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Sample records for canada picnic study

  1. Empyema associated with community-acquired pneumonia: A Pediatric Investigator's Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Saux Nicole

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the incidence of serious morbidity with childhood pneumonia has decreased over time, empyema as a complication of community-acquired pneumonia continues to be an important clinical problem. We reviewed the epidemiology and clinical management of empyema at 8 pediatric hospitals in a period before the widespread implementation of universal infant heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada. Methods Health records for children Results 251 children met inclusion criteria; 51.4% were male. Most children were previously healthy and those ≤ 5 years of age comprised 57% of the cases. The median length of hospitalization was 9 days. Admissions occurred in all months but peaked in winter. Oxygen supplementation was required in 77% of children, 75% had chest tube placement and 33% were admitted to an intensive care unit. While similarity in use of pain medication, antipyretics and antimicrobial use was observed, a wide variation in number of chest radiographs and invasive procedures (thoracentesis, placement of chest tubes was observed between centers. The most common organism found in normally sterile samples (blood, pleural fluid, lung biopsy was Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusion Empyema occurs most commonly in children under five years and is associated with considerable morbidity. Variation in management by center was observed. Enhanced surveillance using molecular methods could improve diagnosis and public health planning, particularly with regard to the relationship between immunization programs and the epidemiology of empyema associated with community-acquired pneumonia in children.

  2. USE OF THE PICNIC AREA

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    On the Prévessin site CERN has provided a picnic area which is available for use by persons working on its site subject to prior reservation. The person in charge of this picnic area is Mr Yves CHEVRET ST/TFM. Following a fresh outbreak of incidents (damage to CERN equipment and to trees and plants, privately owned sheep killed or maimed by dogs belonging to users of the picnic area, etc.),   The following measures have been taken: a report on the state of the picnic area will be drawn up before and after use, the cost of any damage noted will be borne by the person making the reservation, dogs and other domestic animals are strictly forbidden in the picnic area.

  3. Picnic Tables within the Designated Picnic Area at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (pcnctbl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains the individual picnic areas (as points where the picnic tables are generally located) within the only designated picnic area at Cedar Breaks...

  4. Paediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC study of aseptic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Joan L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The seasonality, clinical and radiographic features and outcome of aseptic meningitis have been described for regional outbreaks but data from a wider geographic area is necessary to delineate the epidemiology of this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was completed of children presenting with aseptic meningitis to eight Canadian pediatric hospitals over a two-year period. Results There were 233 cases of proven enteroviral (EV meningitis, 495 cases of clinical aseptic meningitis and 74 cases of possible aseptic meningitis with most cases occurring July to October. Headache, vomiting, meningismus and photophobia were more common in children ≥ 5 years of age, while rash, diarrhea and cough were more common in children Conclusion The clinical presentation of aseptic meningitis varies with the age of the child. Absence of CSF pleocytosis is common in infants

  5. The Visitor Picnic Area at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pcncarea)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 1 polygon representing the picnic area for visitors at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The picnic area was...

  6. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR). Canada also initiated or contributed to other important applications of nuclear science and technology: - The cobalt-60 therapy machine was developed in 1952 by J. Harold; - Canada has for many decades provided the lion's share of medical radio nuclides to the world market. These have been produced mostly in the National Research Universal reactor (NRU) at Chalk River Laboratories. NRU has served Canada extremely well in this regard; - NRU has also performed a key role in supporting the power reactor programme for fuel and materials research over the last 52 years. The economic health of the nuclear industry has a strong effect on the status of nuclear education in the country. In the 1980s, the number of students studying or graduating with degrees having nuclear content stayed relatively constant, as did the number of teaching staff. But from the early 1990s, for about 15 years, there was not a high level of investment by the nuclear industry in university research, and not a high level of hiring of graduates, which resulted in the near vanishing of nuclear programmes and nuclear engineering professors. In contrast, in the last few years, with a number of activities to refurbish aging reactors and with the looming renaissance in the nuclear industry, the job market for new graduates with a nuclear engineering background has improved significantly

  7. Crystallography of Representative MOFs Based on Pillared Cyanonickelate (PICNIC Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Wong-Ng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pillared layer motif is a commonly used route to porous coordination polymers or metal organic frameworks (MOFs. Materials based on the pillared cyano-bridged architecture, [Ni’(LNi(CN4]n (L = pillar organic ligands, also known as PICNICs, have been shown to be especially diverse where pore size and pore functionality can be varied by the choice of pillar organic ligand. In addition, a number of PICNICs form soft porous structures that show reversible structure transitions during the adsorption and desorption of guests. The structural flexibility in these materials can be affected by relatively minor differences in ligand design, and the physical driving force for variations in host-guest behavior in these materials is still not known. One key to understanding this diversity is a detailed investigation of the crystal structures of both rigid and flexible PICNIC derivatives. This article gives a brief review of flexible MOFs. It also reports the crystal structures of five PICNICS from our laboratories including three 3-D porous frameworks (Ni-Bpene, NI-BpyMe, Ni-BpyNH2, one 2-D layer (Ni-Bpy, and one 1-D chain (Ni-Naph compound. The sorption data of BpyMe for CO2, CH4 and N2 is described. The important role of NH3 (from the solvent of crystallization as blocking ligands which prevent the polymerization of the 1-D chains and 2-D layers to become 3D porous frameworks in the Ni-Bpy and Ni-Naph compounds is also addressed.

  8. Picnic zone booking at Prévessin site

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2005-01-01

    We would like to inform you that from now on, bookings of the picnic zone on the Prévessin site (next to building 910) have to be done via the "Conference Room Booking System", already used for conference room booking.  To do this, please use the following Web site: http://booking.cern.ch:9000/cr/java/guest/welcomecrbs, select "Pre-book a room", choose "ZONE BAR B Q" and fill in all information requested. You will receive a confirmation by e-mail as soon as your booking has been accepted.   TS Department - FM Group

  9. Contaminant transport in fracture networks with heterogeneous rock matrices. The Picnic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barten, Werner [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Robinson, Peter C. [QuantiSci Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    In the context of safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories, complex radionuclide transport models covering key safety-relevant processes play a major role. In recent Swiss safety assessments, such as Kristallin-I, an important drawback was the limitation in geosphere modelling capability to account for geosphere heterogeneities. In marked contrast to this limitation in modelling capabilities, great effort has been put into investigating the heterogeneity of the geosphere as it impacts on hydrology. Structural geological methods have been used to look at the geometry of the flow paths on a small scale and the diffusion and sorption properties of different rock materials have been investigated. This huge amount of information could however be only partially applied in geosphere transport modelling. To make use of these investigations the 'PICNIC project' was established as a joint cooperation of PSI/Nagra and QuantiSci to provide a new geosphere transport model for Swiss safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories. The new transport code, PICNIC, can treat all processes considered in the older geosphere model RANCH MD generally used in the Kristallin-I study and, in addition, explicitly accounts for the heterogeneity of the geosphere on different spatial scales. The effects and transport phenomena that can be accounted for by PICNIC are a combination of (advective) macro-dispersion due to transport in a network of conduits (legs), micro-dispersion in single legs, one-dimensional or two-dimensional matrix diffusion into a wide range of homogeneous and heterogeneous rock matrix geometries, linear sorption of nuclides in the flow path and the rock matrix and radioactive decay and ingrowth in the case of nuclide chains. Analytical and numerical Laplace transformation methods are integrated in a newly developed hierarchical linear response concept to efficiently account for the transport mechanisms considered which typically act on extremely

  10. Contaminant transport in fracture networks with heterogeneous rock matrices. The Picnic code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories, complex radionuclide transport models covering key safety-relevant processes play a major role. In recent Swiss safety assessments, such as Kristallin-I, an important drawback was the limitation in geosphere modelling capability to account for geosphere heterogeneities. In marked contrast to this limitation in modelling capabilities, great effort has been put into investigating the heterogeneity of the geosphere as it impacts on hydrology. Structural geological methods have been used to look at the geometry of the flow paths on a small scale and the diffusion and sorption properties of different rock materials have been investigated. This huge amount of information could however be only partially applied in geosphere transport modelling. To make use of these investigations the 'PICNIC project' was established as a joint cooperation of PSI/Nagra and QuantiSci to provide a new geosphere transport model for Swiss safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories. The new transport code, PICNIC, can treat all processes considered in the older geosphere model RANCH MD generally used in the Kristallin-I study and, in addition, explicitly accounts for the heterogeneity of the geosphere on different spatial scales. The effects and transport phenomena that can be accounted for by PICNIC are a combination of (advective) macro-dispersion due to transport in a network of conduits (legs), micro-dispersion in single legs, one-dimensional or two-dimensional matrix diffusion into a wide range of homogeneous and heterogeneous rock matrix geometries, linear sorption of nuclides in the flow path and the rock matrix and radioactive decay and ingrowth in the case of nuclide chains. Analytical and numerical Laplace transformation methods are integrated in a newly developed hierarchical linear response concept to efficiently account for the transport mechanisms considered which typically act on extremely different

  11. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  12. Environmental contaminants in golden shiners from Picnic Pond, U.S. Naval Air Station, Brunswick, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On July 25, 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a contaminant survey of fish from Picnic Pond on the U.S. Naval Air Station in Brunswick, Maine...

  13. Reminder of the conditions of use for CERN’s picnic areas

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    With summer on the way, we would like to remind you of some basic rules for the use of CERN’s picnic areas. Two picnic areas are available for the organisation of CERN events: • the Meyrin barbecue area in the clubs area (9405-R-000); • the Prévessin barbecue area located near to Building 972 (9401-R-000). These areas can be reserved through Indico: • 9405-R-000; • 9401-R-000. For all events taking place at weekends or on public holidays, a list of participants must be sent to the Fire Brigade (Fire.Brigade@cern.ch) and the Access Control Service (Access.Surveillance@cern.ch) for safety reasons. A request form has been created for this purpose (available here). The same services must be informed of events organised on weekdays, but a list of participants is not required in this case. For more information, click here.

  14. Supporting Low-Performing Schools in Ontario, Canada. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Don; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the school turnaround programs underway as of summer 2009 in Ontario, Canada. In particular, it focuses on the policies and efforts of the Ontario Ministry of Education (MOE) and an MOE department, the Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat (LNS), to support low-performing schools across the province. The report begins with a…

  15. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Al

    2011-01-01

    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six population…

  16. Study of Golden Eagles Migration in the Calgary Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Tianqing

    2013-01-01

    The eagles watch project is an effort of volunteer bird observers collecting data to monitor the Golden Eagle population in the Rocky Mountains of Calgary, Canada. The project began in March 1992, through April 2012. Such a Citizen Scientist research project has gained great popularity over the last decade due to extensive labor and time needed for observational studies in the fields such as Ornithology and Astronomy. The goal of the Citizen Scientist project is not only accelerate and enric...

  17. The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) employee health study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary examination of records relating to past Chalk River employees provides some reassurance that large numbers of cancer deaths that might be related to occupational radiation exposure do not exist in the groups of employees studied to the end of 1982. The lack of reliable information on deaths of ex-employees who left AECL for other employment prevented the inclusion of this group in this preliminary study. This information will presumably be obtained during the course of the more comprehensive Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. employee health study. 6 refs

  18. Renewing the Study of Public Sector Unions in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Camfield

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A renewal of the study of public sector unionism in Canada is long overdue. This article explains why public sector unions deserve more attention from researchers than they have received of late and proposes that studies of public sector unions would benefit from adopting a new theoretical framework that conceptualizes contemporary unions as not only labour relations institutions but also as particular kinds of working-class movement organizations within a historically-specific class formation. It also identifies two obstacles to the production of accounts of contemporary public sector unions from this perspective.

  19. Using Facebook for marketing : case: Picnic Finland Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Di

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of Facebook marketing within the environment of social media. This study attempts to answer the question: “Why is it necessary for marketers to establish a presence in social media especially on Facebook? What strategies can be developed for Facebook marketing?” The study is based on the following two ideas: marketers are hesitant to establish a presence in social media and/or marketers that have a Facebook site find it contributes li...

  20. A new digital strategy at Canada Wide Media: case study of the relaunch of BCBusiness Online

    OpenAIRE

    Quintanar Zarate, Paola

    2009-01-01

    This project report describes the motivation and the processes that Canada Wide Media, the biggest magazine publisher in Western Canada, followed to build a digital business that complemented its print publishing business. This report is a case study of the relaunch of BCBusiness Online, the first test of Canada Wide Media’s new digital strategy. It describes the obstacles and requirements that a magazine publisher needs to take into consideration before and after entering the online world. S...

  1. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  2. US-Canada Great Lakes Regional Specimen Bank Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, A; Edmonds, C J; Landon, L; Yonker, T L

    1993-11-01

    A study to examine the feasibility of establishing a Regional Specimen Bank in the Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada has recently been initiated by the Michigan Audubon Society. There are several existing formal and informal specimen banking facilities active in the region but their combined adequacy has not been evaluated. This feasibility study will establish the need and use of a regional bank and the institution(s) necessary to satisfy this need will be recommended. The study will address the scope required to meet present and future needs including the types of specimens to be represented in the bank, geographic coverage and protocols for collection, shipping, processing, analysis and storage. A management policy of the bank will be developed encompassing business operation, costs, governing structure and personnel requirements. The legal requirements of the bank will be determined with regards to the acquisition of samples, transport across national boundaries, access to specimens and information, and liability during operation. An effective information dissemination network will be recommended that is compatible with national and international partners, will facilitate technology and information transfer and support the quality and status of the bank. Determination of secure, long-term funding sources will be one of the key elements to ensuring a safe repository. This feasibility study is funded by the Great Lakes Protection Fund.

  3. Rayleigh-wave Tomography Study of Northwestern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, M. E.; Audet, P.; Schaeffer, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the ongoing collision of the Yakutat block with the North American plate in southeastern Alaska, a significant amount of deformation is occurring in the northern Canadian Cordillera. The stress transfer associated with the accretion of this terrane is believed to be responsible for the seismicity across this widespread region. Estimates of crustal thickness within the Mackenzie and Richardson Mountains provide constraints on models describing the evolution of crustal roots responsible for supporting such belts that transmit tectonic stresses over long distances (>1000 km); unfortunately, current seismic velocity models used to map crustal thickness have limited resolution due to sparse coverage by seismograph networks. Here we use data from a new regional seismograph network (Yukon-Northwest Seismograph Network - YNSN) as well as permanent stations to map out crustal structure. Crustal thickness variations can be obtained from 3-D seismic velocity models determined from the inversion of surface-wave dispersion data. In this work we present preliminary results of a regional tomography study of northwestern Canada, encompassing the northern Canadian Cordillera, using dispersion curves derived from ambient noise cross-correlations in addition to teleseismic two-station interferometry. We collected all available vertical component seismic data from stations located in the Yukon and surrounding regions from the period between June 2012 and June 2015. Using this data set, we first cross-correlated hour-long segments of the ambient seismic noise between all available stations pairs that share common data availability and obtained virtual Rayleigh waves with energy over periods 10-50 s that are predominantly sensitive to crust and uppermost mantle structure. This data set is complemented by Rayleigh-wave dispersion measurements, spanning the period range 25—175 s, derived by cross-correlating vertical component data from teleseismic earthquakes (M>5) lying along

  4. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which score highly in international comparisons such as PISA and TIMMS, and on the other hand Denmark, which receives average scores, but it also functions as...

  5. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration for mineral deposits in Canada resulted in the discovery of large uranium deposits, such as at Great. Bear Lake, Northwest Territories (1930), in the Elliot Lake area, Ontario (1949); Beaverlodge, Wollaston Lake Fold Belt and Carswell Structure in Saskatchewan (1946-1975) and many uranium occurrences in the Canadian Shield, in the Orogenic Belts and in the Platforms. Uranium output in Canada since 1942 until and including 1976 amounted to 112,000 tonnes U. Reasonably Assured uranium resources as of 1976 amounted to 167,000 tonnes U (at a price up to $40/lb. U308) and 15,000 tonnes U (at a price more than $40 up to $60/lb. U3O8). Estimated Additional uranium resources as of 1976 amounted to 392,000 tonnes U (at a price up to $40/lb. U-Og) and 264,000 tonnes U (at a price more than $40 up to $60/lb. U308). Possible further potential beyond the above mentioned classes is tentatively estimated to be in the 6th category according to NEA/IAEA favourability classification. (author)

  6. Emergy accounting for regional studies: case study of Canada and its provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossaini, Navid; Hewage, Kasun

    2013-03-30

    Sustainable regional management (development) requires an understanding of interactions between the social, economic, and ecological systems within the boundaries of a region. In this paper, application of emergy (an environmental accounting method) for regional planning is discussed through a case study. Emergy (spelled with an "m") methodology is an environmental accounting technique that evaluates the energy system for the thermodynamics of an open system. Major renewable and non-renewable resource fluxes to a region, including energy, matter, human activities, and money can be converted to emergy by using corresponding transformity functions. As a case study, this paper discusses the emergy accounting of Canada and its provinces with various emergy-based indicators. Moreover, emergy maps were generated in a form of emergy geography. These maps are multi-dimensional illustrations that show resource consumption, emergy per person, and emergy density across Canada under two parameters: (1) the quantities of resources consumed and (2) the location of consumption. Emergy analysis also highlights concentrations of renewable and natural resources in Canada and distinguishes the provinces with the highest resource consumption. Analysis of emergy indicator for Canadian provinces shows that Alberta with the highest EYR (7.35) provides energy to the economy of Canada. However, ELR value of Alberta (8.5) indicates that the province's current economic approach is not sustainable as it relies mainly on non-renewable emergy inputs (mainly from fossil fuels). ELR of British Columbia and Manitoba indicates that these two provinces created a firm balance between emergy use of renewable and non-renewable resources. The characterizations of regions provided in this paper can be used for future land planning and management both in federal and provincial levels.

  7. A Statistical Comparative Study of the Working Poor in Japan and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Murakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently in Japan, there has been an increase in the group which is termed the ‘Working Poor’. However, the group’s size and configuration remains unknown. Approach: The purpose of this study is to compare the working poor in Canada and Japan using microdata. First, the definition and method of estimation of the working poor provided by (Iwai and Murakami, 2007 are provided along with later modifications. Second, results of the investigation into data appropriate for use in estimating Canada’s working poor and poverty line are given, as are estimates of Canada’s working poor. Last, the characteristics of unemployment, unstable employment and the labor market are examined for both Canada and Japan and the similarities and differences between the two countries are highlighted. Results: In Canada and Japan, the working poor are most likely to be found among the young, those with a low level of education, those in unstable employment or those working in a company having few employees. As regards the differences between the two countries, males are more likely to be the working poor than females in Canada, though this trend is not seen in Japan; moreover, the percentage of the working poor is high among the 25-34 and 35-44 age groups in Japan, though this is not the case in Canada. Conclusion: As conclusions of this study, the first challenge that lies ahead is to find data from the two countries that allows a more rigorous comparison. The second challenge is to re-evaluate estimates made to date after a full investigation of labor market systems. Statistical Analysis Research Project (2009, we have estimated the working poor of the UK and compared their figures with those of Japan. The third challenge is thus to add the findings of this study to those from the UK/Japan and thereby perform a trilateral comparison.

  8. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand......, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which score highly in international comparisons such as PISA and TIMMS, and on the other hand Denmark, which receives average scores, but it also functions as a comparison between all four countries. The study covers the following subjects: pedagogy and mathematics...... of professional knowledge within the Danish teacher education programmes, which is not true of the programmes in the Top-3 countries and (2) the programmes in Canada and Singapore more frequently employ literature combining research-based knowledge with practical guidance and experiences, while the programmes...

  9. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers (years 1-9(10)) in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in......, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which score highly in international comparisons such as PISA and TIMMS, and on the other hand Denmark, which receives average scores, but it also functions as a comparison between all four countries. The study covers the following subjects: pedagogy...... in Canada and Singapore more frequently employ literature combining research-based knowledge with practical guidance and experiences, while the programmes in Denmark and Finland keep these knowledge forms separate. 3) The main distinguishing feature of the teacher education programme at the University...

  10. Gestures of India: A Study of Emblems among Punjabi Residents of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher R.

    Based on the theoretical concepts and research methodology of Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen, a study examined the emblems (gestures with exact verbal meanings) of Punjabi (India) immigrants in Canada. A limited repertoire of 63 emblems was elicited from nine Punjabi informants and then shown to nine Canadian citizens and one United States…

  11. How Marketing Practices Affect Education: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Goddard, J. Tim

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the theory and practice of the commercialization of education in Canada, using comparative examples from the United States and Australia. Critical theory provides the framework for the study. From the broad focus of business practice, the examination is narrowed down to marketing, and even further to branding, at all levels,…

  12. Retirement income policies and welfare state retrenchment: A comparative study of Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bouma, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of welfare state retrenchment on the retirement income system in Canada during the years 1980-2000. In order to provide perspective on the Canadian experience, this study also examined the effects of retrenchment on the pension systems in the Netherlands and Sweden. The theoretical foundation for this study was supported by Esping-Andersen's (1990) welfare-state regime typology (liberal, conservative and social-democratic). To address retre...

  13. 1991 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  14. 1992 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  15. 1989 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  16. 1990 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  17. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison Howard; Gibbons Laurie; Zhou Jia; Pan Sai Yi; Wen Shi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal) and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk fact...

  18. Users’ perspectives of key factors to implementing electronic health records in Canada: a Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    McGinn Carrie; Gagnon Marie-Pierre; Shaw Nicola; Sicotte Claude; Mathieu Luc; Leduc Yvan; Grenier Sonya; Duplantie Julie; Abdeljelil Anis; Légaré France

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Interoperable electronic health record (EHR) solutions are currently being implemented in Canada, as in many other countries. Understanding EHR users’ perspectives is key to the success of EHR implementation projects. This Delphi study aimed to assess in the Canadian context the applicability, the importance, and the priority of pre-identified factors from a previous mixed-methods systematic review of international literature. Methods A three-round Delphi study was held wi...

  19. A Cohort Study of Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jerrett, Michael; Murray M Finkelstein; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Arain, M Altaf; Kanaroglou, Palvos; Stieb, Dave M.; Gilbert, Nicolas L.; Verma, Dave; Finkelstein, Norm; Kenneth R Chapman; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may contribute to premature mortality, but few studies to date have addressed this topic. Objectives In this study we assessed the association between TRAP and mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Methods We collected nitrogen dioxide samples over two seasons using duplicate two-sided Ogawa passive diffusion samplers at 143 locations across Toronto. We calibrated land use regressions to predict NO2 exposure on a fine scale ...

  20. Primary Exploration into Gothic Psychology in Picnic%《野餐》中的哥特式心理探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟慧丽

    2011-01-01

    威廉.英奇的剧本《野餐》触及主人公内心深处哥特式建筑般神秘、孤独和怪诞的精神世界。该文以哥特式心理的角度从女性、文化、地域以及爱情心理四个方面探索了剧中人物的哥特式心理境况,哥特式建筑外部表征现象正是受到高度压抑心灵的本能曲折的投射,女性、文化、地域的封闭、疏离、羁押最终摧毁主人公获得幸福的权利,各种年龄、阶层以及性别由于文化、地域以及各方面地疏离而造成人性的异化、压抑以及对于未知世界与状态的恐惧。%William Inge was a dramatist who enjoyed great fame at Off-Broadway in the 50s America in 20th century.The gothic architecture style was the reflections of repressed psyche.Lack of male,separation of culture,estrangement of region,closure of love is all forms of gothic psychology.Picnic fully reflects the repressed,lonely,anxious and mysterious psychology of the characters from the Midwest.The female,cultural,regional and love psychological Gothic aspects were essential points in studying Inge's psychological Gothic drama.

  1. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Pereira, Jennifer A.; Jeffrey C Kwong; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Margaret L Russell; ,

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Participants Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age child...

  2. A radiological health study of industrial gamma radiography in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an occupational group, industrial radiographers receive radiation doses second only to reactor workers. This report is a result of a study carried out to research the causes for this relatively high dose and determine if and how it can be improved. The data presented herein were obtained from questionnaires and field visits to organizations involved in gamma radiography and from the Canadian National Dose Registry. Some applications of radiography such as pipeline work give rise to higher than average doses. When all safety measures are conscientiously aplied, the doses are reasonalbe. However, ignorance, carelessness and indifference account for much unnecessary exposure to radiation. (Auth)

  3. Preliminary paleomagnetic study of the Thetford Mines Ordovician Ophiolite (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, Anita; Morris, Antony; Anderson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Extension associated with oceanic ridges at divergent plate boundaries is characterized by normal faulting and episodic magma supply. Studies in modern oceanic settings suggest locally along ridges both lower crust and upper mantle peridotites may be exhumed to the seafloor in features known as oceanic core complexes (OCC). OCC are characterized by long-lived low-angle detachment faults that extend for 10s of km, and that are crosscut by high-angle normal faults oriented parallel to the rift axis. Here we present preliminary results from 12 paleomagnetic sites sampled on an example of fossilized Ordovician OCC preserved in the in the Canadian Appalachians, the Southern Quebec ophiolites. These were obducted and subjected to polyphase deformation during Palaeozoic orogeny along the Laurentian margin of Iapetus. Although locally obscured by tectonic fabrics and structures, the original relationships between the ophiolitic mantle, the overlying plutonic section, and onlapping Ordovician siliciclastic rocks can be reconstructed within the Thetford-Mines ophiolite. Preliminary results from AMS and Thermal demagnetization experiments record a remarkably consistent overprint from the youngest (Acadian) phase of Paleozoic orogeny. Although complicating further study of intra-oceanic deformation along the detachment fault in the original OCC, the results provide further insights into the progressive overprint of deformation events as recorded by AMS.

  4. Asylum-seeking children's experiences of detention in Canada: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Rachel; Rousseau, Cécile; Cleveland, Janet

    2015-05-01

    Children and parents seeking asylum are regularly detained in Canada, however little is known about the experiences of detained families. International literature suggests that the detention of children is associated with significant morbidity. Our study aims to understand the experiences of detained children and families who have sought asylum in Canada by using a qualitative methodology that includes semistructured interviews and ethnographic participant observation. Detention appears to be a frightening experience of deprivation that leaves children feeling criminalized and helpless. Family separation further shatters children's sense of well-being. Children's emotional and behavioral responses to separation and to detention suggest that the experience is acutely stressful and, in some cases, traumatic--even when detention is brief. Distress and impairment may persist months after release. Given the burden of psychological suffering and the harmful consequences of separating families, children should not be detained for immigration reasons and parents should not be detained without children.

  5. Mount Meager Volcano, Canada: a Case Study for Landslides on Glaciated Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, G. L.; Ward, B. C.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Falorni, G.; Perotti, L.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Mount Meager is a strato-volcano massif in the Northern Cascade Volcanic Arc (Canada) that erupted in 2350 BP, the most recent in Canada. To study the stability of the Massif an international research project between France ( Blaise Pascal University), Italy (University of Turin) and Canada (Simon Fraser University) and private companies (TRE - sensing the planet) has been created. A complex history of glacial loading and unloading, combined with weak, hydrothermally altered rocks has resulted in a long record of catastrophic landslides. The most recent, in 2010 is the third largest (50 x 106 m3) historical landslide in Canada. Mount Meager is a perfect natural laboratory for gravity and topographic processes such as landslide activity, permafrost and glacial dynamics, erosion, alteration and uplift on volcanoes. Research is aided by a rich archive of aerial photos of the Massif (1940s up to 2006): complete coverage approximately every 10 years. This data set has been processed and multi-temporal, high resolution Orthophoto and DSMs (Digital Surface Models) have been produced. On these digital products, with the support on field work, glacial retreat and landslide activity have been tracked and mapped. This has allowed for the inventory of unstable areas, the identification of lava flows and domes, and the general improvement on the geologic knowledge of the massif. InSAR data have been used to monitor the deformation of the pre-2010 failure slope. It will also be used to monitor other unstable slopes that potentially can evolve to catastrophic collapses of up to 1 km3 in volume, endangering local communities downstream the volcano. Mount Meager is definitively an exceptional site for studying the dynamics of a glaciated, uplifted volcano. The methodologies proposed can be applied to other volcanic areas with high erosion rates such as Alaska, Cascades, and the Andes.

  6. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START: a Canada-India collaborative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Sonia S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada.

  7. Towards generalised reference condition models for environmental assessment: a case study on rivers in Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, D G; Monk, W A; Carter, L; Cote, D; Baird, D J

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of the ecological status of river sites in Canada is supported by building models using the reference condition approach. However, geography, data scarcity and inter-operability constraints have frustrated attempts to monitor national-scale status and trends. This issue is particularly true in Atlantic Canada, where no ecological assessment system is currently available. Here, we present a reference condition model based on the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System approach with regional-scale applicability. To achieve this, we used biological monitoring data collected from wadeable streams across Atlantic Canada together with freely available, nationally consistent geographic information system (GIS) environmental data layers. For the first time, we demonstrated that it is possible to use data generated from different studies, even when collected using different sampling methods, to generate a robust predictive model. This model was successfully generated and tested using GIS-based rather than local habitat variables and showed improved performance when compared to a null model. In addition, ecological quality ratio data derived from the model responded to observed stressors in a test dataset. Implications for future large-scale implementation of river biomonitoring using a standardised approach with global application are presented. PMID:23250724

  8. Understanding Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada: Results of a Consultation Study by the Canadian Immunization Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Ouakki, Manale; Bettinger, Julie A; Guay, Maryse; Halperin, Scott; Wilson, Kumanan; Graham, Janice; Witteman, Holly O; MacDonald, Shannon; Fisher, William; Monnais, Laurence; Tran, Dat; Gagneur, Arnaud; Guichon, Juliet; Saini, Vineet; Heffernan, Jane M; Meyer, Samantha; Driedger, S Michelle; Greenberg, Joshua; MacDougall, Heather

    2016-01-01

    "Vaccine hesitancy" is a concept now frequently used in vaccination discourse. The increased popularity of this concept in both academic and public health circles is challenging previously held perspectives that individual vaccination attitudes and behaviours are a simple dichotomy of accept or reject. A consultation study was designed to assess the opinions of experts and health professionals concerning the definition, scope, and causes of vaccine hesitancy in Canada. We sent online surveys to two panels (1- vaccination experts and 2- front-line vaccine providers). Two questionnaires were completed by each panel, with data from the first questionnaire informing the development of questions for the second. Our participants defined vaccine hesitancy as an attitude (doubts, concerns) as well as a behaviour (refusing some / many vaccines, delaying vaccination). Our findings also indicate that both vaccine experts and front-line vaccine providers have the perception that vaccine rates have been declining and consider vaccine hesitancy an important issue to address in Canada. Diffusion of negative information online and lack of knowledge about vaccines were identified as the key causes of vaccine hesitancy by the participants. A common understanding of vaccine hesitancy among researchers, public health experts, policymakers and health care providers will better guide interventions that can more effectively address vaccine hesitancy within Canada. PMID:27257809

  9. Tracking the evolution of hospice palliative care in Canada: A comparative case study analysis of seven provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Richards Judy-Lynn; Kelley Mary-Lou; Whitfield Kyle; Crooks Valorie A; Williams Allison M; DeMiglio Lily; Dykeman Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background An aging population, rise in chronic illnesses, increase in life expectancy and shift towards care being provided at the community level are trends that are collectively creating an urgency to advance hospice palliative care (HPC) planning and provision in Canada. The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of HPC in seven provinces in Canada so as to inform such planning and provision elsewhere. We have endeavoured to undertake this research out of awareness th...

  10. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    , Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which score highly in international comparisons such as PISA and TIMMS, and on the other hand Denmark, which receives average scores, but it also functions as a comparison between all four countries. The study covers the following subjects: pedagogy and mathematics....... The study does not offer proof of any clear difference between the Danish teacher education programmes and those found in the top-performing countries. Two main findings are: (1) philosophically based professional knowledge, much of which is normative in character, forms an extensive part of the body...... programmes in Denmark and Finland keep these knowledge forms separate....

  11. The Evolving Role of Botanical Gardens and Natural Areas: A Floristic Case Study from Royal Botanical Gardens, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David A. GALBRAITH; Natalie E. IWANYCKI; Brechann V. McGOEY; Jamie McGREGOR; James S. PRINGLE; Carl J. ROTHFELS; Tyler W. SMITH

    2011-01-01

    As leaders calling for the conservation of the world's plants, botanical gardens protect plants within living collections. Many also study, manage and restore plants in natural habitats. Royal Botanical Gardens (Ontario,Canada) has integrated both horticultural and natural heritage in its mission for decades. Envisioned by municipal leaders in the 1920s as a combination of nature sanctuaries and civic gardens, RBG now includes forests, wetlands and other habitats, gardens and built spaces. Today RBG is Canada's largest botanical garden on the basis of area.In the 1950s RBG began to inventory plant diversity. The checklist of spontaneous vascular plants now exceeds 1 170 species, of which 752 are native. This is 37% of Ontario's native vascular plants and 19% of the native vascular flora of Canada. The RBG nature sanctuaries are among the richest locations in Canada for species-level diversity.We examine the history of fioristic exploration within RBG and compare plant species-area relationships among protected natural areas in Ontario. This comparison supports the contention that the nature sanctuaries, and in particular Cootes Paradise, could be considered an important area for plants in Canada, and relative to the nation's flora, a biodiversity hotspot. The fact that a candidate vascular plant hotspot for Canada lies within a major botanical garden presents opportunities for raising public awareness of the importance of plant diversity, as well as focusing attention on the scientific and conservation biology needs of communities and individual species in this area.

  12. A study of the health of the employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the status of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.'s health study of its present and past employees, and is a description of the steps which have been taken up to the time of writing. During the design phase there was a shift in the emphasis of the study. What was originally proposed as a study of mortality in a population of radiation workers, related spacifically to radiation exposure, has become a study of mortality data for all AECL employees. The interest in mortality as a function of occupational radiation expksure remains, but it is recognized that the data available to the study will probably be inadequate for the definition of a dose-effect relationship, although it will be useful in conjuction with other similar studies. The importance of cancer incidence is recognized, and the possibility of linking the AECL data to that contained in the National Cancer Incidence Reporting System is being pursued

  13. Toxicological findings in fatal motor vehicle collisions in ontario, Canada: a one-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Karen L; Chow, Betty L C; Lauwers, Albert; Cass, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Drug-impaired driving is a complex area of forensic toxicology due in part to limited data concerning the type of drugs involved and the concentrations detected. This study analyzed toxicological findings in drivers from fatal motor vehicle collisions (FMVCs) in Ontario, Canada, over a one-year period using a standardized protocol. Of the 229 cases included in the study, 56% were positive for alcohol and/or drugs. After alcohol, cannabis was the most frequently encountered substance (27%), followed by benzodiazepines (17%) and antidepressants (17%). There were differences in drugs detected by age but no marked difference in drugs detected between single and multiple FMVC's. Not all drugs detected were considered impairing either due to drug type, concentration or case history. The findings indicate the importance of comprehensive drug testing in FMVCs and highlight the need to consider a variety of factors, in addition to drug type and concentration, when assessing the role of drugs in driving impairment. PMID:25693690

  14. Cancer screening behaviours among South Asian immigrants in the UK, US and Canada: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Joanne; Ahmad, Farah; Beaton, Dorcas; Bierman, Arlene S

    2016-03-01

    South Asian (SA) immigrants settled in the United Kingdom (UK) and North America [United States (US) and Canada] have low screening rates for breast, cervical and colorectal cancers. Incidence rates of these cancers increase among SA immigrants after migration, becoming similar to rates in non-Asian native populations. However, there are disparities in cancer screening, with low cancer screening uptake in this population. We conducted a scoping study using Arksey & O'Malley's framework to examine cancer screening literature on SA immigrants residing in the UK, US and Canada. Eight electronic databases, key journals and reference lists were searched for English language studies and reports. Of 1465 identified references, 70 studies from 1994 to November 2014 were included: 63% on breast or cervical cancer screening or both; 10% examined colorectal cancer screening only; 16% explored health promotion/service provision; 8% studied breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening; and 3% examined breast and colorectal cancer screening. A thematic analysis uncovered four dominant themes: (i) beliefs and attitudes towards cancer and screening included centrality of family, holistic healthcare, fatalism, screening as unnecessary and emotion-laden perceptions; (ii) lack of knowledge of cancer and screening related to not having heard about cancer and its causes, or lack of awareness of screening, its rationale and/or how to access services; (iii) barriers to access including individual and structural barriers; and (iv) gender differences in screening uptake and their associated factors. Findings offer insights that can be used to develop culturally sensitive interventions to minimise barriers and increase cancer screening uptake in these communities, while recognising the diversity within the SA culture. Further research is required to address the gap in colorectal cancer screening literature to more fully understand SA immigrants' perspectives, as well as research to

  15. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  16. An Empirical Study of the Career Paths of Senior Educational Administrators in Manitoba, Canada: Implications for Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Dawn C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes queue theory (Tallerico & Blount, 2004) to discuss a mixed-methods study that determined the career patterns of senior educational administrators in public school divisions in Manitoba, Canada, compared by position, context and sex. Findings indicate that queue theory has merit for describing the career paths of senior…

  17. King County Nearshore Habitat Mapping Data Report: Picnic Point to Shilshole Bay Marina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Farley, Paul J.; Borde, Amy B.; Southard, John A.; Thom, Ronald M.

    2000-12-31

    The objective of this study is to provide accurate, georeferenced maps of benthic habitats to assist in the siting of a new wastewater treatment plant outfall and the assessment of habitats of endangered, threatened, and economically important species. The mapping was conducted in the fall of 1999 using two complementary techniques: side-scan sonar and underwater videography. Products derived from these techniques include geographic information system (GIS) compatible polygon data of substrate type and vegetation cover, including eelgrass and kelp. Additional GIS overlays include underwater video track line data of total macroalgae, selected macroalgal species, fish, and macroinvertebrates. The combined tools of geo-referenced side-scan sonar and underwater video is a powerful technique for assessing and mapping of nearshore habitat in Puget Sound. Side-scan sonar offers the ability to map eelgrass with high spatial accuracy and resolution, and provides information on patch size, shape, and coverage. It also provides information on substrate change and location of specific targets (e.g., piers, docks, pilings, large boulders, debris piles). The addition of underwater video is a complementary tool providing both groundtruthing for the sonar and additional information on macro fauna and flora. As a groundtruthing technique, the video was able to confirm differences between substrate types, as well as detect subtle spatial changes in substrate. It also verified information related to eelgrass, including the density classification categories and the type of substrate associated with eelgrass, which could not be determined easily with side- scan sonar. Video is also a powerful tool for mapping the location of macroalgae, (including kelp and Ulva), fish and macroinvertebrates. The ability to geo-locate these resources in their functional habitat provides an added layer of information and analytical potential.

  18. Towards generalised reference condition models for environmental assessment: a case study on rivers in Atlantic Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Armanini, D. G.; Monk, W.A.; Carter, L; Cote, D.; Baird, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the ecological status of river sites in Canada is supported by building models using the reference condition approach. However, geography, data scarcity and inter-operability constraints have frustrated attempts to monitor national-scale status and trends. This issue is particularly true in Atlantic Canada, where no ecological assessment system is currently available. Here, we present a reference condition model based on the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification Syste...

  19. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  20. Users’ perspectives of key factors to implementing electronic health records in Canada: a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinn Carrie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interoperable electronic health record (EHR solutions are currently being implemented in Canada, as in many other countries. Understanding EHR users’ perspectives is key to the success of EHR implementation projects. This Delphi study aimed to assess in the Canadian context the applicability, the importance, and the priority of pre-identified factors from a previous mixed-methods systematic review of international literature. Methods A three-round Delphi study was held with representatives of 4 Canadian EHR user groups defined as partners of the implementation process who use or are expected to use EHR in their everyday activity. These groups are: non-physician healthcare professionals, health information professionals, managers, and physicians. Four bilingual online questionnaire versions were developed from factors identified by the systematic review. Participants were asked to rate the applicability and the importance of each factor. The main outcome measures were consensus and priority. Consensus was defined a priori as strong (≥ 75% or moderate (≥ 60-74% according to user groups’ level of agreement on applicability and importance, partial (≥ 60% when participants agreed only on applicability or importance, or as no consensus ( Results Three Delphi rounds were completed by 64 participants. Levels of consensus of 100%, 64%, 64%, and 44% were attained on factors submitted to non-physician healthcare professionals, health information professionals, managers, and physicians, respectively. While agreement between and within user groups varied, key factors were prioritized if they were classified as strong (≥ 75% from questionnaire answers of user groups, for decision-making concerning EHR implementation. The10 factors that were prioritized are perceived usefulness, productivity, motivation, participation of end-users in the implementation strategy, patient and health professional interaction, lack of time and

  1. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada.Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001, binge drinking (P < 0.001, obesity (P < 0.001 and diabetes (P < 0.001, and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029, and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001. Sex differences were also

  2. Characterizing New Channels of Communication: A Case Study of Municipal 311 Requests in Edmonton, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available City governments around the world are developing and expanding how they connect to citizens. Technologies play an important role in making this connection, and one frequent way that cities connect with citizens is through 311-style request systems. 311 is a non-emergency municipal notification system that uses telephone, email, web forms, and increasingly, mobile applications to allow citizens to notify government of infrastructure issues and make requests for municipal services. In many ways, this process of citizen contribution mirrors the provision of volunteered geographic information, that is spatially-referenced user generated content. This research presents a case study of the city of Edmonton, Canada, an early adopter of multi-channel 311 service request systems, including telephone, email, web form, and mobile app 311 request channels. Three methods of analysis are used to characterize and compare these different channels over three years of request data; a comparison of relative request share for each channel, a spatial hot spot analysis, and regression models to compare channel usage with sociodemographic variables. The results of this study indicate a shift in channel usage from traditional to Internet-enabled, that this shift is mirrored in the hotspots of request activity, and that specific digital inequalities exist that reinforce this distinction between traditional and Internet-enabled reporting channels.

  3. Quantitative study on pollen-based reconstructions of vegetation history from central Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ge; HART Catherina; VETTER Mary; SAUCHYN David

    2008-01-01

    Based on high-resolution pollen records from lake cores in central Canada, the present study instructed pollen taxa assignations in ecosystem groups and modern analogue technique, reported major results of quantitative reconstructions of vegetation history during the last 1000 years, and discussed the validation of simulated vegetation. The results showed that in central America (115°-95°W,40°-60°N), best analogue of the modern vegetation is 81% for boreal forest, 72% for parkland, and 94% for grassland-parkland, which are consistent with vegetation distributions of the North American Ecosystem Ⅱ. Simulations of the past vegetation from the sedimentary pollen showed climate changes during the past 1000 years: it was warm and dry in the Medieval Warm period, cold and wet in the earlier period and cold and dry in the later period of the Little Ice Age. It became obviously increasing warm and drought in the 20th century. The present studies would provide us scientific basis to understand vegetation and climate changes during the last 1000 years in a characteristic region and in 10-100 year time scales.

  4. Quantitative study on pollen-based reconstructions of vegetation history from central Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HART; Catherina; VETTER; Mary; SAUCHYN; David

    2008-01-01

    Based on high-resolution pollen records from lake cores in central Canada, the present study instructed pollen taxa assignations in ecosystem groups and modern analogue technique, reported major results of quantitative reconstructions of vegetation history during the last 1000 years, and discussed the validation of simulated vegetation. The results showed that in central America (115°-95°W, 40°-60°N), best analogue of the modern vegetation is 81% for boreal forest, 72% for parkland, and 94% for grassland-parkland, which are consistent with vegetation distributions of the North American Ecosystem II. Simulations of the past vegetation from the sedimentary pollen showed climate changes during the past 1000 years: it was warm and dry in the Medieval Warm period, cold and wet in the earlier period and cold and dry in the later period of the Little Ice Age. It became obviously increasing warm and drought in the 20th century. The present studies would provide us scientific basis to understand vegetation and climate changes during the last 1000 years in a characteristic region and in 10-100 year time scales.

