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Sample records for canada tar belt

  1. Tar sands showdown : Canada and the new politics of oil in an age of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, T.

    2009-01-01

    This book outlined the social and environmental issues facing the oil sands industry in Canada, including economic sovereignty, energy security, water rights and free trade. The tar sands have become vital to the Canadian economy, as they have the potential to increase Canada's foreign oil output by 4 to 5 times in the next 15 years. The author discussed the ecological and social impact of the Alberta tar sands and the real cost of development to Albertans and Canadians. Tar sands oil production generates more than 3 times the amount of greenhouse gas emissions than conventional oil production. The industry is also becoming a prime example of the abuse of water sources. The author emphasized the need to build an alternative energy future in an age of global warming. The main objective of this book was to help stimulate a nation-wide public debate about the tar sands and the critical issues at stake regarding Canada's energy future and an environmental strategy for more sustainable development. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Comparison of Bayesian and frequentist approaches in modelling risk of preterm birth near the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canty Angelo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compares the Bayesian and frequentist (non-Bayesian approaches in the modelling of the association between the risk of preterm birth and maternal proximity to hazardous waste and pollution from the Sydney Tar Pond site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods The data includes 1604 observed cases of preterm birth out of a total population of 17559 at risk of preterm birth from 144 enumeration districts in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Other covariates include the distance from the Tar Pond; the rate of unemployment to population; the proportion of persons who are separated, divorced or widowed; the proportion of persons who have no high school diploma; the proportion of persons living alone; the proportion of single parent families and average income. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson regression, quasi-likelihood Poisson regression and weighted linear regression models were fitted to the data. Results The results of the analyses were compared together with their limitations. Conclusion The results of the weighted linear regression and the quasi-likelihood Poisson regression agrees with the result from the Bayesian hierarchical modelling which incorporates the spatial effects.

  3. Cashing in on Tar Sands. RBS, UK banks and Canada's 'blood oil'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.; Howarth, C.; Kellay, A.; Laboucan, B.J.; Mercredi, M.; Minio-Paluelo, M.; Schling, H.; Smith, K.; Thomas-Muller, C.; Wood, A.

    2010-03-15

    Tar sands extraction in Canada is devastating Indigenous communities, wildlife and vast areas of boreal forests, as well as being many times more carbon-intensive to produce than 'conventional' oil. The higher oil prices in recent years have meant that it's become a more attractive prospect for oil companies to expand their operations in the costly process of obtaining and processing the thick bitumen into a usable form. It's estimated that the industry is looking for a capital investment of 120-220 billion USD over the next 20 years to build the new pipelines, mines, refineries and upgraders that are necessary to sustain the boom. This report looks at the role that UK banks are playing in providing the necessary capital, and how RBS (Royal Bank of Scotland), which is 84% owned by the UK public, has been the bank the most heavily involved in underwriting loans to companies engaging in tar sands extraction.

  4. Monitoring water quality in Sydney Harbour using blue mussels during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R; MacAskill, Devin

    2014-03-01

    Using mussels as monitoring tools we measured water quality in Sydney Harbour during a large scale, multi-year remediation project of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STPs); one of Canada's most contaminated sites. Chemical contaminants were measured in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in Sydney Harbour, which were used as monitoring tools to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); metals (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) and lipid content during baseline and 3 years of remediation. The overall spatio-temporal distribution of chemicals in mussels was also compared to contaminants in other marine indicators (e.g., sediment, water and crab tissue). Measured metal concentrations in mussels showed some minor temporal variability (4 years), but these did not appear to be directly related to remediation activities, with the highest concentrations of As, Hg and Zn measured at reference stations. Most measured contaminants showed stable or potentially decreasing concentrations during the study, except Pb and Zn. Individual PAH compounds were mostly undetected during baseline and remediation, except for fluoranthene and pyrene. Concentrations of fluoranthene in mussels and deep water samples were moderately related. Generally, PCBs were undetected (remediation at some near-field stations. Contaminants measured during this study were at much lower concentrations than previously reported in other studies of mussels in Sydney Harbour and eastern Canada. This is likely due to the ongoing natural recovery of Sydney Harbour and to a lesser extent because of the environmental mitigation protection measures implemented during remediation activities at the STPs. The lack of detection of most individual PAHs and PCBs, plus relatively low bio-accumulation of metals observed during baseline and remediation attest to the effectiveness of using mussels as monitoring tools for environmental quality.

  5. Physical volcanology of the mafic segment of the subaqueous New Senator caldera, Abitibi greenstone belt, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Lyndsay N; Mueller, Wulf U

    2008-01-01

    Archean calderas provide valuable insight into internal geometries of subaqueous calderas. The New Senator caldera, Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada, is an Archean example of a subaqueous nested caldera with a basal stratigraphy dominated by gabbro-diorite dykes and sills, ponded magmas and basalt and andesite lava flows. The aim of our study is to focus on the use of physical volcanology to differentiate between the various mafic units found at the base of the New Senator caldera. Differentiation between these various mafic units is important from an exploration point of view because in modern subaqueous summit calders (e.g. Axial Seamount) margins of ponded magmas are often sites of VMS formation.

  6. Physical volcanology of the mafic segment of the subaqueous New Senator caldera, Abitibi greenstone belt, Quebec, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Lyndsay N; Mueller, Wulf U [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 boul. du l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H2B1 (Canada)], E-mail: lyndsay.moore@uqac.ca

    2008-10-01

    Archean calderas provide valuable insight into internal geometries of subaqueous calderas. The New Senator caldera, Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada, is an Archean example of a subaqueous nested caldera with a basal stratigraphy dominated by gabbro-diorite dykes and sills, ponded magmas and basalt and andesite lava flows. The aim of our study is to focus on the use of physical volcanology to differentiate between the various mafic units found at the base of the New Senator caldera. Differentiation between these various mafic units is important from an exploration point of view because in modern subaqueous summit calders (e.g. Axial Seamount) margins of ponded magmas are often sites of VMS formation.

  7. Technology unlocks tar sands energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C

    1967-09-25

    Tar sand processing technology has been developed primarily in the categories of extraction techniques and in-situ processing. In October, a $235 million venture into tar sand processing will be inspected by visitors from many points on the globe. A synthetic crude of premium quality will be flowing through a 16-in. pipeline from the Tar Island plant site of Great Canadian Oil Sands to Edmonton. This processing plant uses an extractive mining technique. The tar sand pay zone in this area averages approximately 150 ft in thickness with a 50-ft overburden. It has been estimated that the tar sands cannot be exploited when the formation thickness is less than 100 ft and overburden exceeds the same amount. This indicates that extraction techniques can only be used to recover approximately 15% of the tar sand deposits. An in-situ recovery technique developed by Shell of Canada is discussed in detail. In essence it is selective hydraulic fracturing, followed by the injection of emulsifying chemicals and steam.

  8. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  9. Archaean wrench-fault tectonics in the Abitibi greenstone belt of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, C.

    1986-01-01

    A tectonic model is proposed in which the southern Abitibi belt formed in a series of rift basins which dissected an earlier formed volcanic arc. Comparisons can be made with Phanerozoic areas such as, the Hokuroko basin of Japan, the Taupo volcanic zone of new Zealand and the Sumatra and Nicaragua volcanic arcs. In addition the identification of the major E - W thrust shears make it possible to speculate that the southern Abitibi belt comprises a collage of blocks of terrane which have been accreted against a more stable continental margin or microcontinent. If this interpretation is correct analogies can be made with the SW margin of the U.S.A. in which recently formed blocks of volcanic terrane are being accreted against its western margin.

  10. Interferometric seismic imaging around the active Lalor mine in the Flin Flon greenstone belt, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Eric; Calvert, Andrew J.; Craven, Jim

    2017-10-01

    Seismic interferometry, which recovers the impulse response of the Earth by cross-correlation of ambient noise recorded at sets of two receivers, has found several applications, including the generation of virtual shot gathers for use in seismic reflection processing. To evaluate the effectiveness of this passive recording technique in mineral exploration in a hard-rock environment, 336 receivers recorded 300 h of ambient noise over the volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit of the recently discovered Lalor mine in the Canadian Flin Flon greenstone belt. A novel time-domain beamforming algorithm was developed to search for individual source locations, demonstrating that the vast majority of noise originated from the mine and ventilation shafts of the Lalor mine. The results of the beamforming were utilized in conjunction with frequency-wavenumber filtering to remove undesirable, mostly monochromatic surface wave noise originating from nearby sources. Virtual shot gathers were generated along three receiver lines, each of which was processed as a separate 2-D reflection line. Two of the resulting unmigrated reflection profiles are compared against coincident dipmoveout-stacked data from a larger, coincident 3-D dynamite seismic survey that was also acquired over the Lalor mine in 2013. Using knowledge of the local geology derived from numerous boreholes, coherent events recovered in the passive reflection profiles are inferred to be either spurious arrivals or real reflections, some of which can be interpreted in terms of geological contacts, indicating the future potential of passive recording surveys in hard rock settings.

  11. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  12. Distilling tar; distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brash, P; Young, W

    1866-09-17

    The tarry residue, which separates on treating crude shale oil with sulfuric acid, is redistilled, in the manner described in Specification No. 1278, A.D. 1866, together with shale. Previous to the distillation, the acid is neutralized with lime, or may be separated by blowing steam into the tar and adding salt. The purified tar thus obtained is absorbed by ashes, or is mixed with lime or other alkaline matter, or the shale may be mixed with lime and distilled with the tar, which is allowed to flow over and through the shale during the process. The tar obtained in the purification of natural paraffin may be similarly utilized.

  13. Treatment of lignite tars, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-08-07

    A process is described for treating tars such as lignite tar, shale tar, or peat tar, and similar tars, characterized by the fact that the tar is rectified to about 240/sup 0/C and the residue brought to a temperature above 50/sup 0/C after diluting with a product of the type of gasoline or ligroin at about 30/sup 0/C and treated with selective solvents preferably low-boiling phenols and eventually with water.

  14. Indian coal tars. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, A N; Bhatnagar, J N; Roy, A K

    1954-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out on these efforts: (1) rank and specific-gravity fractions on tar yield; (2) addition of water to the coal charge, or steam during carbonization, on yield of tar and tar acids; (3) the presence of a cracking agent (shale) with and without steam addition on the yield of tar and tar acids (the particular shale used without steam reduced the yield, and the restricted use of steam brought the yield to the former noncatalyzed level); and (4) catalytic effect of three different samples of shale, firebrick, quartz, coke, and silica-alumina on the cracking of tar acids (the most active were two of the shales, a freshly-prepared coke, and the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ catalysts that gave conversion up to 98%). The products were mainly carbon, aromatic hydrocarbons of the naphthalene series and gases (CO and H/sub 2/). The yield of the tar becomes less as coal of lower specific gravity is used or when higher temperatures are used for carbonization. The mineral matter associated with Indian coals acts as a decomposition catalyst for tar acids, as shown by experiments on the decomposition of PhOH at temperatures above 800/sup 0/.

  15. Process of treating tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, C; Hempel, H; Weissenburger, H

    1955-05-05

    A process is described for treating tars or tar oils, especially carbonization tars, characterized in that the tars or tar oils are mixed with benzene or light oils which contain no aromatic material or only slight amounts, or with gas oil in such amounts that the asphalt precipitates, and after separation of the precipitated material the mixture is treated with caustic solution for separation of the phenols, and after separation of the phenolate liquor the mixture is subjected to heating for removal of the dilution medium, then the remaining oil can be used as heating oil or it is submitted to distillation for the purpose of recovering a fuel suitable for diesel motors, while the phenolate liquor is worked up into phenols.

  16. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thexton, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type reactors in Canada is traced. What is CANDU? and how does it differ from a pressurized water reactor? Whey did Canada adopt this design? What factors have led to its success? These questions are asked and answered. First the design itself is explained. Technical problems are considered and figures on operating reliability presented. The economic advantages of CANDU are shown by comparing electricity generating costs at CANDU stations with those at coal-fired stations. Future CANDU options are discussed and prospects for CANDU considered. (U.K.)

  17. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.

    1991-01-01

    Canada, while professing a non-nuclear policy for its own armed forces, is, none the less, a member of a nuclear alliance. The security gained through participation in such arrangements does not come cost-free, despite the common view that countries such as Canada enjoy a free ride. Being under the nuclear umbrella, as this paper seeks to illustrate, does generate its own problems and costs. For example, does influence stem from the actual possession of nuclear weapons (albeit under US control), from support of the concept of nuclear deterrence and its infrastructure, or from possessing territory that is of strategic importance to a more powerful ally? Does the Canadian experience serve as a model for countries that are in close proximity to an existing or threshold nuclear power? Much depends on the willingness of a country to participate in the nuclear infrastructure associated with the acquisition of nuclear weapons for security purposes. It must accept the underlying rationale or logic of nuclear deterrence and the constraints on alternative security options that this imposes and it must also recognize that reliance on nuclear deterrence for military security seven if one seeks to emulate Canada and become a non-nuclear weapon state in a nuclear alliance can produce strains in its own right. The case of Canada shows that a country seeking security through such means should be aware of, and reflect upon, the fact that what appears to be a free ride does not come free of charge. However, a country may have other options in it, military security that have neither historically or geostrategically been available to Canada

  18. Crustal-scale shear zones recording 400 m.y. of tectonic activity in the North Caribou greenstone belt, western Superior Province of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbfleisch, Netasha

    A series of crustal-scale shear zones demarcates the northern and eastern margins of the North Caribou greenstone belt (NCGB), proximal to a Mesoarchean terrane boundary in the core of the western Superior Province of Canada. The dominant deformation produced a pervasive steeply dipping fabric that trends broadly parallel to the doubly arcuate shape of the belt and was responsible for tight folding the banded iron formation host to Goldcorp's prolific gold deposit at Musselwhite mine. The shear zones in the North Caribou greenstone belt are of particular interest because of their ability to channel hydrothermal fluids with the potential to bear ore and cause alteration of the middle to shallow crust. Shear zones are commonly reactivated during subsequent tectonism, but exhibit a consistent and dominant dextral shear sense across the belt; fabric-forming micas and chlorite are generally Mg-rich. Although garnets samples from within the shear zones are dominantly almandine, they possess variable geochemical trends (HREEs of >2 orders of magnitude) and can be syn-, intra-, or post-tectonic in origin. In situ geochronological analysis of zircon (U-Pb) and monazite (total-Pb) in high strain rocks in and around the NCGB, interpreted in light of in situ geochemical analysis of garnet and fabric-forming micas and chlorite, reveals four relatively discrete events that span 400 million years. Metamorphism of the mid-crust was coeval with magmatism during docking of the Island Lake domain at c. 2.86 Ga and subsequent terrane accretion at the north and south margins of the North Caribou Superterrane from c. 2.75 to 2.71 Ga. Transpressive shear at c. 2.60 to 2.56 Ga and late re-activation of shear zones at c. 2.44 Ga produced a steeply-dipping pervasive fabric, and channeled fluids for late crystallization of garnet and monazite recorded in the Markop Lake deformation zone. These observations implicate a horizontal tectonic model similar to the modern eastern Pacific plate

  19. Production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassett, J.M.; Glassett, J.A.

    1976-03-01

    Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than one billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of twenty-eight billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface-mining oil recovery operations are as follows: Sunnyside, Tar Sand Triangle, Asphalt Ridge, P.R. Spring, Circle Cliffs, and Hill Creek. An overview of each deposit is presented including geology, surface-mining variables, chemical processing variables, environmental aspects, and economics. A comparison of Utah tar sands and Athabasca, Alberta, Canada tar sands is also presented.

  20. Occupational coal tar dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde-Salazar, L; Guimaraens, D; Romero, L V; Gonzalez, M A

    1987-04-01

    The paper describes the allergic reaction to coal tar of a man handling it in a factory. The reaction appeared in the form of eczema on his trunk, arms and legs, but his hands were not affected as he had been wearing gloves. 1 ref.

  1. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciej, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  2. Evaluation of lignite tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossedin, A

    1946-01-01

    Tar from the low-temperature (450/sup 0/) carbonization of lignite from Bouches-du-Rhone was hydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst based on MoS/sub 2/ with a 3:1 H:N mixture. Processing (at 470/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) for maximum production of gasoline yielded 86 wt % of a product of boiling 55 to 186/sup 0/ and motor octane number 75. An alternative is to hydrogenate with a view to producing solvents and lubricants. For this purpose the tar was separated by distillation (at 20 millimeters, cutting at 220/sup 0/) into two fractions of equal volume. On hydrogenation (at 300/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) the light part yields a gasoline H/sub 2/O-soluble cut, a highly aromatic solvent fraction, a heavier cut (280/sup 0/ to 320/sup 0/) suitable as a plasticizer, and a phenol fraction. The heavier part of the tar is hydrogenated (at 380/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) to give spindle oil and lubricating oil of medium eta (11.2 centistokes at 98.2/sup 0/), moderate eta index (64), good pour point (-7/sup 0/), and good oxidizing characteristics. The overall yield of products from the two portions is 86.9% (gasoline and solvent 32, light phenols 9.7, spindle oil 14.2, medium lubricating oil 25.7, wax, 5.3%).

  3. Characterization of acid tars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Sunday A.; Stegemann, Julia A.; Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  4. Characterization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: sunday.leonard@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  5. Modeling mechanical and thermo-mechanical erosion by flowing lava at Raglan, Cape Smith Belt, New Québec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, V.; Williams, D. A.; Lesher, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    The 1.5-D Williams et al. model of thermal erosion by turbulent lava was recently applied to the Athabasca Valles lava channel on Mars, in an attempt to establish the importance of thermal erosion in excavating this ~80-100 m deep outflow channel. The modeled erosion depths (0.4-7.5 m) are far less than the depth of the channel which, combined with the short duration of the eruption, suggests that mechanical erosion may have had a greater role. Several studies suggest that mechanical erosion by lava is more important in channel-tube formation than previously thought, under certain circumstances. How would we be able to distinguish between mechanical and thermal erosion? By investigating model results when substrate properties change, as we move from a consolidated, mechanically strong substrate to a partially consolidated or unconsolidated, mechanically weaker substrate. The Proterozoic Raglan komatiitic basalt lava channel of the Cape Smith Belt, New Québec, Canada is a complex erosional environment involving invasive erosion of both sediment and gabbro substrates - which makes it a critical test case. The lava eroded an upper layer of soft sediment, with erosion at the tops, bottoms, and sides of the conduit, through underlying gabbro, and then burrowed laterally into underlying sediment, a scenario requiring a two-dimensional modeling approach. Using the available field data, we will simulate two-dimensional thermomechanical and mechanical erosion interfaces on all sides of a turbulent lava flow by creating a finite-element mesh. The mesh will be defined by the geometry of the lava flow at those lava conduits for which data on lava and substrate composition, lava thickness, slope of the ground, conduit area and volume, and lava flow length are available. Ultimately, this model will be applied to lunar sinuous rilles and martian lava channels for which the use of a two-dimensional approach is needed.

  6. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  7. Determination of phenol in tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierichs, A; Heinichen, G

    1955-01-01

    During low-temperature carbonization of lignite, the phenols and other oxygenated compounds appear both in the aqueous-process liquor and in the tar. Measurements of these oxygenated components resulting from low-temperature carbonization may serve as a parameter for the classification of lignites. However, such measurements are complicated by the instability of the tar and the complex nature of some of the acidic substances. Difficulties with the previous methods of analysis are reviewed. The present method outlines separation of aqueous-process liquor from lignite tar in a Fischer retort, followed by determination of phenols and fatty acids in the tar phase. The jacketed tar receiver is washed with 300 milliliter xylol and treated with aqueous caustic washes. Neutral oils are separated from the aqueous alkali solution. It is then extracted with ether and finally acidified with HCl. Solids are filtered off, and phenols and fatty acids are separated by Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solution.

  8. Geochemistry of 1.9 Ga MORB- and OIB-like basalts from the Amisk collage, Flin Flon Belt, Canada: Evidence for an intra-oceanic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Richard A.; Syme, Eric C.; Lucas, Stephen B.

    1995-08-01

    Subaqueously-erupted basalts that occur in kilometre-scale allochthons within the 1.9 Ga Flin Flon Belt, Canada, appear to have been generated at oceanic ridges and possibly oceanic plateaus, remote from Archean cratons. The ocean-floor basalts fall into two categories: (1) N-type, resembling N-MORBs and Mariana-type back-arc basin basalts (depleted to flat REE patterns, high Zr/Nb, variable Th/Nb, and initial ɛNd = + 3.3 to + 5.4); (2) E-type, resembling transitional and plume MORBs (slightly enriched REE patterns, lower Zr/Nb, initial ɛNd = +3.1 to +4.5). In the largest and best-studied allochthon, the Elbow-Athapapuskow 'assemblage,' mixing between depleted (N-MORB) and enriched (OIB) sources or melts, coupled with variable addition of a subduction LILE component, can explain the chemical variations in the basalts. Zircon U-Pb dates of 1904 ± Ma for a syn-volcanic diabase sill and 1901 +6/-5 Ma for a gabbro-peridotite cumulate complex demonstrate that crystallization of the 'ocean-floor' basalts overlapped with, in part, eruption of the tectonically juxtaposed 1.90-1.88 Ga arc volcanic rocks. The Elbow-Athapapuskow allochthon is interpreted as back-arc basin crust that developed simultaneously with Flin Flon arc magmatism. Subaerially erupted basalts that chemically resemble tholeiitic OIBs (8-14% MgO, relative HREE depletion, initial ɛ Nd = +2.2 to +3.4) occur in tectonic contact with the Elbow-Athapapuskow assemblage. The OIBs may have been generated by deeper (garnet residue) melting of enriched mantle tapped during extension in the Elbow-Athapapuskow back-arc basin, and were possibly erupted onto a remnant arc. Deeper mantle melting is also indicated by the presence of the LREE-enriched oceanic plateau-like basalts of the Sandy Bay assemblage. The back-arc, 01B, and plateau volcanic assemblages were jux-taposed against ca. 1.9 Ga arc assemblages in a Philippines-like intraoceanic accretionary complex by 1.87 Ga.

  9. Upgrading of hydropyrolysis coal tar by hydroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund, R.; Otterstedt, J.E.; Sterte, J. (Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). 1. Dept. of Engineering Chemistry)

    1991-05-01

    Upgrading of a hydropyrolysis coal tar by hydroprocessing was investigated using different process conditions. The response of the hydropyrolysis tar to hydroprocessing was compared to those of a conventional coal tar and two heavy oil fractions. At comparable conditions, the removal of heteroatoms from the hydropyrolysis tar was more effective than from the conventional tar and, in particular, than from the oil fractions. Using conditions typical for hydroprocessing of heavy oil fractions, the contents of N, O as well as S in the hydropyrolysis tar were reduced by more than 90%. Hydroprocessing also resulted in a considerable increase in the gasoline fraction of the tar. (orig.).

  10. Process of transforming tars, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-04-11

    A process is described for treating tars obtained by carbonization, at high or low temperature, of coals, lignites, shales, and other carbonaceous materials or fractions of these tars, for obtaining products of greater value, consisting of polymerizing or saturating the unstable hydrocarbons in the presence of catalyzers by the progressing action particularly of halogenated metals, such as titanium tetrachloride, iron chloride, etc. and applying a known process of recovery, the disclosed process leading to an important reduction of final losses.

  11. Topical tar: Back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  12. Development of a mixed seawater-hydrothermal fluid geochemical signature during alteration of volcanic rocks in the Archean (∼2.7 Ga) Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengman, Latisha A.; Fedo, Christopher M.

    2018-04-01

    We investigated a group of silicified volcanic rocks from the ∼2.72 Ga Hunter Mine Group (HMG), Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada, in order to document progressive compositional change associated with alteration in a subaqueous caldera system. Rocks of the HMG divide into three groups based on mineralogy and texture for petrographic and geochemical analyses. Volcanic features (phenocrysts, pseudomorphs after primary glass shards, lapilli, volcanic clasts) are preserved in all groups, despite changing mineralogy from primarily quartz, feldspar, chlorite (Groups 1 and 2), to quartz, hematite and carbonate (Groups 2 and 3). Compositionally, Group 1 rocks resemble volcanic rocks in the region, while Group 2 and 3 rocks show a change in mineralogy to iron, silica, and carbonate minerals, which is associated with depletion of many major and trace elements associated with volcanic rocks (Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, Zr). In addition, rare earth elements display a clear progression from volcanic signatures in Group 1 (PrSN/YbSN = 1.7-2.96, EuSN/EuSN∗ = 0.84-1.72, Y/Ho = 25.20-27.41, LaSN/LaSN∗ = 0.97-1.29, and Zr/Hf = 38.38-42.09) to transitional mixed volcanic, hydrothermal, and seawater signatures in Group 2 (PrSN/YbSN 1.33-2.89, EuSN/EuSN∗ 1.33-2.5, Y/Ho = 23.94-30, LaSN/LaSN∗ 0.93-1.34, and Zr/Hf = 40-70), to mixed hydrothermal and seawater signatures in Group 3 (PrSN/YbSN 0.62-2.88, EuSN/EuSN∗ 1.30-7.15, LaSN/LaSN∗ 1.02-1.86, Y/Ho = 25.56-55, and Zr/Hf = 35-50). We interpret that silicification of volcanic rocks (Group 1) produced transitional altered volcanic rocks (Group 2), and siliceous and jaspilitic rocks (Group 3), based on preservation of delicate volcanic features. Building on this explanation, we interpret that major, trace- and rare-earth element mobility occurred during the process of silicification, during which siliceous and jaspilitic rocks (Group 3) acquired aspects of the rare-earth element geochemical signatures of marine chemical precipitates. We

  13. Tar bases in low-temperature coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, S; Ueno, H; Yokoyama, H

    1951-01-01

    Tar bases were extracted from three fractions, that boil below 260/sup 0/ at 260/sup 0/ to 280/sup 0/, and 280/sup 0/ to 330/sup 0/, respectively, of the low-temperature tar obtained by the carbonization of Ube coal in a Koppers' vertical retort at approximately 750/sup 0/. These were divided, respectively, into three groups, acetate-forming amine, HCl salt-forming bases (I), and CHCl/sub 3/-soluble bases (II), and further fractionally distilled. From the physical and chemical properties of the fractions thus obtained, it was concluded that low-temperature coal tar contained no low boiling pyridine homologues and that, besides higher homologues of pyridine, nonaromatic, more saturated, and less basic compounds of larger atomic weight and smaller refractive index, such as derivatives of pyrrole and indole, also existed as in crude petroleum.

  14. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

    1983-01-01

    Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly

  15. A DEVICE AND METHOD FOR MEASURING TAR IN A TAR-ENVIRONMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present disclosure describes a device and corresponding method for measuring tar in a tar environment, e.g., a tar producing environment such as a stove or a combustion engine, based on UV absorption spectroscopy. A first measurement along an optical path in the tar environment is performed...

  16. Separating cresote from tars, mineral oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, E

    1921-01-07

    Phenolic bodies are extracted from tars such as lignite, shale, peat, coal, producer and low temperature tars, and from tar distillates and residues and from mineral oils and distillates by washing with a mixture of acetone and water. Acetone extracts of the tars etc., may be mixed with water or aqueous acetone to cause the separation of the oils, while the creosote remains in solution.

  17. Preparation of pure phenols from tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J

    1933-02-07

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of pure phenols from brown coal tar, shale tar, or primary tar, characterized in that the raw oil obtained from the tar is carefully fractionated, in a suitable way without or with a slight pressure decrease, or before the fractionation the raw oil is heated to free the prepared phenolate solution from impurities after successful oxidation by passing in steam at a temperature between 100 and 120/sup 0/C.

  18. Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

    1979-06-01

    The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

  19. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T.

    1991-01-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches

  20. Mineral oils, tars. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, A M; Handmarch, E

    1933-08-11

    Hydrocarbon materials such as mineral oils and tars from coal, shale, lignite, or peat are freed from phenols and like oxy-bodies by heating under pressure in a closed vessel to a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect reduction of the oxy-bodies, and then removing the water formed by the reaction. 350/sup 0/ to 400/sup 0/C. for 30 to 60 minutes is suitable. Any wax-like constituents are converted to liquids of lower viscosity and settling point. The product may be fractionated to give light oils and a residue of aviation Diesel fuel. In an example, oil from the low-temperature distillation of coal and having a tar acid content of 30 per cent is treated in a tubular converter at 380/sup 0/C. and 400 lb. per sq. in for 40 min., and the benzine toluol, and xylol distilled; the residue has a tar acid content of only 7.6 per cent.

  1. Pan Am tar sand bid revealed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, E

    1968-12-16

    Muskeg Oil Co., wholly-owned subsidiary of Pan American Canada Oil Co. Ltd., hopes to expand its proposed initial 8,000 bpd in situ Athabasca tar sand production scheme to an ultimate rate of 60,000 bpd. The Muskeg recovery process involves an in situ combustion technique developed by Pan American and applied successfully in experimental work in the Athabasca area. The underground burning process develops heat in the formation, reduces crude bitumen viscosity, and displaces the bitumen to the producing wells. Core analyses have been used to determine bitumen in place, wherever possible. Values for uncored wells were based on logs, through development of an empirical relationship between formation resistivity measured by focused logging devices and bitumen content determined by core analysis. The proposed recovery process is a 10-acre well spacing with 9-spot configuration. The McMurray Formation will be fractured hydraulically and preheated by a combustion process. The bitumen will be recovered by a combustion displacement process utilizing air and water.

  2. Analysis of tars produced in biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Wang, Y.; Kinoshita, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Parametric tests on tar formation, varying temperature, equivalence ratio, and residence time, are performed on a bench-scale, indirectly-heated fluidized bed gasifier. Prepared tar samples are analyzed in a gas chromatograph (GC) with a flame ionization detector, using a capillary column. Standards containing dominant tar species have been prepared for GC calibration. The identified peaks include single-ring hydrocarbons, such as benzene, to five-ring hydrocarbons, such as perylene; depending on the gasification conditions, the identified species represent about 70 to 90% (mass basis) of the tar constituents. Under all conditions tested, benzene and naphthalene were the most dominant species. Temperature and equivalence ratio have significant effect on tar yield and tar composition. Tar yield decreases with increasing temperature or equivalence ratio. The test results suggest that lower temperature favors the formation of more aromatic tar species with diversified substituent groups, while higher temperature favors the formation of fewer aromatic tar species without substituent groups. Higher temperature or equivalence ratio favors the formation of polyaromatic compounds. Oxygen-containing compounds exist in significant quantities only at temperature below 800{degrees}C and decrease with increasing temperature, equivalence ratio, or residence time.

  3. Heavy crude and tar sands - the long-term oil reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnea, J

    1984-10-01

    It appears that heavy crude and tar sands occur in many sedimentary areas, and estimates of known world-wide quantities exceed those known for conventional light crude resources. Although there are not precise figures available, production could be as high as three million barrels per day, with Venezuela, the US, and Canada the largest producers. There are different scales to measure the costs of production because of differences in the quality of various types of heavy crude and tar sands. Economic development of these resources should banish fears of oil scarcity in the foreseeable future. A center for information exchange through international meetings and publications is under development.

  4. Preparation of pure phenols from tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J

    1929-06-18

    A process is disclosed for preparing pure phenols from brown coal and shale tar, characterized in that the alkaline extract obtained from the tar is oxidized and concurrently the alkaline solution is separated from the existing impurities by heating with steam at high temperature, which finally reaches at least 150/sup 0/C.

  5. Dehydration of hydrated low-temperature tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T

    1949-01-01

    Yoshida examined the mechanism of the dehydration of hydrated low-temperature tar with a microscope. The tar containing free carbon and coal dust is so stable that the removal of the above substances and water by a physical method is very difficult. Addition of light oil produced by fractionation of low-temperature tar facilitates the operations. Yoshida tried using the separate acid, neutral, and basic components of the light oil; the acid oil proved to be most effective. For many reasons it is convenient to use light oil as it is. In this method the quantity of light oil required is 2 to 3 times that of tar. But in supplementing the centrifugal method, the quantity of light oil needed might be only half the amount of tar.

  6. North to Alaska: Evidence for conveyor belt transport of Dungeness crab larvae along the west coast of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W.; Douglas, David C.; Shirley, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) larvae from the northwestern coast of the United States and Canada can be transported northward to southeastern Alaska. Larvae collected in southeastern Alaska during May and June 1997–2004 had abundances and stages that varied seasonally, interannually, and spatially. An unexpected presence of late-stage larvae in spring raises a question regarding their origin, and the most plausible explanation is that they hatched off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts and were transported to southeastern Alaska. Buoy drift tracks support the hypothesis that larvae released off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts during the peak hatching season can be physically transported to southeastern Alaska, arriving as late-stage larvae in May and June, when local larvae are only beginning to hatch. A northward spring progression of monthly mean 7°C SST isotherms and phytoplankton blooms provide further evidence that environmental conditions are conducive for larval growth and metabolism during the transport period. The proposed larval transport suggests possible unidirectional gene flow between southern and northern populations of Dungeness crabs in southeastern Alaska.

