Star, The Globe and Mail, and National Post. We conducted descriptive quantitative analysis and thematic qualitative analysis on relevant articles to characterize framing and trends in coverage. Results A total of 1382 articles were returned in the search, of which 256 articles were identified as relevant. There was limited coverage of water challenges for Canadian Indigenous communities, especially for Métis (5% and Inuit (3% communities. Most stories focused on government responses to water-related issues, and less often covered preventative measures such as source water protection. Overall, Indigenous peoples were quoted the most often. Double-standards of water quality between Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities, along with conflict and cooperation efforts between stakeholders were emphasized in many articles. Conclusion Limited media coverage could undermine public and stakeholder interest in addressing water-related issues faced by many Canadian Indigenous communities.

  8. Long Island Sound Water Temperatures During the Last Two Thousand Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C. E.; Varekamp, J. C.; Thomas, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Long Island Sound (LIS), sometimes called the “urban sea”, is a large estuary in the heavily populated coastal zone between New York City and the Connecticut - Rhode Island border. LIS has seen dramatic environmental shifts since colonial times, including major changes in aquatic food extraction, land use, contaminant and nutrient inputs, and climate change. Annual seasonal hypoxic/anoxic events, especially common in westernmost LIS, have been identified as potentially severe stressors for LIS biota including valuable fisheries species such as lobsters and shellfish. These conditions develop when the Sound becomes stratified in midsummer and oxygen consumption from the oxidation of organic matter exceeds oxygen resupply from the atmosphere or photosynthesis. Severity, lateral extent and frequency of hypoxia/anoxia is influenced by the amount of organic matter available for oxidation, both marine organic matter (produced by algal blooms in response to influx of N-rich effluents from waste water treatment plants) and terrestrial organic matter. These events are also influenced by the severity of stratification, determined by differences in density from temperature and salinity gradients of surface and bottom waters. Studies of cores in western and central LIS, dated using Hg-pollution profiles, 210Pb - 137Cs, and 14C, indicate that eutrophication and hypoxia have occurred in LIS only over the last ~150 years, with the possible exception of the Narrows (closest to NY) where it may have occurred before colonial times. Salinity decreased as well over the last 150 years, possibly due to changes in land use or deflection of fresh water from the Hudson River. Temperature variability in LIS over the last few thousand years has not been clearly documented, as several paleotemperature proxies are difficult to use in estuarine settings. Oxygen isotope values of carbonate microfossils are influenced by salinity fluctuations, and Mg/Ca values in these shells may be

  9. Canada's uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.L.; Williams, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Canadian Government policies which affect the uranium industry and, where appropriate, to provide some background on the development of these policies. This review is timely because of two recent announcements by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources - one concerning the Canadian Government's renewed commitment to maintain the nuclear power option for Canada, and the other concerning some adjustments to Canada's uranium export policy. The future of Canada's nuclear industry was subject to a thorough review by the Canadian Government during 1989. This review occurred at a time when environmental issues were attracting increasing attention around the world, and the environmental advantages of nuclear power were becoming increasingly recognised. The strong support for the nuclear industry in Canada is consistent with the government's long-standing efforts to maintain Canada's position as a reliable and competitive supplier of uranium. This paper is particularly devoted to an outline of the results of the uranium export policy review. (author)

  10. Building Canada: Phase One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-04-15

    The 'Building Canada' program modelled after the 'Building America' program, aims at increasing energy efficiency and affordability, primarily for single family homes. The program takes a holistic and whole house view, employing a systems approach and is committed to continuous improvement through testing, evaluation, retesting and novel construction practices. The program's objective is to re-engineer house designs so that builders can take advantage of advanced products and achieve maximum efficiency. Building Canada aims to achieve its objectives through partnership with the housing industry, focusing on increasing energy efficiency while reducing construction time, using and wasting fewer materials, forestalling call backs, and reducing overall costs. The Building Canada procedures encompass marketing, research of builder's operations, re-engineering mechanical systems, framing components and techniques, moisture control and thermal performance, construction, resolution of problems in re-engineered homes, and discussion of results in demonstration homes. The program as a whole is built on the feasibility study of a Building Canada program carried out in Nova Scotia and Ontario. Some of the results of this pilot study summarized in this report indicate that the Building Canada is not suitable for use by small builders. Benefits are most likely to be realized by only by builders constructing more than 100 homes annually.

  11. IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF EXTRACTING SURFACE WATER QUALITY LEVELS (SWQLs USING REMOTE SENSING AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK: A CASE STUDY IN THE SAINT JOHN RIVER, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sharaf El Din

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Delineating accurate surface water quality levels (SWQLs always presents a great challenge to researchers. Existing methods of assessing surface water quality only provide individual concentrations of monitoring stations without providing the overall SWQLs. Therefore, the results of existing methods are usually difficult to be understood by decision-makers. Conversely, the water quality index (WQI can simplify surface water quality assessment process to be accessible to decision-makers. However, in most cases, the WQI reflects inaccurate SWQLs due to the lack of representative water samples. It is very challenging to provide representative water samples because this process is costly and time consuming. To solve this problem, we introduce a cost-effective method which combines the Landsat-8 imagery and artificial intelligence to develop models to derive representative water samples by correlating concentrations of ground truth water samples to satellite spectral information. Our method was validated and the correlation between concentrations of ground truth water samples and predicted concentrations from the developed models reached a high level of coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.80, which is trustworthy. Afterwards, the predicted concentrations over each pixel of the study area were used as an input to the WQI developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment to extract accurate SWQLs, for drinking purposes, in the Saint John River. The results indicated that SWQL was observed as 67 (Fair and 59 (Marginal for the lower and middle basins of the river, respectively. These findings demonstrate the potential of using our approach in surface water quality management.

  12. Improving the Accuracy of Extracting Surface Water Quality Levels (SWQLs) Using Remote Sensing and Artificial Neural Network: a Case Study in the Saint John River, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartano, G.; Spanò, A.

    2017-09-01

    Delineating accurate surface water quality levels (SWQLs) always presents a great challenge to researchers. Existing methods of assessing surface water quality only provide individual concentrations of monitoring stations without providing the overall SWQLs. Therefore, the results of existing methods are usually difficult to be understood by decision-makers. Conversely, the water quality index (WQI) can simplify surface water quality assessment process to be accessible to decision-makers. However, in most cases, the WQI reflects inaccurate SWQLs due to the lack of representative water samples. It is very challenging to provide representative water samples because this process is costly and time consuming. To solve this problem, we introduce a cost-effective method which combines the Landsat-8 imagery and artificial intelligence to develop models to derive representative water samples by correlating concentrations of ground truth water samples to satellite spectral information. Our method was validated and the correlation between concentrations of ground truth water samples and predicted concentrations from the developed models reached a high level of coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.80, which is trustworthy. Afterwards, the predicted concentrations over each pixel of the study area were used as an input to the WQI developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment to extract accurate SWQLs, for drinking purposes, in the Saint John River. The results indicated that SWQL was observed as 67 (Fair) and 59 (Marginal) for the lower and middle basins of the river, respectively. These findings demonstrate the potential of using our approach in surface water quality management.

  13. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracey, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  14. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scott

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.