  5. An observational study of ice effects on Nelson River estuarine variability, Hudson Bay, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; McCullough, Greg K.; Gunn, Geoffrey G.; Hochheim, Klaus P.; Dorostkar, Abbas; Sydor, Kevin; Barber, David G.

    2012-09-01

    Many estuaries in high latitude regions are subjected to seasonally ice-covered conditions. However, ice effects on estuarine variability have received limited scientific attention and remain poorly understood. In this paper, an 11-month mooring record is used to examine seasonal variation of estuarine hydrodynamics in the Nelson River estuary (NRE), Hudson Bay (HB), in northern Canada. We show that ice cover strongly affects tidal amplitudes, velocities and phases in the NRE. In the mid-winter, the M2 tidal amplitude and consequently the tidal range are significantly reduced due to under-ice friction in HB, while conversely the M2 tidal velocity is amplified due to reduction of cross-section of the channel by formation of fast ice. A stronger surface seaward residual flow observed in the winter indicates that the formation of fast ice could also enhance the residual circulation. Suspended sediment concentration in the river mouth is reduced, also possibly due to the formation of fast ice that protects shallow nearshore shoals from erosion. This study demonstrates the importance of ice effects on estuarine variability and the complexity of processes in a seasonally ice-covered estuary.

  6. Spectral decomposition aids AVO analysis in reservoir characterization: A case study of Blackfoot field, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung Yoon, Wang; Farfour, Mohammed

    2012-09-01

    Blackfoot field, Alberta, Canada, has produced oil and gas from a Glauconitic compound incised valley-system. In this area channels can be filled with sands and/or shales. Differentiation of prospective channel sands and non-productive shales was always problematic due to the similarity in P-wave impedance of these two lithotypes. We study the spectral decomposition response to the hydrocarbons presence in the Glauconitic channel of Early Cretaceous age. From previous AVO analysis and modeling, a strong Class III AVO anomaly has been observed at the top of the porous sandstone in the upper valley, whereas shale had a very different AVO response. Furthermore, AVO inversion revealed additional information about lithology and fluid content in the channel. Our workflow starts from selecting a continuous horizon that was close and conforms to the channel interval; we then run spectral analyses for the channel area. Short Window Fourier Transform workflow could successfully image the channel's stratigraphic features and confirm results obtained from AVO analysis and inversion run on the data before being stacked. Additionally, the producing oil wells in the sand-fill channel were found to be correlating with high spectrum amplitude; while the dry wells in the shale-plugged channel fell in low amplitude anomaly.

  7. The Association Between Income Inequality and Oral Health in Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Jamie; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Societies exhibiting higher levels of economic inequality experience poorer health outcomes, and the proposed pathways used to explain these patterns are also relevant to oral health. This study therefore examines the relationship between the level of income inequality and the oral health and dental care services utilization of residents from eleven Canadian metropolitan areas. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between each metropolitan area's Gini coefficient (used as a proxy for income inequality, calculated from 2006 Canadian census data) and each area's experience of dental pain, self-reported oral health, and use of dental care services (provided by data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey). Greater levels of income inequality in the selected metropolitan areas were related to an increased likelihood of residents self-reporting their oral health as poor/fair and reporting a prolonged absence from visiting a dentist. There was, however, no relationship between the level of income inequality and the likelihood of respondents reporting a recent toothache, tooth sensitivity, or jaw pain. Policies designed to improve the oral health of the population, and Canadians' access to dental care generally, may therefore work best when supported by policies that promote greater economic equality within Canada.

  8. Association of vitamin D status with socio-demographic factors in Calgary, Alberta: an ecological study using Census Canada data

    OpenAIRE

    Naugler, Christopher; Zhang, Jianguo; Henne, Dan; Woods, Paul; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are a global health problem with northern countries such as Canada at particular risk. A number of sociodemographic factors have been reported to be associated with low vitamin D levels but prior studies have been limited by the ability of the researchers to gather this data directly from clinical trial participants. The purpose of this study was to use a novel methodology of inferring sociodemographic variables to evaluate the correlates of vitamin D...

  9. A registry for the study of the health of radiation workers employed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors to be considered in formulating a study of the health of radiation workers are discussed, and a proposal is made for the establishment of such a study in relation to the employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. By setting up a registry of AECL radiation workers, data could be accumulated suitable for the long-term followup of their health, and for preparing periodic interim reports on mortality and morbidity. (author)

  10. Non-hodgkin's lymphoma and work in agriculture: Results of a two case-control studies in Saskatchewan, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Chandima P. Karunanayake; Dosman, James A; Punam Pahwa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to examine the association between non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL) and farming-related activities, gender, pesticides exposure, and exposure to chemicals other than pesticides in Saskatchewan. Materials and Methods: Male and female study participants were taken from two separate case-control studies conducted in Saskatchewan province, Canada. A case was defined as any man or woman aged 19 years and older with a first diagnosis of NHL registered by the Saskatchewan C...

  11. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  12. Air Pollution and Emergency Department Visits for Otitis Media: A Case-Crossover Study in Edmonton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zemek, Roger; Szyszkowicz, Mieczysław; Rowe, Brian H

    2010-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common early childhood infections, resulting in an enormous economic burden to the health care system through unscheduled doctor visits and antibiotic prescriptions. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the potential association between ambient air pollution exposure and emergency department (ED) visits for OM. Materials and Methods Ten years of ED data were obtained from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and linked to levels of ai...

  13. Teacher Induction across the Pacific: A Comparative Study of Canada and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares and evaluates teacher induction in Canada and Japan, following an overview of each educational system and an assessment of higher education in each region. Based on the author's personal teaching experience and research, suggestions for educational reforms are made to enhance the role of teachers. Teachers need opportunities to…

  14. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell

  15. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: case studies of Canada's Northern mining resource sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the integration of human health considerations into environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the Canadian North. Emphasis is placed on the northern mining sector, where more land has been staked in the past decade than in the previous 50 years combined. Using information from interviews with northern EIA and health practitioners and reviews of selected project documents, we examined three principal mining case studies, northern Saskatchewan uranium mining operations, the Ekati diamond project, and the Voisey's Bay mine/mill project, to determine whether and how health considerations in EIA have evolved and the current nature and scope of health integration. Results suggest that despite the recognized link between environment and health and the number of high-profile megaprojects in Canada's North, human health, particularly social health, has not been given adequate treatment in northern EIA. Health considerations in EIA have typically been limited to physical health impacts triggered directly by project-induced environmental change, while social and other health determinants have been either not considered at all, or limited to those aspects of health and well-being that the project proponent directly controlled, namely employment opportunities and worker health and safety. In recent years, we have been seeing improvements in the scope of health in EIA to reflect a broader range of health determinants, including traditional land use and culture. However, there is still a need to adopt impact mitigation and enhancement measures that are sensitive to northern society, to monitor and follow up actual health impacts after project approval, and to ensure that mitigation and enhancement measures are effective. (author)

  16. Pathology and diagnosis of avian bornavirus infection in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) and mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Canada: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnatte, Pauline; Ojkic, Davor; Delay, Josepha; Campbell, Doug; Crawshaw, Graham; Smith, Dale A

    2013-04-01

    Nine hundred and fifty-five pathology cases collected in Ontario between 1992 and 2011 from wild free-ranging Canada geese, trumpeter swans and mute swans were retrospectively evaluated for the pathology associated with avian bornavirus (ABV) infection. Cases were selected based on the presence of upper gastrointestinal impaction, central nervous system histopathology or clinical history suggestive of ABV infection. The proportion of birds meeting at least one of these criteria was significantly higher at the Toronto Zoo (30/132) than elsewhere in Ontario (21/823). Central, peripheral and autonomic nervous tissues were examined for the presence of lymphocytes and plasma cells on histopathology. The presence of virus was assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on frozen brains and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Among selected cases, 86.3% (44/51) were considered positive on histopathology, 56.8% (29/51) were positive by immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR was positive on 88.2% (15/17) of the frozen brains and 78.4% (40/51) of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Histopathological lesions included gliosis and lymphoplasmacytic perivascular cuffing in brain (97.7%), spinal cord (50%), peripheral nerves (55.5%) and myenteric ganglia or nerves (62.8%), resembling lesions described in parrots affected with proventricular dilatation disease. Partial amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid gene from seven geese were 100% identical amongst themselves and 98.1 to 100% identical to the waterfowl sequences recently described in the USA. Although ABV has been identified in apparently healthy geese, our study confirmed that ABV can also be associated with significant disease in wild waterfowl species. PMID:23581438

  17. Primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening: a retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, Aisha K; Ng, Ryan; Lobb, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    Primary care physicians can serve as both facilitators and barriers to cancer screening, particularly for under-screened groups such as immigrant patients. The objective of this study was to inform physician-targeted interventions by identifying primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening for their eligible patients, for their eligible immigrant patients, and for foreign-trained physicians, for their eligible immigrant patients from the same world region. A population-based retrospective cohort study was performed, looking back 3 years from 31 December 2010. The study was performed in urban primary care practices in Ontario, Canada's largest province. A total of 6303 physicians serving 1,156,627 women eligible for breast cancer screening, 2,730,380 women eligible for cervical screening, and 2,260,569 patients eligible for colorectal screening participated. Appropriate breast screening was defined as at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years, appropriate cervical screening was defined as at least one Pap test in the previous 3 years, and appropriate colorectal screening as at least one fecal occult blood test in the previous 2 years or at least one colonoscopy or barium enema in the previous 10 years. Just fewer than 40% of physicians were female, and 26.1% were foreign trained. In multivariable analyses, physicians who attended medical schools in the Caribbean/Latin America, the Middle East/North Africa, South Asia, and Western Europe were less likely to screen their patients than Canadian graduates. South Asian-trained physicians were significantly less likely to screen South Asian women for cervical cancer than other foreign-trained physicians who were seeing region-congruent patients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.32-0.98] versus physicians from the USA, Australia and New Zealand). South Asian patients were the most vulnerable to under-screening, and decreasing patient income quintile was consistently

  18. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginbottom Gina MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2 with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3. The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge

  19. Tracking the evolution of hospice palliative care in Canada: A comparative case study analysis of seven provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Judy-Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An aging population, rise in chronic illnesses, increase in life expectancy and shift towards care being provided at the community level are trends that are collectively creating an urgency to advance hospice palliative care (HPC planning and provision in Canada. The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of HPC in seven provinces in Canada so as to inform such planning and provision elsewhere. We have endeavoured to undertake this research out of awareness that good future planning for health and social care, such as HPC, typically requires us to first look backwards before moving forward. Methods To identify key policy and practice events in HPC in Canada, as well as describe facilitators of and barriers to progress, a qualitative comparative case study design was used. Specifically, the evolution and development of HCP in 7 strategically selected provinces is compared. After choosing the case study provinces, the grey literature was searched to create a preliminary timeline for each that described the evolution of HPC beginning in 1970. Key informants (n = 42 were then interviewed to verify the content of each provincial timeline and to discuss barriers and facilitators to the development of HPC. Upon completion of the primary data collection, a face-to-face meeting of the research team was then held so as to conduct a comparative study analysis that focused on provincial commonalities and differences. Results Findings point to the fact that HPC continues to remain at the margins of the health care system. The development of HPC has encountered structural inheritances that have both sped up progress as well as slowed it down. These structural inheritances are: (1 foundational health policies (e.g., the Canada Health Act; (2 service structures and planning (e.g., the dominance of urban-focused initiatives; and (3 health system decisions (e.g., regionalization. As a response to these inheritances, circumventions

  20. Case studies: Experience in Canada [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has 22 nuclear reactors that, at this time, supply approximately 15% of the country's electricity. Canada's spent nuclear fuel is now stored on an interim basis at licensed facilities at the reactor sites located in Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick and at the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) facility in Manitoba. The issue of long-term management of spent fuel has been the subject of considerable study in Canada. At the request of the federal and Ontario governments, and after a 20-year research program, a concept for the management of spent fuel was developed by AECL. In its 1998 report, the environmental assessment panel provided insight and direction on key issues that had to be addressed in order to move the decision-making forward. The Government of Canada considered and responded to the panel report, and in November 2002 brought into force the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act (NFWA) which assigned roles and responsibilities and established the legislative framework for decision-making framework for the long-term management of its spent nuclear fuel. As required by that legislation, the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) was established by the nuclear energy corporations. The NWMO was tasked with conducting a study of storage and disposal options, and will be responsible for implementing the management approach selected by government. After the Government selects the approach, implementation will unfold under the ongoing oversight of Natural Resources Canada. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is responsible for the licensing and ensuring NWMO's compliance with regulatory requirements. The immediate task of the NWMO was to conduct a three year examination of different management options. The NWMO believed that an approach that generates confidence for the long term would need to resonate with citizen values and objectives for the study, and bring to bear the best science and technical understanding. A dynamic and iterative study was conducted

  1. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Higginbottom Gina MA; Vallianatos Helen; Forgeron Joan; Gibbons Donna; Malhi Rebecca; Mamede Fabiana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to unders...

  2. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Logie, Carmen H.; Llana James; Wangari Tharao; Mona R Loutfy

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences ...

  3. Adapting and retesting evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs: a case study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikton, C

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada is timely, as child maltreatment is a significant public health problem; globally, the number affected is at least in the hundreds of millions. One-quarter of adults report having been physically abused and over one-third emotionally abused as children; one in 5 women and one in 13 men report having been sexually abused. Recent national surveys of violence against children conducted in Africa and in other low- and middle-income countries reveal rates of childhood physical, sexual and emotional abuse even higher than the global rates. PMID:26605566

  4. Aboriginal Women's Experiences With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Participatory Study With Mi'kmaq Women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty-Rogers, Joanne; Caine, Vera; Cameron, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    In Canada, diabetes is 3 to 5 times more common among Aboriginal people than in the general population. Women with a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of developing glucose intolerance later in life, with almost half developing type II diabetes within 15 years. A participatory action research study using a Two-Eyed Seeing approach was conducted. Conversational interviews with 9 Mi'kmaq women who experienced gestational diabetes mellitus and talking circles were held. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used for data analysis. Themes included life-altering experience; barriers limiting access to health care; social support during pregnancy; and feeling compelled to take action. PMID:27149230

  5. A study on the levels of radioactivity in fish samples from the experimental lakes area in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Rennie, Michael D; Sadi, Baki; Zhang, Weihua; St-Amant, Nadereh

    2016-03-01

    To better understand background radiation levels in country foods, a total of 125 fish samples were collected from three lakes (Lake 226, Lake 302 and Lake 305) in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario of Canada during the summer of 2014. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) as well as anthropogenic radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured. This study confirmed that (210)Po is the dominant contributor to radiation doses resulting from fish consumption. While concentrations of (210)Pb and (226)Ra were below conventional detection limits, (210)Po was measured in almost all fish samples collected from the ELA. The average concentration was about 1.5 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw). None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs. An average (137)Cs level of 6.1 Bq/kg fw was observed in freshwater fishes harvested in the ELA, almost twice that of samples measured in the National Capital Region of Canada in 2014 and more than 20 times higher than the levels observed in marine fish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 and 2014. However, it is important to note that the concentrations of (137)Cs in fish samples from these inland lakes are considered very low from a radiological protection perspective. The resulting radiation dose for people from fish consumption would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. The results indicate that fishes from inland lakes do not pose a radiological health concern. PMID:26803403

  6. Case study : Syncrude Canada Ltd. optimizing waste heat recovery at an oil sands operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd., the world's largest producer of crude oil from oil sands, has made upgrades over a seven-year period to its water recycling process, resulting in more heat recovered at the preheaters in its oil sands operations. The preheaters are the key to the recycling process water system. The incentive to optimize heat recovery at the preheaters was to reduce the amount of natural gas required to heat the water used to extract bitumen from the oil sands. The second objective was to lower costs spent on new equipment to heat the water. Syncrude operators attended workshops offered by the Office of Energy Efficiency at Natural Resources Canada to learn the value of monitoring and cleaning the process-water system to recover as much lost heat as possible. This paper presented a project profile and the approach used to optimize the system, beginning with the installation of twisted-tube heat exchangers in 1997, followed by the installation of a larger pump impeller in 1998 which increased the pumping capacity. In 2003, the target outlet temperature for the preheaters was set at 20 degrees C. This paper also described the challenges regarding water temperature, water pressure and maintenance issues. The innovative solutions used to overcome them have lead to energy costs savings of about $60,000 per month. Syncrude is currently exploring whether water can be preheated higher than 20 degrees C. 2 figs.

  7. Access to infertility services in Canada for HIV-positive individuals and couples: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loutfy Mona R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family and pregnancy planning issues are important among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals and couples. However, access to fertility services may be limited for this population. The objective of this study was to estimate the types of services available in fertility clinics in Canada for these individuals. Methods A survey was sent to all registered fertility clinics in Canada to assess the availability of services (investigations and treatment for infertility and/or viral transmission risk reduction in achieving pregnancy. The proportion and location of clinics willing to carry out investigations and treatments were determined. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess differences in response rates, investigations, and treatments by province and by couple scenario. Results Completed surveys were received from 23/28 (82% of clinics across eight Canadian provinces. Seventy-eight per cent (18/23 were willing to accept HIV-positive individuals in consultation, and 52% had actually seen at least one HIV-positive man or woman in the previous year. Clinics in every province were willing to offer infertility investigations, but only clinics located in five provinces were willing to offer fertility treatments. The most commonly available treatment was intrauterine insemination for couples in which the female partner was HIV-positive (52%. Other techniques, such as sperm washing (26% or in vitro fertilization (17%, were less commonly offered. A smaller number of clinics were willing to offer risk reduction techniques in achieving pregnancy. Conclusions Access to infertility investigations and treatments in Canada is limited and regionally dependent. Trial Registration Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT00782132.

  8. Culture, but more than culture: an exploratory study of the HIV vulnerability of Indian immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanqiu Rachel; Majumdar, Basanti; Vattikonda, Natasha

    2016-09-01

    Explanations of immigrant health that ascribe to culture a fundamental causal role neglect the broader structural and contextual factors with which culture intersects. Based on a qualitative study of Indian immigrants' vulnerability to HIV in Canada, this paper presents a contextualised understanding of these individuals' understanding of, perceptions about, and responses to the HIV risk in their post-immigration lives. The study reveals that although culture - both traditional values and the norms of the diaspora community - appears to have constrained Indian immigrants' capacities to respond to the risk, this effect can be properly understood only by situating such constraint in the context of the settlement process that has shaped participants' living conditions, including their relationship with the diasporic community in Canada. We argue that HIV vulnerability should be conceptualised as a health inequality associated with broader systems of power relations (eg socio-economic marginalisation, gender inequality, discrimination, and racism). This more holistic conceptualisation of the intersection of culture, integration, and HIV vulnerability will facilitate exploration of HIV prevention strategies, through which interconnected inequalities of gender, race, and access to knowledge and resources can be challenged. PMID:27070278

  9. Early detection of emerald ash borer infestation using multisourced data: a case study in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kongwen; Hu, Baoxin; Robinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) poses a significant economic and environmental threat to ash trees in southern Ontario, Canada, and the northern states of the USA. It is critical that effective technologies are urgently developed to detect, monitor, and control the spread of EAB. This paper presents a methodology using multisourced data to predict potential infestations of EAB in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada. The information combined in this study includes remotely sensed data, such as high spatial resolution aerial imagery, commercial ground and airborne hyperspectral data, and Google Earth imagery, in addition to nonremotely sensed data, such as archived paper maps and documents. This wide range of data provides extensive information that can be used for early detection of EAB, yet their effective employment and use remain a significant challenge. A prediction function was developed to estimate the EAB infestation states of individual ash trees using three major attributes: leaf chlorophyll content, tree crown spatial pattern, and prior knowledge. Comparison between these predicted values and a ground-based survey demonstrated an overall accuracy of 62.5%, with 22.5% omission and 18.5% commission errors.

  10. Non-hodgkin′s lymphoma and work in agriculture: Results of a two case-control studies in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandima P Karunanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective was to examine the association between non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL and farming-related activities, gender, pesticides exposure, and exposure to chemicals other than pesticides in Saskatchewan. Materials and Methods: Male and female study participants were taken from two separate case-control studies conducted in Saskatchewan province, Canada. A case was defined as any man or woman aged 19 years and older with a first diagnosis of NHL registered by the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency during the study period. Conditional logistic regression was used to fit the statistical models. Results: Farming exposure and exposure to pesticides-contaminated cloths were related to an increased risk of NHL. Exposure to pesticides was strongly associated with an increased risk of NHL, especially for men. Conclusion: For men, the incidence of NHL was associated with exposure to pesticides after adjusting for other independent predictors.

  11. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed

  12. How do schools educate students to be active citizens:? A Case Study of Citizenship education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Alison Molina Girón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although educating active citizen who participate in civic and political life is a fundamental goal of education, in general, and of citizenship education, in particular, there are very few empirical studies that inform us how the school educates for this purpose. This study, conducted in three Civics classrooms in Ontario, Canada, investigates how teachers prepare their students for active citizenship. Drawing on citizenship theories and an examination of citizenship pedagogy through observations of class instruction and interviews with teachers and students, the results of the study reveal that teachers’ understandings of what constitutes active citizenship greatly influence how they educate for active citizenship. I detail three distinct understandings of active citizenship that are advanced through class instruction: the duty-based, the make-a-difference and the politically-oriented active citizenship. The article discusses important implications that these differing understandings and pedagogical approaches have as they delineate different expectations and paths for youth citizenship participation in public life. Although educating active citizen who participate in civic and political life is a fundamental goal of education, in general, and of citizenship education, in particular, there are very few empirical studies that inform us how the school educates for this purpose. This study, conducted in three Civics classrooms in Ontario, Canada, investigates how teachers prepare their students for active citizenship. Drawing on citizenship theories and an examination of citizenship pedagogy through observations of class instruction and interviews with teachers and students, the results of the study reveal that teachers’ understandings of what constitutes active citizenship greatly influence how they educate for active citizenship. I detail three distinct understandings of active citizenship that are advanced through class instruction: the

  13. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  14. Determinants of urinary concentrations of dialkyl phosphates among pregnant women in Canada - Results from the MIREC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Katia; Fraser, William; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fisher, Mandy; Gaudreau, Eric; LeBlanc, Alain; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2016-09-01

    Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are commonly used in agriculture. Their use decreased in recent years as they were gradually replaced by other pesticides, but some OPs are still among the insecticides most used in Canada. Exposure to elevated levels of OPs during pregnancy has been associated with adverse birth outcomes and poorer neurodevelopment in children. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the concentrations of OP pesticides urinary dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites and various factors that are potential sources of exposure or determinants of DAP levels. In the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, six DAPs were measured in 1st trimester urine samples of 1884 pregnant women living in Canada. They were grouped into sums of dimethyl alkyl phosphates (DMAP) and diethyl alkyl phosphates (DEAP) for statistical analysis. We found that 93% of women had at least one DAP detected in their urine. Geometric means (GM) of specific gravity-corrected levels for urine dilution were 59 (95% CI 56-62) and 21 (95% CI 20-22) nmol/L for DMAP and DEAP, respectively. The following characteristics were significantly associated with higher urinary concentrations of DMAP or DEAP: higher education, nulliparous, normal pre-pregnancy body mass index, non-smoker, not fasting at sampling, winter season at sampling, and early and late day collection times. Dietary items that were significantly related with higher urinary concentrations included higher intake of citrus fruits, apple juice, sweet peppers, tomatoes, beans and dry peas, soy and rice beverages, whole grain bread, white wine and green and herbal teas. This study indicates that exposure to these compounds is quasi-ubiquitous. The factors associated with greater DAP levels identified here could be useful to regulatory agencies for risk analysis and management. However, some exposure misclassification might occur due to the single DAP measurement available, and

  15. A staff shortage in Canada?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, P. [Human Resources Development Canada, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members` future personnel requirements. (author).

  16. A Demographic Study of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists in Canada and Canadian Students in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report presents findings of a demographic study of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and audiologists (AUDs) in Canada and of students studying in these fields. Two surveys were developed which examined: the numbers, types, and distribution of SLPs and AUDs; their characteristics; the types of services they provide; and differences between…

  17. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes.

  18. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes. PMID:27376846

  19. Cost Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination for Rotavirus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Coyle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.

  20. Lung cancer risk among cooks when accounting for tobacco smoking : a pooled analysis of case-control studies from Europe, Canada, New Zealand, and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigert, Carolina; Gustavsson, Per; Straif, Kurt; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Schüz, Joachim; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Pesatori, Angela C; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Siemiatycki, Jack; Pintos, Javier; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Simonato, Lorenzo; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Tardón, Adonina; Zaridze, David; Field, John; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Boffetta, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Olsson, Ann C

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among cooks, while controlling for smoking habits. METHODS: We used data from the SYNERGY project including pooled information on lifetime work histories and smoking habits from 16 case-control studies conducted in Europe, Canada, New Zealand, and C

  1. Clinically relevant depression in old age: An international study with populations from Canada, Latin America and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylli, Alban; Miszkurka, Malgorzata; Phillips, Susan P; Guralnik, Jack; Deshpande, Nandini; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-07-30

    Our aim is to assess cross-national variations in prevalence of clinically relevant depression and to examine the relationships of social and health factors with depression in five diverse populations of older adults, from Canada, Brazil, Colombia and Albania. We used the data from the International Mobility in Aging Study. Clinically relevant depression was defined as a score of ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Scale (CES-D). Poisson regressions with robust covariance correction were used to estimate prevalence ratios associated with potential risk factors. Prevalence of clinically relevant depression across research sites varied widely, being consistently higher in women than in men. It was lowest in men from Brazil (6.3%) and highest in women from Albania (46.6%). Low education and insufficient income, living alone, multiple chronic conditions, and poor physical performance were all significantly associated with depression prevalence. Poor physical performance was more strongly associated with depression in men than in women. Similar factors are associated with clinically relevant depression among men and women and across research sites. The large variation in depression prevalence population rates is unexplained by the classical individual factors considered in the study suggesting the impact of country characteristics on depression among older populations. PMID:27183110

  2. An International Comparison of Women's Health Issues in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong, and Singapore: The CIDA-SEAGEP Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Choi

    2004-01-01

    This was an international study of women’'s health issues, based on an Official Study Tour in Southeast Asia (the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Singapore) and Canada. The objectives of the study were to identify and compare current gaps in surveillance, research, and programs and policies, and to predict trends of women’''s health issues in developing countries based on the experience of developed countries. Key informant interviews (senior government officials, university r...

  3. Uranium speciation in the environment: study of opals from Nopal I (Mexico) and mill tailings from Gunnar (Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the processes of uranium migration and sequestration is an important issue for the prediction of radionuclide retardation in the vicinity of uranium mine tailings sites or for the safety assessment of potential high-level nuclear waste repositories. Uranium speciation, controlled by biotic and abiotic factors, represents a key parameter for the control of uranium transfer in the environment. This study firstly deals with uranium speciation in opals from the Nopal I uranium deposit (Mexico). Microscopic observations of opals at the nano-scale revealed the occurrence of vorlanite, cubic CaUO4. This was the first time this rare calcium uranate has been found displaying a cubic morphology, in agreement with its crystal structure. Nopal I opals have been further investigated through time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The opals spectra and their comparison with those of experimentally produced standards indicate occurrence of mono- or polymeric uranyl complexes (associated or not with calcium or phosphate) sorbed onto internal surface of opal around pH 7-8. Finally, the speciation of uranium was studied in mill tailings from Gunnar (Canada). In the first tailings site, uranium primarily occurs as monomeric, inner-sphere uranyl complexes sharing edges with Fe(O,OH)6 octahedral sites of iron-oxy-hydroxides and chlorite. Our results suggested that U(VI) co-precipitates with iron (oxy-hydr)oxides predominate in the second tailings sites. Therefore uranium mobility in Gunnar is governed by sorption/desorption and dissolution/(co)precipitation processes. (author)

  4. Modeling land cover dynamics to assess the sustainability of wetland services: a case study of the Grand Lake Meadows, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodimu, O.; Al-Tahir, Raid

    2016-04-01

    The Grand Lake Meadows is an important part of the Saint John River wetlands that form the largest freshwater wetland habitat in the Maritimes (eastern Canada). Changes in the land cover and use around wetlands significantly impact their biotic diversity, alter the ecosystem, and affect their ability to support human needs. The goal for this paper was to undertake a detailed and spatially explicit inventory of local trends in land use and land cover changes in Grand Lake Meadows over a 20-year time period. This goal was achieved through classifying historical remotely-sensed images to map the state of land use and cover. Other available data were combined with this information to create a database that was used to investigate the causes and consequences of changes. The results demonstrated the flexibility and the effectiveness of this technology in establishing the necessary baseline and support information for sustaining the eco-services of a wetland. The study identified a 38% decrease in the wetland from 1990 to 2001, while there was 80% increase in the wetland area since then. The result will help managers to comprehend the dynamics of the changes, prompting a better management and implementation of LULC administration in the area.

  5. Whole-of-society approach for public health policymaking: a case study of polycentric governance from Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Nii A; Poirier, Alain; Blouin, Chantal; Drager, Nick; Dubé, Laurette

    2014-12-01

    In adopting a whole-of-society (WoS) approach that engages multiple stakeholders in public health policies across contexts, the authors propose that effective governance presents a challenge. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a case for how polycentric governance underlying the WoS approach is already functioning, while outlining an agenda to enable adaptive learning for improving such governance processes. Drawing upon a case study from Quebec, Canada, we employ empirically developed concepts from extensive, decades-long work of the 2009 Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom in the governance of policy in nonhealth domains to analyze early efforts at polycentric governance in policies around overnutrition, highlighting interactions between international, domestic, state and nonstate actors and processes. Using information from primary and secondary sources, we analyze the emergence of the broader policy context of Quebec's public health system in the 20th century. We present a microsituational analysis of the WoS approach for Quebec's 21st century policies on healthy lifestyles, emphasizing the role of governance at the community level. We argue for rethinking prescriptive policy analysis of the 20th century, proposing an agenda for diagnostic policy analysis, which explicates the multiple sets of actors and interacting variables shaping polycentric governance for operationalizing the WoS approach to policymaking in specific contexts. PMID:25118135

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Cognitive Model of Depression: Cognitive Experiences Converge between Egypt and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Dobson, Keith S; Adel, Ashraf; Hanna, Niveen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Models of depression that arise in the West need to be examined in other regions of the world. This study examined a set of foundational hypotheses generated by Beck’s cognitive model of depression among depressed individuals in Egypt and Canada. Method We recruited 29 depressed and 29 non-depressed Egyptians and compared their results with those of 35 depressed and 38 non-depressed Canadians. Depression status was ascertained using a structured interview, scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, and scores on the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire. Participants completed questionnaires designed to measure the frequency of negative and positive automatic thoughts (ATQ–N, BHS, and ATQ–P), and dysfunctional attitudes (DAS). Results Depressed individuals in both countries had significantly more negative thoughts about self and future, greater frequency of dysfunctional attitudes, and diminished positive self-thoughts in comparison to non-depressed individuals. Egyptians generally showed significantly more dysfunctional attitudes than their Canadian counterparts. Discussion The four hypotheses that were tested were supported among the depressed Egyptian sample, which is consistent with the cognitive model. Implications for the cognitive-behavioral model and treatment for this group of sufferers are discussed. PMID:27010706

  7. Innovations on a shoestring: a study of a collaborative community-based Aboriginal mental health service model in rural Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges related to collaborative Aboriginal mental health care. Methods A participatory action research approach was employed to evaluate the Knaw Chi Ge Win services and their place in the broader mental health system. Qualitative methods were used as the primary source of data collection and included document review, ethnographic interviews with 15 providers and 23 clients; and 3 focus groups with community workers and managers. Results The Knaw Chi Ge Win model is an innovative, community-based Aboriginal mental health care model that has led to various improvements in care in a challenging rural, high needs environment. Formal opportunities to share information, shared protocols and ongoing education support this model of collaborative care. Positive outcomes associated with this model include improved quality of care, cultural safety, and integration of traditional Aboriginal healing with clinical approaches. Ongoing challenges include chronic lack of resources, health information and the still cursory understanding of Aboriginal healing and outcomes. Conclusions This model can serve to inform collaborative care in other rural and Indigenous mental health systems. Further research into traditional Aboriginal approaches to mental health is needed to continue advances in collaborative practice in a clinical setting.

  8. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  9. Supreme Court Coverage in Canada: A Case Study of Media Coverage of the Whatcott Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia Anita Miljan

    2014-01-01

    Do Canadian media outlets report Supreme Court decisions in a legal or political frame? Starting with a review of how the media amplify court decisions, the study focuses on a case study regarding a freedom of speech decision of the Court. This study finds that although the media critically evaluated the freedom of speech case of William Whatcott, it did so from a legal frame. Unlike American research that shows the media increasingly interprets Supreme Court decisions from a political frame,...

  10. Upscaling reflectance information of lichens and mosses using a singularity index: a case study of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing moisture contents of lichens and mosses using ground-based high spectral resolution spectrometers (400–2500 nm offers immense opportunities for a comprehensive monitoring of peatland moisture status by satellite/airborne imagery. This information may be valuable for present and future carbon balance modeling. Previous studies are based upon point measurements of vegetation moisture content and water table position, and therefore a detailed moisture status of entire northern peatlands is not available. Consequently, upscaling ground and remotely sensed data to the desired spatial resolutions is inevitable. This study continues our previous investigation of the impact of various moisture conditions of common sub-Arctic lichen and moss species (i.e., Cladina stellaris, Cladina rangiferina, Dicranum elongatum, and Tomenthypnum nitens upon the spectral signatures obtained in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada. Upscaling reflectance measurements of the above species were conducted in the field, and reflectance analysis using a singularity index was made, since this study serves as a basis for future aircraft/satellite research. An attempt to upscale current and new spectral reflectance indices developed in our previous studies was made as well. Our findings indicate that the spectral index C. rangiferina is to a lesser amount influenced by scale since it has a small R2 values between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, reduced slopes between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, and similar slopes between log reflectance and log resolution (α of two wavelengths employed by the index. Future study should focus on concurrent monitoring of moisture variations in lichens and mosses both in situ and from satellite and airborne images, as well as analysis of fractal models in relations to the upscaling experiments.

  11. Socioeconomic status, sunlight exposure, and risk of malignant melanoma: the Western Canada Melanoma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R P; Elwood, J M; Threlfall, W J; Spinelli, J J; Fincham, S; Hill, G B

    1987-10-01

    In a study of 261 male melanoma patients and age-and sex-matched controls, a strong positive univariate association between socioeconomic status, as determined by usual occupation, and risk of melanoma was detected. This association, however, was substantially explained by host constitutional factors and occupational, recreational, and vacation sunlight exposure. The study demonstrated an increased risk of melanoma in draftsmen and surveyors and a reduced risk of melanoma in construction workers and individuals employed in the finance, insurance, and real estate industry even after control for the effect of host factors and sunlight exposure. PMID:3116308

  12. A Comparative Study Examining Academic Cohorts with Transnational Migratory Intentions towards Canada and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the issue of transnational academic mobility of academic staff, those choosing to migrate to higher education institutions in different countries as part of their career development, and performs a comparative study between the characteristics of academics examining Australia as a possible migratory destination with those…

  13. Teaching Sociology of Education in Canada: A Comparative Study of the "Two Solitudes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Pierre, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the fields of sociology of education and Canadian sociological teaching. English and French Canadian sociology of education course outlines were systematically analysed in order to assess how national context, language and internal divisions influence the undergraduate teaching of sociology of education. The…

  14. Parent-Caregiver Relationships among Beginning Caregivers in Canada: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantin, Gilles; Plante, Isabelle; Coutu, Sylvain; Brunson, Liesette

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of establishing meaningful parent-caregiver relationships, little is known about these dyadic relationships among beginning caregivers, who often feel insufficiently prepared to build successful alliances with parents. The present study examined the congruence between parents' and beginning caregivers' perceptions of their…

  15. Music Education through Popular Music Festivals: A Study of the "OM Music Festival" in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Most people think of the teaching and learning of music as taking place in formal, institutional contexts like schools and universities. This study looks at the transmission of music teaching and learning that takes place in a more informal, musical environment, namely at a "popular music festival." In particular, it discusses the OM music…

  16. Study of radioelectric interferences in the Amherst wind farm (Nova Scotia, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goni, D. [Acciona Energia, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    The Amherst wind farm is located near the coastline of Nova Scotia, approximately 140 kilometres northwest of Halifax. A wind farm can cause radioelectric interferences to the communications systems of the area if it is located in the coverage zone of any relay station (television, radio, telephony or data transmission). It is therefore necessary to perform many television signal measurements to check the suitability of the wind farm establishment. This report presented an extended study of the consequences that the implantation of the Amherst wind farm may have in the radio communications of the area. The report presented a study of the operators' network relay station and discussed television and radio broadcasting stations in the area. Radar stations, radio navigation aids, and a system for recording complaints was also presented. It was concluded that any radio link in the area would not be interfered with by the construction of the proposed Amherst wind farm. 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  17. Supreme Court Coverage in Canada: A Case Study of Media Coverage of the Whatcott Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Anita Miljan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Do Canadian media outlets report Supreme Court decisions in a legal or political frame? Starting with a review of how the media amplify court decisions, the study focuses on a case study regarding a freedom of speech decision of the Court. This study finds that although the media critically evaluated the freedom of speech case of William Whatcott, it did so from a legal frame. Unlike American research that shows the media increasingly interprets Supreme Court decisions from a political frame, this study on Whatcott finds that the media focused on the legal arguments of the case. ¿Los medios de comunicación canadienses informan sobre las decisiones de la Corte Suprema en un marco legal o político? A partir de una revisión de cómo los medios de comunicación amplifican las decisiones judiciales, el estudio se centra en un caso práctico sobre la libertad de expresión de las decisiones del tribunal. Este estudio revela que aunque los medios evaluaron críticamente la libertad de expresión en el caso de William Whatcott, se hizo en un marco legal. A diferencia de investigaciones estadounidenses que prueban que los medios de comunicación interpretan cada vez con mayor frecuencia las decisiones de la Corte desde un marco político, este estudio sobre Whatcott demuestra que los medios de comunicación se centraron en los argumentos legales del caso. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2500102

  18. “We don't exist”: a qualitative study of marginalization experienced by HIV-positive lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender women in Toronto, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Logie, Carmen H.; LLana James; Wangari Tharao; Mona R Loutfy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender (LBQT) women living with HIV have been described as invisible and understudied. Yet, social and structural contexts of violence and discrimination exacerbate the risk of HIV infection among LBQT women. The study objective was to explore challenges in daily life and experiences of accessing HIV services among HIV-positive LBQT women in Toronto, Canada. Methods: We used a community-based qualitative approach guided by an intersectional theore...

  19. Self-perceived Mental Health Status and Uptake of Fecal Occult Blood Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Celestin Hategekimana; Mohammad Karamouzian

    2016-01-01

    Background: While colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most preventable causes of cancer mortality, it is one of the leading causes of cancer death in Canada where CRC screening uptake is suboptimal. Given the increased rate of mortality and morbidity among mental health patients, their condition could be a potential barrier to CRC screening due to greater difficulties in adhering to behaviours related to long-term health goals. Using a population-based study among Canadians, we ...

  20. EXAMINING URBAN EXPANSION USING MULTI-TEMPORAL LANDSAT IMAGERY: A CASE STUDY OF THE MONTREAL CENSUS METROPOLITAN AREA FROM 1975 TO 2015, CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lingfei; Zhao, He; Li, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Urban expansion, particularly the movement of residential and commercial land use to sub-urban areas in metropolitan areas, has been considered as a significant signal of regional economic development. In 1970s, the economic centre of Canada moved from Montreal to Toronto. Since some previous research have been focused on the urbanization process in Greater Toronto Area (GTA), it is significant to conduct research in its counterpart. This study evaluates urban expansion process in Montréal ce...

  1. Predicting river water temperatures using stochastic models: case study of the Moisie River (Québec, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Nedushan, Behrouz; St-Hilaire, André; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Bilodeau, Laurent; Robichaud, Élaine; Thiémonge, Nathalie; Bobée, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Successful applications of stochastic models for simulating and predicting daily stream temperature have been reported in the literature. These stochastic models have been generally tested on small rivers and have used only air temperature as an exogenous variable. This study investigates the stochastic modelling of daily mean stream water temperatures on the Moisie River, a relatively large unregulated river located in Québec, Canada. The objective of the study is to compare different stochastic approaches previously used on small streams to relate mean daily water temperatures to air temperatures and streamflow indices. Various stochastic approaches are used to model the water temperature residuals, representing short-term variations, which were obtained by subtracting the seasonal components from water temperature time-series. The first three models, a multiple regression, a second-order autoregressive model, and a Box and Jenkins model, used only lagged air temperature residuals as exogenous variables. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) for these models varied between 0.53 and 1.70 °C and the second-order autoregressive model provided the best results.A statistical methodology using best subsets regression is proposed to model the combined effect of discharge and air temperature on stream temperatures. Various streamflow indices were considered as additional independent variables, and models with different number of variables were tested. The results indicated that the best model included relative change in flow as the most important streamflow index. The RMSE for this model was of the order of 0.51 °C, which shows a small improvement over the first three models that did not include streamflow indices. The ridge regression was applied to this model to alleviate the potential statistical inadequacies associated with multicollinearity. The amplitude and sign of the ridge regression coefficients seem to be more in agreement with prior expectations (e.g. positive

  2. Numerical studies of gas production from several CH4 hydrate zones at the Mallik site, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Dallimore, S.R.; Satoh, T.; Hancock, S.; Weatherill, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mallik site represents an onshore permafrost-associated gas hydrate accumulation in the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. A gas hydrate research well was drilled at the site in 1998. The objective of this study is the analysis of various gas production scenarios from five methane hydrate-bearing zones at the Mallik site. In Zone #1, numerical simulations using the EOSHYDR2 model indicated that gas production from hydrates at the Mallik site was possible by depressurizing a thin free gas zone at the base of the hydrate stability field. Horizontal wells appeared to have a slight advantage over vertical wells, while multiwell systems involving a combination of depressurization and thermal stimulation offered superior performance, especially when a hot noncondensible gas was injected. Zone #2, which involved a gas hydrate layer with an underlying aquifer, could yield significant amounts of gas originating entirely from gas hydrates, the volumes of which increased with the production rate. However, large amounts of water were also produced. Zones #3, #4 and #5 were lithologically isolated gas hydrate-bearing deposits with no underlying zones of mobile gas or water. In these zones, thermal stimulation by circulating hot water in the well was used to induce dissociation. Sensitivity studies indicated that the methane release from the hydrate accumulations increased with the gas hydrate saturation, the initial formation temperature, the temperature of the circulating water in the well, and the formation thermal conductivity. Methane production appears to be less sensitive to the specific heat of the rock and of the hydrate, and to the permeability of the formation. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Negotiating structural vulnerability following regulatory changes to a provincial methadone program in Vancouver, Canada: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Keewatin, Chereece; Milloy, M J; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2015-05-01

    While regulatory frameworks governing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) require highly regimented treatment programs that shape treatment outcomes, little research has examined the effects of regulatory changes to these programs on those receiving treatment, and located their experiences within the wider context of social-structural inequities. In British Columbia (BC), Canada, provincial regulations governing MMT have recently been modified, including: replacing the existing methadone formulation with Methadose(®) (pre-mixed and 10 times more concentrated); prohibiting pharmacy delivery of methadone; and, prohibiting pharmacies incentives for methadone dispensation. We undertook this study to examine the impacts of these changes on a structurally vulnerable population enrolled in MMT in Vancouver, BC. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 people enrolled in MMT and recruited from two ongoing observational prospective cohort studies comprised of drug-using individuals in the six-month period in 2014 following these regulatory changes. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically, and by drawing on the concept of 'structural vulnerability'. Findings underscore how these regulatory changes disrupted treatment engagement, producing considerable health and social harms. The introduction of Methadose(®) precipitated increased withdrawal symptoms. The discontinuation of pharmacy delivery services led to interruptions in MMT and co-dispensed HIV medications due to constraints stemming from their structural vulnerability (e.g., poverty, homelessness). Meanwhile, the loss of pharmacy incentives limited access to material supports utilized by participants to overcome barriers to MMT, while diminishing their capacity to assert some degree of agency in negotiating dispensation arrangements with pharmacies. Collectively, these changes functioned to compromise MMT engagement and increased structural vulnerability to harm, including re-initiation of injection drug

  4. Energy, cost, and emission end-use profiles of homes: An Ontario (Canada) case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hourly electricity consumption data of seven end-uses from 25 homes are analyzed. • Hourly load, cost, and emission profiles of end-uses are developed and categorized. • Side-by-side analysis of energy, cost, and environmental effects is conducted. • Behaviour and outdoor temperature based end-uses are determined. • Share of each end-use in the total daily load, cost, and emission is determined. - Abstract: Providing information on the temporal distributions of residential electricity end-uses plays a major role in determining the potential savings in residential electricity demand, cost, and associated emissions. While the majority of the studies on disaggregated residential electricity end-use data provided hourly usage profiles of major appliances, only a few of them presented analysis on the effect of hourly electricity consumption of some specific end-uses on household costs and emissions. This study presents side-by-side analysis of energy, cost, and environment effects of hourly electricity consumption of the main electricity end-uses in a sample of homes in the Canadian province of Ontario. The data used in this study are drawn from a larger multi-stakeholder project in which electricity consumption of major end-uses at 25 homes in Milton, Ontario, was monitored in five-minute intervals for six-month to two-year periods. In addition to determining the hourly price of electricity during the monitoring period, the hourly carbon intensity is determined using fuel type hourly generation and the life cycle greenhouse gas intensities specifically determined for Ontario’s electricity fuel mix. The hourly load, cost, and emissions profiles are developed for the central air conditioner, furnace, clothes dryer, clothes washer, dishwasher, refrigerator, and stove and then grouped into eight day type categories. The side-by-side analysis of categorized load, cost, and emission profiles of the seven electricity end-uses provided information on

  5. Educational reform and the public: Two case studies of Poland and Saskatchewan (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaproń, Danuta; Stephan, Werner

    1991-09-01

    The involvement of the public in educational reform processes in modern democratic societies primarily serves the purpose of politically legitimizing the reform agenda. This study examines the rationales implicitly or explicitly submitted to the public to explain why educational reforms in the two countries should be endorsed. Although differences in the political culture caution against a hasty comparison of the two case studies, a number of politico-economic similarities allow for a valid juxtaposition. In Poland the context of socio-political and economic renewal prompted the reformers to emphasize the human-capital model which heightened public awareness and participation in the debate surrounding the reform. Public involvement in Saskatchewan was negatively affected for mainly two reasons. First, the government evidently manipulated public input by various means and thereby appears to have predetermined the outcome. Second, the rationale for the reform, based on a free-market model, tightened the linkage between the needs of the labour market and the mandate of the schools. As a result, public interest and participation was greatly diminished.