  7. P-T composition and evolution of paleofluids in the Paleoproterozoic Mag Hill IOCG system, Contact Lake belt, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somarin, A. Karimzadeh; Mumin, A. Hamid

    2014-02-01

    The Echo Bay stratovolcano complex and Contact Lake Belt of the Great Bear Magmatic Zone, Northwest Territories, host a series of coalescing Paleoproterozoic hydrothermal systems that affected an area of several hundred square kilometers. They were caused by intrusion of synvolcanic diorite-monzodioritic plutons into andesitic host rocks, producing several characteristic hydrothermal assemblages. They include early and proximal albite, magnetite-actinolite-apatite, and potassic (K-feldspar) alteration, followed by more distal hematite, phyllic (quartz-sericite-pyrite), and propylitic (chlorite-epidote-carbonate±sericite±albite±quartz) alteration, and finally by late-stage polymetallic epithermal veins. These alteration types are characteristic of iron oxide copper-gold deposits, however, with distal and lower-temperature assemblages similar to porphyry Cu systems. Magnetite-actinolite-apatite alteration formed from high temperature (up to 560 °C) fluids with average salinity of 12.8 wt% NaCl equivalent. The prograde propylitic and phyllic alteration stages are associated with fluids with temperatures varying from 80 to 430 °C and a wide salinity range (0.5-45.6 wt% NaCl equivalent). Similarly, wide fluid temperature (104-450 °C) and salinity (4.2-46.1 wt% NaCl equivalent) ranges are recorded for the phyllic alteration. This was followed by Cu-Ag-U-Zn-Co-Pb sulfarsenide mineralization in late-stage epithermal veins formed at shallow depths and temperatures from 270 °C to as low as 105 °C. The polymetallic veins precipitated from high salinity (mean 30 wt% NaCl equivalent) dense fluids (1.14 g/cm3) with a vapor pressure of 3.8 bars, typical of epithermal conditions. Fluid inclusion evidence indicates that mixed fluids with evolving physicochemical properties were responsible for the formation of the alteration assemblages and mineralization at Mag Hill. An early high temperature, moderate salinity, and magmatic fluid was subsequently modified variably by

  8. A Reappraisal of Combined 147,146Sm-143,142Nd Systematics for Eoarchean Rocks from the Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt, northern Québec (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, A. S.; Touboul, M.; Bourdon, B.; Kleine, T.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Coupled 147,146Sm-143,142Nd systematics represent a powerful means to unravel the scale and tempo of the earliest differentiation of the silicate Earth. While a signature of early mantle depletion has been preserved as positive 142Nd anomalies in Eoarchean crustal rocks from the Itsaq Gneiss Complex of southern West Greenland (Harper and Jacobsen 1992, Caro et al. 2006, Bennett et al. 2007) and the Narryer Gneiss Complex in Western Australia (Bennett et al. 2007), evidence for complementary early-enriched reservoirs is sparse. The first such evidence was recently reported by O’Neil et al. (2008) in the form of negative 142Nd anomalies in pre-3750 Ma rocks from the Nuvvuagittuq supracrustal belt (NSB) in northern Québec (e.g. Cates and Mojzsis 2007). Discovery of such anomalies in separate Eoarchean terranes would offer profound insight into the early history of the silicate Earth viz. our understanding of the degree of chemical heterogeneity in the primitive Earth's crust-mantle system. Such heterogeneities may have been preserved for billions of years under the lithospheric roots of cratons (Upadhyay et al. 2009). O'Neill et al. (2008) reported 142Nd/144Nd ratios lower than the terrestrial standard for some NSB rock types (ɛ142Nd = -0.07 to -0.15 that are correlated with the Sm/Nd ratios of their sources). Based on this correlation the authors derived an age of ~4.28 Ga for a cummingtonite+biotite±garnet amphibolite unit that may represent some of the oldest preserved crust on Earth. Others have however questioned this conclusion (Andreasen and Sharma, 2009) and argued instead that the Hadean age of this unit is based on a correlation between rocks that are probably not co-genetic, and that the observed negative 142Nd anomalies may rather be the result of corrections for mass fractionation during mass spectrometric analyses. The importance of identifying early enriched reservoirs in Earth motivated our study. Here we report our first Nd isotope data for rocks

  9. Cancer fear over coal tar products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a report by Dutch researchers which suggests that the regular use of coal tar shampoos may significantly increase the risk of cancer due to the high levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the products. The PAH exposure of volunteers using a coal tar anti-dandruff shampoo was studied by measuring the amount of hydroxypyrene, a PAH breakdown product in their urine. Volunteers who had used the shampoo excreted high levels of hydroxypyrene the day after exposure. Excretion by the control group using a non-coal tar anti-dandruff shampoo remained constant. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  10. Coal tar: past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thami, G.P.; Sarkar, R. [Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Dermatology & Venerology

    2002-03-01

    Crude coal tar has been used in the treatment of dermatoses for many decades. In the last few years its use has been limited to skin diseases such as psoriasis and chronic dermatitis. Newer topical modalities for psoriasis are being used increasingly for treatment, but have failed to replace crude coal tar as a first-line treatment of psoriasis. The authors review the pharmacology, chemistry and use of crude coal tar in order to reappraise its role as a therapeutic agent in dermatology.

  11. Characterization of acid tar waste from benzol purification | Danha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of concentrated sulphuric acid to purify benzene, toluene and xylene produces acidic waste known as acid tar. The characterization of the acid tar to determine the composition and physical properties to device a way to use the waste was done. There were three acid tars two from benzene (B acid tar), toluene and ...

  12. In search of ancient biomarkers: Using femtosecond - Laser Desorption Post Ionization - Mass Spectrometry (fs-LDPI-MS) to map organic compounds within ca. 2.7 Ga samples from the Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, M. J.; Barry, G.; Hanley, L.; Kenig, F. P. H.

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges within the field of organic geochemistry is to determine whether an observed biomarker signature was emplaced during sedimentation (indigenous), after sedimentation via the post-depositional migration of fluids (non-indigenous), or during sampling, storage, or analysis (contaminant). Current geochemical techniques (e.g. gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS and GCxGC-MS) can effectively determine the composition and structure of the organic constituents of a sample. However, because of the multiple preparatory steps necessary prior to GC-MS analysis (sample crushing, solvent extraction, organic fraction separation) it is impossible to precisely determine the spatial relationship between the host sample and the organic molecules within. We used an MS imaging method developed by Prof. Luke Hanley at the University of Illinois at Chicago, femtosecond-laser desorption post ionization-MS (fs-LDPI-MS), to map the organics within previously characterized ca.2.7 billion year old (Ga) metasediments from the Abitibi greenstone belt near Timmins, ON, Canada. We then compared the MS images to petrographic observations that displayed the distribution of mineral species with well constrained mineralization ages as well as fluid inclusions within the samples. Fluid inclusions are formed during mineralization and have the ability to remain intact over long timescales (up to billions of years), protecting the fluids inside from the introduction of non-indigenous and contaminant biomarkers. Although migrating post-depositional fluids can remineralize sediments, fluid inclusions associated with secondary additions are focused along grain boundaries and microfractures (secondary inclusions), thus, inclusions which are located within grain boundaries can be considered primary and the age of their formation can be determined relative to the host rock. Preliminary results indicate that previously observed biomarkers may be linked to a series of

  13. Analysis of low-temperature tar fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikkawa, S; Yamada, F

    1952-01-01

    A preliminary comparative study was made on the applicability of the methods commonly used for the type analysis of petroleum products to the low-temperature tar fractions. The usability of chromatography was also studied.

  14. How do different cigarette design features influence the standard tar yields of popular cigarette brands sold in different countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, R J; Hammond, D; McNeill, A; King, B; Kozlowski, L T; Giovino, G A; Cummings, K M

    2008-09-01

    To examine the associations among cigarette design features and tar yields of leading cigarette brands sold in the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. Government reports and numbers listed on packs were used to obtain data on International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/Federal Trade Commission (FTC) yields for the tar of 172 cigarette varieties sold in the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. We used standardised methods to measure the following 11 cigarette design parameters: filter ventilation, cigarette pressure drop, filter pressure drop, tobacco rod length, filter length, cigarette diameter, tipping paper length, tobacco weight, filter weight, rod density and filter density. Filter ventilation was found to be the predominant design feature accounting for the variations between brands in ISO/FTC tar yields in each of the four countries. After accounting for filter ventilation, design parameters such as overwrap length, tobacco weight and rod density played comparatively minor roles in determining tar yields. Variation in ISO/FTC tar yields are predicted by a limited set of cigarette design features, especially filter ventilation, suggesting that governments should consider mandatory disclosure of cigarette design parameters as part of comprehensive tobacco product regulations.

  15. Stuck in the tar sands : how the federal government's proposed climate change strategy lets oil companies off the hook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    The credibility of any federal climate change strategy must be measured against its ability to reduce emissions from the tar sands. However, the federal government has proposed a climate change strategy that would allow tar sands producers to double their total emissions over the next decade. This report discussed how the federal government's proposed climate change strategy lets oil companies off the hook. The report discussed the problems and harmful effects associated with tar sands development, including greenhouse gas emissions; water depletion and pollution; toxic air emissions; destruction of the boreal forest; violation of native rights; threat to energy security; and negative socio-economic spin-off from an overheated economy. The federal government's proposed strategy was also assessed in terms of its weak greenhouse gas targets; ignoring the recent growth in tar sands emissions; adopting intensity-based targets instead of hard caps on greenhouse gas pollution, allowing total emissions from the tar sands to keep climbing; putting off critical measures until 2018; awarding oil companies hundreds of millions of dollars in credits for meeting targets they have already adopted voluntarily; lowballing the price of oil and downplaying future growth in tar sands emissions; ignoring huge portions of the oil industry's greenhouse gas pollution; letting oil companies buy their way out at rockbottom prices instead of forcing them to reduce their own emissions; and subsidizing increased tar sands production. It was concluded that the federal government's proposed plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was inadequate, because it failed to crack down on rising greenhouse gas emissions from the tar sands, one of Canada's most carbon intensive and fastest growing industries. 29 refs., 1 appendix

  16. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  17. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  18. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  19. Hydroconversion of coal tars: effect of the temperature of pyrolysis on the reactivity of tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemberton, J.L.; Touzeyidio, M.; Guisnet, M.

    1988-12-01

    The hydroconversion of a low-temperature and of a high-temperature tar was carried out in the presence of a sulfided Ni and Mo on alumina catalyst - pure or mixed with an acid catalyst (HY zeolite). Significant amounts of light products can be obtained from low temperature tar, formed however through a non-catalytic process. On the contrary, there is a slight catalytic effect during the hydroprocessing of high temperature tar, but the yield in light products is very low. These results can be explained by an extensive poisoning of the NiMo on alumina catalyst by coke which is initiated by the O- and N-containing compounds of the tars. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Anomalous capillary flow of coal tar pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint Romain, J.L.; Lahaye, J.; Ehrburger, P.; Couderc, P.

    1986-06-01

    Capillary flow of liquid coal tar pitch into a coke bed was studied. Anomalies in the flow could not be attributed to a plugging effect for mesophase content lower than 20 wt%. The flow behaviour of small pitch droplets can be correlated with the change in physicochemical properties, as measured by the glass transition temperature, on penetration into the coke bed. 4 references.

  1. Coal tar pitch. Interrelations between properties and utilization of coal tar pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, G; Koehler, H [Ruetgerswerke A.G., Duisburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-06-01

    Coal tar pitch is won as a highly aromatic, thermoplastic residue by destillating coal tar. In this paper the structure as well as the chemical and physical data of this pitch are introduced. In addition to this the actual as well as possible applications are indicated. For example, the pitch can be used for the production of binders, e.g. for electrodes and road construction as well as in combination with plastics for the production of insulating material and corrosion protection material.

  2. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P

    2007-11-01

    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  3. Physical and performance properties of coal tar urethanes - pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickney, J.; Hendry, M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review certain physical properties of coal tar extended urethane coatings designed specifically for use in the pipe coatings market. The blend of coal tar and urethane resins provides a novel finished product with properties cumulatively inherent in its constituents. Typically, coal tar and coal tar pitch offer exceptional water resistance and cathodic alkali resistance when blended with other resins. An example is the standard coal tar epoxies used for many years in the marine markets for shipbottoms

  4. Tar dew point analyser as a tool in biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreugdenhil, B.J.; Kuipers, J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    Application of the Tar Dew point Analyzer (TDA) in different biomass based gasification systems and subsequent gas cleaning setups has been proven feasible. Such systems include BFB gasifiers, CFB gasifier and fixed bed gasifiers, with tar crackers or different scrubbers for tar removal. Tar dew points obtained with the TDA give direct insight in the performance of the gas cleaning section and help prevent any tar related problems due to condensation. The current TDA is capable of measuring tar dew points between -20 to 200C. This manuscript will present results from 4 different gasification setups. The range of measured tar dew points is -7 to 164C with comparable results from the calculated dew points based on the SPA measurements. Further detail will be presented on the differences between TDA and SPA results and explanations will be given for deviations that occurred. Improvements for the TDA regarding future work will be presented.

  5. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  6. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  7. Recovery of naphthalene, anthracene, etc. , from tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-12-25

    A process is described for the recovery of naphthalene, anthracene, and the like from tar oils and similar liquors, characterized in that the oil is treated in a rapidly rotating hammer mill, such as a colloid mill, with water sufficient, in the presence or absence of suitable solvents, for the only portion preferably in the presence of emulsifiers; and is filtered through a filter with fine pores.

  8. Receiving demulsifying agent from the acid tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitina, A.A.; Belyaeva, A.S.; Kunakova, R.V. [FGBIHE ' Ufa State Academy of Economics and Services' , Ufa (Russian Federation); Movsumzade, E.M. [FGBIHE ' Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ.' , Ufa (Russian Federation); Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    The processing of wastes of petrochemical production makes it possible to reduce the price of produced commodity of petroleum products substantially. Bitumen, fuel oils, tars and other mixture of heavy organic compounds are widely used in road construction, in paint and cable industries, manufacture of roofing materials, are used as boiler and furnace fuel, fuel for marine diesel engines, raw material for the production of modifying additives, fillers, surfaceactive substances, etc. (orig.)

  9. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  10. Sydney Tar Ponds: Some problems in quantifying toxic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials of concern include BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), and particulates laden with toxic metals, such as arsenic, lead, and others. The originally nontoxic materials such as soil, blast furnace slag, and vegetation, as well as surface and ground waters, which were subsequently contaminated, must also be included if they fail tests prescribed by environmental regulations. An extensive sampling program must be undertaken to obtain data for an accurate estimate of the waste to be cleaned and disposed of. Apparently, 700,000 tons of toxic waste which is believed to be present on the site, may represent only a fraction of the actual amount. The clean-up of the site is only part of the solution. Toxic waste has to be disposed of in accordance with environmental regulations.

  11. Sydney tar ponds: some problems in quantifying toxic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Edward

    2002-12-01

    Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials of concern include BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), and particulates laden with toxic metals, such as arsenic, lead, and others. The originally nontoxic materials such as soil, blast furnace slag, and vegetation, as well as surface and ground waters, which were subsequently contaminated, must also be included if they fail tests prescribed by environmental regulations. An extensive sampling program must be undertaken to obtain data for an accurate estimate of the waste to be cleaned and disposed of. Apparently, 700,000 tons of toxic waste, which is believed to be present on the site, may represent only a fraction of the actual amount. The clean-up of the site is only part of the solution. Toxic waste has to be disposed of in accordance with environmental regulations.

  12. Bioremediation potential of coal-tar-oil-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajoie, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The bioremediation of coal tar oil contaminated soil was investigated in 90 day laboratory simulation experiments. The effect of soil moisture, humic acid amendment, and coal tar oil concentration on the rate of disappearance of individual coal tar oil constituents (PAHs and related compounds) was determined by methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatography. Mass balance experiments determined the fate of both the individual 14 C-labeled PAHs phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene, and the total coal tar oil carbon. Mineralization, volatilization, incorporation into microbial biomass, disappearance of individual coal tar oil constitutents, and the distribution of residual 14 C-activity in different soil fractions were measured. The rate of disappearance of coal tar oil constituents increased with increasing soil moisture over the experimental range. Humic acid amendment initially enhanced the rate of disappearance, but decreased the extent of disappearance. The amount of contamination removed decreased at higher coal tar oil concentrations. The practical limit for biodegradation in the system tested appeared to be between 1.0 and 2.5% coal tar oil. Mineralization accounted for 40 to 50% of the applied coal tar oil. Volatilization was a minor pathway of disappearance

  13. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  14. Sunflower oil in the treatment of hot tar burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türegün, M; Oztürk, S; Selmanpakoğlu, N

    1997-08-01

    Hot tar burns compose a unique class of thermal injury, because removal of this highly sticky compound may be very difficult without inflicting additional tissue damage. Early removal of tar facilitates assessment of the burn and improves patient comfort. Although the use of many substances for the painless removal of tar has been described, we used sunflower oil effectively in the treatment of four tar burn patients. This first report describes the practical and successful use of sunflower oil which was easily obtained from the hospital kitchen.

  15. Acid Tar Lagoons: Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohers, Anna; Hroncová, Emília; Ladomerský, Juraj

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents the issue with possibility of definitive removal of dangerous environmental burden in Slovakia - serious historical problem of two acid tar lagoons. In relation to their removal, no technology has been found so far - technologically and economically suitable, what caused problems with its management. Locality Predajná is well known in Slovakia by its character of contrasts: it is situated in the picturesque landscape of National Park buffer zone of Nízke Tatry, on the other site it is contaminated by 229 211m3 of acid tar with its characteristics of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity and toxicity especially for animals and plants. Acid tar in two landfills with depth of 1m in case of the first lagoon and 9,5m in case of the second lagoon is a waste product derived from operation of Petrochema Dubová - refinery and petrochemical plant whose activity was to process the crude oil through processes of sulfonation and adsorption technology for producing lubricating and special oils, synthetic detergents and special white oils for cosmetic and medical purposes. A part of acid tar was incinerated in two incineration plats. Concentration of SO2 in combustion gases was too high and it was not possible to decrease it under the value of 2000 mg.mn-3 [LADOMERSKÝ, J. - SAMEŠOVÁ, D.: Reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions waste gases of incineration plant. Acta facultatis ecologiae. 1999, p. 217-223]. That is why it was necessary to put them out of operation. Later, because of public opposition it was not possible to build a new incineration plat corresponding to the state of the art. Even though actual Slovak and European legislative for protection of environment against such impacts, neither of tried methods - bio or non-biologic treatment methods - was proved as suitable for processing or for recovery in the reason of different factors admission: i.e. strong aggressivity, difficulty with handling because of its sludgy and

  16. Canada: trouble with two-legged bears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The current low price of oil has serious implications for producers in Canada and the corporate survival of many of the smaller producers is now in danger. Oil production and exploration are themselves threatened. The advantages to OPEC in terms of reduced competition are discussed. The lesser impact on production of oil from tar sands and mitigation of the impact on many companies with interests in gas is also mentioned. (UK)

  17. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  18. Process from removing benzine, toluene, etc. , from petroleum residues, coal tar, and shale tar, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlawaty, F

    1888-08-11

    A process is described for the preparation of ligroin and its homologs as well as naphthalene and anthracene consisting in leading superheated water vapor into a mixture of petroleum residues (or mineral coal tar, etc.) heated to about 400/sup 0/C with cellulosic substances as sage shreds, sea grass, or straw, with addition of caustic alkali.

  19. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  20. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX; Marino, Marian [Houston, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Dombrowski, Robert James [Houston, TX; Jaiswal, Namit [Houston, TX

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  1. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  2. Distillation of tar and tar fractions in the presence of surface-active coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeppelt, A; Klaus, J

    1943-01-01

    The tar obtained by low-temperature carbonization of Upper Silesian gas coke and fractions from this tar were distilled in the presence of different grades of coke dust with varying surface activity; the coke had been activated by steam in the course of its production by low-temperature carbonization. The surface activity of the coke dusts was measured by determining the heat of wetting with C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Tar and coke dust, both anhydrous, were mixed in a kneading machine in such proportions that the capillaries of the dust were saturated and enough ''externally'' bound tar was present to permit briquetting. The briquets were distilled without cracking and with steam as heating medium. The yield and quality of the distillate depended on the magnitude of the internal surface of the coke dust used; a mixture of a very active coke from brown coal and tar yielded a distillate with Conradson carbon residue of 1.34 percent, asphalt content 6.1 percent and eta/sub 20/ 5.4/sup 0/ E. as compared with C residue of 10.95 percent, asphalt content 33.5 percent and eta/sub 20/ 123.6/sup 0/ E. of the distillate obtained in the absence of surface-active coke. Even higher-boiling fractions can be improved by this treatment, although it is preferable to use oils with an initial boiling point below 300/sup 0/. The ratio of oil to adsorbent is not critical, but better results were obtained with higher percentages of added coke dust. The process in its present form is not suited for the conversion of crude creosote to useful phenols.

  3. New method for the exact determination of phenols in low-temperature tar and tar oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambris, G; Haferkorn, H

    1949-01-01

    A 3-gram sample of water-free tar or tar oil containing approximately 50% phenols is dissolved in a mixture of benzene and xylene and a known excess of a 20% KOH solution of known normality saturated with benzene and xylene is added. Weight of the KOH is determined by difference. This mixture is shaken repeatedly in a 300-milliliter separatory funnel. After standing for 0.5 h, the dark or almost black phenolate solution containing the major portion is separated and weighed. Care must be taken to prevent the induction of solids. The phenolate in the residue is extracted with hot water and titrated with 0.2N HCl and 1 ml. Congo red (1:100). If water is present in the tar or tar oil, 100 ml of xylene is added immediately after weighing and the water separated by distillation the weight of which must be determined. Any phenols carried over are dissolved in the small quantity of xylene in the distillate. This quantity is added to the bulk of the xylene. After any remaining phenols are extracted from the tar residue with boiling benzene, the benzene-xylene mixture is treated with KOH as above. The accuracy of the method is estimated to be +-1% as shown by experiments with phenol; o-, m-, and p-cresol; cresol mixture; and pyrocatechol. The weight of the dissolved phenols X is determined by X = c - a + cd/(ab - d) where a = weight of KOH, b = HCl used per gram of KOH, C = weight of major portion of phenolate solution, which is formed by shaking the phenol solution with KOH, d = HCl used for titration of phenolate residue.

  4. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix ER27DE05.000...

  5. The catalytic cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolysis char on tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Z.; Huibin, H.; Xiangling, S.; Zhenhua, M.; Lei, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of different pyrolysis conditions for tar catalytic cracking will be analyzed according to the lignite pyrolysis char as catalyst on pyrolytic tar in this paper. The pyrolysis char what is the by-product of the cracking of coal has an abundant of pore structure and it has good catalytic activity. On this basis, making the modified catalyst when the pyrolysis char is activation and loads Fe by impregnation method. The cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolytic tar is explored by applying gas chromatograph to analyze splitting products of tar. The experimental results showed that: (1) The effect of tar cracking as the pyrolysis temperature, the heating rate, the volatilization of pyrolysis char and particle size increasing is better and better. The effect of the catalytic and cracking of lignite pyrolysis char in tar is best when the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature, the volatiles of pyrolysis char, particle size is in specific conditions.(2) The activation of pyrolysis char can improve the catalytic effect of pyrolysis char on the tar cracking. But it reduces the effect of the tar cracking when the pyrolysis char is activation loading Fe. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Gravimetric Tar Determination in Particle Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik B.; Bentzen, Jens Dall

    2000-01-01

    A comparison of tar determination of particles from a down-draft gasifier using soxhlet extractions (with anisole, dichloromethane and acetone) and pyrolysis of the particles.......A comparison of tar determination of particles from a down-draft gasifier using soxhlet extractions (with anisole, dichloromethane and acetone) and pyrolysis of the particles....

  7. Modeling Tar Recirculation in Biomass Fluidized Bed Gasification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineken, Wolfram; De la Cuesta de Cal, Daniel; Zobel, Nico

    2016-01-01

    A biomass gasification model is proposed and applied to investigate the benefits of tar recirculation within a gasification plant. In the model, tar is represented by the four species phenol, toluene, naphthalene, and benzene. The model is spatially one-dimensional, assuming plug flow for the

  8. Microstructure and properties of lignite tar and pitch. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, H

    1954-01-01

    Photomicrographs reveal the presence of crystalline wax which affects the working properties in lignite tars and pitch. The crystals are large needles after slow cooling and small after rapid cooling. The crystals are paraffinic in character. All samples were nonhomogeneous. Thus the properties of lignite tar and pitch are varied by the source of the lignite and history of the specimen, neither softening point nor dropping point seems to satisfactorily characterize these tars. The samples exhibit thixotropic behavior characteristic of a structural viscosity and show hysteresis loops on varying the working rate. The variations have hindered use of lignite tars and pitches except where solubility in a solvent such as coal tar oil can be used to advantage.

  9. Characterization of Tar Deposits, Extraction and Sorption Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryszcz Adrian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to characterize and find a useful solution for the decomposition of tar deposits. For the experimental part, tar deposits, formed by polymerization and condensation reactions, were chosen from a storage tank for tars. At first the initial analyses of tar deposits (elemental, thermogravimetric, and calorimetric analyses were performed. After the characterization, the tar deposits were extracted in the Soxhlet extractor by acetone, toluene, and quinolone and activated with potassium hydroxide. As the final step of this work, the sorption characterization on the 3Flex Surface Characterization Analyzer (Micromeritics was performed. The specific surface area of the samples was evaluated using two methods - a single point measurement at p/p0=0.2 and BET method. Micropore and external surface areas were calculated based on a t-plot analysis (carbon black model.

  10. DECOMPOSITION OF TARS IN MICROWAVE PLASMA – PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Wnukowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the main problem connected with biomass gasification - a presence of tar in a product gas. This paper presents preliminary results of tar decomposition in a microwave plasma reactor. It gives a basic insight into the construction and work of the plasma reactor. During the experiment, researches were carried out on toluene as a tar surrogate. As a carrier gas for toluene and as a plasma agent, nitrogen was used. Flow rates of the gases and the microwave generator’s power were constant during the whole experiment. Results of the experiment showed that the decomposition process of toluene was effective because the decomposition efficiency attained above 95%. The main products of tar decomposition were light hydrocarbons and soot. The article also gives plans for further research in a matter of tar removal from the product gas.

  11. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A

    1998-04-01

    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  12. Removing tar information from cigarette packages may reduce South Korean smokers' misconceptions about low-tar cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin Paek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Many smokers still have misconceptions about “light” or “low tar” cigarettes. In South Korea, low-tar (< 3 mg cigarette sales have increased sharply from 1.8% in 2002 to 49.2% in 2015. Although government regulations forbid cigarette packages from displaying messages such as “mild,” “low-tar,” and “light,” numbers indicating tar amounts are still permitted. This study examines whether removing tar information from packaging altogether reduces people's misconceptions about low tar cigarettes. Methods An online experiment was conducted among 531 smokers who were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the “tar” condition, 271 participants were shown in random order three cigarette packages for three major brands (Esse, The One, Marlboro with different tar amounts. In the “no-tar” condition, 260 participants were shown the same packages without tar information. Next, participants evaluated which type of cigarette was mildest, least harmful, easier for nonsmokers to start smoking, and easier for smokers to quit. After descriptive statistics were checked, twelve sets of chi-square tests were performed. Results Average age of the participants was 26.22 (14 - 62 years; 53.5% were male. All 12 chi-square tests were statistically significant. Participants in the tar condition judged the lowest-tar cigarette to be mildest, least harmful, easier to start, and easier to quit. In the no-tar condition, for the Korean brands Esse and The One, most respondents evaluated all cigarette types to be the same only for harm, ease of starting, and ease of quitting; for Marlboro, judgments were the same as those in the tar condition except that “easier to quit” was judged to be the same across the three types. Conclusions Banning tar information from cigarette packages may help reduce smokers' misconceptions about low-tar cigarettes. People have inconsistent judgments about differently packaged cigarettes when tar

  13. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. 2Beijing Research .... terrane, which is separated from the central Asian orogenic belt .... Stage I formed the main body of quartz veins ...... size (20–25 μm) fluid inclusions can be observed, although most ..... Canada and Western Australia (Goldfarb et al. 2001 ...

  14. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.S.

    1980-12-01

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  15. Forensic assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the former Sydney Tar Ponds and surrounding environment using fingerprint techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAskill, N. Devin; Walker, Tony R.; Oakes, Ken; Walsh, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed spatially and temporally within and adjacent to a former coking and steel manufacturing facility in Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada. Concentrations of PAHs were measured in surface soils, marine and estuary sediments prior to and during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STPs) site which was contaminated by nearly a century of coking and steel production. Previous studies identified PAHs in surficial marine sediments within Sydney Harbour, which were considered to be derived from STP discharges. Numerous PAH fingerprint techniques (diagnostic ratios, principal component analysis, quantitative and qualitative analysis) were applied to soil and sediment samples from the STPs and surrounding area to identify common source apportionment of PAHs. Results indicate coal combustion (from historical residential, commercial and industrial uses) and coal handling (from historic on-site stockpiling and current coal transfer and shipment facilities) are likely the principal source of PAHs found in urban soils and marine sediments, consistent with current and historical activities near these sites. However, PAH fingerprints associated with STP sediments correlated poorly with those of urban soils and marine sediments, but were similar to coal tar, historically consistent with by-products produced by the former coking operations. This study suggests PAH contamination of Sydney Harbour sediments and urban soils is largely unrelated to historic coking operations or recent remediation of the STPs site, but rather a legacy of extensive use of coal for a variety of activities. - Highlights: • PAHs were measured in soils and sediments near a former coking and steel facility. • Previous studies identified tar residues as main source of PAHs in marine sediments. • PAH fingerprint techniques were used to identify common source apportionment. • Fingerprint techniques indicated common sources derived from coal, not tar residues

  16. Ultrasound assisted, thermally activated persulfate oxidation of coal tar DNAPLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Libin; Wang, Li; Hu, Xingting; Wu, Peihui; Wang, Xueqing; Huang, Chumei; Wang, Xiangyang; Deng, Dayi

    2016-11-15

    The feasibility of ultrasound assisted, thermally activated persulfate for effective oxidation of twenty 2-6 ringed coal tar PAHs in a biphasic tar/water system and a triphasic tar/soil/water system were investigated and established. The results indicate that ultrasonic assistance, persulfate and elevated reaction temperature are all required to achieve effective oxidation of coal tar PAHs, while the heating needed can be provided by ultrasonic induced heating as well. Further kinetic analysis reveals that the oxidation of individual PAH in the biphasic tar/water system follows the first-order kinetics, and individual PAH oxidation rate is primary determined by the mass transfer coefficients, tar/water interfacial areas, the aqueous solubility of individual PAH and its concentration in coal tar. Based on the kinetic analysis and experimental results, the contributions of ultrasound, persulfate and elevated reaction temperature to PAHs oxidation were characterized, and the effects of ultrasonic intensity and oxidant dosage on PAHs oxidation efficiency were investigated. In addition, the results indicate that individual PAH degradability is closely related to its reactivity as well, and the high reactivity of 4-6 ringed PAHs substantially improves their degradability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Final Safety Assessment of Coal Tar as Used in Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant-antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  18. Belt conveying of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stace, L.R.; Yardley, E.D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    A discussion of the history and economics of conveyor applications sets the scene. Conveyor design is investigated in detail, covering power requirements, belt tensioning, and hardware. Principles regarding construction and joining of belts are outlined and a helpful and practical overview of relevant standards, belt test methods, and issues surrounding standardisation is given. Conveyor belt systems can represent a significant operational hazard, so the authors have set out to highlight the important area of safety, with consideration given to fire/electrical resistance, as well as the interface between personnel and conveyor systems - including nip points and operational issues such as man-riding. Selected case studies illustrate some practical aspects of installation and operation, at Selby mine in the UK and Prosper-Haniel Colliery in Germany and others. 3 apps.

  19. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  20. Belt conveyor apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  1. Economic and environmental effects of the FQD on crude oil production from tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; De Buck, A.; Afman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van den Berg, J.; Otten, G.J. [Carbon Matters, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    The production of unconventional crudes in Canada and Venezuela and exports of these crudes to the EU are investigated. In addition the potential economic and environmental impact of the proposed EU FQD measures (Fuel Quality Directive) on the production of crudes from tar sands and on new tar sand exploration projects are examined. CE Delft has analysed the impact by using a dedicated cost model. For existing projects, the model determines the effect on the basis of marginal production costs. For planned projects the model used the net present value (NPV) of proposed investments. The impacts were determined for a range of crude oil prices and FQD price effects. Combined, for existing and new projects together, the maximum effect would be at a price level at 60 USD/bbl, with savings of up to 19 Mt CO2/y at an FQD price differential of 3 euro/bbl. This overall effect would be substantial and come on top of the total emission reduction effect of the FQD of 60 Mt CO2/y, which will be achieved mostly by the blending of low-carbon fuels and reduced flaring and venting. As part of the reduction of transport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the revised FQD obliges fuel suppliers to reduce these emissions by 6% by 2020 on a well-to-wheel basis. The EU is currently developing a methodology to differentiate fossil fuels on the basis of feedstock and GHG emissions. In the proposal, diesel produced from tar sands, has been given a default emission value of 108.5 gCO2 eq/MJ, while diesel from conventional crude was set at 89.1 gCO2 eq/MJ. The Commission's proposal is currently undergoing an impact assessment and is expected to be resubmitted to the Council later this year (2013)

  2. Flash hydropyrolysis of bituminous coal . III. Research on flash hydropyrolysis tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, M.; Zhu, Z.; He, Y.; Ding, N.; Tang, L. [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2000-02-01

    Tar sample obtained by flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) from Dongshen coal at high pressure entrained reactor was investigated. An effect of flash hydropyrolysis temperature on the main components in tar was studied and the quality of the tar was compared with high temperature coke oven tar. The results showed that: the yields of liquid hydrocarbon in FHP tar were more than 15%, which is twofold of that in coke oven tar; the FHP tar has high oil fraction and low pitch; high phenol components and pure condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and low aliphatic hydrocarbon. The components of the FHP tar were simpler than that of high temperature coke oven tar. Therefore, FHP has improved the quantity and quality of tar. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. A Critical Review of the Oil and Tar Sands of the Dahomey Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osundina, A.; Mustapha, A.; Nzewi, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Benin Basin previously referred to as the Dahomey embayment has been designated as a frontier basin within Nigeria due to its potentially high prospects, but comparatively low exploitation campaign to date. The basin offers a promising opportunity for heavy oil exploration in a narrow belt extending westward from Edo State to the republic of Benin; while offshore, there are high prospects for finding more conventional hydrocarbon.The eastern Dahomey embayment is known to have an extensive reserve of hydrocarbons (bitumen and tar sands). The sediments occur in a 5 8 km belt stretching 120km from the fringes of Lagos State through Ogun, Ondo and Edo States. The estimated reserve potentials exceed 30 billion barrels of oil equivalent.Recently acquired seismic data in OPL 309 and 310, and subsequent drilling of 2 wells on the narrow continental shelf, have shown the presence of closed structures over Basement Highs and other related structural styles in the basin and confirm that conventional light oils and condensates hydrocarbons occur in commercial quantity. These hydrocarbons are reservoired in stratigraphic sequences of Albian Cenomanian age.This paper hopes to expose the hidden riches of this Basin and hopefully get the attention of the big players in refocusing their interests in the basin that attracted attention of the early petroleum explorers to Nigeria approximately 100 years ago

  4. Biogeochemical gradients above a coal tar DNAPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherr, Kerstin E., E-mail: kerstin.brandstaetter-scherr@boku.ac.at [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Backes, Diana [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Scarlett, Alan G. [University of Plymouth, Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Biogeochemistry Research Centre, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Lantschbauer, Wolfgang [Government of Upper Austria, Directorate for Environment and Water Management, Division for Environmental Protection, Kärntner Strasse 10-12, 4021 Linz (Austria); Nahold, Manfred [GUT Gruppe Umwelt und Technik GmbH, Ingenieurbüro für Technischen Umweltschutz, Plesching 15, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    Naturally occurring distribution and attenuation processes can keep hydrocarbon emissions from dense non aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) into the adjacent groundwater at a minimum. In a historically coal tar DNAPL-impacted site, the de facto absence of a plume sparked investigations regarding the character of natural attenuation and DNAPL resolubilization processes at the site. Steep vertical gradients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, microbial community composition, secondary water quality and redox-parameters were found to occur between the DNAPL-proximal and shallow waters. While methanogenic and mixed-electron acceptor conditions prevailed close to the DNAPL, aerobic conditions and very low dissolved contaminant concentrations were identified in three meters vertical distance from the phase. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC × GC–MS) proved to be an efficient tool to characterize the behavior of the present complex contaminant mixture. Medium to low bioavailability of ferric iron and manganese oxides of aquifer samples was detected via incubation with Shewanella alga and evidence for iron and manganese reduction was collected. In contrast, 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis revealed the absence of common iron reducing bacteria. Aerobic hydrocarbon degraders were abundant in shallow horizons, while nitrate reducers were dominating in deeper aquifer regions, in addition to a low relative abundance of methanogenic archaea. Partial Least Squares – Canonical Correspondence Analysis (PLS-CCA) suggested that nitrate and oxygen concentrations had the greatest impact on aquifer community structure in on- and offsite wells, which had a similarly high biodiversity (H’ and Chao1). Overall, slow hydrocarbon dissolution from the DNAPL appears to dominate natural attenuation processes. This site may serve as a model for developing legal and technical strategies for the treatment of DNAPL-impacted sites where contaminant plumes are

  5. Some studies on tar pillets at Veraval coast (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.

    Infrared spectroscopic (IR) analysis indicated that the tar pillets contain saturated hydrocarbons particularly higher homologues of n-paraffins, unsaturated and carbonyl type of polar compounds. Gas chromatographic (GLC) fingerprint pattern...