  15. 2012-2013 CAUT Almanac of Post-Secondary Education in Canada = 2012-2013 Almanach de l'enseignement postsecondaire au Canada de l'ACPPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In previous editions of the CAUT Almanac, data for provincial postsecondary education expenditures, total expenditures and university and college revenues and expenditures was reported from Statistics Canada's Financial Management System (FMS), which Statistics Canada last published for the 2008-2009 fiscal year. Statistics Canada will be adopting…

  16. Suspended sediment, turbidity, and stream water temperature in the Sauk River Basin, western Washington, water years 2012-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.; Curran, Christopher A.; Anderson, Scott W.; Morris, Scott T.; Moran, Patrick W.; Reams, Katherine A.

    2017-11-01

    The Sauk River is a federally designated Wild and Scenic River that drains a relatively undisturbed landscape along the western slope of the North Cascade Mountain Range, Washington, which includes the glaciated volcano, Glacier Peak. Naturally high sediment loads characteristic of basins draining volcanoes like Glacier Peak make the Sauk River a dominant contributor of sediment to the downstream main stem river, the Skagit River. Additionally, the Sauk River serves as important spawning and rearing habitat for several salmonid species in the greater Skagit River system. Because of the importance of sediment to morphology, flow-conveyance, and ecosystem condition, there is interest in understanding the magnitude and timing of suspended sediment and turbidity from the Sauk River system and its principal tributaries, the White Chuck and Suiattle Rivers, to the Skagit River.Suspended-sediment measurements, turbidity data, and water temperature data were collected at two U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the upper and middle reaches of the Sauk River over a 4-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2015, and at a downstream location in the lower river for a 5-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2016. Over the collective 5-year study period, mean annual suspended-sediment loads at the three streamgages on the upper, middle, and lower Sauk River streamgages were 94,200 metric tons (t), 203,000 t, and 940,000 t streamgages, respectively. Fine (smaller than 0.0625 millimeter) total suspended-sediment load averaged 49 percent at the upper Sauk River streamgage, 42 percent at the middle Sauk River streamgage, and 34 percent at the lower Sauk River streamgage.

  17. Water and beverage consumption patterns among 4 to 13-year-old children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Maillot, Matthieu; Constant, Florence; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-05-19

    The UK government has announced a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages. The aim of this study was to assess consumption patterns for plain drinking water relative to sugary beverages among UK children. Dietary intake data for 845 children aged 4-13 years came from the nationally representative cross-sectional National Diet and Nutrition Survey, 2008-2011. Beverage categories were drinking water (tap or bottled), milk, 100% fruit juices, soda, fruit drinks, tea, coffee, sports drinks, flavored waters, and liquid supplements. Consumption patterns were examined by age group, gender, household incomes, time and location of consumption, region and seasonality. Total water consumption from drinking water, beverages, and foods, and the water-to-calorie ratios (L/kcal) were compared to the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) adequate intake standards. Total water intake (1338 ml/d) came from plain water (19%), beverages (48%), and food moisture (33%). Plain drinking water provided 258 g/d (241 g/d for children aged 4-8 years; 274 g/d for 9-13 years), mostly (83.8%) from tap. Water and beverages supplied 901 g /d of water. Tap water consumption increased with income and was highest in the South of England. The consumption of bottled water, soda, tea and coffee increased with age, whereas milk consumption declined. About 88.7% of children did not meet EFSA adequate intake standards. The daily water shortfall ranged from 322 ml/d to 659 ml/d. Water-to-calorie ratio was 0.845 L/1000 kcal short of desirable levels of 1.0-1.5 L/1000 kcal. Total water intake were at 74.8% of EFSA reference values. Drinking water consumption among children in the UK was well below US and French estimates.

  18. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  19. Canada's domestic nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) is a committee of representatives of religious groups in Toronto, a group of people concerned about the moral and ethical implications of the operation of Canada's nuclear industry and of its exports to other countries. The faith groups represented are the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, the Baha'i Community of Canada, the Jewish Community of Toronto, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto and the United Church of Canada Toronto Conference. Wishing to encourage the Canadian government to enquire into this broad question, the faith groups established IPPANI and assigned to it the task of enhancing their knowledge of the nuclear industry. IPPANI was to develop an effective set of questions to be placed before governments and to promote public discussion so that governments might become more responsive to these issues

  20. Cardiac Rehabilitation Series: Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L.; Bennett, Stephanie; Ardern, Chris I.; Clark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Canada. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has a long robust history here, and there are established clinical practice guidelines. While the effectiveness of CR in the Canadian context is clear, only 34% of eligible patients participate, and strategies to increase access for under-represented groups (e.g., women, ethnic minority groups) are not yet universally applied. Identified CR barriers include lack of referral and physician recommendation, travel and distance, and low perceived need. Indeed there is now a national policy position recommending systematic inpatient referral to CR in Canada. Recent development of 30 CR Quality Indicators and the burgeoning national CR registry will enable further measurement and improvement of the quality of CR care in Canada. Finally, the Canadian Association of CR is one of the founding members of the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, to promote CR globally. PMID:24607018

  1. Canada's green plan: Summary. Le plan vert du Canada: Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of Canada's Green Plan, a comprehensive action plan to ensure a healthy environment for the future. The plan defines targets and schedules which will drive federal environmental initiatives, and incorporates concepts of sustainable development. Elements of the plan include initiatives to combat and prevent water pollution; control ocean dumping; control smog-causing emissions; provide tighter air pollution standards; provide for sound waste management according to the principles of reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover; assess and control chemical wastes; sustain Canadian forests and maintain their diversity while shifting forest management from sustained yield to sustainable development; maintain and enhance environmental sustainability in the agro-food sector and the fishery sector; preserve and protect national parks and wildlife; and preserve and enhance the integrity, health, biodiversity and productivity of Arctic ecosystems. With respect to global-scale problems, measures will be taken to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, limit acid rain-related emissions, and phase out the use of ozone-depleting substances. The plan also intends to improve Canada's capability to respond to environmental emergencies, improve environmental decision-making by strengthening and building of partnerships, promote environmental science research and development, and make effective and balanced use of enviromental laws, with market-based approaches for environmental protection.

  2. China energy-water nexus: Assessing the water-saving synergy effects of energy-saving policies during the eleventh Five-year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Alun; Teng, Fei; Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and water limit China’s sustainable development. • Current energy policies fail to address water saving issues. • The energy-water coefficient is estimated for both direct use and indirect use. • Water saving effects associated with energy-saving policies is calculated. • Water-energy nexus should be enhanced in key industrial sectors. - Abstract: Energy and water have become major factors limiting sustainable development in China. Energy efficiency and optimization of water management are critical for the healthy growth of the Chinese economy. Current national energy policies fail to adequately address water use issues. Similarly, current water policies do not consider the impact of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, few studies have investigated the relationship between energy consumption and water use. The present study analyzes the energy-water nexus in Chinese industries using input–output tables. Coefficients that characterize the relationship between energy consumption and water are used to describe the supply-consumption relationship between the water supply and primary energy sectors. Next, we calculate the water-saving effects associated with the enforcement of energy-saving policies in selected industrial sectors during the eleventh Five-year Plan, from 2005 to 2010. These calculations address the ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, petrochemical engineering, building materials, and electricity industries as well as key light industries. Our findings indicate that energy-saving efforts in these industries will result in savings in water consumption. This study suggests that a cooperative relationship between water and energy conservation efforts should be an important factor in creating policies that encourage simultaneous savings of both resources. Additionally, the study indicates that government should promote water- and energy-saving techniques in key industrial sectors to encourage