  6. Recent dynamics of thermokarst ponds in discontinuous permafrost: a paleolimnological study from subarctic Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, F.; Francus, P.; Pienitz, R.

    2011-12-01

    Accelerated thawing and erosion of permafrost is leading to the release of organic carbon through greenhouse gas emissions, especially in thermokarst (thaw) ponds and lakes. These aquatic ecosystems are widespread throughout arctic and subarctic regions; however their natural variability and temporal evolution recorded in the bottom sediments are poorly understood. Here we present a multi-proxy study conducted in a subarctic site with many thermokarst ponds near Kuujjuarapik-Whapmagoostui, on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay, at the southern edge of the discontinuous and scattered permafrost zone. Sedimentological, geochemical and biological (diatoms) analyses have been performed on short sediment cores (10-20 cm) retrieved from limnologically contrasted ponds. Long-term (14C) and short-term (210Pb, 137Cs) chronologies were also established. Analyses revealed two distinct sedimentary facies, from bottom to top: 1) massive marine silts and clays deposited during postglacial Tyrrell Sea transgression (ca. 8000 to 6000 cal yr BP), subsequently emerged by glacio-isostatic rebound and more recently (ca. 1500 to 400 cal yr BP) affected by permafrost inception and growth; 2) laminated organic-rich lacustrine muds deposited since permafrost thawing and subsidence, i.e. since thermokarst pond inception (the last centuries). Almost absent from the bottom sediments (lower facies), benthic and planktonic diatoms appeared highly abundant in surface lacustrine sediments (upper facies) and reflected past changes in bottom water properties (e.g., pH, dissolved organic carbon, water color). Despite displaying strikingly different water colors, the study ponds showed similar long-term developmental patterns regarding their biogeochemical properties (as recorded in the sediments), such as: decreasing mineral grain size (from silts to clays); decreasing major chemical element concentrations; increasing organic matter content and decreasing pH (establishment of peatland vegetation

  7. A Retrospective Study of the Clinical Burden of Hospitalized All-Cause and Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly A. McNeil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Routine vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended in Canada for infants, the elderly, and individuals with chronic comorbidity. National incidence and burden of all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia in Canada (excluding Quebec were assessed. Methods. Incidence, length of stay, and case-fatality rates of hospitalized all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia were determined for 2004–2010 using ICD-10 discharge data from the Canadian Institutes for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database. Population-at-risk data were obtained from the Statistics Canada census. Temporal changes in pneumococcal and all-cause pneumonia rates in adults ≥65 years were analyzed by logistic regression. Results. Hospitalization for all-cause pneumonia was highest in children 70 years and declined significantly from 1766/100,000 to 1537/100,000 per year in individuals aged ≥65 years (P<0.001. Overall hospitalization for pneumococcal pneumonia also declined from 6.40/100,000 to 5.08/100,000 per year. Case-fatality rates were stable (11.6% to 12.3%. Elderly individuals had longer length of stay and higher case-fatality rates than younger groups. Conclusions. All-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalization rates declined between 2004 and 2010 in Canada (excluding Quebec. Direct and indirect effects from pediatric pneumococcal immunization may partly explain some of this decline. Nevertheless, the burden of disease from pneumonia remains high.

  8. Varicella vaccine for immunocompromised children: results of collaborative studies in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRussa, P; Steinberg, S; Gershon, A A

    1996-11-01

    Varicella vaccine in immunocompromised children was clinically evaluated in 575 US and Canadian children with leukemia in remission by the Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study. Most children had chemotherapy stopped 1 week before and 1 week after immunization. Steroids were stopped for 3 weeks (1 week before to 2 weeks after vaccination). Varicella vaccine was safe, immunogenic, and effective in leukemic children at risk for serious disease or death from chickenpox. The major side effect was mild rash in 50% approximately 1 month after immunization. About 40% of children who developed rash were treated with acyclovir. Vaccine efficacy was judged by the degree of protection after a household exposure to varicella; of 123 exposed children, 17 (14%) developed a mild form of varicella. The vaccine protected completely against severe varicella. Leukemic vaccines were less likely to develop zoster than were comparable children with leukemia who had wild type varicella. Thus, varicella vaccine, administered carefully with close follow-up, is extremely beneficial for leukemic children.

  9. Interim report on studies of uranium, thorium, and lead migration at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, D.B.; Gancarz, A.J.

    1980-07-01

    The redistribution of uranium, thorium, and lead is being examined in samples representing several million cubic meters of sandstone and metamorphased sediments in the Athabasca Basin which is located in the northwest corner of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The region of study includes zones of uranium mineralization at Key Lake. Mineralization occurs at the unconformity between the Athabasca sandstone and the underlying metasediments and in fault zones within the metasediments. Lead isotopes record a radiometric age of 1300 +- 150 m.y. in samples from above and below the unconformity. This age probably reflects the time of deposition of the sandstones and an associated redistribution of uranium and/or lead in the underlying rocks. Many of the samples have been fractionated with respect to radiogenic lead and the actinide parent elements since that time. Sandstones and altered rocks from the region above the unconformity have been a transport path and are a repository for lead. In contrast, mineralized rocks are deficient in radiogenic lead and must be an important source of lead in the local geologic environment. However, the isotopic composition of lead missing from the ores is different from that found in the overlying sandstones. The two types of rocks do not appear to represent complements with respect to a source and a repository for lead.

  10. Changes in sodium levels in chain restaurant foods in Canada (2010−2013): a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several restaurant chains have committed to reducing sodium levels in their foods; however, how much sodium levels have changed over the past few years is unknown. The objective was to measure changes in sodium in restaurant foods from 2010 to 2013. Methods Data for the serving size, calorie and sodium level of 3878 foods were collected from the websites of 61 Canadian restaurant chains in 2010 and 2013. A longitudinal study of changes in sodium levels in foods available from the restaurants in 2010 and 2013 (n = 2198) was conducted. Levels in newly reported and discontinued foods were also investigated. Results Sodium levels (mg/serving) decreased in 30.1% of foods, increased in 16.3% and were unchanged in 53.6%. The average change in foods with a decrease in sodium was –220 (standard deviation [SD] ± 303) mg/serving (a decline of 19% [SD ± 17%]), whereas the average change in foods with an increase in sodium was 251 (SD ± 349) mg/serving (a 44% [SD ± 104%] increase). The prevalence and magnitude of change varied depending on the restaurant and food category. Overall, there was a small, yet significant, decrease in sodium per serving (–25 [SD ± 268] mg, p < 0.001); however, the percentage of foods exceeding the daily sodium adequate intake (1500 mg) and tolerable upper intake level (2300 mg) remained unchanged. Interpretation The observed increases and decreases in sodium show that industry efforts to voluntarily decrease sodium levels in Canadian restaurant foods have produced inconsistent results. Although the lower levels in some foods show that sodium reduction is possible, the simultaneous increase in other foods demonstrates the need for targets and timelines for sodium reduction in restaurants. PMID:25553327

  11. Association between prenatal care and small for gestational age birth: an ecological study in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, N.; Levallois, P.; Rivest, LP.; Gingras, S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In Quebec, women living on low income receive a number of additional prenatal care visits, determined by their area of residence, of both multi-component and food supplementation programs. We investigated whether increasing the number of visits reduces the odds of the main outcome of small for gestational age (SGA) birth (weight general population were deduced from data on multi-component and food supplement interventions, the Canadian census and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Mothers without a high school diploma were eligible for the programs. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted using generalized estimating equations to account for the correlation between individuals on the same territory. Potential confounders included sedentary behaviour and cigarette smoking. The odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for mother’s age, marital status, parity, program coverage and mean income in the area. Results: Mothers eligible for the programs remain at a higher odds of SGA than non-eligible mothers (OR =  1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–1.51). Further, areas that provide more visits to eligible mothers (4–6 food supplementation visits) seem more successful at reducing the frequency of SGA birth than those that provide 1–2 or 3 visits (OR  =  0.86; 95% CI: 0.75–0.99). Conclusions: Further studies that validate whether an increase in the number of prenatal care interventions reduces the odds of SGA birth in different populations and evaluate other potential benefits for the children should be done. PMID:27409987

  12. District heating (DH) network design and operation toward a system-wide methodology for optimizing renewable energy solutions (SMORES) in Canada: A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, A.; Boulter, R.; Church, K.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities and challenges of implementing District Heating (DH) in Canada, with focus on the network design and operation. We selected for case study an urban area in Ottawa. First, we proved that the medium-temperature district heating (MTDH) (70 C Tsupply 90 C) had...... better energy delivery performance than high-temperature district heating (HTDH) (Tsupply> 100 C), decreasing the heat loss by approximately 40%. The low-temperature networks (Tsupply... in Canada. The paper discusses critical issues and quantifies the performance of design concepts for DH supply to low heat density areas. DH is a fundamental energy infrastructure and is part of the solution for sustainable energy planning in Canadian communities....

  13. Air Pollution and Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admission in Alberta, Canada: A Three-Step Procedure Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Kindzierski, Warren; Kaul, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Adverse associations between air pollution and myocardial infarction (MI) are widely reported in medical literature. However, inconsistency and sensitivity of the findings are still big concerns. An exploratory investigation was undertaken to examine associations between air pollutants and risk of acute MI (AMI) hospitalization in Alberta, Canada. A time stratified case-crossover design was used to assess the transient effect of five air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 (PM2.5)) on the risk of AMI hospitalization over the period 1999-2009. Subgroups were predefined to see if any susceptible group of individuals existed. A three-step procedure, including univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, and bootstrap model averaging, was used. The multivariate analysis was used in an effort to address adjustment uncertainty; whereas the bootstrap technique was used as a way to account for regression model uncertainty. There were 25,894 AMI hospital admissions during the 11-year period. Estimating health effects that are properly adjusted for all possible confounding factors and accounting for model uncertainty are important for making interpretations of air pollution-health effect associations. The most robust findings included: (1) only 1-day lag NO2 concentrations (6-, 12- or 24-hour average), but not those of CO, NO, O3 or PM2.5, were associated with an elevated risk of AMI hospitalization; (2) evidence was suggested for an effect of elevated risk of hospitalization for NSTEMI (Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction), but not for STEMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction); and (3) susceptible subgroups included elders (age ≥65) and elders with hypertension. As this was only an exploratory study there is a need to replicate these findings with other methodologies and datasets.

  14. Air Pollution and Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admission in Alberta, Canada: A Three-Step Procedure Case-Crossover Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Wang

    Full Text Available Adverse associations between air pollution and myocardial infarction (MI are widely reported in medical literature. However, inconsistency and sensitivity of the findings are still big concerns. An exploratory investigation was undertaken to examine associations between air pollutants and risk of acute MI (AMI hospitalization in Alberta, Canada. A time stratified case-crossover design was used to assess the transient effect of five air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitric oxide (NO, ozone (O3 and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 (PM2.5 on the risk of AMI hospitalization over the period 1999-2009. Subgroups were predefined to see if any susceptible group of individuals existed. A three-step procedure, including univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, and bootstrap model averaging, was used. The multivariate analysis was used in an effort to address adjustment uncertainty; whereas the bootstrap technique was used as a way to account for regression model uncertainty. There were 25,894 AMI hospital admissions during the 11-year period. Estimating health effects that are properly adjusted for all possible confounding factors and accounting for model uncertainty are important for making interpretations of air pollution-health effect associations. The most robust findings included: (1 only 1-day lag NO2 concentrations (6-, 12- or 24-hour average, but not those of CO, NO, O3 or PM2.5, were associated with an elevated risk of AMI hospitalization; (2 evidence was suggested for an effect of elevated risk of hospitalization for NSTEMI (Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction, but not for STEMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction; and (3 susceptible subgroups included elders (age ≥65 and elders with hypertension. As this was only an exploratory study there is a need to replicate these findings with other methodologies and datasets.

  15. Teaching the skills that enable employees to manage change at Syncrude Canada Ltd. : case study March 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, K.

    2005-03-01

    Details of Syncrude's Effective Reading in Context (ERIC) workplace literacy program were presented as part of a series of case studies addressing best practices in the development of essential skills in the workplace. ERIC was designed to enhance supervisors' key essential skills, including reading comprehension, writing and the ability to deal with organizational changes and technological advances. Due to its success, Syncrude now offers ERIC to all of its employees and has made it available to a variety of businesses and institutions across Canada. ERIC was implemented due to a shortage of skilled workers, and concerns that a lack of essential skills in the workforce was affecting productivity. ERIC is delivered in 2 phases: a curriculum adaptation phase and a pilot workshop phase where the skills of all participants are assessed individually. Participants are given samples of printed materials they regularly encounter in their jobs. They are then assessed on how well they can generalize, synthesize and analyze the material. Program evaluations are reviewed to ensure that participants can transfer learned skills into new areas, including work tasks. It costs between $6000 and $12,000 to adapt ERIC for a specific workplace. Details of instructor training methods and course manuals were presented. Over the past 16 years, 6 large industry partners and 9 educational partners have been involved in the delivery of ERIC, which has been adapted to a variety of settings, including an Aboriginal pre-trades program at Keyano College. It was concluded that the implementation of ERIC in organizations has led to increased productivity and a decrease in work-related incidents. The Syncrude Essential Skills training program has now been expanded to include a math and writing component.

  16. How do people attribute income-related inequalities in health? A cross-sectional study in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Lofters

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities. RESULTS: There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1% than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3% or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%. DISCUSSION: A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support

  17. Documentation and dissemination of the sculptural elements of Canada's Parliamentary Buildings: Methodology development and evolution, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, C.; Gregg, J.; Kretz, S.; Chandler, C.; Hayes, J.

    2015-08-01

    Parliament Hill consists of four historic gothic revival buildings, which form part of the Parliament Buildings National Historic Site of Canada in the National Capital of Ottawa. There are more than 2000 masonry sculptural elements throughout the four buildings. Three of the buildings are in the middle of multi-year rehabilitation projects. Extensive Heritage Documentation is being undertaken to support various activities and conservation teams throughout the interior and exterior of the buildings while also serving as a key posterity records. One of the significant heritage documentation projects is the 3D digitization of the 2000+ heritage character defining sculptural elements. The Heritage Conservation Directorate (HCD) of Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) was tasked by the Parliamentary Precinct Branch (PPB) of PWGSC to document these character defining elements. The sculptures vary in size from as small as 100mm in width to up to 2 meters in size. This project is in its third year and much has been learned and researched about the most appropriate and efficient means by which to document these elements. Although a methodology was in place to document the sculptures at the inception of the project, it has gone through several iterations in order to improve the gathered data, and in turn increase the efficiency, quality and speed of data acquisition. This paper will describe the evolution of the methodology, as well as the rationale for the alterations in technique. With over 600 of the approximate 2000 (heritage character defining) sculptural elements captured to date, the project is entering a critical phase where an efficient and effective method for sharing and disseminating the information to a wide audience is being explored and evaluated. The end result is intended to allow the client (PPB) and the general public a way to look at and interactively manipulate the viewpoint of each digital model. This will provide a unique opportunity

  18. The Application of TRIZ Theory in the Picnic Buffet Bicycle Design%TRIZ 理论在野餐自助自行车设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛明远; 张世豪; 张淑颖

    2015-01-01

    According to the application requirements of outdoor bicycle, TRIZ tools such as problem de-scription, technical contradiction analysis are used.According to TRIZ the general path to solve the problem, the applications of comprehensive analysis of invention principles are analyzed.The final solution is formed. Picnic buffet the conceptual design of bicycle is given.%从多人户外自行车的应用需求出发,使用问题描述、技术矛盾分析等TRIZ工具,按照TRIZ解决问题的一般路径,综合分析发明原理应用的可行性,形成最终解决方案,最后给出野餐自助自行车的概念设计。

  19. Trends in reporting of mechanisms and incidence of hip injuries in males playing minor ice hockey in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayeni OR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Olufemi R Ayeni,1 Marcin Kowalczuk,1 Jordan Farag,1 Forough Farrokhyar,1,2 Raymond Chu,1 Asheesh Bedi,3 Kevin Willits,4 Mohit Bhandari1,2 1Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada Background: There has been a noted increase in the diagnosis and reporting of sporting hip injuries and conditions in the medical literature but reporting at the minor hockey level is unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the trend of reporting hip injuries in amateur ice hockey players in Canada with a focus on injury type and mechanism. Methods: A retrospective review of the Hockey Canada insurance database was performed and data on ice hockey hip injuries reported between January 2005 and June 2011 were collected. The study population included all male hockey players from Peewee (aged 11–12 years to Senior (aged 20+ years participating in amateur level competition sanctioned by Hockey Canada. Reported cases of ice hockey hip injuries were analyzed according to age, mechanism of injury, and injury subtype. Annual injury reporting rates were determined and using a linear regression analysis trended to determine the change in ice hockey hip injury reporting rate over time. Results: One hundred and six cases of ice hockey-related hip injuries were reported in total. The majority of injuries (75.5% occurred in players aged 15–20 years playing at the Junior level. Most injuries were caused by a noncontact mechanism (40.6% and strains were the most common subtype (50.0%. From 2005 to 2010, the number of reported hip injuries increased by 5.31 cases per year and the rate of reported hip injury per 1,000 registered players increased by 0.02 cases annually. Conclusion: Reporting of

  20. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    The issue of productivity growth in Canada has received considerable attention reflecting its marked slowdown since the early 1970s and concerns about its implications for Canadian competitiveness. To better understand productivity developments in Canada, it is useful to decompose total factor productivity (TFP) into investment-specific productivity change (ISP) and technologically neutral productivity change (TNP). The gap in manufacturing productivity growth between Canada and the United St...

  1. Integrating an incident management system within a continuity of operations programme: case study of the Bank of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loop, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Carrying out critical business functions without interruption requires a resilient and robust business continuity framework. By embedding an industry-standard incident management system within its business continuity structure, the Bank of Canada strengthened its response plan by enabling timely response to incidents while maintaining a strong focus on business continuity. A total programme approach, integrating the two disciplines, provided for enhanced recovery capabilities. While the value of an effective and efficient response organisation is clear, as demonstrated by emergency events around the world, incident response structures based on normal operating hierarchy can experience unique challenges. The internationally-recognised Incident Command System (ICS) model addresses these issues and reflects the five primary incident management functions, each contributing to the overall strength and effectiveness of the response organisation. The paper focuses on the Bank of Canada's successful implementation of the ICS model as its incident management and continuity of operations programmes evolved to reflect current best practices. PMID:23615067

  2. A case study of aerosol scavenging in a biomass burning plume over eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, J.E.; J. R. Drummond; D. Griffin; J. R. Pierce; D. L. Waugh; P. I. Palmer; Parrington, M; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A R; Taylor, J. W.; J. D. Allan; H. Coe; Walker, K A; L. Chisholm

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of a long-range smoke transport event recorded on 20–21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume wi...

  3. A case study of aerosol scavenging in a biomass burning plume over eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, J.E.; J. R. Drummond; D. Griffin; J. R. Pierce; D. L. Waugh; P. I. Palmer; Parrington, M; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A R; Taylor, J. W.; J. D. Allan; H. Coe; Walker, K A; L. Chisholm

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of a long-range smoke transport event recorded on 20-21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wild-land fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario.We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but...

  4. How health professionals perceive and experience treating people on social assistance: a qualitative study among dentists in Montreal, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bedos, Christophe; Loignon, Christine; Landry, Anne; Allison, Paul J; Richard, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Background In Canada, the prevalence of oral diseases is very high among people on social assistance. Despite great need for dental treatment, many are reluctant to consult dental professionals, arguing that dentists do not welcome or value poor patients. The objective of this research was thus to better understand how dentists perceived and experienced treating people on social assistance. Methods This descriptive qualitative research was based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 33 ...

  5. Decision-making and evidence use during the process of prenatal record review in Canada: a multiphase qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Semenic, Sonia; Edwards, Nancy; Premji, Shahirose; Olson, Joanne; Williams, Beverly; Montgomery, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal records are potentially powerful tools for the translation of best-practice evidence into routine prenatal care. Although all jurisdictions in Canada use standardized prenatal records to guide care and provide data for health surveillance, their content related to risk factors such as maternal smoking and alcohol use varies widely. Literature is lacking on how prenatal records are developed or updated to integrate research evidence. This multiphase project aimed to identif...

  6. Air Pollution and Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admission in Alberta, Canada: A Three-Step Procedure Case-Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoming Wang; Warren Kindzierski; Padma Kaul

    2015-01-01

    Adverse associations between air pollution and myocardial infarction (MI) are widely reported in medical literature. However, inconsistency and sensitivity of the findings are still big concerns. An exploratory investigation was undertaken to examine associations between air pollutants and risk of acute MI (AMI) hospitalization in Alberta, Canada. A time stratified case-crossover design was used to assess the transient effect of five air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2...

  7. Socially Responsible Investing in ”High-Net-Worth” Asset Management Firms in Canada: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Andrea; Wakefield, Sarah E. L.

    2007-01-01

    Socially responsible investing (SRI) is an increasingly well-known investment strategy. However, in most nations, SRI is not mainstream practice. This paper investigates perceptions of SRI amongst investment professionals from “high-net-worth” investment firms in Toronto, Canada. Existing corporate practices in relation to stock selection and client relations are documented, in order to assess how these practices might facilitate or prevent SRI. Views of SRI, and its current and potential ...

  8. Gay and bisexual men's awareness and knowledge of treatment as prevention: findings from the Momentum Health Study in Vancouver, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Carter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Awareness and knowledge of treatment as prevention (TasP was assessed among HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM in Vancouver, Canada. Methods: Baseline cross-sectional survey data were analyzed for GBMSM enrolled, via respondent-driven sampling (RDS, in the Momentum Health Study. TasP awareness was defined as ever versus never heard of the term “TasP.” Multivariable logistic regression identified covariates of TasP awareness. Among those aware of TasP, men's level of knowledge of TasP was explored through an examination of self-perceived knowledge levels, risk perceptions and short-answer definitions of TasP which were coded as “complete” if three TasP-related components were identified (i.e. HIV treatment, viral suppression and prevention of transmission. Information source was also assessed. Analyses were stratified by HIV status and RDS adjusted. Results: Of 719 participants, 23% were HIV-positive, 68% Caucasian and median age was 33 (Interquartile range (IQR 26,47. Overall, 46% heard of TasP with differences by HIV status [69% HIV-positive vs. 41% HIV-negative GBMSM (p<0.0001]. In adjusted models: HIV-positive GBMSM were more likely to have heard of TasP if they were Canadian born, unemployed, not using party drugs and had higher CD4 counts; HIV-negative GBMSM were more likely to have heard of TasP if they were Caucasian (vs. Aboriginal, students, had higher education, a regular partner and multiple sexual partners. Among those aware of TasP 91% of HIV-positive and 69% of HIV-negative GBMSM (p<0.0001 felt they knew “a lot” or “a bit in general” about TasP; 64 and 41% (p=0.002 felt HIV treatment made the risk of transmission “a lot lower”; and 21 and 13% (p<0.0001 demonstrated “complete” TasP definitions. The leading information source was doctors (44% for HIV-positive GBMSM and community agencies (38% for HIV-negative GBMSM, followed by gay media for

  9. A multi-instrument approach to monitoring turbidity currents: Case study from the Squamish Delta, British Columbia (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Sophie; Cartigny, Matthieu; Clare, Michael; Talling, Peter; Sumner, Esther; Vardy, Mark; Hughes Clarke, John

    2016-04-01

    Turbidity currents are volumetrically the most important process for moving sediment in submarine environments. They may travel at high speeds, thereby posing a threat to important and expensive seafloor infrastructure. Despite their importance, we still know little about their flow dynamics because direct monitoring is challenging and consequently rare. Additionally, the few settings in which monitoring has been feasible, have generally involved a single instrument approach, either measuring flow velocity, sediment concentration or grain size. Here we present results issued from a multi-instrument study where a single turbidity current was observed with several instruments at the same location and time using different measuring frequencies. Three types of geophysical sensors were deployed from a single vessel moored over a turbidity current channel on the Squamish Delta in British Colombia, Canada. First, two 500 kHz multibeam sonars suspended from the bow of the ship imaged the incoming turbidity current and documented its interaction with the crescentic bedforms on the channel thalweg. Second, a 600 kHz downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) lowered from the back of the ship provided vertical profiles of velocity through time. Third, a 1.0-24.0 kHz Chirp profiler enabled for the first time imaging of the dense near-bed zone of the turbidity current, which has so far been largely impenetrable using higher frequency sonar and ADCP instruments. Besides the stationary deployment, a repetitive multibeam survey was also performed using a moving vessel in order monitor temporal evolution of the seafloor morphology resulting from turbidity currents. By combining the measurements from each system, a single turbidity current was characterised in unusually high resolution. This current was 6 to 8 meters thick and at least 40 meters wide according to the multibeam sonars. The ADCP measured a front speed of around 1.5 m/s, higher than the internal

  10. Correlation of Hydraulic Fracturing Induced Seismicity with Operation Parameters of Shale Gas Extraction: Two Case Studies in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahbod, A. M.; Kao, H.; Cassidy, J. F.; Snyder, D. B.; Cairns, S.; Walker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast British Columbia, specifically the Horn River Basin (HRB) and Montney Trend, are among the largest shale gas production regions in western Canada. In contrast, there has been no large-scale hydraulic fracturing (HF) operation in the Northwest Territories in the Norman Wells region of the central Mackenzie valley. In this study, we investigate the effect of injection pressure, operation duration and injected volume on the observed seismicity in the HRB and Norman Wells regions and compare our observations with the pre-HF records. In the HRB, we apply the single-station location and waveform correlation methods to establish a homogenous earthquake catalog (2006/12-2011/12). In the Northwest Territories, we combine data from a local seismograph network of 4 stations plus a dense array of 7 stations located from 1 km to 50 km from the operation wells to locate earthquakes (2013/09-2014/07). In the HRB, the initial effect of an increased injected volume is an increase in earthquake frequency but not magnitude. Local earthquakes gradually become larger in magnitude as the scale of HF in the region expands. While the injection pressure during HF operations has been regulated at a relatively constant level, the massive increase of injection volume in 2010 and 2011 coincides with a series of ML>3 events. Relatively large seismic moment release (>1014 N m) occurred only when the monthly injected volume exceeded ~150,000 m3. In addition, we observe variable time lags, from days to up to 4 months between intense HF and the occurrence of a significant local earthquake. On the other hand, in the Norman Wells region, two small-scale HF were performed in 2014 with a total injected volume of ~ 14000 m3. We observed an increase in the number of micro-earthquakes (M < 2.0) during the HF period without a clear change in the overall seismic pattern. From these two observations, we conclude that HF operations do not necessarily result in an increase in the occurrence rate of

  11. Gambling households in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  12. Contaminant Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren C.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Contaminant Research in CanadaPages 9 - 11 (ReportChristopher WrenAbstract:During the 1983/84 and 1984/85 trapping seasons, carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis were collected for contaminant analysis from trappers in Ontario. The studies identified clear differences in tissue levels of Hg, Pb and Cd between different collection areas. There is evidence to support Hg poisoning as the cause of death in at least one otter along this river system. The studies emphasize the potential interactions of toxic chemicals with each other and with natural stresses (e.g. cold, starvation, disease. More research is required along these lines since simultaneous exposure to more than one chemical and other stresses is more typical of conditions in the wild.

  13. One Canada, Two Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ByMurrayGreig; 赵金前

    2004-01-01

    Canada is one of the few nations in theworld to have two official languages: Englishand French. There are 10 provinces in thecountry but only one of these--Quebec isknown as "French Canada". This is because itwas founded by French explorers while Britishadventurers discovered the rest.

  14. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  15. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  16. The Conundrum of Demographic Aging and Policy Challenges: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSome analysts lean toward comparative analyses of population aging, then draw potential policy implications. Others lean in the direction of attention to differences in policy regimes and then consider implications of population aging. Key differences among advanced societies may not emanate from demographic aging but from differences in how markets, states, and families work to redistribute societal benefits. In this paper, three countries with contrasting configurations of markets, states, and families, and at different stages of demographic aging, are compared and contrasted: Canada, Japan, and Korea. The paper has three objectives: 1to outline key changes in population, family, and work in the three countries; 2 to consider how knowledge about these changes, their dynamics and interrelationships, is framed with respect to policy options; and 3 to compare Canada, Japan, and Korea in terms of the framing of policy challenges related to demographic aging. It is found that Canada is joining the longstanding pattern of Japan and Korea of late home-leaving by youth, meaning less effective time in the paid labour force. Little deep connection exists between population aging andeconomic productivity or labour force shortages. Differential labour market participation of women mediates the effects of population aging.RésuméIl y a des analystes qui ont un penchant pour les analyses comparatives du vieillissement despopulations, puis en déduisent les implications possibles sur les politiques. D’autres préfèrentporter leur attention sur les différences dans les régimes de politiques, puis considèrent lesimplications sur le vieillissement des populations. Il est possible que les différences majeuresdans les civilisations de pointe ne soient pas apparentes dans le vieillissement démographique mais plutôt dans les différentes manières dont les marchés, les états, et les familles oeuvrent àredistribuer les avantages sociaux. Dans

  17. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal, meso (social/community, and macro (organizational/political realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro, social networks and support groups (meso, and challenging stigma (macro. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives

  18. Bailarinas Exoticas, Striptease e Inmigracion en Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Diaz Barrero.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the product of exploratory field research conducted in Toronto, Canada. It consists of in-depth interviews of Latin American women from diverse countries who obtained temporary work visas as exotic dancers. The objective of the study is to determine the ways in which women are recruited in their countries of origin, transported to Canada and what happens to them upon arrival. The author proposes that the conditions inherent to migration, more than women's legal status, determines their emotional, economic and legal well-being. However, upon obtaining legal residency in Canada, abuse committed by employers and state agents is significantly reduced.

  19. Status of Day Care in Canada: A Review of the Major Findings of the National Day Care Study, 1974. (Situation De La Garde De Jour Au Canada: Une Revue des Principales Constatations Sur La Garde De Jour, 1974).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet presents (in both French and English) the results of a 1974 survey which assessed the growth of day care services in Canada. Similar national surveys had been conducted in 1971 and 1973. Results indicated that the number of day care spaces and the number of children of working mothers in day care increased substantially from 1973 to…

  20. The 1999 international emergency humanitarian evacuation of the Kosovars to Canada: A qualitative study of service providers' perspectives at the international, national and local levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarpour Morteza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the Kosovo crisis, Canada received 5,500 Albanian Kosovar refugees in 1999 as part of the emergency humanitarian evacuation and settlement effort. This study attempts to describe the experiences of service providers at the international, national, and local levels, involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement services in Canada for the Kosovar refugees. Methods A qualitative case study design using key informant interviews was used. Nominated sampling was used to identify 17 individuals involved in the organization and delivery of health and settlement. Key themes were identified and recommendations made to provide a framework for the development of policy to guide response to future humanitarian emergencies. Results Six themes emerged: (1 A sense of being overwhelmed, (2 A multitude of health issues, (3 critical challenges in providing health care, (4 access to health and settlement services, (5 overall successes and (6 need for a coordinated approach to migration health. Conclusions For those involved, the experience was overwhelming but rewarding. Interviewees' major concerns were the need for a more comprehensive and coordinated approach to the flow of medical information and handling of specific health problems.

  1. Examining Urban Expansion Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Imagery: a Case Study of the Montreal Census Metropolitan Area from 1975 TO 2015, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingfei; Zhao, He; Li, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Urban expansion, particularly the movement of residential and commercial land use to sub-urban areas in metropolitan areas, has been considered as a significant signal of regional economic development. In 1970s, the economic centre of Canada moved from Montreal to Toronto. Since some previous research have been focused on the urbanization process in Greater Toronto Area (GTA), it is significant to conduct research in its counterpart. This study evaluates urban expansion process in Montréal census metropolitan area (CMA), Canada, between 1975 and 2015 using satellite images and socio-economic data. Spatial and temporal dynamic information of urbanization process was quantified using Landsat imagery, supervised classification algorithms and the post-classification change detection technique. Accuracy of the Landsat-derived land use classification map ranged from 80% to 97%. The results indicated that continuous growth of built-up areas in the CMA over the study period resulted in a decrease in the area of cultivated land and vegetation. The results showed that urban areas expanded 442 km2 both along major river systems and lakeshores, as well as expanded from urban centres to surrounded areas. The analysis revealed that urban expansion has been largely driven by population growth and economic development. Consequently, the urban expansion maps produced in this research can assist decision-makers to promote sustainable urban development, and forecast potential changes in urbanization growth patterns.

  2. SHEAR Kit case study : ConocoPhillips Canada leverages technology for health, safety and environmental operations to improve program effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, J. [Pangaea Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the elements of an automated safety program that Pangaea Systems Inc. has provided to ConocoPhillips Canada Ltd. SHEAR is a web-based computer application that centralizes health, safety and environment documentation to enable better reporting and improved business analysis of management involvement; hazard identification and risk control; rules and work procedures; training; communication; and, incident and accident reporting and investigation. SHEAR collects findings from audits, site inspections, safety meetings, hazards and risks, and accidents. Its purpose is to identify, classify and better understand events and to develop a process for remedial action. This presentation described SHEAR's incident severity potential index, the incident reporting process, and the elements of the management system. 8 figs.

  3. A Microsimulation Model to Study the Interaction between Fertility and Union Formation and Dissolution: An Application to Canada and Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Spielauer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Union formation and dissolution are among the main determinants explaining variations in fertility. Compared to the rest of Canada, Quebec’s marital histories are more complex and its prevalence of common-law unions much higher. The objective of this article is to examine the role of marital behaviours on fertility by comparing different indicators of fertility and conjugal life that were obtained through microsimulation. Parameters of the microsimulation model were estimated from hazard regressions performed on the marital and fertility histories collected in two retrospective longitudinal surveys: the Canadian General Social Survey (GSS 2001 and 2006. Results show that the more complex marital histories of Quebecers can explain more than one-quarter of their fertility differences with the rest of the country.

  4. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper reviews the factors that may explain high and persistent unemployment in Canada, with particular emphasis on the role that a decline in the relative cost of capital may have had on trend unemployment. The analysis suggests that in Canada a declining trend in the cost of capital, associated with technological changes and innovations, has been an important factor in explaining the rise and persistence of unemployment. The paper also analyzes recent trends in personal ...

  5. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  6. Canada's constitutional separation of (wind) power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact that a federal government structure has on strategic selection of renewable energy policy instruments. The context for this study centers on wind power development in Canada. Canada is a nation that is blessed by all the attributes necessary to catalyze global leadership in installed wind power capacity. Unfortunately, the constitutional separation of powers that underpins Canada's federal system impedes the creation of a national wind power development strategy because Canada's provinces have constitutional authority over electricity governance. The insights gleaned from the case study are used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the impact that federal structure has on policy instrument selection and efficacy under areas of federal, regional and concurrent policy jurisdiction. Finally, this framework is re-applied to identify specific approaches the Canadian federal government could take to resolve what currently amounts to be a fragmented, ineffective approach to wind power development planning.

  7. Perceptions of immunization information systems for collecting pandemic H1N1 immunization data within Canada's public health community: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidebrecht Christine L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunization information systems (IISs are electronic registries used to monitor individual vaccination status and assess vaccine coverage. IISs are currently not widely used across Canada, where health jurisdictions employ a range of approaches to capture influenza immunization information. Conducted in advance of the 2009 H1N1 vaccination campaign, the objectives of this study were to understand the perceived value of individual-level data and IISs for influenza control, identify ideal system functions, and explore barriers to implementation. Methods In July and August 2009, semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants engaged in vaccine delivery and/or pandemic planning at regional, provincial/territorial and federal levels across Canada. Key informants were recruited using a combination of convenience and snowball sampling methodologies. Qualitative analysis was used to extract themes from interview content. Results Patient management, assessment of vaccine coverage, and evaluation of safety and effectiveness were identified as public health priorities that would be achieved in a more timely manner, and with greater accuracy, through the use of an IIS. Features described as ideal included system flexibility, rapid data entry, and universality. Financial and human resource constraints as well as coordination between immunization providers were expressed as barriers to implementation. Conclusions IISs were perceived as valuable by key informants for strengthening management capacity and improving evaluation of both seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination campaigns. However, certain implementation restrictions may need to be overcome for these benefits to be achieved.

  8. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married a...

  9. Association between the 2008-09 seasonal influenza vaccine and pandemic H1N1 illness during Spring-Summer 2009: four observational studies from Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta M Skowronski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In late spring 2009, concern was raised in Canada that prior vaccination with the 2008-09 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV was associated with increased risk of pandemic influenza A (H1N1 (pH1N1 illness. Several epidemiologic investigations were conducted through the summer to assess this putative association. METHODS AND FINDINGS: STUDIES INCLUDED: (1 test-negative case-control design based on Canada's sentinel vaccine effectiveness monitoring system in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec; (2 conventional case-control design using population controls in Quebec; (3 test-negative case-control design in Ontario; and (4 prospective household transmission (cohort study in Quebec. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for TIV effect on community- or hospital-based laboratory-confirmed seasonal or pH1N1 influenza cases compared to controls with restriction, stratification, and adjustment for covariates including combinations of age, sex, comorbidity, timeliness of medical visit, prior physician visits, and/or health care worker (HCW status. For the prospective study risk ratios were computed. Based on the sentinel study of 672 cases and 857 controls, 2008-09 TIV was associated with statistically significant protection against seasonal influenza (odds ratio 0.44, 95% CI 0.33-0.59. In contrast, estimates from the sentinel and three other observational studies, involving a total of 1,226 laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 cases and 1,505 controls, indicated that prior receipt of 2008-09 TIV was associated with increased risk of medically attended pH1N1 illness during the spring-summer 2009, with estimated risk or odds ratios ranging from 1.4 to 2.5. Risk of pH1N1 hospitalization was not further increased among vaccinated people when comparing hospitalized to community cases. CONCLUSIONS: Prior receipt of 2008-09 TIV was associated with increased risk of medically attended pH1N1 illness during the spring

  10. Late Holocene climate and chemical change at high latitudes: case studies from contaminated sites in subarctic and arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jennifer M.; Cooney, Darryl; Crann, Carley; Falck, Hendrik; Howell, Dana; Jamieson, Heather; Macumber, Andrew; Nasser, Nawaf; Palmer, Michael; Patterson, R. Timothy; Parsons, Michael; Roe, Helen M.; Sanei, Hamed; Spence, Christopher; Stavinga, Drew; Swindles, Graeme T.

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability is occurring at unprecedented rates in northern regions of the Earth, yet little is known about the nature of this variability or its influence on chemical cycling in the environment, particularly in areas with a legacy of contamination from past resource development. We use a paleolimnological approach to reconstruct climate and chemical change over centuries and millennia at two sites in the mineral-rich Slave Geologic Province in Northern Canada heavily impacted by gold mining. Such an approach is necessary to define the cumulative effects of climate change on metal loading and can be used to define anthropogenic release of contaminants to support policy and regulation due to a paucity of long-term monitoring data. The Seabridge Gold Inc. Courageous Lake project is a gold exploration project 240 km north of Yellowknife in the central Northwest Territories, Arctic Canada. Mining operations took place within the claim area at the Tundra (1964-1968) and Salmita (1983-1987) mines. Giant Mine is located in the subarctic near the City of Yellowknife and mining at this site represents the longest continuous gold mining operation in Canada (1938 to 2002). Due to the refractory mineralogy of ore, gold was extracted from arsenopyrite by roasting, which resulted in release of substantial quantities of highly toxic arsenic trioxide to the environment. Arsenic (As) is also naturally elevated at these sites due its occurrence in Yellowknife Supergroup greenstone belts and surficial geologic deposits. To attempt to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic sources of As and characterize the role of climate change on metalloid mobility we used a freeze coring technology to capture lake sediments from the properties. Sediments were analyzed for sedimentary grain size and bulk geochemistry using ICP-MS to reconstruct climate and chemical change. Micropaleontological analyses are on-going. Interpretations of the physical, chemical, and biological archive

  11. Impact of recreation on forest bird communities: non-detrimental effects of trails and picnic areas%人类休闲活动对森林鸟类群落无有害影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David PALOMINO; Luis M. CARRASCAL

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed changes in distribution and abundance of forest birds due to different types of recreational activity in the Madrid province (Guadarrama Range, Central Spain). Census plots were distributed in forest interiors (undisturbed sites), along forest trails (transiently disturbed hiking tracks), and in recreational areas (long-lasting disturbed picnic sites). Parameters describing the overall bird community (I.e.total bird abundance, species richness and diversity), groups of species (I.e. Abundance of corvids and nesting or foraging guilds) and individual species abundances were compared. Forest sites with any type of human presence (trails and picnic sites pooled) had higher overall abundances and species richness per sampling plot than undisturbed forest interiors. Furthermore, fourteen species were significantly more abundant in disturbed sites than in forest interiors, while the converse was true only for five species. Anthropogenic sites did not affect forest specialists. Canopy-nesters, trunk and ground-foragers, and corvids were more abundant at recreational sites than in undisturbed forests, while the converse pattern was observed for ground-nesters. These patterns were more distinct in deciduous than in coniferous forest tracts. The positive effects of recreational sites were mostly associated with picnic sites, since forest trails were mostly indistinguishable from undisturbed forest interiors in terms of bird community patterns. Several habitat characteristics of disturbed sites can explain some of these differences: increased maturity of the tree layer, less dense subcanopy vegetation, higher abundance of holes and crevices, and greater predictability and availability of human food waste in picnic areas. So, contrary to expectations, we conclude that these types of nonconsumptive recreation do not decrease habitat suitability for most birds, although it might decrease suitability for ground-nesting birds.%我们对西班牙马德里森林深处(

  12. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Csaba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68 and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94, after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors.