  6. Source identification of a tar residue from Mumbai Beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A; Rokade, M.A

    A tar residue from Mumbai Beach, Maharashtra, India was matched with the suspected source sample from a tanker using UV, IR and GLC techniques. Negligible differences in several ratios of UV absorbances and ratios of infrared transmittances...

  7. UTILIZATION OF AQUEOUS-TAR CONDENSATES FORMED DURING GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecińska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of solid fuels is an alternative process for energy production using conventional and renewable fuels. Apart from desired compounds, i.e. carbon oxide, hydrogen and methane, the produced gas contains complex organic (tars and inorganic (carbonizate, ammonia contaminants. Those substances, together with water vapor, condensate during cooling of the process gas, what results in the formation of aqueous-tar condensate, which requires proper methods of utilization. The management of this stream is crucial for commercialization and application of the gasification technology. In the paper the treatment of aqueous-tar condensates formed during biomass gasification process is discussed. The removal of tars from the stream was based on their spontaneous separation. The aqueous stream was subjected to ultrafiltration operated at different pressures. Such a treatment configuration enabled to obtain highly concentrated retentate, which could be recycled to the gasifier, and filtrate, which could be subjected to further treatment.

  8. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu; Wellington, Scott Lee

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  9. Extraction of low-temperature tar by various alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, N; Osawa, M; Azuma, H

    1948-01-01

    MeOH was the most effective of the alcohols tested (MeOH to pentanol) in extracting acid components from low-temperature tar. The optimum concentrations of MeOH were 70 to 80% for 1 extraction and 70 to 75% for repeated or continuous extractions when the solvent-tar ratio was 1:1. By 2 to 3 extractions neutral oil could be separated in about 90% yield including > 3% acidic oil.

  10. Corrosion test by low-temperature coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, S; Yamamoto, S

    1952-01-01

    Corrosive actions of various fractions of low-temperature coal tar against mild steel or Cr 13-steel were compared at their boiling states. Corrosions became severe when the boiling points exceeded 240/sup 0/. The acidic fractions were more corrosive. In all instances, corrosion was excessive at the beginning of immersion testing and then gradually became mild; boiling accelerated the corrosion. Cr 13-steel was corrosion-resistant to low-temperature coal-tar fractions.

  11. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryer, Pamela J.; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, and 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. - Coal-tar pavement sealants degrade stream invertebrate communities.

  12. Athabasca tar sand reservoir properties derived from cores and logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, R.

    1976-01-01

    Log interpretation parameters for the Athabasca Tar Sand Lease No. 24 have been determined by careful correlation with Dean and Stark core analysis data. Significant expansion of Athabasca cores occurs as overburden pressure is removed. In the more shaly sands the core analysis procedures remove adsorbed water from the clays leading to further overestimation of porosity and free water volume. Log interpretation parameters (R/sub w/ = 0.5 ohm . m and m = n = 1.5) were defined by correlation with the weight of tar as a fraction of the weight of rock solids (grain or dry weight fraction of tar). This quantity is independent of the water content of the cores, whereas porosity and the weight of tar as a fraction of the bulk weight of fluids plus solids (bulk weight fraction) are both dependent on water content. Charts are provided for the conversion of bulk weight fraction of fluids to porosity; grain weight fraction of fluids to porosity; log derived porosity and core grain weight tar to water saturation. Example results show that the core analysis grain weight fraction of tar is adequately matched by the log analyses. The log results provide a better representation of the reservoir fluid volumes than the core analysis data

  13. Infrared absorption characteristics of hydroxyl groups in coal tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, S A; Chu, C J; Hange, R H; Margrave, J L

    1987-01-01

    Tar evolution was observed over a temperature range of 150-600 C for four coals. Pittsburgh bituminous, Illinois No.6, Rawhide subbituminous, and Texas lignite. Isolation of the evolved tars in a nitrogen matrix at 15 degrees K produced better resolved infrared spectra than those in a coal matrix, thus enhancing structural characterization of the tar molecules. Two distinct hydroxyl functional groups in the tar molecules free of hydrogen bonding were identified for the first time without interference from H/sub 2/O absorptions. These absorptions at 3626.5 cm/sup -1/ have been assigned to phenolic hydroxyls. It is suggested that carboxylic and aliphatic hydroxyl groups do not survive the vaporization process. Tars from Illinois No.6 were found to contain the largest amount of phenolic hydroxyl; Pittsburgh No. 8 tar contains approximately half of that for Illinois No.6 while Rawhide and Texas lignite contain much less phenolic than either of the other coals. 10 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  14. Catalytic destruction of tar in biomass derived producer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruiqin; Brown, Robert C.; Suby, Andrew; Cummer, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate catalytic destruction of tar formed during gasification of biomass, with the goal of improving the quality of the producer gas. This work focuses on nickel based catalysts treated with alkali in an effort to promote steam gasification of the coke that deposits on catalyst surfaces. A tar conversion system consisting of a guard bed and catalytic reactor was designed to treat the producer gas from an air blown, fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The guard bed used dolomite to crack the heavy tars. The catalytic reactor was used to evaluate three commercial steam reforming catalysts. These were the ICI46-1 catalyst from Imperial Chemical Industry and Z409 and RZ409 catalysts from Qilu Petrochemical Corp. in China. A 0.5-3 l/min slipstream from a 5 tpd biomass gasifier was used to test the tar conversion system. Gas and tar were sampled before and after the tar conversion system to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Changes in gas composition as functions of catalytic bed temperature, space velocity and steam/TOC (total organic carbon) ratio are presented. Structural changes in the catalysts during the tests are also described

  15. Low-temperature tar and oil: properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, R

    1942-01-01

    In Germany the value of low-temperature tar is largely dependent on its fuel fractions; these vary with the coal and the method of carbonization (external heating or recirculated gases). Brown-coal tars can be processed by distillation, cracking under pressure, hydrogenation under pressure (largest volume of tar is processed by this method) and by solvent extraction, with EtOH, SO/sub 2/, or phenol. Each of these processes is discussed in detail. In the pressure-hydrogenation process, 1.25 kilogram of brown-coal tar yields approximately 1 kilogram of gasoline with an octane number of 60 to 70. Low-temperature tars from bituminous coals can be hydrogenated readily but are not well adapted to solvent extraction. Attempts should be made to produce tar approximating the desired characteristics for fuel directly from the carbonizing apparatus. For laboratory carbonization tests, an approximation to results secured by externally heated retorts is secured by using an insert consisting of a series of perforated trays in the 200-gram Fischer aluminum retort; this reduces the capacity to 100 gram. Fractional condensation is used to separate heavy oil, middle oil, and liquor; low-boiling products are condensed at -20/sup 0/ by solid CO/sub 2/.

  16. Extraction of tar acids with methanol from low-temperature tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, W; Yokogawa, C; Suga, S

    1948-01-01

    From 20 grams crude middle oil, boiling at 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/, acid content 40%, tar acids were extracted at 20/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/ with MeOH for comparison with EtOH, NMe/sub 3/, and ethylene glycol. When 80% MeOH is used, the oil extracted amounts to 61%, including 9% acids, if the ratio of crude oil and solvent is kept at 1:2. EtOH is inferior to MeOH. The properties of the crude oil and the purified oil extracted with 80% MeOH are described.

  17. Structure and Mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus TarS, the Wall Teichoic Acid β-glycosyltransferase Involved in Methicillin Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Sobhanifar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing interest in teichoic acids as targets for antibiotic drug design against major clinical pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, reflecting the disquieting increase in antibiotic resistance and the historical success of bacterial cell wall components as drug targets. It is now becoming clear that β-O-GlcNAcylation of S. aureus wall teichoic acids plays a major role in both pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. Here we present the first structure of S. aureus TarS, the enzyme responsible for polyribitol phosphate β-O-GlcNAcylation. Using a divide and conquer strategy, we obtained crystal structures of various TarS constructs, mapping high resolution overlapping N-terminal and C-terminal structures onto a lower resolution full-length structure that resulted in a high resolution view of the entire enzyme. Using the N-terminal structure that encapsulates the catalytic domain, we furthermore captured several snapshots of TarS, including the native structure, the UDP-GlcNAc donor complex, and the UDP product complex. These structures along with structure-guided mutants allowed us to elucidate various catalytic features and identify key active site residues and catalytic loop rearrangements that provide a valuable platform for anti-MRSA drug design. We furthermore observed for the first time the presence of a trimerization domain composed of stacked carbohydrate binding modules, commonly observed in starch active enzymes, but adapted here for a poly sugar-phosphate glycosyltransferase.

  18. Reaction Mechanism of Tar Evolution in Biomass Steam Gasification for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingo Katayama; Masahiro Suzuki; Atsushi Tsutsumi

    2006-01-01

    Reaction mechanism of tar evolution in steam gasification of biomass was investigated with a continuous cross-flow moving bed type differential reactor, in which tar and gases can be fractionated according to reaction time. We estimated that time profile of tar and gas evolution in the gasification of cellulose, xylan, and lignin, and compared it with experimental product time profile of real biomass gasification. The experimental tar evolution rate is different from estimated tar evolution rate. The estimated tar evolution rate has a peak at 20 s. On the other hand, the experimental tar evolution rate at 20 s is little, and tar at initial stage includes more water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. It can be concluded that in the real biomass steam gasification the evolution of tar from cellulose and lignin component was found to be precipitated by that from hemi-cellulose component. (authors)

  19. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  20. New developments of belt conveyor systems; Inclined belt systems, vertical pipe elevators, vibration belts, oscillating tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahke, E.A. (Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik)

    1991-03-01

    Factors that have influenced the design of belt conveyor systems are discussed - these include strength and shaping. Belt conveyor systems for inclined, steep-angle and vertical conveying are described and comparison made between cable belt and steel cord belt conveyors used in coal mines. Hose-belt or tube conveyors such as are used in the PWH/Conti-Rollgurt Conveyor System for feeding boilers in German coal fired power stations are mentioned and advantages of the pipe-belt conveyor for vertical transport discussed. Design of the vibratory conveyor for transporting solids upwards by pulses is described. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryer, P.J.; Scoggins, M.; McClintock, N.L. [Lamar University, Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2010-05-15

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments.

  2. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  3. Tar Removal from Biomass Producer Gas by Using Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravenni, Giulia; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The biomass-derived char (biochar) produced in the gasifier as a residue, is a potential solution for removing tars from producer gas. This work investigates the interaction between tar compounds and biochar. Residual biochar from a TwoStage gasifier was tested as bed material in a laboratory setup....... Phenol and naphthalene were chosen as model tars, and entrained in a nitrogen flow. The gaseous stream was sampled before and after the biochar bed to evaluate the extent of conversion. The biochar bed (30g) was tested at 250°C, 500°C and 600°C, with for 3 consecutive hours. The compounds concentration...... in the gas phase was quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis, using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed a significant effect of biochar on the removal of phenol, at all temperatures. Naphthalene was removed less efficiently at higher temperature, and this trend was even more...

  4. Coal tar phototoxicity: characteristics of the smarting reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diette, K.M.; Gange, R.W.; Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A.; Parrish, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The properties and ultraviolet exposure parameters of tar smarts were examined in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It was show that irradiation with 1 minimal smarting dose (MSD) of UVA immediately following tar removal lowered the MSD for 6 h, demonstrated by subsequent challenge with UVA. Following 3 MSDs this memory effect was demonstrable for 24 h. The smarting reaction was area dependent--smaller areas of exposure require higher doses of UVA to induce smarting. Smarting followed reciprocity over a 6-fold range of irradiances (2-12.5 mW/cm2) but higher irradiances required higher doses of UVA, perhaps due to a delay in the recognition and reporting of smarting. The smarting reaction and delayed erythema due to UVA and tar were equally blocked by sunscreen

  5. Carbon materials for syngas conditioning and tar removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Millán, Lina María; Sierra Vargas, Fabio Emiro

    2017-01-01

    Within the framework of worldwide energy context, the development of technologies and processes for energy production form renewable and non-conventional sources is a priority. According to this, gasification is an interesting process that converts different kinds of organic materials in fuel gases. The main issue related with this process is the fact that the producer gas contains also contaminants and tars that are undesirable for the gas usage in internal combustion motors or turbines. The present work aims to analyze the actual state of the existing methods to remove tars form gasification fuel gases, emphasizing the use of different kinds of carbon materials. (author)

  6. Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1980-01-01

    Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin, measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to μg/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100th that of sunlight. (orig.)

  7. Material Properties and Characteristics for Development of an Expert System for Coal-Tar Sealers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shoenberger, James

    2001-01-01

    .... Several coal-tar mixtures that varied with source of the coal-tar emulsion, amount of aggregate, and amount of polymer used in the mixtures were evaluated for their field performance and material properties...

  8. 179 Extraction of Coal-tar Pitch by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meyer

    Several extractions of coal-tar pitch were performed using supercritical fluid ..... pressure and temperature, unlike exhaustive extraction, which involves a change in ... mechanism that is operative on extracting coal-tar pitch components with.

  9. Investigation of sulfur-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in coal derived tars of pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    1999-07-01

    A study was undertaken to characterize sulphur forms in coal derived tars from pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of bituminous coal and lignite. The pyrolysis tars were analyzed for content of polycyclic aromatic sulfur hydrocarbons (PASH). 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

  11. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  12. Recovery of very viscous lubricating oils from shale-tar, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, E

    1918-01-22

    A process is disclosed for the recovery of very viscous lubricating oils from brown-coal tar and shale tar, consisting in driving off from the crude tar or the tar freed from volatile constituents after removal of paraffin by precipitation with a volatile solvent such as acetone or one of its homologs, the light oils more or less completely with superheated steam from about 200 to 250/sup 0/C without any outside heating over a free flame.

  13. Experimental comparison of biomass chars with other catalysts for tar reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu El-Rub, Ziad; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the potential of using biomass char as a catalyst for tar reduction is discussed. Biomass char is compared with other known catalysts used for tar conversion. Model tar compounds, phenol and naphthalene, were used to test char and other catalysts. Tests were carried out in a fixed bed

  14. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes... coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall bear, in...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from the...

  16. Perversities of Extreme Dependence and Unequal Growth in the TAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe official Chinese press recently came out with a series of articles reporting the latest statistics on the phenomenally rapid economic growth that has been taking place in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) since the mid-1990s through sheer force of Central Government subsidies.

  17. Pyrolysis kinetics of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Shavyrina, O.A. [Leo Tolstoy Tula State Pedag University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The features of pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar were studied. The activation energy and order of the reactions of accumulation of methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dioxide, naphthalene and its methyl homologs, phenols, and isomeric cresols and dimethylphenols were determined.

  18. Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S.

    1996-01-01

    A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model

  19. Human papillomavirus and tar hypothesis for squamous cell cervical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Keywords. Cervical cancer; co-factors; human papillomavirus; tar-based vaginal douche; tobacco smoke; wood smoke. Author Affiliations. Christina Bennett1 Allen E Kuhn2 Harry W Haverkos3. Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-5149, USA; Suite 300, Hamilton Mason Road ...

  20. Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

  1. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. K. Chakrabarty; H. Moosmuller; L.-W. A. Chen; K. Lewis; W. P. Arnott; C. Mazzoleni; M. K. Dubey; C. E. Wold; W. M. Hao; S. M. Kreidenweis

    2010-01-01

    We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Angstrom coefficients (AAC) indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC) with wavelength dependent...

  2. Traditional African Religions (TARs): on HIV/AIDS, health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because the moral guidance put forward by. African religions is underestimated; hence making HIV/AIDS more of a moral problem. Rethinking the dialogue with TARs, will help in setting appropriate means of enhancing health in a broad sense and living in human dignity in Africa. Mtafiti Mwafrika Vol. 15 2005: pp.

  3. Thermal remediation of tar-contaminated soil and oil-contaminated gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, E.J.; Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    High temperature treatments are commonly considered for the decontamination of soil as they have the advantages of reliability, high capacity, and effective destruction of hazardous materials with reduced long-term liability. This paper examined the remediation of soil contaminated by coal tar as well as gravel contaminated by oil. Pilot plant studies were conducted using 2 representative incineration technologies: rotary kiln and fluidized bed. The coal tar contaminated soil had accumulated over a few decades at a calcination plant in western Canada. The soil was sticky and could not be handled by conventional feeding and combustion systems. Crushed lignite was mixed with the soil as an auxiliary fuel and to reduce stickiness. A pilot plant furnace was used to evaluate the potential of decontamination in a rotary calciner. An analysis of both a modelling study and the test results showed that complete decontamination could be achieved in the targeted calciner. The results suggested that energy recovery was also possible, which could in turn make the remediation process more cost-effective. Decontamination of oil-contaminated gravel was conducted with a pilot plant fluidized bed combustor to study the feasibility of using incineration technology in the remediation of gravel and debris contaminated by oil spills. Results indicated that the gravel was decontaminated with acceptable emission performance. It was concluded that the study will be valuable to the application of commercial incineration processes for the remediation of polluted soils. It was observed that the weathering of the oiled gravel lowered the rate of decontamination. A small amount of salt water resulted in lowered decontamination rates, which may be an important factor for situations involving the remediation of shoreline gravel contaminated by oil. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs

  4. Avoiding tar formation in biocoke production from waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrados, A.; De Marco, I.; Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, A.; Solar, J.; Caballero, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses in avoiding tar formation and in optimizing pyrolysis gas (maximizing H 2 and CO) in the production of biocoke from waste lignocellulosic biomass. In order to obtain metallurgical grade biochar (biocoke) slow heating rate and high temperature are required. Under such conditions useless pyrolysis liquids, mainly composed of water together with some heavy-sticky tars, are obtained. In order to make biocoke a cost-effective process it is necessary to optimize pyrolysis vapors avoiding tar formation and maximizing the amount and quality of both coke and gases. With this objective, in this work different heating rates (3–20 °C min −1 ) and catalysts (zeolite, Ni/CeO 2 –Al 2 O 3 ) have been tested in a two step pyrolysis process. Olive tree cuttings have been pyrolyzed in a 3.5 L batch reactor at 750 °C and the vapors generated have been thermally and catalytically treated at 900 °C in a second tubular reactor. About 25 wt.% biocoke useful as reducing agent in certain metallurgical processes, ≈57 wt.% gases with near 50 vol.% H 2 , and no tar production has been achieved when a heating rate of 3 °C min −1 and the homemade Ni/CeO 2 –Al 2 O 3 catalyst were used. - Highlights: • Metallurgical grade biochar was obtained by olive waste pyrolysis. • Low heating rates avoid tar formation and increase gas and biochar yields. • Ni/CeO 2 –Al 2 O 3 was better than HZSM5 zeolite for vapor upgrading in a second step. • Ni/CeO 2 –Al 2 O 3 and 3 °C min −1 gave the maximum H 2 , gas and biochar yields

  5. Ensamblajes urbanos: la TAR y el examen de la ciudad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Farías

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta nuevas perspectivas de investigación y desafíos analíticos que la teoría del actor-red (TAR abre para los estudios urbanos. En primer lugar, se revisan cómo los principios de relacionalidad híbrida y asociatividad plana de la TAR están siendo adoptados en los estudios urbanos para ampliar simétricamente la ecología urbana a no-humanos e impugnar concepciones escalares del espacio y economías urbanas. A continuación, se propone que la TAR trae consigo un desafío más fundamental relativo a la concepción de la ciudad como objeto de estudio. Mientras su comprensión habitual como objeto espacial, entidad político-económica y/o forma sociocultural subraya su carácter singular, estable y delimitado, la TAR permite pensar la ciudad como un objeto múltiple y decentrado. La noción de ensamblajes urbanos se introduce entonces para dar cuenta de la circulación y devenir de la ciudad en múltiples redes híbridas y translocales. El artículo concluye sopesando algunas de las consecuencias de este exámen de la ciudad, especialmente el reposicionamiento del problema de la complejidad, urbana en este caso, como punto, si no de partida, entonces al menos de llegada para la TAR.

  6. Monitoring of tar contents in gases. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Finn [ChimneyLab Europe ApS, Hadsten (Denmark); Houmann Jakobsen, H. [BioSynergi Proces ApS, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2012-08-15

    The purpose of this project is to develop and test a relative cheap and simple online tar measuring method, which can monitor the tar content in product gas from thermal gasification. The measuring principle is absorption of tar from sample gas in Isopropanol (IPA), and measuring on this solution by UV-spectrophotometer. Continuous sampling of tar containing producer gas turned out to be a larger problem than earlier foreseen. The best solution was decided to be sampling with higher flows, and afterwards cleaning the IPA in activated carbon. The ambitions for continuous sampling had to be decreased to 1 week, where the IPA and the activated carbon is contaminated by tar and has to be replaced. However this requires larger amounts of IPA and activated carbon. For IPA the weekly consumption was 12-15 Litres and for activated carbon 10 Litres. The whole analyzer unit turned out to be more complex than first projected, mainly because of the increased amounts of IPA. The best mist filter, with respect to pressure drop, efficiency and retention time is a combination of glass wool and quarts wool. The unit has been tested on gas; 20 kW pellets burner for 116 hours. Harbooere updraft gasifier for 519 hours. Skive fluid bed gasifier for 879 hours. There have during the project period been several simple practical problems such as bubbles in the IPA, increasing pressure drop over the activated carbon bed, dropout of UV data acquisition program and increasing baseline. The principle showed from the beginning some good results, with the limitation of 1 week continuous operation, but at the 5. period in Skive the baseline was increasing all the time, and it was not possible to solve this problem. (LN)

  7. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  8. Belt for picking up liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R B.H.; Nelson, S P

    1973-05-18

    This belt for picking up liquids consists of a layer of strong material, e.g., coarse cloth, sewed on at least one layer of absorbing material, e.g., sponge cloth, the stitching being disposed along chevrons with their apexes along the central axis of the belt; the edges do not contain any other marks. This arrangement facilitates the expulsion of the absorbed liquid when the belt passes between compression rollers.

  9. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  10. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  11. Chemical and physical characteristics of tar samples from selected Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripp, J.; Taylor, B.; Mauro, D.; Young, M.

    1993-05-01

    A multiyear, multidisciplinary project concerning the toxicity of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) tarry residues was initiated by EPRI under the Environmental Behavior of Organic Substances (EBOS) Program. This report concerns one portion of that work -- the collection and chemical characterization of tar samples from several former MGP sites. META Environmental, Inc. and Atlantic Environmental Services, Inc. were contracted by EPRI to collect several samples of tarry residues from former MGP sites with varied historical gas production processes and from several parts of the country. The eight tars collected during this program were physically very different. Some tars were fluid and easily pumped from existing wells, while other tars were thicker, semi-solid, or solid. Although care was taken to collect only tar, the nature of the residues at several sites made it impossible not to collect other material, such as soil, gravel, and plant matter. After the samples were collected, they were analyzed for 37 organic compounds, 8 metals, and cyanide. In addition, elemental analysis was performed on the tar samples for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen content and several physical/chemical properties were determined for each tar. The tars were mixed together in different batches and distributed to researchers for use in animal toxicity studies. The results of this work show that, although the tars were produced from different processes and stored in different manners, they had some chemical similarities. All of the tars, with the exception of one unusual solid tar, contained similar relative abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

  12. Effect of water addition in a microwave assisted thermal cracking of biomass tar models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warsita, Aris; Al-attab, K.A.; Zainal, Z.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effective tar thermal treatment with water addition using microwave is proposed. • The reactor temperature of 1200 °C can be reached quickly at bed height 120 mm. • The optimum water to tar ratio W/T was 0.3 for tar models. • Temperature greatly effect tar removal at various W/T rates. - Abstract: Producer gas from biomass gasification is plagued by the presence of tar which causes pipe blockages. Thermal and catalytic treatments in a microwave reactor have been shown to be effective methods in removing tar from producer gas. A question arises as to the possibility of enhancing the removal mechanism by adding water into the reactor. Toluene and naphthalene were used as tar models in the present study with N_2 as the carrier gas followed by the use of simulated producer gas. Thermal treatment with various amount of water was added at temperatures in the range of 800–1200 °C. The tar removal efficiency obtained 95.83% at the optimum temperature of 1200 °C for naphthalene in for toluene 96.32% at 1050 °C at water to tar ratio (W/T) of 0.3. This study shows that the removal of tar by microwave irradiation with water addition is a significant and effective method in tar cracking.

  13. The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low-tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low-tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low-tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low-tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low-tar theme and was included in the analysis. Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low-tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low-tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low-tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low-tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low-tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low-tar alternative brands. Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low-tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low-tar brands in the mid-1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low-tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low-tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low-tar brands. Over the past 30 years, the marketing of low-tar cigarettes as a healthier alternative to higher-tar cigarettes has resulted in these brands

  14. The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low‐tar cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2006-01-01

    Objective and hypothesis To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low‐tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low‐tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. Methods The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low‐tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low‐tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low‐tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low‐tar theme and was included in the analysis. Results Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low‐tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low‐tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low‐tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low‐tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low‐tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low‐tar alternative brands. Conclusions Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low‐tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low‐tar brands in the mid‐1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low‐tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low‐tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low‐tar brands. Over the past 30 years, the marketing of low‐tar

  15. Radiation Belt Test Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John W.

    2000-10-01

    Rice University has developed a dynamic model of the Earth's radiation belts based on real-time data driven boundary conditions and full adiabaticity. The Radiation Belt Test Model (RBTM) successfully replicates the major features of storm-time behavior of energetic electrons: sudden commencement induced main phase dropout and recovery phase enhancement. It is the only known model to accomplish the latter. The RBTM shows the extent to which new energetic electrons introduced to the magnetosphere near the geostationary orbit drift inward due to relaxation of the magnetic field. It also shows the effects of substorm related rapid motion of magnetotail field lines for which the 3rd adiabatic invariant is violated. The radial extent of this violation is seen to be sharply delineated to a region outside of 5Re, although this distance is determined by the Hilmer-Voigt magnetic field model used by the RBTM. The RBTM appears to provide an excellent platform on which to build parameterized refinements to compensate for unknown acceleration processes inside 5Re where adiabaticity is seen to hold. Moreover, built within the framework of the MSFM, it offers the prospect of an operational forecast model for MeV electrons.

  16. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  17. Quantitative analysis of phenol and alkylphenols in Brazilian coal tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Bastos Caramão

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in coal tar samples from a ceramics factory in Cocal (SC, Brazil. The samples were subjected to preparative scale liquid chromatography, using Amberlyst A-27TM ion-exchange resin as stationary phase. The fractions obtained were classified as "acids" and "BN" (bases and neutrals. The identification and quantification of phenols, in the acid fraction, was made by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Nearly twenty-five phenols were identified in the samples and nine of them were also quantified. The results showed that coal tar has large quantities of phenolic compounds of industrial interest.

  18. Hydrogen production from biomass tar by catalytic steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Jun; Choi, Young-Chan; Lee, Jae-Goo

    2010-01-01

    The catalytic steam reforming of model biomass tar, toluene being a major component, was performed at various conditions of temperature, steam injection rate, catalyst size, and space time. Two kinds of nickel-based commercial catalyst, the Katalco 46-3Q and the Katalco 46-6Q, were evaluated and compared with dolomite catalyst. Production of hydrogen generally increased with reaction temperature, steam injection rate and space time and decreased with catalyst size. In particular, zirconia-promoted nickel-based catalyst, Katalco 46-6Q, showed a higher tar conversion efficiency and shows 100% conversion even relatively lower temperature conditions of 600 deg. C. Apparent activation energy was estimated to 94 and 57 kJ/mol for dolomite and nickel-based catalyst respectively.

  19. Tar ball concentrations in the ocean around the Cape of Good Hope before and after a major oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eagle, G A; Green, A; Williams, J

    1979-11-01

    From August 1977 to August 1978, tar ball concentrations around the southwestern coast of South Africa were sampled. Prior to a tanker collision on December 16, 1977, the area was relatively free of floating tar. Following the collision, tar ball concentrations increased; tar was transported by wind and currents, at average speeds of about 1 km/hr. In areas of slack currents, tar was observed for as long as 8 months after the spill. Results provided information about surface current trends.

  20. Evaluation of different oxygen carriers for biomass tar reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiara, Teresa; Johansen, Joakim Myung; Utrilla, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    , in a concentration of 600–2000ppmv, was chosen as a tar model compound. Experiments were performed in a TGA apparatus and a fixed bed reactor. Four oxygen carriers (60% NiO/MgAl2O4 (Ni60), 40% NiO/NiAl2O4 (Ni40), 40% Mn3O4/Mg–ZrO2 (Mn40) and FeTiO3 (Fe)) were tested under alternating reducing/oxidizing cycles...

  1. Treatment of low-temperature tar-gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schick, F

    1928-07-04

    Process for the treating and conversion of low-temperature tar-vapor and gas mixtures in the presence of metals or metal oxides as well as bodies of large surface, without previous condensation of the liquid material to be treated, characterized by the treatment taking place with a mixture of desulfurizing metals and metal oxides which, if necessary, are precipitated on carriers and large surface nonmetal cracking catalysts, such as active carbon and silica gel.

  2. Cold Preparation of Heroin in a Black Tar Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexis M; Armenta, Richard F; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldshear, Jesse L; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Garfein, Richard S

    2017-07-29

    Black tar heroin is typically prepared for injection with heat which decreases the risk of HIV transmission by inactivating the virus. We received reports that persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, a black tar heroin market, were using only water to dissolve heroin. Because Tijuana abuts San Diego County, CA, United States, we undertook the present analyses to determine the prevalence of this practice among PWID in San Diego, California. PWID completed quarterly behavioral assessments and serological testing for blood-borne viruses. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess for individual, social, and structural correlates of preparing heroin without heat within the preceding 6 months. Nearly half of black tar heroin users (149/305) reported they had prepared heroin without heat within 6 months. In multivariable analysis, cold preparation was independently associated with younger age (10 year decrease; AOR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.03, 1.53), more drug injecting acquaintances (per 5 acquaintance increase; AOR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01, 1.09) and prefilled syringe use (injecting drugs from syringes that are already filled with drugs before purchase; AOR = 1.86; 95% CI 1.14, 3.02). Conclusions/Importance: To our knowledge, this is the first paper to report that PWID living in a black tar heroin market are preparing heroin without heat. Additional research is needed to determine whether this is an endemic practice or PWID are engaging in new forms of drug preparation in response to changes in the environment.

  3. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Pamela J; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L

    2010-05-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solvent refining of low-temperature tar with liquid ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, K

    1953-01-01

    The middle fractions of low-temperature tar were treated with mixed solutions of H/sub 2/O and liquid NH/sub 3/ at 0/sup 0/ and 20/sup 0/, and with liquid NH/sub 3/ at -10, 0, + 10, and 20/sup 0/, and phase equilibrium between tar acids, neutral oil, and solvents were studied. The distribution ratio ranged from less than 1 to greater than 1 when the solvent contained about 20 percent (by weight) H/sub 2/O. When the solvent contained less than 85 percent (by weight) NH/sub 3/, the yield of extract was small but the purity of phenols in the extracted oil was above 90 percent. Solvent containing about 85 percent NH/sub 3/ (by weight) is considered optimum for separating tar acids from oils. A novel definition is proposed for solvent selectivity as the difference between the concentration of the solute in the extract layer, on a solvent-free basis, and the concentration in the raffinate layer.

  5. Composition of coal tar from pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of Shenmu coal macerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q.; Li, W.; Chen, H.; Li, B. [Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan (China)

    2005-08-15

    To understand the relationship of the tar compositions and the coal macerals, the tars obtained from the pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of Shenmu coal macerals in a fixed-bed reactor were analysed using GC-MS. And the effects of petrographic component, atmosphere and pressure on the yield of aromatic hydrocarbon, phenols, hydrocarbons, oxygen-containing heterocycle and PAHs were systematically investigated. The results show that there is great difference in the composition and the relative content of long chain hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, oxygen-containing heterocycle and PAHs in tars from vitrinite and inertinite pyrolysis. Vitrinite tar contains high content of hydrocarbon with long chain, and inertinite tar contains high content of aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, oxygen-containing heterocycle and PAHs. It suggests that vitrinite has lower aromaticity and longer chain in its structure than inertinite, which is in well agreement with the result from {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR test. The tar yield of hydropyrolysis is higher than that of pyrolysis. With increasing the hydrogen pressure, the yield of tar increases greatly. The content of phenols and naphthalene in vitrinite tar form hydropyrolysis under 0.1 MPa is much lower than that form pyrolysis, while that of inertinite tar changes a little. The difference of tar compositions and relative content during pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis reflects the effect of hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions and the structure characteristics of the macerals. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  6. AUTOMATION OF CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Pelagic tar and plastic in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea: 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, D G

    1977-07-01

    Seventy-one tows of 740 m/sup 2/ each were made in search of pelagic tar and plastics in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea during the period October 1974 to October 1975. Tar was observed on nine occasions while plastics were found six times. The arithmetic mean value of tar abundance, 3.3 x 10/sup -3/ mg/m/sup 2/, is considerably lower than most other oceanic areas for which values have been reported. Gas chromatographic analysis of this tar indicates that it is more extensively weathered than tar from the north Atlantic. An estimate of the abundance of tar lumps too small to be sampled by net tows is made based on the assumption that there are equal weights of particles in logarithmetically equal size intervals. The abundance of pelagic plastics is also low.