  3. Intercomparison of techniques for inspection and diagnostics of heavy water reactor pressure tubes: Flaw detection and characterization [Phase 1] [Sample summary reports of pressure tube samples from Argentina, India, Canada, Republic of Korea, and Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    Nuclear power plants with heavy water reactors (HWRs) comprise nine percent of today's operating nuclear units, and more are under construction. Efficient and accurate inspection and diagnostic techniques for various reactor components and systems are an important factor in assuring reliable and safe plant operation. To foster international collaboration in the efficient and safe use of nuclear power, the IAEA conducted a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Inter-comparison of Techniques for HWR Pressure Tube Inspection and Diagnostics. This CRP was carried out within the frame of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for HWRs (the TWG-HWR). The TWG-HWR is a group of experts nominated by their governments and designated by the IAEA to provide advice and to support implementation of the IAEA's project on advanced technologies for HWRs. The objective of the CRP was to inter-compare non-destructive inspection and diagnostic techniques, in use and being developed, for structural integrity assessment of HWR pressure tubes. During the first phase of this CRP, participants have investigated the capability of different techniques to detect and characterize flaws. During the second phase of this CRP, participants collaborated to detect and characterize hydride blisters and to determine the hydrogen concentration in Zirconium alloys. The intent was to identify the most effective pressure tube inspection and diagnostic methods, and to identify further development needs. The organizations that have participated in this CRP are: - The Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Argentina; - Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL); Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), Canada; - The Research Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (RINPO), China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), China; - Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India; - The Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI), Republic of Korea; - The Korea Atomic Energy

  4. Evidence for soil water control on carbon and water dynamics in European forests during the extremely dry year: 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granier, A.; Reichstein, M.; Breda, N.

    2007-01-01

    stand to estimate the water balance terms: trees and understorey transpiration, rainfall interception, throughfall, drainage in the different soil layers and soil water content. This model calculated the onset date, duration and intensity of the soil water shortage (called water stress) using measured...... measured and modelled soil water content. Our analysis showed a wide spatial distribution of drought stress over Europe, with a maximum intensity within a large band extending from Portugal to NE Germany. Vapour fluxes in all the investigated sites were reduced by drought, due to stomatal closure, when...... the relative extractable water in soil (REW) dropped below ca. 0.4. Rainfall events during the drought, however, typically induced rapid restoration of vapour fluxes. Similar to the water vapour fluxes, the net ecosystem production decreased with increasing water stress at all the sites. Both gross primary...

  5. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  6. Landfill gas management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.

    1997-01-01

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (10 15 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring

  7. 4R Water Quality Impacts: An Assessment and Synthesis of Forty Years of Drainage Nitrogen Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, L E; Harmel, R D

    2015-11-01

    The intersection of agricultural drainage and nutrient mobility in the environment has led to multiscale water quality concerns. This work reviewed and quantitatively analyzed nearly 1,000 site-years of subsurface tile drainage nitrogen (N) load data to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the impacts of 4R practices (application of the right source of nutrients, at the right rate and time, and in the right place) within drained landscapes across North America. Using drainage data newly compiled in the "Measured Annual Nutrient loads from AGricultural Environments" (MANAGE) database, relationships were developed across N application rates for nitrate N drainage loads and corn ( L.) yields. The lack of significant differences between N application timing or application method was inconsistent with the current emphasis placed on application timing, in particular, as a water quality improvement strategy ( = 0.934 and 0.916, respectively). Broad-scale analyses such as this can help identify major trends for water quality, but accurate implementation of the 4R approach will require site-specific knowledge to balance agronomic and environmental goals. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Learner's Guide: Water Quality Monitoring. An Instructional Guide for the Two-Year Water Quality Monitoring Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Richard B.; And Others

    This learner's guide is designed to meet the training needs for technicians involved in monitoring activities related to the Federal Water Pollution Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act. In addition it will assist technicians in learning how to perform process control laboratory procedures for drinking water and wastewater treatment plant…

  9. Immigrants' Propensity to Self-Employment: Evidence from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peter S.

    2001-01-01

    Uses Canada's Longitudinal Immigration Data Base to highlight patterns of self-employment in various entry cohorts of immigrants between 1980-95 and develop a model to predict immigrants' propensity to self-employment. Overall, arrival in better economic years, longer residence in Canada, higher educational levels, older age, and being selected…

  10. Young Children's Perceptions of Social Withdrawal in China and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J.; Zheng, Shujie; Weeks, Murray; Chen, Xinyin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore attitudes and responses to different forms of social withdrawal in China and Canada. Participants in this study were children in early elementary school in the People's Republic of China (n = 213; 113 boys, 100 girls, M[subscript age] = 6.11 years) and Canada (n = 162; 60 boys, 102 girls, M[subscript…

  11. Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada Partnership ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada Partnership 2007-2009. For almost 30 years, IDRC has enabled the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada to provide Canadian universities with liaison and information services on international development through its International Relations Division.

  12. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1985-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1986 covers the following subjects: report from the chairman and the president; research company; CANDU operations; radiochemical company; employee performance; nuclear Canada; Financial section; and board of directors and officers

  13. Productivity through Innovation: Applied Research at Canada's Colleges and Institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Applied research at Canada's colleges and institutes has expanded rapidly over the last five years. This report provides an overview of the current context and positions colleges and institutes as key players in Canada's innovation system. The report builds upon findings of previous research and reports on the results of the 2009-2010…

  14. Surface-Water Quality Conditions and Long-Term Trends at Selected Sites within the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network in Missouri, Water Years 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.; Davis, Jerri V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, collects data pertaining to the surface-water resources of Missouri. These data are collected as part of the Missouri Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network and constitute a valuable source of reliable, impartial, and timely information for developing an improved understanding of water resources in the State. Six sites from the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network, with data available from the 1993 through 2008 water years, were chosen to compare water-quality conditions and long-term trends of dissolved oxygen, selected physical properties, total suspended solids, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorous, fecal indicator bacteria, and selected trace elements. The six sites used in the study were classified in groups corresponding to the physiography, main land use, and drainage basin size, and represent most stream types in Missouri. Long-term trends in this study were analyzed using flow-adjusted and non-flow adjusted models. Highly censored datasets (greater than 5 percent but less than 50 percent censored values) were not flow-adjusted. Trends that were detected can possibly be related to changes in agriculture or urban development within the drainage basins. Trends in nutrients were the most prevalent. Upward flow-adjusted trends in dissolved nitrate plus nitrite (as nitrogen) concentrations were identified at the Elk River site, and in total phosphorus concentrations at the South Fabius and Grand River sites. A downward flow-adjusted trend was identified in total phosphorus concentrations from Wilson Creek, the only urban site in the study. The downward trend in phosphorus possibly was related to a phosphorus reduction system that began operation in 2001 at a wastewater treatment plant upstream from the sampling site. Total suspended solids concentrations indicated an upward non-flow adjusted trend at the two northern sites (South Fabius