  13. The application of medical informatics to the veterinary management programs at companion animal practices in Alberta, Canada: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, R M; Berezowski, J; Maclean, K; Russell, M L; Jamal, I; Stephen, C

    2014-02-01

    Companion animals closely share their domestic environment with people and have the potential to, act as sources of zoonotic diseases. They also have the potential to be sentinels of infectious and noninfectious, diseases. With the exception of rabies, there has been minimal ongoing surveillance of, companion animals in Canada. We developed customized data extraction software, the University of, Calgary Data Extraction Program (UCDEP), to automatically extract and warehouse the electronic, medical records (EMR) from participating private veterinary practices to make them available for, disease surveillance and knowledge creation for evidence-based practice. It was not possible to build, generic data extraction software; the UCDEP required customization to meet the specific software, capabilities of the veterinary practices. The UCDEP, tailored to the participating veterinary practices', management software, was capable of extracting data from the EMR with greater than 99%, completeness and accuracy. The experiences of the people developing and using the UCDEP and the, quality of the extracted data were evaluated. The electronic medical record data stored in the data, warehouse may be a valuable resource for surveillance and evidence-based medical research.

  14. Geothermal Energy Potential in Low Enthalpy Areas as a Future Energy Resource: Identifying Feasible Targets, Quebec, Canada, Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Majorowicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important targets are deep existing permeable aquifers rather than hard rock, which would need to be fracked. Unfortunately, the ten most populated Québec urban centers are in the areas where the Grenville (Canadian Shield is exposed or at shallow depths with sedimentary cover where temperatures are 30 °C or less. The city of Drummondville will be the exception, as the basement deepens sharply southwest, and higher temperatures reaching >120 °C are expected in the deep Cambrian sedimentary aquifers near a 4–5-km depth. Deep under the area where such sediments could be occurring under Appalachian nappes, temperatures significantly higher than 140 °C are predicted. In parts of the deep basin, temperatures as high as 80 °C–120 °C exist at depths of 3–4 km, mainly southeast of the major geological boundary: the Logan line. There is a large amount of heat resource at such depths to be considered in this area for district heating.

  15. Small dams in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grapel, C.K. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mitchelmore, P. [Mitchelmore Engineering Co. Ltd., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Small dams are often used for irrigation, municipal water supplies and storm water management. Small dams outnumber large hydro-electric projects in Canada by a wide margin, and tend to be located closer to large population centres. Despite their lower profile with the general public, small dams frequently have high consequence classifications. This study discussed the distribution of various consequence classifications for small dams of varying heights. Databases from different Canadian provinces were used to develop sets of statistics on dam features, the distribution of risk, and other relevant information. Approximately 6000 dams were classified in the database. Of these, 444 were greater than 15 metres in height. A significant portion of with high consequence classifications qualified as small dams, and the majority of the high consequence dams were under 10 metres in height. The largest population of dam owners have limited resources available for adequate engineering design, construction supervision, and dam safety management programs. It was concluded that economical methods of estimating probable maximum flood (PMF) rates are needed for small dams. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. A study of uranium series disequilibrium in core profiles and mineral separates from the samples of Lac du Bonnet granite from the URL site, Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium series disequilibrium measurements of actinide activities and activity ratios have been used to study the geochemical history of Lac du Bonnet granite, from the URL site, Pinawa, Canada. Measurements on core profiles between fractured surfaces and the parent rock show that the granite underwent high temperature events several million years ago, followed by more recent low temperature events within the last million years. The main locations for the rock/water interaction and exchange of actinides are the fracture surfaces. The results of similar measurements on separated mineral phases show that the 'soft' minerals such as biotite and feldspar are more vulnerable to weathering than the 'hard' accessory minerals such as zircon. (author)

  17. A Case Study of E-Science Popularization in Canada%加拿大互联网科普浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈秋坦; 任杰

    2014-01-01

    互联网未在全球范围内盛行之前,大部分科普活动通过科研人员或专业媒体以说教的方式进行单向传播。随着计算机技术的发展,网络文化促生了新的科普体系,改变了传统媒体的科普传播模式。加拿大的科学研究质量在世界排名第四,其科学传播的研究和发展水平也遥遥领先于许多国家。介绍了加拿大互联网科技传播概况,并从门户网站、科研机构网站、科技馆网站、联邦政府官网、科学媒介中心等几个典型案例介绍了加拿大运用互联网开展科普工作的现状和创新点。%Before the global prevalence of the internet,most science popularization activities were conducted by scientists or professional mediators via reproducing a didactic relationship from“He who knows”to“He who knows not”. The development of cyber culture,however,has already changed this model. Research ability of Canada ranks the 4th in the world and the development of science popularization in Canada is far ahead of many countries. This arti-cle gave a general view of E-Science popularization in Canada and analyzed the current status and innovative points in the country through case studies of portal websites,scientific research institution websites,science and technology museum websites,official websites of the federal government and a science media center.

  18. A case study of aerosol scavenging in a biomass burning plume over eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, J. E.; Drummond, J. R.; Griffin, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Waugh, D. L.; Palmer, P. I.; Parrington, M.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Walker, K. A.; Chisholm, L.; Duck, T. J.; Hopper, J. T.; Blanchard, Y.; Gibson, M. D.; Curry, K. R.; Sakamoto, K. M.; Lesins, G.; Dan, L.; Kliever, J.; Saha, A.

    2014-08-01

    We present measurements of a long-range smoke transport event recorded on 20-21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event, but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long-range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ~ 24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present observing network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.

  19. A case study of aerosol depletion in a biomass burning plume over Eastern Canada during the BORTAS field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jonathan E.; Griffin, Debora; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Drummond, James R.; Waugh, David; Palmer, Paul; Chisholm, Lucy; Duck, Thomas J.; Lesins, Glen; Walker, Kaley A.; Hopper, Jason T.; Curry, Kevin R.; Sakamoto, Kimiko M.; Dan, Lin; Kliever, Jenny; O'Neill, Norm

    2013-04-01

    Wild fires started by lightning are a significant source of carbonaceous aerosols and trace gases to the atmosphere. Careful observations of biomass burning plumes are required to quantify the long range transport and chemical evolution of the outflow from these fires. During the summer of 2011 an international effort - the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) project - led by the University of Edinburgh, evaluated the chemistry and dynamics of Boreal biomass burning plumes through aircraft, satellite, and ground-based measurements. The Dalhousie Ground Station (DGS), located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, provided ground support to the BORTAS campaign. Two Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTSs) provided solar absorption measurements of trace gases while two photometers provided aerosol optical depths. On 20 July 2011 a plume of elevated carbon monoxide and other trace gases was detected by the FTS instruments at the DGS; however, particulate data gathered from the co-located sun photometer and the Dalhousie Raman Lidar system showed no enhancement of fine-mode aerosol for the initial 7 hours of the event. After that time, particulates increased in abundance and a peak aerosol optical depth of 2.3 was measured on 21 July. FLEXPART trajectory analyses suggest that this plume originated in fires that were burning in Northwestern Ontario and Eastern Manitoba from 17 to 19 July. Despite the sparse observing network in the region, there is ample evidence of a significant lofting event via the same meso-scale convective system that tempered the burning on the 19th. We will provide an overview of this event and present evidence that precipitation scavenging was the most likely mechanism for the observed aerosol/trace gas anomaly. Support for this this research was provided by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  20. A case study of aerosol depletion in a biomass burning plume over Eastern Canada during the 2011 BORTAS field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, J. E.; Drummond, J. R.; Griffin, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Waugh, D. L.; Palmer, P. I.; Parrington, M.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Rickard, A. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Walker, K. A.; Chisholm, L.; Duck, T. J.; Hopper, J. T.; Blanchard, Y.; Gibson, M. D.; Curry, K. R.; Sakamoto, K. M.; Lesins, G.; Dan, L.; Kliever, J.; Saha, A.

    2014-02-01

    We present measurements of a long range smoke transport event recorded on 20-21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ~24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present observing network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.

  1. Superpave implementation across Canada; 1994-2001: Part One: Results from the 2001 Canadian Superpave Implementation Study (C-SITS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, S. [Canadian Strategic Highway Research Program, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-01-01

    The Superpave system, the major product of the Canadian Strategic Highway Research Project (C-SHRP) has been the subject of much attention through its technology transfer mandate which includes the purchase of test equipment, construction and monitoring of test sections, distribution of technical briefs and conduct of cross country information sessions. The latest implantation survey (C-SIT) was conducted in the fall of 2001, as the second major Canadian survey of Superpave implementation since 1998. Of the 200 survey instruments sent out 41 responses were received in 2001 representing all provinces, the federal government and 30 municipalities. Twenty-three agencies indicated no previous experience with Superpave. A total of 4.13 million tons of Superpave asphalt mix has been laid between 1994 and 2001, while the total asphalt produced with PG binder and the Marshal method amounted to slightly more than 28.3 million tonnes. As of mid-2001 only the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec have completely implemented the PG binder specifications. The Atlantic provinces will likely implement the specification by the end of 2002 or shortly thereafter. None of the western provinces have implemented the PG binder specification, but the availability of high quality asphalt cement made the specifications redundant to those agencies. Increased roller pickup was one of the most frequently experienced concerns in terms of construction issues, however, much of these have been remedied with continued experience placing Superpave mixes. The principal result revealed by the survey was that no responding agencies in Canada have adopted both the PG binder specification and the Superpave mix design system. Various technical concerns are cited as the reason for the delay. The overall impression, however, is that with continued monitoring and experience Superpave will see progressive adaptation by all Canadian road agencies. 9 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs. A copy of the survey instrument is

  2. Importance of ICD-10 coding directive change for acute gastroenteritis (unspecified) for rotavirus vaccine impact studies: illustration from a population-based cohort study from Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Sarah E.; Shelley L Deeks; Rosella, Laura C

    2015-01-01

    Background In Ontario, Canada, we conducted an evaluation of rotavirus (RV) vaccine on hospitalizations and Emergency Department (ED) visitations for acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In our original analysis, any one of the International Classification of Disease, Version 10 (ICD-10) codes was used for outcome ascertainment: RV-specific- (A08.0), viral- (A08.3, A08. 4, A08.5), and unspecified infectious- gastroenteritis (A09). Annual age-specific rates per 10,000 population were calculated. Findi...

  3. SCWR Concept in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL is designing the Canadian SCWR concept, which has evolved from the well-established pressuretube type CANDU® reactor. The Canadian SCWR is designed to produce electrical energy as the main product, plus process heat, hydrogen, industrial isotopes, and drinking water (through the desalination process) as supplementary products, all within a more compact reactor building. Another potential application of the available co-generated process heat is the extraction and refining of oil sands, which is presently achieved using co-generation with natural gas turbines and process heat. The extraction and upgrading process requires: thermal power to lower the viscosity and extract the oil; electric power for separation and refining equipment; and hydrogen gas for upgrading the oil product prior to transport. A National Program has been established in Canada to support R&D studies for the Canadian SCWR design. It covers key areas of interest (such as thermal hydraulics, safety, materials, and chemistry) to participants in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) SCWR designs. Results generated from the program are contributed to the GIF SCWR project management boards (PMBs). For example, heat transfer correlations have been derived using experimental data primarily obtained from fossil-plant related studies (which were started as early as 1930s. Materials and chemistry studies have evolved from operating experience of fossil-fired power plants to a) develop, and perform targeted testing of, materials for key components, in particular in-core reactor components that will be exposed to conditions not encountered in a fossil-fired boiler (such as irradiation and water radiolysis), and b) develop a suitable water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport

  4. Groundwater Resources Evolution in Degrading Permafrost Environments: A Small Catchment-Scale Study in Northern Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molson, John; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Fortier, Richard; Therrien, Rene; Ouellet, Michel; Barth, Johannes; van Geldern, Robert; Cochand, Marion; Sottas, Jonathan; Murray, Renaud; Banville, David

    2015-04-01

    A two square kilometre catchment in a discontinuous permafrost zone near the Inuit community of Umiujaq on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay in Northern Quebec, Canada, is being investigated to determine the impact of permafrost degradation on groundwater resources. The catchment, which became deglaciated about 7500 years ago, lies in a valley which includes about 30-40 m of glacial-fluvial and marine Quaternary sediments. Permafrost mounds at the site extend from a few meters below ground surface to depths of about 10-30 m. Instrumentation has been installed to measure groundwater levels and temperature, as well as groundwater and surface water geochemistry, isotope signatures (including δ18O and 3H) and stream flow. Preliminary groundwater isotope data reflect depleted δ18O signals that differ from expected values for local groundwater, possibly representing permafrost thaw. In addition, stable water isotopes indicate evaporation from shallow thermokarst lakes. Meteorological conditions including air temperatures, precipitation and snowpack are also being monitored. Near-surface geophysical surveys using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization tomography (IPT), georadar and seismic refraction tomography have been carried out to characterize the catchment and to build a 3D geological site model. A numerical model of coupled groundwater flow and heat transport, including thermal advection, conduction, freeze-thaw and latent heat, is being developed for the site to help develop the conceptual model and to assess future impacts of permafrost degradation due to climate warming. The model (Heatflow/3D) includes nonlinear functions for the temperature-dependent unfrozen moisture content and relative permeability, and has been tested against analytical solutions and using benchmarks developed by the INTERFROST modelling consortium. A conceptual 2D vertical-plane model including several permafrost mounds along a 1 km section shows dynamic seasonal

  5. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

    1988-01-01

    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  6. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  7. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  8. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  9. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  10. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  11. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  12. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  13. Trends in reporting of mechanisms and incidence of hip injuries in males playing minor ice hockey in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ayeni OR; Kowalczuk M; Farag J; Farrokhyar F; Chu R; Bedi A; Willits K; Bhandari M

    2014-01-01

    Olufemi R Ayeni,1 Marcin Kowalczuk,1 Jordan Farag,1 Forough Farrokhyar,1,2 Raymond Chu,1 Asheesh Bedi,3 Kevin Willits,4 Mohit Bhandari1,2 1Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada Background: There has been a noted i...

  14. Contributions to the faunistics and bionomics of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in northeastern North America: discoveries made through study of the University of Guelph Insect Collection, Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Brunke; Stephen Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Staphylinidae (Rove Beetles) from northeastern North America deposited in the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada) were curated from 2008–2010 by the first author. The identification of this material has resulted in the recognition of thirty-five new provincial or state records, six new Canadian records, one new record for the United States and two new records for eastern Canada. All records are for subfamilies other than Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, which will b...

  15. Transboundary study of the Milk River aquifer (Canada, USA): geological, conceptual and numerical models for the sound management of the regional groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René

    2016-04-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), a semi-arid and water-short region. The extensive use of this regional sandstone aquifer over the 20th century has led to a major drop in water levels locally, and concerns about the durability of the resources have been raised since the mid-1950. Even though the Milk River Aquifer (MRA) has been studied for decades, most of the previous studies were limited by the international border, preventing a sound understanding of the aquifer dynamics. Yet, a complete portrait of the aquifer is required for proper management of this shared resource. The transboundary study of the MRA aims to overcome transboundary limitations by providing a comprehensive characterization of the groundwater resource at the aquifer scale, following a three-stage approach: 1) The development of a 3D unified geological model of the MRA (50,000 km2). The stratigraphic framework on both sides of the border was harmonized and various sources of geological data were unified to build the transboundary geological model. The delineation of the aquifer and the geometry and thicknesses of the geological units were defined continuously across the border. 2) Elaboration of a conceptual hydrogeological model by linking hydrogeological and geochemical data with the 3D unified geological model. This stage is based on a thorough literature review and focused complementary field work on both sides of the border. The conceptual model includes the determination of the groundwater flow pattern, the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties, a groundwater budget and the definition of the groundwater types. Isotopes (3H, 14C, 36Cl) were used to delineate the recharge area as well as the active and low-flow areas. 3) The building of a 3D numerical groundwater flow model of the MRA (26,000 km2). This model is a transposition of the geological and hydrogeological conceptual models. A pre

  16. An international comparison of women's health issues in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong, and Singapore: the CIDA-SEAGEP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K

    2004-01-01

    This was an international study of women's health issues, based on an Official Study Tour in Southeast Asia (the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Singapore) and Canada. The objectives of the study were to identify and compare current gaps in surveillance, research, and programs and policies, and to predict trends of women's health issues in developing countries based on the experience of developed countries. Key informant interviews (senior government officials, university researchers, and local experts), self-administered questionnaires, courtesy calls, and literature searches were used to collect data. The participating countries identified women's health as an important issue, especially for reproductive health (developing countries) and senior's health (developed countries). Cancer, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, diabetes, poverty, social support, caring role for family, and informing, educating, and empowering people about women's health issues were the main concerns. Based on this study, 17 recommendations were made on surveillance, research, and programs and policies. A number of forthcoming changes in women''s health patterns in developing countries were also predicted. PMID:15578123

  17. An International Comparison of Women's Health Issues in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong, and Singapore: The CIDA-SEAGEP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Choi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This was an international study of women’'s health issues, based on an Official Study Tour in Southeast Asia (the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Singapore and Canada. The objectives of the study were to identify and compare current gaps in surveillance, research, and programs and policies, and to predict trends of women’''s health issues in developing countries based on the experience of developed countries. Key informant interviews (senior government officials, university researchers, and local experts, self-administered questionnaires, courtesy calls, and literature searches were used to collect data. The participating countries identified women's health as an important issue, especially for reproductive health (developing countries and senior’'s health (developed countries. Cancer, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, diabetes, poverty, social support, caring role for family, and informing, educating, and empowering people about women's health issues were the main concerns. Based on this study, 17 recommendations were made on surveillance, research, and programs and policies. A number of forthcoming changes in women’'s health patterns in developing countries were also predicted.

  18. The Hybridisation of Higher Education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Shale

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada's postsecondary institutions are becoming increasingly involved with technology enhanced learning, generally under the rubric of distance education. Growth and activity in distance education stems from rapid developments in communication and information technologies such as videoconferencing and the Internet. This case study focuses on the use of new technologies, primarily within the context of higher education institutions operating in Canada's English speaking provinces. Capitalising on the interactive capabilities of "new" learning technologies, some distance education providers are starting to behave more like conventional educational institutions in terms of forming study groups and student cohorts. Conversely, new telecommunications technologies are having a reverse impact on traditional classroom settings, and as a result conventional universities are beginning to establish administrative structures reflective of those used by distance education providers. When viewed in tandem, these trends reflect growing convergence between conventional and distance learning modes, leading to the hybridisation of higher education in Canada.

  19. DEWI partnership in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutilleux, P.; Klug, H.; Molly, J.P. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Canada is with its 9.982.000 km{sup 2} the second largest country in the world. It has plenty of natural resources for a population density of 3 inhabitants per km{sup 2}. Now that the time for wind energy is coming, DEWI is willing to contribute with its know-how to the development of wind energy in this country. In this article we review briefly two of the market drivers for the development of wind energy: the need for additional electricity generation capacity and the political framework. After considering the volume of projects under development, a way is shown how DEWI will be present in Canada in order to support its clients. (orig.)

  20. A national study of the association between traffic-related air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Canada, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, David M; Chen, Li; Hystad, Perry; Beckerman, Bernardo S; Jerrett, Michael; Tjepkema, Michael; Crouse, Daniel L; Omariba, D Walter; Peters, Paul A; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Burnett, Richard T; Liu, Shiliang; Smith-Doiron, Marc; Dugandzic, Rose M

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have examined the association of air pollution with preterm birth and birth weight outcomes. Traffic-related air pollution has also increasingly been identified as an important contributor to adverse health effects of air pollution. We employed a national nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure model to examine the association between NO2 and pregnancy outcomes in Canada between 1999 and 2008. National models for NO2 (and particulate matter of median aerodynamic diameter land use variables and, for NO2, deterministic gradients relative to road traffic sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations with preterm birth, term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) and term birth weight, adjusting for covariates including infant sex, gestational age, maternal age and marital status, parity, urban/rural place of residence, maternal place of birth, season, year of birth and neighbourhood socioeconomic status and per cent visible minority. Associations were reduced considerably after adjustment for individual covariates and neighbourhood per cent visible minority, but remained significant for SGA (odds ratio 1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.06 per 20ppb NO2) and term birth weight (16.2g reduction, 95% CI 13.6-18.8g per 20ppb NO2). Associations with NO2 were of greater magnitude in a sensitivity analysis using monthly monitoring data, and among births to mothers born in Canada, and in neighbourhoods with higher incomes and a lower proportion of visible minorities. In two pollutant models, associations with NO2 were less sensitive to adjustment for PM2.5 than vice versa, and there was consistent evidence of a dose-response relationship for NO2 but not PM2.5. In this study of approximately 2.5 million Canadian births between 1999 and 2008, we found significant associations of NO2 with SGA and term birth weight which remained significant after adjustment for PM2.5, suggesting that traffic may be a particularly important source with

  1. Risk factors for Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease in farmed bison (Bison bison) herds in western Canada: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Ana L; Barkema, Herman W; Woodbury, Murray; Ribble, Carl; Perez-Casal, Jose; Windeyer, M Claire

    2016-07-01

    North American bison producers have been attempting to control and prevent Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease without the benefit of bison-specific knowledge. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical presentation of disease associated with M. bovis infection in western Canadian farmed bison, and to identify herd-level risk factors for M. bovis-associated disease. Bison producers (n=49) from western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia) were selected for a 1:2 case-control study. Data were collected by an in-person interview using a questionnaire regarding clinical presentations of outbreaks and herd-level management factors. Risk factors associated with M. bovis outbreaks were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. All 17 case herds had a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of M. bovis infection within the last 5 years. In 11 (65%) of the 17 case herds, disease associated with M. bovis infection recurred in subsequent years. Overall, 88% of case herds had recently introduced bison that later developed clinical signs associated with M. bovis infection. Within a bison operation, a median of 8% (Inter Quartile Range [IQR]: 3-11%) developed clinical signs: lameness, reluctance to move, swollen joints, difficulty breathing, coughing, sluggishness, and loss of body condition. Also, calving percentage the year after the first M. bovis outbreak was lower than calving percentage the year before the outbreak. Herd-level mortality risk during the first M. bovis outbreak in case herds ranged from 0.5 to 50% (median 5%, IQR: 3-10%) and the median case fatality risk was 100%. Case herds were more likely than control herds to have a feedlot unit (OR=7), to receive regular visits from rental trailers or trailers from other farms (OR=15), to annually vaccinate bison (OR=7), and to lose at least one bison due to fatal respiratory disease in the previous year (OR=9). These findings will aid development of evidence

  2. Demand for human allograft tissue in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Jonathan R T; Mirbolooki, Mohammadreza; Rogers, Christina; Mohr, Jim

    2007-01-01

    There is relatively little known about the demand for allograft tissues in Canada. The Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation (CCDT) is a national advisory body that undertook a comprehensive "market survey" to estimate surgical demand for human allograft tissues in Canada. The report "Demand for Human Allograft Tissue in Canada" reflects survey results sent to 5 prominent User Groups. User Groups were identified as orthopaedic surgeons; neurosurgeons; corneal transplant surgeons; plastic surgeons, specifically those at Canadian Burn Units; and cardiac surgeons (adult and paediatric surgery). The demand for allograft grafts was determined and then extrapolated across the total User Group and then increases in allograft tissue use over the next 1-2 years across User Groups were predicted. The overall response rate for the survey was 21.4%. It varied from a low of 19.6% for the orthopaedic survey to a high of 40.5% for the corneal survey. The estimated current demand for allograft tissue in Canada ranges from a low of 34,442 grafts per year to a high of 62,098 grafts per year. The predicted increase in use of allograft tissue over the next 1-2 year period would suggest that annual demand could rise to somewhere in the range of 42,589-72,210 grafts. The highest rated preferences (98% and 94%) were for accredited and Canadian tissue banks, respectively. This study represents a key step in addressing the paucity of information concerning the demand for allograft tissue in Canada.

  3. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality.

  4. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Cristina Paunescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. Objective. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada. Methods. SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35–72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Results. Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Conclusion. Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik.

  6. Factors affecting the implementation of complex and evolving technologies: multiple case study of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bak Kate

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research regarding the decision to adopt and implement technological innovations in radiation oncology is lacking. This is particularly problematic since these technologies are often complex and rapidly evolving, requiring ongoing revisiting of decisions regarding which technologies are the most appropriate to support. Variations in adoption and implementation decisions for new radiation technologies across cancer centres can impact patients' access to appropriate and innovative forms of radiation therapy. This study examines the key steps in the process of adopting and implementing intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in publicly funded cancer centres and identifies facilitating or impeding factors. Methods A multiple case study design, utilizing document analysis and key informant interviews was employed. Four cancer centres in Ontario, Canada were selected and interviews were conducted with radiation oncologists, medical physicists, radiation therapists, and senior administrative leaders. Results Eighteen key informants were interviewed. Overall, three centres made fair to excellent progress in the implementation of IMRT, while one centre achieved only limited implementation as of 2009. Key factors that influenced the extent of IMRT implementation were categorized as: 1 leadership, 2 training, expertise and standardization, 3 collaboration, 4 resources, and 5 resistance to change. Conclusion A framework for the adoption and implementation of complex and evolving technologies is presented. It identifies the key factors that should be addressed by decision-makers at specific stages of the adoption/implementation process.

  7. Needs, Risks, and Context in Sexual Health Among Temporary Foreign Migrant Farmworkers in Canada: A Pilot Study with Mexican and Caribbean Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narushima, Miya; McLaughlin, Janet; Barrett-Greene, Jackie

    2016-04-01

    Every year Canada hosts approximately 40,000 temporary foreign migrant farmworkers (MFWs). They are predominantly Mexican and Caribbean married men or single mothers who leave their families for months at a time over a span of many years. This pilot study investigated their knowledge about HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards condoms and their use, and perceived barriers to accessing sexual health services. A survey (n = 103) and four focus groups (n = 21) were conducted in Ontario's Niagara Region. The results suggest that MFWs commonly face vulnerabilities to HIV/AIDS, STIs and other sexual health issues due to personal, social-cultural, environmental and structural factors. The findings highlight the need for increasing culturally and gender sensitive sexual health education and harm reduction outreach and providing information about local health care systems and resources for MFWs. The study also calls for further community-based research and actions to reduce MFWs' perceived access barriers to health care services. PMID:25784142

  8. State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the initial "Snapshot State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada" report was to provide an overview of the state of K-12 online learning in Canada. This was accomplished through the use of short commentaries about the state of K-12 distance education for each province and territory, along with more developed case studies for…

  9. The Analysis Of Adult Immigrants’ Learning System In Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of adult immigrants’ learning in Canada has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as: analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; analysis of the adult immigrants’ learning system in Canada; and the perspectives for creative implementation of Canadian experience in Ukraine.

  10. Student perception about working in rural United States/Canada after graduation: a study in an offshore Caribbean medical school [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5ac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ravi Shankar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural residents of the United States (US and Canada face problems in accessing healthcare. International medical graduates (IMGs play an important role in delivering rural healthcare. IMGs from Caribbean medical schools have the highest proportion of physicians in primary care.  Xavier University School of Medicines admits students from the US, Canada and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD course and also offers a premedical program. The present study was conducted to obtain student perception about working in rural US/Canada after graduation.   Methods: The study was conducted among premedical and preclinical undergraduate medical (MD students during October 2014. The questionnaire used was modified from a previous study. Semester of study, gender, nationality, place of residence and occupation of parents were noted. Information about whether students plan to work in rural US/Canada after graduation, possible reasons why doctors are reluctant to work in rural areas, how the government can encourage rural practice, possible problems respondents anticipate while working in rural areas were among the topics studied. Results: Ninety nine of the 108 students (91.7% participated. Forty respondents were in favor of working in rural US/Canada after graduation. Respondents mentioned good housing, regular electricity, water supply, telecommunication facilities, and schools for education of children as important conditions to be fulfilled. The government should provide higher salaries to rural doctors, help with loan repayment, and provide opportunities for professional growth.  Potential problems mentioned were difficulty in being accepted by the rural community, problems in convincing patients to follow medical advice, lack of exposure to rural life among the respondents, and cultural issues. Conclusions: About 40% of respondents would consider working in rural US/Canada. Conditions required to be fulfilled have been

  11. Student perception about working in rural United States/Canada after graduation: a study in an offshore Caribbean medical school [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4vz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ravi Shankar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural residents of the United States (US and Canada face problems in accessing healthcare. International medical graduates (IMGs play an important role in delivering rural healthcare. IMGs from Caribbean medical schools have the highest proportion of physicians in primary care.  Xavier University School of Medicines admits students from the US, Canada and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD course and also offers a premedical program. The present study was conducted to obtain student perception about working in rural US/Canada after graduation.   Methods: The study was conducted among premedical and preclinical undergraduate medical (MD students during October 2014. The questionnaire used was modified from a previous study. Semester of study, gender, nationality, place of residence and occupation of parents were noted. Information about whether students plan to work in rural US/Canada after graduation, possible reasons why doctors are reluctant to work in rural areas, how the government can encourage rural practice, possible problems respondents anticipate while working in rural areas were among the topics studied. Results: Ninety nine of the 108 students (91.7% participated. Forty respondents were in favor of working in rural US/Canada after graduation. Respondents mentioned good housing, regular electricity, water supply, telecommunication facilities, and schools for education of children as important conditions to be fulfilled. The government should provide higher salaries to rural doctors, help with loan repayment, and provide opportunities for professional growth.  Potential problems mentioned were difficulty in being accepted by the rural community, problems in convincing patients to follow medical advice, lack of exposure to rural life among the respondents, and cultural issues. Conclusions: About 40% of respondents would consider working in rural US/Canada. Conditions required to be fulfilled have been

  12. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects. PMID:27513558

  13. What is the comparative health status and associated risk factors for the Métis? A population-based study in Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Patricia J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Métis are descendants of early 17th century relationships between North American Indians and Europeans. This study's objectives were: (1 to compare the health status of the Métis people to all other residents of Manitoba, Canada; and (2 to analyze factors in predicting the likelihood of diabetes and related lower limb amputation. Methods Using de-identified administrative databases plus the Métis Population Database housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, age/sex-adjusted rates of mortality and disease were calculated for Métis (n = 73,016 and all other Manitobans (n = 1,104,672. Diseases included: hypertension, arthritis, diabetes, ischemic heart disease (age 19+; osteoporosis (age 50+; acute myocardial infarction (AMI and stroke (age 40+; total respiratory morbidity (TRM, all ages. Using logistic regression, predictors of diabetes (2004/05-2006/07 and diabetes-related lower-limb amputations (2002/03-2006/07 were analyzed. Results Disease rates were higher for Métis compared to all others: premature mortality before age 75 (4.0 vs. 3.3 per 1000, p Conclusion Despite universal healthcare, Métis' illness and mortality rates are mostly higher. Although elevated diabetes risk persists for the Métis even after adjusting for sociodemographic, healthcare and comorbidity variables, the risk of amputation for Métis appears more related to healthcare access rather than ethnicity.

  14. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.

  15. Outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma among children and adults: A case-crossover study in northern Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Brian H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have observed positive associations between outdoor air pollution and emergency department (ED visits for asthma. However, few have examined the possible confounding influence of aeroallergens, or reported findings among very young children. Methods A time stratified case-crossover design was used to examine 57,912 ED asthma visits among individuals two years of age and older in the census metropolitan area of Edmonton, Canada between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2002. Daily air pollution levels for the entire region were estimated from three fixed-site monitoring stations. Similarly, daily levels of aeroallergens were estimated using rotational impaction sampling methods for the period between 1996 and 2002. Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for temperature, relative humidity and seasonal epidemics of viral related respiratory disease. Results Positive associations for asthma visits with outdoor air pollution levels were observed between April and September, but were absent during the remainder of the year. Effects were strongest among young children. Namely, an increase in the interquartile range of the 5-day average for NO2 and CO levels between April and September was associated with a 50% and 48% increase, respectively, in the number of ED visits among children 2 – 4 years of age (p Conclusion Our findings, taken together, suggest that exposure to ambient levels of air pollution is an important determinant of ED visits for asthma, particularly among young children and the elderly.

  16. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects. PMID:27513558

  17. Pollination, seed set and fruit quality in apple: studies with Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Silas Sheffield

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The orchard crop pollinator Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae was evaluated for apple pollination in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada during 2000-2001. Resulting pollination levels (measured as pollen grains on floral stigmas, percent fruit set, mature fruit weight and seed yield were evaluated against an attempted gradient of Osmia bee density. In addition, fruit quality was assessed using two symmetry indices, one based on fruit diameter, the second on fruit height. Pollination levels, percent fruit set and mature fruit quality were much higher than minimums required for adequate crop production, and all but pollination levels showed weak but significant decreases at increased distance from the established nests, suggesting that even at low numbers these bees may have been making significant contributions to apple production. Fruit were typically of better quality in areas of the orchard adjacent to Osmia nests, having fewer empty carpels and greater symmetry; fruit quality (i.e., symmetry is typically most reduced when two or more adjacent carpels are empty. Empty carpels reduce growth in fruit height rather than diameter, suggesting that symmetry indices using fruit diameter are not sensitive enough to evaluate fruit quality. Evidencing this, fruit without mature seeds observed in this study showed high symmetry based on diameter, but were greatly asymmetric with respect to fruit height. Further discussion on Osmia bees as apple pollinators and on methods of evaluating apple fruit quality with respect to seed distribution within the apple fruit are provided.

  18. Endocrine status of a migratory bird potentially exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a case study of northern gannets breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Cynthia D; Guillemette, Magella; Pelletier, Emilien; Chastel, Olivier; Bonnefoi, Salomé; Verreault, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused the death of a large number of seabirds in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. However, the long term consequences of oil exposure on migratory birds overwintering in this area have received limited attention. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of oil contamination (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) on the circulating status of prolactin and corticosterone, two hormones that influence reproductive success in birds, in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada. Using light-based geolocators, it was found that 23.5% of Northern gannets from Bonaventure Island overwintered in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010-2011; the remainder of this population overwintered along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. PAH concentrations (eight compounds) in gannet blood cells were all found to be under the method limits of quantification, which could be the result of the ability of seabirds to metabolize these compounds and the time elapsed between oil exposure and blood sampling. Corticosterone and prolactin levels as well as body mass did not differ between the two major birds' wintering sites. Moreover, levels of both these hormones did not vary from early to late incubation period. Present results suggest that if Bonaventure Island-breeding Northern gannets had been exposed to oil in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of this historical spill, this exposure could not be associated with changes in hormonal status and body mass in breeding individuals.

  19. A quantitative ranking of Canada's research output of original human studies for the decade 1989 to 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, R. E.; Macnab, A. J.; Gagnon, F A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1987 research articles have been catalogued with the author's affiliation address in the 40 databases of the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS) of the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md. The present study was conducted to examine the Canadian entries in MEDLARS to interpret past and future trends and to combine the MEDLARS demographic data with data from other sources to rank Canadian research output of human studies both nationally and intern...

  20. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.)

  1. Information Literacy Training in Canada's Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Heidi; Hoffman, Cameron

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the role of Canada's public libraries in developing the public's information literacy (IL) skills, to explore current IL training practices, and to explore the perspectives and IL experiences of individuals who visit public libraries to access the Internet. This article documents the second phase of a…

  2. Artificial Intelligence in Canada: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mccalla, Gordon; Cercone, Nick

    1984-01-01

    Canadians have made many contributions to artificial intelligence over the years. This article presents a summary of current research in artificial intelligence in Canada and acquaints readers with the Canadian organization for artificial intelligence -- the Canadian Society for the Computational Studies of Intelligence / Societe Canadienne pour l' Etude de l'Intelligence par Ordinateur (CSCSI/ SCEIO).

  3. Clostridium difficile in Retail Ground Meat, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander; Staempfli, Henry R.; Duffield, Todd; Weese, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12 (20%) of 60 retail ground meat samples purchased over a 10-month period in 2005 in Canada. Eleven isolates were toxigenic, and 8 (67%) were classified as toxinotype III. The human health implications of this finding are unclear, but with the virulence of toxinotype III strains further studies are required.

  4. Self-perceived Mental Health Status and Uptake of Fecal Occult Blood Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestin Hategekimana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: While colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most preventable causes of cancer mortality, it is one of the leading causes of cancer death in Canada where CRC screening uptake is suboptimal. Given the increased rate of mortality and morbidity among mental health patients, their condition could be a potential barrier to CRC screening due to greater difficulties in adhering to behaviours related to long-term health goals. Using a population-based study among Canadians, we hypothesize that self-perceived mental health (SPMH status and fecal occult blood test (FOBT uptake for the screening of CRC are associated. Methods: The current study is cross-sectional and utilised data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether SPMH is independently associated with FOBT uptake among a representative sample of 11386 respondents aged 50-74 years. Results: Nearly half of the respondents reported having ever had FOBT for CRC screening, including 37.28% who have been screened within two years of the survey and 12.41% who had been screened more than two years preceding the survey. Respondents who reported excellent mental health were more likely to have ever been screened two years or more before the survey (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.00-4.43 and to have been screened in the last two years preceding the survey (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI, 0.86-2.71 than those reported poor mental health status. Conclusion: This study supports the association between SPMH status and FOBT uptake for CRC screening. While the efforts to maximize CRC screening uptake should be deployed to all eligible people, those with poor mental health may need more attention.

  5. Impacts of future climate change on river discharge based on hydrological inference: A case study of the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Wang, Xiuquan; Han, Jingcheng; Fan, Yurui

    2016-04-01

    Over the recent years, climate change impacts have been increasingly studied at the watershed scale. However, the impact assessment is strongly dependent upon the performance of the climatic and hydrological models. This study developed a two-step method to assess climate change impacts on water resources based on the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modeling system and a Hydrological Inference Model (HIM). PRECIS runs provided future temperature and precipitation projections for the watershed under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios. The HIM based on stepwise cluster analysis is developed to imitate the complex nonlinear relationships between climate input variables and targeted hydrological variables. Its robust mathematical structure and flexibility in predictor selection makes it a desirable tool for fully utilizing various climate modeling outputs. Although PRECIS and HIM cannot fully cover the uncertainties in hydro-climate modeling, they could provide efficient decision support for investigating the impacts of climate change on water resources. The proposed method is applied to the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada. The model performance is demonstrated with comparison to observation data from the watershed during the period 1972-2006. Future river discharge intervals that accommodate uncertainties in hydro-climatic modeling are presented and future river discharge variations are analyzed. The results indicate that even though the total annual precipitation would not change significantly in the future, the inter-annual distribution is very likely to be altered. The water availability is expected to increase in Winter while it is very likely to decrease in Summer over the Grand River Watershed, and adaptation strategies would be necessary.

  6. Health Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Henry P. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the health care service needs and the major correlates of quality of life among 127 community-dwelling elderly Chinese immigrants in a western Canadian city. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained, bilingual interviewers employing a structured questionnaire that covered a wide range of topics including health…

  7. Sri Lanka--Canada School Library & Information Services Programme Components: A School Library Study Tour. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald R.

    This document reports on a study tour of Canadian schools conducted by the Sri Lanka Ministry of Education. The purposes of the tour were to: develop an awareness of the scope of modern school library programming; investigate the aspects of implementation of a modern school library program including staffing, facilities, educational programming,…

  8. A CASE STUDY OF A CHINESE ‘HIKIKOMORIAN’ IN CANADA – THEORIZING THE PROCESS OF HIKIKOMORIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Suk-ching CHONG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘hikikomori’ originates from Japan and means ‘acute social withdrawal’. This study intends to investigate into the causes of hikikomori which is increasing worldwide phenomenon. The methodology is a case study approach located in an interpretive paradigm. The data was mainly collected through e-mails with the participant and phone conversations with his mother. The participant was a ‘hiki­ko­morian’ who was invited to investigate his own problem and further to be the co-author of this paper. The literature findings and this case study were then conceptualized into a more wide-ranging framework in compre­hen­ding the process of hikikomorization. The result appears to show that hikikomorization involves three processes: first, a predisposed introverted personality; second, the effects of multiple environmental factors such as family, school and society; and finally, the trigger point, such as the end of schooling or a stressful event. The study offers implications for other hiki­ko­mo­rians in better understanding of their problems and for practitioners working with reclusive ado­lescents and their families.

  9. Coastal Hazard Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study of Erosion and Flooding on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Radosavljevic, Boris; Lantuit, Hugues; Pollard, Wayne; Overduin, Paul; Couture, N. J.; Sachs, Torsten; Helm, Veit; Fritz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coastal infrastructure, cultural, and archeological sites are increasingly vulnerable to erosion and flooding along permafrost coasts. Amplified warming of the Arctic, sea level rise, lengthening of the open water period, and a predicted increase in frequency of major storms compound these threats. Mitigation necessitates decision-making tools at an appropriate scale. We present a study of coastal erosion combining it with a flooding risk assessment for the culturally important historic settl...

  10. Identifying and Tackling Entry Barriers in Canada : A study for the Dutch shipbuilding and marine equipment industry

    OpenAIRE

    Laan, Jari

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to retain Dutch prominence in the global maritime cluster by enabling the Dutch shipbuilding and marine equipment industry to respond to Canada’s National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy opportunities through identifying and proposing solutions to the market entry barriers existing in the Canadian shipbuilding industry. The reviewed literature focuses on internationalizing theories, market entry barriers and various tools to assess the attractiveness of international ma...

  11. Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD in Ontario (Canada swine herds: Part II. Matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Beth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD was associated with high mortality in swine populations worldwide. Studies performed in different regions identified spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal trends as factors contributing to patterns of the disease spread. Patterns consistent with spatial trend and spatio-temporal clustering were already identified in this dataset. On the basis of these results, we have further investigated the nature of local spread in this report. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for incidence cases of reported PCVAD. Results A time-matched case-control study was used as a study design approach, and conditional logistic regression as the analytical method. The main exposure of interest was local spread, which was defined as an unidentified mechanism of PCVAD spread between premises located within 3 kilometers of the Euclidean distance. Various modifications of variables indicative of local spread were also evaluated. The dataset contained 278 swine herds from Ontario originally sampled either from diagnostic laboratory submissions or directly from the target population. A PCVAD case was defined on the basis of the producer's recall. Existence of apparent local spread over the entire study period was confirmed (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.83, and was further identified to be time-varying in nature - herds experiencing outbreaks in the later part of the epidemic were more likely than control herds to be exposed to neighboring herds experiencing recent PCVAD outbreaks. More importantly, the pattern of local spread was driven by concurrent occurrence of PCVAD on premises under the same ownership (OREXACTwithin ownership = 25.6, 95% CI: 3.4, +inf; OREXACToutside ownership = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.45, 3.3. Other significant factors included PRRSv status of a herd (OREXACT = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.9, after adjusting for geographical location by including the binary

  12. Helping Internationally-Trained Professionals Make the Transition to New Careers in Canada: A case study of the S.U.C.C.E.S.S. Employment Mentoring Program

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, King Chung

    2015-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis explored the career development and mentoring expectations of recent immigrants in the category of Internationally-Trained Professionals (ITPs) who were currently living in British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. Previous research has found that mentoring can improve employment outcomes for skilled immigrants; however, the majority of previous research studies have been based on quantitative methods and do not provide a holistic view of the mentoring experience. ...