  8. Bench-scale demonstration of treatment technologies for contaminated sediments in Sydney Tar Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchek, K.; Velicogna, D.; Punt, M.; Wong, B.; Weimer, L.; Tsangaris, A.; Brown, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to determine the capabilities of selected commercially available technologies for treating contaminated sediments from the South Pond of Sydney Tar Ponds. This study was conducted under the umbrella of a technology demonstration program aimed at evaluating technologies to be used in the remediation of such sediments. The following approach was proposed by SAIC Canada for the treatment of the sediments: (1) solvent extraction for the removal of organic contaminants, (2) acid/chelant leaching for the removal of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals, and (3) plasma hearth process for the destruction of toxic streams resulting from the first two processes. Solvent extraction followed by plasma treatment proved effective for removing and destroying organic contaminants. The removal of metals did not achieve the expected results through leaching. An approach was proposed for treating those sediments based on the results of the study. The approach differed depending on the level of organic content. An assessment of associated process costs for both a pilot-scale field demonstration and a full-scale treatment was provided. 11 tabs., 4 figs

  9. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported

  10. Contact sensitivity to newsprint: a rare manifestation of coal tar allergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illchyshyn, A; Cartwright, P H; Smith, A G

    1987-07-01

    Contact dermatitis due to coal tar is infrequently reported in spite of the fact that it consists of a mixture of 10,000 constituents, and is still often used to treat both eczema and psoriasis. Discusses patient with coal tar sensitivity in whom the source of exacerbation of her dermatitis is shown to be newsprint, a common product containing coal tar-derived material. 6 refs.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  12. Modelling the low-tar BIG process; Modellering af low-tar BIG processen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Lars Henrik

    2002-09-15

    This report describes the possibilities of integrating a biomass gasifier in a combined heat and power plant. The purpose of the study is, among others, to see if the gasification technology can challenge existing heat and power production methods. A research programme dealing with the construction of a low far gasifier (LT-BIG), which easily can be scaled to large gasification plants, is in progress. This report also contains a model formulation and implementation for this suggested low tar gasifier. All the models are created by the use of the energy simulation tool DNA. For some cases it has been necessary to develop new components or to alter existing components in DNA. Three different systems are considered; Gas Engine, Simple Cycle Gas Turbine and Combined Cycle. When biomass with and lower heating value of 19 MJ/kg and a moisture content of 50% is employed the subsequent results and designs are achieved: 1) The Engine plant utilizes the hot flue-gas to dry the biomass, but has difficulties taking advantage of the potential energy from the cooling of the syngas. An engine with a net electric efficiency of 40% at full load is computed to convert 38,5% of the energy content in the biomass to electricity. 2) The Simple Cycle Gas Turbine plant has good potential for integration with a gasifier. It dries the biomass by means of the flue-gas and recuperates the energy from the hot syngas to preheat the pressurised gas before it enters the combustion chamber. With an isentropic efficiency of 89% and a pressure ratio of 20, an electric efficiency of 38% is computed. 3) The Combined Cycle plant almost reach a computed efficiency of 45%. It utilises the cooling of the hot syngas to produce extra steam for the cycle, which results in a very steady efficiency, even when the moisture content of the fuel is changed. A grand parametric and sensitivity study of the LT-BIG model is carried out. The study includes estimates of the air demand for the gasifier and the partial

  13. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  14. Assessment of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving facility in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, during 1918-72 contaminated ground water with coal-tar derivatives and inorganic chemicals. Coal-tar derivatives entered the groundwater system through three major paths: (1) Spills and drippings that percolated to the water table, (2) surface runoff and plant process water that was discharged to wetlands south of the former plant site, and (3) movement of coal tar directly into bedrock aquifers through a multiaquifer well on the site.

  15. Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

  16. Dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after hairwash with coal-tar shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooten, F.-J. van; Moonen, E.J.C.; Rhijnsburger, E.; Agen, B. van; Thijssen, H.H.W.; Kleinjans, J.C.S. [University of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology

    1994-11-26

    Describes an experiment to assess the dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after hairwashing with coal tar antidandruff shampoo. The urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P), a PAH metabolile was used to assess internal dose of PAH. A single use of coal tar shampoo resulted in increased 1-OH-P excretion in all members of the experimental group compared with the control group using a non-coal tar antidandruff shampoo. It is suggested that repeated use of coal tar shampoo would result in a high internal dose of carcinogenic PAH. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Study on tar generated from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study.

  18. Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Mekbib Atnaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3 in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study.

  19. Identification of sources of tar balls deposited along the Goa coast, India, using fingerprinting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suneel, V.; Vethamony, P.; Zakaria, M.P.; Naik, B.G.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This is first fingerprinting study in India on identification of source of tar balls. ► Tar balls were formed from tanker-wash spills and they resemble floating tar ball. ► δ 13 C values of Bombay High crude oil and the present tar balls do not match. ► Compound specific stable carbon isotope analysis confirmed the source of tar balls. ► Source is confirmed as the South East Asian Crude Oil and not the Bombay High crude. -- Abstract: Deposition of tar balls along the coast of Goa, India is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon. Representative tar ball samples collected from various beaches of Goa and one Bombay High (BH) crude oil sample were subjected to fingerprint analysis based on diagnostic ratios of n-alkane, biomarkers of pentacyclic tri-terpanes and compound specific stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C) analysis to confirm the source. The results were compared with the published data of Middle East Crude Oil (MECO) and South East Asian Crude Oil (SEACO). The results revealed that the tar balls were from tanker-wash derived spills. The study also confirmed that the source is not the BH, but SEACO. The present study suggests that the biomarkers of alkanes and hopanes coupled with stable carbon isotope analysis act as a powerful tool for tracing the source of tar balls, particularly when the source specific biomarkers fail to distinguish the source

  20. Mobile belt conveyor

    OpenAIRE

    Tenora, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce je návrh pásového dopravníku pro přepravu drobného kameniva, zeminy a drobné stavební sutě s dopravním výkonem 60 t/h, výškovým rozdílem 3,5 m a vzdáleností mezi osami bubnů 8 m. Tato práce obsahuje také popis základních částí pásového dopravníku, funkční výpočty podle normy ČSN ISO 5048, návrh hlavních rozměrů dopravníku a pohonu. Celá práce se skládá z technické zprávy a výkresové dokumentace. The aim of this word is to design belt conveyor to transport tiny aggreg...

  1. Emission of Methane and Heavier Alkanes From the La Brea Tar Pits Seepage Area, Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiope, G.; Doezema, L. A.; Pacheco, C.

    2017-11-01

    Natural hydrocarbon (oil and gas) seeps are widespread in Los Angeles, California, due to gas migration, along faults, from numerous subsurface petroleum fields. These seeps may represent important natural contributors of methane (CH4) and heavier alkanes (C2-C4) to the atmosphere, in addition to anthropogenic fossil fuel and biogenic sources. We measured the CH4 flux by closed-chamber method from the La Brea Tar Pits park (0.1 km2), one of the largest seepage sites in Los Angeles. The gas seepage occurs throughout the park, not only from visible oil-asphalt seeps but also diffusely from the soil, affecting grass physiology. About 500 kg CH4 d-1 is emitted from the park, especially along a belt of enhanced degassing that corresponds to the 6th Street Fault. Additional emissions are from bubble plumes in the lake within the park (order of 102-103 kg d-1) and at the intersection of Wilshire Boulevard and Curson Avenue (>130 kg d-1), along the same fault. The investigated area has the highest natural gas flux measured thus far for any onshore seepage zone in the USA. Gas migration, oil biodegradation, and secondary methanogenesis altered the molecular composition of the original gas accumulated in the Salt Lake Oil Field (>300 m deep), leading to high C1/C2+ and i-butane/n-butane ratios. These molecular alterations can be important tracers of natural seepage and should be considered in the atmospheric modeling of the relative contribution of fossil fuel (anthropogenic fugitive emission and natural geologic sources) versus biogenic sources of methane, on local and global scales.

  2. Structural and dynamic characterization of the upper part of the HIV-1 cTAR DNA hairpin

    OpenAIRE

    Zargarian, Loussin?; Kanevsky, Igor; Bazzi, Ali; Boynard, Jonathan; Chaminade, Fran?oise; Foss?, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    First strand transfer is essential for HIV-1 reverse transcription. During this step, the TAR RNA hairpin anneals to the cTAR DNA hairpin; this annealing reaction is promoted by the nucleocapsid protein and involves an initial loop?loop interaction between the apical loops of TAR and cTAR. Using NMR and probing methods, we investigated the structural and dynamic properties of the top half of the cTAR DNA (mini-cTAR). We show that the upper stem located between the apical and the internal loop...

  3. General toxic effects of shale tars on the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, H; Sillam, A

    1972-01-01

    Of 115 workers in close contact with oil shale tars, 80 percent complained of headache, fatigue, and stomach aches. Vegetative dystonia, asthenovegetative, or asthenic syndromes were diagnosed in 32 percent of the cases. An excessive excretion of free phenols was found in the urine of 13 percent of the patients and an excess of sulfates and coproporphyrin in 27 and 29 percent, respectively. The statistical analysis of clinical data indicates a relation to biochemical changes. The immunological reactivity studies showed that in 60 percent of the cases the immunological resistance decreased markedly.

  4. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  5. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted.

  6. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Acute toxicity of birch tar oil on aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HAGNER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch tar oil (BTO is a by-product of processing birch wood in a pyrolysis system. Accumulating evidence suggests the suitability of BTO as a biocide or repellent in terrestrial environments for the control of weeds, insects, molluscs and rodents. Once applied as biocide, BTO may end up, either through run-off or leaching, in aquatic systems and may have adverse effects on non-target organisms. As very little is known about the toxicity of BTO to aquatic organisms, the present study investigated acute toxicity (LC50/EC50 of BTO for eight aquatic organisms. Bioassays with the Asellus aquaticus (crustacean, Lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaeta worm, Daphnia magna (crustacean, Lymnea sp. (mollusc, Lemna minor (vascular plant, Danio rerio (fish, Scenedesmus gracilis (algae, and Vibrio fischeri (bacterium were performed according to ISO, OECD or USEPA-guidelines. The results indicated that BTO was practically nontoxic to most aquatic organisms as the median effective BTO concentrations against most organisms were >150 mg L-1. In conclusion, our toxicity tests showed that aquatic organisms are to some extent, invariably sensitive to birch tar oil, but suggest that BTO does not pose a severe hazard to aquatic biota. We deduce that, unless BTOs are not applied in the immediate vicinity of water bodies, no special precaution is required.;

  8. Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  9. No Increased Risk of Cancer after Coal Tar Treatment in Patients with Psoriasis or Eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofzen, Judith H. J.; Aben, Katja K. H.; Oldenhof, Ursula T. H.; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Alkemade, Hans A.; van de Kerkhof, Peter C. M.; van der Valk, Pieter G. M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.

    Coal tar is an effective treatment for psoriasis and eczema, but it contains several carcinogenic compounds. Occupational and animal studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after exposure to coal tar. Many dermatologists have abandoned this treatment for safety reasons, although the risk of

  10. 77 FR 48431 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Pamlico and Tar Rivers; Washington, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... near the Pamlico and Tar Rivers to commemorate Beaufort County's 300th anniversary. The temporary... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Pamlico and Tar Rivers; Washington, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on...

  11. Biomass Gasifier ''Tars'': Their Nature, Formation, and Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, T. A.; Evans, R. J. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Abatzaglou, N. (Kemestrie, Inc.)

    1998-11-01

    The main purpose of this review is to update the information on gasification tar, the most cumbersome and problematic parameter in any gasification commercialization effort. The work aims to present to the community the scientific and practical aspects of tar formation and conversion (removal) during gasification as a function of the various technological and technical parameters and variables.

  12. Tar removal from biomass derived fuel gas by pulsed corona discharges: chemical kinetic study II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, S.A.; Yan, K.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tar (heavy hydrocarbon or poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)) removal from biomass derived fuel gas is one of the biggest obstacles in its utilization for power generation. We have investigated pulsed corona as a method for tar removal. Our previous experimental results indicate the energy consumption

  13. Solid state 13 C NMR quantitative study of wood tar pitches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prauchner, Marcos Juliano; Pasa, Vanya Marcia Duarte; Menezes, Sonia Maria Cabral de

    1999-01-01

    In this work, solid-state 13 C NMR is used with other techniques to characterize Eucalyptus tar pitches and to follow their polymerization reactions. The pitches are the residues of distillation (about 50% m;m) of the tar generated in Eucalyptus slow pyrolysis for charcoal production in metal industry

  14. Simulation of Trajectories of Tar Ball Transport to the Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suneel, V.; Vethamony, P.; VinodKumar, K.; Babu, M.T.; Prasad, V.S.R.

    Arrival of tar balls to the Goa coast during pre- and southwest monsoon seasons has been a regular phenomenon in the past few years. In one such event, we observed tar ball deposits along the Goa coast during August 2010, April 2011 and May 2011...

  15. Estimating release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar at manufactured-gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, R.C.; Rao, P.S.C.; Lee, L.S.; Okuda, I.

    1992-08-01

    One component of the EPRI's research on Envirorunental Behavior of Organic Substances (EBOS) consists of developing information and models to predict releases of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs) to groundwater from coal tars and contaminated soils at MGP sites. The results of this report focus primarily on release of PAHs from coal tars. There are at least two approaches to predicting the release of organic chemicals from coal tar to water. The simplest method to estimate aqueous concentrations is to assume that water solubility of a PAH compound released from the tar can be defined by equilibrium precipitation-dissolution reactions. Application of Raoult's law is another method to predict aqueous concentrations, which requires the assumption of ''ideal'' behavior for partitioning of PAHs between the tar and water phases. To evaluate the applicability of these two methods for predicting PAH releases, laboratory experiments were conducted with eight coal tar samples from former MGP sites across the country. Migration of chemicals in the environment and resulting contaminant plumes in groundwater are determined by leachate concentrations of the chemicals. The use of equilibrium precipitation-dissolution reactions will usually result in an overestimation of PAH concentrations in the leachate from a coal tar source, and thus the resulting PAH concentrations in groundwater. Raoult's law appears to be a more accurate approach to predicting the release of several PAHs from coal tars. Furthermore, if nonequilibrium conditions prevail, aqueous-phase PAH concentrations will be even lower than those predicted using Raoult's law

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1102 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.1102 Section 1926.1102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Hazardous Substances § 1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The requirements...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1915.1002 Section 1915.1002 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1915.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. Note: The...

  18. Recovery of very viscous lubricating oils from shale-tar, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, E

    1919-09-10

    Modification of the process covered by German Patent 335,190 for recovering very viscous lubricating oils, consisting, in place of brown-coal tar, deparafinned peat tar being subjected to the treatment with superheated steam from about 200 to 250/sup 0/C or to heating in vacuum at a temperature below 250/sup 0/C.

  19. Canada's oil sands: nuclear power in an integrated energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the role of nuclear power in Canada's oil sands industry. It outlines the oil sands resource in Alberta and the various industrial projects to recover the oil from the tar sands. It points to continuing innovation in technology since the 1930's. The hydrogen required for upgrading bitumen is made from natural gas. Finally, it discusses the next wave of oil sands production technologies.

  20. Enclosed belts in the ascendancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Although there will always be a place for traditional overland belt conveyors, enclosed belt systems are increasingly being specified where environmental protection assumes high priority or where there is a need to protect material from the weather. The article reports on recent conveyor projects such as: an MRC cable Belt in a 6.4 km system to carry coal in the Appalachian Mountains; a $40 m contract awarded to FL Smidth to supply an integrated coal handling system to LILIAMA in Vietnam and other contracts to handle coal for India's Coastal Gujarat Power; and a contract awarded to Bateman Engineered Technologies to supply a 7 km Japan Pipe Conveyor for a coal power station in Brazil. 3 photos.

  1. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  2. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  3. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  4. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  6. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  7. Opening of the TAR hairpin in the HIV-1 genome causes aberrant RNA dimerization and packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Atze T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TAR hairpin is present at both the 5′ and 3′ end of the HIV-1 RNA genome. The 5′ element binds the viral Tat protein and is essential for Tat-mediated activation of transcription. We recently observed that complete TAR deletion is allowed in the context of an HIV-1 variant that does not depend on this Tat-TAR axis for transcription. Mutations that open the 5′ stem-loop structure did however affect the leader RNA conformation and resulted in a severe replication defect. In this study, we set out to analyze which step of the HIV-1 replication cycle is affected by this conformational change of the leader RNA. Results We demonstrate that opening the 5′ TAR structure through a deletion in either side of the stem region caused aberrant dimerization and reduced packaging of the unspliced viral RNA genome. In contrast, truncation of the TAR hairpin through deletions in both sides of the stem did not affect RNA dimer formation and packaging. Conclusions These results demonstrate that, although the TAR hairpin is not essential for RNA dimerization and packaging, mutations in TAR can significantly affect these processes through misfolding of the relevant RNA signals.

  8. Chemical-composition studies of low-temperature-carbonization coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edel' shtein, N G; Lanin, V A

    1955-01-01

    Pintsch-oven low-temperature tar was separated into its constituents by conventional methods, and the average of 2 results was neutral asphaltenes 12.56, basic asphaltenes 2.61, acid asphaltenes 18.82, phenols 13.23, bases 2.31, neutral oil 17.66, crystalline paraffins 7.34, silica-gel tars (I) (benzene extract) 15.40, I (acetone extract) 2.47, carbenes 0.45, and carbides and dust 1.44%. The low-temperature-tar asphaltenes and tars differ from shale-oil tars by being lower in C and higher in H, with a considerably higher C:H ratio. Their specific gravity is somewhat higher, and they are cyclic in structure. The asphaltenes and silica-gel tars of coal tar and shale oil were hydrogenated, molecular weights d/sub 4//sup 20/ and n/sub 4//sup 20/ of the separated compounds were determined, and empirical formulas of the hydrogenated compounds calculated. The neutral oil was separated into saturated, intermediate (iodine number 23), unsaturated (iodine number 51), a small quantity of a mixture of unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and 44.9% aromatic hydrocarbons. While naphthenes seem to be predominantly present in the neutral-oil fraction of shale oil, aromatic hydrocarbons are predominant in coal oil.

  9. Sampling of tar from sewage sludge gasification using solid phase adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Hervás, José Ma

    2012-06-01

    Sewage sludge is a residue from wastewater treatment plants which is considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Gasification technology is a potential source of renewable energy that converts the sewage sludge into gases that can be used to generate energy or as raw material in chemical synthesis processes. But tar produced during gasification is one of the problems for the implementation of the gasification technology. Tar can condense on pipes and filters and may cause blockage and corrosion in the engines and turbines. Consequently, to minimize tar content in syngas, the ability to quantify tar levels in process streams is essential. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate tar sampling and analysis methodology using solid phase adsorption (SPA) in order to apply it to tar sampling from sewage sludge gasification gases. Four types of commercial SPA cartridges have been tested to determine the most suitable one for the sampling of individual tar compounds in such streams. Afterwards, the capacity, breakthrough volume and sample stability of the Supelclean™ ENVI-Carb/NH(2), which is identified as the most suitable, have been determined. Basically, no significant influences from water, H(2)S or NH(3) were detected. The cartridge was used in sampling real samples, and comparable results were obtained with the present and traditional methods.

  10. Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from central California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Tar residues are common on the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy ({sup 13}C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range ({delta}{sup 13}C = {minus}22.2 to {minus}23.4{per{underscore}thousand}), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

  11. A review of the primary measures for tar elimination in biomass gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Lopamudra; Ptasinski, K.J.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Tar formation is one of the major problems to deal with during biomass gasification. Tar condenses at reduced temperature, thus blocking and fouling process equipments such as engines and turbines. Considerable efforts have been directed on tar removal from fuel gas. Tar removal technologies can broadly be divided into two approaches; hot gas cleaning after the gasifier (secondary methods), and treatments inside the gasifier (primary methods). Although secondary methods are proven to be effective, treatments inside the gasifier are gaining much attention as these may eliminate the need for downstream cleanup. In primary treatment, the gasifier is optimized to produce a fuel gas with minimum tar concentration. The different approaches of primary treatment are (a) proper selection of operating parameters, (b) use of bed additive/catalyst, and (c) gasifier modifications. The operating parameters such as temperature, gasifying agent, equivalence ratio, residence time, etc. play an important role in formation and decomposition of tar. There is a potential of using some active bed additives such as dolomite, olivine, char, etc. inside the gasifier. Ni-based catalyst are reported to be very effective not only for tar reduction, but also for decreasing the amount of nitrogenous compounds such as ammonia. Also, reactor modification can improve the quality of the product gas. The concepts of two-stage gasification and secondary air injection in the gasifier are of prime importance. Some aspects of primary methods and the research and development in this area are reviewed and cited in the present paper

  12. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part C. Heterocyclic and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The tar compositions varied depending on many factors such as the temperature of production and the type of retort used. For this reason a comprehensive database of the compounds found in different tar types is of value to understand both how their compositions differ and what potential chemical hazards are present. This study focuses on the heterocyclic and hydroxylated compounds present in a database produced from 16 different tars from five different production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatized post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatized samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 865 heterocyclic compounds and 359 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in 16 tar samples produced by five different processes. The contents of both heterocyclic and hydroxylated PAHs varied greatly with the production process used, with the heterocyclic compounds giving information about the feedstock used. Of the 359 hydroxylated PAHs detected the majority would not have been be detected without the use of derivatization. Coal tars produced using different production processes and feedstocks yielded tars with significantly different heterocyclic and hydroxylated contents. The concentrations of the individual heterocyclic compounds varied greatly even within the different production processes and provided information about the feedstock used to produce the tars. The hydroxylated PAH content of the samples provided important analytical information that would otherwise not have been obtained without the use of derivatization and GCxGC/TOFMS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Carbazole is a naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and inflammation isolated from antipsoriatic coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack L. Arbiser; Baskaran Govindarajan; Traci E. Battle; Rebecca Lynch; David A. Frank; Masuko Ushio-Fukai; Betsy N. Perry; David F. Stern; G. Tim Bowden; Anquan Liu; Eva Klein; Pawel J. Kolodziejski; N. Tony Eissa; Chowdhury F. Hossain; Dale G. Nagle [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States). Department of Dermatology

    2006-06-15

    Coal tar is one of the oldest and an effective treatment for psoriasis. Coal tar has been directly applied to the skin, or used in combination with UV light as part of the Goeckerman treatment. The use of coal tar has caused long-term remissions in psoriasis, but has fallen out of favor because the treatment requires hospitalization and coal tar is poorly acceptable aesthetically to patients. Thus, determining the active antipsoriatic component of coal tar is of considerable therapeutic interest. We fractionated coal tar into its components, and tested them using the SVR angiogenesis inhibitor assay. Treatment of SVR endothelial cells with coal tar fractions resulted in the isolation of a single fraction with antiangiogenic activity. The active antiangiogenic compound in coal tar is carbazole. In addition to antiangiogenic activity, carbazole inhibited the production of inflammatory IL-15 by human mononuclear cells. IL-15 is elevated in psoriasis and is thought to contribute to psoriatic inflammation. Carbazole treatment also reduced activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is proinflammatory and elevated in psoriasis. The effect of carbazole on upstream pathways in human psoriasis was determined, and carbazole was shown to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (stat)3-mediated transcription, which has been shown to be relevant in human psoriasis. IL-15, iNOS, and stat3 activation require the activation of the small GTPase rac for optimal activity. Carbazole was found to inhibit rac activation as a mechanism for its inhibition of downstream inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. Given its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, carbazole is likely a major component of the antipsoriatic activity of coal tar. Carbazole and derivatives may be useful in the therapy of human psoriasis.

  14. World War II, The CANOL project and the Marwell Tar Pit: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolsky, H.

    2000-01-01

    . The Marwell tar pit is just one example of several contaminated military sites in northern Canada. Former DEW Line sites, pipeline routes and pumping stations, construction and maintenance camps and dumps of all types of hazardous materials are constant reminders of the serious pollution problems resulting from wartime haste and cold war politics. 4 photos

  15. The Legend of Hot Tar or Pitch as a Defensive Weapon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    research. In reality, this way of fighting can only be seen as a legend, i.e. a story with only a relative truth at its core. This paper will examine the origin of this historical tradition and its archaeological and architectural sources. The chemical and physical properties of tar pitch and its...... production and use during the Middle Ages will be discussed with special focus on the application of tar pitch as an ingredient in medieval and post-medieval thermal weapons (especially Greek Fire, the firebomb and the fire arrow). The punishment of tarring and feathering will also be considered...

  16. A role for nuclear energy in the recovery of oil from the tar sands of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttagunta, V.R.; Sochaski, R.O.; Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-12-01

    Techniques of oil recovery from the tar sands and the energy requirements of this operation are described. Fossil fuels, and CANDU reactors are examined as competitive sources of energy for the tar sands plants. The CANDU-OCR reactor appears to have the necessary flexibility to fit into many of the possible methods of recovering oil from the tar sands. Cost comparisons of fossil and nuclear sources show that, for the supply of process steam, the nuclear source is competitive under the criteria of debt financing or low discount rates on capital, continued escalation, and long plant capital write-off period. (author)

  17. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  18. ASA24-Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  19. Tar removal from biosyngas in the biomass gasification process. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium {water + solvent (paraxylene and methyl hexadecanoate) + model molecules of tar (benzene, toluene, phenol)}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassil, Georgio; Mokbel, Ilham; Abou Naccoul, Ramy; Stephan, Juliette; Jose, Jacques; Goutaudier, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► (Liquid + liquid) equilibria at atmospheric pressure. ► Solubility of benzene (or toluene or phenol) in paraxylene at (303 to 343) K. ► Solubility of benzene (or toluene or phenol) in methyl palmitate or methyl hexadecanoate at (303 to 343) K. ► Correlation of LLE using NRTL model. - Abstract: Tar is generated in the process by the condensation of the gas resulting from biomass gasification. The objective of this work is a contribution to the database on thermodynamic quantity which will be useful at the operation of tar removal from aqueous medium. With this aim, (liquid + liquid) equilibrium of {water + solvent (paraxylene and methyl hexadecanoate) + model molecules of tar (benzene, toluene, phenol)} was studied at temperatures (303.2, 323.2, and 343.2) K. The data obtained were correlated with the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model.

  20. Gc/ms analysis of coal tar composition produced from coal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coal pyrolysis is one of the significant approaches for the comprehensive utilization ... planigraphy-GC/MS; therefore a satisfactory analytical result obtained, which .... Among the aliphatic group of the coal tar, the proportion of alkene is larger ...

  1. Secondary reactions of tar during thermochemical biomass conversion[Dissertation 14341

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morf, P.O.

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich presents and discusses the results obtained during the examination of the processes involved in the formation and conversion of tar in biomass gasification plant. Details are given on the laboratory reactor system used to provide separated tar production and conversion for the purposes of the experiments carried out. The results of analyses made of the tar and the gaseous products obtained after its conversion at various temperatures are presented. The development of kinetic models using the results of the experiments that were carried out is described. The results of the experiments and modelling are compared with the corresponding results obtained using a full-scale down-draft, fixed-bed gasifier. The author is of the opinion that the reaction conditions found in full-scale gasifiers can be well simulated using heterogeneous tar conversion experiments using the lab reactor system.

  2. Characterisation and catalytic upgrading of tars from coal-tyre hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Murillo, R.; Callen, M.S.; Garcia, T. [Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Tars from coal-tyre hydropyrolysis obtained in a swept fixed bed reactor were upgraded with catalysts. Upgraded oils were characterized, and naphtha, kerosene, gas oil, heavy gas oil and vacuum residue percentages were quantified. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. 48 CFR 1201.301-70 - Amendment of (TAR) 48 CFR chapter 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) 48 CFR chapter 12 is maintained by the SPE through the TAR/TAM change process. This process consists... (C) To issue guidance which may be effective for a period of 1 year or less. (ii) Each TN will expire...

  4. Research and information needs for management of tar sands development. Interim report Apr-May 83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    The report discusses important research and information needs for federal lease management of lands with tar sands resources. Short-term needs include more complete definition and characterization of deposits, hydrology, and regions downwind from tar sands areas. Longer-term needs include demonstration-scale operations to resolve production, waste management, and reclamation problems and to provide opportunities for measurement, analysis, and assessment of mining and processing wastes and emissions. Most of the known federal tar sands resource is in eastern Utah and contains about 25 billion barrels of bitumen. Recent legislation provides that existing mining claims and oil and gas leases may be converted to combined hydrocarbon leases including tar sands. Federal approval, which must be applied for by November 1983, is a condition for conversion.

  5. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)

  6. Relevance of carbon structure to formation of tar and liquid alkane during coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Le, Jiawei; Wang, Lanlan; Pan, Tieying; Lu, Xilan; Zhang, Dexiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Curve-fitting method was used to quantify the accurate contents of structural carbon. • Effect of carbon structure in coal with different rank on formation of pyrolysis tar was studied. • Numerical interrelation between carbon types in coal structure and tar yield is elaborated. • Effect of carbon structure on formation of liquid alkane during coal pyrolysis is discussed. - Abstract: The relevance of carbon structure to formation of tar and liquid alkane during coal pyrolysis were discussed extensively. The pyrolysis tests were carried out in a tube reactor at 873 K and keep 15 min. The carbon distribution in coals was investigated by solid state "1"3C nuclear magnetic resonance (N.M.R.). The curve-fitting method was used to quantify the accurate contents of structural carbon. The alkanes in coal tar were analyzed by Gas Chromatograph–Mass Spectrometer (GC–MS). The results show that oxygen-linked aromatic carbon decreases with the increasing of coal rank. The aliphatic carbon contents of Huainan (HN) coal are 44.20%, the highest among the four coals. The carbon types in coal structure have a significant influence on the formation of tar and liquid alkane. The coal tar yields are related to the aliphatic substituted aromatic carbon, CH_2/CH_3 ratio and oxygen-linked carbon in coal so that the increasing order of tar yield is Inner Mongolia lignite (IM, 6.30 wt.%) < Sinkiang coal (SK, 7.55 wt.%) < Shenmu coal (SM, 12.84 wt.%) < HN (16.29 wt.%). The highest contents of oxygen-linked aromatic carbon in IM lead to phenolic compound of 41.06% in IM-tar. The contents of alkane in SM-tar are the highest because the appropriate CH_2/CH_3 ratio and the highest aliphatic side chains on aromatic rings in SM leading to generate aliphatic hydrocarbon with medium molecular weight easily. The mechanism on formation of tar and liquid alkane plays an important role in guiding the industrialization of pyrolysis-based poly-generation producing tar with high

  7. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  8. Parallels between playbacks and Pleistocene tar seeps suggest sociality in an extinct sabretooth cat, Smilodon

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone, Chris; Maddox, Tom; Funston, Paul J.; Mills, Michael G.L.; Grether, Gregory F.; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2008-01-01

    Inferences concerning the lives of extinct animals are difficult to obtain from the fossil record. Here we present a novel approach to the study of extinct carnivores, using a comparison between fossil records (n=3324) found in Late Pleistocene tar seeps at Rancho La Brea in North America and counts (n=4491) from playback experiments used to estimate carnivore abundance in Africa. Playbacks and tar seep deposits represent competitive, potentially dangerous encounters where multiple predators ...

  9. Criteria for selection of dolomites and catalysts for tar elimination from biomass gasification gas. Kinetic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J; Narvaez, I; Orio, A [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chem. Eng.

    1997-12-31

    Calcined dolomites and commercial steam reforming catalysts are used downstream biomass gasifiers for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. To further compare these solids under a rigorous basis, a reaction network and a kinetic model are presented. The apparent kinetic constant for the tar reduction is here proposed as a basis of comparison. Tar sampling and analysis, and the units used for the space-time in the catalytic reactor affect the kinetic constants observed. (author) (2 refs.)

  10. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  11. Criteria for selection of dolomites and catalysts for tar elimination from biomass gasification gas. Kinetic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Narvaez, I.; Orio, A. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chem. Eng.

    1996-12-31

    Calcined dolomites and commercial steam reforming catalysts are used downstream biomass gasifiers for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. To further compare these solids under a rigorous basis, a reaction network and a kinetic model are presented. The apparent kinetic constant for the tar reduction is here proposed as a basis of comparison. Tar sampling and analysis, and the units used for the space-time in the catalytic reactor affect the kinetic constants observed. (author) (2 refs.)

  12. Inhaled smoke volume and puff indices with cigarettes of different tar and nicotine levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodman, G.; Newman, S.P.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Ten asymptomatic smokers each smoked a low, low-to-middle and a middle tar cigarette with approximately the same tar-to-nicotine ratio, in a randomised order. The inhaled smoke volume was measured by tracing the smoke with the inert gas 81 Kr m . Puffing indices were recorded using an electronic smoking analyser and flowhead/cigarette holder. Throughout the study neither the mean inhaled smoke volume per puff nor the total inhaled smoke volume per cigarette changed significantly; however, the mean and total puff volumes were largest with the low tar cigarette and decreased with the higher tar brands. Puff volume was related to puff work (r s =0.83,P s =0.10,P>0.1). It is concluded that when switched between brands with the same tar-to-nicotine ratio, smokers increase their puff volumes with a lower tar cigarette but do not change the volume of smoke inhaled. Puff work and puff resistance were significantly correlated (r s =0.45,P<0.02). (author)

  13. Influence of cigarette filter ventilation on smokers' mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraway, John W; Ashley, Madeleine; Bowman, Sheri A; Chen, Peter; Errington, Graham; Prasad, Krishna; Nelson, Paul R; Shepperd, Christopher J; Fearon, Ian M

    2017-12-01

    Cigarette filter ventilation allows air to be drawn into the filter, diluting the cigarette smoke. Although machine smoking reveals that toxicant yields are reduced, it does not predict human yields. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cigarette filter ventilation and mouth level exposure (MLE) to tar and nicotine in cigarette smokers. We collated and reviewed data from 11 studies across 9 countries, in studies performed between 2005 and 2013 which contained data on MLE from 156 products with filter ventilation between 0% and 87%. MLE among 7534 participants to tar and nicotine was estimated using the part-filter analysis method from spent filter tips. For each of the countries, MLE to tar and nicotine tended to decrease as filter ventilation increased. Across countries, per-cigarette MLE to tar and nicotine decreased as filter ventilation increased from 0% to 87%. Daily MLE to tar and nicotine also decreased across the range of increasing filter ventilation. These data suggest that on average smokers of highly ventilated cigarettes are exposed to lower amounts of nicotine and tar per cigarette and per day than smokers of cigarettes with lower levels of ventilation. Copyright © 2017 British American Tobacco. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental and theoretical evaluation of the performance of a tar solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammari, H.D.; Nimir, Y.L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental and theoretical evaluation of the performance of a tar solar water heater and comparison with that of a conventional type collector. The performance of both collectors is assessed under the same conditions. Both of the collectors have the same surface area and are glazed. The conventional type has the water tubes welded to the absorber plate, whereas in the tar type, the tar acts as an absorber plate that covers the water tubes. The theoretical model for each collector type, with the transient effects taken into account, is based on a control volume and a time base in the related energy equations. By considering a small element of the collector in each case, three partial differential equations were developed for each collector and were solved numerically by the Runge-Kutta method of the fifth order. A good agreement was achieved between the numerical and experimental results for both the conventional and tar collectors, indicating the feasibility of employing the theoretical model in the design of flat plate solar collectors. The results also showed that the conventional collector is more efficient than the tar type during most of the daylight, but the tar collector had the added advantage of better conservation of energy in late afternoon and evening

  15. Deciphering structure-activity relationships in a series of Tat/TAR inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Lise; González, Alejandro López; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Gaysinski, Marc; Teixido Closa, Jordi; Tejedor, Roger Estrada; Azoulay, Stéphane; Patino, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    A series of pentameric "Polyamide Amino Acids" (PAAs) compounds derived from the same trimeric precursor have been synthesized and investigated as HIV TAR RNA ligands, in the absence and in the presence of a Tat fragment. All PAAs bind TAR with similar sub-micromolar affinities but their ability to compete efficiently with the Tat fragment strongly differs, IC50 ranging from 35 nM to >2 μM. While NMR and CD studies reveal that all PAA interact with TAR at the same site and induce globally the same RNA conformational change upon binding, a comparative thermodynamic study of PAA/TAR equilibria highlights distinct TAR binding modes for Tat competitor and non-competitor PAAs. This led us to suggest two distinct interaction modes that have been further validated by molecular modeling studies. While the binding of Tat competitor PAAs induces a contraction at the TAR bulge region, the binding of non-competitor ones widens it. This could account for the distinct PAA ability to compete with Tat fragment. Our work illustrates how comparative thermodynamic studies of a series of RNA ligands of same chemical family are of value for understanding their binding modes and for rationalizing structure-activity relationships.