  15. Water Erosion in a Two Year Old Stand of Eucalyptus benthamii under three Plantation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, J.; Bertol, I.; Marioti, J.; Ramos, J. C.; Flores, M. C.; Tanaka, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    The preparation of the soil is the main issue of soil management. Thus, it is also one of the main operations with regard to management of planted forest during the whole productive process. Soil preparation is thought to directly affect various processes of the hydrologic cycle, water erosion, crop productivity and, subsequently, play an important role both for the environment and for the invested capital. Therefore knowledge of the effect of each specific soil management system on forest production is viewed as an essential issue. Based on these considerations, the aim of this work was to quantify soil and water losses by water erosion during the seasons of the year with the highest rainfall intensity in the south hemisphere, i.e. spring and summer in a two year old stand planted with Eucalyptus benthamii. This tree species was planted following three different conditions: 1) soil mechanical preparation in furrows following the land slope, 2) soil mechanical preparation in furrows dug perpendicular to the slope and 3) semi-mechanical preparation by digging an individual hole for each plant. The field experiment was located in Otacílio Costa municipality, SC, Brazil, at the Gropp forest farm owned by the Kablin SA company, 841 m asl altitude. The soil was classified as a "Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico Léptico" according with the Brazilian Soil Classification System with a slope of about 0.12 m m-1. The experimental design consisted of randomly located erosion plots with 3 repetitions, thus a total of 9 plots. The surface area of the plots was 12 x 24 m and they were oriented so that the main side followed the land slope. Suspended sediments and water losses were channelled to collecting tank at the end of the plot. Runoff water and eroded sediments were weakly measured, so that they correspond to cumulative weakly rainfall. The highest soil and water losses were recorded in plots with furrows dug perpendicular to the slope and the lowest ones corresponded to the

  16. One-year Surveillance of Human Enteric Viruses in Raw and Treated Wastewaters, Downstream River Waters, and Drinking Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, M; Muscillo, M; Della Libera, S; Fratini, M; Meucci, L; De Ceglia, M; Giacosa, D; La Rosa, G

    2017-03-01

    Human enteric viruses are a major cause of waterborne diseases, and can be transmitted by contaminated water of all kinds, including drinking and recreational water. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A and E virus) in raw and treated wastewaters, in rivers receiving wastewater discharges, and in drinking waters. Wastewater treatment plants' (WWTP) pathogen removal efficiencies by adenovirus quantitative real-time PCR and the presence of infectious enterovirus, by cell culture assays, in treated wastewaters and in surface waters were also evaluated. A total of 90 water samples were collected: raw and treated wastewaters (treated effluents and ultrafiltered water reused for industrial purposes), water from two rivers receiving treated discharges, and drinking water. Nested PCR assays were used for the identification of viral DNA/RNA, followed by direct amplicon sequencing. All raw sewage samples (21/21), 61.9 % of treated wastewater samples (13/21), and 25 % of ultrafiltered water samples (3/12) were contaminated with at least one viral family. Multiple virus families and genera were frequently detected. Mean positive PCRs per sample decreased significantly from raw to treated sewage and to ultrafiltered waters. Moreover, quantitative adenovirus data showed a reduction in excess of 99 % in viral genome copies following wastewater treatment. In surface waters, 78.6 % (22/28) of samples tested positive for one or more viruses by molecular methods, but enterovirus-specific infectivity assays did not reveal infectious particles in these samples. All drinking water samples tested negative for all viruses, demonstrating the effectiveness of treatment in removing viral pathogens from drinking water. Integrated strategies to manage water from all sources are crucial to ensure water quality.

  17. TransCanada PipeLines Limited 1998 annual report : TransCanada energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Financial information from TransCanada PipeLines Limited and a review of the company's 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. TransCanada's pipeline system transports natural gas and crude oil from Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to North America's major energy markets. Net earnings from continuing operations for 1998, before unusual charges, were $575 million ($ 355 million after unusual charges) compared to $522 million for 1997. Solid performances from the energy transmission and international business, when compared to 1997, were more than offset by a decreased contribution from energy processing. TransCanada recorded integration costs of $166 million, after tax, related to the merger with NOVA in 1998, which was the major operational accomplishment during the year, creating a seamless economic energy delivery, processing and marketing system from the wellhead to the market. tabs., figs

  18. Examination of body burden and taint for Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica) and American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides) near the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Kiceniuk, Joe W.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Gregory Janes, G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results of analyses of body burdens of metals and hydrocarbons, and taste tests for taint, in Iceland scallop and American plaice performed as part of the Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program for the Terra Nova offshore oil development (Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada). Scallop and plaice were collected in a Study Area located within approximately 1 km of drill centres at Terra Nova and in a Reference Area located approximately 20 km from the development. Samples were collected in 1997 to establish a baseline, and from 2000 to 2010, during drilling periods. Scallop adductor muscle tissue was contaminated with >C10-C21 aliphatic hydrocarbons resembling the drilling fluid in the synthetic drilling mud (SBM) used at Terra Nova in 2000, 2002 and 2004, but contamination of adductor muscle was not noted in 2006, 2008 and 2010. The maximum concentration in muscle was 28 mg/kg wet weight, noted in 2002. Scallop viscera was contaminated with hydrocarbons resembling drilling fluid in SBMs near drill centres in all EEM years except 2010. Viscera contamination with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons gradually decreased from a maximum of 150 mg/kg in 2000, to a maximum of 27 mg/kg in 2008; all values were below the laboratory reporting detection limit of 15 mg/kg in 2010. Therefore, evidence from both muscle and viscera indicates a decrease in tissue hydrocarbon contamination in recent years. Barium, another major constituent in drilling muds, has not been noted in scallop adductor muscles at concentrations above the reporting detection limit, but barium was detected in viscera in baseline and EEM years. The maximum concentration of barium in viscera during baseline sampling was 8 mg/kg. The maximum concentration in EEM years (29 mg/kg) was noted in 2000. The maximum concentration in 2010 was 25 mg/kg. The concentration of metals other than barium in scallop tissues was similar between the Terra Nova Study Area and the Reference Area. Hydrocarbons

  19. Validating Fricke dosimetry for the measurement of absorbed dose to water for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy: a comparison between primary standards of the LCR, Brazil, and the NRC, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salata, Camila; Gazineu David, Mariano; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcom

    2018-04-01

    Two Fricke-based absorbed dose to water standards for HDR Ir-192 dosimetry, developed independently by the LCR in Brazil and the NRC in Canada have been compared. The agreement in the determination of the dose rate from a HDR Ir-192 source at 1 cm in a water phantom was found to be within the k  =  1 combined measurement uncertainties of the two standards: D NRC/D LCR  =  1.011, standard uncertainty  =  2.2%. The dose-based standards also agreed within the uncertainties with the manufacturer’s stated dose rate value, which is traceable to a national standard of air kerma. A number of possible influence quantities were investigated, including the specific method for producing the ferrous-sulphate Fricke solution, the geometry of the holder, and the Monte Carlo code used to determine correction factors. The comparison highlighted the lack of data on the determination of G(Fe3+) in this energy range and the possibilities for further development of the holders used to contain the Fricke solution. The comparison also confirmed the suitability of Fricke dosimetry for Ir-192 primary standard dose rate determinations at therapy dose levels.

  20. Climate change effects on regions of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the major effects of climatic change being experienced in different parts of Canada, and emphasizes those that they are likely to become so severe that they may disrupt social, ecological and economic systems. The report notes that the driving force behind these impacts is change in temperature, precipitation, and in extreme weather events. The report strongly suggests that greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide will likely continue to increase due to human activities such as burning of fossil fuels for heating, cooling and transportation. Loss of tropical forests is also listed as a cause for increased greenhouse gases. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, Canada must use energy much more efficiently, use more alternative renewable energy source and substitute natural gas for coal and oil whenever possible. It was emphasized that the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol would slow down the rate of increase of the world's greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn affect atmospheric concentrations. The author states that Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol is key to global success, particularly since some countries have backed away from it and some are wavering. The report outlined the following major impacts of climate change in various parts of Canada: sea ice, permafrost, forest fires, transportation, toxic contaminants, storminess, precipitation, water supply, water quality, fisheries, hydropower, agriculture and human adaptation. refs., tabs

  1. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  2. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  3. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  4. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  5. Fusion Canada issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs.