  13. A GEOBIA framework to estimate forest parameters from lidar transects, Quickbird imagery and machine learning: A case study in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Hay, Geoffrey J.; St-Onge, Benoît

    2012-04-01

    The GEOgraphic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) paradigm continues to prove its efficacy in remote sensing image analysis by providing tools which emulate human perception and combine analyst's experience with meaningful image-objects. However, challenges remain in the evolution of this new paradigm as sophisticated methods attempt to deliver on the goal of automated geo-intelligence (i.e., geospatial content within context) from geospatial sources. In order to generate geo-intelligence from a forest scene, this article introduces a GEOBIA framework to estimate canopy height, above-ground biomass (AGB) and volume by combining lidar (light detection and ranging) transects, Quickbird imagery and machine learning algorithms. This framework is comprised three main components: (i) image-object extraction, (ii) lidar transect selection, and (iii) forest parameter generalization. The rational for integrating these methods is to provide a semi-automatic GEOBIA approach from which detailed forest information is obtained at the individual tree crown or small tree cluster level (i.e., mean object size of 0.04 ha); while also dramatically reducing airborne lidar data acquisition costs. Analysis is performed over a 16,330 ha forested study site in Quebec, Canada. Forest parameter estimation results derived from our GEOBIA framework demonstrate a strong relationship with those using the full lidar cover; where the highest estimates for canopy height ( R = 0.85; RMSE = 3.37 m), AGB ( R = 0.85; RMSE = 39.48 Mg/ha) and volume ( R = 0.85; RMSE = 52.59 m 3/ha) were achieved using a lidar transect sample representing only 7.6% of the total study area.

  14. Influences of Self-Efficacy, Response Efficacy, and Reactance on Responses to Cigarette Health Warnings: A Longitudinal Study of Adult Smokers in Australia and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Swayampakala, Kamala; Borland, Ron; Nagelhout, Gera; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Thompson, Mary; Hardin, James

    2016-12-01

    Guided by the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and reactance theory, this study examined the relationship between efficacy beliefs, reactance, and adult smokers' responses to pictorial health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packaging, including whether efficacy beliefs or reactance modify the relationship between HWL responses and subsequent smoking cessation behavior. Four waves of data were analyzed from prospective cohorts of smokers in Australia and Canada (n = 7,120 observations) over a period of time after implementation of more prominent, pictorial HWLs. Three types of HWL responses were studied: psychological threat responses (i.e., thinking about risks from smoking), forgoing cigarettes due to HWLs, and avoiding HWLs. The results from Generalized Estimating Equation models indicated that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance were significantly associated with greater psychological threat responses to HWLs. Similar results were found for models predicting forgoing behavior, although response efficacy was inversely associated with it. Only response efficacy was significantly associated with avoiding HWLs, showing a positive relationship. Higher self-efficacy and stronger responses to HWLs, no matter the type, were associated with attempting to quit in the follow-up period; reactance was unassociated. No statistically significant interactions were found. These results suggest that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance are associated with some stronger responses to fear-arousing HWL responses; however, these HWL responses appear no less likely to lead to cessation attempts among smokers with different levels of self-efficacy to quit, of response efficacy beliefs, or of trait reactance against attempts to control their behavior. PMID:27135826

  15. What are the opportunities and challenges for women in fly-in-fly-out (FIFO) mining in Canada? an exploratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, S.D.; Silva, A.C.; Hui, V. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This presentation examined how the mining industry is adapting to recruiting and maintaining female employees in fly-in-fly-out (FIFO) operations. The FIFO mining model fulfills the economic, social and workforce needs of the modern mining industry. It is used in countries such as Canada and Australia. Most FIFO employees work long shifts in compacted work schedules. As such, they have long periods of time off, depending on the number of days they stay on site. The main advantages and disadvantages of working in a FIFO mine were identified. While the FIFO model can create opportunities for young women, it is typically seen as rigid and very challenging for women and employees with young families or workers who are single parents. The model is incompatible with starting a family and caring for small children. This study examined the major sources of stress associated with FIFO working schedules and presented recommendations to improve the system in order to increase the ability of mining companies to hire and retain women of all age groups while achieving corporate objectives and human resource needs. The preliminary recommendations from this study were to establish reliable standards and policies regarding maternity and family issues; improve the flexibility in schedules for pregnant women or women who just returned from maternity leave; establish mentorship programs and creative personnel policies that support employees with young families; and, establish orientation programs for new employees and their families. It was concluded that there needs to be a larger and more inclusive discussion of opportunities and challenges of FIFO operations and how they could be improved for everyone. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. “We don't exist”: a qualitative study of marginalization experienced by HIV-positive lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender women in Toronto, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender (LBQT women living with HIV have been described as invisible and understudied. Yet, social and structural contexts of violence and discrimination exacerbate the risk of HIV infection among LBQT women. The study objective was to explore challenges in daily life and experiences of accessing HIV services among HIV-positive LBQT women in Toronto, Canada. Methods: We used a community-based qualitative approach guided by an intersectional theoretical framework. We conducted two focus groups; one focus group was conducted with HIV-positive lesbian, bisexual and queer women (n=7 and the second with HIV-positive transgender women (n=16. Participants were recruited using purposive sampling. Focus groups were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used for analyzing data to enhance understanding of factors that influence the wellbeing of HIV-positive LBQT women. Results: Participant narratives revealed a trajectory of marginalization. Structural factors such as social exclusion and violence elevated the risk for HIV infection; this risk was exacerbated by inadequate HIV prevention information. Participants described multiple barriers to HIV care and support, including pervasive HIV-related stigma, heteronormative assumptions in HIV-positive women's services and discriminatory and incompetent treatment by health professionals. Underrepresentation of LBQT women in HIV research further contributed to marginalization and exclusion. Participants expressed a willingness to participate in HIV research that would be translated into action. Conclusions: Structural factors elevate HIV risk among LBQT women, limit access to HIV prevention and present barriers to HIV care and support. This study's conceptualization of a trajectory of marginalization enriches the discussion of structural factors implicated in the wellbeing of LBQT women and highlights the necessity of addressing LBQT women

  17. Coastal Hazard Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study of Erosion and Flooding on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljevic, B.; Lantuit, H.; Overduin, P. P.; Fritz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal infrastructure, cultural, and archeological sites are increasingly vulnerable to erosion and flooding along permafrost coasts. Amplified warming of the Arctic, sea level rise, lengthening of the open water period, and a predicted increase in frequency of major storms compound these threats. Mitigation necessitates decision-making tools at an appropriate scale. We present a study of coastal erosion combining it with a flooding risk assessment for the culturally important historic settlement on Herschel Island, a UNESCO World Heritage candidate site. The resulting map may help local stakeholders devise management strategies to cope with rapidly changing environmental conditions. We analyzed shoreline movement using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) after digitizing shorelines from 1952, 1970, and 2011. Using these data, forecasts of shoreline positions were made for 20 and 50 years into the future. Flooding risk was assessed using a cost-distance map based on a high-resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset and current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change sea level estimates. Widespread erosion characterizes the study area. The rate of shoreline movement for different periods of the study ranges from -5.5 to 2.7 m·a-1 (mean -0.6 m·a-1). Mean coastal retreat decreased from -0.6 m·a-1 to -0.5 m·a-1, for 1952-1970 and 1970-2000, respectively, and increased to -1.3 m·a-1 in the period 2000-2011. Ice-rich coastal sections, and coastal sections most exposed to wave attack exhibited the highest rates of coastal retreat. The geohazard map resulting from shoreline projections and flood risk analysis indicates that most of the area occupied by the historic settlement is at extreme or very high risk of flooding, and some buildings are vulnerable to coastal erosion. The results of this study indicate a greater threat by coastal flooding than erosion. Our assessment may be applied in other locations where limited data are available.

  18. Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Forest Biomass Fueled Small-Scale District Heating Network in the Town of Marathon, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Peiponen, Niko

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to look into the possibility of constructing a forest biomass fueled district heating network in to the Town of Marathon, and to evaluate if it is feasible to carry on with a full-scale feasibility study. This thesis directly supported the Nipissing University’s Biomass Innovation Centre’s (BIC) Northern Ontario Biomass Initiatives – project. The base knowledge for the theory was gathered by using the internet, journal articles, e-books and other web docum...

  19. Peat landforms along the Albany River, northern Ontario. An ecological study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    During the summer of 1985 a field investigation was started in the Hudson Bay lowland region of northern Ontario, which represents the largest expanse of peatland in North America and is an important sink in the global carbon cycle. A key area in the lowlands is situated along the Albany River near the confluence of the Chepay River. Here the striking vegetation-landforms are transitional between those found on the bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz in northern Minnesota and southern Manitoba and the more northern peatlands in the Hudson Bay lowland region. In peatland studies elsewhere the landform patterns have been used not only to classify different peatland types but also as an indicator of potential developmetnal trends. The study area is generally defined by that covered by the TM scene E-40062-15532 taken on Sept. 16, 1982. The purpose of the field work is to acquire sufficent information to interpret the TM imagery and test various hypotheses on peatland development on the gasis of the pattern transitions.

  20. Canada's disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept for the safe and permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes from Canada's CANDU reactors has been developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). The waste would be placed in an engineered disposal vault 500 to 1000 m below the surface in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The multiple barriers to retain the waste and retard the release of radioactivity would be the waste form, the containers, buffer and backfill, and the rock overlying the vault. Numerous research programmes have been carried out to develop the technology for the concept. These include work on materials corrosion and failure mechanisms to assess the performance of the used fuel containers. Predictive modelling has shown that more than 97% of ASTM Grade 2 titanium containers will retain their integrity, even under pessimistic assumptions, for 1200-6000 years after emplacement, and even longer times may be achieved with other grades of titanium or copper. Other research has been aimed at vault sealing, at site characterization for an underground research laboratory and at the development of a methodology for assessing radiological and environmental effects after closure of the facility. A review of the safety and environmental impacts of the concept is now being carried out by an independent panel appointed by the government. (2 figures, 3 references) (UK)

  1. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  2. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  3. Extending stakeholder theory to promote resource management initiatives to key stakeholders: a case study of water transfers in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafreniere, Katherine C; Deshpande, Sameer; Bjornlund, Henning; Hunter, M Gordon

    2013-11-15

    Many attempts to implement resource management initiatives in Canadian and international communities have been resisted by stakeholders despite inclusion of their representatives in the decision-making process. Managers' failure to understand stakeholders' perspectives when proposing initiatives is a potential cause of this resistance. Our study uses marketing thought to enhance stakeholder theory by bringing in an audience-centric perspective. We attempt to understand how stakeholders perceive their interests in an organization and consequently decide how to influence that organization. By doing so, we investigate whether a disconnect exists between the perceptions of managers and those of stakeholders. Natural resource managers can utilize this knowledge to garner stakeholder support for the organization and its activities. We support this claim with findings from a water transfer plebiscite held in the Canadian province of Alberta. Sixteen personal interviews employing narrative inquiry were conducted to document voters' (i.e., irrigators') interpretations. PMID:23895936

  4. The application of resilience assessment - resilience of what, to what, with what? A case study based on Caledon, Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Ting Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience assessment can be used to determine major issues, stakeholders, vulnerabilities, and opportunities of a social-ecological system to enhance resilience. A resilience assessment was conducted on the Town of Caledon, Ontario between 2010 and 2011 using the Resilience Assessment Workbook for Practitioners (version 1. The assessment explores the following three questions: Resilience of what? Resilience to what? Resilience with what? The answer to the first question describes the history, main issues, and stakeholders of the focal system. The answers to the remaining two questions describe potential resilience threats and assets, respectively. The assessment results include (1 identified resilience threats and assets of Caledon as a social-ecological system in the context of urban growth; (2 a cross-scalar study of Caledon in its ecological, social, and economic domains; (3 interviews with 26 community members on the topics of urban growth and resilience; and (4 recommendations for Caledon to enhance its resilience in face of urban growth pressures. The results reveal the significance of continual learning, engaged citizenship, and cross-scalar collaboration between governmental bodies. The assessment results also highlight some particular features that would enhance the resilience of Caledon, such as nurturing the health of agroecosystems, developing trade-off rules for conflict resolution, and treating low-impact urban development as an opportunity. This research provides a case study of resilience assessment of a community that undergoes a rural-urban divide. Emerging themes of resilience are identified. Research limitations and suggestions are presented at the end of this paper.

  5. The Preliminary Findings of a Study Exploring the Perceptions of a Sample of Young Heterosexual Males regarding HIV Prevention Education Programming in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahagan, Jacqueline; Rehman, Laurene; Barbour, Laura; McWilliam, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of young Canadian females becoming infected with HIV through heterosexual transmission with an infected male sexual partner, the majority of current HIV prevention programs and services in Canada continue to ignore the needs of young heterosexual males. This research is derived from 30 in-depth interviews, 9 focus…

  6. The public's viewpoint on the right to hastened death in Alberta, Canada: findings from a population survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna M; Birch, Stephen; MacLeod, Rod; Dhanji, Nurin; Osei-Waree, Jane; Cohen, Joachim

    2013-03-01

    A research study was conducted to determine public opinion in Alberta, a Canadian province, on the controversial topic of death hastening. Questions on the right to hastened death, end-of-life plans and end-of-life experiences were included in the Population Research Laboratory's annual 2010 health-care telephone survey, with 1203 adults providing results relatively representative of Albertans. Of all 1203, 72.6% said yes to the question: 'Should dying adults be able to request and get help from others to end their life early, in other words, this is a request for assisted suicide'? Among all who provided an answer, 36.8% indicated 'yes, every competent adult should have this right' and 40.6% indicated 'yes, but it should be allowed only in certain cases or situations'. Over 50% of respondents in all but one socio-demographic population sub-group (Religious-other) were supportive of the right to hastened death. However, multinomial regression analysis revealed that the experiences of deciding to euthanise a pet/animal and developing or planning to develop an advance directive predicted support, while self-reported religiosity predicted non-support. Finding majority public support for death hastening suggests that legalisation could potentially occur in the future; but with this policy first requiring a careful consideration of the model of assisted suicide or euthanasia that best protects people who are highly vulnerable to despair and suffering near the end of life. PMID:23216960

  7. Applications of low altitude remote sensing in agriculture upon farmers' requests--a case study in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Walters, Dan; Kovacs, John M

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of the low altitude remote sensing (LARS) industry in recent years, their practical application in precision agriculture seems all the more possible. However, only a few scientists have reported using LARS to monitor crop conditions. Moreover, there have been concerns regarding the feasibility of such systems for producers given the issues related to the post-processing of images, technical expertise, and timely delivery of information. The purpose of this study is to showcase actual requests by farmers to monitor crop conditions in their fields using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Working in collaboration with farmers in northeastern Ontario, we use optical and near-infrared imagery to monitor fertilizer trials, conduct crop scouting and map field tile drainage. We demonstrate that LARS imagery has many practical applications. However, several obstacles remain, including the costs associated with both the LARS system and the image processing software, the extent of professional training required to operate the LARS and to process the imagery, and the influence from local weather conditions (e.g. clouds, wind) on image acquisition all need to be considered. Consequently, at present a feasible solution for producers might be the use of LARS service provided by private consultants or in collaboration with LARS scientific research teams.

  8. Field and laboratory transmission studies of haemic neoplasia in the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria, from Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, D R; MacCallum, G S; Davidson, J

    2016-08-01

    A two-year laboratory and field study was initiated in 2001 in response to mass mortalities associated with haemic neoplasia (HN) in 1999 in Prince Edward Island (PEI) soft-shell clams, Mya arenaria. A laboratory proximity experiment (cohabitation) and an inoculation challenge were conducted with clams and mussels (Mytilus edulis). Three field exposure experiments were also conducted, in which naive clams were held in sediment (in trays) or out of sediment (in mesh bags) at three high HN prevalence sites on PEI. There was a conversion to HN positive in clams in the proximity experiment and in clams injected with whole blood and cell-free homogenate, but not at statistically significant levels. No mussels or control clams became HN positive. There was a significant conversion to HN positive in as little as 24 and 58 days after transfer with clams held out of sediment and in sediment, respectively. The laboratory and field experiments' results suggest that HN-infected clams are spreading the disease through water from infected clams to naïve individuals and via transplantation from affected to unaffected sites. Some environmental conditions (e.g. abnormally high water temperature and hypoxia-induced sea lettuce [Ulva lacteus] invasion) may make clams susceptible to infections or exacerbate the proliferation of HN. PMID:26687447

  9. Applications of low altitude remote sensing in agriculture upon farmers' requests--a case study in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Walters, Dan; Kovacs, John M

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of the low altitude remote sensing (LARS) industry in recent years, their practical application in precision agriculture seems all the more possible. However, only a few scientists have reported using LARS to monitor crop conditions. Moreover, there have been concerns regarding the feasibility of such systems for producers given the issues related to the post-processing of images, technical expertise, and timely delivery of information. The purpose of this study is to showcase actual requests by farmers to monitor crop conditions in their fields using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Working in collaboration with farmers in northeastern Ontario, we use optical and near-infrared imagery to monitor fertilizer trials, conduct crop scouting and map field tile drainage. We demonstrate that LARS imagery has many practical applications. However, several obstacles remain, including the costs associated with both the LARS system and the image processing software, the extent of professional training required to operate the LARS and to process the imagery, and the influence from local weather conditions (e.g. clouds, wind) on image acquisition all need to be considered. Consequently, at present a feasible solution for producers might be the use of LARS service provided by private consultants or in collaboration with LARS scientific research teams. PMID:25386696

  10. Breast cancer screening disparities among immigrant women by world region of origin: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kumar, Matthew; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-07-01

    Rates of mammography screening for breast cancer are disproportionately low in certain subgroups including low-income and immigrant women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in rates of appropriate breast cancer screening (i.e., screening mammography every 2 years) among Ontario immigrant women by world region of origin and explore the association between appropriate breast cancer screening among these women groups and individual and structural factors. A cohort of 183,332 screening-eligible immigrant women living in Ontario between 2010 and 2012 was created from linked databases and classified into eight world regions of origin. Appropriate screening rates were calculated for each region by age group and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and healthcare-related characteristics. The association between appropriate screening across the eight regions of origin and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and health-related characteristics was explored using multivariate Poisson regression. Screening varied by region of origin, with South Asian women (48.5%) having the lowest and Caribbean and Latin American women (63.7%) the highest cancer screening rates. Factors significantly associated with lower screening across the world regions of origin included living in the lowest income neighborhoods, having a refugee status, being a new immigrant, not having a regular physical examination, not being enrolled in a primary care patient enrollment model, having a male physician, and having an internationally trained physician. Multiple interventions entailing cross-sector collaboration, promotion of patient enrollment models, community engagement, comprehensive and intensive outreach to women, and knowledge translation and transfer to physicians should be considered to address screening disparities among immigrant population. Consideration should be given to design and delivery of culturally appropriate and easily accessible cancer screening programs

  11. Municipal water quantities and health in Nunavut households: an exploratory case study in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiley Daley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to adequate quantities of water has a protective effect on human health and well-being. Despite this, public health research and interventions are frequently focused solely on water quality, and international standards for domestic water supply minimums are often overlooked or unspecified. This trend is evident in Inuit and other Arctic communities even though numerous transmissible diseases and bacterium infections associated with inadequate domestic water quantities are prevalent. Objectives: Our objective was to explore the pathways by which the trucked water distribution systems being used in remote northern communities are impacting health at the household level, with consideration given to the underlying social and environmental determinants shaping health in the region. Methods: Using a qualitative case study design, we conducted 37 interviews (28 residents, 9 key informants and a review of government water documents to investigate water usage practices and perspectives. These data were thematically analysed to understand potential health risks in Arctic communities and households. Results: Each resident receives an average of 110 litres of municipal water per day. Fifteen of 28 households reported experiencing water shortages at least once per month. Of those 15, most were larger households (5 people or more with standard sized water storage tanks. Water shortages and service interruptions limit the ability of some households to adhere to public health advice. The households most resilient, or able to cope with domestic water supply shortages, were those capable of retrieving their own drinking water directly from lake and river sources. Residents with extended family and neighbours, whom they can rely on during shortages, were also less vulnerable to municipal water delays. Conclusions: The relatively low in-home water quantities observed in Coral Harbour, Nunavut, appear adequate for some families. Those living in

  12. Breast cancer screening disparities among immigrant women by world region of origin: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kumar, Matthew; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-07-01

    Rates of mammography screening for breast cancer are disproportionately low in certain subgroups including low-income and immigrant women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in rates of appropriate breast cancer screening (i.e., screening mammography every 2 years) among Ontario immigrant women by world region of origin and explore the association between appropriate breast cancer screening among these women groups and individual and structural factors. A cohort of 183,332 screening-eligible immigrant women living in Ontario between 2010 and 2012 was created from linked databases and classified into eight world regions of origin. Appropriate screening rates were calculated for each region by age group and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and healthcare-related characteristics. The association between appropriate screening across the eight regions of origin and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and health-related characteristics was explored using multivariate Poisson regression. Screening varied by region of origin, with South Asian women (48.5%) having the lowest and Caribbean and Latin American women (63.7%) the highest cancer screening rates. Factors significantly associated with lower screening across the world regions of origin included living in the lowest income neighborhoods, having a refugee status, being a new immigrant, not having a regular physical examination, not being enrolled in a primary care patient enrollment model, having a male physician, and having an internationally trained physician. Multiple interventions entailing cross-sector collaboration, promotion of patient enrollment models, community engagement, comprehensive and intensive outreach to women, and knowledge translation and transfer to physicians should be considered to address screening disparities among immigrant population. Consideration should be given to design and delivery of culturally appropriate and easily accessible cancer screening programs

  13. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  14. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact study of solvent/detergent (SD) treated plasma (octaplasLG®) versus fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) in any patient receiving transfusion in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Eline L; van Eerd, Margreet C; Ouwens, J N Mario; de Peuter, Maria A

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of octaplasLG(®) compared with fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) in all patients receiving a transfusion in Canada. A decision analytic framework was used to model acute and long-term complications that could follow plasma transfusion. Over a life time horizon, the cost with octaplasLG(®) were CA$612.91, which is CA$303.14 less than those with FFP. OctaplasLG(®) resulted in 0.021 quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in comparison with FFP. Because of higher efficacy and lower costs, octaplasLG(®) is expected to be the dominant treatment option over FFP in Canada.

  15. Trends in asthma-related direct medical costs from 2002 to 2007 in British Columbia, Canada: a population based-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Bedouch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma-related health resource use and costs may be influenced by increasing asthma prevalence, changes to asthma management guidelines, and new medications over the last decade. The objective of this work was to analyze direct asthma-related medical costs, and trends in total and per-patient costs of hospitalizations, physician visits, and medications. METHODS: A cohort of asthma patients from British Columbia (BC, Canada, was created. Asthma patients were identified using a validated case definition. Costs for hospitalizations, physician visits, and medications were calculated from billing records (in 2008 Canadian dollars. Trends in total and per-patient costs over the study period were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models. RESULTS: 398,235 patients satisfied the asthma case definition (mid-point prevalence 8.0%. Patients consumed $315.9 million (M in direct asthma-related health resources between 2002 and 2007. Hospitalizations, physician visits, and medication costs accounted for 16.0%, 15.7% and 68.2% of total costs, respectively. Cost of asthma increased from $49.4 M in 2002 to $54.7 M in 2007. Total annual costs attributable to hospitalizations and physician visits decreased (-39.8% and -25.5%, respectively; p<0.001, while medication costs increased (+38.7%; p<0.001. INTERPRETATION: This population-based analysis shows that the total direct cost of asthma in BC has increased since 2002, mainly due to a rise in asthma prevalence and cost of medication. Combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting beta-agonists has become a significant component of the cost of asthma. Although billing records capture only a fraction of the true burden of asthma, the simultaneous increase in medication costs and reductions in hospitalization and physician visit costs provides valuable insight for policy makers into the shifts in asthma-related resource use.

  16. Perceptions of barriers, facilitators and motivators related to use of prenatal care: A qualitative descriptive study of inner-city women in Winnipeg, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen I Heaman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the perceptions of women living in inner-city Winnipeg, Canada, about barriers, facilitators, and motivators related to their use of prenatal care. Methods: Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted in person with 26 pregnant or postpartum women living in inner-city neighborhoods with high rates of inadequate prenatal care. Interviews averaged 67 min in length. Recruitment of participants continued until data saturation was achieved. Inductive content analysis was used to identify themes and subthemes under four broad topics of interest (barriers, facilitators, motivators, and suggestions. Sword’s socio-ecological model of health services use provided the theoretical framework for the research. This model conceptualizes service use as a product of two interacting systems: the personal and situational attributes of potential users and the characteristics of health services. Results: Half of the women in our sample were single and half self-identified as Aboriginal. Participants discussed several personal and system-related barriers affecting use of prenatal care, such as problems with transportation and child care, lack of prenatal care providers, and inaccessible services. Facilitating factors included transportation assistance, convenient location of services, positive care provider qualities, and tangible rewards. Women were motivated to attend prenatal care to gain knowledge and skills and to have a healthy baby. Conclusion: Consistent with the theoretical framework, women’s utilization of prenatal care was a product of two interacting systems, with several barriers related to personal and situational factors affecting women’s lives, while other barriers were related to problems with service delivery and the broader healthcare system. Overcoming barriers to prenatal care and capitalizing on factors that motivate women to seek prenatal care

  17. Crustal structures across Canada Basin and southern Alpha Ridge of the Arctic Ocean from P- and S-wave sonobuoy wide-angle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, D.; Shimeld, J.; Jackson, R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Mosher, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    During 2007-2009, a total of 127 expendable sonobuoys (SB) were deployed across Canada Basin and southern Alpha Ridge to record wide-angle reflections and refractions from more than 10,000 km of inline, short-offset seismic reflection surveying. Most of the SB data show clear wide-angle refractions/reflections from various sedimentary and crustal layers at offsets up to 35 km. Source-receiver offsets are calculated using direct water waves. Subsequent processing includes compensation for spherical divergence and attenuation, despiking, filtering, deconvolution, and NMO correction. During wide-angle modeling, inline reflection data are converted to depth using velocity models/interpretations, iteratively updated based on wide-angle raytracing. Slight ray angle dependent anisotropy is found to best describe observed data, and is used for time-depth conversions. Clear deep refractions from upper, middle and lower crusts are recorded by most SB. Across southern Canada Basin, a regionally consistent velocity structure exists: velocities of ~4.5 km/s overlie a sub-basement layer of 5.5-5.8 km/s at depths of 12-13 km which, in turn, overlie a lower crust of 6.7-7.2 km/s. This structure is intersected by a central gravity low (previously interpreted to be an extinct spreading center), west of which the basement and sub-basement layers are consistently shallower by >1 km than the eastern side. Further northward, significant velocity variations exist. For example, the southern Alpha Ridge has a lower crust of 6.0-6.6 km/s or 6.8-7.0 km/s. Volcanic intrusions, inferred from high basement velocities of ~5.7 km/s at unusually shallow depths (~5 km), exist at discrete locations along southern Alpha Ridge. Between Northwind Ridge and Alpha Ridge, a typical continent-type crustal structure is observed. PmP is occasionally observed, modeling of which results in a Moho depth of 12-15 km. Velocities of 4.2-4.5 km/s in the northern study area are associated with a regional

  18. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  19. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Rural-urban migration patterns and mental health diagnoses of adolescents and young adults in British Columbia, Canada: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Angiulli Amedeo

    2010-05-01

    those not migrating between rural communities. No differences were found for diagnoses of neurotic disorders, personality disorder, alcohol dependence, and nondependent drug abuse. Conclusions This study provides some compelling evidence of the protective role of rural environments in the development of specific mental health conditions (i.e., depression, adjustment reaction, and acute reaction to stress among the children of sawmill workers in Western Canada.

  1. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : interpretive overview by the science advisory panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, T.; Nielsen, O.; Berhane, K.; Cohen, B.S.; Hunter, B.; Lasley, B.; Martin, W.; Ribble, C.; Thorne, P.; Tollerud, D.; Witschi, H. [Western Interprovincial Scientific Studies Association, Calgary, AB (Canada). Science Advisory Panel

    2006-05-15

    The results of a study to determine if chronic exposure to emissions from the oil and gas industry influence the health and reproductive performance of cattle and wildlife in western Canada was presented. Individual cows in herds from Alberta, Saskatchewan and northeastern British Columbia were monitored in pens and pastures to determine their exposure status. Data on other known risk factors such as the cow's age, breed and body condition were collected. The study measured concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}); hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S); and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured as benzene and toluene. Passive air monitors were located on all occupied pastures and wintering areas for each herd. Information on the location of over 39,000 animals from 205 herds on 3355 different parcels of land was recorded at 2 week intervals. Each animal's exposure was then averaged to create cumulative exposure values for biologically relevant risk periods for each outcome. Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured a total of 365 times near the calving area for 32 herds. Five primary health outcomes were studied: (1) nonpregnancy; (2) length of breeding-to-calving interval; (3) abortion; (4) stillbirth; and (5) calf mortality. No associations were found among any of the exposure measures and the risk of nonpregnancy, abortion or stillbirth. Sulphur-containing exposures showed no associations with secondary outcome measures in the respiratory, immune and nervous systems. An association was found between exposure to SO{sub 2} and the increased risk of calf mortality. Findings also suggested that there was a greater risk of lesions in the calf skeletal or cardiac muscle with increased prenatal exposure to SO{sub 2}. Increased exposure to VOCs contributed to a greater risk of calf respiratory and thyroid lesions, and a lower count of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in calves. The results of a concurrent study on

  2. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas.

  3. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. PMID:23628429

  4. Contributions and challenges of cross-national comparative research in migration, ethnicity and health: insights from a preliminary study of maternal health in Germany, Canada and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Jule

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health researchers are increasingly encouraged to establish international collaborations and to undertake cross-national comparative studies. To-date relatively few such studies have addressed migration, ethnicity and health, but their number is growing. While it is clear that divergent approaches to such comparative research are emerging, public health researchers have not so far given considered attention to the opportunities and challenges presented by such work. This paper contributes to this debate by drawing on the experience of a recent study focused on maternal health in Canada, Germany and the UK. Discussion The paper highlights various ways in which cross-national comparative research can potentially enhance the rigour and utility of research into migration, ethnicity and health, including by: forcing researchers to engage in both ideological and methodological critical reflexivity; raising awareness of the socially and historically embedded nature of concepts, methods and generated 'knowledge'; increasing appreciation of the need to situate analyses of health within the wider socio-political setting; helping researchers (and research users to see familiar issues from new perspectives and find innovative solutions; encouraging researchers to move beyond fixed 'groups' and 'categories' to look at processes of identification, inclusion and exclusion; promoting a multi-level analysis of local, national and global influences on migrant/minority health; and enabling conceptual and methodological development through the exchange of ideas and experience between diverse research teams. At the same time, the paper alerts researchers to potential downsides, including: significant challenges to developing conceptual frameworks that are meaningful across contexts; a tendency to reify concepts and essentialise migrant/minority 'groups' in an effort to harmonize across countries; a danger that analyses are superficial

  5. Ecology of Aleutian Canada geese at Buldir Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....

  6. Will an Unsupervised Self-Testing Strategy Be Feasible to Operationalize in Canada? Results from a Pilot Study in Students of a Large Canadian University

    OpenAIRE

    Nitika Pant Pai; Madhavi Bhargava; Lawrence Joseph; Jigyasa Sharma; Sabrina Pillay; Bhairavi Balram; Pierre-Paul Tellier

    2014-01-01

    Background. A convenient, private, and accessible HIV self-testing strategy stands to complement facility-based conventional testing. Over-the-counter oral HIV self-tests are approved and available in the United States, but not yet in Canada. Canadian data on self-testing is nonexistent. We investigated the feasibility of offering an unsupervised self-testing strategy to Canadian students. Methods. Between September 2011 and May 2012, we recruited 145 students from a student health clinic of ...

  7. Breast cancer survival and stage at diagnosis in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK, 2000-2007: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, S.; Maringe, C; Butler, J.; Rachet, B; Barrett-Lee, P; Bergh, J; Boyages, J.; P. Christiansen; Lee, M.; Wärnberg, F; Allemani, C; Engholm, G; Fornander, T.; Gjerstorff, M L; Johannesen, T. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We investigate whether differences in breast cancer survival in six high-income countries can be explained by differences in stage at diagnosis using routine data from population-based cancer registries. Methods: We analysed the data on 257 362 women diagnosed with breast cancer during 2000–7 and registered in 13 population-based cancer registries in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK. Flexible parametric hazard models were used to estimate net survival and the ...

  8. Pollination, seed set and fruit quality in apple: studies with Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Cory Silas Sheffield

    2014-01-01

    The orchard crop pollinator Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) was evaluated for apple pollination in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada during 2000-2001. Resulting pollination levels (measured as pollen grains on floral stigmas), percent fruit set, mature fruit weight and seed yield were evaluated against an attempted gradient of Osmia bee density. In addition, fruit quality was assessed using two symmetry indices, one based on fruit diameter, the second on fruit height. Polli...

  9. Monitoring the Variation in Ice-Cover Characteristics of the Slave River, Canada Using RADARSAT-2 Data—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Chu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The winter regime of river-ice covers in high northern latitude regions is often a determining factor in the management of water resources, conservation of aquatic ecosystems and preservation of traditional and cultural lifestyles of local peoples. As ground-based monitoring of river-ice regimes in high northern latitudes is expensive and restricted to a few locations due to limited accessibility to most places along rivers from shorelines, remote sensing techniques are a suitable approach for monitoring. This study developed a RADARSAT-2 based method to monitor the spatio-temporal variation of ice covers, as well as ice types during the freeze-up period, along the main channel of the Slave River Delta in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The spatio-temporal variation of ice covers along the river was analyzed using the backscatter-based coefficient of variation (CV in the 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 winters. As a consequence of weather and flow conditions, the ice cover in the 2013–2014 winter had the higher variation than the 2014–2015 winter, particularly in the potential areas of flooded/cracked ice covers. The river sections near active channels (e.g., Middle Channel and Nagle Channel, Big Eddy, and Great Slave Lake also yielded higher intra-annual variation of ice cover characteristics during the winters. With the inclusion of backscatter and texture analysis from RADARSAT-2 data, four water and ice cover classes consisting of open water, thermal ice, juxtaposed ice, and consolidated ice, were discriminated in the images acquired between November and March in both the studied winters. In addition to river geomorphology and climatic conditions such as river width, sinuosity or air temperature, the fluctuation of water flows during the winter has a significant impact on the variation of ice cover as well as the formation of different ice types in the Slave River. The RADARSAT-2 based monitoring algorithm can also be applied to other

  10. Endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer: A ten-year cohort study of women living in the Estrie Region of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Endometriosis has been believed to increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer, but recent data supporting this hypothesis are lacking. The aim of this study was to verify whether the incidence of endometriosis, ovarian cancer and the both increased during the last 10 years among women living in the Estrie region of Quebec. Methods We collected data of women diagnosed with endometriosis, ovarian cancer or both, between 1997 and 2006, from a population living in the Estrie region of Quebec. We performed this retrospective cross-sectional study from the CIRESSS (Centre Informatisé de Recherche Évaluative en Services et Soins de Santé system, the database of the CHUS (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada. Results Among the 2854 identified patients, 2521 had endometriosis, 292 patients had ovarian cancer and 41 patients had both ovarian cancer and endometriosis. We showed a constant increase in the number of ovarian cancer (OC between 1997 and 2006 (r2 = 0.557, P = 0.013, which is not the case for endometriosis (ENDO or endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC. The mean age ± SD was 40.0 ± 9.9 and 53.9 ± 11.4 for patients having ENDO and OC, respectively. Mean age of women with EAOC was 48.3 ± 10.8, suggesting an early onset of ovarian cancer in women having endometriosis of about 5.5 years average, P = 0.003. Women with ENDO were at increased risk for developing OC (Rate Ratio [RR] = 1.6; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.12-2.09. Pathological analyses showed the predominance of endometrioid type (24.4% and clear-cell type (21.9% types in EAOC compared to OC, P = 0.0070 and 0.0029, respectively. However, the serous type is the most widespread in OC (44.5% in comparison to EAOC (19.51%, P = 0.0023. Conclusion Our findings highlight that the number of cases of ovarian cancer is constantly increasing in the last ten years and that endometriosis represents a serious risk factor which

  11. The association between farming activities, precipitation, and the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness in rural municipalities of Quebec, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing livestock density and animal manure spreading, along with climate factors such as heavy rainfall, may increase the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI. In this study we evaluated the association between farming activities, precipitation and AGI. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected residents (n = 7006 of 54 rural municipalities in Quebec, Canada, was conducted between April 2007 and April 2008. AGI symptoms and several risk factors were investigated using a phone questionnaire. We calculated the monthly prevalence of AGI, and used multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for several demographic and risk factors, to evaluate the associations between AGI and both intensive farming activities and cumulative weekly precipitation. Cumulative precipitation over each week, from the first to sixth week prior to the onset of AGI, was analyzed to account for both the delayed effect of precipitation on AGI, and the incubation period of causal pathogens. Cumulative precipitation was treated as a four-category variable: high (≥90th percentile, moderate (50th to th percentile, low (10th to th percentile, and very low (th percentile precipitation. Results The overall monthly prevalence of AGI was 5.6% (95% CI 5.0%-6.1%, peaking in winter and spring, and in children 0-4 years old. Living in a territory with intensive farming was negatively associated with AGI: adjusted odds ratio (OR = 0.70 (95% CI 0.51-0.96. Compared to low precipitation periods, high precipitation periods in the fall (September, October, November increased the risk of AGI three weeks later (OR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.44 while very low precipitation periods in the summer (June, July, August increased the risk of AGI four weeks later (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.02-4.71. Further analysis supports the role of water source on the risk of AGI. Conclusions AGI poses a significant burden in Quebec rural municipalities with a peak in winter

  12. Obstetric medical care in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Laura A; Cote, Anne-Marie; Joseph, Geena; Firoz, Tabassum; Sia, Winnie

    2016-09-01

    Obstetric medicine is a growing area of interest within internal medicine in Canada. Canadians continue to travel broadly to obtain relevant training, particularly in the United Kingdom. However, there is now a sufficient body of expertise in Canada that a cadre of 'home-grown' obstetric internists is emerging and staying within Canada to improve maternity care. As this critical mass of practitioners grows, it is apparent that models of obstetric medicine delivery have developed according to local needs and patterns of practice. This article aims to describe the state of obstetric medicine in Canada, including general internal medicine services as the rock on which Canadian obstetric medicine has been built, the Canadian training curriculum and opportunities, organisation of obstetric medicine service delivery and the future.

  13. Canada goose behavior: Fall 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese use four divisions of the Mark Twin NWR: Louisa, Delair, Cannon, and Calhoun. There was a shortage of cultivated crops, corn and soybeans, on all...

  14. Private Health Insurance in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremiah Hurley; Emmanuel Guindon

    2008-01-01

    Although a majority of Canadians hold some form of private health care insurance -- most commonly obtained as an employment benefit -- private insurance finances only 12% of health care expenditures in Canada and its financing role is essentially limited to complementary coverage for services not covered by public insurance programs. Private supplementary insurance for services covered by the public insurance system does not exist in Canada. This limited role for private insurance in health c...

  15. Difficulties Assessing Multifactor Productivity for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Harper; Nakamura, Alice O.; Lu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, Canada's business sector multifactor productivity (MFP) index, as estimated by Statistics Canada, was below that for 1977, a third of a century earlier. Over these years, public policies were enacted to try to improve Canada's productivity. Yet the nation's MFP continued to fall, relative to both the past and Canada's main trading partners. Policymakers and business decision makers need to know whether Canada's MFP statistics accurately reflect the nation's productivity. We argue tha...

  16. Small animal dentistry in Canada: 1994 survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Haws, I J; Anthony, J .M.

    1996-01-01

    Small animal dentistry is a rapidly growing area of interest and specialization internationally, offering tremendous benefits to patients, clients, and practitioners. To date, no studies have been done to determine the standard of small animal dental care in Canada. A national mail survey was designed to document the prevalence of dental disease in small animal patients, the types of veterinary dental procedures being provided by practitioners, as well as home care recommendations and complia...

  17. Intestinal parasites in man in Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, T D; Croll, N A

    1980-05-01

    Labrador, a previously unsurveyed area of Canada, has been sampled for human intestinal parasites. Four hundred and one asymptomatic volunteers between 1 and 72 years of age, including Inuit, Naskapi and whites, were examined during the summer of 1977. They harboured: Entamoeba coli, E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, Giardia lamblia and Diphyllobothrium sp. The infection rates are considerably lower than those found in other studies of Northern Canadian communities. PMID:6966896

  18. Evidence of New Immigrant Assimilation in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mary L. Grant

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies of the labour market experience of male immigrants to Canada have uncovered two disturbing trends: declining entry earnings for successive new immigrant cohorts and low assimilation rates. These findings suggest that many of these cohorts may never assimilate. The 1991 Census provides a first look at the immigrant cohorts arriving in the 1980s. These immigrants appear to avoid the plight of their predecessors; entry earnings have stopped falling, and those immigrants arriving...

  19. Productivity growth and the Phillips curve in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph W. Gruber

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the impact of productivity growth on the relationship between inflation and unemployment in Canada. Recently it has been suggested that higher productivity growth is responsible for a shift in the U.S. Phillips curve that occurred in the late 1990s. This paper examines whether the Phillips curve in Canada shifted in a manner similar to that of the United States, and the degree to which higher productivity growth explains this shift.

  20. Current research in Canada on biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)

  1. [Hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies in Eastern Canada].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, N; Chrestian, N; Thiffault, I; Brais, B; Rouleau, G A; Bouchard, J-P

    2008-01-01

    It has been demonstrated, for many inherited diseases, that historical events have shaped the various regional gene pools of Eastern Canada. In so doing, it has given rise to the increased prevalence of some rare diseases due, to founder effects. The following neurogenetic disorders were first identified in patients from Eastern Canada: AOA-2, Arsacs, HSN-2, Arca-1, HMSN/ACC and Arsal. The population of Eastern Canada, we are convinced, will still allow the identification of new rare forms of hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies as well as contribute to the uncovering of their mutated genes. We have summarized our current knowledge of the various hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies in Eastern Canada. The study of the more common and homogenous features of these diseases has been largely completed.

  2. Contributions to the faunistics and bionomics of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in northeastern North America: discoveries made through study of the University of Guelph Insect Collection, Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Brunke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylinidae (Rove Beetles from northeastern North America deposited in the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada were curated from 2008-2010 by the first author. The identification of this material has resulted in the recognition of thirty-five new provincial or state records, six new Canadian records, one record for the United States and two new records for eastern Canada. All records are for subfamilies other than Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, which will be treated in future publications as collaborative projects. Range expansions of ten exotic species to additional provinces and states are reported. The known distributions of each species in northeastern North America are summarized as maps and those species with a distinctive habitus are illustrated with color photographs. Genitalia and/or secondary sexual characters are illustrated for those species currently only identifiable on the basis of dissected males. The majority of the new records are in groups that have been recently revised, demonstrating the importance of curation and local insect surveys to the understanding of biodiversity, even for taxa and areas considered ‘relatively well-known’.