  16. Gasification of municipal solid waste in a downdraft gasifier: Analysis of tar formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha Geoffrey Etutu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, municipal solid waste (MSW from a dumpsite was converted into refuse derived fuel (RDF and used as feedstock for an air-blown gasification process. The gasification process was conducted in a 10 kg.hr -1 downdraft gasifier at different air flow rates of 300, 350, 400, 450 and 550 NL.min1 at atmospheric pressure in order to investigate the quantity and quality of tar formed. It was shown that the increase in the air flow rate from 300 NL.min1 to 550 NL.min1 led to an increase in the oxidation temperature from 719°C to 870°C and an increase in the reduction temperature from 585°C to 750°C, respectively. Tar was reduced from 15 g.Nm3 to 4.7 g.Nm3 respectively. Heavy tar compounds (>C17 e.g. pyrene and phenathrene, decreased with the increase in the light tar compounds (tar reduction through a tar cracking process.

  17. Low-temperature tar from bituminous coal and its further treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, C J

    1950-01-01

    High-temperature carbonization of bituminous coal yields only 3 to 4 percent tar, as compared with 8 to 10 percent or even more for low-temperature carbonization. The yield of phenols is 20 to 30 times as great from the low-temperature tar. Five conditions that must be met by a satisfactory low-temperature carbonization process are listed. The only method that satisfies all of these conditions is the Brennstoff-Technik (BT) process, in which iron retorts with movable walls are used. One disadvantage of most of the other processes is the high-pitch content of the tar. These tars are processed further to a neutral oil and a phenol-containing oil which are good diesel fuels with high-cetane numbers; the neutral oil can be fractionated to give oils of high-, medium-, and low-cetane number. Attempts to fractionate the tar oil by solvents have not proved commercially useful. However, the tar can be diluted with low-temperature light oil and phenols extracted with NaOH solution without distillation. Some difficulty is found, owing to the simultaneous extraction of viscous resins and other products that are readily removed from the phenols by distillation.

  18. Catalytic decomposition of tar derived from wood waste pyrolysis using Indonesian low grade iron ore as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicakso, Doni Rahmat [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jalan A. Yani KM. 36 Banjarbaru, 70714, South Kalimantan (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Sutijan; Rochmadi [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Budiman, Arief, E-mail: abudiman@ugm.ac.id [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia); Center for Energy Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip K1A, Yogyakarta, 55281 (Indonesia)

    2016-06-03

    Low grade iron ore can be used as an alternative catalyst for bio-tar decomposition. Compared to other catalysts, such as Ni, Rd, Ru, Pd and Pt, iron ore is cheaper. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of using low grade iron ore as catalyst for tar catalytic decomposition in fixed bed reactor. Tar used in this experiment was pyrolysis product of wood waste while the catalyst was Indonesian low grade iron ore. The variables studied were temperatures between 500 – 600 °C and catalyst weight between 0 – 40 gram. The first step, tar was evaporated at 450 °C to produce tar vapor. Then, tar vapor was flowed to fixed bed reactor filled low grade iron ore. Gas and tar vapor from reactor was cooled, then the liquid and uncondensable gas were analyzed by GC/MS. The catalyst, after experiment, was weighed to calculate total carbon deposited into catalyst pores. The results showed that the tar components that were heavy and light hydrocarbon were decomposed and cracked within the iron ore pores to from gases, light hydrocarbon (bio-oil) and carbon, thus decreasing content tar in bio-oil and increasing the total gas product. In conclusion, the more low grade iron ore used as catalyst, the tar content in the liquid decrease, the H{sup 2} productivity increased and calorimetric value of bio-oil increased.

  19. A clinical study of oropharyngeal carcinoma. Chemoradioselection by TAR therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Tetsuro; Yoshimura, Tomonori; Ohara, Hirotatsu

    2013-01-01

    The data of 91 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma treated at the University of Tsukuba Hospital between 2002 and 2011 were reviewed. The mean age (±standard deviation) was 62.5 (±10.2) years and the male-female ratio was 5.5 : 1. The tumor originated from the lateral wall in 58 cases (63.7%), the anterior wall in 22 cases (24.2%), the superior wall in 8 cases (8.8%), and the posterior wall in 3 cases (3.3%). Six cases were revealed to be positive for human papilloma virus (HPV) among the 7 cases examined. Only supportive care was administered in 12 cases. The remaining 79 cases were treated, and the disease-specific 5-year survival rate was 55.6%. Smoking and alcohol consumption were significantly related to the disease-specific survival rate. At our department, chemoradiotherapy is initiated with 45 Gy of radiation concurrently with a novel oral fluoropyrimidine derivative (Teysuno, Taiho Phamaceutical Co., Ltd.) and vitamin A (TAR therapy), to improve the rate of curative surgical resection and select appropriate candidates for further definitive chemoradiotherapy to allow organ preservation (chemoradioselection). Chemoselection by induction chemotherapy, or chemoradioselection by initial concurrent chemoradiotherapy is considered to be important to make individualized treatment selection for patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma, because of the highly variable response to definitive chemoradiotherapy among cases. (author)

  20. First experimental results on the IShTAR testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Inca, R.; Jacquot, J.; Ochoukov, R.; Morgal, I.; Fünfgelder, H.; Faugel, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Crombe, K.; Louche, F.; Van Eester, D. [LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Heuraux, S.; Devaux, S.; Moritz, J.; Faudot, E. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2015-12-10

    IShTAR (Ion cyclotron Sheath Test ARrangement) is a linear magnetized plasma test facility dedicated to the investigation of RF wave/plasma interaction [1] in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF). It provides a better accessibility for the instrumentation than tokamaks while being representative of the neighboring region of the wave emitter. It is equipped with a magnetized plasma source (1 m long, 0.4 m diameter) powered by a helical antenna up to 3 kW at 11 MHz. We present the results of the first analysis of the plasma characteristics (plasma density, electron temperature) in function of the operating parameters (injected power, neutral pressure and magnetic field) as measured with fixed and movable Langmuir probes, spectrometer and cameras. The plasma is presently produced only by the helical antenna (no ICRF). We show that the plasma exists in three regime depending on the power level: the first two ones are stable and separated by a jump in density; a first spatial profile of the plasma density has been established for these modes; The third mode is unstable, characterized by strong oscillations of the plasma tube position.

  1. Topical tazarotene vs. coal tar in stable plaque psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, U.; Kaur, I.; Dogra, S.; De, D.; Kumar, B. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-07-15

    The efficacy of topical tazarotene has not previously been compared with the conventional topical treatment of crude coal tar (CCT) in stable plaque psoriasis. In this nonblinded side-to-side comparison study, patients with chronic stable plaque psoriasis, who had bilaterally symmetrical plaques on the limbs, applied 0.1% tazarotene gel on the right side and 5% CCT ointment on the left side once daily for 12 weeks followed by an 8-week treatment-free follow up period. Severity of psoriatic lesions and response to treatment was evaluated by scoring erythema, scaling and induration (ESI). Of 30 patients recruited, 27 could be assessed. In the per-protocol analysis, the mean percentage reduction in ESI score at the end of the treatment period was 74.15% {+-} 9.43 and 77.37% {+-} 10.93 with tazarotene and CCT, respectively (P {gt} 0.05). A reduction in ESI score of {gt} 75% was seen in 11 (40.74%) and 16 (59.26%) patients with tazarotene and CCT, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. Side-effects were seen in 48.14% of patients treated with tazarotene, but in no patient treated with CCT. Tazarotene 0.1% gel has comparable clinical efficacy to CCT 5% ointment. CCT ointment remains a cost-effective therapy for plaque psoriasis.

  2. Source targeting tar balls along the southern Louisiana coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerts, P.O.; Henry, C.B. Jr.; Overton, E.B.

    1993-01-01

    Stranded oil and tarballs deposited along the southern coast of Louisiana were source targeted, or compared for petroleum similarities, during 1992. The distribution, frequency, and composition of the stranded oil was assessed for specific study sites covering about 200 miles of the Louisiana coastline. Petroleum transportation off Louisiana shores is in the millions of barrels; with the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port receiving more than 200 million barrels per year. Also contributing to this transportation system are the outer continental shelf production activities, transporting 98 percent of their production by pipeline and 2 percent by barge. The questions addressed here are: What are the sources of the stranded oil and tar found upon the beaches? Are they primarily from small unrelated events, or are they from chronic discharges of identifiable sources? Preliminary data indicates a wide range of petroleum sources, with bunker oils most abundant. The petroleum has undergone varying degrees of weathering, or degradation by environmental processes. Preliminary data indicate relatively undegraded as well as extremely degraded petroleum, with no apparent correlation with study stations. Stations selected along the coastline were biannually surveyed, and petroleum samples collected were quantitatively assessed for petroleum per square meter per station. For a complete chemical assessment, the samples were qualitatively analyzed by detailed gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) characterization and source fingerprinting using selective ion monitoring (SIM). The results were plotted in a cluster matrix to highlight the number of possible sources and the chemical characteristics of the petroleum found

  3. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  4. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.

  5. Creating and destroying mountain belts in a sandbox (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, M.

    2009-12-01

    M. Hernandez-1, L. Cruz-1, G. Hilley-1, J. Malinski-1, W.A. Take-2 1-Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 2-Department of Civil Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada This study uses a new experimental approach to model the kinematic response of the Aconcagua fold-and-thrust belt to erosion using a deforming sand wedge that is eroded according to a fluvial bedrock incision rule. Our objective is to thoroughly examine the impact that erosion may have had on the kinematics of this fold-and-thrust belt and test the applicability of our approach. Our experimental apparatus allows for a variety of boundary conditions to be applied to the wedge, including constant displacement rate, time-varying displacement rate, constant loading, and time-varying loading. This setting also includes three digital cameras that are connected to the apparatus to monitor the top and one side of the experimental sandbox. In this new experimental approach, as we deform the sand wedge, or mountain belt, we select specific time intervals to calculate, using a Matlab code, the topographic slope derived from our erosion rule. We then use a linear laser to project the calculated topographic slope into the sand wedge and remove any excess of sand with a vacuum cleaner. We then let the wedge continue to deform and repeat the above process. After the end of each experiment, we use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques to analyze the movement of the sand particles throughout the experiment. The use of PIV requires the images from all three cameras to be corrected due to lens distortion. We use available software, such as Photoshop, to correct and crop the images. The results of our constant-displacement rate experiments indicate, based on geometric comparisons against natural topographic measurements, that our erosional rule could be satisfactorily applied to sandbox simulations. Each of the main deformational stages identified in the

  6. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed approach provides improved accuracy for dynamic design of belt conveyors.

  7. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-08-01

    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  8. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  9. Continuous Mass Measurement on Conveyor Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomobe, Yuki; Tasaki, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Ohnishi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kurosu, Shigeru

    The continuous mass measurement of packages on a conveyor belt will become greatly important. In the mass measurement, the sequence of products is generally random. An interesting possibility of raising throughput of the conveyor line without increasing the conveyor belt speed is offered by the use of two or three conveyor belt scales (called a multi-stage conveyor belt scale). The multi-stage conveyor belt scale can be created which will adjust the conveyor belt length to the product length. The conveyor belt scale usually has maximum capacities of less than 80kg and 140cm, and achieves measuring rates of more than 150 packages per minute and more. The output signals from the conveyor belt scale are always contaminated with noises due to vibrations of the conveyor and the product to be measured in motion. In this paper an employed digital filter is of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) type designed under the consideration on the dynamics of the conveyor system. The experimental results on the conveyor belt scale suggest that the filtering algorithms are effective enough to practical applications to some extent.

  10. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  11. Engineering New Catalysts for In-Process Elimination of Tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry G. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The key objective of this project was to develop a new and more efficient methodology for engineering and economically producing optimized robust catalysts for the reduction or elimination of tars in biomass gasification. Whereas current catalyst technology typically disposes thin layers of catalytically-active material onto rigid supports via wet chemistry-based methods, this project investigated novel thermal methods for directly incorporating catalytically active materials onto robust supports as well as novel approaches for incorporating catalytically active materials on and/or within an otherwise inert refractory support material which is then subsequently formed and processed to create a catalytically-active material on all exposed surfaces. Specifically, the focus of this engineered catalyst development was on materials which were derived from, or otherwise related to, olivine-like minerals, due to the inherent attrition resistance and moderate catalytic properties exhibited by natural olivine when used in a fluidized bed biomass gasifier. Task 1 of this project successfully demonstrated the direct thermal impregnation of catalytically-active materials onto an olivine substrate, with the production of a Ni-olivine catalyst. Nickel and nickel oxide were thermally impregnated onto an olivine substrate and when reduced were shown to demonstrate improved catalytic activity over the baseline olivine material and equal the tar-decomposing performance of Ni-olivine catalysts prepared by conventional wet impregnation. Task 2 involved coordination with our subcontracted project partners to further develop and characterize catalyst formulations and to optimize activity and production methods. Within this task, several significant new materials were developed. NexTech Materials developed a sintered ceramic nickel-magnesium-silicate catalyst that demonstrated superb catalytic activity and high resistance to deactivation by H2S. Alfred University developed both supported

  12. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  13. Studies of RF sheaths and diagnostics on IShTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crombé, K., E-mail: Kristel.Crombe@UGent.be [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); LPP-ERM/KMS, Royal Military Academy, Brussels (Belgium); Devaux, S.; Faudot, E.; Heuraux, S.; Moritz, J. [YIJL, UMR7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); D’Inca, R.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Ochoukov, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Louche, F.; Tripsky, M.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Royal Military Academy, Brussels (Belgium); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    IShTAR (Ion cyclotron Sheath Test ARrangement) is a linear magnetised plasma test facility for RF sheaths studies at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Garching. In contrast to a tokamak, a test stand provides more liberty to impose the parameters and gives better access for the instrumentation and antennas. The project will support the development of diagnostic methods for characterising RF sheaths and validate and improve theoretical predictions. The cylindrical vacuum vessel has a diameter of 1 m and is 1.1 m long. The plasma is created by an external cylindrical plasma source equipped with a helical antenna that has been designed to excite the m=1 helicon mode. In inductive mode, plasma densities and electron temperatures have been characterised with a planar Langmuir probe as a function of gas pressure and input RF power. A 2D array of RF compensated Langmuir probes and a spectrometer are planned. A single strap RF antenna has been designed; the plasma-facing surface is aligned to the cylindrical plasma to ease the modelling. The probes will allow direct measurements of plasma density profiles in front of the RF antenna, and thus a detailed study of the density modifications induced by RF sheaths, which influences the coupling. The RF antenna frequency has been chosen to study different plasma wave interactions: the accessible plasma density range includes an evanescent and propagative behaviour of slow or fast waves, and allows the study of the effect of the lower hybrid resonance layer.

  14. Oil from biomass corncob tar as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this study, biomass corncob tar oil (B-oil I and B-oil II) was extracted and its characteristics were measured. The characterization data show some similarities and differences among B-oil I, B-oil II and the Diesel: flash point. The densities and viscosities are higher than that of Diesel fuel. The solidifying point for B-oil I and B-oil II were lower than that of Diesel. The heating value of B-oil I and B-oil II were about 85.6% and 87.3% of that ordinary Diesel fuel (OD). The distillation temperatures of B-oil I and B-oil II were lower than that of Diesel fuel, with the 50% evaporation point being as much as 10 o C and 4 o C lower and the 90% evaporation point being 10 o C and 2 o C lower, respectively. These evaporation characteristics implied better cold starting and warm up properties of B-oil I and B-oil II than that of Diesel fuel. B-oil I and B-oil II were blended with Diesel in 10% and 20% by volume. Engine tests have been conducted with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption and emissions such as CO, smoke density and NO to evaluate and compute the behavior of the Diesel engine running on the above mentioned fuels. The reduction in exhaust emissions, together with the increases in torque and thermal efficiency and the reduction in specific fuel consumption made the blends of B-oil I and B-oil II a suitable alternative fuel for Diesel and could help in controlling air pollution

  15. Ukrainian brown-coal tars recovered at low-temperature carbonization with solid heating medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, V I; Govorova, R P; Fadeicheva, A G; Kigel, T B; Chernykh, M K

    1955-01-01

    Three samples of tar were recovered in the laboratory from brown coals carbonized at 375/sup 0/ to 456/sup 0/ +- 25/sup 0/ in a retort with inner heating by solid circulating medium, namely, semicoke (ratio: 4 or 3:1) first heated to 700/sup 0/. One comparative (parallel) experiment was carried out in a retort with inner heating by inert gases entering the retort at 580/sup 0/ to 600/sup 0/ and leaving it at 115/sup 0/ to 120/sup 0/. The tars that were recovered from the retort with the solid heating medium contained a high percentage of coal dust and moisture, which were separated from the tars in supercentrifuges (15,000 rpm). Four samples of cleaned tars were fractionated in a Cu flask with a 2-ball fractional column. The tars from the retort with the solid-heating medium are characterized by increased yield of the petroleum-ether fraction (16.3 or 19.3%) and decreased yield of the paraffin fraction (15.1 to 21.2%) in comparison with those of tar from the retort with gas heating (5.9% of the petroleum ether fraction and 36.5% of paraffin fraction). The yield of paraffin from the paraffin fraction also decreased from 90.6% to 62.6-74.3%. This result shows that in the first case the carbonized products were cracked to a higher degree than those from the retort with gas heating. In raw phenols recovered from fractions of investigated tars, the yield of the phenol-cresol fraction (182/sup 0/ to 204/sup 0/) decreased from 25.9% to 13.0-18.9%.

  16. Effects of electric current upon catalytic steam reforming of biomass gasification tar model compounds to syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jun; Lu, Qiang; Dong, Changqing; Du, Xiaoze; Dahlquist, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ECR technique was proposed to convert biomass gasification tar model compounds. • Electric current enhanced the reforming efficiency remarkably. • The highest toluene conversion reached 99.9%. • Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 exhibited good stability during the ECR performance. - Abstract: Electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR) technique, known as electric current enhanced catalytic reforming technique, was proposed to convert the biomass gasification tar into syngas. In this study, Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst was prepared, and toluene was employed as the major feedstock for ECR experiments using a fixed-bed lab-scale setup where thermal electrons could be generated and provided to the catalyst. Several factors, including the electric current intensity, reaction temperature and steam/carbon (S/C) ratio, were investigated to reveal their effects on the conversion of toluene as well as the composition of the gas products. Moreover, toluene, two other tar model compounds (benzene and 1-methylnaphthalene) and real tar (tar-containing wastewater) were subjected to the long period catalytic stability tests. All the used catalysts were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. The results indicated that the presence of electric current enhanced the catalytic performance remarkably. The toluene conversion reached 99.9% under the electric current of 4 A, catalytic temperature of 800 °C and S/C ratio of 3. Stable conversion performances of benzene, 1-methylnaphthalene and tar-containing wastewater were also observed in the ECR process. H 2 and CO were the major gas products, while CO 2 and CH 4 were the minor ones. Due to the promising capability, the ECR technique deserves further investigation and application for efficient tar conversion

  17. Modelling the low-tar BIG gasification concept[Biomass Integrated gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Lars; Elmegaard, B.; Qvale, B.; Henriksen, Ulrrik [Technical univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Bentzen, J.D.; Hummelshoej, R. [COWI A/S (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    A low-tar, high-efficient biomass gasification concept for medium- to large-scale power plants has been designed. The concept is named 'Low-Tar BIG' (BIG = Biomass Integrated Gasification). The concept is based on separate pyrolysis and gasification units. The volatile gases from the pyrolysis (containing tar) are partially oxidised in a separate chamber, and hereby the tar content is dramatically reduced. Thus, the investment, and running cost of a gas cleaning system can be reduced, and the reliability can be increased. Both pyrolysis and gasification chamber are bubbling fluid beds, fluidised with steam. For moist fuels, the gasifier can be integrated with a steam drying process, where the produced steam is used in the pyrolysis/gasification chamber. In this paper, mathematical models and results from initial tests of a laboratory Low-Tar BIG gasifier are presented. Two types of models are presented: 1. The gasifier-dryer applied in different power plant systems: Gas engine, Simple cycle gas turbine, Recuperated gas turbine and Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle (IGCC). The paper determines the differences in efficiency of these systems and shows that the gasifier will be applicable for very different fuels with different moisture contents, depending on the system. 2. A thermodynamic Low-Tar BIG model. This model is based on mass and heat balance between four reactors: Pyrolysis, partial oxidation, gasification, gas-solid mixer. The paper describes the results from this study and compares the results to actual laboratory tests. The study shows, that the Low-Tar BIG process can use very wet fuels (up to 65-70% moist) and still produce heat and power with a remarkable high electric efficiency. Hereby the process offers the unique combination of large scale gasification and low-cost gas cleaning and use of low-cost fuels which very likely is the necessary combination that will lead to a breakthrough of gasification technology. (au)

  18. The documentation of tar balls on oiled shorelines : lessons from the New Carissa, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Zimlicki-Owens, L.M.; Lamarche, A.; Reimer, P.D.; Martin, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    The New Carissa, carrying approximately 400,000 gallons of fuel oils ran aground on the outer shore of North Spit, in the vicinity of Coos Bay, Oregon, on February 4, 1999. The oil was released directly into the nearshore surf zone. Following the spill, a stretch of approximately 300 km of the coast of Oregon was surveyed and monitored. The need for the documentation of stranded tar balls in the neighbourhood of the spill site prompted the implementation of a long-term observation program. Initially, Shoreline Clean-up and Assessment Technique (SCAT) reporting procedures were required. Heavy oiling was followed by stranded oil taking the form of tar balls. The amount of oil on the shoreline decreased and the SCAT procedures alone were no longer adequate. They provided estimations of oil quantities that were too high and failed to provide any discrimination between amounts of oil observed on the beaches. A new reporting technique called Beach Assessment Reporting was designed to overcome the difficulties and record adequately the character and frequency of stranded tar balls. Maps, tables and histograms of stranded tar ball volumes and concentrations were discussed. Since the data spanned nine orders of magnitude at times, the semi-logarithmic scale time series plots of the concentration of the tar balls was used in order to identify trends. Conventional histograms only identified large values and camouflaged smaller trends in the time series. A direct method for describing tar ball concentrations geographically proved to be the use of weekly maximum tar ball concentration maps by segment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  19. Cancer risk estimation for mixtures of coal tars and benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylor, D.W.; Culp, S.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; Beland, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Two-year chronic bioassays were conducted by using B6C3F1 female mice fed several concentrations of two different mixtures of coal tars from manufactured gas waste sites or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The purpose of the study was to obtain estimates of cancer potency of coal tar mixtures, by using conventional regulatory methods, for use in manufactured gas waste site remediation. A secondary purpose was to investigate the validity of using the concentration of a single potent carcinogen, in this case benzo(a)pyrene, to estimate the relative risk for a coal tar mixture. The study has shown that BaP dominates the cancer risk when its concentration is greater than 6,300 ppm in the coal tar mixture. In this case the most sensitive tissue site is the forestomach. Using low-dose linear extrapolation, the lifetime cancer risk for humans is estimated to be: Risk -4 (ppm coal tar in total diet) + 240 x 10 -4 (ppm BaP in total diet), based on forestomach tumors. If the BaP concentration in the coal tar mixture is less than 6,300 ppm, the more likely case, then lung tumors provide the largest estimated upper limit of risk, Risk -4 (ppm coal tar in total diet), with no contribution of BaP to lung tumors. The upper limit of the cancer potency (slope factor) for lifetime oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene is 1.2 x 10 -3 per microg per kg body weight per day from this Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) study compared with the current value of 7.3 x 10 -3 per microg per kg body weight per day listed in the US EPA Integrated Risk Information System

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the periplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar and its complex with aspartate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mise, Takeshi; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Samatey, Fadel A.; Maruyama, Ichiro N., E-mail: ichi@oist.jp [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Kunigami, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan)

    2014-08-27

    The periplasmic domain of the E. coli aspartate receptor Tar was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized with and without bound ligand. The crystals obtained diffracted to resolutions of 1.58 and 1.95 Å, respectively. The cell-surface receptor Tar mediates bacterial chemotaxis toward an attractant, aspartate (Asp), and away from a repellent, Ni{sup 2+}. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of Tar activity by its ligands, the Escherichia coli Tar periplasmic domain with and without bound aspartate (Asp-Tar and apo-Tar, respectively) were each crystallized in two different forms. Using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 2.10 and 2.40 Å, respectively. Alternatively, using sodium chloride as a precipitant, crystals of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 were grown and diffracted to resolutions of 1.95 and 1.58 Å, respectively. Crystals of apo-Tar1 and Asp-Tar1 adopted space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, while those of apo-Tar2 and Asp-Tar2 adopted space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and C2, respectively.

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF SOME CARCINOGENIC POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN BANGLADESHI VEHICLES EXHAUST TAR BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROPHOTOMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A more sensitive GC-MS method has been established for the determination of some carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vehicles exhaust tar samples. The tar samples were extracted using dichloromethane (DMC: n-hexane solvent mixture. A multi-layer clean-up (silica gel/sodium sulphate column was used, followed by glass fiber filter (GFF paper. The method was successfully applied to determine a number of PAHs present in exhaust tar sample of different vehicles of the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh.   Keywords: Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, vehicles tar samples, identification, GC-MS/MS

  2. Fungal cultures of tar bush and creosote bush for production of two phenolic antioxidants (pyrocatechol and gallic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, J; Gutiérrez-Sanchez, G; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Aguilar, C N

    2009-01-01

    'Tar bush' and 'creosote bush' were substrates of fungal cultivation for tannase production and gallic acid and pyrocatechol accumulation. Aspergillus niger GH1 grew similarly on both plant materials under solid state culture conditions, reaching maximal levels after 4 d. Fungal strain degraded all tannin content of creosote bush after 4 d of fermentation and >75 % of tar bush after 5 d. Higher level of tannase activity was detected in tar bush fermentation. Biotransformation of tannins to gallic acid was high (93 % in creosote bush and 89 % in tar bush). Pyrocatechol was released poorly. Kinetic parameters of tannin conversion were calculated.

  3. Selected constituents in the smokes of U. S. commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    One hundred twenty-one brands of United States commercial cigarettes were analyzed for their deliveries of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. The sample included both filter and nonfilter cigarettes. Comparisons of carbon monoxide deliveries over the range of observed tar deliveries indicated a very high correlation between CO and tar for filter cigarettes, but nonfilter cigarettes tended to produce much less CO than would have been predicted from their tar deliveries. Comparison of ORNL nicotine values for specific brands with those determined by the Federal Trade Commission yield no statistically significant differences between laboratories. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  4. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  5. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  6. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  7. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  8. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  9. The purification of coal tar by the addition of quinoline and Zn(oh)/sub 2/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, P.; Chen, Q.L.; Ao, X.Q.; Kang, C

    2017-01-01

    The coal tar was purified by the addition of quinoline and Zn(OH)2, in order to decrease the content of carbon and inorganic oxide particles. The effect on the viscosity and ash content of the coal tar were investigated by altering temperature, time, and the amount of quinolone and Zn(OH)2 . When the volume ratio between quinolone and coal tar was 20:1 and the static time was 24 h. The viscosity of three layers decreased with rising temperature. When the static temperature and time was 45 °C and 24 h, respectively. The viscosity of three layers decreased with the arising amount of quinoline. And when the volume ratio between quinolone and coal tar was 20:1 and the temperature was 45 °C. The viscosity of three layers decreased first and then increased with the prolonging of static time. And when the static time of coal tar was 24 h, the viscosity of coal tar is the lowest. Because of the lower viscosity of coal tar, decreasing the content of carbon and ash particles in upper and middle layer, the ash content decreased from 0.168% to 0.092%. The addition of Zn(OH)2 can lead ash content in middle layer decrease to 0.058%. Zn2SiO4 and ZnAl2O4 may be produced due to the reaction between Zn (OH) 2 and SiO2 or Al2O3, which can settle down easily. The results show that the content of carbon and inorganic oxide particles in upper-middle-class (the middle 4/5 of the whole volume) decreased with the addition of quinolone and Zn(OH)2 . When the volume ratio between quinolone and coal tar was 50:2, quality ratio between coal tar and Zn(OH)2 was 20000:1, the mixture were heated up to 45 °C at atmospheric pressure and keeping this constant temperature for 24 h, the ash content in upper-middle-class can decreased to 0.058%. (author)

  10. America's gas tank : the high cost of Canada's oil and gas export strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.; Bennett, J.

    2002-10-01

    The high environmental cost of exporting oil and gas from Canada to the United States is discussed. The increased demand for fossil fuels by the United States has coincided with Canada's deregulation of the energy industry and a greater control of Canadian energy companies by American interests. The authors note that most of the oil and gas produced in Canada is exported to the United States, where many of the extraction and production decisions affecting Canadians and the Canadian environment are made. It was cautioned that if the current trend continues, oil and gas development will degrade habitat for endangered species and greenhouse gases will escalate. This is because the fossil fuel industry, particularly the development of Alberta's tar sands, is helping to increase greenhouse gas emissions outside of Canada by selling fossil fuels that are burned outside of Canada. It is recommended that federal and provincial governments in Canada should shift their policies away from fossil fuel production and promote renewable energy production. The United States plans to increase Canadian oil and gas imports in the coming decade, requiring more wells to be drilled and pipelines to carry it. If the fossil fuel industry proceeds with the current plans, greenhouse gas emissions in Canada will grow to 827 million tonnes by 2010, 44 per cent beyond the Kyoto target, having an overall negative impact on public health, wildlife and fresh water supplies. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Toxicity of coal-tar and asphalt sealants to eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bommarito, T.; Sparling, D.W.; Halbrook, R.S. [South Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory

    2010-09-15

    Between 1970 and 2000 the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) in several lakes across the country increased whereas those of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tended to remain stable or declined. Urbanized watersheds experienced greater rises in TPAH concentration compared to non-urban lakes. Sources for urban PAHs include industrial wastes, vehicular exhausts and oil leaks and sealants from pavement surfaces. Both coal-tar and asphalt sealants are used to protect surfaces but runoff from surfaces coated with coal-tar can have mean concentrations of 3500 mg TPAHs kg{sup -1}, much higher than runoff from asphalt-sealed or cement surfaces. Unaltered parent compounds of PAHs can have many lethal and sublethal toxic effects, but oxidation and UV radiation can alter the toxicity of these compounds, sometimes creating degradates that are many times more toxic than parent compounds. The purposes of this study were to determine if coal-tar sealants can be toxic to adult eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) and to compare the toxicity of coal-tar sealant to that of asphalt sealant. Newts were exposed to sediments containing dried sealants ranging from 0 mg kg{sup -1} to 1500 mg kg{sup -1} under simultaneous exposure to UV radiation and visible light to determine concentration/response relationships. No significant mortality occurred with any treatment. Significant effects due to sealants included decreased righting ability and diminished liver enzyme activities. Coal-tar sealant was more effective in inducing these changes than was asphalt sealant.

  12. The separate effects of tar and nicotine on the cigarette smoking manoeuvre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodman, G.; Newman, S.P.; Paiva, D.; Clarke, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    The separate effects of tar and nicotine on the cigarette smoking manoeuvre were investigated. Each of ten asymptomatic habitual smokers smoked three different commercially available cigarettes in a randomised order. The brands were chosen such that two had the same tar yield (10 mg) and two had the same nicotine yield (1.4 mg). The volume of smoke inhaled into the lungs was measured by tracing the smoke with the inert gas 81 Kr m . Puffing indices were recorded using an electronic smoking analyser and flowhead/cigarette holder. There was no difference in the total volume of smoke puffed from each of the cigarette brands. With cigarettes of the samme tar level, the total inhaled smoke volume was lower with the higher nicotine cigarette (P<0.05): by contrast, with cigarettes of the same nicotine level, the toal inhaled smoke volume was lower with the lower tar cigarette (P<0.02). Tar and nicotine appear to exercise independent control over the volume of smoke inhaled. (author)

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of tar reforming through auto-thermal reforming process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhadi, N., E-mail: nurhadi@tekmira.esdm.go.id; Diniyati, Dahlia; Efendi, M. Ade Andriansyah [R& D Centre for Mineral and Coal Technology, Jln. Jend.Sudirman no. 623, Bandung. Telp. 022-6030483 (Malaysia); Istadi, I. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jln. Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Semarang (Malaysia)

    2015-12-29

    Fixed bed gasification is a simple and suitable technology for small scale power generation. One of the disadvantages of this technology is producing tar. So far, tar is not utilized yet and being waste that should be treated into a more useful product. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of tar conversion into gas producer through non-catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology. Tar was converted into components, C, H, O, N and S, and then reacted with oxidant such as mixture of air or pure oxygen. Thus, this reaction occurred auto-thermally and reached chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity analysis resulted that the most promising process performance occurred at flow rate of air was reached 43% of stoichiometry while temperature of process is 1100°C, the addition of pure oxygen is 40% and preheating of oxidant flow is 250°C. The yield of the most promising process performance between 11.15-11.17 kmol/h and cold gas efficiency was between 73.8-73.9%.The results of this study indicated that thermodynamically the conversion of tar into producer gas through non-catalytic auto-thermal reformingis more promising.

  14. Copyrolysis of coal with coke-oven gas. III. Analysis of tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, H.; Sun, C.; Li, B.; Liu, Z. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1998-02-01

    Tars from copyrolysis of Xianfeng lignite with coke-oven gas (COG) at different pressures (0.1-5 MPa) and heating rates (5-25{degree}C/min) to a final temperature of 650{degree}C were analyzed and compared with hydropyrolysis under the same H{sub 2} partial pressure. The results indicated that high contents of BTX, PCX and naphthalene were found in the tar from copyrolysis of Xianfeng lignite with COG. Pressure and heating rate have important effects on tar yields and the contents of BTX, PCX and naphthalene in oil. Increasing pressure and decreasing heating rate enhance the tar yields and result in high yields of BTX and PCX. When compared with hydropyrolysis under the same H{sub 2} partial pressure, the tar yield increases by 1.2 times and the yields of BTX, PCX and naphthalene by about 1.6, 1.3 and 1.6 times, respectively. At the same total pressure (3MPa), the yields of BTX and naphthalene from copyrolysis are equal to those from hydropyrolysis. The results reveal that other components in COG, such as methane, carbon monoxide etc., are of importance for pyrolysis behaviour of coal under COG and improvement of oil qualities. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Decomposition of tar in gas from updraft gasifier by thermal cracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Peder; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2000-01-01

    Continuing earlier work with tar reduction by partial oxidation of pyrolysis gas [1] thermal cracking has been evaluated as a gas cleaning process. The work has been focusing on cleaning gas from updraft gasifiers, and the long term purpose is to develop a tar cleaning unit based on thermal...... cracking. An experimental set-up has been built, in which a flow of contaminated gas can be heated up to 1290°C in a reactor made of pure Al2O3. Four measurements were made. Three with gas from a pyrolysis unit simulating updraft gasifier, and one with gas from an updraft gasifier. Cracking temperatures...... was 1200, 1250 and 1290°C, and the residence time at this temperature was 0.5 second. The measurements show that at the selected residence time of 0.5 second, the gas flow in a thermal tar cracking unit has to be heated to at least 1250°C to achieve sufficient tar cleaning. At 1290°C, a tar content as low...