  6. Suicide in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    1998-01-01

    ... provides long-awaited information that focuses specifically on Canada. It addresses suicide as a multidimensional problem with biological, psychological, cultural, sociological, personal, and philosophical aspects. The contributions integrate both critical analysis and personal experience. There are accounts from Inuit elders, fr...

  7. Fusion Canada issue 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  8. Fusion Canada issue 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs.

  9. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  10. Fusion Canada issue 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs.

  11. Nuclear technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed

  12. Fusion Canada issue 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue tritium supply for Japanese research, Canada to host the 1995 IAEA Conference on Tritium, studies on the tokamak divertor and edge plasma studies, a tritium field release study, erosion studies on plasma facing materials, G. Pacher returns to CCFM and an update on CCFM/TdeV

  13. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  14. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  15. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  16. Water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey in New Mexico; fiscal year 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert R.; Wells, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey investigates the occurrence, quantity, quality, distribution, and movement of the Nation 's surface and underground waters, and coordinates Federal water data acquisition activities. During fiscal year 1981, the New Mexico District had 40 active projects, released 19 reports, and answered hundreds of requests of water-related information. Investigations included the following: (1) chemical quality of surface water in New Mexico; (2) chemical quality of groundwater in New Mexico; (3) sediment transport in New Mexico streams; (4) surface water supply; (5) surface water diversions for irrigation; (6) streamflow characteristics; (7) effect of urban development on storm runoff; (8) inundation from floods; (9) effects of groundwater pumping; (10) long-term monitoring of groundwater levels; (11) groundwater and surface water relationships; (12) consumptive use by phreatophytes; (13) hydrologic impacts of energy development; and (14) groundwater supplies. (Lantz-PTT)

  17. Fisheries and Oceans Canada climate change risk assessment initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalpe, R. [Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper provided an overview of an initiative undertaken by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) Canada to assess the risks associated with climate change on Canada's waterways and aquatic resources over the next 10 to 20 years. It discussed the risk associated with changes in water temperature and level in increasing the vulnerability of fish stocks and ecosystems. A decrease in water levels is also an issue as it will render current infrastructure ineffective. Storm surges can also have an impact on coastal community infrastructure. The purpose of the assessment was to provide DFO management with a structured understanding of the major climate change factors that pose risks to DFO's operations and to establish priorities in identifying appropriate risk mitigation responses. The presentation discussed the different stages of the initiative (planning, identification and evaluation of risk, validation, and reporting), its' challenges and benefits, as well as lessons learned from this exercises. Lessons learned from the project are as follows: get senior level buy-in from the outset; engage the right people; make it easy for others to be engaged; validate results and risk management response; be ready for surprises; and build in some flexibility to the process. figs.

  18. Canada`s greenhouse gas emissions inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, Canada was the seventh largest global emitter of CO{sub 2}. The Kyoto Protocol has made it necessary to continue to improve methods for developing emissions inventories. An emissions inventory was defined as `a comprehensive account of air pollutant emissions and associated data from sources within the inventory area over a specified time frame that can be used to determine the effect of emissions on the environment`. The general approach is to compile large-scale emission estimates under averaged conditions for collective sources and sectors, using data that is available on a sectoral, provincial and national basis. Ideally, continuous emission monitors should be used to develop emissions inventories. Other needed improvements include additional research on emissions data, and increased support for international negotiations on reporting policies and related methodologies, verification procedures and adjustments. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  19. Nuclear regulatory developments in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper from CNSC discusses nuclear regulatory developments in Canada. It starts with the Fukushima accident and the effect on the nuclear sector. It summarises what CNSC has done, what it has learned and their plans going forward. It has made recommendations to IAEA for international enhancements to regulatory procedures. It outline the activities of Canada's nuclear power plants, Canada's uranium projects, deep geological repository and waste management as well as nuclear research in Canada.

  20. Change in the southern U.S. water demand and supply over the next forty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven C. McNulty; Ge Sun; Erika C. Cohen; Jennifer A. Moore Myers

    2008-01-01

    Water shortages are often considered a problem in the western United States, where water supply is limited compared to the eastern half of the country. However, periodic water shortages are also common in the southeastern United States due to high water demand and periodic drought. Southeastern U.S. municipalities spend billions of dollars to develop water storage...

  1. Radiation biology in Canada 1962-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thacker, D.G.

    1963-02-01

    A survey of the research projects in radiation biology being carried out in Canada during the fiscal year 1962-63. The report includes the names of the investigators, their location, a brief description of the projects and information on the financial support being provided. A classification of the projects into areas of specific interest is also included. (author)

  2. A case of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirohama, Shigeo; Soedjaro; Machida, Takashi

    1985-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome underwent computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US). CT and US provided useful information on pathologic conditions, including edema of the digestive mucosa, which characterize this syndrome. Clinical analysis of this syndrome in 77 Japanese cases reported in the literature was presented. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Petro-Canada annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Petro-Canada is Canada's national energy corporation, formed by an Act of Parliament in 1975. Operations began in January 1976. In 1991, Petro-Canada became a public company, issuing 19.5% of its common shares for net proceeds of $523 million. Heavy losses in the first half of the year were driven by price volatility following the Persian Gulf war. Cash flow return on capital employed was 7.2%, and a net loss of $598 million was posted. The Klua gas field was brought on stream only 30 months after discovery, an important gas discovery was made in British Columbia, and production and sales of natural gas increased. This annual report presents a corporate profile, a statement of corporate responsibility, and the year's activities in production and sales of natural gas, synthetic and natural crude oil and gasoline. Details are also provided of Petro-Canada's financial and operational restructuring in view of the declining revenues being obtained. A financial review from 1986 to the present is included, along with a glossary of financial terms, a financial statement, and a 5-year summary. Reserves information comparing the current to the previous year is given. 11 figs., 12 tabs

  4. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  5. Electric power in Canada 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs.

  6. Sediment transport processes at the head of Halibut Canyon, Eastern Canada margin: An interplay between internal tides and dense shelf water cascading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Greenan, Blair J. W.; Li, Michael Z.; Prescott, Robert H.; Piper, David J. W.

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the processes by which sediment is transported through a submarine canyon incised in a glaciated margin, the bottom boundary layer quadrapod RALPH was deployed at 276-m depth in the West Halibut Canyon (off Newfoundland) during winter 2008-2009. Two main sediment transport processes were identified throughout the deployment. Firstly, periodic increases of near-bottom suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) were recorded associated with the up-canyon propagation of the semidiurnal internal tidal bore along the canyon axis, carrying fine sediment particles resuspended from deeper canyon regions. The recorded SSC peaks, lasting less than one hour, were observed sporadically and were linked to bottom intensified up-canyon flows concomitant with sharp drops in temperature. Secondly, sediment transport was also observed during events of intensified down-canyon current velocities that occurred during periods of sustained heat loss from surface waters, but were not associated with large storms. High-resolution velocity profiles throughout the water column during these events revealed that the highest current speeds (~1 m s-1) were centered several meters above the sea floor and corresponded to the region of maximum velocities of a gravity flow. Such flows had associated low SSC and cold water temperatures and have been interpreted as dense shelf water cascading events channelized along the canyon axis. Sediment transport during these events was largely restricted to bedload and saltation, producing winnowing of sands and fine sediments around larger gravel particles. Analysis of historical hydrographic data suggests that the origin of such gravity flows is not related to the formation of coastal dense waters advected towards the canyon head. Rather, the dense shelf waters appear to be generated around the outer shelf, where convection during winter is able to reach the sea floor and generate a pool of near-bottom dense water that cascades into the canyon