  3. 中国EFL教育与加拿大ESL教育的对比研究%Contrastive Study between EFL in China and ESL in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹艳春

    2013-01-01

    Puts forward the experiences and methods that we need to learn from in comparison with the EFL in China and ESL in Canada from the standpoint of motivation,teaching environment,teaching contents and method and instructional evaluation.Finds out some problems in EFL education such as sticking to textbooks teaching,poor language environment and faculty cultivation.Brings forward some experiences of Canada for reference. Cultivates the students ability of cross-cultural communication.%  中国的EFL教育与加拿大ESL教育在学习动机、教学环境、教学内容与方法、教学评价等方面存有一定的共性与差异。中国EFL教育存在教学拘泥于教材、缺乏真实的语境、师资队伍建设有待进一步加强等问题。加拿大ESL教育为中国EFL教育提供了借鉴与参考。

  4. Contributions to the faunistics and bionomics of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in northeastern North America: discoveries made through study of the University of Guelph Insect Collection, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Adam J; Marshall, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    Staphylinidae (Rove Beetles) from northeastern North America deposited in the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada) were curated from 2008-2010 by the first author. The identification of this material has resulted in the recognition of thirty-five new provincial or state records, six new Canadian records, one new record for the United States and two new records for eastern Canada. All records are for subfamilies other than Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae, which will be treated in future publications as collaborative projects. Range expansions of ten exotic species to additional provinces and states are reported. The known distributions of each species in northeastern North America are summarized and presented as maps, and those species with a distinctive habitus are illustrated with color photographs. Genitalia and/or secondary sexual characters are illustrated for those species currently only identifiable on the basis of dissected males. The majority of the new records are in groups that have been recently revised, demonstrating the importance of curation and local insect surveys to the understanding of biodiversity, even for taxa and areas considered 'relatively well-known'. PMID:21594139

  5. Stable Isotope (delta OXYGEN-18, Delta Deuterium, Delta CARBON-13) Dendroclimatological Studies in the Waterloo Region of Southern Ontario, Canada, Between AD 1610 and 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhay, William Mark

    Oxygen (delta^{18} O), hydrogen (delta^2H) and carbon (delta^{13}C) isotopes were measured in wood cellulose from elm, white pine and maple trees that grew in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The measured oxygen and hydrogen isotopic data were used for model-based reconstructions of delta^{18}{O}_{meteoric water}, mean annual temperature (MAT) and relative humidity for a period, AD 1610 to 1880, that precedes instrumental records of climate. The carbon isotope measurements were compared with the Cellulose Model inferred climate data to reveal additional environmental information. Modifications made to the Cellulose Model focused on the dynamics of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic fractionation in plants during evapotranspiration and photosynthetic assimilation. For instance, kinetic fractionation of ^{18}O was found to be predictable from theoretical considerations of leaf energy balance and boundary layer dynamics. Kinetic fractionation during evapotranspiration is sensitive to the nature of the boundary layer, which is controlled by leaf size and morphology. Generally, plants with small segmented leaves have a lower component of turbidity in the leaf boundary layer, which results in higher kinetic fractionation values, than do plants having large simple leaves and more turbulent boundary layers. Kinetic ^2H enrichment in plant leaf water can also be rationalized in terms of leaf size and morphology when an apparent temperature-dependent isotope effect, acting in opposition to evaporative enrichment, is taken into account. Accounting for this temperature -dependent isotope effect helps to: (1) reconcile hydrogen kinetic fractionation inconsistencies for different leaves; (2) explain a temperature effect previously attributed to variable biochemical fractionation during cellulose synthesis, and; (3) verify hydrogen biochemical effects in plants. This improved characterization of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic effects in plants, using the modified Cellulose Model, helped

  6. Newcomers and Old-Timers: The Cultural Production of "Canada" and "Canadians" in an Audio-Visual Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Lyndsay

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural production of "Canada" and "Canadians" in "The Newcomers", a 1953 film produced by the National Film Board of Canada. Using a form of discourse analysis that sees talk as social interaction and identity as socially and locally constructed, this study illuminates how "Canada" and "Canadians" are talked into being in…

  7. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  8. Canada's role in pushing back the frontiers of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ian H.

    This paper outlines the history of Canada's involvement in space science. An early interest in upper atmosphere phenomena resulted from the influence of the north magnetic pole on long distance radio communication. With the launch of the ionospheric sounder, Alouette 1, in 1962, Canada became the third nation to have a spacecraft in space. Canada was the first country to provide domestic satellite service for commercial communications with the Anik series of satellites. The latest satellite, the M-SAT will provide two way voice and data services. ( Primarily as a result of the work of the Canada Center for Remote Sensing, Canada has been a leader in airborne remote sensing. This interest has continued in the data acquisition and interpretation of space based remote sensing. Radarsat, a remote sensing satellite which will provide synthetic aperture radar imagery at 10 meter resolution is currently in the design stage. The final role has been in the development of STEM (extendable member) devices for manned space flights. The most notable contribution is the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System first flown on Columbia in 1981. Canada's contribution to Space Station Freedom will be the Mobile Servicing System. The current space science program involves study of the universe and solar system, of the near earth environment, and of physical and biological processes occurring in space.

  9. Improving the assessment of the State of the Carbon Cycle in North America by integrating inventory- and process- based approaches: A case study for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, D. J.; Smyth, C.; Chen, G.; Kurz, W.; Stinson, G.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Regional and continental carbon stock and flux estimates differ among assessments depending on the scaling approach used and the budget components considered. This is particularly manifest across the vast circum-boreal region, which has experienced substantial modification of the major driving forces of the carbon cycle in recent decades, including pronounced climate warming and associated increases in the frequency and severity of disturbances. In Canada, inventory-based estimates suggest a small carbon sink for its managed forest, but do not include unmanaged lands nor capture major driving forces such as climate change and atmospheric chemistry. On the other hand, estimates from process-based models vary widely and often do not consider critical disturbance and management impacts. Here, we demonstrate results from an updated approach that integrates inventory-based information on management and disturbances with process-level representation of ecological dynamics using a terrestrial biogeochemistry model. The integrated approach facilitates more comprehensive diagnosis of Canada's land-based carbon budget within a framework that also allows for attribution of the major driving forces and prediction under future scenarios. Using this framework, we diagnose an approximately 30 Tg C yr-1 sink in Canada over the first decade of the 21st Century, which represents a significant reduction in the strength of the CO2 sink estimated for previous decades. This decline in sink strength is attributed primarily to CO2 emissions from the substantial area disturbed by wildfire and insect outbreaks in recent years. Such changes are predicted to create positive feedbacks to the climate system that accelerate global warming. Compared to other assessments, our results suggest that CO2 uptake by the region's ecosystems may not be as strong as estimated by atmospheric inverse approaches, which are highly uncertain over the high latitudes, or by process-based models that do not

  10. [History of trachoma in canada].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Jean

    2010-06-01

    The author retraces the history of trachoma in Canada. The numerous articles in Canadian medical journals from the middle of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century show the remarkable contribution of Canadian ophthalmologists. The clinical symptoms and signs followed by the etiology and the different modes of treatment are reviewed. The presence and prevention of trachoma in Canada, ranging from Montreal to Toronto, also in Halifax with the arrival of the transatlantic immigrants, as well as those reaching the western provinces of Canada are described. How the Canadian Department of Health belatedly introduced a prevention campaign only after a widespread dissemination of trachoma across the country is also examined.

  11. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil... Rules Applicable to Oil Pipeline Proceedings, 18 CFR 343.2, ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint...

  12. Economic Benefits of Studying Economics in Canada: A Comparison of Wages of Economics Majors with Wages in Other Fields of Study, Circa 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ather H.; Aydede, Yigit

    2015-01-01

    We compared the wages of economics degree holders with of those in 49 other fields of study using data from the 2006 Canadian population census. At the undergraduate level, economics majors earned the sixth highest average wage in 2005. When demographic controls were applied, they ranked ninth on the salary scale. When we compared the wages in 15…

  13. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  14. The psychosocial adjustment of Chinese adolescent immigrants in satellite families in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese immigrant children in satellite families in Canada. I used Flanagan's (1954) Critical Incident Technique to interview 32 Chinese children who were between 10 and 19 years old, living in satellite families, and who emigrated from China, Taiwan, or Hong Kong to Canada within the last four years. All interviews were conducted in the respondents' mother tongue. The results showed that these children, whether they emigrated to Canada recen...

  15. Juggling magazines, people, and computers : implementing an ERP system at Canada Wide Magazines / by Gloria Ma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the ways in which Canada Wide Magazines & Communications Ltd. ("Canada Wide"), a Canadian magazine publishing company, used software solutions to improve its operations and streamline its business processes. It documents and examines the implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, a software system that replaced all legacy database and information systems at Canada Wide with a single, centralized database system. This paper details a case study of C...

  16. Canada's commitment to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a broad update on all facets of the Canadian nuclear industry and demonstrates Canada's continuing commitment to nuclear technology. Canada has developed a global leadership position in nuclear technology for power generation, uranium production and isotope supply. This commitment is being further enhanced by successes in international markets with Candu technology, new uranium mine developments in our province of Saskatchewan, and expanding isotope capabilities including the construction of two new production reactors. Korea's economy is benefiting through collaboration with Canada's leading nuclear companies, both in Korea and Canada. These collaborations have the potential to expand considerably with the implementation of the Kyoto Framework Convention on Climate Change and the anticipated increased demand for new nuclear power generation installations in all major global markets. Much has been publicized about the situation surrounding Ontario Hydro Nuclear and its nuclear recovery program. This paper gives the background and highlights the actions within Ontario and Ontario Hydro designed to ensure the long term recovery of all twenty nuclear units in Ontario. The presentation at the conference will bring the audience completely up-to-date on recent events. (author)

  17. The Metis: Canada's Forgotten People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, D. Bruce; Lussier, Antoine S.

    The Metis appeared early on the pages of Canada's history, were a major determinant in the westward expansion of the nation, and are still a significant segment of modern Canadian society. This book (1) traces their origin and their slow evolution to nationhood; (2) examines the Golden Age; (3) describes the battles won and lost with the nation of…

  18. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  19. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  20. Exploration fuel : new computer modelling system allows exploration of Canada's potential energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Without significant development of Canada's unconventional gas supplies and a reduction in Canada's natural gas use, Canada will become a net importer of natural gas by 2023, a fact which will have a major impact on oil sands production. This article described a computer model designed to consider Canada's potential energy future in relation to both natural gas supply and demand without considering price. The modelling study showed that new technologies are needed to reduce the amounts of energy used to produce Canada's oil sands resources. Methods such as toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) will provide a more efficient alternative to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). The Canadian energy systems simulator (CanESS) was designed to interconnect up to 800 variables, and incorporates data points from Statistics Canada. The model is comprised of quantitative data and a physical economy model. It was concluded that the model can be used to explore the implications of energy policy options. 2 fig

  1. Canada: International Perspectives on Business Communication Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Rebecca J.

    1998-01-01

    Offers an overview of Canada's business-communication research efforts. Describes its definition and scope; issues facing Canadian researchers (gaining an institutional presence, creating Canada as a viable research site, and creating a Canadian research focus); disseminating research in Canada; and expanding Canadian business-communication…

  2. Representative landscapes in the forested area of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardille, Jeffrey A; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Mike A; Holland, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Canada is a large nation with forested ecosystems that occupy over 60% of the national land base, and knowledge of the patterns of Canada's land cover is important to proper environmental management of this vast resource. To this end, a circa 2000 Landsat-derived land cover map of the forested ecosystems of Canada has created a new window into understanding the composition and configuration of land cover patterns in forested Canada. Strategies for summarizing such large expanses of land cover are increasingly important, as land managers work to study and preserve distinctive areas, as well as to identify representative examples of current land-cover and land-use assemblages. Meanwhile, the development of extremely efficient clustering algorithms has become increasingly important in the world of computer science, in which billions of pieces of information on the internet are continually sifted for meaning for a vast variety of applications. One recently developed clustering algorithm quickly groups large numbers of items of any type in a given data set while simultaneously selecting a representative-or "exemplar"-from each cluster. In this context, the availability of both advanced data processing methods and a nationally available set of landscape metrics presents an opportunity to identify sets of representative landscapes to better understand landscape pattern, variation, and distribution across the forested area of Canada. In this research, we first identify and provide context for a small, interpretable set of exemplar landscapes that objectively represent land cover in each of Canada's ten forested ecozones. Then, we demonstrate how this approach can be used to identify flagship and satellite long-term study areas inside and outside protected areas in the province of Ontario. These applications aid our understanding of Canada's forest while augmenting its management toolbox, and may signal a broad range of applications for this versatile approach. PMID

  3. Child maltreatment in Canada: an understudied public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a major public health problem associated with impairment in childhood, adolescence, and extending throughout the lifespan. Within Canada, high-quality child maltreatment studies have been conducted and are critical for informing prevention and intervention efforts. However, compared to other parts of the world (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Mexico), the number of studies conducted in Canada is far fewer and the data used to study this important public health problem are less diverse. Importantly, to date, representative data on child maltreatment from the general population at the national level in Canada do not exist. This means that many questions regarding child maltreatment in Canada remain unanswered. To advance our understanding of child maltreatment in Canada and to make significant strides towards protecting Canadian children and families, research using Canadian data is essential. To begin to meet these important public health goals, we need to invest in collecting high-quality, nationally representative Canadian data on child maltreatment. Solutions for the barriers and challenges for the inclusion of child maltreatment data into nationally representative Canadian surveys are provided.

  4. Asthma, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease amongst South Asian immigrants to Canada and their children: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric I Benchimol

    Full Text Available There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children.Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants.Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61 and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65. Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49, as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42. Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71 and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67 was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81 and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22.Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children.

  5. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2016-12-01

    The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17.0 vs. 5.9 per 100,000 people). Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the SHR is different from that seen elsewhere in Canada (still mostly men having sex with men and Caucasians), with its new HIV cases predominantly associated with injection drug use and Aboriginal cultural status. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the STW in the SHR, (b) identify their significant life events, self-reported problems, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, self-efficacy, and barriers regarding HIV, and (c) determine the significant independent risk indicators for STW self-reporting a chance of greater than 50% of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the study participants were females, who were never married, of Aboriginal descent, without a high school diploma, and had an annual income of less than $10,000. Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis. These findings provide important evidence of the essential sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities associated with the risk of HIV infection among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and culturally sensitive public health

  6. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2016-12-01

    The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17.0 vs. 5.9 per 100,000 people). Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the SHR is different from that seen elsewhere in Canada (still mostly men having sex with men and Caucasians), with its new HIV cases predominantly associated with injection drug use and Aboriginal cultural status. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the STW in the SHR, (b) identify their significant life events, self-reported problems, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, self-efficacy, and barriers regarding HIV, and (c) determine the significant independent risk indicators for STW self-reporting a chance of greater than 50% of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the study participants were females, who were never married, of Aboriginal descent, without a high school diploma, and had an annual income of less than $10,000. Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis. These findings provide important evidence of the essential sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities associated with the risk of HIV infection among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and culturally sensitive public health

  7. Canada's International Education Strategy: Focus on Scholarships. CBIE Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Based on a survey of approximately 40 professionals involved in various disciplines associated with international education across Canada, this study examines Canada's (federal, provincial, and territorial government) offering of scholarships to international students. Focused at the university level, the study elaborates on relevant…

  8. A World of Learning: Canada's Performance and Potential in International Education 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Jennifer; Knight-Grofe, Janine; McDine, David

    2012-01-01

    This annual report explores the state of international education in Canada, taking an in-depth look at international students, study abroad by Canadian students, Canadian education overseas, as well as the overall internationalization agenda in Canada. The report features results of an international student survey and case studies from member…

  9. A World of Learning: Canada's Performance and Potential in International Education 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Jennifer; Rauh, Karen; McDine, David

    2013-01-01

    This annual report explores the state of international education in Canada, taking an in-depth look at international students, study abroad by Canadian students, Canadian education overseas, as well as the overall internationalization agenda in Canada. The report features results of an international student survey and case studies from member…

  10. A World of Learning: Canada's Performance and Potential in International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) - Bureau canadien de l’éducation internationale (BCEI), 2015

    2015-01-01

    This annual report explores the state of international education in Canada, taking an in-depth look at international students, study abroad by Canadian students, Canadian education overseas, as well as the overall internationalization agenda in Canada. The report features results of an international student survey and case studies from member…

  11. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: a study of postclosure safety of in-room emplacement of used CANDU fuel in copper containers in permeable plutonic rock. Volume 4: biosphere model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) has developed a disposal concept for Canada's nuclear fuel waste, which calls for a vault deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The concept has been fully, documented in an environmental impact statement (EIS) for review by a panel under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency. The EIS includes the results of the EIS postclosure assessment case study to address the long term safety of the disposal concept. To more fully demonstrate the flexibility of the disposal concept and our assessment methodology, we are now carrying out another postclosure assessment study, which involves different assumptions and engineering options than those used in the EIS. In response to these changes, we have updated the BIOTRAC (BIOsphere Transport and Assessment Code) model developed for the EIS postclosure assessment case study. The main changes made to the BIOTRAC model are the inclusion of 36Cl, 137Cs, 239Np and 243Am; animals inhalation pathway; International Commission on Radiological Protection 60/61 human internal dose conversion factors; all the postclosure assessment nuclides in the dose calculations for non-human biota; and groundwater dose limits for 14C, 16C1 and 129I for non-human biota to parallel these limits for humans. We have also reviewed and changed several parameter values, including evasion rates of gaseous nuclides from soil and release fractions of various nuclides from domestic water, and indicated changes that affect the geosphere/biosphere interface model. These changes make the BIOTRAC model more flexible. As a result of all of these changes, the BIOTRAC model has been significantly expanded and improved, although the changes do not greatly affect model predictions. The modified model for the present study is called BIOTRAC2 (BIOTRAC - Version 2). The full documentation of the BIOTRAC2 model includes the report by Davis et al. (1993a) and this report. (author). 105 refs., 13 tabs., 8 figs

  12. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  13. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: a case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K; Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities. PMID:19615883

  14. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  15. Garde a l'enfance: Etude sur la remuneration et les conditions de travail dans le domaine de la garde a l'enfance au Canada. Rapport final (Caring for a Living: A Study on Wages and Working Conditions in Canadian Child Care. Final Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Child Care Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Between November 1990 and August 1992, a study examined wages and working conditions of child care staff in both licensed group centers and family day care homes in Canada. Three instruments were developed for the study, a short telephone interview for center directors, a follow-up director's questionnaire, and a staff questionnaire. The study…

  16. Technical and economic models of a DBS system for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, O. S.

    A comprehensive, multidisciplinary study program to develop information regarding the possible implementation of a direct broadcasting satellite system for Canada was completed in 1983. The program included market studies and technical and economic modeling of alternative DBS systems. Both 50 dBW and 54 dBW edge-of-coverage EIRP systems were modeled, with both 4 and 6 beam coverage. It is estimated that an eight to ten channel system for Canada would cost between $400 million and $650 million (1982 Canadian dollars). The main requirement for DBS television service is in rural Canada. Market forecasts are that up to 2-1/2 million households would purchase DBS home receivers. Allowing for a real rate of return of 6 percent, the monthly cost per household for delivery of all channels would range from $5 to $7.

  17. Women in physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Ghose, Shohini; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; McKenna, Janis; Bhadra, Sampa; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Dasgupta, Arundhati; Campbell, Melanie; Barkanova, Svetlana; Steinitz, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While the overall climate for women physicists both in academia and industry has improved significantly over the past decade in Canada, it will be some time before women are well represented. Numbers of women in physics at all academic levels have increased, but are less than ideal at the full professor level. Organizations such as the Canadian Association of University Teachers and local initiatives are striving to minimize the socio-economic and professional gaps between women and men. The Canadian Association of Physicists, through its Committee to Encourage Women in Physics, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council are supportive and serve as catalysts, bringing together men and women to discuss and address issues concerning women in physics across Canada.

  18. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. During 1986 the program was strongly influenced by radioactive fallout on Canada resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986 in the Soviet Ukraine. The Environmental Radiation Hazards Division (ERHD) increased its frequency of analyses of environmental samples immediately following the accident. Interim screening limits for foodstuffs were developed. A measurement program for radioactivity in domestic and imported foods was implemented. The ERHD measurement program was supplemented by additional measurements conducted by many other private and government laboratories. Radiation doses to Canadian from Chernobyl fallout were extremely low with no group in the population receiving more than 10 microsieverts

  19. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  20. The nuclear debate in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author argues that the nuclear debate in Canada is concerned less with the safety of nuclear power plants and more with arguments of economics and social decision-making. The nuclear industry cannot afford to neglect the continuing need to inform the public about nuclear risks. But there is also a need to develop specific arguments to increase public acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic, democratic and equitable energy option

  1. China, Canada Strengthen Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ China and Canada released a joint statement to work together to promote the bilateral cooperation in the oil and gas sector in lateJanuary when Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin paid a state visit to China. Encouraging respective enterprises to expand commercial partnership, the two nations have agreed to take on the energy sector - oil and gas, nuclear energy,energy efficiency and cleaner energy - as "priority areas of long-term mutual cooperation".

  2. Adapting the forms of yesterday to the functions of today and the needs of tomorrow: a genealogical case study of clinical teaching units in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrewe, Brett; Pratt, Daniel D; McKellin, William H

    2016-05-01

    Emergent discourses of social responsibility and accountability have in part fuelled the expansion of distributed medical education (DME). In addition to its potential for redressing physician maldistribution, DME has conferred multiple unexpected educational benefits. In several countries, its recent rise has occurred around the boundaries of traditional medical education practices. Canada has been no exception, with DME proliferating against a backdrop of its longstanding central node, the clinical teaching unit (CTU). The CTU first appeared just over 50 years ago with its position in Canadian health care largely taken-for-granted. Given the increasing prominence of DME, however, it is timely to reconsider what the place of tertiary centre-based practices such as the CTU might be in shifting medical education systems. From a genealogical perspective, it becomes clear that the CTU did not just "happen". Rather, its creation was made possible by multiple interrelated cultural, social, and political changes in Canadian society that, while subtle, are powerfully influential. Making them visible offers a better opportunity to harmonize the benefits of longstanding entities such as the CTU with novel practices such as DME. In so doing, the medical education field may sidestep the pitfalls of investing significant resources that may only produce superficial changes while unwittingly obstructing deeper transformations and improvements. Although this work is refracted through a Canadian prism, reconceptualizing the overall design of medical education systems to take advantage of both tradition and innovation is a persistent challenge across the international spectrum, resistant to tests of time and constraints of context. PMID:25925722

  3. Overview of Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries

  4. Women in Physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  5. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  6. Fusion Canada issue 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the ITER agreement signed with the EDA, the robotic maintenance for NET, the CFFTP Fusion Pilot Study, the new IEA joint programs on environment, safety and economic aspects of fusion power, and a review by the CCFM advisory committee. 3 figs

  7. Negotiating Indigenous Language Narratives from Canada and South Africa: A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseke, Judy M.; Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous cultural and language negotiations ongoing in the contexts of South Africa and Canada are documented in two studies, one sharing narratives from Black parents in South Africa and the other sharing narratives of Métis Elders in Canada. Black parents' perspectives on Indigenous language and cultures and the role of education in…

  8. Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Academic Achievement among Indian Adolescents in Canada and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and academic achievement for the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada in comparison to their counterparts in India. Descriptive discriminant analysis indicated that the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada had higher intrinsic…

  9. Progress on the NEPTUNE Canada Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, G. C.; Meldrum, R. D.; Heesemann, M.; Mulder, T. L.; Brillon, C. D.; Cassidy, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    instruments due to the higher noise levels. Real-time data are also ingested by NOAA tsunami warning centers and researchers have accessed archived data to do such diverse things as track baleen whales, carry out receiver function analyses, and study microseismic noise. NEPTUNE Canada seismic data is freely available from IRIS.

  10. Uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compared the impact of taxation on the economic viability and competitive position of uranium mining in Canada and Australia. The evaluation is based on four types of uranium deposit and four hypothetical project models. The deposits are assumed to have been discovered and delineated, and are awaiting a mine development decision. The models, initially appraised on a before-tax basis, are then subjected to taxation in each of six jurisdictions. Several taxation criteria are assessed in each case, including after-tax measures of investment incentive, discounted tax revenues, effective tax rates, intergovernmental tax shares, and comparative tax levels. The impact of taxation is shown to be both high and variable. The taxation systems in Saskatchewan and Australia's Northern Territory generate the most government revenue and provide the lowest incentive for investment. Canada's Northwest Territories and Ontario provide the best investment incentive and collect the least amount of taxes. South Australia and Western Australia tend to be positioned between these extremes. The study demonstrates that only the very best uranium mining projects have a chance of being developed under current market conditions, and even these can be rendered uneconomic by excessive taxation regimes. It follows that exceptionally good quality targets will have to be identified to provide the economic justification for uranium exploration. These realities will likely restrict uranium exploration and development activities for some time, not an unexpected response to a market situation where low prices have been caused largely by excess supply. (L.L.)

  11. Impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition in western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of transportation sectors (road vehicles and marine vessels, industry (e.g., oil and gas and urban centres in western Canada has triggered a growth in research, monitoring and modelling activities investigating the impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This special issue presents an overview of related research in British Columbia (Georgia Basin, Alberta (Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The research provides a valuable benchmark for future studies across the region and points the way forward for 'acid rain' policies in western Canada.

  12. The Class of 1989 and physician supply in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryten, E; Thurber, A D; Buske, L

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: "The Class of 1989" is a study of 1722 people who were awarded an MD degree by a Canadian university in 1989. This paper reports on migration, specialty choices and patterns of post-MD training in order to assess the contribution of the graduating cohort to the physician workforce of Canada. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted over 7 years after graduation to trace the current location, the post-MD training history and the professional activity of the graduating cohort. Several medical professional and educational associations in Canada and the United States provided year-by-year information on field and location of post-MD training, certification achieved, whether in practice and location of practice through to spring 1996. Information from all sources was linked to a list of 1989 medical school graduates. RESULTS: From entry to medical school through to 7 years after graduation the cohort was diminished by about 16%. The main reason for loss was migration to other countries: 193 graduates (11.2%) were outside Canada in 1995-96. Internal migration was extensive also; for example, by 1995-96 relatively few of the graduates were located in Newfoundland or Saskatchewan. Of the 1516 graduates active in Canada in 1995-96, 878 (57.9%) were in general practice/family medicine, and only 638 (42.1%) were practising or training in a specialty. INTERPRETATION: The "yield" of the Class of 1989 for Canada's physician workforce is insufficient to meet annual physician inflows from Canadian sources to serve population growth and to replace retiring or emigrating physicians. As output from Canada's medical schools drops even further, the gap between requirements and supply will grow even wider. PMID:9538850

  13. Suicide policy in Canada: lessons from history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Elias, Brenda; Bolton, James M; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-07-18

    In Canada, suicide has transitioned from being a criminal activity with much associated stigma, to being a public health concern that needs to be managed by governments and clinicians in a culturally sensitive manner. In Canada and worldwide, the social attitudes toward and legal interpretation of suicide have been dynamic. Much has been proposed in the development of suicide policy in Canada, however Canada is unique in that it remains one of the only industrialized countries without a national suicide prevention strategy. The current article provides a critical review of the history of suicide in Canada, as well as an appraisal of Canadian suicide prevention policies and key government and political milestones that have impacted suicide policy. Current activity regarding a national suicide prevention strategy in Canada is discussed, as well as potential options for clinician involvement.

  14. Epilepsy in Canada: Prevalence and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Heather; Ramage-Morin, Pamela; Wong, Suzy L

    2016-09-21

    This article provides information about the prevalence and impact of epilepsy, based on the 2010 and 2011 Canadian Community Health Surveys, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. An estimated 139,200 Canadians had epilepsy. Among the household population, epilepsy was generally diagnosed before age 30 (75%). For the majority of these people (64%), epilepsy was their only neurological condition. People with epilepsy were more than twice as likely to have been diagnosed with a mood disorder, compared with the general population (17% versus 7%), and eight times as likely to experience incontinence (34% versus 4%). Overall, an estimated 18% reported that their life was affected quite a bit or extremely by epilepsy; 44% felt that their life was impacted a little bit or moderately; and 39% felt that their life was not impacted at all. This study examined the impact of epilepsy on interactions with others, sleep, driving, education, and employment. PMID:27655169

  15. Fusion energy. What Canada can do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Canada's fusion programs have grown, Canadian capabilities in fusion science and technology have grown and matured with them. The fusion capabilities described in this booklet have come from a coordinated national effort. The Government of Canada is committed to continuing its fusion energy program, and to supporting global fusion efforts. These first pages provide an overview of Canada's fusion work and its underlying basis of science and technology

  16. Immigration and Crime: Evidence from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haimin

    2014-01-01

    There is growing belief in many developed countries, including Canada, that the large influx of the foreign-born population increases crime. Despite the heated public discussion, the immigrant-crime relationship is understudied in the literature. This paper identifies the causal linkages between immigration and crime using panel data constructed from the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and the master files of the Census of Canada. This paper distinguishes immigrants by their years in Canada an...

  17. Placebo Trends across the Border: US versus Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory S Harris

    Full Text Available Physicians around the world report to using placebos in a variety of situations and with varying degrees of frequency. Inconsistent methodologies, however, complicate interpretation and prevent direct comparisons across studies. While US- and Canada-based physicians share similar professional standards, Canada harbours a less-litigious universal healthcare model with no formal placebo-related policy-factors that may impact how physicians view and use placebos.To compare American and Canadian data, we circulated an online survey to academic physicians practicing in Canada, collected anonymous responses, and extracted those of internists and rheumatologists for comparison to US data obtained through parallel methodologies.Whereas our data show overall concordance across the border-from definitions to ethical limitations and therapeutic potential-differences between American- and Canadian-based placebo practices merit acknowledgement. For example, compared to 45%-80% among US-based respondents, only 23±7% of Canada-based respondents reported using placebos in clinical practice. However, 79±7% of Canada-respondents-a figure comparable to US data-professed to prescribing at least one form of treatment without proven or expected efficacy. Placebo interventions including unwarranted vitamins and herbal supplements (impure placebos as well as sugar pills and saline injections (pure placebos appear more common in Canada, where more doctors described placebos as "placebos" (rather than "medications" and used them as a "diagnostic" tool (rather than a means of placating patient demands for treatment.Cross-border variation in the use of clinical placebos appears minor despite substantial differences in health care delivery system, malpractice climate, and placebo-related policy. The prevalence of impure placebos in both Canadian and US clinics raises ethical and practical questions currently unaddressed by policy and warranting investigation.

  18. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  19. Hypertension in Canada: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Campbell, Norman R C; Feldman, Ross D; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Lewanczuk, Richard; Padwal, Raj; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2016-01-01

    Canada has an extremely successful hypertension detection and treatment program. The aim of this review was to highlight the historic and current infrastructure and initiatives that have led to this success, and the outlook moving forward into the future. We discuss the evolution of hypertension awareness and control in Canada; contributions made by organizations such as the Canadian Hypertension Society, Blood Pressure Canada, and the Canadian Hypertension Education Program; the amalgamation of these organizations into Hypertension Canada; and the impact that Hypertension Canada has had on hypertension care in Canada. The important contribution that public policy and advocacy can have on prevention and control of blood pressure in Canada is described. We also highlight the importance of population-based strategies, health care access and organization, and accurate blood pressure measurement (including ambulatory, home, and automated office modalities) in optimizing hypertension prevention and management. We end by discussing how Hypertension Canada will move forward in the near and longer term to address the unmet residual risk attributable to hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension Canada will continue to strive to enhance hypertension prevention and control rates, thereby improving the quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes of Canadians, while at the same time creating a hypertension care model that can be emulated across the world. PMID:27372532

  20. Organized Crime Offenders in Canada: Risk, Reform, and Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stys, Yvonne; Ruddell, Rick

    2013-01-01

    This study extends our knowledge about the rehabilitation of criminal organization offenders by focusing on their community outcomes upon release, and identifying the risk factors related to reoffending for 332 organized crime offenders released from federal penitentiaries in Canada prior to March 31, 2009. Of that group, 12.7% were readmitted to…

  1. Degree Research in Adult Education in Canada, 1968 - March 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, James A.; And Others, Comps.

    This annotated bibliography of adult education degree research in (or concerning) Canada during 1968 and early 1969 embraces 19 completed studies and 30 still in progress. A number of the entries are in French. Data appear, wherever available or applicable, on the degree obtained, institution, date of acceptance of the thesis, statement of the…

  2. Battered Women, Their Siblings and Batterers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinboro, Lawrie M.

    The violence women experience in battering is both physical and psychological. A study in 1980 found that 1 in 10 women was hit, kicked, beaten, punched and terrorized by her husband or partner in Canada. Children living in battered homes may suffer a higher risk of direct physical or sexual abuse and many are neglected. Some progress has been…

  3. Mutual Intercultural Relations among University Students in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Yongxia; Safdar, Saba; Berry, John

    2016-01-01

    The current study examies the views of both international and domestic students in Canada using the conceptual and empirical framework from the MIRIPS (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies) project (http://www.victoria.ac.nz/cacr/research/mirips). Two hypotheses were examined. First is the "multiculturalism hypothesis"…

  4. Identity, Good Language Learning, and Adult Immigrants in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervatiuc, Andreea

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the process of linguistic-and-cultural-identity formation as experienced by adult immigrants to Canada who consider themselves professionally successful and highly proficient in the target language. It addresses the characteristics of "good language learners" by determining how they negotiated their marginal standing in…

  5. Teacher Supply and Demand: Issues in Northern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchenham, Andrew; Chasteauneuf, Colin

    2010-01-01

    This two-year study (2007-2009), which examined teacher supply and demand issues in northern Canada--Fort Nelson School District (BC), the Fort Vermilion School Division (AB), the Yukon Department of Education (YK), and the Yellowknife School District (NWT)--comprised three research objectives: (a) to ascertain in which subject areas acute and…

  6. Landfill gas management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (1015 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring

  7. History of geriatrics in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, David B

    2007-01-01

    Specialization is a pervasive movement in medicine. How specialties develop is a complex phenomenon and does not depend solely on the growth of knowledge. The history of geriatrics in Canada is presented as an example of specialization in our country. The gestation period extended over decades. Practitioners moved from partial specialization to a full-time practice in the care of older patients. Opposition to the emerging specialty was mounted by established fields of practice. The choices made by the leaders of Canadian geriatrics molded the evolution of the specialty and have contributed to its precarious status at the present time.

  8. Soil temperature trends in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-04-01

    Global warming increasingly is becoming a concern for society. Most reported warming trends are based on measured increases in air temperatures. However, trends in soil temperatures, also an important indicator of climate change, are less often reported. Qian et al. analyzed soil temperature data from 30 climate stations across Canada covering the period from 1958 to 2008; the data cover soil temperatures at several depths up to 150 centimeters. They also analyzed air temperature, precipitation, and snow cover depth at the same locations. (Journal of Geophysical Research­Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2010JD015012, 2011)

  9. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Virginia

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 110 Canadian federal and provincial government documents published in 1991 that address a wide range of topics, including demographics; constitutional law; social issues, including problems of women, children, and minorities; education; the environment; and standard of living. A list of reviewers is included. (MES)

  10. Stopping global warming : towards a low-carbon Canada : Kyoto report card 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This fourth Kyoto report card prepared by the Sierra Club of Canada examined Canada's plans, policies and implementation of programs relating to the Kyoto Protocol. The report card presented a vision for a low-carbon future and summarized why the Kyoto Protocol is the basis for achieving that future. Progress achieved by other countries in reducing carbon pollution was also highlighted. It was noted that in 2006, Canada eliminated several programs for clean energy, energy efficiency, and funding for provincial climate initiatives. Although many of the programs were relaunched in early 2007, Canada still lags in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This report stated that there is no indication that the government plans to raise these programs to levels needed to meet long term targets. Moreover, the government has committed to a five fold increase in tar sands oil production, which would significantly increase Canada's greenhouse gas emissions. This report also presented a hypothetical case study of the life of a Kyoto friendly Canadian family. A ten-pointed plan for meeting Canada's Kyoto Protocol target was also outlined. It was emphasized that other countries have shown that Kyoto Protocol emission reduction targets can be achieved. The Sierra Club of Canada claims that Canada's Kyoto Protocol targets can still be met by 2012 without damaging the economy, assuming that federal leadership builds on the social consensus that meeting these targets is a top priority for the country. 28 refs.

  11. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  12. Relationship between academic motivation and mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in Canada and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between academic motivation-intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation-and mathematics achievement among 363 Indian adolescents in India and 355 Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation were not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian adolescents in India. In contrast, both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation were statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. While intrinsic motivation was a statistically significant positive predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada, extrinsic motivation was a statistically significant negative predictor of mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Amotivation was not statistically significantly related to mathematics achievement among Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada. Implications of the findings for pedagogy and practice are discussed.

  13. On improving the quality of precipitation data for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolan

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is a key variable for specifying the state of the climate system and of high impact potential on the society and environment. It is highly variable in both space and time. In the high latitudes like Canada, precipitation occurs in different forms (e.g., rainfall, snowfall…). Thus, measuring precipitation and quantifying its temporal and spatial distributions are especially challenging. This presentation will focus on our recent and on-going studies towards producing high quality precipitation data sets for Canada. This includes adjusting gauge data to improve its quality, and blending gauge data with satellite precipitation estimates (SPEs) to produce high quality gridded precipitation datasets on monthly and pentad time scales. Part I of the presentation is about the Adjusted Daily Rainfall and Snowfall (R&S) dataset. This dataset contains all Canadian stations (over 2100 stations) of daily rainfall and snowfall data in the period since 1840. The adjustments includes: (i) conversion of snowfall to its water equivalent using a previously developed snow-water-equivalent (SWE) ratio map for Canada; (ii) corrections for gauge related issues (undercatch and evaporation due to wind effects, gauge-specific wetting loss), and for trace precipitation amounts using previously developed procedures for Canada. Various data flags (e.g., accumulation flags) were also treated. The results show that the trace correction adds 5-20% of precipitation in northern Canada, but less than 5% in southern Canada. The gauge related corrections do not show an organized spatial pattern but add in 10-15% in a large number of stations across Canada. In total, the unadjusted/raw total precipitation data underestimate more than 25% of the total precipitation in northeastern Canada, and about 10%-15% in most of southern Canada. Such large underestimation makes the raw data unsuitable for water availability/balance studies or for numerical model validation, among many other

  14. Park size and disturbance: impact on soil heterogeneity - a case study Tel-Aviv- Jaffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevelev, Helena; Sarah, Pariente; Oz, Atar

    2015-04-01

    Parks and gardens are poly-functional elements of great importance in urban areas, and can be used for optimization of physical and social components in these areas. This study aimed to investigate alteration of soil properties with land usages within urban park and with area size of park. Ten parks differed by size (2 - 50 acres) were chosen, in random, in Tel-Aviv- Jaffa city. Soil was sampled in four microenvironments ((lawn, path, picnic and peripheral area (unorganized area) of each the park)), in three points and three depth (0-2, 5-10 and 10-20 cm). Penetration depth was measured in all point of sampling. For each soil sample electrical conductivity and organic matter content were determined. Averages of penetration depth drastically increased from the most disturbed microenvironments (path and picnic) to the less disturbed ones (lawn and peripheral). The maximal heterogeneity (by variances and percentiles) of penetration depth was found in the peripheral area. In this area, penetration depth increased with increasing park size, i.e., from 2.6 cm to 3.7 cm in the small and large parks, respectively. Averages of organic matter content and electrical conductivity decreased with soil depth in all microenvironments and increased with decreasing disturbance of microenvironments. Maximal heterogeneity for both of these properties was found in the picnic area. Increase of park size was accompanied by increasing of organic matter content in the upper depth in the peripheral area, i.e., from 2.4% in the small parks to 4.5% in the large ones. In all microenvironments the increasing of averages of all studied soil properties was accompanied by increasing heterogeneity, i.e., variances and upper percentiles. The increase in the heterogeneity of the studied soil properties is attributed to improved ecological soil status in the peripheral area, on the one hand, and to the high anthropogenic pressure in the picnic area, on the other. This means that the urban park offers

  15. Natural background radiation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published airborne gamma ray survey data from 33 areas of Canada were used to compile information on the average ground level exposure from natural radiation. The exposures at ground level were calculated from the surface concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. The highest levels of radioactivity were found in northern Canada and were generally related to granitic rocks; the lowest levels with the Athabasca sandstone. Summer outdoor exposure rates have a population-weighted average of 3.7 +- 2.3 μR.h-1, of which 48 percent orginated from potassium, 43 percent from the thorium series and 9 percent from the uranium series. This low level of radioactivity, compared to worldwide data, has resulted from erosion of a geologically old continental crust in which radioactivity decreases with depth. When seasonal variations of soil moisture and snow cover are considered, the annual population-weighted average outdoor exposure rate decreases to 2.8 +- 1.7 μR.h-1 corresponding to an annual outdoor dose-equivalent of 150 +- 90 μSV. Factors increasing the annual outdoor dose-equivalent are cosmic radiation (320 +- 30 μSV) and the internal radioactivity of the body (190 μSV). Using the ratio between indoor and outdoor values for worldwide published data, the average annual Canadian whole-body dose-equivalent from all sources of natural radiation is estimated to be 690 +-130 μSV

  16. Energy in Canada: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent changes in the North American natural gas industry are discussed, with a focus on how these changes will affect the ability of Alberta and Canadian natural gas supply to meet market growth. These changes include a decline in the merchant role of many of the major interstate pipelines, resulting in a larger number of smaller-sized purchasers for natural gas marketers to deal with; a greater extent of direct purchasing by local distribution companies and large industrial users, combined with a preference for spot sales rather than long-term commitments; direct marketing of uncontracted gas by many producers and brokers; a bidding type of sales process rather than a negotiated process; and price deregulation. It is foreseen that long term security of supply will again become an important factor to North American buyers, and Canada can offer substantial supplies under secure long term contracts. Marketers will have to seek new market targets such as cogeneration plants and the transportation sector. Access to pipeline transport will be one of the major factors in obtaining new markets. The Canada-USA free trade agreement is viewed as a positive development which should help Canadian gas marketers to gain and retain U.S. customers

  17. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Breast Cancer Risk, Fungicide Exposure and CYP1A1*2A Gene-Environment Interactions in a Province-Wide Case Control Study in Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Read Guernsey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studies examining the health risks of these agents. The association between agricultural fungicide exposure and breast cancer risk was examined in a secondary analysis of a province-wide breast cancer case-control study in Prince Edward Island (PEI Canada. Specific objectives were: (1 to derive and examine the level of association between estimated fungicide exposures, and breast cancer risk among women in PEI; and (2 to assess the potential for gene-environment interactions between fungicide exposure and a CYP1A1 polymorphism in cases versus controls. After 1:3 matching of 207 cases to 621 controls by age, family history of breast cancer and menopausal status, fungicide exposure was not significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.46–1.17. Moreover, no statistically significant interactions between fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A were observed. Gene-environment interactions were identified. Though interpretations of findings are challenged by uncertainty of exposure assignment and small sample sizes, this study does provide grounds for further research.

  19. Spatial and seasonal variations in evapotranspiration over Canada's landmass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 yr (1979–2008 dataset of actual evapotranspiration (ET at 1 km resolution was generated over Canada's landmass by integrating remote sensing land surface data and gridded climate data using the EALCO model run at 30 min time step. This long-term high resolution dataset was used to characterize the spatiotemporal variations in ET across Canada. The results show that annual ET varied from 600 mm yr−1 over several regions in the south to less than 100 mm yr−1 in the northern arctic. Nationally, ET in summer (i.e., June to August comprised 65% of the annual total amount. ET in the cold season remained mostly below 10 mm month−1 over the country. Negative monthly ET was obtained over the arctic region in winter, indicating EALCO simulated a larger amount of condensation than ET. Overall, the mean ET over the entire Canadian landmass for the 30 yr was 239 mm yr−1, or 44% of its corresponding precipitation. Comparisons of available ET studies in Canada revealed large uncertainties in ET estimates associated with using different approaches. The scarcity of ET measurements for the diverse ecosystems in Canada remains a significant challenge for reducing the uncertainties; this gap needs to be addressed in future studies to improve capabilities in climate/weather modelling and water resource management.