  16. UTILIZATION OF ACTIVATED ZEOLITE AS MOLECULAR SIEVE IN CHROMATOGRAPHIC COLUMN FOR SEPARATION OF COAL TAR COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Retno Nurotul Wahidiyah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of activated zeolite (ZAA as molecular sieve to separate compounds of coal tar from vaccum fractional distillation, have been done. The size of zeolite was 10-20 mesh and used as solid phase in column chromatography with length of 30 cm. The first step of the research was coal pyrolisis and the product (tar was distillated by fractional column and vaccum system at reduced pressure 44 cmHg and maximum temperature at 200 oC. The distillate from this procedure was flowed to the column chromatography of zeolite (ZAA. The compound absorbed by zeolite was eluted with varying solvents, i.e: CCl4, acetone and ethanol. Each fraction was then analyzed by gas chromatography. The results showed, zeolite have a capability to separate the compounds of tar and it tends to absorb medium hydrocarbon. The nonpolar eluent [CCl4] gives the better result in eluting tar compound than polar (ethanol or medium polar eluents (acetone.   Keywords: zeolite, coal tar, column chromatography

  17. Seat belt injuries and sigmoid colon trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D

    1997-01-01

    Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.

  18. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  19. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  20. Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies

    1998-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Technological changes illustrated by the coal tar and tar dye industry; Die Wandlung der Technik am Beispiel der Steinkohlenteer- und Teerfarben-Chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, G. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Chemisches Apparatewesen, Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e.V. (DECHEMA), Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    Coal tar was detected in the 17th century in laboratory experiments based on empirical knowledge. In the 18th century industrial revolution, coal tar was an undesired by-product of iron production and coking plants. It was first used in the 19th century for impregnating railway sleepers. Later developments in atomic theory, new chemical symbols and organic element analysis provided the basis for discovering and chemical characterisation of coal tar constituents. Laboratory experiments with these tar constituents resulted in the first synthetic dyes, the postulation of tetravalent carbon and the resulting structural theory in organic chemistry for systematic synthesis of many tar dyes to substitute natural dyes in the textile industry. The technical application of these syntheses was part 2 of the industrial revolution and the foundation of the chemical industry in Germany, which developed rapidly in the 2nd half of the 19th century. Tar dye chemistry has made a significant contribution to Germany's economic growth and the change from an agricultural to an industrialized country. [German] Die Entdeckung des Steinkohlenteers im 17. Jahrhundert basiert auf durch Erfahrungswissen gepraegten Laboratoriumsexperimenten. Im Verlauf der 'Industriellen Revolution' des 18. Jahrhunderts ist der Steinkohlenteer zunaechst ein laestiges Abfallprodukt der Eisengewinnung im Kokshochofen und der Leuchtgasherstellung durch Kohlenverkokung. Erste technische Applikation finden Steinkohlenteeroele im 19. Jahrhundert durch den Eisenbahnbau zur Langzeit-Konservierung der dafuer benoetigten Holzschwellen. Die wissenschaftlichen Erfkenntnisse zur Atomtheorie, eine neue chemische Zeichensprache und die organische Elementaranalyse werden Voraussetzungen zur Entdeckung und chemischen Charakterisierung der Hauptinhaltsstoffe des Steinkohlenteers. Laboratoriumsexperimente mit den entdeckten Teerinhaltsstoffen fuehren zur Erfindung der ersten synthetischen Farbstoffe, die

  2. Comparative assessment of coal tars obtained from 10 former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.G.; Gupta, L.; Kim, T.H.; Moo-Young, H.K.; Coleman, A.J. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2006-11-15

    A comparative analysis was performed on eleven coal tars obtained from former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United States. Bulk properties analyzed included percent ash, Karl Fisher water content, viscosity and average molecular weight. Chemical properties included monocyclic- and polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, alkylated aromatic concentrations, and concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic fractions. It was found that there was at least an order-of-magnitude variation in all properties measured between the eleven coal tars. Additionally, two coal tars obtained from the same manufactured gas plant site had very different properties, highlighting that there can be wide variations in coal tar properties from different samples obtained from the same site. Similarities were also observed between the coal tars. The relative chemical distributions were similar for all coal tars, and the coal tars predominantly consisted of PAHs, with naphthalene being the single-most prevalent compound. The C{sub 9-22} aromatic fraction, an indicator of all PAHs up to a molecular weight of approximately 276 g mole{sup -1}, showed a strong power-law relationship with the coal tar average molecular weight (MWct). And the concentrations of individual PAHs decreased linearly as MWct increased up to ca. 1000 g mole{sup -1}, above which they remained low and variable. Implications of these properties and their variation with MWct on groundwater quality are discussed. Ultimately, while these similarities do allow generalities to be made about coal tars, the wide range of coal tar bulk and chemical properties reported here highlights the complex nature of coal tars.

  3. Cigarettes, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease: the effects of inhalation and tar yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higenbottam, T; Shipley, M J; Rose, G

    1982-06-01

    Ten-year mortality rates for lung cancer and coronary heart disease have been related to cigarette smoking habits in 17 475 male civil servants aged 40-64 and in sample of 8089 male British residents aged 35-69. Both diseases were more frequent in smokers. Lung cancer rates were higher overall for "non-inhalers", particularly in heavy smokers. Tar yield correlated with the risk of lung cancer in non-inhalers but less so in inhalers. Conversely, coronary deaths were more common among inhalers, and the effect of tar/nicotine yield (such as it was) was confined to inhalers. It appears that there are subtle interactions between the amount smoked, the tar/nicotine yield of the cigarette, and the style of smoking. Thus the effects of a change in cigarette characteristics are hard to predict, and they may be different for respiratory and cardiovascular disease.

  4. ANALYSIS OF MEASURED AND MODELED SOLAR RADIATION AT THE TARS SOLAR HEATING PLANT IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    , such as solar radiation, inlet and outlet temperature for the solar collector field, flow rate and pressure, ambient temperature, Wind speed and wind direction were measured. Global horizontal radiation, direct normal irradiation (DNI) and total radiation on the tilted collector plane of the flat plate...... collector field have been measured in Tars solar heating plant. To determine the accuracy of modeled and measured solar radiation in Tars solar heating plant, monthly comparisons of measured and calculated radiation using 6 empirical models have been carried out. Comparisons of measured and modeled total......A novel combined solar heating plant with tracking parabolic trough collectors (PTC) and flat plate collectors (FPC) has been constructed and put into operation in Tars, 30 km north of Aalborg, Denmark in August 2015. To assess the operation performance of the plant, detailed parameters...

  5. Numerical simulation of vortex pyrolysis reactors for condensable tar production from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.S.; Bellan, J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1998-08-01

    A numerical study is performed in order to evaluate the performance and optimal operating conditions of vortex pyrolysis reactors used for condensable tar production from biomass. A detailed mathematical model of porous biomass particle pyrolysis is coupled with a compressible Reynolds stress transport model for the turbulent reactor swirling flow. An initial evaluation of particle dimensionality effects is made through comparisons of single- (1D) and multi-dimensional particle simulations and reveals that the 1D particle model results in conservative estimates for total pyrolysis conversion times and tar collection. The observed deviations are due predominantly to geometry effects while directional effects from thermal conductivity and permeability variations are relatively small. Rapid ablative particle heating rates are attributed to a mechanical fragmentation of the biomass particles that is modeled using a critical porosity for matrix breakup. Optimal thermal conditions for tar production are observed for 900 K. Effects of biomass identity, particle size distribution, and reactor geometry and scale are discussed.

  6. Detailed grouping and functional composition of neutral substances in low-temperature tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalechits, I V; Salimgareeva, F G; Popova, N I; Kurbangaleeva, D K; Klykova, G G

    1955-01-01

    The grouping and the functional composition of the neutral substances in coal tar were characterized by means of adsorption on silica gel with subsequent chemical analysis of each fraction. The neutral materials were obtained by consecutive treatment of a C/sub 6/H/sub 6/ solution of coal tar with 10 percent alkali and 5 percent H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to remove the phenols and the bases. The data show that of the neutral substances (only 75% were identified) 40.5% were aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on a study of all of the data, it was proposed that 90% of the composition of coal tars is aromatic. The physical constants of the separated fractions were determined and are presented in tabular form.

  7. Fusion Canada issue 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  8. Fusion Canada issue 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.

  9. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  10. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  11. Family physicians and youth tobacco-free education: outcomes of the Colorado Tar Wars program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeffrey J; Dickinson, W Perry; Fernald, Douglas; Bublitz, Caroline; Dickinson, L Miriam; West, David

    2006-01-01

    Tar Wars is a national school-based tobacco-free education program operated by the American Academy of Family Physicians. The Tar Wars lesson uses an interactive 45-min session taught by volunteer family physicians in 4th- and 5th-grade classrooms and focuses on the short-term image-based consequences of tobacco use. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the Tar Wars program in Colorado with both quantitative and qualitative measures. Students participating in the quantitative evaluation were tested before and after a Tar Wars teaching session using a 14-question test covering the short-term and image-based consequences of tobacco use, cost of smoking, tobacco advertising, and social norms of tobacco use. Qualitative evaluation of the program included guided telephone interviews and focus groups with participating students, teachers, and presenters. Quantitative evaluation showed statistically significant improvement in correct responses for the 14 questions measured with an average increase in correct responses from 8.95 to 10.23. Three areas recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for youth tobacco prevention showed greater change in correct responses, including cost of smoking, truth of tobacco advertising, and peer norms of tobacco use. Qualitative evaluation found that the overall message of the session was well received, that previously known tobacco information was reinforced by its presentation in a novel format, and that new information learned included cost of smoking, truth of tobacco advertising, and peer norms of tobacco use. The Tar Wars lesson plan is effective in increasing students' understanding about the short-term consequences of tobacco use, cost of tobacco use, truth of tobacco advertising, and peer norms. Tar Wars meets the CDC guidelines as one component of effective comprehensive youth tobacco prevention.

  12. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  13. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  14. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  15. Iron-based materials as tar cracking catalyst in waste gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordgreen, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Sweden has changed during the past decades due to national legislation and European Union directives. The former landfills have more or less been abandoned in favour of material recycling and waste incineration. On a yearly basis approximately 2.2 million tonnes waste are incinerated in Sweden with heat recovery and to some extent also with electricity generation, though at a low efficiency. It is desirable to alter this utilisation and instead employ MSW as fuel in a fluid bed gasification process. Then electrical energy may be produced at a much higher efficiency. However, MSW contain about 1 % chlorine in the form of ordinary table salt (NaCl) from food scraps. This implies that the tar cracking catalyst, dolomite, which is normally employed in gasification, will suffer from poisoning if applied under such conditions. Then the tar cracking capacity will be reduced or vanish completely with time. Consequently, an alternative catalyst, more resistant to chlorine, is needed. Preliminary research at KTH has indicated that iron in its metallic state may possess tar cracking ability. With this information at hand and participating in the project 'Energy from Waste' an experimental campaign was launched. Numerous experiments were conducted using iron as tar cracking catalyst. First iron sinter pellets from LKAB were employed. They were reduced in situ with a stream of hydrogen before they were applied. Later iron-based granules from Hoeganaes AB were tested. These materials were delivered in the metallic state. In all tests the KTH atmospheric fluidised bed gasifier with a secondary catalytic reactor housing the catalytic material was deployed. Mostly, the applied fuel was birch. The results show that metallic iron possesses an intrinsic ability, almost in the range of dolomite, to crack tars. Calculations indicate that iron may be more resistant to chlorine than dolomite. The exploration of metallic iron

  16. Durability and regeneration of catalysts of the iron family in hydrogenation of low-temperature tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, W; Yokogawa, C; Hayashi, K; Kawamura, T; Fujita, H; Suga, S

    1949-01-01

    The low-temperature tar consisting of neutral and acidic oils has been reduced under atmospheric pressure between 400/sup 0/ and 500/sup 0/ by using catalysts prepared from Fe-Cr-kieselguhr, yellow ocher, and other material. When the reduction was performed at 480/sup 0/ with the yellow ocher from Niwasaka, Fukushima Prefacture, Japan, the low-temperature tar was easily converted to neutral and light oils and the catalysts could be regenerated by repeated baking and reduction. It is concluded that the commercialization of this reduction process is possible by using a cycle (each takes 20 minutes) composed of catalytic reaction, baking, and reduction of the catalysts.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal tar standard reference material - SRM 1597a updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Poster, Dianne L.; Rimmer, Catherine A.; Schubert, Patricia; Sander, Lane C.; Schantz, Michele M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Leigh, Stefan D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Statistical Engineering Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Moessner, Stephanie [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); GMP/Comparator Labs, Werthenstein Chemie AG, Industrie Nord, Schachen (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    SRM 1597 Complex Mixture of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar, originally issued in 1987, was recently reanalyzed and reissued as SRM 1597a with 34 certified, 46 reference, and 12 information concentrations (as mass fractions) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) including methyl-substituted PAHs and PASHs. The certified and reference concentrations (as mass fractions) were based on results of analyses of the coal tar material using multiple analytical techniques including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on four different stationary phases and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. SRM 1597a is currently the most extensively characterized SRM for PAHs and PASHs. (orig.)

  18. Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jull, A.J.T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O'Malley, J.M.; MacPhee, R.D.E.; McDonald, H.G.; Martin, P.S.; Moody, J.; Rincon, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 ± 280 to 11 880 ± 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small

  19. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future

  20. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N

    1989-10-01

    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  1. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  2. The scattered disk and hot belt, two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavelaars, J. J.; Petit, J.-M.; Gladman, B.; Jone, R. L.; Parker, J.; Taylor, M.

    2011-10-01

    The Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS) and High Latitude Extension (HILat)[] obtained characterized observations of nearly 800 sq.deg. of sky to depths in the range ˜23.5 - 24.4 AB mag, providing a database of nearly 200 trans-neptunian objects (TNOs) with high-precision dynamical classification and known discovery efficiency. Using this database, we find that the high-inclination component of the inner (a 47 AU) belt are well represented by a continuous density distribution coming from a constrained q range (35 < q < 40). This range of peri-center is similar to the range which some researchers associated with the scattered disk. In our modeling of the orbital phase space of the Kuiper belt we find that there is no need for two distinct components (ie. both a scattered disk and a hot component to the classical belt). The historical separation of the high-inclination component of the Kuiper belt into these two distinct structures appears to have been mis-guided.

  3. Falling behind - Canada's lost clean energy jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    With the depletion of conventional resources and the increasing concerns about the environment, emphasis has been put on developing clean energy. Clean energy is expected to become one of the main industrial sectors within the next decade, thus creating numerous jobs. While significant investments have been made by several countries to shift to clean energy, Canada is investing in highly polluting resources such as the tar sands. It is shown that if Canada were to match U.S. efforts in terms of clean energy on a per person basis, they would need to invest 11 billion additional dollars and this would result in the creation of 66,000 clean energy jobs. This paper showed that Canada is falling behind in terms of clean energy and the authors recommend that the Canadian government match U.S. investments and design policies in support of clean energy and put a price on carbon so as to favor the development of the clean energy sector and its consequent job creation.

  4. Analysis of the use of coal tar as a binder in bituminous mixtures, using Marshall and Ramcodes methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa-Díaz, R

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative use of coal tar, a by-product of the steel industry, given the problems of accumulation and negative environmental impact. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the incorporation of coal tar as a binder in paving mixtures. First, this paper presents the origin, description of the main characteristics, and properties of tar. Then, this paper evaluates the mix of coal tar by means of the RAMCODES and Marshall methodologies to determine its resistance. The results of the tests explain the physical and mechanical properties of the mix. Taking into account the results of both methods, this paper makes a comparison to determine the suitability of the RAMCODES methodology in the mix design. Finally, it analyzes the alternatives to coal tar that can be used as binders in bituminous mixes for pavement and the advantages of their uses under some specific conditions

  5. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar. A 25-year follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis

  6. Belt design central to conveyor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    While a conveyor system comprises a complex range of components, it is the belt design which ultimately dictates its core performance and reliability. The complexity of modern systems can be seen by the recent contract awarded to ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik (TKF) to supply systems for a new steel plant (including a coking plant and a power plant) to be built in Sepetiba Bay in Brazil. Phoenix has designed the Phoenotec system to protect steel cord conveyor belts. Fenner Dunlop has developed Fenaplast belting with nylon or polyester load-bearing warp and weft yarns for good impact resistance. 2 photos.

  7. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the...

  8. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  10. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  11. ATLAS-Canada Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, I; Sobie, R J [HEPnet/Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bedinelli, M; Butterworth, S; Groer, L; Kupchinsky, V [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Caron, B; McDonald, S; Payne, C [TRIUMF Laboratory, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chambers, R [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fitzgerald, B [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hatem, R; Marshall, P; Pobric, D [CANARIE Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Maddalena, P; Mercure, P; Robertson, S; Rochefort, M [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); McWilliam, D [BCNet, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Siegert, M [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada)], E-mail: igable@uvic.ca (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The ATLAS-Canada computing model consists of a WLCG Tier-1 computing centre located at the TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, and two distributed Tier-2 computing centres in eastern and western Canadian universities. The TRIUMF Tier-1 is connected to the CERN Tier-0 via a 10G dedicated circuit provided by CANARIE. The Canadian institutions hosting Tier-2 facilities are connected to TRIUMF via 1G lightpaths, and routing between Tier-2s occurs through TRIUMF. This paper discusses the architecture of the ATLAS-Canada network, the challenges of building the network, and the future plans.

  12. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  13. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  14. Radiation oncology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Meredith; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2018-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and the cancer care system in Canada as it pertains to the governance, funding and delivery of radiotherapy programmes. We also review the training and practice for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists in Canada. We describe the clinical practice of radiation medicine from patients' referral, assessment, case conferences and the radiotherapy process. Finally, we provide an overview of the practice culture for Radiation Oncology in Canada. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  16. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  17. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  18. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  19. Abating coal tar seepage into surface water bodies using sheet piles with sealed interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingwood, B.I.; Boscardin, M.D.; Murdock, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A former coal tar processing facility processed crude coal tar supplied from manufactured gas plants in the area. Coal-tar-contaminated ground water from the site was observed seeping through an existing timber bulkhead along a tidal river and producing a multicolored sheen on the surface of the river. As part of a short-term measure to abate the seepage into the river, 64-m long anchored sheet pile wall with sheet pile wing walls at each end was constructed inland of the of the timber bulkhead. The sheet piles extended to low-permeability soils at depth and the interlocks of the sheet piles were provided with polyurethane rubber seals. Based on postconstruction observations for leakage and sheens related to leakage, the steel sheet piles with polyurethane rubber interlock seals appeared to provide a successful seal and abate coal-tar-contaminated ground water seepage into the river. The tie rod penetration sealing proved to be a more problematic detail, but through several postconstruction grouting episodes, an effective seal was produced

  20. PAHs underfoot: contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter C. Van Metre; Barbara J. Mahler; Jennifer T. Wilson [U.S. Geological Survey, Austin, TX (USA)

    2009-01-15

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U.S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of {Sigma}PAHs associated with sealcoat. Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U.S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U.S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2.1 and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  2. Coal tar induces AHR-dependent skin barrier repair in atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, E.H. van den; Bergboer, J.G.M.; Vonk-Bergers, M.; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M. van; Hato, S.V.; Valk, P.G. van der; Schroder, J.M.; Joosten, I.; Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Topical application of coal tar is one of the oldest therapies for atopic dermatitis (AD), a T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocyte-mediated skin disease associated with loss-of-function mutations in the skin barrier gene, filaggrin (FLG). Despite its longstanding clinical use and efficacy, the molecular

  3. DeepMirTar: a deep-learning approach for predicting human miRNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Cong, Peisheng; Zhang, Zhimin; Lu, Hongmei; Li, Tonghua

    2018-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that function in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Because the underlying mechanisms associated with miRNA binding to mRNA are not fully understood, a major challenge of miRNA studies involves the identification of miRNA-target sites on mRNA. In silico prediction of miRNA-target sites can expedite costly and time-consuming experimental work by providing the most promising miRNA-target-site candidates. In this study, we reported the design and implementation of DeepMirTar, a deep-learning-based approach for accurately predicting human miRNA targets at the site level. The predicted miRNA-target sites are those having canonical or non-canonical seed, and features, including high-level expert-designed, low-level expert-designed, and raw-data-level, were used to represent the miRNA-target site. Comparison with other state-of-the-art machine-learning methods and existing miRNA-target-prediction tools indicated that DeepMirTar improved overall predictive performance. DeepMirTar is freely available at https://github.com/Bjoux2/DeepMirTar_SdA. lith@tongji.edu.cn, hongmeilu@csu.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. GC/MS analysis of coal tar composition produced from coal pyrolysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coal tar is a significant product generated from coal pyrolysis. A detailed analytical study on its composition and chemical structure will be of great advantage to its further processing and utilization. Using a combined method of planigraphy-gas chromatograph/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), this work presents a composition ...

  5. PAHs underfoot: Contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U. S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U. S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U. S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2. 1 and 0. 8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

  6. Studies estimating the dermal bioavailability of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from manufactured plant tar-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, T.A.; Krueger, A.J.; Taylor, B.B.; Mauro, D.M.; Goldstein, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    In vitro percutaneous absorption studies were performed with contaminated soils or organic extracts of contaminated soils collected at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. The MGP tar contaminated soils were found to contain a group of targeted polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at levels ranging from 10 to 2400 mg/kg. The soil extracts contained target PAH at levels ranging from 12 000 - 34 000 mg/kg. Dermal penetration rates of target PAH from the MGP tar-contaminated soils/soil extracts were determined experimentally through human skin using 3 H-benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a surrogate. Results from three MGP sites showed reductions of 2-3 orders of magnitude in PAH absorption through human skin from the most contaminated soils in comparison to the soil extracts. Reduction in PAH penetration can be attributed to PAH concentration and (soil) matrix properties. PAH dermal flux values are used to determine site-specific dermally absorbed dose (DAD) and chronic daily intake (CDI) which are essential terms required to estimate risk associated with human exposure to MGP tar and MGP tar-contaminated soils. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  7. The influence of partial oxidation mechanisms on tar destruction in TwoStage biomass gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Egsgaard, Helge; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    adsorption and determined by stable isotope dilution analysis. The results have shown that partial oxidation reduces and converts primary tars into low molecular weight, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), primarily naphthalene. At temperatures above 950°C practically all phenol is converted...

  8. Pelagic tar, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons and plastic distribution in the Cretan Sea, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornilios, S.; Drakopoulos, P.G.; Dounas, C. [Institute of Marine Biology of Crete, Iraklio (Greece). Environmental Dept.

    1998-12-01

    During the first cruise of R/V `Philia` in July 1997 within the framework of the TALOS programme supported by the Greek Ministry of Physical Planning and Public Works, the sampling of floating tar, litter and sea water for dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) was carried out in the Cretan Sea. Analysis of these data has allowed a first assessment of the status of floating marine pollution in the region. DDPH measurements showed a mean concentration of 0.145 {mu}g/l of chrysene equivalents (n = 24). Tar and plastics concentrations were in the range of 1-4280 and 0-1160 {mu}g/m{sup 2}, respectively. Mean pelagic tar concentration was 318 {mu}g/m{sup 2}, more than two times higher than what was reported for the area in previous studies. Based on in situ hydrographic observations there is strong evidence that most of the floating tar enters the Cretan Sea through the Ionian Sea. (author)

  9. Pelagic tar, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons and plastic distribution in the Cretan Sea, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornilios, S.; Drakopoulos, P.G.; Dounas, C. [Institute of Marine Biology of Crete, Iraklio (Greece). Environmental Dept.

    1998-12-01

    During the first cruise of R/V 'Philia' in July 1997 within the framework of the TALOS programme supported by the Greek Ministry of Physical Planning and Public Works, the sampling of floating tar, litter and sea water for dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) was carried out in the Cretan Sea. Analysis of these data has allowed a first assessment of the status of floating marine pollution in the region. DDPH measurements showed a mean concentration of 0.145 {mu}g/l of chrysene equivalents (n = 24). Tar and plastics concentrations were in the range of 1-4280 and 0-1160 {mu}g/m{sup 2}, respectively. Mean pelagic tar concentration was 318 {mu}g/m{sup 2}, more than two times higher than what was reported for the area in previous studies. Based on in situ hydrographic observations there is strong evidence that most of the floating tar enters the Cretan Sea through the Ionian Sea. (author)

  10. Catalytic decomposition of biomass tars: Use of dolomite and untreated olivine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devi, L.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Paasen, van S.V.B.; Bergman, P.C.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Although biomass is getting increased attention as a renewable energy source, one of the remaining problems still to be solved is the reduction of the high level of tar present in the product gas from gasification of biomass. The purpose of the present work is to study the activity of olivine and

  11. Tar analysis from biomass gasification by means of online fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumhakl, Christoph; Karellas, Sotirios

    2011-07-01

    Optical methods in gas analysis are very valuable mainly due to their non-intrusive character. That gives the possibility to use them for in-situ or online measurements with only optical intervention in the measurement volume. In processes like the gasification of biomass, it is of high importance to monitor the gas quality in order to use the product gas in proper machines for energy production following the restrictions in the gas composition but also improving its quality, which leads to high efficient systems. One of the main problems in the biomass gasification process is the formation of tars. These higher hydrocarbons can lead to problems in the operation of the energy system. Up to date, the state of the art method used widely for the determination of tars is a standardized offline measurement system, the so-called "Tar Protocol". The aim of this work is to describe an innovative, online, optical method for determining the tar content of the product gas by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. This method uses optical sources and detectors that can be found in the market at low cost and therefore it is very attractive, especially for industrial applications where cost efficiency followed by medium to high precision are of high importance.

  12. Quantitative determination of acid oils in low-temperature coal tar by means of fractional distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, A

    1950-01-01

    The aromatic hydroxy compounds in low-temperature tar were separated, and 75 compounds in the boiling range 180/sup 0/ to 320/sup 0/ isolated by means of fractional distillation in packed columns of at least 45 theoretical plates. Mixtures not separable by fractionation were separated by means of other physicochemical or chemical methods. Hydroxy compounds with boiling point up to 230/sup 0/C were detemined quantitatively, as were the phenols present in low-temperature carbonization liquors. With the Krupp-Lurgi process of low-temperature carbonization, 1.8% phenol, 1.8% o-cresol, and 3.6% m-p-cresols were formed. The tar contained up to 1.3% 1:3:5-xylenol and up to 0.9% 1:2:4-xylenol. Of the 12.1% v/v of phenol, cresols, and xylenols present in tar, 11.2% were determined quantitatively, and 9 hydroxy compounds were identified in the remaining 0.9%. On the basis of these investigations, a technical plant that permitted the recovery of pure low-temperature tar phenols and the preparation of a number of different phenol resins from the mixtures was erected.

  13. Pelagic tar, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons and plastic distribution in the Cretan Sea, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornilios, S.; Drakopoulos, P.G.; Dounas, C.

    1998-01-01

    During the first cruise of R/V 'Philia' in July 1997 within the framework of the TALOS programme supported by the Greek Ministry of Physical Planning and Public Works, the sampling of floating tar, litter and sea water for dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) was carried out in the Cretan Sea. Analysis of these data has allowed a first assessment of the status of floating marine pollution in the region. DDPH measurements showed a mean concentration of 0.145 μg/l of chrysene equivalents (n = 24). Tar and plastics concentrations were in the range of 1-4280 and 0-1160 μg/m 2 , respectively. Mean pelagic tar concentration was 318 μg/m 2 , more than two times higher than what was reported for the area in previous studies. Based on in situ hydrographic observations there is strong evidence that most of the floating tar enters the Cretan Sea through the Ionian Sea. (author)

  14. Low Temperature Particle Filtration of Producer Gas with Low Tar Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus

    This report describes the tests of different techniques for removing the particulates from producer gas from the 100 kW two-stage down-draft gasifier at DTU1 . The goal of the tests was to identify and implement methods to remove soot particles from producer gas with low tar content. During the f...

  15. Low Temperature Particle Filtration of Wood Gas with Low Tar Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Bentzen, Jens Dall

    2002-01-01

    Baghouse filters and cartridge filters were tested online with wood gas from a two stage down draft gasifier. The gas contained soot and very low levels (10-30 mg/Nm³) of tar. Particle collection efficiencies were above 95%. Continuous operation with cheap self cleaning baghouse filters were test...

  16. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  17. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junxia; Pang, Xiaoxu

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed a...

  18. Seat-belt message and the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  19. The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks

  20. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1979-01-01

    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  1. Canada's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1976-01-01

    Although Canada has developed the CANDU type reactor, and has an ambitious programme of nuclear power plant construction, there has been virtually no nuclear controversy. This progress was seen as a means to bring Canada out of the 'resource cow' era, and onto a more equal footing with technologically elite nations. However the Indian nuclear explosion test, waste storage problems, contamination problems arising from use of uranium ore processing waste as land fill and subsidised sale of nuclear power plants to Argentina and South Korea have initiated public and parliamentary interest. Some economists have also maintained that Canada is approaching over-supply of nuclear power and over-investment in plant. Canada has no official overall energy production plan and alternative sources have not been evaluated. (JIW)

  2. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  3. Wait times in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Janice Christine

    2017-07-01

    A significant barrier to accessing healthcare in Canada is long waiting lists, which can be linked to the way that Medicare was structured. After significant pressure, provincial governments began to address wait times. An example of a successful strategy to reduce wait times for elective surgery is the Saskatchewan Surgical Initiative, which saw wait times in the province change from being among the longest in Canada to the shortest.

  4. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  5. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  6. Social-cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: generalization of effects of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölwer, Wolfgang; Frommann, Nicole

    2011-09-01

    In the last decade, several social cognitive remediation programs have been developed for use in schizophrenia. Though existing evidence indicates that such programs can improve social cognition, which is essential for successful social functioning, it remains unclear whether the improvements generalize to social cognitive domains not primarily addressed by the intervention and whether the improved test performance transfers into everyday social functioning. The present study investigated whether, beyond its known effects on facial affect recognition, the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) has effects on prosodic affect recognition, theory of mind (ToM) performance, social competence in a role-play task, and more general social and occupational functioning. Thirty-eight inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of treatment with the TAR--primarily targeted at facial affect recognition-or Cognitive Remediation Training (CRT)--primarily targeted at neurocognition. Intention-to-treat analyses found significantly larger pre-post improvements with TAR than with CRT in prosodic affect recognition, ToM, and social competence and a trend effect in global social functioning. However, the effects on ToM and social competence were no longer significant in the smaller group of patients who completed treatment according to protocol. Results suggest that TAR effects generalize to other social cognitive domains not primarily addressed. TAR may also enhance social skills and social functioning, although this has to be confirmed. Results are discussed with regard to the need to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia against the background of current evidence from other social cognitive remediation approaches.

  7. Evidence for conformational flexibility in the Tat-TAR recognition motif of cyclin T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Chandreyee; Edgcomb, Stephen P.; Peteranderl, Ralph; Chen, Lily; Frankel, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    Cyclin T1 (CycT1) is a cellular transcription elongation factor that also participates in Tat-mediated activation of several lentiviral promoters. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), CycT1 is required for Tat to bind tightly to TAR and interacts in the ternary complex via its Tat-TAR recognition motif (TRM). In the related bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), Tat recognizes its cognate TAR element with high affinity and specificity in the absence of CycT1. At both promoters, CycT1 recruits the Cdk9 kinase, which phosphorylates RNA polymerase II to generate processive transcription complexes. To examine the physical properties of CycT1, we purified a functional domain corresponding to residues 1-272 and found that it possesses a stably folded core, as judged by partial proteolysis and circular dichroism experiments. Interestingly, the C-terminal 20 residues corresponding to the TRM appear conformationally flexible or disordered. The TRM of the bovine CycT1 (bCycT1) is similarly sensitive to proteolysis yet differs in sequence from the human protein. In particular, bCycT1 lacks a cysteine at residue 261 known to be critical for HIV but not BIV ternary complex formation, and mutagenesis data are consistent with a proposed role for this cysteine in metal binding. The apparent flexibility of the TRM suggests that conformational rearrangements may accompany formation of CycT1-Tat-TAR ternary complexes and may contribute to different TAR recognition strategies in different lentiviruses

  8. Dual vapor extraction on acidic sludge tar at a former refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, P.R.; Beall, P.; Townsend, S.

    1996-01-01

    OHM Remediation Services Corp conducted a pilot-scale demonstration for a novel application of dual vapor extraction technology for the pretreatment of the acid tar sludge material. The acid tar sludge comprised of approximately 60% asphaltene hydrocarbon material, 20% clay, and up to 20% sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ). The liquid layer in the bottom of the pits has a low pH ( 2 ) gas which is released with the sludge material is excavated or handled. The objective of the dual vapor extraction was to remove the SO 2 vapors and liquid layer containing sulfuric acid prior to any further treatment. The dual vapor extraction would reduce the amount of alkaline reagent required for neutralization while eliminating the health and safety concerns. Overall, the DVE pilot demonstration successfully showed that both liquids and vapors could be removed from the acid tar sludge material. The liquid present in the lower portions of the pits will have pH values of 1.0 or less and acidities on the order of 5% H 2 SO 4 . The liquid removed from the acid tar sludge material by a DVE system will have slightly higher pH (∼1.5) and lower alkalinities (∼3% H 2 SO 4 ). The SO 2 concentration in the vapors removed by the DVE system will be variable with initial levels approaching 1,200 ppmv SO 2 . The SO 2 concentration in the vapor phase should decrease with time. A caustic scrubber solution will remove any SO 2 from the vapor phase. After DVE treatment, the acid tar sludge material would have a slightly increased pH and a decreased SO 2 concentration

  9. Physicochemical Approaches for the Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswirth, S.; Miller, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars are one of the most challenging non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants to remediate due to their complex chemical composition, high viscosities, and ability to alter wettability. In this work, we investigate several in situ remediation techniques for the removal of tar from porous media. Batch and column experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of mobilization, solubilization, and chemical oxidation remediation approaches. Alkaline (NaOH), surfactant (Triton X-100), and polymer (xanthan gum) agents were used in various combinations to reduce tar-water interfacial tension, increase flushing solution viscosity, and increase the solubilities of tar components. Base-activated sodium persulfate was used alone and in combination with surfactant to chemically oxidized tar components. The effectiveness of each method was assessed in terms of both removal of PAHs from the system and reduction of dissolved-phase effluent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. In column studies, alkaline-polymer (AP) and alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) solutions efficiently mobilized 81-93% and 95-96% of residual PAHs, respectively, within two pore volumes. The impact of AP flushing on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations was relatively low; however, the concentrations of several low molar mass PAHs were significantly reduced after ASP flushing. Surfactant-polymer (SP) solutions removed over 99% of residual PAHs through a combination of mobilization and solubilization, and reduced the post-remediation, dissolved-phase total PAH concentration by 98.4-99.1%. Degradation of residual PAHs by base-activated sodium persulfate was relatively low (30-50%), and had little impact on dissolved-phase PAH concentrations.