  7. Restructuring of Canada's nuclear utilities: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guindon, S.

    1998-01-01

    Business decisions relating to the electric power sector are a provincial responsibility in Canada. The federal government looks to the three nuclear utilities to manage their nuclear assets and maintain them in a way that maximizes their reliability, efficiency and overall performance. A significant development in Canada's nuclear sector in the past year was the Ontario Hydro Nuclear Asset Optimization Plan. Structural change in the North American electricity market is a major impetus for decisions regarding nuclear assets by Canada's electric power utilities. The Ontario government is now taking steps to introduce competition in the Ontario Electricity market. The province of New Brunswick, which has one reactor at Point Lepreau which supplies one-third of the province's electricity, is also taking measures to introduce competition in its electricity market. (author)

  8. State of the quality of drinking water in households in children under five years in Peru, 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Marianella; Dirección Ejecutiva de Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional, Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Aramburú, Adolfo; Dirección Ejecutiva de Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional, Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Junco, Jorge; Asesoría en Nutrición y Salud - ASENSA SAC, Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Campos, Miguel; Departamento de física, Informática y Matemáticas, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico, Doctor en Ciencias.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the proportion of children under five with access to quality water and its behavior according to geographical location, water supply and poverty status. Material and methods. Continuous survey (repeated cross), with multistage random sampling, being the universe children under five years living in Peru. We evaluated the presence of free chlorine in drinking water samples in the dwellings of 3570 children (Metropolitan Lima 666, Rest of Coast 755, Urban Sierra 703, R...

  9. Petro-Canada annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Petro-Canada was formed as Canada's national energy corporation by an act of Parliament in 1975. Operations began in January 1976, and the company was privatized in July 1991. In 1992, Petro-Canada markedly improved its operating performance by sharply cutting operating and overhead costs. Strategy in the company's resource division was refocused to concentrate future investment in western Canada light oil and natural gas and in Grand Banks light oil. Petro-Canada sold a 5% interest in the Syncrude oil sands project for $132 million as part of its plan to rebalance its portfolio. In the products division, Petro-Canada is reducing capacity and eliminating inefficient parts of its marketing network as a response to low demand. Operating earnings improved $252 million to reach $109 million, versus a $143 million loss in 1991. Net earnings were $9 million, compared to a $598 million loss in 1991. Total oil and natural gas liquids production was 80,000 bbl/d and natural gas production was 517 million ft 3 /d. Refined product sales were 43,000 m 3 /d at an average refinery utilization of 72%. Proved oil and natural gas liquids reserves were 417 million bbl and proved natural gas reserves were 2.4 trillion ft 3 . Debt was reduced by almost $700 million during 1992. The year's activities in production and sales of natural gas, synthetic and natural crude oil, gasoline, and oil sands are summarized. A 6-year operating and financial summary is included, along with a financial statement. 11 figs., 17 tabs

  10. Does emergency department use and post-visit physician care cluster geographically and temporally for adolescents who self-harm? A population-based 9-year retrospective cohort study from Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Johnson, David W; Urichuk, Liana; Dong, Kathryn; Newton, Amanda S

    2016-07-11

    Clustering of adolescent self-harming behaviours in the context of health care utilization has not been studied. We identified geographic areas with higher numbers of adolescents who (1) presented to an emergency department (ED) for self-harm, and (2) were without a physician follow-up visit for mental health within 14 days post-ED visit. We extracted a population-based cohort of adolescents aged 15-17 years (n = 3,927) with ED visits during 2002-2011 in Alberta, Canada. We defined the case as an individual with one or more ED presentations for self-harm in the fiscal year of the analysis. Crude case rates were calculated and clusters were identified using a spatial scan. The rates decreased over time for ED visits for self-harm (differences: girls -199.6/100,000; p self-harm (differences: girls -108.3/100,000; p self-harm (relative risks [RRs]: 1.58 for cluster 1, 3.54 for cluster 2) and were without a 14-day physician follow-up (RRs: 1.78 for cluster 1, 4.17 for cluster 2). In 2010/2011, clusters in the North, Edmonton, and Central zones were identified for adolescents with and without a follow-up visit within 14 days following an ED visit for self-harm (p self-harm and rates of adolescents without a 14-day physician follow-up visit following emergency care for self-harm decreased during the study period. The space-time clusters identified the areas and years where visits to the ED by adolescents for self-harm were statistically higher than expected. These clusters can be used to identify locations where adolescents are potentially not receiving follow-up and the mental health support needed after emergency-based care. The 2010/2011 geographic cluster suggests that the northern part of the province still has elevated numbers of adolescents visiting the ED for self-harm. Prospective research is needed to determine outcomes associated with adolescents who receive physician follow-up following ED-based care for self-harm compared to those who do not.

  11. Factors that affect public-supply water use in Florida, with a section on projected water use to the year 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Public-supply water use in Florida increased 242 percent between 1960 and 1987 from 530 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) to 1,811 Mgal/d. This change is primarily a result of increases in population and tourism since 1960. Public-supply utilities provide water to a variety of users. In 1985, 71 percent of the water used for public supply was delivered for residential uses, 15 percent for commercial uses, 9 percent for industrial uses, and the remaining 5 percent for public use or other uses. Residential use of public-supply water in Florida has increased nearly 280 Mgal/d, but has decreased in the proportion of total deliveries from 80 to 71 percent between 1975 and 1985. This trend resulted from increased tourism and related commercial services associated with population and visitors. One of several factors that influences public-supply water use in Florida is the increase in resident population, which increased from 4.95 million in 1960 to more than 12.0 million in 1987. Additionally, Florida's nonresident population increased from 18.8 million visitors in 1977, to 34.1 million visitors in 1987, and the part of Florida?s population that relies on public-supply water increased from 68 percent in 1960, to 86 percent in 1987. The public supply per capita use was multiplied by the projected populations for each county for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020 to forecast public-supply water use. Using medium projections, Florida?s population is expected to increase to nearly 16 million in the year 2000, to 18 million in the year 2010, and to almost 20 million in the year 2020, of which an estimated 13.5 million people will be supplied water from public-supply water systems in the year 2000, 15 million in 2010, and nearly 17 million by the year 2020. Public-supply water use is expected to increase to a projected (medium) 2,310 Mgal/d in the year 2000, 2,610 Mgal/d in the year 2010, and 2,890 Mgal/d in the year 2020. If the population exceeds the medium projections for the

  12. Glendonites in Neoproterozoic low-latitude, interglacial, sedimentary rocks, northwest Canada: Insights into the Cryogenian ocean and Precambrian cold-water carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Noel P.; Narbonne, Guy M.; Dalrymple, Robert W.; Kurtis Kyser, T.