  20. Outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Zul; Sunell, Susanne; Boschma, Geertje; Imai, Pauline; Craig, Bonnie J

    2011-03-01

    There is little published literature about the outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education, particularly in Canada. Since there are various dental hygiene entry-to-practice educational models in Canada, exploring baccalaureate dental hygiene education is becoming an increasingly important subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the personal outcomes and dental hygiene practice outcomes of dental hygiene degree-completion education in Canada from the perspectives of diploma dental hygienists who have continued their education to the bachelor's degree level. This study employed a qualitative phenomenological design, using a maximum variation purposeful sampling strategy. Data generation occurred with sixteen dental hygienists across Canada through individual semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for data analysis, involving pattern recognition and thematic development. Themes that emerged included changes in self-perception, values, and knowledge base. Changes in self-perception were reflected in a reported increase in self-confidence and perceived credibility. Changes in values included a greater appreciation for lifelong learning. Advancements in knowledge strengthened the development of specific abilities that ultimately influenced participants' dental hygiene practice. These abilities included an increased ability to think critically, to make evidence-based decisions, and to provide more comprehensive care. Participants also commented on having more career opportunities available to them outside of the private clinical practice setting. These results reveal important insights into the impact of earning a dental hygiene baccalaureate degree on oneself and one's dental hygiene practice. PMID:21368255

  1. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site – Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-05-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  2. Canada Experientially: Every Trail Has a Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bob

    The discovery of Canada means rolling out a new map, giving meaning to the land and its heritage. Experientially discovering Canada is at the heart of teaching and learning. It is necessary to balance experiential exploration with classroom and library exploration. In order to achieve this, the student must be a traveler. Programs that attempt to…

  3. Professor: Lær af Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada.......Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada....

  4. Canada's Changing Geography of Jobs and Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of globalization on the jobs and trade of Canada. Emphasizes new relationships with countries in Latin America and Africa. Notes the types of trade that Canada enjoys with these two areas and encourages expansion of business into them. (DSK)

  5. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  6. Historical Empathy and "Canada: A People's History"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Darren; Clark, Penney

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we examine the CBC/Radio-Canada series, "Canada: A People's History," for its use of empathy, specifically with regard to its portrayal of Aboriginal people. We call the empathy promoted in the series, emotive empathy, and compare it to the concept of historical empathy constructed by researchers in history education. The emotive…

  7. Inequity in a market-based health system: evidence from Canada's dental sector

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Grignon; Jeremiah Hurley; Li Wang; Sara Allin

    2008-01-01

    We study the extent and drivers of income-related inequity in utilization of dental services in Canada using the concentration-index approach that has been widely applied to study equity in physician and hospital services. Because dental care is almost wholly privately financed in Canada, our estimates provide a benchmark for income-related inequity of utilization in private health systems. Although a number of studies document a link between income and utilization, our study is one of the fe...

  8. Impacts of Canada's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines economic and environmental impacts of uranium mining in Canada and compares these impacts with those of other extractive and energy industries. The uranium industry generates taxes and royalties, income, employment, foreign exchange earnings, security of energy supply, and technological spinoffs. The indirect impacts of the industry as measured by employment and income multipliers are lower than those for other types of mining and comparable to oil and gas because of the high proportion of costs withdrawn from the economy in the form of taxes and operator margin. Social costs are primarily occupational hazards. Uranium mining probably has a lower non-health environmental impact than other mining industries due to much smaller throughputs and transportation requirements. Residents of the area surrounding the mine bear a disproportionate share of the social costs, while non-residents receive most of the benefits

  9. Comparing the effectiveness of copper intrauterine devices available in Canada. Is FlexiT non-inferior to NovaT when inserted immediately after first-trimester abortion? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Wendy V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the rationale and protocol for a randomized noninferiority controlled trial (RCT to determine if the Flexi-T380(+ copper intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD is comparable in terms of effectiveness and expulsion rates to the most common Canadian IUD currently in use, NovaT-200, when placed immediately after a first-trimester abortion. Methods/Design Consenting women choosing to use an IUD after an abortion for a pregnancy of less than 12 weeks of gestation will be randomized to device-type groups to receive immediate post-abortion placement of either a Flexi-T380(+ IUD, a device for which no current evidence on expulsion or effectiveness rates is available, or the Nova-T200 IUD, the only other brand of copper IUD available in Canada at the time of study initiation. The primary outcome measure is IUD expulsion rate at 1 year. Secondary outcomes include: pregnancy rate, method continuation rate, complication rates (infection, perforation, and satisfaction with contraceptive method. A non-intervention group of consenting women choosing a range of other post-abortion contraception methods, including no contraception, will be included for comparison of secondary outcomes. Web-based contraception satisfaction questionnaires, clinical records, and government-linked health administrative databases will be used to assess primary and secondary outcomes. Discussion The RCT design, combined with access to clinical records at all provincial abortion clinics, and to information in provincial single-payer linked administrative health databases, birth registry, and hospital records, offers a unique opportunity to determine if a novel IUD has a comparable expulsion rate to that of the current standard IUD in Canada, in addition to the first opportunity to determine pregnancy rate and method satisfaction at 1 year post-abortion for women choosing a range of post-abortion contraceptive options. We highlight considerations of

  10. HISTORIOGRAPHIES ET FÉDÉRALISME AU CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Dionne

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the historical representation of the two main national communities in Canada; that is, the English-Canadian and the French-Canadian.Throughout the history of the English Canadian community, one cansee an ambitious national project. The national construction of Canada suggests the existence of a neutral model of government but, when looking at this carefully, it is possible to see something quite different. English-speaking historians from Canada have normally introduced the concept of a unitary federalism as the most perfect form of the Canadian integration project. This integrating federalism, that does not lead to emancipation, stems from thecentralist views of John Macdonald, one of the fathers of Canadian federalism. This approach has been kept for over 140 years of common history and, to this date, continues to be one of the main obstacles for minority nations within Canada. To strengthen their thesis, the authors base their work on an extensive analysis exploring the three big strategies used by the central government to assert its authority on the member States of the Canadian Federation in the long term: using the judicial power, centralizing powers andglobalization. The strategies used have varied depending on the economic scenario, political leaders and the political power relations regarding the links between the Federation and the provinces.

  11. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, John [Department of Finance and Real Estate, 1272 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  12. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  13. Suburbanisation of Oral Cavity Cancers: Evidence From a Geographically-Explicit Observational Study of Incidence Trends in British Columbia, Canada, 1981–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Auluck, Ajit; Lear, Scott A.; Rosin, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated an elevated risk of oral cavity cancers (OCC) among socioeconomically deprived populations, whose increasing presence in suburban neighbourhoods poses unique challenges for equitable health service delivery. The majority of studies to date have utilised aspatial methods to identify OCC. In this study, we use high-resolution geographical analyses to identify spatio-temporal trends in OCC incidence, emphasising the value of geospatial methods for p...

  14. U.S.-Canada cooperation: the U.S.-Canada air quality agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Brian; Barton, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The impetus for the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement was transboundary acid rain in eastern North America. This problem drove the parties to develop a bilateral agreement that not only addressed this issue, but also set up a broad and flexible framework to address other air quality problems. In 2000, the Ozone Annex to reduce smog and its precursor pollutants was negotiated. A transboundary particulate matter (PM) science assessment in 2004 led to the commencement of negotiation of a PM annex in late 2007. Over the course of 15 yr, Canada and the United States also developed innovative cooperative arrangements. Two transboundary airshed dialogues became important sources of practical on-the-ground cooperation in the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound and the Great Lakes Basin. In addition to providing the basis for ongoing international dialogue, these transboundary airshed projects resulted in changes to administrative practices as the parties exchange information and learn from each other in ways that benefit the airshed community. The nature of the Air Quality Agreement also enabled both Canada and the United States to address concerns each has had about specific pollutant sources and to address them in ways that avoided confrontation and resulted in air quality improvements for people living in the airsheds. Case studies of three of the "informal consultations" that have occurred under the agreement are described: where discussions occurred around a power plant in Michigan, a power plant in Saskatchewan, and a steel mill in Ontario. More than an agreement, this relationship has built a capacity to deal with common problems. Fostering such a relationship with its implicit transfer of knowledge and experience has opened doors for discussions on a new Clean Air framework in Canada and joint analyses of cross-border sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions caps and trading. U.S. experience with cap and trading is highlighted for background and context. The

  15. Petro-Canada 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is a dominant player in the petroleum industry in Western Canada as well as on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. This report presents a review of operations, provides detailed statements of the corporation's finances, and a wealth of information of interest to shareholders. The report states that in 1997 Petro-Canada achieved record financial results, following a dramatic turnaround over the past five years. Net earnings for 1997 were $306 million, a $59 million increase over 1996. The company's share price appreciated 34 per cent in 1997 and was one of the most heavily traded stocks in Canada. The company plans to maximize shareholder value by reducing its interests in conventional oil from mature fields in western Canada and by re-investing the proceeds in natural gas development. Petro-Canada is also committed to an expansion that will double production at the Syncrude oil sands plant over the next decade and has tested large in-situ oil sands resources for potential development in northeastern Alberta. On the Atlantic coast too, Petro-Canada is delivering leadership with increasing production from Hibernia, and final approvals in place to proceed with development of the Terra Nova field. International operations are also contributing to the Corporation's profitability by delivering new production from oil fields offshore Norway and from the Sahara Desert in North Africa. tabs., figs

  16. Estimates of Avian Mortality Attributed to Vehicle Collisions in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Bishop

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although mortality of birds from collisions with vehicles is estimated to be in the millions in the USA, Europe, and the UK, to date, no estimates exist for Canada. To address this, we calculated an estimate of annual avian mortality attributed to vehicular collisions during the breeding and fledging season, in Canadian ecozones, by applying North American literature values for avian mortality to Canadian road networks. Because owls are particularly susceptible to collisions with vehicles, we also estimated the number of roadkilled Barn owls (Tyto alba in its last remaining range within Canada. (This species is on the IUCN red list and is also listed federally as threatened; Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada 2010, International Union for the Conservation of Nature 2012. Through seven Canadian studies in existence, 80 species and 2,834 specimens have been found dead on roads representing species from 14 orders of birds. On Canadian 1 and 2-lane paved roads outside of major urban centers, the unadjusted number of bird mortalities/yr during an estimated 4-mo (122-d breeding and fledging season for most birds in Canada was 4,650,137 on roads traversing through deciduous, coniferous, cropland, wetlands and nonagricultural landscapes with less than 10% treed area. On average, this represents 1,167 birds killed/100 km in Canada. Adjusted for scavenging, this estimate was 13,810,906 (3,462 dead birds/100 km. For barn owls, the unadjusted number of birds killed annually on 4-lane roads during the breeding and fledging season, within the species geographic range in southern British Columbia, was estimated as 244 owls and, when adjusted for scavenging and observer bias (3.6 factor, the total was 851 owls.

  17. Progress report -- February 1983 : Migration and survival of MVP Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were 1 to document the variation in numbers, movements, harvest, and survival of MVP Canada geese and 2 to relate variation in these...

  18. Limitations On Canada Goose Production at Fish springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We studied the western Canada goose (B. c. moffitti) population at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in western Utah from March to July in 1996 and 1997 to...

  19. Working Hours in Canada and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Larochelle-Cote, Sebastien; Heisz, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates annual working hours in the United States and Canada over the period 1979 to 2000. The study finds that a working hours gap opened in the 1980s and expanded substantially in the 1990s. It investigates the possibility that labour supply differences, specifically (1) incentives resulting from wage inequality, or (2) differences in the employment engagement of women, youth or older men, explain this working hours gap. The study finds that the stylized facts do not lead on...

  20. Factors Influencing Wheat Yield and Variability: Evidence from Manitoba, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Richard CAREW; Elwin G. Smith; Grant, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Production functions to explain regional wheat yields have not been studied extensively in the Canadian prairies. The objective of this study is to employ a Just-Pope production function to examine the relationship between fertilizer inputs, soil quality, biodiversity indicators, cultivars qualifying for Plant Breeders’ Rights (PBR), and climatic conditions on the mean and variance of spring wheat yields. Using regional-level wheat data from Manitoba, Canada, model results show nitrogen fer...

  1. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  2. Electricity - a great asset for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has a great national asset in its ability to generate electricity economically from its abundant hydro, coal, and uranium resources. Its nuclear industry has an excellent product. Despite lack of orders for now, the CANDU will be a competitive force when the reactor market recovers. Canada has a proven record of reliability for electricity trade with the United States. There appear to be some opportunities for plants in Canada dedicated to the export of electric power. The federal government is prepared to work closely with the provinces to develop projects which will be attractive to customers in the United States

  3. A comparison of delays in the treatment of cancer with radiation in Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Waiting lists for medical care in Canada have been used as an argument against the single-payer option for health care reform in the United States, but there have been no direct comparisons of access to care in these two health care systems. The objective of this study was to compare how long cancer patients wait for radiotherapy in Canada and the USA. Methods and Materials: Heads of radiation oncology at all cancer centers listed by the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) in Canada and the United States were sent a questionnaire that asked how long their patients waited for radiotherapy, and how long they thought it was acceptable for patients to wait, in six clinical situations. Results: Ninety-two of 97 eligible centers responded (95%). Median waiting times to start of radiotherapy were as follows: carcinoma of the larynx (T2,N0,M0), 29 days in Canada, 10 days in the USA; carcinoma of the lung (Stage IIIb, squamous), 34 days in Canada, 9 days in the USA; carcinoma of the prostate (Stage B2), 40 days in Canada, 11 days in the USA; carcinoma of the breast (T2,N0,M0) referred 1 month after lumpectomy, 43 days in Canada, 10 days in the USA; carcinoma of the prostate with painful bone metastases, 17 days in Canada, 5 days in the USA; carcinoma of the prostate with spinal cord compression, < 1 day in Canada, < 1 day in the USA. The differences in waiting times between Canada and the USA were all statistically significant (p < 0.0001), except in the case of emergency treatment for cord compression. The majority of radiation oncologists in both Canada and the USA regarded the delays reported by Canadian departments as medically unacceptable. Conclusions: Patients almost everywhere in Canada wait longer for radiotherapy than they do almost anywhere in the United States

  4. Risk of lung cancer associated with six types of chlorinated solvents: results from two case-control studies in Montreal, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods: Two case-control studies of occupation and lung cancer were conducted in Montreal, including 2,016 cases and 2,001 population controls. Occupational exposure to a host of agents was evaluated using a combination of subject-reported job history and expert assessment. We e...

  5. Buried above Ground: A University-Based Study of Risk/Protective Factors for Suicidality among Sexual Minority Youth in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tracey; Taylor, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined differences in suicidal behavior between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ university students as well as investigated the importance of risk and protective factors in the prediction of suicidality between these two groups. A total of 1,205 university students participated in the…

  6. Diabetes in pregnancy among indigenous women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States: a method for systematic review of studies with different designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamberlain Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes in pregnancy, which includes gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, is associated with poor outcomes for both mother and infant during pregnancy, at birth and in the longer term. Recent international guidelines recommend changes to the current GDM screening criteria. While some controversy remains, there appears to be consensus that women at high risk of T2DM, including indigenous women, should be offered screening for GDM early in pregnancy, rather than waiting until 24-28 weeks as is current practice. A range of criteria should be considered before changing screening practice in a population sub-group, including: prevalence, current practice, acceptability and whether adequate treatment pathways and follow-up systems are available. There are also specific issues related to screening in pregnancy and indigenous populations. The evidence that these criteria are met for indigenous populations is yet to be reported. A range of study designs can be considered to generate relevant evidence for these issues, including epidemiological, observational, qualitative, and intervention studies, which are not usually included within a single systematic review. The aim of this paper is to describe the methods we used to systematically review studies of different designs and present the evidence in a pragmatic format for policy discussion. Methods/Design The inclusion criteria will be broad to ensure inclusion of the critical perspectives of indigenous women. Abstracts of the search results will be reviewed by two persons; the full texts of all potentially eligible papers will be reviewed by one person, and 10% will be checked by a second person for validation. Data extraction will be standardised, using existing tools to identify risks for bias in intervention, measurement, qualitative studies and reviews; and adapting criteria for appraising risk for bias in descriptive studies. External validity

  7. Virologic suppression and mortality of patients who migrate for HIV care in the province of British Columbia, Canada, from 2003 to 2012: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Viviane Dias; Goldberg, Nicola; Lourenço, Lillian; Chau, William; Robert S. Hogg; Guillemi, Silvia; Barrios, Rolando; Julio S G Montaner

    2015-01-01

    Background Migration among persons living with HIV (PLWH) seeking HIV care is common; however its effect on health outcomes in resource-rich settings is not well understood. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to quantify the extent to which PLWH are migrating for care within British Columbia (BC) and its association with virologic suppression and mortality. Methods Eligible PLWH first initiated treatment in BC between 2003 and 2012 (N = 3653). Analyses were performed at the regional He...

  8. Type and Proximity of Green Spaces Are Important for Preventing Cardiovascular Morbidity and Diabetes—A Cross-Sectional Study for Quebec, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Ngom, Roland; Gosselin, Pierre; Blais, Claudia; Rochette, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the role of proximity to specific types of green spaces (GSes) as well as their spatial location in the relationship with the most morbid cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. We measured the accessibility to various types of GS and used a cross-sectional approach at census Dissemination Area (DA) levels in the Montreal and Quebec City metropolitan zones for the period 2006–2011. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were fitted to quantify the ...

  9. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  10. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  11. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Canada. 93.418 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.418 Cattle from Canada. (a) Health certificates. Cattle intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate issued in...

  12. Social Determinants of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Families of Migrants participating in Mexico-Canada Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program: A Study in Guadalupe Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gines Martínez Fernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis in the families of migrant laborers registered in the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP and residing in Guadalupe Zaragoza Tlahuapan, Puebla, México. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study of the interaction between migration, social determinants, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Results: In this poor and patriarchal community, the SAWP offers financial opportunities for the men of Guadalupe Zaragoza. The remittances of these migrant workers have enabled their families to live in adequate housing, but their health situation is still vulnerable. Only half of the families have access to public health services or the special health programs for migrant worker families. 13% of migrant family members were infected with pulmonary tuberculosis as measured by the Quantiferon-TB test. The female partners of migrants typically do not study past elementary school, become housewives with no pay, are forced to take on added work in the household, and experience subjective symptoms of stress and fatigue. The children of Guadalupe Zaragoza are also vulnerable; the number of children in this community who can regularly attend school is below the national average because many children have to work. These families end up paying more for education, housing, and health services than the average Mexican family. Conclusions: In the families of SAWP migrant workers, the prevalence of latent pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be lower than the national average based on studies using the tuberculin test; this may be due to the greater specificity of the Quantiferon-TB Gold test. There is a significant risk of reactivation tuberculosis in these families due to the inequity in the social determinants of health.

  13. Identification of Occupational Cancer Risks in British Columbia, Canada: A Population-Based Case—Control Study of 1,155 Cases of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Fang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer has been recognized to have environmental origin, but occupational cancer risk studies have not been fully documented. The objective of this paper was to identify occupations and industries with elevated colon cancer risk based on lifetime occupational histories collected from 15,463 incident cancer cases. Method: A group matched case-control design was used. All cases were diagnosed with histologically proven colon cancers, with cancer controls being all other cancer sites, excluding rectum, lung and unknown primary, diagnosed at the same period of time from the British Columbia Cancer Registry. Data analyses were done on all 597 Canadian standard occupation titles and 1,104 standard industry titles using conditional logistic regression for matched data sets and the likelihood ratio test. Results: Excess colon cancer risks was observed in a number of occupations and industries, particularly those with low physical activity and those involving exposure to asbestos, wood dusts, engine exhaust and diesel engine emissions, and ammonia. Discussion: The results of our study are in line with those from the literature and further suggest that exposure to wood dusts and to ammonia may carry an increased occupational risk of colon cancer.

  14. Loss of genetic integrity in wild lake trout populations following stocking: insights from an exhaustive study of 72 lakes from Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiquette, Eliane; Perrier, Charles; Thibault, Isabel; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-06-01

    Stocking represents the most important management tool worldwide to increase and sustain commercial and recreational fisheries in a context of overexploitation. Genetic impacts of this practice have been investigated in many studies, which examined population and individual admixture, but few have investigated determinants of these processes. Here, we addressed these questions from the genotyping at 19 microsatellite loci of 3341 adult lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from 72 unstocked and stocked lakes. Results showed an increase in genetic diversity and a twofold decrease in the extent of genetic differentiation among stocked populations when compared to unstocked. Stocked populations were characterized by significant admixture at both population and individual levels. Moreover, levels of admixture in stocked populations were strongly correlated with stocking intensity and a threshold value of total homogenization between source and stocked populations was identified. Our results also suggest that under certain scenarios, the genetic impacts of stocking could be of short duration. Overall, our study emphasizes the important alteration of the genetic integrity of stocked populations and the need to better understand determinants of admixture to optimize stocking strategies and to conserve the genetic integrity of wild populations. PMID:25067947

  15. Canada's nuclear industry, greenhouse gas emissions, and the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change, dated December 10, 1997 committed Canada to reduce greenhouse gases to 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Other nations also committed to varying degrees of reduction. The Protocol includes provisions for credit to the 'developed' counties for initiatives which lead to greenhouse gas reduction in the 'developing' countries and for the sharing of credit between 'developed' countries for projects undertaken jointly. The rules and details for implementation of these guidelines remain to be negotiated. We begin our study by establishing the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions already avoided by the nuclear industry in Canada since the inception of commercial power plants in 1971. We then review projections of energy use in Canada and anticipated increase in electricity use up to the year 2020. These studies have anticipated no (or have 'not permitted') further development of nuclear electricity production in spite of the clear benefit with respect to greenhouse gas emission. The studies also predict a relatively small growth of electricity use. In fact the projections indicate a reversal of a trend toward increased per capita electricity use which is contrary to observations of electricity usage in national economies as they develop. We then provide estimates of the magnitude of greenhouse gas reduction which would result from replacing the projected increase in fossil fuel electricity by nuclear generation through the building of more plants and/or making better use of existing installations. This is followed by an estimate of additional nuclear capacity needed to avoid CO2 emissions while providing the electricity needed should per capita usage remain constant. Canada's greenhouse gas reduction goal is a small fraction of international commitments. The Kyoto agreement's 'flexibility mechanism' provisions provide some expectation that Canada could obtain some credit for greenhouse gas

  16. Cackling Canada goose nesting populations, Yukon Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Number of potential territories, number of cackling Canada Goose nests, and percent occupancy of available territories from CCG plots on the Yukon Delta National...

  17. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  18. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  19. Gulf Canada Resources Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of operations in 1998 and financial information from Gulf Canada Resources Limited is provided to keep shareholders abreast of company performance. Gulf Canada Resources Limited explores for, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1998, the company's main operating centres were in western Canada (where it owns a nine per cent interest in the Syncrude Joint Venture), Indonesia, the North Sea and Australia. The report summarizes the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed review of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Although Gulf Canada Resources sold $ 1.2 billion worth of non-producing assets during the year, year end proved reserves of 838 million barrels of oil equivalent were less than ten per cent lower than a year earlier, reflecting reserve additions of 100 million barrels of oil equivalent. tabs., figs

  20. Ammi Canada 2015 Annual Conference: Abstract Titles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts to be presented at the 2015 Annual Conference of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, April 16 to 18, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, alphabetized according to the surname of the first author.

  1. A queer day in Canada: examining Canadian high school students' experiences with school-based homophobia in two large-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tracey; Taylor, Catherine; Chamberland, Line

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine how location (nationally, compared to Canadian regions) is related to indicators of a hostile school environment for sexual minority youth, particularly when physical abuse is used as the outcome variable. Data representing 5,766 Canadian students were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Results from the multivariate analyses showed that non-physical abuse was the most significant predictor of homophobically based physical abuse, for both LGBQ and non-LGBQ students. Findings reiterate the importance of considering the progression of harmful events as an escalation of violence as well as the need to view homophobic bullying as having a significant impact on all students. Finally, while the presence of homophobia is prevalent across all Canadian regions, there are, nevertheless, many regional differences, which could be used to inform region-specific action plans.

  2. Phase transformations in 40-60-GPa shocked gneisses from the Haughton Crater (Canada): An Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (ATEM) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, I.; Guyot, F.; Schaerer, U.

    1992-01-01

    In order to better understand phase transformations, chemical migration, and isotopic disequilibrium in highly shocked rocks, we have performed a microprobe and an ATEM study on gneisses shocked up to 60 GPa from the Haughton Crater. This study reveals the following chemical and structural characteristics: (1) SiO2 dominant areas are formed by a mixture of pure SiO2 polycrystalline quartz identified by electron diffraction pattern and chemical analysis and a silica-rich amorphous phase containing minor amounts of aluminium, potassium, and iron; (2) Areas with biotitelike composition are formed by less than 200-nm grains of iron-rich spinels embedded in a silica-rich amorphous phase that is very similar to the one described above; (3) Layers with feldsparlike composition are constituted by 100-200-nm-sized alumina-rich grains (the indexation of the crystalline structure is under progress) and the silica-rich amorphous phase; (4) Zones characterized by the unusual Al/Si ratio close to 1 are formed by spinel grains (200-nm-sized) embedded in the same silica-rich amorphous phase; and (5) The fracturated sillimanites contain domains with a lamellar structure, defined by the intercalation of 100-nm-wide lamellae of mullite crystals and of a silica-rich amorphous phase. These mullite crystals preserved the crystallographical orientation of the preshock sillimanite. All compositional domains, identified at the microprobe scale, can thus be explained by a mixture in different proportion between the following phases: (1) a silica-rich amorphous phase, with minor Al and K; (2) quartz crystals; (3) spinel crystals and alumina-rich crystals; (4) sillimanite; and (5) mullite. Such mixtures of amorphous phases and crystals in different proportions explain disturbed isotope systems in these rocks and chemical heterogeneities observed on the microprobe.

  3. A Study of the Role of Small Ethnic Retail Grocery Stores in Urban Renewal in a Social Housing Project, Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komakech, Morris D C; Jackson, Suzanne F

    2016-06-01

    Urban renewal often drives away the original residents, replacing them with higher income residents who can afford the new spaces, leading to gentrification. Urban renewal that takes place over many years can create uncertainties for retailers and residents, exacerbating the gentrification process. This qualitative study explored how the urban renewal process in a multi-cultural social housing neighborhood in Toronto (Regent Park) affected the small ethnic retail grocery stores (SERGS) that supplied ethnic foods and items to the ethnic populations living there. Interviews were conducted with ten SERGS store owners/managers and 16 ethnic residents who lived in Regent Park before renewal and were displaced, or who were displaced and returned. The SERGS stated that they provided culturally familiar items and offered a social credit scheme that recognized existing social relationships and allowed low-income residents to afford food and other amenities in a dignified manner and pay later, without penalty or interest. At the same time, the SERGS were unsupported during the renewal, were excluded from the civic planning processes, could not compete for space in the new buildings, and experienced declining sales and loss of business. The residents stated that the SERGS were trusted, provided a valued cultural social spaces for ethnic identity formation, and ethnic food security but they faced many uncertainties about the role of SERGS in a renewed neighborhood. Based on this study, it is recommended that ethnic retailers be recognized for the role they play in formulating ethnic identities and food security in mixed-use mixed-income communities and that they be included in planning processes during urban renewal. Such recognition may enable more former residents to return and lessen the gentrification. PMID:27142392

  4. NDT in Canada - the next 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme for the Fifth Canadian Conference on Nondestructive Testing was 'NDT in Canada - The Next 20 years'. The three day conference with 42 presentations provided a short overview of NDT in Canada, a look at NDT in pipeline, materials, offshore, nuclear and training applications, and a glimpse into the next 20 years with recent advances in research and development as related to this 'hi-tech' field of work

  5. Canada 2030: An Agenda for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Kindornay; Centre for the Study of Living Standards

    2015-01-01

    As the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) reach their end date in 2015, negotiations are ramping up at the United Nations for the establishment of a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs, to be announced in September this year, will replace the MDGs and serve as a universal framework for achieving sustainable development outcomes in all countries by 2030, including Canada. This report takes an in-depth look at what the SDGs could mean for Canada, providing a concise overv...

  6. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventeenth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. As in the past, this report presents the following data by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. (author). 17 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Canada's upstream petroleum industry - 1996 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the activities and business prospects of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry for 1996 was provided. Canada's hydrocarbon resource base, reserve potential, crude oil and natural gas markets, pipeline transportation system, business and investment climate, deregulation and environmental health and safety concerns were summarized. A profile of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the principal industry organization representing upstream producers in Canada, was also provided

  8. Reconstructing the lake-level history of former glacial lakes through the study of relict wave-cut terraces: the case of Lake Ojibway (eastern Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Martin; Veillette, Jean; Daubois, Virginie

    2014-05-01

    The reconstruction of the history of former glacial lakes is commonly based on the study of strandlines that generally consist of boulder ridges, sandy beaches and other near-shore deposits. This approach, however, is limited in some regions where the surficial geology consists of thick accumulation of fine-grained glaciolacustrine sediments that mask most deglacial landforms. This situation is particularly relevant to the study of Lake Ojibway, a large proglacial lake that developed in northern Ontario and Quebec following the retreat of the southern Laurentide ice sheet margin during the last deglaciation. The history of Ojibway lake levels remains poorly known, mainly due to the fact that this lake occupied a deep and featureless basin that favored the sedimentation of thick sequences of rhythmites and prevented the formation of well-developed strandlines. Nonetheless, detailed mapping revealed a complex sequence of discontinuous small-scale cliffs that are scattered over the flat-lying Ojibway clay plain. These terrace-like features range in size from 4 to 7 m in height and can be followed for 10 to 100's of meters. These small-scale geomorphic features are interpreted to represent raised shorelines that were cut into glaciolacustrine sediments by lakeshore erosional processes (i.e., wave action). These so-called wave-cut scarps (WCS) occur at elevations ranging from 3 to 30 m above the present level of Lake Abitibi (267 m), one of the lowest landmarks in the area. Here we evaluate the feasibility of using this type of relict shorelines to constrain the evolution of Ojibway lake levels. For this purpose, a series of WCS were measured along four transects of about 40 km in length in the Lake Abitibi region. The absolute elevation of 154 WCS was determined with a Digital Video Plotter software package using 1:15K air-photos, coupled with precise measurements of control points, which were measured with a high-precision Global Navigation Satellite System tied up to

  9. Type and Proximity of Green Spaces Are Important for Preventing Cardiovascular Morbidity and Diabetes—A Cross-Sectional Study for Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngom, Roland; Gosselin, Pierre; Blais, Claudia; Rochette, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the role of proximity to specific types of green spaces (GSes) as well as their spatial location in the relationship with the most morbid cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. We measured the accessibility to various types of GS and used a cross-sectional approach at census Dissemination Area (DA) levels in the Montreal and Quebec City metropolitan zones for the period 2006–2011. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were fitted to quantify the relationship between distances to specific types of GS and CVD morbidity as well as some risk factors (diabetes and hypertension) while controlling for several social and environmental confounders. GSes that have sports facilities showed a significant relationship to cerebrovascular diseases: the most distant population had an 11% higher prevalence rate ratio (PRR) compared to the nearest, as well as higher diabetes risk (PRR 9%) than the nearest. However, the overall model performance and the understanding of the role of GSes with sport facilities may be substantially achieved with lifestyle factors. Significantly higher prevalence of diabetes and cerebrovascular diseases as well as lower access to GSes equipped with sports facilities were found in suburban areas. GSes can advantageously be used to prevent some CVDs and their risk factors, but there may be a need to reconsider their types and location. PMID:27089356

  10. Type and Proximity of Green Spaces Are Important for Preventing Cardiovascular Morbidity and Diabetes—A Cross-Sectional Study for Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Ngom

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the role of proximity to specific types of green spaces (GSes as well as their spatial location in the relationship with the most morbid cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes. We measured the accessibility to various types of GS and used a cross-sectional approach at census Dissemination Area (DA levels in the Montreal and Quebec City metropolitan zones for the period 2006–2011. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were fitted to quantify the relationship between distances to specific types of GS and CVD morbidity as well as some risk factors (diabetes and hypertension while controlling for several social and environmental confounders. GSes that have sports facilities showed a significant relationship to cerebrovascular diseases: the most distant population had an 11% higher prevalence rate ratio (PRR compared to the nearest, as well as higher diabetes risk (PRR 9% than the nearest. However, the overall model performance and the understanding of the role of GSes with sport facilities may be substantially achieved with lifestyle factors. Significantly higher prevalence of diabetes and cerebrovascular diseases as well as lower access to GSes equipped with sports facilities were found in suburban areas. GSes can advantageously be used to prevent some CVDs and their risk factors, but there may be a need to reconsider their types and location.

  11. Mining dams safety regulations : where does Canada stand?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priscu, C. [AMEC, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Small, A. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Lupo, J. [AMEC, Englewood, CO (United States); Diaz, M. [AMEC, Ashford, Kent (United Kingdom); Davies, M. [AMEC, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Musse, M. [AMEC, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    While many jurisdictions in Canada use the Canadian Dam Association (CDA) dam safety guidelines, their applicability to the safety of mining dams is limited. Mining dams are some of the largest containment structures in the world, and impound millions of cubic meters of mine process residues in both solid and liquid form. This study presented a review of dam safety regulatory frameworks for mining dams located in various countries. The aim of the study was to compare the Canadian framework with various dam safety legislations in order to evaluate Canada's current status and recommend best practices in dam safety regulations. The study reviewed incremental consequence classifications; best practices in operation, surveillance and maintenance manuals and procedures; emergency preparedness plans; and dam safety inspections. The study showed that Canada has limited documentation regulating the safe management of tailings facilities, and does not have an all-encompassing national guideline for mining dams. It was concluded that an incremental consequence classification (ICC) system should be developed specifically for mining dams. 12 refs.

  12. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, J.T. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs.

  13. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  14. Incremental health care costs for chronic pain in Ontario, Canada: a population-based matched cohort study of adolescents and adults using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Mary-Ellen; Taddio, Anna; Katz, Joel; Shah, Vibhuti; Krahn, Murray

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the economic burden of chronic pain and how chronic pain affects health care utilization. We aimed to estimate the annual per-person incremental medical cost and health care utilization for chronic pain in the Ontario population from the perspective of the public payer. We performed a retrospective cohort study using Ontario health care databases and the electronically linked Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) from 2000 to 2011. We identified subjects aged ≥12 years from the CCHS with chronic pain and closely matched them to individuals without pain using propensity score matching methods. We used linked data to determine mean 1-year per-person health care costs and utilization for each group and mean incremental cost for chronic pain. All costs are reported in 2014 Canadian dollars. After matching, we had 19,138 pairs of CCHS respondents with and without chronic pain. The average age was 55 years (SD = 18) and 61% were female. The incremental cost to manage chronic pain was $1742 per person (95% confidence interval [CI], $1488-$2020), 51% more than the control group. The largest contributor to the incremental cost was hospitalization ($514; 95% CI, $364-$683). Incremental costs were the highest in those with severe pain ($3960; 95% CI, $3186-$4680) and in those with most activity limitation ($4365; 95% CI, $3631-$5147). The per-person cost to manage chronic pain is substantial and more than 50% higher than a comparable patient without chronic pain. Costs are higher in people with more severe pain and activity limitations. PMID:26989805

  15. Establishing the diagnosis of peanut allergy in children never exposed to peanut or with an uncertain history: a cross-Canada study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Kagan, Rhoda; Primeau, Marie-Noël; Alizadehfar, Reza; Turnbull, Elizabeth; Harada, Laurie; Dufresne, Claire; Allen, Mary; Joseph, Lawrence; St Pierre, Yvan; Clarke, Ann

    2010-09-01

    The diagnosis of peanut allergy (PA) can be complex especially in children never exposed to peanut or with an uncertain history. The aim of the study is to determine which diagnostic algorithms are used by Canadian allergists in such children. Children 1-17 yrs old never exposed to peanut or with an uncertain history having an allergist-confirmed diagnosis of PA were recruited from the Montreal Children's Hospital (MCH) and allergy advocacy organizations. Data on their clinical history and confirmatory testing were compared to six diagnostic algorithms: I. Skin prick test (SPT) >or=8 mm or specific IgE >or=5 kU/l or positive food challenge (+FC); II. SPT >or=8 or IgE >or=15 or +FC; III. SPT >or=13 or IgE >or=5 or +FC; IV. SPT >or=13 or IgE >or=15 or +FC; V. SPT >or=3 and IgE >or=5 or IgE >or=5 or +FC; VI. SPT >or=3 and IgE >or=15 or IgE >or=15 or +FC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the use of each algorithm. Of 497 children recruited, 70% provided full data. The least stringent algorithm, algorithm I, was applied in 81.6% (95% CI, 77-85.6%) of children and the most stringent, algorithm VI, in 42.6% (95% CI, 37.2-48.1%).The factor most associated with the use of all algorithms was diagnosis made at the MCH in those never exposed to peanut. Other factors associated with the use of specific diagnostic algorithms were higher paternal education, longer disease duration, and the presence of hives, asthma, eczema, or other food allergies. Over 18% (95% CI, 14.4-23.0%) of children were diagnosed with PA without fulfilling even the least stringent diagnostic criteria.

  16. Ethical Dilemmas in Individual and Collective Rights-Based Approaches to Tertiary Education Scholarships: The Cases of Canada and Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term…

  17. Teachers' Perspectives and Experiences of the Contexts of Social Inclusion within Elementary School Classrooms in Canada and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Lily

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the contexts of social inclusion within elementary school classrooms in Canada and China. Based on interviews, classroom teachers in two metropolitan cities in Canada and China reported their perspectives and experiences with regard to: (a) the state of social inclusion in general; (b) places where social inclusion took place…

  18. Who Gets What? The Distribution of Government Subsidies for Post-Secondary Education in Canada. Canadian Higher Education Report Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Alex

    2004-01-01

    This study is one part of a two-part inquiry into subsidies for post-secondary education in Canada. Governments in Canada spend over $4 billion each year in transfers to individuals for the purpose of post-secondary education. Roughly half of this money goes out in need-based loans and grants, while the other half goes in "universal" benefits to…

  19. Revisiting the Issue of Access to Higher Education in Canada. CHERD/CSSHE Reader Series Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Lesley, Ed.

    This publication is part of a series that reprints articles on a range of thematic issues published in the "Canadian Journal of Higher Education." This collection focuses on access to postsecondary education in Canada. After a preface and an introduction, the six papers are: "Studying Part-Time in Canada's Universities: A Social Change…

  20. South Asian populations in Canada: migration and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Tamim, Hala

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian populations are the largest visible minority group in Canada; however, there is very little information on the mental health of these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian first-generation immigrant and second-generation Canadian-born populations. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2011 was used to calculate the estimated prevalence rates of the follow...

  1. Job matching for Chinese and Asian Indian immigrants in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Fong; Peter Shi Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Using recently collected data from Toronto, a major city in Canada, we explored job mismatch among Chinese and Asian Indian immigrants. Our study shows that a relatively small percentage of Chinese immigrants, and an even lower percentage of Asian Indian immigrants, work in the same industry and occupation as they did before immigrating. The multivariate analysis suggests that higher education before immigration does help immigrants secure first jobs that match their jobs before immigration. ...

  2. Distributional effects of `general population' prescription drug programs in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Sule Alan; Thomas Crossley; Paul Grootendorst; Michael Veall

    2005-01-01

    Canadian household prescription drug expenditures are studied using the Statistics Canada Family Expenditure Survey masterfiles for periods that include the introduction of provincial `general population' prescription drug programs. Budget shares for non-senior households are examined over time using non-parametric regression, parametric `difference-in-difference' techniques, and quantile regression methods. The evidence suggests that while program effects are muted when there are high deduct...

  3. Report on Productivity Trends in Selected Natural Resource Industries in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Centre for the Study of Living Standards

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to shed light on the dynamics and determinants of productivity growth in nine selected natural resource industries and in the overall natural resource sector in Canada. This report provides a concise review of the findings of a detailed analysis undertaken by the Centre for the Study of Living Standards for Natural Resources Canada. The importance of productivity growth is reviewed, and observations are made on the contribution of natural resource industries to a...

  4. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: A policy and economic comparative analysis for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Husid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to achieve an overall view of Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade in Canada, analyzing both the current situation and the actions and policies being implemented by several provinces to promote this subject. This study will be valuable to companies and governments to understand what has been done and to support strategic planning to invest and trade with Canada, especially for the Brazilian market.

  5. An ethnographic investigation of the maternity healthcare experience of immigrants in rural and urban Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Higginbottom, Gina M; Safipour, Jalal; Yohani, Sophie; O’Brien, Beverly; Mumtaz, Zubia; Paton, Patricia; Chiu, Yvonne; Barolia, Rubina

    2016-01-01

    Background Canada is among the top immigrant-receiving nations in the world. Immigrant populations may face structural and individual barriers in the access to and navigation of healthcare services in a new country. The aims of the study were to (1) generate new understanding of the processes that perpetuate immigrant disadvantages in maternity healthcare, and (2) devise potential interventions that might improve maternity experiences and outcomes for immigrant women in Canada. Methods The st...

  6. An ethnographic investigation of maternity healthcare experience of immigrants in rural and urban Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Higginbottom, Gina M A; Safipour, Jalal; Yohani, Sophie; O'Brien, Beverley; Mumtaz, Zubia; Paton, Patricia; Chiu, Yvonne; Barolia, Rubina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Canada is among the top immigrant-receiving nations in the world. Immigrant populations may face structural and individual barriers in the access to and navigation of healthcare services in a new country. The aims of the study were to (1) generate new understanding of the processes that perpetuate immigrant disadvantages in maternity healthcare, and (2) devise potential interventions that might improve maternity experiences and outcomes for immigrant women in Canada. Methods: ...

  7. The Job Consciousness for Radiological Technologists in Korea, Canada, and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts to provide basic information on overseas employment to the radiological technologists and students majoring in radiology in Korea who consider the overseas employment by investigating the job consciousness for radiological technologists in Canada and Australia which have a high level of interest for overseas employment and want to compare their status with that of Korean radiological technologists. This study was performed by visiting hospitals such as Prince George Regional Hospital, 1475 Edmonton Street, Prince George, BC, Canada on August 13, 2007, Alfred Hospital, Commercial Road Melbourne 3004, Australia on August 4, 2008, and other Korea hospitals that show the similar scale as Canada and Australia on September 10, 2007. The results were summarized as follows : 1. Differences were observed in this sexual composition, such as 18 males (90%) in Korea, 14 females (73.7%) in Canada, and 25 females in Australia (86.2%). 2. The item of 'aptitude' which is one of the most important criteria, showed the highest level in Korea, Canada, and Australia, and the second most considered item was 'salary'. 3. In the values in jobs, the items of 'economic self-sufficiency', 'recognized by others', and 'establishing a social position' represented high levels in Korea, and the items of 'like the job itself', 'establishing self-actualization', 'feel the meaning of life', and 'make new friends' showed high levels in Canada and Australia. 4. Regarding the item of 'a job is important as much as a marriage', 'Yes' showed high level in Korea, and 'No' showed high levels in Canada and Australia. 5. Radiological technologists in Korea demonstrated a low level in the job consciousness compared to those of Canada and Australia. Although this study shows some limitations for showing whole idea of radiological technologists due to the lack of the scope in samples for each country as a practical manner, this study can be regarded significant to compare some countries

  8. Assessing the Effects of NAFTA ON Canada/US Agricultural Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Hugh; Nzuma, Jonathan M.

    2005-01-01

    While there seems to be an agreement that Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUSTA)/North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have benefited member countries, some analysts have argued that the agreements had little effect on the bilateral Canada/US agricultural trade as many other factors have contributed to the increased trade flows. Results from this study reveal that the aggregate bilateral agricultural trade flows have generally experienced a steady growth since the implementation of NAFT...