  10. Understanding the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons from coal tar within gasholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Frédéric; Orsi, Roberto; Turner, Claire; Walton, Chris; Daly, Paddy; Pollard, Simon J T

    2009-02-01

    Coal tars have been identified as posing a threat to human health due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. Workers involved in former gasholders decommissioning are potentially exposed to relevant concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile hydrocarbons upon opening up derelict tanks and during tar excavation/removal. While information on contaminated sites air-quality and its implications on medium-long term exposure is available, acute exposure issues associated with the execution of critical tasks are less understood. Calculations indicated that the concentration of a given contaminant in the gasholder vapour phase only depends on the coal tar composition, being only barely affected by the presence of water in the gasholder and the tar volume/void space ratio. Fugacity modelling suggested that risk-critical compounds such as benzene, naphthalene and other monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may gather in the gasholder air phase at significant concentrations. Gasholder emissions were measured on-site and compared with the workplace exposure limits (WELs) currently in use in UK. While levels for most of the toxic compounds were far lower than WELs, benzene air-concentrations where found to be above the accepted threshold. In addition due to the long exposure periods involved in gasholder decommissioning and the significant contribution given by naphthalene to the total coal tar vapour concentration, the adoption of a WEL for naphthalene may need to be considered to support operators in preventing human health risk at the workplace. The Level I fugacity approach used in this study demonstrated its suitability for applications to sealed environments such as gasholders and its further refining could provide a useful tool for land remediation risk assessors.

  11. Changes in tar yields and cigarette design in samples of Chinese cigarettes, 2009 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, Liane M; Zwierzchowski, Benjamin A; Caruso, Rosalie V; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Jiang; Fong, Geoffrey T; O'Connor, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    China is home to the greatest number of smokers as well as the greatest number of smoking-related deaths. An active and growing market of cigarettes marketed as 'light' or 'low tar' may keep health-concerned smokers from quitting, wrongly believing that such brands are less harmful. This study sought to observe changes in cigarette design characteristics and reported tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide (TNCO) levels in a sample of cigarette brands obtained in seven Chinese cities from 2009 to 2012. Cigarettes were purchased and shipped to Roswell Park Cancer Institute, where 91 pairs of packs were selected for physical cigarette design characteristic testing and recording of TNCO values. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS, and was initially characterised using descriptive statistics, correlations and generalised estimating equations to observe changes in brand varieties over time. Reported TNCO values on packs saw mean tar, nicotine and CO levels decrease from 2009 to 2012 by 7.9%, 4.5% and 6.0%, respectively. Ventilation was the only cigarette design feature that significantly changed over time (p<0.001), with an increase of 31.7%. Significant predictors of tar and CO yield overall were ventilation and per-cigarette tobacco weight, while for nicotine tobacco moisture was also an independent predictor of yield. The use of ventilation to decrease TNCO emissions is misleading smokers to believe that they are smoking a 'light/low' tar cigarette that is healthier, and is potentially forestalling the quitting behaviours that would begin to reduce the health burden of tobacco in China, and so should be prohibited. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Terrorism in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollek, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.

  13. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J. [University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375{sup o}C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  14. Regional magnetic anomalies, crustal strength, and the location of the northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    The northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt in Canada and Alaska is at the boundary between the broad continental margin mobile belt and the stable North American craton. The fold-and-thrust belt is marked by several significant changes in geometry: cratonward extensions in the central Yukon Territory and northeastern Alaska are separated by marginward re-entrants. These geometric features of the Cordilleran mobile belt are controlled by relations between lithospheric strength and compressional tectonic forces developed along the continental margin. Regional magnetic anomalies indicate deep thermal and compositional characteristics that contribute to variations in crustal strength. Our detailed analysis of one such anomaly, the North Slope deep magnetic high, helps to explain the geometry of the fold-and-thrust front in northern Alaska. This large magnetic anomaly is inferred to reflect voluminous mafic magmatism in an old (Devonian?) extensional domain. The presence of massive amounts of malic material in the lower crust implies geochemical depletion of the underlying upper mantle, which serves to strengthen the lithosphere against thermal erosion by upper mantle convection. We infer that deep-source magnetic highs are an important indicator of strong lower crust and upper mantle. This stronger lithosphere forms buttresses that play an important role in the structural development of the northern Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  15. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  16. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y; Tomono, K; Takahashi, H; Uchida, T [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Fresh tar (from biomass gasification) destruction with downstream catalysts: comparison of their intrinsic activity with a realistic kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Narvaez, I.; Orio, A. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A model for fresh tar destruction over catalysts placed downstream a biomass gasifier is presented. It includes the stoichio-metry and the calculation of the kinetic constants for the tar destruction. Catalysts studied include commercial Ni steam reforming catalysts and calcinated dolomites. Kinetic constants for tar destruction are calculated for several particle sizes, times- on-stream and temperatures of the catalyst and equivalence ratios in the gasifier. Such intrinsic kinetic constants allow a rigorous or scientific comparison of solids and conditions to be used in an advanced gasification process. (orig.) 4 refs.

  18. Fresh tar (from biomass gasification) destruction with downstream catalysts: comparison of their intrinsic activity with a realistic kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J; Narvaez, I; Orio, A [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A model for fresh tar destruction over catalysts placed downstream a biomass gasifier is presented. It includes the stoichio-metry and the calculation of the kinetic constants for the tar destruction. Catalysts studied include commercial Ni steam reforming catalysts and calcinated dolomites. Kinetic constants for tar destruction are calculated for several particle sizes, times- on-stream and temperatures of the catalyst and equivalence ratios in the gasifier. Such intrinsic kinetic constants allow a rigorous or scientific comparison of solids and conditions to be used in an advanced gasification process. (orig.) 4 refs.

  19. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Canadian uranium exploration and development efforts in 1985 and 1986 resulted in a significant increase in estimates of measured uranium resources. New discoveries have more than made up for production during 1985 and 1986, and for the elimination of some resources from the overall estimates, due to the sustained upward pressure on production costs and the stagnation of uranium prices in real terms. Canada possesses a large portion of the world's uranium resources that are of current economic interest and remains the major focus of inter-national uranium exploration activity. Expenditures for uranium exploration in Canada in 1985 and 1986 were $32 million and $33 million, respectively. Although much lower than the $130 million total reported for 1979, expenditures for 1987 are forecast to increase. Exploration and surface development drilling in 1985 and 1986 were reported to be 183 000 m and 165σ2 000 m, respectively, 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada has maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium. By the year 2000, Canada's annual uranium requirements will be about 2 100 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or expected to be in service by the late 1990s. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Annual sales currently approach $1 billion, of which exports account for 85 per cent. Forward domestic and export contract commitments totalled 73 000 tU and 62 000 tU, respectively, as of early 1987

  20. Canada's uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.L.; Williams, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Canadian Government policies which affect the uranium industry and, where appropriate, to provide some background on the development of these policies. This review is timely because of two recent announcements by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources - one concerning the Canadian Government's renewed commitment to maintain the nuclear power option for Canada, and the other concerning some adjustments to Canada's uranium export policy. The future of Canada's nuclear industry was subject to a thorough review by the Canadian Government during 1989. This review occurred at a time when environmental issues were attracting increasing attention around the world, and the environmental advantages of nuclear power were becoming increasingly recognised. The strong support for the nuclear industry in Canada is consistent with the government's long-standing efforts to maintain Canada's position as a reliable and competitive supplier of uranium. This paper is particularly devoted to an outline of the results of the uranium export policy review. (author)

  1. Building Canada: Phase One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-04-15

    The 'Building Canada' program modelled after the 'Building America' program, aims at increasing energy efficiency and affordability, primarily for single family homes. The program takes a holistic and whole house view, employing a systems approach and is committed to continuous improvement through testing, evaluation, retesting and novel construction practices. The program's objective is to re-engineer house designs so that builders can take advantage of advanced products and achieve maximum efficiency. Building Canada aims to achieve its objectives through partnership with the housing industry, focusing on increasing energy efficiency while reducing construction time, using and wasting fewer materials, forestalling call backs, and reducing overall costs. The Building Canada procedures encompass marketing, research of builder's operations, re-engineering mechanical systems, framing components and techniques, moisture control and thermal performance, construction, resolution of problems in re-engineered homes, and discussion of results in demonstration homes. The program as a whole is built on the feasibility study of a Building Canada program carried out in Nova Scotia and Ontario. Some of the results of this pilot study summarized in this report indicate that the Building Canada is not suitable for use by small builders. Benefits are most likely to be realized by only by builders constructing more than 100 homes annually.

  2. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  3. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  4. Storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics: Repeatability in the outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; Watt, C.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During intervals of enhanced solar wind driving the outer radiation belt becomes extremely dynamic leading to geomagnetic storms. During these storms the flux of energetic electrons can vary by over 4 orders of magnitude. Despite recent advances in understanding the nature of competing storm-time electron loss and acceleration processes the dynamic behavior of the outer radiation belt remains poorly understood; the outer radiation belt can exhibit either no change, an enhancement, or depletion in radiation belt electrons. Using a new analysis of the total radiation belt electron content, calculated from the Van Allen probes phase space density (PSD), we statistically analyze the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms. We demonstrate that by removing adiabatic effects there is a clear and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. Namely, the relativistic (μ=1000 MeV/G) and ultra-relativistic (μ=4000 MeV/G) electron populations can be separated into two phases; an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase dominated by acceleration. At lower energies, the radiation belt seed population of electrons (μ=150 MeV/G) shows no evidence of loss but rather a net enhancement during storms. Further, we investigate the dependence of electron dynamics as a function of the second adiabatic invariant, K. These results demonstrate a global coherency in the dynamics of the source, relativistic and ultra-relativistic electron populations as function of the second adiabatic invariant K. This analysis demonstrates two key aspects of storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. First, the radiation belt responds repeatably to solar wind driving during geomagnetic storms. Second, the response of the radiation belt is energy dependent, relativistic electrons behaving differently than lower energy seed electrons. These results have important implications in radiation belt research. In particular

  5. Canada's domestic nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) is a committee of representatives of religious groups in Toronto, a group of people concerned about the moral and ethical implications of the operation of Canada's nuclear industry and of its exports to other countries. The faith groups represented are the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, the Baha'i Community of Canada, the Jewish Community of Toronto, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto and the United Church of Canada Toronto Conference. Wishing to encourage the Canadian government to enquire into this broad question, the faith groups established IPPANI and assigned to it the task of enhancing their knowledge of the nuclear industry. IPPANI was to develop an effective set of questions to be placed before governments and to promote public discussion so that governments might become more responsive to these issues

  6. Cardiac Rehabilitation Series: Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L.; Bennett, Stephanie; Ardern, Chris I.; Clark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Canada. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has a long robust history here, and there are established clinical practice guidelines. While the effectiveness of CR in the Canadian context is clear, only 34% of eligible patients participate, and strategies to increase access for under-represented groups (e.g., women, ethnic minority groups) are not yet universally applied. Identified CR barriers include lack of referral and physician recommendation, travel and distance, and low perceived need. Indeed there is now a national policy position recommending systematic inpatient referral to CR in Canada. Recent development of 30 CR Quality Indicators and the burgeoning national CR registry will enable further measurement and improvement of the quality of CR care in Canada. Finally, the Canadian Association of CR is one of the founding members of the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, to promote CR globally. PMID:24607018

  7. Genetic relationship of organic bases of the quinoline and isoquinoline series from lignite semicoking tars with the initial biological material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Podshibyakin, S.I.; Domogatskii, V.V.; Shvykin, A.Y.; Shavyrina, O.A.; Chilachava, K.B. [Leo Tolstoy State Pedagog University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    The genetic relationship of quinoline and isoquinoline compounds present in semicoking tars of Kimovsk lignites (near-Moscow fields) with the initial vegetable material is discussed. Transformation pathways of the native compounds in the course of lignite formation are suggested.

  8. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  9. Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaç, Selman

    2017-09-19

    In this study, a new protective design compatible with existing non-secure systems was proposed, since it is focused on the secure communication of wireless IMD systems in all transmissions. This new protector is an external wearable device and appears to be a belt fitted around for the patients IMD implanted. However, in order to provide effective full duplex transmissions and physical layer security, some sophisticated transceiver antennas have been placed on the belt. In this approach, beam-focused multi-antennas in optimal positions on the belt are randomly switched when transmissions to the IMD are performed and multi-jammer switching with MRC combining or majority-rule based receiving techniques are applied when transmissions from the IMD are carried out. This approach can also reduce the power consumption of the IMDs and contribute to the prolongation of the IMD's battery life.

  10. Estimates Of Radiation Belt Remediation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.; Hoyt, R. P.; Minor, B. M.

    2004-12-01

    A low-Earth orbit nuclear detonation could produce an intense artificial radiation belt of relativistic electrons. Many satellites would be destroyed within a few weeks. We present here simple estimates of radiation belt remediation by several different techniques, including electron absorption by gas release, pitch angle scattering by steady electric and magnetic fields from tether arrays, and pitch angle scattering by wave-particle interactions from in-situ transmitters. For each technique, the mass, size, and power requirements are estimated for a one-week remediation (e-folding) timescale, assuming that a 10 kTon blast trapped 1024 fission product electrons (1 to 8 MeV) at L = 1.5 in a dipolar belt of width dL = 0.1.

  11. Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

  12. Dissolution and transport of coal tar compounds in fractured clay-rich residuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulava, Vijay M.; McKay, Larry D.; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2012-01-01

    the importance of rapid dissolution and transport through the fracture networks. The concentrations continued to rise but did not reach the corresponding effective solubility limit in most cases. Compounds that were less soluble and those that were more susceptible to sorption or matrix diffusion eluted...... at a much slower rate. Analysis of contaminant concentrations in microcore residuum samples indicated that all 10 compounds had spread throughout the entire monolith and had diffused into the fine-grained matrix between fractures. These data suggest that the predominantly fine pore structure did not appear......We investigated the dissolution and transport of organic contaminants from a crude coal tar mixture in a monolith of fractured clay-rich residuum. An electrolyte solution was eluted through the residuum monolith containing a small emplaced source of coal tar under biologically inhibited and mildly...

  13. Synthesis Of 2- (1- Naphthyl) Ethanoic Acid ( Plant Growth Regulator ) From Coal Tar And Its Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin Mooh Theint; Tin Myint Htwe

    2011-12-01

    Plant growth regulators, which are commonly called as plant hormones, naturally produced non-nutrient chemical compounds involved in growth and development. Among the various kinds of plant growth regulators, 2- (1- Naphthyl ) ethanoic acid especially encourages the root development of the plant. In this work, NAA was successfuly synthesized from naphthalene which was extracted from coal tar. The purity of naphthalene, -Chloromethyl naphthalene, -Naphthyl acetonitrile, - Naphthyl acetic acid or 2 - ( 1-Naphthyl ) ethanoic acid were also confirmed by Thin Layer Chromatography, and by spectroscopy methods. The yield percent of NAA based on naphthalene was found to be 2.1%. The yield percent of naphthaleneFrom coal tar is found to be 4.09%. The effect of NAA on root development was also studied in different concentrations of soy bean (Glycine max)and cow pea (Vigna catjang walp).

  14. Isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Richard W; Huynh, Kelvin V; Hoang, Timothy V; Crowley, David E

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to identify culturable surfactant-producing bacterial species that inhabit the 40,000-year-old natural asphalt seep at the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA. Using phenanthrene, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and tryptic soy broth as growth substrates, culturable bacteria from the tar pits yielded ten isolates, of which three species of gamma-proteobacteria produced biosurfactants that accumulated in spent culture medium. Partially purified biosurfactants produced by these strains lowered the surface tension of water from 70 to 35-55 mN/m and two of the biosurfactants produced 'dark halos' with the atomized oil assay, a phenomenon previously observed only with synthetic surfactants. Key findings include the isolation of culturable biosurfactant-producing bacteria that comprise a relatively small fraction of the petroleum-degrading community in the asphalt.

  15. A cost comparison of nuclear and fossil power for the Alberta tar sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochaski, R.O.; Smith, D.W.

    1977-04-01

    One technique envisaged for commercial development of the Alberta tar sands is in-situ removal of bitumen by injection of steam into the formation at high temperature and pressure. The 3000 MW of thermal power required for a typical 20 Gg/d plant could be supplied by a nuclear reactor. Accordingly, an economic comparison was made between a CANDU organic-cooled reactor and a conventional coal-fired station, using a variety of financial ground rules. This analysis shows that for debt-financed cases, nuclear power has essentially no economic competition from coal. For equity cases, the competitive position of a coal-fired station is heavily dependent on the cost of coal delivered to the tar sands area, discount rate, amortization period and inflation rate. (author)

  16. Formulation of Pine Tar Antidandruff Shampoo Assessment and Comparison With Some Commercial Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gharavi

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a pine tar shampoo as a new antidandruff formulation is presented. Assessment of antidandruff preparations has been hampered by the lack of standardized schedules, and reliable methods of evaluation.Some antidandruff agents such as : Zinc pyri-thione pine tar, selenium sulphide and (sulfure were used in shampoos. Samples were coded as numbers 1,2 formulated by us and 3,4 formulated commercially. The grading scheme based on 10 point scale, and corneocyte count was carried out on 50 selected volunte¬ers. Corneocyte count and fungal study proved that pine tor shampoo is effective against pityrosporum ovale. Draize lest was used for determination of the irritancy potential of the samples. Results showed that samples numbered 1,2 were relatively innocous in comparison with the others. I urthermore,s kin sensitination test on rabbit also confirmed the results obtained by Draize test. Consumer judgments proved that all formulations were acceptable.

  17. Calcipotriol versus coal tar: a prospective randomized study in stable plaque psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V.; Kaur, I.; Kumar, B. [Postgraduate Institute of Medicinal Education & Research, Chandigarh (India)

    2003-10-01

    Topical therapies are the first line of treatment for patients with stable plaque psoriasis (SPP) affecting a limited body surface area. Very few trials comparing newer agents, such as 0.005% topical calcipotriol, with conventional modes of therapy, such as coal tar ointment, have been reported. A prospective, right-left randomized, investigator-blinded study with a 12-week treatment period and an 8-week follow-up period was performed. It was found that 0.005% calcipotriol ointment produced a faster initial response and had better cosmetic acceptability in patients, although after a long period of treatment, i.e. 12 weeks, 5% coal tar ointment had comparable efficacy. There was no statistically significant difference in the relapse rates between the two modalities.

  18. The migration and monitoring of viscous NAPLs (coal tar and creosote) in the subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R. [Intera Engineering Ltd., Heidelberg, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The high viscosity of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as creosote and coal tar complicates efforts to monitor their mobility at contaminated sites. Viscous NAPLs can remain mobile for many decades after their application as a wood preservative, or after the closure of the facilities in which they were generated. NAPL-wet pathways in the subsurface can also lead to errors in residual saturation measurements. This abstract discussed issues related to creeping flow and the low seepage rates that are not accounted for using traditional measuring methods. Examples of creeping flow and the monitoring techniques used to assess it were presented for sites in British Columbia and Florida. The drainage of viscous NAPLs during water table declines was also considered, and a case study of a coal tar-removal procedures using polymer surfactant flooding was presented.

  19. A proteomic study of TAR-RNA binding protein (TRBP-associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Ya-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human TAR RNA-binding protein, TRBP, was first identified and cloned based on its high affinity binding to the small hairpin trans-activation responsive (TAR RNA of HIV-1. TRBP has more recently been found to be a constituent of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC serving as a Dicer co-factor in the processing of the ~70 nucleotide pre-microRNAs(miRNAs to 21-25 nucleotide mature miRNAs. Findings Using co-immunoprecipitation and protein-identification by mass spectrometry, we characterized intracellular proteins that complex with TRBP. These interacting proteins include those that have been described to act in protein synthesis, RNA modifications and processing, DNA transcription, and cell proliferation. Conclusions Our findings provide a proteome of factors that may cooperate with TRBP in activities such as miRNA processing and in RNA interference by the RISC complex.

  20. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haydary, J., E-mail: juma.haydary@stuba.sk [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Susa, D.; Dudáš, J. [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis of aseptic packages was carried out in a laboratory flow reactor. ► Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields was obtained. ► Composition of the pyrolysis products was estimated. ► Secondary thermal and catalytic decomposition of tars was studied. ► Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

  1. Topical coal tar alone and in combination with oral methotrexate in management of psoriasis : a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad PVS

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five patients admitted with psoriasis were analysed. 16 patients received 20% crude coal tar and 19 patients received 20% crude coal tar along with methotrexate in a weekly oral schedule (15mg/wk. After 4 weeks of therapy there was total clearence in 52.6% of the patients with combination therapy, whereas only 12.5% of the patients with conventional therapy achieved this.

  2. Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C; Majewski, Michael S; Mahler, Barbara J; Foreman, William T; Braun, Christopher L; Wilson, Jennifer T; Burbank, Teresa L

    2012-06-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (ΣPAH(8)) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m(-3)) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m(-3)). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m(-3)) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m(-3)). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 μg m(-2) h(-1), respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Identification of sources of tar balls deposited along the Goa coast, India, using fingerprinting techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suneel, V.; Vethamony, P.; Zakaria, M.P.; Naik, B.G.; Prasad, K.V.

    . Christensen et al (2007) reviewed the practical aspects of chemometrics for oil spill fingerprinting and provided a basis for the use of chemometric 3    methods in tiered oil spill fingerprinting. Biomarker compounds such as isoprenoid alkanes, hopanes... deposited along the Malaysian beaches. Low molecular weight/high molecular weight ratios (L/H) of both alkanes and PAHs together are useful in categorizing the weathering effects of tar balls (Chandru et al., 2008). However, in cases...

  4. Nuclear graphite based on coal tar pitch; behavior under neutron irradiation between 400 and 14000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottet, P.; Fillatre, A.; Schill, R.; Micaud, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two nuclear grades of coal tar pitch coke graphites have been developed and tested under neutron irradiation. The neutron irradiation induced dimensional changes between 400 and 1400 0 C, at fluences up to 1,2.10 22 n.cm -2 PHI.FG show a behavior comparable to anisotropic petroleum coke graphites. Less than 10% variation in thermal expansion, maximum decrease by a factor four in thermal conductivity, and large increase of the Young modulus have been observed

  5. Tar sand extraction by steam stimulation and steam drive: measurement of physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linberg, W.R.

    1980-09-10

    The measurement of the following thermophysical properties of Utah tar sands is in progress: thermal conductivity, specific heat relative permeability, and viscosity (of the recovered bitumen). During the report period (October 1, 1978 to November 1, 1979), experimental procedures have been developed and a basic data set has been measured. Additionally, standard core analysis has been performed for four drill sites in the Asphalt Ridge, Utah area.

  6. Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: A major PAH source to urban stream sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witter, Amy E.; Nguyen, Minh H.; Baidar, Sunil; Sak, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    We used land-use analysis, PAH concentrations and assemblages, and multivariate statistics to identify sediment PAH sources in a small (∼1303 km 2 ) urbanizing watershed located in South-Central, Pennsylvania, USA. A geographic information system (GIS) was employed to quantify land-use features that may serve as PAH sources. Urban PAH concentrations were three times higher than rural levels, and were significantly and highly correlated with combined residential/commercial/industrial land use. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to group sediments with similar PAH assemblages, and correlation analysis compared PAH sediment assemblages to common PAH sources. The strongest correlations were observed between rural sediments (n = 7) and coke-oven emissions sources (r = 0.69–0.78, n = 5), and between urban sediments (n = 22) and coal-tar-based sealcoat dust (r = 0.94, n = 47) suggesting that coal-tar-based sealcoat is an important urban PAH source in this watershed linked to residential and commercial/industrial land use. -- Highlights: • Total PAH concentrations were measured at 35 sites along an urbanizing land-use gradient. • PAH concentrations increased with increasing urban land-use. • Urban land-use metrics were measured at three spatial scales using GIS. • PAH assemblages indicate coal-tar-based sealcoat is a major urban PAH source. • PAH assemblages indicate coke-oven emissions are an important rural PAH source. -- Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement is a major PAH source to urban freshwater stream sediments in south-central Pennsylvania, USA

  7. Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (ΣPAH8) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m-3) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m-3). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m-3) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m-3). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 μg m-2 h-1, respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces.

  8. Production of gas and volatile materials by distillation of tars, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arson, M

    1860-04-25

    The principle of this production is in the treating of heavy oils with heat, their transformation occurring nearly completely by the action of this agent. The apparatus used consists of a retort of such a form that it has openings at the two ends immediately opposed to each other. One serves to introduce the oil and the other to remove the tar and gas produced. At the exit of the apparatus the gas passes into coolers like those used for coal gas.

  9. Plasma Gasification of Wood and Production of Gas with Low Content of Tar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Michal; Hrabovský, Milan; Kopecký, Vladimír; Konrád, Miloš; Kavka, Tetyana; Skoblja, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, suppl. B (2006), s. 1179-1184 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/22nd./. Praha, 26.6.2006-29.6.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tar * plasma * biomass gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  10. Investigating Efficient Tar Management from Biomass and Waste to Energy Gasification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    internal combustion engine (ICE) can mean spark ignition or diesel ( compression ignition ). It is likely that the light tars could be made to burn in...filled with methyl chloroform to allow rapid acquisition and analysis via an auto handler on the gas chromatography machine. An additional test...flare and venturi are lost. If the venturi were lost air can draw back into the process pipe creating an air fuel mixture that may ignite . PLASMA

  11. Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

  12. Inhibition of HIV Replication by Cyclic and Hairpin PNAs Targeting the HIV-1 TAR RNA Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upert, Gregory; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Upadhyay, Alok; Manvar, Dinesh; Pandey, Nootan; Pandey, Virendra N.; Patino, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication and gene expression entails specific interaction of the viral protein Tat with its transactivation responsive element (TAR), to form a highly stable stem-bulge-loop structure. Previously, we described triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation-based vectors that efficiently deliver nucleotide analogs (PNAs) into the cytoplasm of cells. In particular, we showed that the TPP conjugate of a linear 16-mer PNA targeting the apical stem-loop region of TAR impedes Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR in vitro and also in cell culture systems. In this communication, we conjugated TPP to cyclic and hairpin PNAs targeting the loop region of HIV-1 TAR and evaluated their antiviral efficacy in a cell culture system. We found that TPP-cyclic PNAs containing only 8 residues, showed higher antiviral potency compared to hairpin PNAs of 12 or 16 residues. We further noted that the TPP-conjugates of the 8-mer cyclic PNA as well as the 16-mer linear PNA displayed similar antiviral efficacy. However, cyclic PNAs were shown to be highly specific to their target sequences. This communication emphasizes on the importance of small constrained cyclic PNAs over both linear and hairpin structures for targeting biologically relevant RNA hairpins. PMID:23029603

  13. Inhibition of HIV Replication by Cyclic and Hairpin PNAs Targeting the HIV-1 TAR RNA Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Upert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 replication and gene expression entails specific interaction of the viral protein Tat with its transactivation responsive element (TAR, to form a highly stable stem-bulge-loop structure. Previously, we described triphenylphosphonium (TPP cation-based vectors that efficiently deliver nucleotide analogs (PNAs into the cytoplasm of cells. In particular, we showed that the TPP conjugate of a linear 16-mer PNA targeting the apical stem-loop region of TAR impedes Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR in vitro and also in cell culture systems. In this communication, we conjugated TPP to cyclic and hairpin PNAs targeting the loop region of HIV-1 TAR and evaluated their antiviral efficacy in a cell culture system. We found that TPP-cyclic PNAs containing only 8 residues, showed higher antiviral potency compared to hairpin PNAs of 12 or 16 residues. We further noted that the TPP-conjugates of the 8-mer cyclic PNA as well as the 16-mer linear PNA displayed similar antiviral efficacy. However, cyclic PNAs were shown to be highly specific to their target sequences. This communication emphasizes on the importance of small constrained cyclic PNAs over both linear and hairpin structures for targeting biologically relevant RNA hairpins.

  14. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing.

  15. SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROID SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, PHASE II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  16. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  17. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are ... major types of schist belts are identified in the ... Dharwar craton; Gadag schist belt; gravity method; inversion. ..... the Research Associateship of Dr D Himabindu.

  18. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  19. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  20. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  1. Fusion Canada issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs.

  2. Suicide in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    1998-01-01

    ... provides long-awaited information that focuses specifically on Canada. It addresses suicide as a multidimensional problem with biological, psychological, cultural, sociological, personal, and philosophical aspects. The contributions integrate both critical analysis and personal experience. There are accounts from Inuit elders, fr...

  3. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  4. Fusion Canada issue 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  5. Fusion Canada issue 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs.

  6. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  7. Fusion Canada issue 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs.

  8. Nuclear technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed

  9. Fusion Canada issue 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue tritium supply for Japanese research, Canada to host the 1995 IAEA Conference on Tritium, studies on the tokamak divertor and edge plasma studies, a tritium field release study, erosion studies on plasma facing materials, G. Pacher returns to CCFM and an update on CCFM/TdeV

  10. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  11. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  12. Fusion Canada issue 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs.

  13. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  14. Canada`s greenhouse gas emissions inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, Canada was the seventh largest global emitter of CO{sub 2}. The Kyoto Protocol has made it necessary to continue to improve methods for developing emissions inventories. An emissions inventory was defined as `a comprehensive account of air pollutant emissions and associated data from sources within the inventory area over a specified time frame that can be used to determine the effect of emissions on the environment`. The general approach is to compile large-scale emission estimates under averaged conditions for collective sources and sectors, using data that is available on a sectoral, provincial and national basis. Ideally, continuous emission monitors should be used to develop emissions inventories. Other needed improvements include additional research on emissions data, and increased support for international negotiations on reporting policies and related methodologies, verification procedures and adjustments. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  15. Nuclear regulatory developments in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper from CNSC discusses nuclear regulatory developments in Canada. It starts with the Fukushima accident and the effect on the nuclear sector. It summarises what CNSC has done, what it has learned and their plans going forward. It has made recommendations to IAEA for international enhancements to regulatory procedures. It outline the activities of Canada's nuclear power plants, Canada's uranium projects, deep geological repository and waste management as well as nuclear research in Canada.

  16. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  17. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrill, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  18. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Exploration for mineral deposits in Canada resulted in the discovery of large uranium deposits, such as at Great. Bear Lake, Northwest Territories (1930), in the Elliot Lake area, Ontario (1949); Beaverlodge, Wollaston Lake Fold Belt and Carswell Structure in Saskatchewan (1946-1975) and many uranium occurrences in the Canadian Shield, in the Orogenic Belts and in the Platforms. Uranium output in Canada since 1942 until and including 1976 amounted to 112,000 tonnes U. Reasonably Assured uranium resources as of 1976 amounted to 167,000 tonnes U (at a price up to $40/lb. U 3 0 8 ) and 15,000 tonnes U (at a price more than $40 up to $60/lb. U 3 O 8 ). Estimated Additional uranium resources as of 1976 amounted to 392,000 tonnes U (at a price up to $40/lb. U-Og) and 264,000 tonnes U (at a price more than $40 up to $60/lb. U 3 0 8 ). Possible further potential beyond the above mentioned classes is tentatively estimated to be in the 6th category according to NEA/IAEA favourability classification. (author)

  19. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  20. Electric power in Canada 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs.

  1. Properties of gasification-derived char and its utilization for catalytic tar reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kezhen

    Char is a low-value byproduct of biomass gasification and pyrolysis with many potential applications, such as soil amendment and the synthesis of activated carbon. The overall goal of the proposed research was to develop novel methods to use char derived from gasification for high-value applications in syngas conditioning. The first objective was to investigate effects of gasification condition and feedstock on properties of char derived from fluidized bed gasification. Results show that the surface areas of most of the char were 1--10 m 2/g and increased as the equivalence ratio increased. Char moisture and fixed carbon contents decreased while ash content increased as equivalence ratio increased. The next objective was to study the properties of sorghum and red cedar char derived from downdraft gasifier. Red cedar char contained more aliphatic carbon and o-alkyl carbon than sorghum char. Char derived from downdraft gasification had higher heating values and lower ash contents than char derived from fluidized bed gasification. The gasification reactivity of red cedar char was higher than that of sorghum char. Then, red cedar char based catalysts were developed with different preparation method to reform toluene and naphthalene as model tars. The catalyst prepared with nickel nitrate was found to be better than that with nickel acetate. The nickel particle size of catalyst impregnated with nickel nitrate was smaller than that of catalyst impregnated with nickel acetate. The particle size of catalyst impregnated with nickel acetate decreased by hydrazine reduction. The catalyst impregnated with nickel nitrate had the highest toluene removal efficiency, which was 70%--100% at 600--800 °C. The presence of naphthalene in tar reduced the catalyst efficiency. The toluene conversion was 36--99% and the naphthalene conversion was 37%--93% at 700--900 °C. Finally, effects of atmosphere and pressure on catalytic reforming of lignin-derived tars over the developed catalyst

  2. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved under...

  3. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  4. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  5. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... the airplane who is at least 2 years old; and (2) An approved safety belt for separate use by each...

  6. Klippen Belt, Flysch Belt and Inner Western Carpathian Paleogene Basin Relations in the Northern Slovakia by Magnetotelluric Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majcin, D.; Bezák, V.; Klanica, Radek; Vozár, J.; Pek, Josef; Bilčík, D.; Telecký, Josef

    (2018) ISSN 0033-4553 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * Western Carpathians * Klippen Belt * Flysch Belt * Inner Carpathian Paleogene Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016

  7. Bayesian inference of radiation belt loss timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.

    2017-12-01

    Electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts are routinely studied using the classical quasi-linear radial diffusion model. Although this simplified linear equation has proven to be an indispensable tool in understanding the dynamics of the radiation belt, it requires specification of quantities such as the diffusion coefficient and electron loss timescales that are never directly measured. Researchers have so far assumed a-priori parameterisations for radiation belt quantities and derived the best fit using satellite data. The state of the art in this domain lacks a coherent formulation of this problem in a probabilistic framework. We present some recent progress that we have made in performing Bayesian inference of radial diffusion parameters. We achieve this by making extensive use of the theory connecting Gaussian Processes and linear partial differential equations, and performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of radial diffusion parameters. These results are important for understanding the role and the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations and, eventually, for providing a probabilistic forecast of energetic electron fluxes in a Space Weather context.

  8. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    , the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  9. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passenger has not been shown to affect the safety of an unborn baby in a crash. Injuries from car crashes tend to be less serious in people who are sitting in the back seat. If you are not driving, you may want to sit in the back seat. It is still important to wear a seat belt, no matter where ...

  10. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  11. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  12. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.