    2005-01-01

    Stellate crystals of ferroan dolomite in neritic siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks between Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations in the Mackenzie Mountains are interpreted as replaced glendonites. These pseudomorphs after ikaite indicate that shallow seawater at that time was near freezing. Stromatolites verify that paleoenvironments were in the photic zone and physical sedimentary structures such as hummocky cross-bedding confirm that the seafloor was repeatedly disturbed by storms. Glendonites within these low-latitude, continental shelf to coastal sedimentary deposits imply that global ocean water during much of Cryogenian time was likely very cold. Such an ocean would easily have cooled to yield widespread sea ice and, through positive feedback, growth of low-latitude continental glaciers. In this situation gas hydrates could have formed in shallow-water, cold shelf sediment, but would have been particularly sensitive to destabilization as a result of sea-level change. Co-occurrence of pisolites and glendonites in these rocks additionally implies that some ooids and pisoids might have been, unlike Phanerozoic equivalents, characteristic of cold-water sediments.

  13. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Research and Development Program Plan -- Fiscal Year 2009–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60-year operating licenses. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary this year. U.S. regulators have begun considering extended operations of nuclear power plants and the research needed to support long-term operations. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Research and Development (R&D) Program, developed and sponsored by the Department of Energy, is performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs. The purpose of the LWRS R&D Program is to provide technical foundations for licensing and managing long-term, safe and economical operation of the current operating nuclear power plants. The LWRS R&D Program vision is captured in the following statements: Existing operating nuclear power plants will continue to safely provide clean and economic electricity well beyond their first license- extension period, significantly contributing to reduction of United States and global carbon emissions, enhancement of national energy security, and protection of the environment. There is a comprehensive technical basis for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, economical operation of nuclear power plants. Sustaining the existing operating U.S. fleet also will improve its international engagement

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Research and Development Program Plan. Fiscal Year 2009-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60-year operating licenses. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary this year. U.S. regulators have begun considering extended operations of nuclear power plants and the research needed to support long-term operations. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Research and Development (R and D) Program, developed and sponsored by the Department of Energy, is performed in close collaboration with industry R and D programs. The purpose of the LWRS R and D Program is to provide technical foundations for licensing and managing long-term, safe and economical operation of the current operating nuclear power plants. The LWRS R and D Program vision is captured in the following statements: Existing operating nuclear power plants will continue to safely provide clean and economic electricity well beyond their first license- extension period, significantly contributing to reduction of United States and global carbon emissions, enhancement of national energy security, and protection of the environment. There is a comprehensive technical basis for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, economical operation of nuclear power plants. Sustaining the existing operating U.S. fleet also will improve its

  15. Opportunities in Canada's growing wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovshin Moss, S.; Bailey, M.

    2006-01-01

    Investment in Canada's wind sector is projected to reach $8 billion by 2012, and growth of the sector is expected to create over 16,000 jobs. Canada's wind energy capacity grew by 54 per cent in 2005 alone, aided in part by supportive national policies and programs such as the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI); the Canadian Renewable Conservation Expense (CRCE) and Class 43.1 Capital Cost Allowance; and support for research and development. Major long-term commitments for clean power purchases, standard offer contracts and renewable portfolio standards in several provinces are encouraging further development of the wind energy sector. This paper argued that the development of a robust Canadian wind turbine manufacturing industry will enhance economic development, create opportunities for export; and mitigate the effects of international wind turbine supply shortages. However, it is not known whether Canadian wind turbine firms are positioned to capitalize on the sector's recent growth. While Canada imports nearly all its large wind turbine generators and components, the country has technology and manufacturing strengths in advanced power electronics and small wind systems, as well as in wind resource mapping. Wind-diesel and wind-hydrogen systems are being developed in Canada, and many of the hybrid systems will offer significant opportunities for remote communities and off-grid applications. Company partnerships for technology transfer, licensing and joint ventures will accelerate Canada's progress. A recent survey conducted by Industry Canada and the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) indicated that the total impact of wind energy related expenditures on economic output is nearly $1.38 billion for the entire sector. Annual payroll for jobs in Canada was estimated at $50 million, and substantial employment growth in the next 5 years is expected. Canada offers a strong industrial supply base capable of manufacturing wind turbine generators and

  16. Evolution of thoracic surgery in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Jean; Pearson, F Griffith; Nelems, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Canada's contributions toward the 21st century's practice of thoracic surgery have been both unique and multilayered. Scattered throughout are tales of pioneers where none had gone before, where opportunities were greeted by creativity and where iconic figures followed one another. To describe the numerous and important achievements of Canadian thoracic surgeons in the areas of surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis, thoracic oncology, airway surgery and lung transplantation. Information was collected through reading of the numerous publications written by Canadian thoracic surgeons over the past 100 years, interviews with interested people from all thoracic surgery divisions across Canada and review of pertinent material form the archives of several Canadian hospitals and universities. Many of the developments occurred by chance. It was the early and specific focus on thoracic surgery, to the exclusion of cardiac and general surgery, that distinguishes the Canadian experience, a model that is now emerging everywhere. From lung transplantation in chimera twin calves to ex vivo organ preservation, from the removal of airways to tissue regeneration, and from intensive care research to complex science, Canadians have excelled in their commitment to research. Over the years, the influence of Canadian thoracic surgery on international practice has been significant. Canada spearheaded the development of thoracic surgery over the past 100 years to a greater degree than any other country. From research to education, from national infrastructures to the regionalization of local practices, it happened in Canada.

  17. Surface-atmospheric water cycle at Gale crater through multi-year MSL/REMS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A. M.; Genzer, M.; McConnochie, T. H.; Savijarvi, H. I.; Smith, M. D.; Martinez, G.; de la Torre Juarez, M.; Haberle, R. M.; Polkko, J.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Renno, N. O.; Kemppinen, O.; Paton, M.; Richardson, M. I.; Newman, C. E.; Siili, T. T.; Mäkinen, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) has been successfully operating for almost three Martian years. That includes an unprecedented long time series of atmospheric observations by the REMS instrument performing measurements of atmospheric pressure, relative humidity (REMS-H), temperature of the air, ground temperature, UV and wind speed and direction. The REMS-H relative humidity device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. and it makes use of three (3) humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The REMS-H humidity instrument has created an unprecedented data record of more than two full Martian. REMS-H measured the relative humidity and temperature at 1.6 m height for a period of 5 minutes every hour as part of the MSL/REMS instrument package. We focus on describing the annual in situ water cycle with the REMS-H instrument data for the period of almost three Martian years. The results will be constrained through comparison with independent indirect observations and through modeling efforts. We inferred the hourly atmospheric VMR from the REMS-H observations and compared these VMR measurements with predictions of VMR from our 1D column Martian atmospheric model and regolith to investigate the local water cycle, exchange processes and the local climate in Gale Crater. The strong diurnal variation suggests there are surface-atmosphere exchange processes at Gale Crater during all seasons, which depletes moisture to the ground in the evening and nighttime and release the moisture back to the atmosphere during the daytime. On the other hand, these processes do not seem to result in significant water deposition on the ground. Hence, our modelling results presumably indicate that adsorption processes take place during the nighttime and desorption during the daytime. Other processes, e.g. convective

  18. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought

  19. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. 2000 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, D.L.

    1999-10-01

    All wells drilled in Western Canada during the first nine months of 1999 are listed and sorted into 12 geographical areas used in the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) well cost study. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Area totals for well counts and meters drilled were determined from the sorting process. Previous years' activities are reviewed and various operators and PSAC members contacted to review upcoming programs. In addition, trends and other projections were consulted to develop an estimate of drilling activity for the rest of 1999 as well as a projection of drilling activity for 2000. The historical and projected drilling activities were tabulated and plotted for each area. Average drilling costs for each area were determined, and the total expenditures were calculated for each area by multiplying the the projected meterage by the adjusted drilling costs. All costs were allocated to various services and products utilizing percentages determined in the Well Cost Study. During the sorting process, a list was developed of the major operators in each area, which list is included in the report along with average depths and types of wells drilled by the various operators in each area. The costs included in the report include only drilling and completion operations, starting with the building of the location prior to drilling, and ending with the installation of the wellhead after construction. 5 tabs

  1. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    In the late 1970's and early 1980's, with the development of the nuclear programme in many European countries, the recirculation of cooling water in power stations became an issue which required urgent attention. The concentration of several plants of 1000 MW or more on sites along inland waterways actually made simple once-through cooling impossible, owing to the risk of an unacceptable rise in the river's water temperature. The chemical composition of natural freshwater in western European waterways is such that when it becomes slightly concentrated, scale is rapidly formed. The relatively low solubility of calcium carbonate and the degassing of the carbon dioxide during close contact between the water and air in the heat exchangers of the cooling tower explain this precipitation tendency. Fairly soon, experts in the electricity power generation companies highlighted the need for on-site, pilot loop simulations, in order to foresee the physico-chemical phenomena that could arise in industrial installations. The number of financially justifiable processing possibilities could be briefly summarised by the following three solutions: to adapt the concentration factor in order to be under the calcium carbonate solubility limit and thereby avoid the need for any water conditioning; to accept concentration factors of between 1.4 and 1.9 and control the calcium carbonate precipitation through controlled acid injection in the circulation water; to raise the concentration factor over 5 and soften the makeup water through the addition of lime and flocculant. The last of these solutions was rarely ever used in Belgium and France. It was however widely used in Germany. Its application requires a greater investment and leads to higher operating costs than acid injection. Furthermore, it leads to the problem of daily drying and disposal of several dozen tonnes of sludge, which have to be recycled or dumped. In an increasingly stringent environmental context, this

  2. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E.; Brognez, J.

    2002-01-01

    In the late 1970's and early 1980's, with the development of the nuclear programme in many European countries, the recirculation of cooling water in power stations became an issue which required urgent attention. The concentration of several plants of 1000 MW or more on sites along inland waterways actually made simple once-through cooling impossible, owing to the risk of an unacceptable rise in the river's water temperature. The chemical composition of natural freshwater in western European waterways is such that when it becomes slightly concentrated, scale is rapidly formed. The relatively low solubility of calcium carbonate and the degassing of the carbon dioxide during close contact between the water and air in the heat exchangers of the cooling tower explain this precipitation tendency. Fairly soon, experts in the electricity power generation companies highlighted the need for on-site, pilot loop simulations, in order to foresee the physico-chemical phenomena that could arise in industrial installations. The number of financially justifiable processing possibilities could be briefly summarised by the following three solutions: to adapt the concentration factor in order to be under the calcium carbonate solubility limit and thereby avoid the need for any water conditioning; to accept concentration factors of between 1.4 and 1.9 and control the calcium carbonate precipitation through controlled acid injection in the circulation water; to raise the concentration factor over 5 and soften the makeup water through the addition of lime and flocculant. The last of these solutions was rarely ever used in Belgium and France. It was however widely used in Germany. Its application requires a greater investment and leads to higher operating costs than acid injection. Furthermore, it leads to the problem of daily drying and disposal of several dozen tonnes of sludge, which have to be recycled or dumped. In an increasingly stringent environmental context, this solution is no

  3. Nuclear energy in Canada: the CANDU system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1979-10-01

    Nuclear electricity in Canada is generated by CANDU nuclear power stations. The CANDU reactor - a unique Canadian design - is fuelled by natural uranium and moderated by heavy water. The system has consistently outperformed other comparable nuclear power systems in the western world, and has an outstanding record of reliability, safety and economy. As a source of energy it provides the opportunity for decreasing our dependence on dwindling supplies of conventional fossil fuels. (auth)

  4. HCMM/soil moisture experiment. [relationship between surface minus air temperature differential and available water according to crop type in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihlar, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the compilation and analysis of airborne and ground data to determine the relationship between the maximum surface minus maximum air temperature differential (delta Tsa) and available water (PAW) is reported. Also, results of an analysis of HCMM images to determine the effect of cloud cover on the availability of HCMM-type data are presented. An inverse relationship between delta Tsa and PAW is indicated along with stable delta Tsa vs. PAW distributions for fully developed canopies. Large variations, both geographical and diurnal, in the cloud cover images are reported. The average monthly daytime cloud cover fluctuated between 40 and 60 percent.

  5. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  6. Electric deregulation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the electric power deregulation activities across Canada, particularly in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, was presented. A central element of the restructuring is creation of a power pool which acts as an open spot market, and a transmission administrator that provides access to the generators, distribution companies, importers and exporters. Load forecasts, average daily load profile and hourly pool prices for TransAlta Corporation were presented as an example. 22 figs

  7. Plugging into Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Exports of electricity from Canada to the U.S.A. are increasing in importance and have reached a new phase with proposals to build generating stations initially dedicated to export, notably a second nuclear station in New Brunswick. The author considers that the National Energy Board does a good job of protecting Canadian interests. Opposition in the United States comes from within the government or congress rather than from the power industry or public

  8. Presentation of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedley, Dianne E.

    1997-01-01

    In contingency of a nuclear emergency event, requiring application of intervention measures on a federal scale, Canada has of a plan ensuring the compatibility of the plans of different provinces and serving as interface between federal and provincial authorities. Exclusive of a nuclear attack against North America, by nuclear emergency it is understood an accident resulting in radionuclide release. This is called the Plan of federal intervention in case of nuclear emergency. 'Sante Canada' is the federal authority responsible for intervention in case of nuclear emergency and it has the task of preparing and coordinating the actions on a federal scale.Should the plan be set in action and if the emergency has repercussions upon the agricultural sector, the sustaining organism will be 'Agriculture and agroalimentaire Canada' which in case of emergency acts through the channels of the National System of intervention in the agro-alimentary sector (SNIUA). The paper presents the objectives, the principles of organization and operation, the responsibilities and the plans which SNIUA has in its charge to implement in case of emergency

  9. Energy cascades in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, A. C.; Brown, T. D.

    1979-03-15

    Combining energy uses in a cascade can result in significant overall reductions in fuel requirements. The simplest applications for a cascade are in the recovery of waste heat from existing processes using special boilers or turbines. Specific applications of more-complex energy cascades for Canada are discussed. A combined-cycle plant at a chemical refinery in Ontario is world leader in energy efficiency. Total-energy systems for commercial buildings, such as one installed in a school in Western Canada, offer attractive energy and operating cost benefits. A cogeneration plant proposed for the National Capital Region, generating electricity as well as steam for district heating, allows the use of a low-grade fossil fuel (coal), greatly improves energy-transformation efficiency, and also utilizes an effectively renewable resource (municipal garbage). Despite the widespread availability of equipment and technology of energy cascades, the sale of steam and electricity across plant boundaries presents a barrier. More widespread use of cascades will require increased cooperation among industry, electric utilities and the various levels of government if Canada is to realize the high levels of energy efficiency potential available.

  10. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  11. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation with or without hot water dip and transportation from Thailand to Canada on nutritional qualities, ripening index and sensorial characteristics of Thai mangoes (Nahng Glahng Wahn variety)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Gagnon, M.; Pringsulaka, V.

    1993-01-01

    Mangoes of the Nahng Glahng Wahn variety from Thailand were irradiated at the Thai Irradiation