  9. Important facts on Canada's natural resources (as of November 2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure presents a statistical account of Canada's natural resources sector, including the forest sector, mineral and mining sector, and energy producing sector. Canada's natural resources sectors and allied industries have contributed significantly to the country's economic growth and job creation for several decades. This brochure includes facts for 2003 and information on gross domestic products, direct employment, new capital investment, trade, imports, and balance of trade for each of the 3 sectors. The national economic importance of each sector was also outlined. In 2003, the forest sector contributed $33.7 billion to the Canadian economy (3 per cent of the national gross domestic product). Forest products were a major contributor to Canada's surplus balance of trade in 2003, with major commodities being softwood lumber, newsprint and wood pulp. Canada is also among the largest mining nations in the world, producing more than 60 minerals and metals. In 2003, the value of production from Canadian mining, mineral-processing and metal producing industries was about $50 billion (4 per cent of the national gross domestic product). The brochure includes a table that ranks 2003 world production and exports of uranium, nickel, zinc, gold, copper, potash, asbestos, gypsum and salt. Approximately 80 per cent of Canada's mineral production is exported. The brochure also presents data on the remaining established reserves in 2002 for natural gas (59.8 trillion cubic feet), crude oil (179.1 billion barrels), and primary energy production by commodity. These were 41.5 per cent gas, 32.9 per cent petroleum, 9.5 per cent electricity, 9.0 per cent coal, and 4.0 per cent wood waste. Alberta accounted for 63 per cent of total energy production, followed by British Columbia at 13 per cent, Saskatchewan at 9 per cent, Quebec at 4 per cent, and Ontario at 2 per cent. The international importance of geomatics and geoscience in Canada was also highlighted. This sector

  10. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity surveillance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Victoria M; Campbell, Melanie; Carson, George; Fraser, William; Liston, Robert M; Walker, Mark; Barrett, Jon

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System has provided a comprehensive review of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada, and has identified several important limitations to existing national maternal data collection systems, including variability in the detail and quality of mortality data. The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System report recommended the establishment of an ongoing national review and reporting system, as well as consistency in definitions and classifications of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity, in order to enhance surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. Using review articles and studies that examined maternal mortality in general as opposed to maternal mortality associated with particular management strategies or conditions, maternal mortality and severe morbidity classifications, terminology, and comparative statistics were reviewed and employed to evaluate deficiencies in past and current methods of data collection and to seek solutions to address the need for enhanced and consistent national surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada.

  11. Crisis of Identity in a Multi-cultural Society: The Case of Muslims in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A great majority of studies on ethnic identity or ethnic separatism indicate that a minority group dealing with severe deprivation becomes more frustrated, more aggressive, and more demanding of autonomy or separation. However, in a multi-cultural society where the people can live with their both separate and co-existing identities, the minority group usually demands for greater rights within societies, not an exit from them. This is the case of the Muslims in Canada who constitute a tiny minority in the Canadian population. Since Canada is a multicultural country, the Muslims have not demanded any kind of autonomy but have demanded rights to preserve Islamic values, and their own distinct identity as Muslims. In this article some basic questions are raised regarding the Canadian Muslims. When and how did the Muslims arrive in Canada? What types of challenges they are facing? How do they meet these challenges? What is the future of Muslims in Canada?

  12. In Dr. Norman Bethune’s Hometown——A Visit to Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Federation of Canada-China Friendship Associations (FCCFA), a CPAFFC working group paid a goodwill visit to Canada from September 5 to 15, 2008. The two members of the group, who visited Canada for the first time, were deeply impressed by the country’s vast land, tranquil and clear lakes, magnificent undulating mountains and hospitable people of various ethnic groups. During the visit, the group through contacting the Canadian friendship-with-China organizations enhanced mutual understanding, visited the birthplace of Doctor Norman Bethune and the cities where he had studied and worked, and had exchanges and sought cooperation with various sides of Canada for the activities to be held in 2009 in commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the death of Dr. Bethune and the publication of Chairman Mao’s article In Memory of Norman Bethune.

  13. Comparing approaches to integrating refugee and asylum-seeking healthcare professionals in Canada and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Yvonne; Bourgeault, Ivy L; Neiterman, Elena

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we examine barriers to the integration of refugee doctors and nurses in Canada and the United Kingdom. Key obstacles impeding the integration of internationally trained health professionals are well documented, but less attention has been paid to the integration of refugee health professionals, particularly in Canada. Based on documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews with 46 Canadian and 34 UK stakeholders, our research shows that there are no simple solutions to mitigating the core obstacles that prohibit the professional integration of refugee doctors and nurses into host countries. The targeted approach adopted in parts of the UK does provide some promising practices for Canada, which has yet to develop policies and initiatives specific to health professional refugees. This study is intended to contribute to our understanding of how immigration and health human resources policies have shaped the economic integration of refugee healthcare professionals in the UK and Canada in distinct ways. PMID:24289945

  14. The use of Traditional Medicine by Ghanaians in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into health and health-care seeking behaviour amongst immigrant populations suggests that culturally-based behaviours change over time towards those prevalent in the host culture. Such acculturation of immigrant groups occurs as part of the interaction of immigrants with mainstream culture. This study examined the acculturation of Ghanaian immigrants in Greater Toronto Area (Canada focusing particularly on attitudes towards and usage of Ghanaian traditional medicine (TRM. Methods The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. Structured questionnaire interviews were conducted with a sample of Ghanaians in active collaboration with the Ghanaian-Canadian Association in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA. A total of 512 questionnaire interviews were conducted. In addition, three focus groups of nine participants each were conducted with a sub-sample of Ghanaians in Canada. Results Both the questionnaire and the focus groups indicated that nearly 73% of the Ghanaian immigrants in Canada have a positive attitude toward Ghanaian TRM. This is in comparison with less than 30% who have changed their attitude for various reasons. Some of the attraction of TRM lies in its holistic origin. Ghanaians in the GTA have been pursuing 'integration' and 'assimilation' in their acculturation in Canada. Some have given up or modified some of their attitudes and opinions toward TRM to embrace the 'modern' or 'civilized' way of living. Conclusion There is the need for health care providers and other stakeholders to be aware of the influence of religion on African immigrants during their acculturation process. Although modernity is said to be founded on the 'ruthless undermining of tradition', there is no evidence to suggest that Ghanaian traditional religion has been undermined to such an extent that there is a major change in attitudes towards TRM.

  15. The Canadian initiative to bring the international thermonuclear experimental reactor to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the next step in fusion research. It is expected to be the last major experimental facility, before the construction of a prototype commercial reactor. The Engineering Design Activities (EDA) of ITER are being funded by the USA, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the European Union, with each of the major parties contributing about 25% of the cost. Canada participates as part of the European coalition. The EDA is due to be completed in 1998, and the major funding partners are preparing for the decision on the siting and construction of ITER. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) formed a Canadian ITER Siting Task Group to study siting ITER in Canada. The study indicated that hosting ITER would provide significant benefits, both technological and economic, to Canada. We have also confirmed that there would be substantial benefits to the ITER Project. CFFTP then formed a Canadian ITER Siting Board, with representation from a broad range of stakeholders, to champion, 'Canada as Host'. This paper briefly outlines the ITER Project, and the benefits to both Canada and the Project of a Canadian site. With this as background, the paper discusses the international scene and assesses Canada's prospects of being chosen to host ITER. (author)

  16. Opportunities in Canada's growing wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investment in Canada's wind sector is projected to reach $8 billion by 2012, and growth of the sector is expected to create over 16,000 jobs. Canada's wind energy capacity grew by 54 per cent in 2005 alone, aided in part by supportive national policies and programs such as the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI); the Canadian Renewable Conservation Expense (CRCE) and Class 43.1 Capital Cost Allowance; and support for research and development. Major long-term commitments for clean power purchases, standard offer contracts and renewable portfolio standards in several provinces are encouraging further development of the wind energy sector. This paper argued that the development of a robust Canadian wind turbine manufacturing industry will enhance economic development, create opportunities for export; and mitigate the effects of international wind turbine supply shortages. However, it is not known whether Canadian wind turbine firms are positioned to capitalize on the sector's recent growth. While Canada imports nearly all its large wind turbine generators and components, the country has technology and manufacturing strengths in advanced power electronics and small wind systems, as well as in wind resource mapping. Wind-diesel and wind-hydrogen systems are being developed in Canada, and many of the hybrid systems will offer significant opportunities for remote communities and off-grid applications. Company partnerships for technology transfer, licensing and joint ventures will accelerate Canada's progress. A recent survey conducted by Industry Canada and the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) indicated that the total impact of wind energy related expenditures on economic output is nearly $1.38 billion for the entire sector. Annual payroll for jobs in Canada was estimated at $50 million, and substantial employment growth in the next 5 years is expected. Canada offers a strong industrial supply base capable of manufacturing wind turbine generators and

  17. Pertactin-negative Bordetella pertussis strains in Canada: characterization of a dozen isolates based on a survey of 224 samples collected in different parts of the country over the last 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond S.W. Tsang

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: As reported elsewhere, pertactin-negative B. pertussis has emerged in Canada in recent years, notably in 2012. This coincided with an increase in pertussis activity in Canada. A further systematic study with a larger geographical representative sample is required to determine how these vaccine-negative strains may contribute to the overall changing epidemiology of pertussis in Canada.

  18. Integrating environment health and safety management at Petro-Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada has developed a tool to integrate, measure, and improve its management systems of environment, health, and safety (EH ampersand S). This tool, called the Total Loss Management System, is described in the areas of general management issues, policies and procedures, evaluations, organization, stewardship, issue management, and performance measures. Petro-Canada's policies on occupational health and safety are consistent with its environmental policy, being structured in the same way. An integrated audit system is used to cover health, safety, industrial hygiene, reliability, environment, and risk management. EH ampersand S matters are integrated at the corporate level in a separate department. Regional divisions review EH ampersand S performance every month, incidents are discussed, and preventive measures are taken as necessary. Regional performances are combined every quarter for ultimate presentation to the Petro-Canada board. New or emerging issues that may affect divisions are assigned an issue sponsor, a member of divisional management who makes sure the issue receives the resources necessary to study and define its impact. Examples of issues include soil contamination, process hazard management, and benzene exposure limits. Performance measures flow from the corporate environment and occupational health and safety policies, and come in two types: those that measure activities to improve performance and those that measure the outcome of the activities

  19. Climate warming and Canada's comparative position in argiculture. Rechauffement climatique et position relative du Canada en agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, B.

    1989-01-01

    A comparative analysis has been undertaken to assess the implications of climate warming for the competitive position of Canadian agriculture. Impacts of an altered climate on Canadian production and trade opportunities for selected crops are assessed relative to impacts in other regions of the world. Information on the impacts of climatic warming on agricultural production in each of the global regions was obtained by reviewing independent studies. A measure of consistency was ensured by assuming a climate change scenario based upon an enriched CO{sub 2} atmosphere and by specifying a range of temperatures for each region. Five approaches were used for estimating the climate change impacts on agriculture: crop yield analysis, spatial shift analysis, spatial and historical analogues, agricultural systems models, and assessments based on expert judgment. Some highlights of the analyses are as follows. Production prospects for wheat and grain corn may be enhanced in Canada and the Soviet Union, and may diminish in most other regions of the world. Opportunities for producing soybeans may decrease in the world's major producing regions, particularly the USA and Central America. The production of rice in Asian countries may increase. Canada's position in production and trade of wheat and grain corn may improve relative to the rest of the world. Impacts are likely to vary among regions in Canada, with ramifications for regional development policies. 3 tabs.

  20. Action plan for electric mobility in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric mobility is an important emerging industry in Canada, where there is significant expertise in electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries, hybrid technologies, grid-connected technologies and fuel cell vehicles. This paper presented a case for the formation of Electric Mobility Canada, a proposed network of private companies and public sector agencies that aims to stimulate industry and provide support to government agencies involved with meeting Canada's obligations under the Kyoto Protocol, as well as in new industry sectors. The environmental, health, economic and industrial benefits of electric mobility were outlined. Current programs for electric mobility were reviewed, and details of financial incentives and initiatives were presented. An overview of electric mobility programs in the United States and Europe was provided. Research and development needs were evaluated. The former Electric Vehicle Association of Canada was discussed. An organizational structure for the proposed network was presented, along with a mission statement and outline of future goals. Recommendations for the future of the network included identifying short and long-term market opportunities for electric mobility technologies for all surface transport modes in Canada; determining research and development needs and appropriate funding and investment opportunities; determining other actions necessary to allow the electric mobility industry to play a growing role in meeting Canada's transport needs; and raising public awareness of the importance of electric mobility trends. It was concluded that the federal government should be approached for start-up funds for the network, which will be followed by further investment from provincial and business interests once the network is in place and functioning. 84 refs

  1. Satellite mobile data service for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  2. The nuclear ingredient in Canada's industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy scene in Canada has been confused by a changing industrial and economic pattern, a proliferation of energy options, a conflict of energy priorities, and possibly a media and anti-nuclear inspired perception that electricity is expensive and not a good substitute for oil. In spite of an economic down-turn, in 1982-83 five new CANDU reactors with a combined capacity of 3000 MW were completed in Canada. Opportunities exist for increased use of electricity both in households and in industry. The benefits of nuclear power have extended beyond a reliable and economic energy supply to research advances, job creation, and the overall industrial development of the country

  3. Canada's green plan - The second year. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan's goal is 'to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.' It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan's short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities

  4. Suicide among immigrant psychiatric patients in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, R; Beddage, V; Fernando, M L

    1991-11-01

    Ninety-four Canadian-born psychiatric patients who committed suicide were compared with 23 foreign-born patients committing suicide in Canada. East Europeans were over-represented, and significant differences were found in the age distribution, stress, level of education, social isolation, and methods of suicide. Most foreign-born patients had come to Canada for family or economic reasons but were unemployed, with poor social integration. Employment, housing, education, social integration and a support network seem to be important in preventing these deaths. Cultural evaluation of the patient and early intervention is recommended. PMID:1756350

  5. Climatic Redistribution of Canada's Water Resources (CROCWR): An analysis of spatial and temporal hydrological trends and patterns in western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawden, A. J.; Burn, D. H.; Prowse, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability and change can have profound impacts on the hydrologic regime of a watershed. These effects are likely to be especially severe in regions particularly sensitive to changes in climate, such as the Canadian north, or when there are other stresses on the hydrologic regime, such as may occur when there are large withdrawals from, or land-use changes within, a watershed. A recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stressed that future climate is likely to accelerate the hydrologic cycle and hence may affect water security in certain locations. For some regions, this will mean enhanced access to water resources, but because the effects will not be spatially uniform, other regions will experience reduced access. Understanding these patterns is critical for water managers and government agencies in western Canada - an area of highly contrasting hydroclimatic regimes and overlapping water-use and jurisdictional borders - as adapting to climate change may require reconsideration of inter-regional transfers and revised allocation of water resources to competing industrial sectors, including agriculture, hydroelectric production, and oil and gas. This research involves the detection and examination of spatial and temporal streamflow trends in western Canadian rivers as a response to changing climatic factors, including temperature, precipitation, snowmelt, and the synoptic patterns controlling these drivers. The study area, known as the CROCWR region, extends from the Pacific coast of British Columbia as far east as the Saskatchewan-Manitoba border and from the Canada-United States international border through a large portion of the Northwest Territories. This analysis examines hydrologic trends in monthly and annual streamflow for a collection of 34 hydrometric gauging stations believed to adequately represent the overall effects of climate variability and change on flows in western Canada by means of the Mann-Kendall non

  6. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  7. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  8. From sea to sea: Canada's three oceans of biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Archambault

    Full Text Available Evaluating and understanding biodiversity in marine ecosystems are both necessary and challenging for conservation. This paper compiles and summarizes current knowledge of the diversity of marine taxa in Canada's three oceans while recognizing that this compilation is incomplete and will change in the future. That Canada has the longest coastline in the world and incorporates distinctly different biogeographic provinces and ecoregions (e.g., temperate through ice-covered areas constrains this analysis. The taxonomic groups presented here include microbes, phytoplankton, macroalgae, zooplankton, benthic infauna, fishes, and marine mammals. The minimum number of species or taxa compiled here is 15,988 for the three Canadian oceans. However, this number clearly underestimates in several ways the total number of taxa present. First, there are significant gaps in the published literature. Second, the diversity of many habitats has not been compiled for all taxonomic groups (e.g., intertidal rocky shores, deep sea, and data compilations are based on short-term, directed research programs or longer-term monitoring activities with limited spatial resolution. Third, the biodiversity of large organisms is well known, but this is not true of smaller organisms. Finally, the greatest constraint on this summary is the willingness and capacity of those who collected the data to make it available to those interested in biodiversity meta-analyses. Confirmation of identities and intercomparison of studies are also constrained by the disturbing rate of decline in the number of taxonomists and systematists specializing on marine taxa in Canada. This decline is mostly the result of retirements of current specialists and to a lack of training and employment opportunities for new ones. Considering the difficulties encountered in compiling an overview of biogeographic data and the diversity of species or taxa in Canada's three oceans, this synthesis is intended to

  9. Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Evolving perspectives on lyme borreliosis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Jlh; Middelveen, Mj; Klein, D; Sperling, Fah

    2012-01-01

    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis.

  11. Radiation biology in Canada 1962-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the research projects in radiation biology being carried out in Canada during the fiscal year 1962-63. The report includes the names of the investigators, their location, a brief description of the projects and information on the financial support being provided. A classification of the projects into areas of specific interest is also included. (author)

  12. Canada: An Ideal Place for Outbound Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ In recent years, bilateral investment between China and Canada has become more and more active. According to the report on overseas investment of Chinese enterprises released by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)at the 4th Chinese Enterprise Outbound Investment Conference, Chinese overseas investment is displayingan increasing trend, with the strength of Chinese enterprises and overseas investment rapidly growing.

  13. Recent developments in Canada's climate change program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper surveys Canada's official response to the responsibilities it took on with the Kyoto Protocol. In order to meet Kyoto targets for the timeframe 2008-2012, greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced by 33 percent below what they currently are. Two billion Canadian dollars have been allocated to this effort. The government of Canada's official stance is that carbon dioxide levels have been rising more rapidly than at any other time in the last half million years. Canada's main efforts in the mining and minerals sector have been to find a replacement for sulphur hexafluoride, reduce emissions of perfluorocarbons, and demonstrate the use of hydrogen as a fuel for underground mining vehicles. According to the author, the most important contribution has been the use of supplementary cementing material such as fly ash, ash, and ground blast furnace slag. These materials have partially replaced cement in concrete. Canada expects to reduce carbon dioxide emissions this way by about 1.5 million tonnes per year. EcoSmart, a non-profit organization, is the main vehicle for this effort. 8 refs., 7 figs

  14. Workplace health and safety: report from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, R

    1986-01-01

    This article represents a critical analysis of the major policy responses to workplace health and safety in Canada. It examines the deficiencies inherent in the legislative development of Joint Health and Safety Committees in most Canadian jurisdictions, the limitations regarding standard-setting of worker exposure to contaminants, and disincentive for employers to positively improve the workplace because of Workers Compensation legislation. Collective bargaining agreements in Canada have had only limited positive effects, while the ultimate legal sanction of criminal prosecution by the regulatory agencies has weakened enforcement and compliance of existing regulations. There has never been a successful criminal prosecution of an employer in Canada, even for multiple deaths. The article suggests the following four reasons for this "underdevelopment" of occupational health and safety in Canada: the concealment of the dimension of the incidence of industrial disease based on Workers Compensation Board statistics; the application of an incorrect theory of causation of both industrial disease and injury by both managers and government administrators of occupational health and safety programs; the resistance of both senior and middle managers against increased worker participation in both work organization and job design questions; and the general "moral underdevelopment," rather than ignorance, of managers in favoring economic considerations or values at the expense of worker health and safety. In light of the magnitude of the problem and the deficiencies of existing policy approaches, the author proposes the need for greater workplace democratization of production and industry as a necessary and sufficient reform of workplace health and safety.

  15. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties has not been…

  16. Canada,China,Closer in Hard Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Facing the current global financial storm,more posSible economic and trade cooperation and promotion worldwide is being sought by nations to walk out the hard time.The 2nd Canada China Business Forum held in Beijing,on November 3,is an example to a closer tie of both countries.

  17. Return migration from Canada to Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A H

    1968-07-01

    Abstract Statistics of migrants returning from Canada to Britain and re-registering for national insurance purposes are compared with labour force immigrants entering Canada between 1956 and 1965. Short and long-term indices are calculated which suggest that return migration has been increasing since 1960. A sample survey carried out in 1962-63 distinguishes three types of returning migrant: (a) quasi-migrants who originally planned to return to Britain; (b) permanent repatriates who originally intended to settle in Canada but now expect to remain in Britain; (c) transilient migrants who exhibit a high propensity to move backwards and forwards between two or more countries without becoming permanently rooted in anyone. The demographic, economic and social characteristics of the three types are described. A further comparison is made between migrants who plan to settle in Britain, those who intend to come back again to Canada, and those who are uncertain of their future plans or who intend to move on to a third country.

  18. Petro-Canada annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is Canada's national energy corporation, formed by an Act of Parliament in 1975. Operations began in January 1976. In 1991, Petro-Canada became a public company, issuing 19.5% of its common shares for net proceeds of $523 million. Heavy losses in the first half of the year were driven by price volatility following the Persian Gulf war. Cash flow return on capital employed was 7.2%, and a net loss of $598 million was posted. The Klua gas field was brought on stream only 30 months after discovery, an important gas discovery was made in British Columbia, and production and sales of natural gas increased. This annual report presents a corporate profile, a statement of corporate responsibility, and the year's activities in production and sales of natural gas, synthetic and natural crude oil and gasoline. Details are also provided of Petro-Canada's financial and operational restructuring in view of the declining revenues being obtained. A financial review from 1986 to the present is included, along with a glossary of financial terms, a financial statement, and a 5-year summary. Reserves information comparing the current to the previous year is given. 11 figs., 12 tabs

  19. TransCanada Corporation 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents financial information from TransCanada Corp., along with a review of its operations throughout 2003 and a summary of the how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2003, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations by 7 per cent. It maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. More than 1.2 billion was invested and dividends were increased by 7 per cent in January 2004, for a total return to shareholders of 27 per cent, including dividends. In 2003, TransCanada also increased its ownership interest in Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd. to 100 per cent from 50 per cent. It secured a position in the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project and progressed the development of multiple liquefied natural gas projects in the northeast United States and eastern Canada. The company acquired 31.6 per cent interest in Bruce Power, adding nearly 1,500 megawatts base load generation to its portfolio. Plans are underway for cogeneration plants in Quebec, New Brunswick and Alberta. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  20. Prediction of Hepatitis C Burden in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimian Zou

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the risk of hepatitis C in Canada and to predict the burden that this disease may pose to the Canadian society in the near future, expected numbers of persons at different stages of the disease currently and in the next decade were estimated by simulation using a published hepatitis C natural history model with no treatment effect being applied. Based on the estimate of 240,000 persons who are currently infected with the hepatitis C virus in Canada, the simulation analysis demonstrated that the number of hepatitis C cirrhosis cases would likely increase by 92% from 1998 to the year 2008. It was also projected that the number of liver failures and hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C would increase by 126% and 102%, respectively, in the next decade. The number of liver-related deaths associated with hepatitis C is expected to increase by 126% in 10 years. The medical and social care systems in Canada may not be ready to support these large increases. These results highlight the importance of both the control of disease progression of hepatitis C virus-infected persons and the primary prevention of hepatitis C infections in Canada.

  1. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  2. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue consists of the following: an article entitled "Suggestopaedia and Language Teaching, International Perspective"; an article which discusses possible adaptations of the Bulgarian Suggestopaedia - A New Method of Teaching Foreign Languages"; and bibliographical notes from Canada and Bulgaria announcing new publications on suggestopedia.…

  3. Canada thistle phenology in broadbean canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soine of the developmental stages of Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (I. emergence and early growth, II. shooting, II. budding, IV. flowering, V. fructification, VI. shedding of fruits on the background of development stages of broad-bean, weeded by herbicides and without that weed-killing substances, were presented in the paper. Phenological observations were carried out on the plants growing on alluvial soil developed from light loam in Zakrz6w near Tarnobrzeg. It was proved that phenological development of Canada thistle, during broad-bean vegetation, depended on course of weather conditions and method of crop care. Emergence of the weed occurred earlier than broad-bean plants during warm and rather dry seasons. In every vegetation period, emergence and early vegetation stage (to 4 leaves seedling of Canada thistle lasted about 3 months, until broad-bean got full pod setting. During wet and cold season (in 2001 the weed emerged also early under herbicide (Afalon 1,5 kg ha-1 condition. Until to broad-bean harvest, Canada thistle attained the finish developmental stages, that means fruiting and fruit shedding. Herbicide treatment delayed the last two stages and limited fruit shedding by plants of Cirsium arvense.

  4. STEM Education in Canada: A Knowledge Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoito, Isha

    2016-01-01

    Across Canada many initiatives have been initiated to generate more interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; however, no single or comprehensive overview has been conducted that takes into account the impact of these STEM initiatives on teaching/learning outcomes in K-12 education. This knowledge synthesis of…

  5. The core health science library in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J L

    1974-04-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists.

  6. The Core Health Science Library in Canada *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, June Leath

    1974-01-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482

  7. Enriched Students Program: Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    The Russell C. Gordon Elementary School (Nova Scotia, Canada) offers the Enriched Students Program (ESP) for academically gifted students. ESP goals include: fostering and developing individual interests of students; initiating higher level thinking skills; strengthening task commitment; stimulating creativity; promoting leadership qualities; and…

  8. TransCanada PipeLines Limited 1998 annual report : TransCanada energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from TransCanada PipeLines Limited and a review of the company's 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. TransCanada's pipeline system transports natural gas and crude oil from Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to North America's major energy markets. Net earnings from continuing operations for 1998, before unusual charges, were $575 million ($ 355 million after unusual charges) compared to $522 million for 1997. Solid performances from the energy transmission and international business, when compared to 1997, were more than offset by a decreased contribution from energy processing. TransCanada recorded integration costs of $166 million, after tax, related to the merger with NOVA in 1998, which was the major operational accomplishment during the year, creating a seamless economic energy delivery, processing and marketing system from the wellhead to the market. tabs., figs

  9. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section 123.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments...

  10. Canada/China Oil and Gas Technology Transfer Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhongqiao

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Government of Canada is providing assistance to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) via the Canada/China Oil and Gas Technology Transfer Programme. Canada is represented by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in this Programme, while China's interests are administered by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (MOFTEC).

  11. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  12. The electric picnic: synergistic requirements for exoelectrogenic microbial communities

    KAUST Repository

    Kiely, Patrick D

    2011-06-01

    Characterization of the various microbial populations present in exoelectrogenic biofilms provides insight into the processes required to convert complex organic matter in wastewater streams into electrical current in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). Analysis of the community profiles of exoelectrogenic microbial consortia in BESs fed different substrates gives a clearer picture of the different microbial populations present in these exoelectrogenic biofilms. Rapid utilization of fermentation end products by exoelectrogens (typically Geobacter species) relieves feedback inhibition for the fermentative consortia, allowing for rapid metabolism of organics. Identification of specific syntrophic processes and the communities characteristic of these anodic biofilms will be a valuable aid in improving the performance of BESs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Extratropical Transitions in Atlantic Canada: Impacts and Adaptive Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Athena; Catto, Norm

    2013-04-01

    Cyclones originating over the tropical Atlantic may undergo the process of extratropical transition as they move northeastward along the coast of North America. Interaction with eastward-moving mid-latitude cyclones or frontal systems can result in the formation of spatially larger, more powerful storms, marked by frontal characteristics, changes (either increases or decreases) in wind speed and track velocity, and less predictable tracks coupled with increased precipitation and potential for storm surge. Of the 330 tropical cyclones formed over the North Atlantic from 1991 to 2011, 134 (40.6%) underwent partial or total extratropical transition. The dynamics and threats of extratropical transitions have not been extensively studied. Consequently, forecasters refer to approaching storms as "hurricanes," although they are frequently extratropical in character by the time they reach New York and New England, and almost always have undergone partial or complete transition before making landfall in Atlantic Canada. In rare instances, extratropical transitions may continue to progress eastwards across the North Atlantic. In a typical summer-autumn, Atlantic Canada is impacted by 5 to 7 storms of tropical origin. Due to variations in track and interaction to form extratropical transitions, the number of summer and early autumn storm events in Atlantic Canada is not linked to the total number of hurricanes in any specific year. Overall tropical cyclone frequency in the North Atlantic cannot be directly correlated with temperature variations, or with the frequency or magnitude of summer and early autumn storms in Atlantic Canada. Extratropical transition "Igor" directly impacted more than 40,000 km2 of eastern Newfoundland on 20-22 September 2010. Current estimates of damage to human property exceed 165 million, and one human life was lost. River flooding resulted from rainfall in excess of 150 mm/24 h in several locations, with peak stream flow locally exceeding 600 m3/s

  14. Condom vending machines in Canada's secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D L

    1990-03-01

    A case study of 1 of the 3 school boards approving in 1989 installation of condom machines is presented: The Lisgar Collegiate Institute, Ottawa, Canada. The school is characterized as having 1000 college preparatory students from middle and upper middle class homes and university educated parents. The project was student initiated and involved 1) meeting with communication consultants to determine feasibility, 2) conducting an informal peer consultation to seek out interest and support, 3) meeting with public health officials to gain support and ideas, and 4) conducting research. Condom machine installation (2) was only 1 component; a pilot sexuality education program was included as well. The student proposal was presented and rejected by the principal and the Superintendent of Student Services. Students then lobbied the school board trustees. 2 students lobbies each school board member. Letters of support were obtained from parents' advisory groups, parents, the student council, and other influential people. The media provided coverage in a popular morning television show. The student proposal was submitted to the Board of Education's Education Committee in June 1989; students were assisted by teachers and the Parents Advisory Committee. The school board approved. In the fall of 1989, sexuality awareness week was designated as October 30-November 3. Parents were asked for comments on the designated program, but only 50 contributed in a supportive way. During this week lunch-hour displays and videos, peer-facilitated discussion groups, informal talks by experts, and student theater presentations were sponsored activities. Following this event, the school board arranged for the installment of machines in the men's and women's washrooms near where social events were held and in toilet cubicles in order to provide privacy, as requested by students. The individual cost is US$1/condom. Evaluation is planned. Students have been amused by the amount of public response

  15. Population, distribution and ecology of Aleutian Canada geese on their migration and wintering areas, 1983-84

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 10th annual wintering ground study of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 22 October 1983 to 11 May 1984....

  16. Population, distribution and ecology of Aleutian Canada geese on their migration and wintering areas, 1980-1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The migration and wintering ground study of the Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was continued again in California in 1980-81 from October 10...

  17. Official Language Bilingualism to the Exclusion of Multilingualism: Immigrant Student Perspectives on French as a Second Official Language in "English-Dominant" Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the implications of Canada's official bilingual status on young immigrant adults who are presently studying at the undergraduate level at university. More precisely, I examine how these young adults have experienced and judge French as a second official language (FSOL) learning in "English-dominant" regions of Canada. Through a…

  18. Mixed methods immigrant mental health research in Canada: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farah; Oremus, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Canada is home to a growing immigrant population. However, immigrant mental health declines over time following arrival in Canada. Canada's Mental Health Strategy emphasizes the importance of research that gathers information from multiple sources of knowledge to identify the mental health challenges faced by diverse immigrant populations. Mixed methods research (MMR) is well suited for this task. However, a dearth of research exists on the application of MMR to the study of immigrant mental health. A systematic review of the published MMR literature in Canadian immigrant mental health was carried out. Overall, existing MMR studies failed to incorporate correct mixed methods terminology and fully integrate the quantitative and qualitative components of the research. A checklist of important elements to include in MMR studies is offered.

  19. Promoting print magazine subscriptions online at Reader's Digest Canada, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yuchun

    2013-01-01

    This report examines methods of maximizing print magazine subscriptions on the rd.ca website. It begins with an overview of the history and current status of the Reader’s Digest Canada (RDC). It then takes an in-depth look at the ways in which RDC is currently reviewing and refining its online subscription strategies. It compares the methods used by RDC to methods of online subscription promotion employed by its main competitors. The study concludes with a set of recommendations for promoting...

  20. Value at Risk Disclosures: The Case of Canada Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhub, Hala

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on the empirical analysis that has been conducted by (Pérignon, Deng and Wang, 2007), to test whether the Royal bank of Canada (RBC) and the Bank of Montreal (BMO) are overstating their Value at Risk (VaR). This study is based on non-anonymous data of the daily VaR and P&L for both banks within the period starting from the year 2001 till the year 2010. The paper exhibits results contradicting those of (Pérignon, Deng and Wang, 2007) , it shows that RBC and BMO do not overs...

  1. Growth Of Broadband And ICT Adoption By SMEs In Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. FLEET

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, we have conducted three Atlantic Canada-wide surveys of SME businesses benchmarking levels of ICT adoption, change in adoption, as well as the role of marketing and export on ICT usage in helping to create growing and sustainable business opportunities. Despite Atlantic Canada’s low population base and distance to major population centres, SMEs in the region show strong levels of adoption of various ICT products and services. Broadband access, website adoption and online purchasing is now over 90%. Even newer socialnetworking services, such as web analytics, search engine optimization, and the use of Twitter are being adopted by as many of 44% of the SMEs. These adoption rates will be compared with our previous studies to document the historical growth within Atlantic Canada, as well as compare these baseline measures to other regions within Canada, as well as studies of comparable regions worldwide.

  2. Canada's climate change policy in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has a wide range of implications for the health, well-being, and economic prospects for Canadians, and for the ecological systems that sustain life on this planet. The overwhelming scientific opinion, world leaders and even a growing number of corporate leaders now agree that the Earth is undergoing a significant and unusual warming period as a result of the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. There is also wide agreement that much of this build-up is anthropogenic, and that a global effort is required to slow this trend. Because climate change is a global problem, it requires global solutions by way of reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the Kyoto Agreement of 1997 constitutes a major breakthrough, even though it takes only a small step towards towards altering the human impact on global climate. Although some 80 states, plus the European Union signed the Kyoto Protocol, it remains unclear when it will come into force because the majority of states have failed to ratify it, pending the resolution of a variety of technical and operational details. Canada is the second highest emitter of greenhouse gases (16 tonnes per capita, compared to world average of 3.6 tonnes per capita). This, combined with Canada's foreign policy goals of playing a leading role in taking action and preserving its reputation as an honest broker, makes the challenge of meeting Canada's Kyoto commitments especially pressing. The purpose of this paper is to explain Canada's climate change policy in the context of these international and domestic pressures. The paper identifies the main climate change-related policy challenges, international responses to date and the constraints and opportunities open to Canada in the light of its economy, its federalist political structure, and place in the world as a middle power, as well as its geographic situation, natural resources and environmental endowment. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto

  3. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the second in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1979 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may be changing. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increased over the corresponding values for 1977 and 1978

  4. Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Suzy L; Gilmour, Heather; Ramage-Morin, Pamela L

    2016-05-18

    This article provides information on Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, using the 2010/2011 Canadian Community Health Survey, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. Among Canadians aged 45 or older, an estimated 0.8% in private households and 45% in long-term residential care facilities had a diagnosis of dementia. Prevalence rose with age. The vast majority of people with dementia in private households received assistance with medical care (81%), housework and home maintenance (83%), meal preparation (88%), emotional support (90%), transportation (92%), and managing care (92%). Among those receiving assistance, 85% relied, at least in part, on family, friends or neighbours. The primary caregiver tended to be a spouse (46%) or an adult child (44%), most of whom were daughters (71%). The majority of primary caregivers lived in the same household (83%) and provided daily care (86%). PMID:27192206

  5. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1978 report is the first in a series of annual reports on occupational radiation exposures in Canada. The data are derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of overexposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1978 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may have changed. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increasd over the corresponding values for 1977

  6. Carbon disclosure project report 2009 : Canada 200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon disclosure project conducts an annual survey to determine the strategies and actions of major cap companies in relation to climate change. This report discussed initiatives implemented by Canada's largest companies to prepare for a carbon-constrained future. The report documented results from 97 companies. The aim of the report was to help companies make use of the disclosures as reference points for future carbon markets and regulations relating to reporting requirements. Results of the survey demonstrated that Canada's low-carbon and high-carbon impact sectors have implemented several significant initiatives and best practices for operations. However, widespread engagement in a comprehensive manner has yet to be achieved. Many respondents were in the process of developing a more balanced risk-opportunity agenda in relation to climate change, and nearly half of all respondents have implemented governance arrangements or personal incentives in both both the high-carbon and low-carbon impact sectors. 5 tabs., 26 figs.

  7. Public information and education in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of providing public information on nuclear energy in Canada for more than 40 years is described. Information centers are part of all nuclear power plants and they receive many thousands of visitors each year. Until the 1970s public information programs were relatively easy. There was a lot of interest in nuclear energy, and there was little debate about it or opposition to it. But times have changed, and Canadian public information strategies and tactics have evolved to meet challenge of answering increasing public concerns. In the past 20 years Canada has gone through three phases in relationship with the public: information, communication, participation. Activities on implementation of these phases are outlined

  8. Power Imbalances, Food Insecurity, and Children's Rights in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay-Palmer, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, food is provided through an industrial food system that separates people from the source of their food and results in high rates of food insecurity, particularly for the most vulnerable in society. A lack of food is a symptom of a lack of power in a system that privileges free market principles over social justice and the protection of human rights. In Canada, the high rates of food insecurity among Canadian children is a reflection of their lack of power and the disregard of their human rights, despite the adoption of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991 and ratification of the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights in 1976, which established the right to food for all Canadians. Dueling tensions between human rights and market forces underpin this unacceptable state of affairs in Canada. Gaventa's "power cube" that describes different facets of power - including spaces, levels, and forms - is used to help understand the power imbalances that underlie this injustice. The analysis considers the impact of neoliberal free market principles on the realization of human rights, and the negative impacts this can have on health and well-being for the most vulnerable in society. Canadian case studies from both community organizations provide examples of how power can be shifted to achieve more inclusive, rights-based policy and action. Given increased global pressures toward more open trade markets and national austerity measures that hollow out social supports, Canada provides a cautionary tale for countries in the EU and the US, and for overall approaches to protect the most vulnerable in society. PMID:27563642

  9. Power Imbalances, Food Insecurity, and Children's Rights in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay-Palmer, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, food is provided through an industrial food system that separates people from the source of their food and results in high rates of food insecurity, particularly for the most vulnerable in society. A lack of food is a symptom of a lack of power in a system that privileges free market principles over social justice and the protection of human rights. In Canada, the high rates of food insecurity among Canadian children is a reflection of their lack of power and the disregard of their human rights, despite the adoption of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991 and ratification of the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights in 1976, which established the right to food for all Canadians. Dueling tensions between human rights and market forces underpin this unacceptable state of affairs in Canada. Gaventa's "power cube" that describes different facets of power - including spaces, levels, and forms - is used to help understand the power imbalances that underlie this injustice. The analysis considers the impact of neoliberal free market principles on the realization of human rights, and the negative impacts this can have on health and well-being for the most vulnerable in society. Canadian case studies from both community organizations provide examples of how power can be shifted to achieve more inclusive, rights-based policy and action. Given increased global pressures toward more open trade markets and national austerity measures that hollow out social supports, Canada provides a cautionary tale for countries in the EU and the US, and for overall approaches to protect the most vulnerable in society.

  10. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  11. Hydropower developments in Canada: number, size and jurisdictional and ecological distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter G.; Hanneman, Matt; Cheng, Ryan [Global Forest Watch Canada (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    For over 200 years, energy production and consumption, along with all human activities, have been contributing to global warming. This report is part of a project that examines 10 major energy sectors to provide information on Canada's energy options in the face of climate change; this present study gives information on hydropower reservoirs and associated dams in Canada. The mapping, jurisdictional and ecological distribution of reservoirs and dams across Canada is provided herein. Canada's hydropower installations are composed of 271 large hydropower facilities covering 58,015 km2 with a capacity of 71,857 MW, accounting for 44% of Canada's total technical hydroelectric capacity. Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia are the provinces with the most large hydropower dams; 19% of the watersheds are occupied in part by hydropower reservoirs and the taiga shield, boreal shield and montane cordillera ecozones contain most of the reservoir areas. The majority of future developments are expected to be built within 5km of intact forest landscapes.

  12. Stealth Advertising: The Commercialization of Television News Broadcasts in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Chernov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This two-phase study deals with the phenomenon of “stealth advertising” in Canada. This concept refers to the encroachment of commercially tinted messages into broadcast news segments. Different theories of commercial speech were used as a theoretical framework. The study combined mixed methods, content analysis and in-depth interviews. The first phase concentrated on the frequency and actual time spent airing commercially influenced messages in television newscast segments. The sample consisted of eight randomly selected English-language markets across Canada including news stations affiliated with CBC, CTV and Global. Seventy-five newscasts were recorded and content-analyzed. The analysis demonstrated that private television stations used more explicit and aggressive stealth advertising than publicly owned ones. In subsequent interviews, the news directors and sales managers of some of these stations denied that they yield to outside commercial pressures but admitted they may include messages with commercial content if these have public interest value. In the second phase thirty-nine newscasts of a news station affiliated with Global were recorded and content-analyzed, showing high numbers of commercially influenced messages and corroborating previous research findings. Subsequent interviews showed some news decision-makers accept the inclusion of commercially tinted news segments, thus eroding the divide between editorial and commercial contents. This study is intended to contribute to the empirical basis for pursuing the question of corruption of news by surreptitious commercial content.

  13. Market Expansion Opportunity Analysis for Adigy Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This project develops business and marketing strategies for the expansion of Adigy Canada, a medical heart telemetry device developer, into the golfing market. It researches the needs of this market, analyzes industry forces and recommends target market segments, a business model, distribution channels, and marketing strategies. The design and marketing of a training aid product is recommended as this segment of the golf industry seems to have a medium to high level of attractiveness. The rec...

  14. Canada: An Ideal Place for Outbound Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ In recent years,bilateral investment between China and Canada has become more and more active.According to the report on overseas investment of Chinese enterprises released by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)at the 4th Chinese Enterprise Outbound Investment Conference,Chinese overseas investment is displaying an increasing trend,with the strength of Chinese enterprises and overseas investment rapidly growing.

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1973-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. This report summarizes the results obtained during 1973-1976 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides. During this period, all radioactivity levels were below the maximum permissible limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (Auth)

  16. Rural family medicine training in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Rourke, J. T.; Rourke, L. L.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the status of postgraduate family medicine training that occurs in rural family practice settings in Canada and to identify problems and how they are addressed. DESIGN: A retrospective questionnaire sent to all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs followed by a focus group discussion of results. SETTING: Canadian university family medicine training programs. PARTICIPANTS: Chairs or program directors of all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs and people...

  17. Sexual orientation, work, and income in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher S. Carpenter

    2008-01-01

    We provide the first evidence on sexual orientation and economic outcomes in Canada using confidential data that ask adults a direct question about their sexual orientation. Gay men have 12% lower personal incomes and lesbians have 15% higher personal incomes than otherwise similar heterosexual men and women, respectively. Different labour force patterns can account for some of the income differentials. We also document large differences in educational attainment, childrearing, and urbanicity...

  18. Acute copper toxicosis in the Canada goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B M; Winterfield, R W

    1975-01-01

    Acute copper toxicosis resulted in Canada geese, Branta canadensis, following ingestion of copper sulfate at about 600mg/kg from a small man-made pond on a game farm. The lesions were those associated with copper toxicosis in other avian species. The primary pathologic change was necrosis and sloughing of the proventriculus and gizzard. A greenish discoloration of the lungs also occurred. PMID:1156262

  19. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, J

    1996-07-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  20. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, J.

    1996-01-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initi...