    2009-07-01

    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  13. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  14. Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

    To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

  15. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  16. Mafic magmatism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; de Roever, E.W.F.; Thijssen, A.C.D.; Bleeker, W.; Söderlund, U.; Chamberlain, K.; Ernst, R.; Berndt, J.; Zeh, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt (BGB) is a metamorphic terrain within the Guiana Shield that experienced ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism at 2.07–2.05Ga. In the southwest of the BGB, the Kabalebo charnockites were emplaced at ca. 1.99Ga and thus postdate UHT metamorphism by at least 60Myr. Two

  17. The role of char and tar in determining the gas-phase partitioning of nitrogen during biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broer, Karl M.; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Switchgrass was gasified at an equivalence ratio of zero and 650–850 °C. • Short residence times were employed to minimize secondary reactions. • Char- and tar-bound nitrogen, NH_3, HCN, and N_2 were all significant products. • Increasing temperature leads to increased release of gaseous nitrogen compounds. • Kinetic models of gasification should include nitrogen release from char and tar. - Abstract: Gasification is an attractive option for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals. Most biomass contains significant amounts of fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN), which partially converts into ammonia (NH_3) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during gasification. These nitrogen compounds are problematic as they can lead to NO_X emissions or catalyst poisoning in downstream applications of syngas. FBN can convert to other products as well, including diatomic nitrogen (N_2), char-bound nitrogen (char-N), and tar-bound nitrogen (tar-N). Efforts to predict concentrations of NH_3 and HCN have been hindered by a lack of accurate, comprehensive measurements of nitrogen partitioning among gasification products. The present study gasified switchgrass under allothermal, short residence time conditions and measured NH_3, HCN, char-N, and tar-N as a function of temperature in the range of 650–850 °C with diatomic nitrogen determined by difference. It was found that a major portion of FBN was retained in the char and tar products. As temperature was increased, char and tar were consumed, releasing nitrogen as gaseous NH_3 and HCN. This increase in undesirable nitrogen compounds is contrary to the predictions of most gasification models, which overlook the presence of significant nitrogen in char and tar even if they include tar cracking and char gasification reactions. The results of this study demonstrate that gas-phase reactions alone are not sufficient to predict the fate of nitrogen during gasification. In order for modeling efforts to obtain more accurate

  18. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  19. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  20. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  1. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  2. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  3. Lab-scale pyrolysis of the Automotive Shredder Residue light fraction and characterization of tar and solid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzano, Manuela; Collina, Elena; Piccinelli, Elsa; Lasagni, Marina

    2017-06-01

    The general aim of this study is the recovery of Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR). The ASR light fraction, or car fluff, that was collected at an Italian shredding plant was pyrolysed at various temperatures (500-800°C) in a lab-scale reactor. The condensable gases (tar) and solid residue yields increased with decreasing temperature, and these products were characterized to suggest a potential use to reclaim them. The higher heating value (HHV) of tar was 34-37MJ/kg, which is comparable with those of fossil fuels. Furthermore, the ash content was low (0.06-4.98%). Thus, tar can be used as an alternative fuel. With this prospect, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in tar were determined. The toxicity of tar changes with temperature (1-5ng I-TEQ/g), and the PCDFs significantly contribute to tar toxicity, which was 75-100% with a maximum of 99.6% at 700°C. Regarding the characterization of the solid residue, the low HHV (2.4-3.3MJ/kg) does not make it suitable for energy recovery. Regarding material recovery, we considered its use as a filler in construction materials or a secondary source for metals. It shows a high metal concentration (280,000-395,000mg/kg), which is similar at different pyrolysis temperatures. At 500°C, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were not detected in the solid residue, whereas the maximum total PAH concentration (19.41ng/g, 700°C) was lower than that in fly ash from MSWI. In conclusion, 500°C is a suitable pyrolysis temperature to obtain valuable tar and solid residue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future

  5. Method of monitoring, inspecting or testing conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    An invention is discussed which provides a method, installation and kit for monitoring, inspecting or testing a conveyor belt. Provision is made to transmit penetrating rays such as X-rays through a moving conveyor belt, forming a visible moving image from rays transmitted through the belt, and visually inspecting such moving image, after recording it if desired, to ascertain the condition of the interior of the belt. Typically an X-ray tube head is used to transmit the rays through the belt to a fluorescent screen which forms the image. The moving image can be recorded by means of a video camera

  6. Uranium tailings in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulden, R.S.; Bragg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The last few years have produced significant changes in the way uranium tailings are managed in Canada. This is due both to the development of new technology and to changes in regulatory approach. The interrelationships between these two areas are examined with particular attention paid to the long term and the development of close-out criteria. New technological initiatives are examined including dry placement techniques, pit disposal and deep lake disposal

  7. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  8. Electric deregulation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the electric power deregulation activities across Canada, particularly in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, was presented. A central element of the restructuring is creation of a power pool which acts as an open spot market, and a transmission administrator that provides access to the generators, distribution companies, importers and exporters. Load forecasts, average daily load profile and hourly pool prices for TransAlta Corporation were presented as an example. 22 figs

  9. Plugging into Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Exports of electricity from Canada to the U.S.A. are increasing in importance and have reached a new phase with proposals to build generating stations initially dedicated to export, notably a second nuclear station in New Brunswick. The author considers that the National Energy Board does a good job of protecting Canadian interests. Opposition in the United States comes from within the government or congress rather than from the power industry or public

  10. Presentation of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedley, Dianne E.

    1997-01-01

    In contingency of a nuclear emergency event, requiring application of intervention measures on a federal scale, Canada has of a plan ensuring the compatibility of the plans of different provinces and serving as interface between federal and provincial authorities. Exclusive of a nuclear attack against North America, by nuclear emergency it is understood an accident resulting in radionuclide release. This is called the Plan of federal intervention in case of nuclear emergency. 'Sante Canada' is the federal authority responsible for intervention in case of nuclear emergency and it has the task of preparing and coordinating the actions on a federal scale.Should the plan be set in action and if the emergency has repercussions upon the agricultural sector, the sustaining organism will be 'Agriculture and agroalimentaire Canada' which in case of emergency acts through the channels of the National System of intervention in the agro-alimentary sector (SNIUA). The paper presents the objectives, the principles of organization and operation, the responsibilities and the plans which SNIUA has in its charge to implement in case of emergency

  11. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  12. Energy cascades in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, A. C.; Brown, T. D.

    1979-03-15

    Combining energy uses in a cascade can result in significant overall reductions in fuel requirements. The simplest applications for a cascade are in the recovery of waste heat from existing processes using special boilers or turbines. Specific applications of more-complex energy cascades for Canada are discussed. A combined-cycle plant at a chemical refinery in Ontario is world leader in energy efficiency. Total-energy systems for commercial buildings, such as one installed in a school in Western Canada, offer attractive energy and operating cost benefits. A cogeneration plant proposed for the National Capital Region, generating electricity as well as steam for district heating, allows the use of a low-grade fossil fuel (coal), greatly improves energy-transformation efficiency, and also utilizes an effectively renewable resource (municipal garbage). Despite the widespread availability of equipment and technology of energy cascades, the sale of steam and electricity across plant boundaries presents a barrier. More widespread use of cascades will require increased cooperation among industry, electric utilities and the various levels of government if Canada is to realize the high levels of energy efficiency potential available.

  13. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  15. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  16. Machine-smoking studies of cigarette filter color to estimate tar yield by visual assessment and through the use of a colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Michael J; Williams, David L; Hjorth, Heather B; Smith, Jennifer H

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores using the intensity of the stain on the end of the filter ("filter color") as a vehicle for estimating cigarette tar yield, both by instrument reading of the filter color and by visual comparison to a template. The correlation of machine-measured tar yield to filter color measured with a colorimeter was reasonably strong and was relatively unaffected by different puff volumes or different tobacco moistures. However, the correlation of filter color to machine-measured nicotine yield was affected by the moisture content of the cigarette. Filter color, as measured by a colorimeter, was generally comparable to filter extraction of either nicotine or solanesol in its correlation to machine-smoked tar yields. It was found that the color of the tar stain changes over time. Panelists could generally correctly order the filters from machine-smoked cigarettes by tar yield using the intensity of the tar stain. However, there was considerable variation in the panelist-to-panelist tar yield estimates. The wide person-to-person variation in tar yield estimates, and other factors discussed in the text could severely limit the usefulness and practicality of this approach for visually estimating the tar yield of machine-smoked cigarettes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Site-selective probing of cTAR destabilization highlights the necessary plasticity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein to chaperone the first strand transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, Julien; Kenfack, Cyril; Przybilla, Frédéric; Richert, Ludovic; Duportail, Guy; Mély, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) is a nucleic acid chaperone required during reverse transcription. During the first strand transfer, NCp7 is thought to destabilize cTAR, the (−)DNA copy of the TAR RNA hairpin, and subsequently direct the TAR/cTAR annealing through the zipping of their destabilized stem ends. To further characterize the destabilizing activity of NCp7, we locally probe the structure and dynamics of cTAR by steady-state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. NC(11–55), a truncated NCp7 version corresponding to its zinc-finger domain, was found to bind all over the sequence and to preferentially destabilize the penultimate double-stranded segment in the lower part of the cTAR stem. This destabilization is achieved through zinc-finger–dependent binding of NC to the G10 and G50 residues. Sequence comparison further revealed that C•A mismatches close to the two G residues were critical for fine tuning the stability of the lower part of the cTAR stem and conferring to G10 and G50 the appropriate mobility and accessibility for specific recognition by NC. Our data also highlight the necessary plasticity of NCp7 to adapt to the sequence and structure variability of cTAR to chaperone its annealing with TAR through a specific pathway. PMID:23511968

  18. Tar removal from biomass gasification streams: processes and catalysts; Remocao do alcatrao de correntes de gaseificacao de biomassa: processos e catalisadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quitete, Cristina P.B. [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Processos de Conversao de Biomassa; Souza, Mariana M.V.M., E-mail: mmattos@eq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Escola de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    Biomass gasification is a technology that has attracted great interest in synthesis of biofuels and oxo alcohols. However, this gas contains several contaminants, including tar, which need to be removed. Removal of tar is particularly critical because it can lead to operational problems. This review discusses the major pathways to remove tar, with a particular focus on the catalytic steam reforming of tar. Few catalysts have shown promising results; however, long-term studies in the context of real biomass gasification streams are required to realize their potential. (author)

  19. PeaTAR1B: Characterization of a Second Type 1 Tyramine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenau, Wolfgang; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd

    2017-10-30

    The catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine regulate important physiological functions in vertebrates. In insects; these neuroactive substances are functionally replaced by the phenolamines octopamine and tyramine. Phenolamines activate specific guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Type 1 tyramine receptors are better activated by tyramine than by octopamine. In contrast; type 2 tyramine receptors are almost exclusively activated by tyramine. Functionally; activation of type 1 tyramine receptors leads to a decrease in the intracellular concentration of cAMP ([cAMP] i ) whereas type 2 tyramine receptors can mediate Ca 2+ signals or both Ca 2+ signals and effects on [cAMP] i . Here; we report that the American cockroach ( Periplaneta americana ) expresses a second type 1 tyramine receptor (PeaTAR1B) in addition to PeaTAR1A (previously called PeaTYR1). When heterologously expressed in flpTM cells; activation of PeaTAR1B by tyramine leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in [cAMP] i . Its activity can be blocked by a series of established antagonists. The functional characterization of two type 1 tyramine receptors from P. americana ; PeaTAR1A and PeaTAR1B; which respond to tyramine by changing cAMP levels; is a major step towards understanding the actions of tyramine in cockroach physiology and behavior; particularly in comparison to the effects of octopamine.

  20. PeaTAR1B: Characterization of a Second Type 1 Tyramine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Blenau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine regulate important physiological functions in vertebrates. In insects; these neuroactive substances are functionally replaced by the phenolamines octopamine and tyramine. Phenolamines activate specific guanine nucleotide-binding (G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Type 1 tyramine receptors are better activated by tyramine than by octopamine. In contrast; type 2 tyramine receptors are almost exclusively activated by tyramine. Functionally; activation of type 1 tyramine receptors leads to a decrease in the intracellular concentration of cAMP ([cAMP]i whereas type 2 tyramine receptors can mediate Ca2+ signals or both Ca2+ signals and effects on [cAMP]i. Here; we report that the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana expresses a second type 1 tyramine receptor (PeaTAR1B in addition to PeaTAR1A (previously called PeaTYR1. When heterologously expressed in flpTM cells; activation of PeaTAR1B by tyramine leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in [cAMP]i. Its activity can be blocked by a series of established antagonists. The functional characterization of two type 1 tyramine receptors from P. americana; PeaTAR1A and PeaTAR1B; which respond to tyramine by changing cAMP levels; is a major step towards understanding the actions of tyramine in cockroach physiology and behavior; particularly in comparison to the effects of octopamine.

  1. Development of secondary chamber for tar cracking-improvement of wood pyrolysis performance in pre-vacuum chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, S.; Homma, H.; Homma, H.

    2018-02-01

    Energy crisis and global warming, in other words, climate change are critical topics discussed in various parts of the world. Global warming primarily result from too much emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. To mitigate global warming, or climate change and improve electrification in rural areas, wood pyrolysis technology is developed in a laboratory scale, of which gases are directly applicable to the gas engine generator. Our laboratory has developed a prototype of wood pyrolysis plant with a pre-vacuum chamber. However, tar yield was around 40 wt% of feedstock. This research aims to reduce tar yield by secondary tar cracking. For the secondary tar cracking, a secondary pre-vacuum chamber is installed after primary pre-vacuum chamber. Gases generated in the primary pre-vacuum chamber are lead into the secondary chamber that is heated up to 1000 K. This paper reports performance of the secondary chamber for secondary tar cracking in homogeneous mode and heterogeneous mode with char.

  2. AmTAR2: Functional characterization of a honeybee tyramine receptor stimulating adenylyl cyclase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reim, Tina; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang; Thamm, Markus; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2017-01-01

    The biogenic monoamines norepinephrine and epinephrine regulate important physiological functions in vertebrates. Insects such as honeybees do not synthesize these neuroactive substances. Instead, they employ octopamine and tyramine for comparable physiological functions. These biogenic amines activate specific guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Based on pharmacological data obtained on heterologously expressed receptors, α- and β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptors are better activated by octopamine than by tyramine. Conversely, GPCRs forming the type 1 tyramine receptor clade (synonymous to octopamine/tyramine receptors) are better activated by tyramine than by octopamine. More recently, receptors were characterized which are almost exclusively activated by tyramine, thus forming an independent type 2 tyramine receptor clade. Functionally, type 1 tyramine receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity, leading to a decrease in intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP] i ). Type 2 tyramine receptors can mediate Ca 2+ signals or both Ca 2+ signals and effects on [cAMP] i . We here provide evidence that the honeybee tyramine receptor 2 (AmTAR2), when heterologously expressed in flpTM cells, exclusively causes an increase in [cAMP] i . The receptor displays a pronounced preference for tyramine over octopamine. Its activity can be blocked by a series of established antagonists, of which mianserin and yohimbine are most efficient. The functional characterization of two tyramine receptors from the honeybee, AmTAR1 (previously named AmTYR1) and AmTAR2, which respond to tyramine by changing cAMP levels in opposite direction, is an important step towards understanding the actions of tyramine in honeybee behavior and physiology, particularly in comparison to the effects of octopamine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (ΣPAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 μg m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 μg m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ΣPAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ΣPAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2–3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ΣPAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (~1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

  4. Application of adsorption analysis to the investigation of phenols and bases in low-temperature tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalechts, I V; Salimgareeva, F G; Tumbusova, Z P

    1955-01-01

    The use of chromatographic adsorption for the separation of mono- and bicyclic phenols and bases from coal tar and from its hydrogenation products were studied with o-cresol, ..beta..-naphthol, pyridine, and quinoline. Experimental data show that Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was preferable for separating phenols, but that silica gel was better for the bases. The best order of use of the developers was as follows: C/sub 6/H/sub 6/, Et/sub 2/O, EtOH. The data show that the destructive hydrogenation process degrades the higher series phenols to lower ones.

  5. Nakamura Ryûtarô’s Anime, Serial Experiments, Lain (1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamae KOBAYASHI PRINDLE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Nakamura Ryūtarō’s anime, Serial Experiments, Lain (1998 as a new type of anime, a genre nameable as an “expository anime”, for the reason that it creates a diachronic story out of a synchronic aspect of a certain field of science. The overarching topic of Experiments is electronics, focusing on the comparison between digital and analogue communication systems. Experiments unfolds the rationales, potentials, and effects of the two types of communication systems using the perceptions of the major character, a thirteen-year old girl, Rein, as well as other supporting characters.

  6. Method of removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmquist, F T.E.

    1949-09-08

    A method is described for removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues by centrifuging in the presence of oil-dissolving and paraffin-precipitating solvents, by which the precipitated paraffin is made to pass through an indifferent auxiliary liquid, in which a removal of oil takes place, characterized in that as auxiliary liquid is used a liquid or mixture of liquids whose surface tension against the oil solution is sufficiently low for the paraffin to pass the layer of auxiliary liquid in the form of separate crystals.

  7. Production and investigation of low-temperature coal tar. [Book in German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1953-01-01

    Research into low-temperature carbonization has recently been stimulated because this process can be applied to coals that are not suitable for treatment by the usual high-temperature method. However, in spite of the value of the coke produced by low-temperature carbonization as a smokeless fuel, this process has not proved economical in Germany. Research has therefore been directed towards a more profitable utilization of the tar, and this government publication reports experiments on its detailed analysis by distillation and other methods. The book also includes descriptions of the various types of plant used for low-temperature carbonization and presents a brief history of the process.

  8. Preparation of thermo-sensitive slow releasing material and its application in low tar tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To solve some sensory defects such as fragrance deficiency,strong dry sense,poor satisfaction in the development of ultra-low tar tobacco products,we prepared a new thermo sensitive slow releasing composite material with tobacco aroma.The characterization results showed that the as-prepared thermosensitive particles have better aroma enhancing and slow releasing effects.Also,the aroma components of the tip stick containing thermosensitive particles were detected and its sensory quality was evaluated.The results showed that composite tip stick could enhance the aroma and improve the sensory quality of the cigarettes.

  9. Semi-annual review forecast, 1965 Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-07-19

    Production of crude oil and natural gas liquids is expected to average 920,000 bpd this year, up some 70,000 bpd or about 8% from last year's record rate of 850,000 bpd. Petroleum demand within Canada is expected to gain about 44,000 bpd, or 4%, to average 1,073,000 bpd, excluding LPG's. Drilling could set the second consecutive record this year, with the first half drilling totaling 7.5 million ft. The processing construction spotlight is on chemical fertilizer plants with $120 million investment slated over a 2-yr period. Pipeline construction this year will reflect a drop in big-inch work and a rise in small-diameter work. Secondary recovery projects slated to go into operation this year should add at least a billion bbl of recoverable oil. Exploration in 1965 features the search for Keg River reefs, present along a 1,200-mile belt from the Northwest Territories to North Dakota. It could develop into the hottest activity in North America. Graphs and tables summarize the data.

  10. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  11. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  12. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  13. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  14. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  15. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, J.M.; Macambira, J.B.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Moura, C.A.V.; Souza, A.C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  16. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Canada and international financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lafrance; James Powell

    1996-01-01

    International financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Bank for International Settlements, are important players in the global financial system. This article provides an overview of the major international financial institutions to which Canada belongs. The paper highlights their activities and the nature of Canada's involvement, including that of the Bank of Canada. Recent initiatives coming out of the Halifax and Lyon Summits to improve the eff...

  18. Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

  19. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate.

  20. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  1. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  2. A source mixing model to apportion PAHs from coal tar and asphalt binders in street pavements and urban aquatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, M.J.; Depree, C.V. [National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    Present-day and more than 30 years old road and footpath pavements from Auckland, New Zealand were analysed for PAHs to test the hypothesis that coal tar based pavement binders contribute to unusually high PAH concentrations in adjacent stream and estuarine sediments Total PAH ({Sigma}{sub 28}PAH) concentrations in the dichloromethane-soluble fraction ('binder'), comprising 5-10% of pavement mass, were as high as 200 000 mg kg{sup -1}(10 000 mg kg{sup -1} in binder + aggregate) Older and deeper pavement layers were strongly pyrogenic, whereas pavement layers from recently sealed roads had a more petrogenic composition and more than 1000 times lower Sigma(28)PAH concentrations. Source identification analysis using three PAH isomer ratio pairs (benz(a)anthracene/(benz(a)anthracene + chrysene), benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene + benzo(e)pyrene)), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/(indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene + benzo(g,h,i)perylene) revealed low PAH (bitumen) pavements to have consistently lower isomer ratios than high PAH (coal tar) samples. A concentration-weighted mixing model, with coal tar and bitumen as source materials, explained more than 80% of the variance in isomer ratios and enveloped the entire PAH compositional and concentration range encountered PAH composition and concentrations in adjacent stream sediments ({gt} 15 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight) were consistent with diluted coal tar material as a principal PAH source. Due to the very high PAH concentrations of coal tar, a coal tar content of as little as 0.01% of total sediment mass can account for more than 90% of PAH concentrations in adjacent stream sediments.

  3. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement. - Highlights: • We compare PAH and azaarene concentrations in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealed pavement. • Concentrations in coal-tar-sealcoat runoff greatly exceeded those in asphalt-sealcoat runoff. • Decreases in azaarenes and LMW PAHs were offset by increases in HMW PAHs. • PAH concentrations in coal-tar-sealcoat runoff remained high for months after application. - Concentrations of PAHs in runoff from pavement with coal-tar-based sealcoat continue to be elevated for at least 3 months following sealcoat application

  4. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    2007-05-01

    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Malaysian Dolomites as a Tar Cracking Catalyst in Biomass Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. A. Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three types of local Malaysian dolomites were characterized to investigate their suitability for use as tar-cracking catalysts in the biomass gasification process. The dolomites were calcined to examine the effect of the calcination process on dolomite’s catalytic activity and properties. The modifications undergone by dolomites consequent to thermal treatment were investigated using various analytical methods. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses indicated that the dolomites underwent two stages of decomposition during the calcination process. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectra analyses showed that thermal treatment of dolomite played a significant role in the disappearance of the CaMg(CO32 phase, producing the MgO-CaO form of dolomite. The scanning electron microscopy microphotographs of dolomite indicated that the morphological properties were profoundly affected by the calcination process, which led to the formation of a highly porous surface with small spherical particles. In addition, the calcination of dolomite led to the elimination of carbon dioxide and increases in the values of the specific surface area and average pore diameter, as indicated by surface area analysis. The results showed that calcined Malaysian dolomites have great potential to be applied as tar-cracking catalysts in the biomass gasification process based on their favorable physical properties.

  6. Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: a major PAH source to urban stream sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Amy E; Nguyen, Minh H; Baidar, Sunil; Sak, Peter B

    2014-02-01

    We used land-use analysis, PAH concentrations and assemblages, and multivariate statistics to identify sediment PAH sources in a small (~1303 km(2)) urbanizing watershed located in South-Central, Pennsylvania, USA. A geographic information system (GIS) was employed to quantify land-use features that may serve as PAH sources. Urban PAH concentrations were three times higher than rural levels, and were significantly and highly correlated with combined residential/commercial/industrial land use. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to group sediments with similar PAH assemblages, and correlation analysis compared PAH sediment assemblages to common PAH sources. The strongest correlations were observed between rural sediments (n = 7) and coke-oven emissions sources (r = 0.69-0.78, n = 5), and between urban sediments (n = 22) and coal-tar-based sealcoat dust (r = 0.94, n = 47) suggesting that coal-tar-based sealcoat is an important urban PAH source in this watershed linked to residential and commercial/industrial land use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microporous Organic Polymers Based on Hyper-Crosslinked Coal Tar: Preparation and Application for Gas Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Ding, Lei; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei

    2017-02-08

    Hyper-crosslinked polymers (HCPs) are promising materials for gas capture and storage, but high cost and complicated preparation limit their practical application. In this paper, a new type of HCPs (CTHPs) was synthesized through a one-step mild Friedel-Crafts reaction with low-cost coal tar as the starting material. Chloroform was utilized as both solvent and crosslinker to generate a three-dimensional crosslinked network with abundant micropores. The maximum BET surface area of the prepared CTHPs could reach up to 929 m 2  g -1 . Owing to the high affinity between the heteroatoms on the coal-tar building blocks and the CO 2 molecules, the adsorption capacity of CTHPs towards CO 2 reached up to 14.2 wt % (1.0 bar, 273 K) with a high selectivity (CO 2 /N 2 =32.3). Furthermore, the obtained CTHPs could adsorb 1.27 wt % H 2 at 1.0 bar and 77.3 K, and also showed capacity for the capture of high organic vapors at room temperature. In comparison with other reported porous organic polymers, CTHPs have the advantages of low-cost, easy preparation, and high gas-adsorption performance, making them suitable for mass production and practical use in the future. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mass Transfer Coefficientin Stirred Tank for p -Cresol Extraction Process from Coal Tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardhyanti, D S; Tyaningsih, D S; Afifah, S N

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia is a country that has a lot of coal resources. The Indonesian coal has a low caloric value. Pyrolysis is one of the process to increase the caloric value. One of the by-product of the pyrolysis process is coal tar. It contains a lot of aliphatic or aromatic compounds such as p -cresol (11% v/v). It is widely used as a disinfectant. Extractionof p -Cresol increases the economic value of waste of coal. The aim of this research isto study about mass tranfer coefficient in the baffled stirred tank for p -Cresolextraction from coal tar. Mass transfer coefficient is useful for design and scale up of industrial equipment. Extraction is conducted in the baffled stirred tank equipped with a four-bladed axial impeller placed vertically in the vessel. Sample for each time processing (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30minutes) was poured into a separating funnel, settled for an hour and separated into two phases. Then the two phases were weighed. The extract phases and raffinate phases were analyzed by Spectronic UV-Vis. The result showed that mixing speed of p -Cresol extraction increasesthe yield of p -Cresol and the mass transfer coefficient. The highest yield of p -Cresol is 49.32% and the highest mass transfer coefficient is 4.757 x 10 -6 kg/m 2 s. (paper)

  9. Mass Transfer Coefficientin Stirred Tank for p-Cresol Extraction Process from Coal Tar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardhyanti, D. S.; Tyaningsih, D. S.; Afifah, S. N.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is a country that has a lot of coal resources. The Indonesian coal has a low caloric value. Pyrolysis is one of the process to increase the caloric value. One of the by-product of the pyrolysis process is coal tar. It contains a lot of aliphatic or aromatic compounds such asp-cresol (11% v/v). It is widely used as a disinfectant. Extractionof p-Cresol increases the economic value of waste of coal. The aim of this research isto study about mass tranfer coefficient in the baffled stirred tank for p-Cresolextraction from coal tar. Mass transfer coefficient is useful for design and scale up of industrial equipment. Extraction is conducted inthe baffled stirred tank equipped with a four-bladed axial impeller placed vertically in the vessel. Sample for each time processing (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30minutes) was poured into a separating funnel, settled for an hour and separated into two phases. Then the two phases were weighed. The extract phases and raffinate phases were analyzed by Spectronic UV-Vis. The result showed that mixing speed of p-Cresol extraction increasesthe yield of p-Cresol and the mass transfer coefficient. The highest yield of p-Cresol is 49.32% and the highest mass transfer coefficient is 4.757 x 10-6kg/m2s.

  10. Modelling of thermal removal of tars in a high temperature stage fed by a plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourcault, A.; Marias, F.; Michon, U.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal degradation of tars in a chamber fed by a non-transferred plasma torch is theoretically examined in this study. The input of this reactor is a product gas coming from a gasification unit with a temperature of about 800 o C. According to literature, naphthalene and toluene are chosen as model compounds to represent the behaviour of their classes. According to this choice and to the data available in the literature, a reaction pathway for the thermal degradation of tars and its associated kinetics are proposed in this study. This mechanism is introduced in a CSTR model in order to check the influence of the operating parameters of the reactor on the degradation efficiency. These computations clearly show that a complete conversion of toluene (>99.9%) and an important conversion of naphthalene (96.7%) can be reached in the reactor, with concentration levels compatible with the further use of gas engines for electricity production. This theoretical study requires to be validated by comparison with experimental results.

  11. Modelling of thermal removal of tars in a high temperature stage fed by a plasma torch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourcault, A. [Laboratoire Thermique Energetique et Procedes, LaTEP-ENSGTI, rue Jules Ferry, BP 7511, 64075 Pau Cedex (France); Europlasma, 21 rue Daugere, 33520 Bruges (France); Marias, F. [Laboratoire Thermique Energetique et Procedes, LaTEP-ENSGTI, rue Jules Ferry, BP 7511, 64075 Pau Cedex (France); Michon, U. [Europlasma, 21 rue Daugere, 33520 Bruges (France)

    2010-09-15

    The thermal degradation of tars in a chamber fed by a non-transferred plasma torch is theoretically examined in this study. The input of this reactor is a product gas coming from a gasification unit with a temperature of about 800 C. According to literature, naphthalene and toluene are chosen as model compounds to represent the behaviour of their classes. According to this choice and to the data available in the literature, a reaction pathway for the thermal degradation of tars and its associated kinetics are proposed in this study. This mechanism is introduced in a CSTR model in order to check the influence of the operating parameters of the reactor on the degradation efficiency. These computations clearly show that a complete conversion of toluene (>99.9%) and an important conversion of naphthalene (96.7%) can be reached in the reactor, with concentration levels compatible with the further use of gas engines for electricity production. This theoretical study requires to be validated by comparison with experimental results. (author)

  12. Síndrome de TAR y estado de heterocigosis para anemia falciforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Garavito

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentación de un paciente con el cuadro clínico del síndrome de TAR, quien presenta además un estado de heterocigosis para anemia falciforme. El síndrome de TAR, descrito por primera vez en 1959 por Shaw y Oliver, es un trastorno genético no común que ocurre con una prevalencia aproximada de 1: 500.000 a 1: 1.000.000 de nacidos vivos. En 1969 Hall y col. delinearon los criterios diagnósticos de este síndrome que incluyen ausencia bilateral del radio con presencia de ambos pulgares y trombocitopenia. Otras anomalías descritas en menor frecuencia son: Alteraciones óseas del húmero y cúbito, en los casos severos, focomelia, malformaciones de expresión variable en extremidades inferiores, malformaciones cardiacas e intolerancia a la leche de vaca (1, 2. Los hallazgos encontrados en este caso se comparan con los de la literatura y se discute su posible etiología, además de resaltar la importancia de realizar un diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz y preciso especialmente de la trombocitopenia

  13. Researching the technology of tar removal from coke-chemical plants’ wastewater by reagent flotation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Ivanchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify process patterns of tars and oils removal from phenolic wastewater by reagent flotation with bringing those components’ content to acceptable concentrations. For the first time established is the effect of Al2(SO43, AlCl3, FeSO4, Fe2(SO43, Al2(OH5Cl and FeCl3 doses onto residual tar content in phenolic wastewater. Results obtained give the possibility to prevent air pollution resulting from the toxic substances emission at the wet quenching with water containing excessive oils and to increase the quality of wastewater biological treatment. It is shown experimentally that the most efficient are Fe2(SO43, FeCl3 and Al2(OH5Cl at optimum concentrations of 50, 30 and 30 mg/dm3 respectively. The Al2(OH5Cl can be recommended for implementation at industry on existing coking plants and municipal wastewater treatment plants to improve the environmental air and water resources condition in Ukraine.

  14. Co-carcinogenesis: Human Papillomaviruses, Coal Tar Derivatives, and Squamous Cell Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry W. Haverkos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer (CC is the fourth most common cancers among women worldwide. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs play a major role in the etiology of CC, with several lines of epidemiologic and experimental evidence supporting a role for non-viral (co-carcinogens and host genetic factors in controlling the risk for progression to neoplasia among HPV-infected individuals. The role of co-carcinogens in the development of CC is significant in the developing world where poor sanitation and other socio-economic conditions increase the infectious cancer burden. Here, we discuss how exposure to environmental factors such as coal tar derivatives from cigarette smoking, tar-based sanitary products, and inhaled smoke from biomass-burning stoves, could activate host pathways involved in development of HPV-associated squamous cell cancers in resource-limited settings. Understanding interactions between these pathways with certain oncogenic HPV genotypes may guide implementation of strategies for control and treatment of HPV-associated cancers that develop in populations at high risk of exposure to various co-carcinogens.

  15. Structural evolution of Eucalyptus tar pitch-based carbons during carbonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prauchner, Marcos J.; Pasa, Vanya M.D.; Molhallem, Nelcy D.S.; Otani, Choyu; Otani, Satika; Pardini, Luiz C.

    2005-01-01

    Wood tar pitches are generated as by-products by the charcoal manufacturing industry. They have a macromolecular structure constituted mainly by phenolic, guaiacylic, and siringylic units common to lignin. Due to their characteristics, biopitches are been investigated as precursors of carbon materials such as carbon fibers, bioelectrodes and activated carbons. In the present work the structural evolution of Eucalyptus tar pitches under carbonization is investigated, which is important for the improvement of planning and control of pitch processing and end-product properties during carbon material production. The studies involve X-ray diffraction and infrared analyses, besides helium density, BET surface area and BJH pore volume measurements. The results showed that the conversion of pitch into carbon basically involves three steps: (1) Up to around 600 deg C the material has an highly disordered structure, being the release of aliphatic side chains and volatiles the main events taking place. (2) Between 600 deg C and 800 deg C, condensation of aromatic rings occurs to form bi-dimensional hexagonal networks so that micro- and mesoporosity are developed. The 800 deg C-coke is constituted by two phases: one highly disordered and another more crystalline. (3) Over 800 deg C, both phases are gradually ordered. As defects are gradually removed, surface area and porosity decrease, approaching zero for the 2100 deg C-coke

  16. Gas emissions, minerals, and tars associated with three coal fires, Powder River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A; Radke, Lawrence F; Heffern, Edward L; O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Hower, James C; Smeltzer, Charles D; Hower, Judith M; Olea, Ricardo A; Eatwell, Robert J; Blake, Donald R; Emsbo-Mattingly, Stephen D; Stout, Scott A; Queen, Gerald; Aggen, Kerry L; Kolker, Allan; Prakash, Anupma; Henke, Kevin R; Stracher, Glenn B; Schroeder, Paul A; Román-Colón, Yomayra; ter Schure, Arnout

    2012-03-15

    Ground-based surveys of three coal fires and airborne surveys of two of the fires were conducted near Sheridan, Wyoming. The fires occur in natural outcrops and in abandoned mines, all containing Paleocene-age subbituminous coals. Diffuse (carbon dioxide (CO(2)) only) and vent (CO(2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and elemental mercury) emission estimates were made for each of the fires. Additionally, gas samples were collected for volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis and showed a large range in variation between vents. The fires produce locally dangerous levels of CO, CO(2), H(2)S, and benzene, among other gases. At one fire in an abandoned coal mine, trends in gas and tar composition followed a change in topography. Total CO(2) fluxes for the fires from airborne, ground-based, and rate of fire advancement estimates ranged from 0.9 to 780mg/s/m(2) and are comparable to other coal fires worldwide. Samples of tar and coal-fire minerals collected from the mouth of vents provided insight into the behavior and formation of the coal fires. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Physical properties and component contents of brown coal tars obtained in semicoking with a solid heat transfer semicoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, V I; Bobrova, A A

    1955-01-01

    Tar obtained in low-temperature carbonization of brown coals with brown-coal semicoke as a heat-transfer medium contains more water and dust, has a lower drop point, and a higher specific gravity, and contains more asphaltene and less paraffin than does tar from the same coal produced in rotating retorts or in shaft kilns. The brown-coal semicoke used as a heat-transfer medium produces partial thermal cracking of the fuel and polymerization of the products of secondary decompositions. The yield of asphaltenes is lowered when the carbonization temperature is raised.

  18. The effects of topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-induced irritation in patients with psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinkels, O.Q.J.; Kucharekova, M.; Prins, M.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; van der Valk, P.G.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.M. [University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Medical Center

    2003-02-01

    Dithranol has been a mainstay in the treatment of psoriasis for more than 80 years. Although a safe approach, the irritation of the clinically uninvolved perilesional skin remains a major limitation of this treatment. Corticosteroids and coal tar solution have an anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and cell-biological effects of two topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-irritated skin. The expression of epidermal proliferation, differentiation and inflammation markers and the clinical irritation scores indicate that the application of a high potency corticosteroid is the best approach to minimise dithranol irritation.

  19. Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, N.W.; Taylor, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications

  20. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets