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Sample records for canada petrochemical industries

  1. Wastewater quality control at Sarnia (Ontario, Canada) petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, Arlinda C. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Souza, Eliane S.; Himmelman, William [Lambton College, Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Ontario industries are required by law to meet strict regulations under the provinces under MISA initiative (Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement). The petroleum-petrochemical area was selected as a leader in the development of new environmental objectives, and monitoring and training programs. Sarnia has become a world leader in industrial environmental control systems and the approach toward zero emissions. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Financing the petrochemical industry : a banker's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks that are associated with the petrochemical industry from a lender's perspective were described. It was suggested that the petrochemical industry is facing a downturn which will be intensified by the Asian economic crisis. In the past, petrochemicals were recognized as a major requirement for economic growth and many governments encouraged joint ventures with foreign companies. However, the Asian economic crisis has significantly slowed petrochemical demand from Canada. The three major risks associated with the petrochemical industry - cyclical nature of the business, price volatility and complexity - were examined. It was shown that a typical petrochemical company accesses multiple feedstocks and produces thousands of products. This complicates cash flow analysis and market risk for lenders. Another risk pertains to environmental issues and international environmental policies which emphasize reduction of emissions, including those from chemical manufacturing. Critical success factors such as global diversification, leading process technology, low cost operation, and focusing on core competencies were also reviewed. Prediction for the next three to five years was a further slowdown of Asian demand, competition from Asian petrochemical companies, capacity driven oversupply and industry consolidation as a way to deal with depressed markets that could last for several years. Nevertheless, the emerging markets will continue to be the hotspots. Alberta, as one of the low cost feedstock areas of the world, will continue to be in a good position to take advantage of the Asian recovery which despite the current problems, is confidently expected within the next three to five years. 5 figs

  3. China's petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear from the trade press that American, European, and Japanese chemical companies are making major capital investment commitments in China. They are also developing strategies to participate in the country's growth. Many people wonder how long the window of opportunity will remain open. Some questions one may ask include: What are the driving forces for such intense activity? What role is the Chinese government playing in implementing growth plans? What are the classes of chemical products receiving priority attention? To what degree is China integrating upstream into energy and basic feedstocks? What are the long-term implications for Asia and the rest of the world with respect to foreign trade? To answer these and other questions, Martech, Inc., a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, recently completed a comprehensive report on China's petrochemical industry. This article is adapted from the executive summary of that report

  4. China's Petrochemical Industry Faces Six Major Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng Guoquan

    2003-01-01

    @@ Senior Vice President of Sinopec Zhang Jiaren recently pointed out that China's petrochemical industry has substantially entered the transition period following the nation's entry into World Trade Organization, adding the Chinese petrochemical industry is facing six major chanllenges.

  5. Bright Prospect Ahead for Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Shuhong

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's petrochemical industry will show better performance in the year of 2010,Feng Shili,deputy secretary general with the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association(CPCIA),recently told China's news media in Beijing.

  6. Daqing Accelerates Development of Petrochem Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Fengming

    1997-01-01

    @@ Daqing Petroleum Administration (DPA) is making efforts to develop its petrochemical industry concentrating on chemical auxiliaries for tertiary recovery in an attempt to keep a stable production in the oil area.

  7. GOVERNMENT TO REGULATE COAL-PETROCHEMICALS INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Chinese Government will soon issue an industry policy to regulate the coal-chemicals sector, after a circular in August ordered local authorities to tighten their grip on the approval of new coal-to-petrochemicals projects in China.

  8. Review of China's Petrochemical Industry and Market in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Resin China's resin industry is characterized with three features in 2003. First of all, the production grew significantly in 2003 because both of Shanghai Petrochemical and Yangtze Petrochemical were added with a 200,000-ton polypropylene productivity in 2002.

  9. The petrochemical industry in Quebec : from yesterday to today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A historical account of the development of the chemical industry in Quebec from the year 1800 to the present was presented. The emphasis was on the development of the petrochemical industry after 1945. The earliest signs of chemical manufacturing in Quebec appeared in 1800 with the opening of the Wadsworth and Lyman pharmaceutical laboratories followed by several manufacturers of soap, paint, sugar, rubber, cement and explosive products. In 1900 the acetylene-based carbon chemistry industry was established in the Shawinigan region. The petrochemical industry in Quebec was born in 1952 with the opening in Montreal of a cumene and phenol plant by Shawinigan Chemicals and British American Oil, peaking in 1976 with six producing refineries in east Montreal. At that time, Montreal represented the largest refining centre in Canada with a combined capacity of 600,000 barrels per year. Since then, four of these refineries have closed but the province remains an important centre particularly in the manufacturing of oil-derived plastic products. Tables and maps showing the development and distribution of petrochemical manufacturing and the location of oil pipelines in the Montreal area, at various times since 1946, are included. 11 figs

  10. Key Factors for Development of China's Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Worldwide Market Volume and Development Trends of the Petrochemical Industry (1) Periodicity and Fluctuation The petrochemical industry has a typical periodicity that is shaped primarily by supply and demand on one hand and on the other hand by newly added capacity being put into production, operating rate and other uncertainty factors.

  11. UK and Thai Corporate Social Responsibility in the Petrochemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwattanarungsee, Chatchai

    2009-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been studied and applied extensively in Western countries since 1950s. CSR is mainly adapted in important businesses such as banking and petrochemical industry. Companies could distribute CSR information towards the public by several means particularly by the internet. Therefore, in this study, analysis of CSR between UK and Thai petrochemical companies based on online CSR disclosure was conducted. The findings are UK companies engage in CSR deeply an...

  12. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  13. Perspectives of petroleum and petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the actual development of petroleum and petrochemical industry it is obvious that Saudi Arabia goes on to take an important place on the worldwide market; with its part in world reserves but with its determination to keep its place of first world exporter. From the point of view of its petroleum production, financial constraints can delay its expansion

  14. Petrochemical Industrial Development Flourishes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Cangzhou to construct world·class chemical industrial park To make full use of its advantages in coastline and harbors,local industries, traffic conditions and land use, Cangzhou City, Hebei Province, planned to construct the largest chemical industrial park in North China - Lingang Chemical Industrial Park, which has already captured attention of the Chinese and foreign chemicals enterprises.

  15. Prospects for the Structural Readjustment of China's Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Xiaoming; Mao Jiaxiang

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1.Structural Problems Facedby Domes tic Petrochemical Industry 1.1 Scattered distribution of enterprises with ostensibly small scale Currently China boasts over 130 petroleum processing enterprises, 60% of which have oil ditillation capacity less than 100 Mt/a apiece. Every province, or autonomous region or municipality directly under the Central Government with the exception of Tibet, Hainan, Yunnan and Guizhou has constructed their petroleum refineries. Eighteen sets of ethylene units are located in 15 cities of China.

  16. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park. PMID:25826928

  17. Beyond petrochemicals: The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennestrøm, P.N.R.; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Christensen, C.H.;

    2011-01-01

    From petroleum to bioleum: Since biomass is a limited resource, it is necessary to consider its best use. The production of select chemicals from biomass, rather than its use as fuel, could effectively replace the use of petroleum in the chemical industry, but the inherent functionality of biomass...

  18. Mideast Oil and Petrochem Industrial Influence on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The petroleum and petrochemical industry in the Middle East region is exerting influence on the Chinese market because the Middle East has become an important option for China to import crude. In 2003, China imported 91.12 million tons of crude, of which the Middle East accounted for 50.7 percent. China imported 15.18 million tons of crude from Saudi Arabia in 2003, 16.7 percent of the nation's total import,and 12.39 million tons of crude from Iran, 13.6percent of the total.

  19. Education in petrochemical industry as prevention from chemical terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical and technological accidents in petrochemical industry, with possible catastrophic consequences, caused by anthropogenic activity (technical or technological malfunction, terror, or war destruction ), usually accompanied by great human losses and material damage and high intensity of events in a relatively short period of time, which requires a quick action of emergency responders, process personnel and the high degree of self-organized endangered population for treatment in these kind of accidents. This implies a high qualification and skills for the treatment of accidents of all factors of rescue and protection such as: process personnel, emergency responders (fire-fighters, technical services), other workers as well as the endangered population. Managing the system of protection and rescue in communities with such risks requires maximum responsibility of local authorities and management of petrochemical plants. Petrokemija Kutina, with its many years of experience as a target for military and terrorist attacks, actively participated in the creation of laws and systems of protection and rescue in the Republic of Croatia, and also in creating standard operating procedures on local and regional level, and is also ready to share its own experiences with other similar factories using toxic substances in the production processes.(author)

  20. The petrochemical production capacity of the Saudi Arabian Basic Industry Corporation (SABIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development program of the SABIC (Saudi Arabian Basic Industry Co.) which has provided the building of new petrochemical units while retrofitting old units or developing the capacities of some of them. Statistical data on petrochemical production, sales and exports, contracts and joint ventures are also given. 2 tabs

  1. Investigation of process equipment in petrochemical industry using radioisotope technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of radioisotope technology have proved it self to be an effective techniques for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial process in petrochemical industry. In this study, Khartoum refinery was investigated by gamma scanning technique for better understanding of malfunctions, the scanning were carried out using 60C gamma radiation source with activity of 50 mCi on fractionator and stripper columns, obtained results showed that all trays of the fractionator column were in place but weeping was evident due to fouling or partial tray damage. For the stripper column, results obtained showed that all trays were on their positions and no process anomalies taking place. Heat exchanger was also examined using radiotracer technique with respect to leak detection and residence time distribution. The investigations were carried out using 82Br in the form of di-bromo-para-bensene (C6H4Br2) as a radiotracer. No leak was recorded and the residence time distribution results showed that the process functions were quite normal. Leak was examined using 99mTc as a radiotracer detection to demonstrate the potentials of the technique. The testing was conducted using reflux condenser. Obtained results proved that the technique is sensitive, reliable and can be adopted to investigate heat exchangers in industrial systems.(Author)

  2. Production optimisation in the petrochemical industry by hierarchical multivariate modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Magnus; Furusjoe, Erik; Jansson, Aasa

    2004-06-01

    This project demonstrates the advantages of applying hierarchical multivariate modelling in the petrochemical industry in order to increase knowledge of the total process. The models indicate possible ways to optimise the process regarding the use of energy and raw material, which is directly linked to the environmental impact of the process. The refinery of Nynaes Refining AB (Goeteborg, Sweden) has acted as a demonstration site in this project. The models developed for the demonstration site resulted in: Detection of an unknown process disturbance and suggestions of possible causes; Indications on how to increase the yield in combination with energy savings; The possibility to predict product quality from on-line process measurements, making the results available at a higher frequency than customary laboratory analysis; Quantification of the gradually lowered efficiency of heat transfer in the furnace and increased fuel consumption as an effect of soot build-up on the furnace coils; Increased knowledge of the relation between production rate and the efficiency of the heat exchangers. This report is one of two reports from the project. It contains a technical discussion of the result with some degree of detail. A shorter and more easily accessible report is also available, see IVL report B1586-A.

  3. Overview of Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries

  4. Integration of Petroleum Processing with Petrochemical Production—An Important Strategy for Development of Petrochemical Industry in the New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Guohua

    2000-01-01

    @@1 Foreword In the 1990s China' s petroleum processing and petrochemical industry have achieved brisk development in parallel with the sharp growth of national economy. The volume of crude oil processed in China in 1998 reached 152. 4 Mt, increasing by 13% over the 1993 level (Figure 1), and China' s refining capacity was ranked the fourth in the world. The ethylene output reached 3.77 Mt, equaling to 1.87 times the total output in 1993 (Figure 2), and China' s ethylene capacity was ranked the sixth in the world.

  5. Maturity In The Petrochemical Industry Features, Motives And Combating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrochemicals give the highest value from crude oil and natural gas but suffers from maturity like any other business. Petrochemicals companies are promoting their business in the direction from oil and gas commodities. Specialities and life science. Reasons of maturity are expired patents, low demand, over capacity, intense competition. Actions to combat maturity are to restructure capacity achieving mega sizes, do downstream, and restructuring business practices. Strategies followed by some companies to combat maturity include exit, focus on core business and exploit a competitive advantage

  6. Challenges of knowledge sharing in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Chong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing is one of the important and also challenging parts in the success of KM implementation. The objective of this paper is to find out knowledge sharing barriers in the petrochemical companies in a Middle East country. Three main categories are found to have an impact on knowledge sharing in the companies. These categories are potential individual knowledge sharing barriers, potential organizational knowledge sharing barriers and potential technological knowledge sharing barriers. Data were collected by using a convenience sampling survey method. 500 questionnaires were distributed among employees and 302 questionnaires were returned. Trust, knowledge as power, communication, organizational hierarchy and knowledge sharing technological systems are found to have relationships with knowledge sharing. However, reward and recognition system have less significant relationship with knowledge sharing in the petrochemical companies.

  7. The Impact of the Development of Shale Gas in the United States on Europe's Petrochemical Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shale gas revolution has led to strong falls in energy prices, reducing significantly the raw material costs of the US petrochemical industry. Between 2008 and 2012, US gas prices fell by two thirds. Ethane comes from natural gas liquids (NGLs) contained in shale gas, and used by the US petrochemical industry as the raw material to make ethylene. Its price fell by 55% between 2008 and 2012. These price cuts are giving the US petrochemical industry a significant competitive advantage, and profits are exploding. The United States has become the region in the world with the second lowest energy and raw material prices, just after the Middle East. This renewed competitiveness is leading to the re-birth of American petrochemicals, whereas the sector was stagnating and even experiencing waves of closures in the middle of the 2000's. An estimated $15 billion is set to be invested in the sector by 2017, generating a 40% increase in ethylene output, the leading petrochemical product. The competitive advantage makes itself felt downstream in the sector. In particular, plastics derived from the transformation of petrochemicals are used in manufacturing in three major consumer industries: packaging, construction and the automotive industry. By 2017, the output capacity of polyethylene, the polymer most used in the production of plastics, should rise by 40%. The economic spillovers of such investments are significant. The American Chemistry Council (ACC) has conducted a study of around one hundred investment projects, identified at the end of March 2013 in the US chemical industry (excluding pharmaceuticals). These projects involved $72 billion in investment, through to 2020. They will raise the turnover of the chemical industry by $67 billion (in 2012 dollars), by 2020, and will create 1.2 million jobs during the phase of construction. By 2020, additional earnings of the US economy will run to $201 billion, with tax revenues of $14 billion. The ACC estimates that these

  8. More valuable as petrochemical feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems facing the North American petrochemical industry were discussed with particular reference to the fact that high North American prices present a challenge to competitiveness in a globally traded market. A background of Dow Canada was provided, including details of its upgrading of natural gas liquids that would otherwise be combusted for electrical power generation. The value of the petrochemical industry was outlined, with details of employment, manufacturing output and exports. Alberta's relationship to the natural gas industry was reviewed. The role of petrochemicals as a nexus for bridging the resource sector with manufacturing, retail and transportation was discussed. The historic correlation between world Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ethylene demand was presented. It was noted that the petrochemical industry currently competes with power generators for smaller volumes of natural gas liquids. As a highly energy intensive industry, inequities in gas pipeline haul charges and even small increases in gas prices has compromised the success of the petrochemical industry. It was noted that while crude oil is a globally traded commodity, natural gas liquids are generally traded at a more localized level, and factors that helped build the petrochemical industry and are now inhibiting growth. Ethane is the primary feedstock in the petrochemical industry. High natural gas prices affected the industry on two levels: volatility in a weakening industry and higher prices on primary feedstocks. It was estimated that changes in current trends were likely to take place in 5 to 10 years, following Northern gas developments. It was estimated that more than 50 per cent of new capacity investment in ethylene plants would take place in the Middle East in the next 5 years. No new plants are planned in Canada. It was concluded that low-cost feedstock advantages, as well as alternative feedstocks and the sustainment of a healthy industry are necessary for the

  9. Corporate Social responsibility in the petrochemical industry: Exploring current trends in social and environmental disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Current trends indicate that we are entering a new phase of corporate responsibility reporting that more emphasis is paid on social responsibility, but significant variation still remains in the maturity of reporting content and styles in industries, and even in the same industry. This study explores the current trend of corporate social and environmental reporting in petrochemical industry. It offers a detailed review of the development of corporate social responsibility reporting, and of th...

  10. Status and direction of waste minimization in the chemical and petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englande Junior, A.J. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an evaluation of the status and direction of toxic/hazardous waste reduction in chemical and petrochemical industries from an international perspective. In almost all cases studied savings have resulted. The importance of pollution prevention by `clean technologies` instead of remediation is stressed. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Advances in Chemical Engineering — A Review of Petrochemical Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chemical engineering has played an important role in the development of petrochemical industry. Some important advances in chemical engineering have been discussed in detail, i. e. petroleum refining, organic chemicals, synthetic resin, synthetic fibers and relevant raw materials, synthetic rubber, and process energy integration. The main business targets of China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (SINOPEC Corp.) and the focus of further researches are also addressed.

  12. China’s Petrochemical Industry during the’11the Five-Year Plan’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Global oil price goes up while the domestic oil-based down-stream industry goes down in its operation. What will impact these players with the global oil-price hiking? The petrochemical global players gather in HK to address this biting challenge...

  13. Process intensification in the petrochemicals industry : Drivers and hurdles for commercial implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The process intensification technologies, reactive distillation, dividing wall column distillation (DWC) and reverse flow reactors (RFR) have been implemented at commercial scale in the petrochemical industry each more than 100 times. These technologies have been analysed with four drivers for innov

  14. Approximation of theoretical energy-saving potentials for the petrochemical industry using energy balances for 68 key processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, M.L.; Patel, M.K.; Bach, P.; Haije, W.G.; Blok, K.

    2007-01-01

    We prepared energy and carbon balances for 68 petrochemical processes in the petrochemical industry for Western Europe, the Netherlands and the world. We analysed the process energy use in relation to the heat effects of the chemical reactions and quantified in this way the sum of all energy inputs

  15. Remediation effects of adapted bacteria cultures on water quality: an example of petrochemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Altuğ, Nilay Barlas Turan and Gülşen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study, it was aimed to make an efficient wastewater treatment by using adapted bacteria cultures to support and strengthen the biomass in aeration basin of the wastewater treatment plant, when the treatment processes are not sufficient in biological wastewater plants (BWWTP) for industrial wastewater which contains toxic and recalcitrant organic chemicals. For this purpose, petrochemical industry was chosen for field of study. The physical, chemical (flow rate, dissolved oxyg...

  16. Assessing the sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies in the petrochemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Meerholz, A.; A C Brent, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Selecting the most suitable industrial wastewater treatment technology is not only about providing the best technical solution at the lowest cost: it is also about sustainability (including social and environmental acceptance) and institutional feasibility. This paper demonstrates and evaluates a method that may be used for wastewater treatment technology assessment and selection in an industrial context, with a specific focus on biological wastewater treatment in a petrochemical company. The...

  17. INTEGRATION OF REFINING AND CHEMICAL INDUSTRY ——Development Strategy for Petrochemicals in New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the rapid progress of the national economy in China, petroleum refining and petrochemical industry have grown with leaps and bounds correspondingly in 1990s. The amount of crude oil processed reached 152.39 Mt in 1998, 1.13 times that in 1993.   The refining capacity ranks the fourth in the world. Ethylene production was 3.77 Mt in 1998, 1.87 times that in 1993. The capacity of ethylene ranks the sixth in the world.   It can be expected that the petrochemical industry in China will develop faster than the refining in 21st century. The basic reason therefore is that petrochemical products can not satisfy the demand of domestic market by far so that there should be a great import. In 1998, for example, imported synthetic resin was as much as 11.71 Mt, of which five bulk plastics were 8.03 Mt. Imported synthetic rubber, synthetic fiber and fertilizer were 0.474 Mt, 1.519 Mt and 1392 Mt, respectively. The situation showed that the domestic market in China has an enormous demand for ethylene, i.e. the total demand for ethylene in 2010 is estimated as 17~18 Mt. Even if the production capacity could be 10 Mt, the self-supporting ratio will only be about 55.5%.      Please read the details of this paper in the journal of China Petroleum Processing & Petrochemical Technology.

  18. Strategies for the development of Quebec's petrochemical industry: education and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key challenges not only for the Quebec but for the Canadian petrochemical industry will be the challenge to increase the number of students pursuing science or engineering as fields of study. According to this author, there is a crisis in science and technology education in Canada. The ability of Canadian students to compete with their peers around the world is steadily diminishing as a result of the undue emphasis on student attitudes and self-esteem in Canadian schools, as opposed to European and Asian schools which focus on conveying specific skills. He advocates a shift in attitude away from simply more money spent on education towards concern with what and how well students are learning. It was suggested that the educational system must take into account the demands of the market place in fashioning the curricula. If students are to function in the real world where performance is evaluated, the educational system will have to change to reflect the fact that the market and society reward people in proportion to their contribution. The relationship between environmental concern and education was also explored, and the inclusion of environmental issues in the classroom curriculum was recommended. As a topic for curricula, the environment is subject to broad-ranging and often conflicting views regarding its problems and their causes, effects and remedies. Nevertheless, it is not a transient issue to be dismissed as a fad. Rather, it is an issue here to stay, hence it should play a more formalized role at all levels of the curriculum from primary schools to colleges and universities

  19. Strategies for the development of Quebec`s petrochemical industry: education and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, J.A. [Canadian Chemical Producer`s Association (Canada)

    1992-12-31

    One of the key challenges not only for the Quebec but for the Canadian petrochemical industry will be the challenge to increase the number of students pursuing science or engineering as fields of study. According to this author, there is a crisis in science and technology education in Canada. The ability of Canadian students to compete with their peers around the world is steadily diminishing as a result of the undue emphasis on student attitudes and self-esteem in Canadian schools, as opposed to European and Asian schools which focus on conveying specific skills. He advocates a shift in attitude away from simply more money spent on education towards concern with what and how well students are learning. It was suggested that the educational system must take into account the demands of the market place in fashioning the curricula. If students are to function in the real world where performance is evaluated, the educational system will have to change to reflect the fact that the market and society reward people in proportion to their contribution. The relationship between environmental concern and education was also explored, and the inclusion of environmental issues in the classroom curriculum was recommended. As a topic for curricula, the environment is subject to broad-ranging and often conflicting views regarding its problems and their causes, effects and remedies. Nevertheless, it is not a transient issue to be dismissed as a fad. Rather, it is an issue here to stay, hence it should play a more formalized role at all levels of the curriculum from primary schools to colleges and universities.

  20. Status and Development of Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing

    1994-01-01

    @@ CNPC, as a state petroleum corporation, is mainly engaged in exploration and development of oil and gas, and other businesses in upstream industry.In addition it has its own down-stream operations in refining and chemical industry. Through many years' efforts, CNPC's downstream industry has begun to take shape with a fairly good foundation.

  1. Trends in high performance compressors for petrochemical and natural gas industry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Li, Liansheng

    2015-08-01

    Compressors are the key equipment in the petrochemical and natural gas industry system. The performance and reliability of them are very important for the process system. The application status of petrochemical & natural gas compressors in China is presented in this paper. The present status of design and operating technologies of compressors in China are mentioned in this paper. The turbo, reciprocating and twin screw compressors are discussed. The market demands for different structure compressors in process gas industries are analysed. This paper also introduces the research and developments for high performance compressors in China. The recent research results on efficiency improvement methods, stability improvement, online monitor and fault diagnosis will also be presented in details.

  2. Advances in Chemical Engineering A Review of Petrochemical Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪定一

    2001-01-01

    Chemical engineering has played an important role in the development of petrochemical industry. Some important advances in chemical engineering have been discussed in detail, i. e. petroleum refining, organic chemicals,synthetic resin, synthetic fibers and relevant raw materials, synthetic rubber, and process energy integration. The main business targets of China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (SINOPEC Corp.) and the focus of further researches axe also addressed.

  3. Economic Performance of China's Oil and Petrochemical Industry in First Quarter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fen

    2008-01-01

    @@ International oil price continued souring in the first quarter of 2008. It was bouncing up and down above $100/barrel and even getting close to $120/barrel by the end of April. Products related to energy and resources all responded with higher prices, triggering a general increase in cost of petroleum and petrochemical industry. World's economy was seriously affected by USA's subprime lending crisis, weakening US dollar, sullen stock markets,and etc, major economies lowered their expectations for economic growth rate.

  4. Canada's upstream petroleum industry - 1996 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the activities and business prospects of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry for 1996 was provided. Canada's hydrocarbon resource base, reserve potential, crude oil and natural gas markets, pipeline transportation system, business and investment climate, deregulation and environmental health and safety concerns were summarized. A profile of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the principal industry organization representing upstream producers in Canada, was also provided

  5. Dynamics of the European refining and petrochemical industry. Strategies, structure and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the market position of producers engaged in the oil refining and basic petrochemical industry on the Western European market are the central theme of this book. Analysis of this reshuffling process among these actors is conducted on three levels. First, research is carried out at the level of world regions. In order to understand the reorganization of oil refining and basic petrochemical production in Western Europe, it is necessary to explore the recent aggregate dynamics of these activities on a global scale. Second, the differences in strategic behaviour are exanuned at the level of groups of market participants, namely the major oil companies, the chemical companies, the state-owned companies from both consumer and producer countries, and the independents. Finally, the investment/disinvestment decisions in the Western European oil refining and basic petrochemical industry are investigated at the level of the individual firm. Particular emphasis is placed upon explaining why companies active in the sectors under study have followed different strategies, although they have been confronted with similar adverse market conditions in Western Europe during the last decades. 341 refs

  6. The nuclear ingredient in Canada's industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy scene in Canada has been confused by a changing industrial and economic pattern, a proliferation of energy options, a conflict of energy priorities, and possibly a media and anti-nuclear inspired perception that electricity is expensive and not a good substitute for oil. In spite of an economic down-turn, in 1982-83 five new CANDU reactors with a combined capacity of 3000 MW were completed in Canada. Opportunities exist for increased use of electricity both in households and in industry. The benefits of nuclear power have extended beyond a reliable and economic energy supply to research advances, job creation, and the overall industrial development of the country

  7. Statistical analysis of incidents reported in the Greek Petrochemical Industry for the period 1997-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstandinidou, Myrto; Nivolianitou, Zoe; Markatos, Nikolaos; Kiranoudis, Chris

    2006-07-31

    This paper makes an analysis of all reported accidents and incidents in the Greek Petrochemical Industry for the period spanning from 1997 to 2003. The work performed is related to the analysis of important parameters of the incidents, their inclusion in a database adequately designed for the purposes of this analysis and an importance assessment of this reporting scheme. Indeed, various stakeholders have highlighted the importance of a reporting system for industrial accidents and incidents. The European Union has established for this purpose the Major Accident Reporting System (MARS) for the reporting of major accidents in the Member States. However, major accidents are not the only measure that can characterize the safety status of an establishment; neither are the former the only events from which important lessons can be learned. Near misses, industrial incidents without major consequences, as well as occupational accidents could equally supply with important findings the interested analyst, while statistical analysis of these incidents could give significant insight in the understanding and the prevention of similar incidents or major accidents in the future. This analysis could be more significant, if each industrial sector was separately analyzed, as the authors do for the petrochemical sector in the present article.

  8. Technical Reviews on the Petroleum Refining Industry and the Petrochemical Industry for the Development of Industrial Application of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Lee, Na-Young; Kwon, Taek-Yong

    2008-09-15

    Petroleum is the major energy source that supplies 35% of the total power all over the world. And the petrochemical industry generates a 120 times higher value from naphtha, and in cooperates new technology in order to keep its business prosperous. These large plant industries require in-service diagnosis technology for an optimal and efficient operation and maintenance. Since diagnosis information obtained from an on-line plant can be used for a correct operation and maintenance workplan in the case of a deteriorated product quality as well as a mechanical abnormality, this technology can contribute to a huge cost benefit and a product competitiveness. The gigantic plants equipped with heavy materials can hardly be evaluated with conventional techniques due to their harsh environment of a high temperature and a pressure. Radiation and radioisotope application technology has been studied to meet the demand of the industry, but has yet to be developed further. In spite of its usefulness, the strategic support is not enough to carry out the research activities on advanced industrial testing technology using radioisotopes. It is of importance to secure a national competitiveness by intensifying the support for the newly emerging technologies such as an industrial gamma tomography and a process visualization and validation incorporated with a CFD.

  9. Technical Reviews on the Petroleum Refining Industry and the Petrochemical Industry for the Development of Industrial Application of Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum is the major energy source that supplies 35% of the total power all over the world. And the petrochemical industry generates a 120 times higher value from naphtha, and in cooperates new technology in order to keep its business prosperous. These large plant industries require in-service diagnosis technology for an optimal and efficient operation and maintenance. Since diagnosis information obtained from an on-line plant can be used for a correct operation and maintenance workplan in the case of a deteriorated product quality as well as a mechanical abnormality, this technology can contribute to a huge cost benefit and a product competitiveness. The gigantic plants equipped with heavy materials can hardly be evaluated with conventional techniques due to their harsh environment of a high temperature and a pressure. Radiation and radioisotope application technology has been studied to meet the demand of the industry, but has yet to be developed further. In spite of its usefulness, the strategic support is not enough to carry out the research activities on advanced industrial testing technology using radioisotopes. It is of importance to secure a national competitiveness by intensifying the support for the newly emerging technologies such as an industrial gamma tomography and a process visualization and validation incorporated with a CFD

  10. Volatile organic compounds emission inventory of a petrochemical industry: tanks and fugitive emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Camargo de Lima Tresmondi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paulínia, located in the state of São Paulo, has an important industrial center, and its industries represent the biggest source of volatile organic compounds (VOC emissions to the atmosphere. These compounds are emitted by fugitive emissions and some point sources and can present adverse effect in the environment and the health human being, besides exerting an important influence in the formation of photochemical oxidants, as ozone. The present work refers to a VOC emission inventory of a petrochemical industry located in the Paulínia petrochemical complex. The inventory was done based on emission factors and emission model from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA. The emission critical points in manufacture were determined as well as fugitive emissions in equipments and emissions in some VOC storage tanks. The results show that the main emission source is due to fugitive emissions (99%, being flanges the responsible for the major emissions. After the results got from this inventory, the company knowing some of the main emission sources can monitor them to verify if the results are correct, and implement modifications when necessary maintenance, in order to minimize such emissions.

  11. In-depth analysis of the causal factors of incidents reported in the Greek petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstandinidou, Myrto [Institute of Nuclear Technology-Radiation Protection, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Nivolianitou, Zoe, E-mail: zoe@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nuclear Technology-Radiation Protection, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Kefalogianni, Eirini; Caroni, Chrys [School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytexneiou Str., Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2011-11-15

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of all reported incidents in the Greek petrochemical industry from 1997 to 2003. A comprehensive database has been developed to include industrial accidents (fires, explosions and substance releases), occupational accidents, incidents without significant consequences and near misses. The study concentrates on identifying and analyzing the causal factors related to different consequences of incidents, in particular, injury, absence from work and material damage. Methods of analysis include logistic regression with one of these consequences as dependent variable. The causal factors that are considered cover four major categories related to organizational issues, equipment malfunctions, human errors (of commission or omission) and external causes. Further analyses aim to confirm the value of recording near misses by comparing their causal factors with those of more serious incidents. The statistical analysis highlights the connection between the human factor and the underlying causes of accidents or incidents. - Highlights: > The research work is original, based on field data collected directly from the petrochemical industry. > It deals with the in-depth statistical analysis of accident data on human-organizational causes. > It researches underlying causes of accidents and the parameters affecting them. > The causal factors that are considered cover four big taxonomies. > Near misses are worth recording for comparing their causal factors with more serious incidents.

  12. An application of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA to assess risks in petrochemical industry in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kangavari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industries have a high rate of accidents. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA is a systematic method and thus is capable of analyzing the risks of systems from concept phase to system disposal, detecting the failures in design stage, and determining the control measures and corrective actions for failures to reduce their impacts. The objectives of this research were to perform FMEA to identify risks in an Iranian petrochemical industry and determine the decrease of the risk priority number (RPN after implementation of intervention programs. This interventional study was performed at one petrochemical plant in Tehran, Iran in 2014. Relevant information about job categories and plant process was gathered using brainstorming techniques, fishbone diagram, and group decision making. The data were collected through interviews, observation, and documents investigations and was recorded in FMEA worksheets. The necessary corrective measures were performed on the basis of the results of initial FMEA. Forty eight failures were identified in welding unit by application of FMEA to assess risks. Welding processes especially working at height got the highest RPN. Obtained RPN for working at height before performing the corrective actions was 120 and the score was reduced to 96 after performing corrective measures. Calculated RPN for all processes was significantly reduced (p≤0.001 by implementing the corrective actions. Scores of RPN in all studied processes effectively decreased after performing corrective actions in a petrochemical industry. FMEA method is a useful tool for identifying risk intervention priorities and effectiveness in a studied petrochemical industry.

  13. Thanks to shale gas, the rebirth of the petrochemical industry in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    America's competitive advantage is a strong incentive for petrochemical companies to invest in the USA. Petrochemicals are thus one of the high energy intensity sectors to benefit the most from the shale gas revolution. (author)

  14. Green Chemistry, Green Engineering and Eco-Innovation Towards a More Sustainable Petrochemical Industry: Determinants of Brazilian Petrochemical Companies´ Engagement in GCE-Based Eco-Innovation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Freire da Silva (Paulo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ It is the general wisdom, within the petrochemical industrial sector, that technological changes, for the development of cleaner products, processes and services, is a basic requirement for companies to achieve advanced states of environmental and economic sustainabilit

  15. Opportunities in Canada's growing wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investment in Canada's wind sector is projected to reach $8 billion by 2012, and growth of the sector is expected to create over 16,000 jobs. Canada's wind energy capacity grew by 54 per cent in 2005 alone, aided in part by supportive national policies and programs such as the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI); the Canadian Renewable Conservation Expense (CRCE) and Class 43.1 Capital Cost Allowance; and support for research and development. Major long-term commitments for clean power purchases, standard offer contracts and renewable portfolio standards in several provinces are encouraging further development of the wind energy sector. This paper argued that the development of a robust Canadian wind turbine manufacturing industry will enhance economic development, create opportunities for export; and mitigate the effects of international wind turbine supply shortages. However, it is not known whether Canadian wind turbine firms are positioned to capitalize on the sector's recent growth. While Canada imports nearly all its large wind turbine generators and components, the country has technology and manufacturing strengths in advanced power electronics and small wind systems, as well as in wind resource mapping. Wind-diesel and wind-hydrogen systems are being developed in Canada, and many of the hybrid systems will offer significant opportunities for remote communities and off-grid applications. Company partnerships for technology transfer, licensing and joint ventures will accelerate Canada's progress. A recent survey conducted by Industry Canada and the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) indicated that the total impact of wind energy related expenditures on economic output is nearly $1.38 billion for the entire sector. Annual payroll for jobs in Canada was estimated at $50 million, and substantial employment growth in the next 5 years is expected. Canada offers a strong industrial supply base capable of manufacturing wind turbine generators and

  16. Applying object technology principles to business reengineering in the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil, gas, and petrochemical industries face a dilemma, to be financially competitive while complying with strict and expanding environmental, safety, and health regulation. Companies need new tools and techniques, indeed a completely new paradigm for organizing and performing work. They must build efficient and flexible business processes, ones that rely on advanced information systems for improved decision making and productivity. And they must adopt a culture of change and improvement to permit the business to change as the business climate changes. Fortunately, two industry developments are changing the traditional business paradigm in a dramatic way; business reengineering and object technology. Applying principles of object technology in the performance of business reengineering makes available a new form of business modeling that transforms the technique of modeling a business while directly supported the development of its enabling information systems. This modeling technique is called Object Modeling and is becoming an important force in improving business competitiveness

  17. Environmental values in the petrochemical industry: A Q-method study in South West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoochani Omid M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving sustainable development in different regional and cultural contexts is dependent, in part, upon an understanding of key actors’ underlying environmental, social and economic values. The social research technique called Q-methodology presents an effective means to explore such values as a matter of discourse: revealing the typologies of stakeholder perspectives within a given debate. Q-method involves factor analysis of participant rank-ordered preselected statements on a topic. The resultant factors are then reinterpreted as social discourses. In this study we use Q-methodology to explore the environmental values of Health Safety and Environmental (HSE managers in petrochemical companies in Khuzestan province in southwest Iran. Khuzestan is a key region of petrochemical product development, with significant associated environmental pollution effects. Understanding HSE managers’ attitudes to environmental protection is of value in predicting broader environmental impacts to the region, given the relative importance of their role in regulating the environmental performance of this industry. Our results reveal four distinct and varied perspectives on environmental protection labelled: ‘Environmental stewardship’, ‘Environmental presentism’, ‘Technological optimism’ and ‘Enlightened anthropocentrism’. We then discuss how these four emergent perspectives correspond to broader environmental discourses as categorized by John Dryzek: i.e. green rationalism, economic rationalism, prometheanism and ecological modernization respectively.

  18. An analysis of the inter-project knowledge transfer in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Müller Beuren

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a knowledge transfer (KT analysis in an operational project management environment of the petrochemical industry. The main objective of this paper is to identify the major barriers and to suggest improvements activities aiming to foster the KT process. To this end, interviews with members of the project department were conducted by means of a questionnaire. Results were analyzed to identify the most problematic barriers and to propose improvements. The study concluded that the greatest difficulties are related to the transfer of tacit knowledge between different teams. The main contribution of this paper is that it presents an analysis of an unexplored environment and it proposes an improvement of the adapted method for KT study, by using a relationship matrix between the questionnaire and the barriers, so that problems can be identified in an easier manner.

  19. Perceptions of Private Sector towards the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register: A Case Study on Petrochemical Industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Kondo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 as well as other international agreements, Thailand is currently in the process of adopting the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR through a pilot project in Rayong province with assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA. This research aimed to study perceptions of private sector towards the PRTR through a case study on petrochemical industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate. Through semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews, the study found that the petrochemical industry viewed that benefits of the PRTR for the government and civil society is quite clear, while each petrochemical company has different understanding on such benefit for private sector to be as sustainable industrial management. Various incentive measures and concerns on the PRTR were also indicated in this study.

  20. Used solid catalysts from chemical and petrochemical industries; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive survey of the solid catalysts used in the chemical and petrochemical industries is presented; information on solid catalyst market demand prospective for 1998, the nature of solid catalysts used in the various industrial sectors and for the various chemical products production, the european catalysts manufacturers, solid catalyst poisons and inhibitors according to the various types of chemical reactions, mean compositions of used solid catalysts, an assessment of the volume of used solid catalysts generated by chemical and petrochemical industries, the various ways of solid catalyst regeneration and disposal, the potential for off-site regeneration of used catalysts, and French and European regulations, is presented

  1. Impacts of Canada's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines economic and environmental impacts of uranium mining in Canada and compares these impacts with those of other extractive and energy industries. The uranium industry generates taxes and royalties, income, employment, foreign exchange earnings, security of energy supply, and technological spinoffs. The indirect impacts of the industry as measured by employment and income multipliers are lower than those for other types of mining and comparable to oil and gas because of the high proportion of costs withdrawn from the economy in the form of taxes and operator margin. Social costs are primarily occupational hazards. Uranium mining probably has a lower non-health environmental impact than other mining industries due to much smaller throughputs and transportation requirements. Residents of the area surrounding the mine bear a disproportionate share of the social costs, while non-residents receive most of the benefits

  2. Industrial Relations in Canada: Contemporary Comparisons and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Paul; Goodman, John, Eds.

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Canadian Industrial Relations: An Introductory Overview" (Blyton, Goodman); "Overview of Canadian Labour Law" (Miller); "Industrial Conflict and Resolution in Canada and Britain" (Haiven); "Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector in Canada" (Calvert); "Canadian Automobile Industry: Work Reorganization and Industrial Relations Change"…

  3. The API methodology for risk-based inspection (RBI) analysis for the petroleum and petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one petroleum and petrochemical companies are currently sponsoring a project within the American Petroleum Institute (API) to develop risk-based inspection (RBI) methodology for application in the refining and petrochemical industry. This paper describes that particular RBI methodology and provides a summary of the three levels of RBI analysis developed by the project. Also included is a review of the first pilot project to validate the methodology by applying RBI to several existing refining units. The failure for pressure equipment in a process unit can have several undesirable effects. For the purpose of RBI analysis, the API RBI program categorizes these effects into four basic risk outcomes: flammable events, toxic releases, major environmental damage, and business interruption losses. API RBI is a strategic process, both qualitative and quantitative, for understanding and reducing these risks associated with operating pressure equipment. This paper will show how API RBI assesses the potential consequences of a failure of the pressure boundary, as well as assessing the likelihood (probability) of failure. Risk-based inspection also prioritizes risk levels in a systematic manner so that the owner-user can then plan an inspection program that focuses more resources on the higher risk equipment; while possibly saving inspection resources that are not doing an effective job of reducing risk. At the same time, if consequence of failure is a significant driving force for high risk equipment items, plant management also has the option of applying consequence mitigation steps to minimize the impact of a hazardous release, should one occur. The target audience for this paper is engineers, inspectors, and managers who want to understand what API Risk-Based Inspection is all about, what are the benefits and limitations of RBI, and how inspection practices can be changed to reduce risks and/or save costs without impacting safety risk. (Author)

  4. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Employees of Iranian Petrochemical Industries: October 2009 to December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haghayegh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs are a common health problem throughout the world and a major cause of disability in the workplace.Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of MSDs, assessment of ergonomics working conditions and identification of major risk factors associated with MSDs symptoms among employees of Iranian petrochemical industries between October 2009 and December 2012.Methods: In this study, we studied 1184 randomly selected employees of 4 Iranian petrochemical companies with at least one year of work experience in office or operational units. For those with office jobs, data were collected using Nordic Musculoskeletal disorders Questionnaire (NMQ and ergonomics checklist for the assessment of working conditions. For those with operational jobs, NMQ and Quick Exposure Check (QEC method were used for data collection.Results: The most prevalent MSD symptoms were reported in lower back (41.5% and neck (36.5%. The prevalence of MSDs in all body regions but elbows and thighs of the office staff was significantly higher than that of operational workers. Assessment of working conditions in office staff revealed that the lowest index was attributed to workstation. QEC technique among operational workers showed that in 73.8% of the workers studied, the level of exposure to musculoskeletal risks was “high” or “very high.” MSDs were associated with type of job, age, body mass index, work experience, gender, marital status, educational level and type of employment.Conclusion: The prevalence of MSDs in the office staff was higher than that of operational workers. Level of exposure to MSDs risk was high in operational workers. Corrective measures are thus necessary for improving working conditions for both office and operational units.

  5. FTIR remote sensor measurements of air pollutants in the petrochemical industrial park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong T.; Chang, Shih-Yi; Chung, Y. W.; Tzou, H. C.; Tso, Tai-Ly

    1995-09-01

    As FT-IR remote sensing techniques become more accessible, there are increasing interests to apply this open-path measurement method to detect and measure airborne pollutants. Thus a research for VOCs emission pollutants in the petrochemical industry park is conducted. In this study, we focused on the identification of the gaseous pollutants as well as the location of the VOCs pollutants from different factories. Measurement is sampled at every half hour period to obtain the time series plots of observed gas concentration for the gaseous pollutants. Besides the inherent components in ambient air such as carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone, the results of the measurement indicate that the major pollutants detected in this industrial park include vinyl chloride, chloroform, hydrogen chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, propylene, n-hexane, acetic acid, methyl acetate and ammonia. Some of these toxic pollutants are carcinogens and also the chloride related compounds are potentially a threat to the depletion of ozone. All of these measurements indicate that the pattern of the pollutants for each location is significantly different from each other pattern. In addition, the concentrations and the presence of absence of pollutants were dramatically affected by wind directions. Under this case, suspicious polluting plants are successfully being identified by examining the pattern of compounds, pollutant's concentration time series, metrology, and manufacturing process.

  6. Canada's uranium industry - the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a unique commodity. It is both a metal and a fuel. It has both commercial and military uses. It yields 'clean energy' but presents environmental concerns. All of these factors have an impact on the commerce of uranium. Being a metal, uranium is extracted from ore like many other metallic minerals. As a fuel, it is subject to the vagaries of energy commodity market forces. The history of uranium in the first nuclear weapons has led to national governments carefully controlling production and sale of uranium. The spectre of radioactive contamination of the environment adds further to the public concern over the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from uranium processing and use. There have been a number of excellent reviews on the commercial aspects of the uranium industry. In this discussion, these aspects will be briefly summarized to provide a general picture of the strengths of the Canadian uranium industry and the pressures to which it is being subjected currently. The principal thrust of this paper will be to outline Canada's resource strength and to identify some factors which will affect Canada's ability to continue holding a sizeable share of the world uranium market

  7. Measuring the Canada-U.S. Productivity Gap: Industry Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Someshwar Rao; Jianmin Tang; Weimin Wang

    2004-01-01

    A key objective of economic policy in Canada is to reduce the productivity gap with the United States. The development of appropriate policies to attain this goal requires a thorough understanding of the nature of the gap, including its industry dimensions. Unfortunately, statistical agencies do not currently produce estimates of Canada-U.S. productivity gaps by industry. To fill this data lacuna, Someshwar Rao, Jianmin Tang, and Weimin Wang of Industry Canada in the first article present ben...

  8. Proceedings of the 3. International conference on waste management in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Volume 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Francisco F.; Pereira Filho, Francisco A.; Almeida, Sergio A.S. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    To produce without pollution is today a mandate for the preservation of our society. To produce cleaner means to conserve energy and natural resources, to reduce the use of toxic substances, to invest in the evolution of products and production processes towards a minimum of residues. The Third International Conference on Waste Minimization in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries addresses these challenging questions regarding waste minimization

  9. Industrial cluster governance in a developing country context: evidence from the petrochemical sector in the Mexican state of Veracruz

    OpenAIRE

    Duhalt Gomez, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This thesis combines analysis of the political economy of Mexico with the global value chain approach to study the trajectory of the development of the Veracruz cluster and the governance structure of vertical inter-firm relationships in the locality. The petrochemical cluster located in the state of Veracruz is formed by a pool of state-owned and local private companies and is arguably the largest agglomeration of industrial firms in southern Mexico. These firms are linked to one another ...

  10. Detection and reduction of diffuse liquid and gas emissions in chemical and petrochemical industries; Ermittlung und Verminderung diffuser fluessiger und gasfoermiger Emissionen in der chemischen und petrochemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppke, K.E. [Witten-Herdecke Univ. gGmbH, Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Management; Cuhls, C. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik

    2002-09-01

    In order to improve environmental protection, VOC emissions from diffuse sources are of growing importance. For the first time in Germany the present research report gives a detailed presentation of: constructive measures for the avoidance and reduction of diffuse emissions, adequate assembling procedures for equipments and installations, technical possibilities of leak detection and, different methods for the estimation of total emissions from chemical and petrochemical production plants. On the basis of own investigations and monitoring measures taken at various plants of chemical and petrochemical industries different measuring techniques for leak detection as well as methods for the estimation of total emissions from diffuse sources are analysed and their limits are described. (orig.)

  11. Removal of colour from effluent of petrochemical industry by fly ash and other agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapadia, M.J.; Farasram, R.P.; Desai, D.H.; Bhatt, M.M. [Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers Co. Ltd., Narmadanagar (India). Central Laboratory

    2001-07-01

    Use of fly ash for removal of colour from the effluent of a petro-chemical industry and optimization of process variables were reported earlier. Further studies in the same direction were conducted on various frontiers to reap the benefit of the process of colour removal by fly ash on a large scale. Among the different particle size fractions of fly ash, an intermittent fraction 150-250 exhibited the highest colour removal efficiency due to high proportion of carbonaceous material and lower proportion of silica. Apart from reduction in colour, treatment of waste water with 5% fly ash also resulted in the reduction of suspended solids, ammoniacal nitrogen, COD, and nitrophenol from effluent with no detrimental effect on effluent chemistry. Keeping the variables constants, the efficiency of fly ash and other adsorbents for reducing colour and COD of effluent was found in the order: powder activated charcoal {gt} carbon soot {gt} granular activated carbon {gt} fly ash. The fly ash could reduce the colour of effluent in batch mode (jar test conditions) as well as continuous mode (passing through filter bed). Restriction of flow rate was encountered in the filter bed system. 15 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES IN AMMONIA UNIT OF RAZI PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX AND FEASIBILITY OF WASTE MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fakheri Raouf, R. Nabizadeh and N. Jafarzadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industries are considered as strategic and important sectors in economic development of Iran. Razi petrochemical factory is one of complex in Iran, established in 1970 with 100 hectare. In this research, the possibility of waste minimization in the ammonia unit of Razi petrochemical complex with about 1000 tons per year was studied for a period of 18 months from September 2003 to April 2005. More than 20 site visits were conducted and the required information was collected. Factors such as industrial solid wastes quality and quantity, sources of generation, production period and the present management practice, were studied. Petrochemical solid wastes were classified based on the recommended method of the United Nations and appropriate policies were suggested for waste minimization. The collected results of this study show production of 185 tons of industrial solid wastes from 45 sources which contained 68.5% catalysts, 10.25% metal barrels, 18.61% aluminum ball, 2.62% plastic barrels and 0.02% paper. 93.3% of these wastes were generated as the result of catalysts change, 3.3% as the result of using chemicals and oils, 1.7% as the result of methanol solution amid application, and 1.1% because of aluminum ball changes. Based on the UNEP methods, the ammonia unit wastes classified as 19/7%hazadrous and 87,12% non hazardous. At present 87.12% of these wastes are being dumped in the area and 12.88% are sold. Proposed procedures for waste minimization contain 68.5% reuse and recycling and 31.5% recycling.

  13. Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical / petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Nadal Lomas, Martí

    2005-01-01

    Tesi: Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).Autor: Martí NadalResum:Un dels complexos químics/ petroquímics més importants del sud d'Europa està ubicat a Tarragona. En els darrers anys, ha augmentat la preocupació pública envers els possibles efectes adversos que el complex industrial podria tenir per a la salut de la població resident a Tarragona. En resposta, el 2002 s'inicià un estu...

  14. Challenges and Development Opportunities for Catalytic Technologies in Petrochemical Industry in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-ling

    2004-01-01

    The propellent drive and development opportunities for future catalytic technologies in petrochemical industry in the 21st century are reviewed in this paper. It focuses on the following five aspects:(1) The environmentally-friendly catalytic technologies, such as new technologies for the production of organic chemicals changing the raw material and synthetic process, the chemicals production replacing phosgene and hydrogen cyanide toxicant, and the conversion and utilization of organic wastes etc.(2) Utilization and development of cheaper light alkanes, for example, the chemical use of natural gas and the development technologies of methane chain, the production of acetic acid, ethylene and vinyl chloride from selective oxidation of ethane, as well as the manufacture of acrolein and acrylonitrile from the oxidation and ammoxidation of propane.(3) The new propylene-plus technologies of the low value higher olefins, such as catalytic cracking of C4,C5 olefins and metathesis of C4 olefin.(4) The technologies of high selective oxidation, e.g. production of propylene oxide with TS-1 molecular sieve, oxidation process by lattice oxygen and direct oxidation of benzene to phenol etc.(5) Development and application of novel catalytic materials, especially, mesopore molecular sieve materials for a larger molecule reaction, zeolite catalyst with MWW structure for alkylation of benzene and propylene, ionic liquid, and membrane reactor catalyst etc.Meanwhile,the challenging research subjects for future industrial catalysis and the several viewpoints for development strategy of new catalytic technologies are proposed. These viewpoints are as follows:(1) Catalysis discipline must be integrated with many other disciplines and should be multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary.(2) New preparation methods of catalytic materials must be originally developed.(3) The instrumentation having better time resolution and spatial resolution and applying under reaction conditions must be

  15. Green Chemistry, Green Engineering and Eco-Innovation Towards a More Sustainable Petrochemical Industry: Determinants of Brazilian Petrochemical Companies´ Engagement in GCE-Based Eco-Innovation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Freire da Silva, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ It is the general wisdom, within the petrochemical industrial sector, that technological changes, for the development of cleaner products, processes and services, is a basic requirement for companies to achieve advanced states of environmental and economic sustainability in the 21st century. It is also agreed that to innovate is essential for this industry make the necessary advancements and to reconcile the firms´ interests of being profitable, in the short-term,...

  16. [Liver function of workers occupationally exposed to mixed organic solvents in a petrochemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Oroño-Osorio, A

    2001-06-01

    A descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted to determine whether hepatic function changes in workers occupationally exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, were due to the exposure or confusing factors. A non random sample of 77 workers, operators and supervisors of the Olefin Plant I and II of a petrochemical industry in Maracaibo, Venezuela, was used. Their mean age was 29 +/- 7 years, and had at least one year of exposure to the solvents. This sample was compared with a group of employees of the administrative offices or control panel workers, with a mean age of 36 +/- 8 year and with similar anthropometric characteristics. Workers with a known history of liver disease, blood transfusions and diabetes mellitus were excluded of the study. In addition to a complete occupational disease medical history and a physical examination, serum samples were obtained to determine the activity of the aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamiltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AF), the concentration of the total bile acids (BAS), the surface antigen of hepatitis B(HbsAg) and the hepatitis A virus antibodies: AntiHAV-IgG and the AntiHAV-IgM. An urine sample was taken and analyzed by standard methodology to determine urinary phenols. The air concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene were analyzed by gas chromathography. The serum activities of the liver enzymes, the concentration of bile acids and urinary phenols were not influenced by the exposure to the solvents. The increase of the activity of GGT was associated with obesity and alcohol consumption. The antibodies of the surface antigen of hepatitis A-IgM were normal in both groups and the antibodies for the antigen of hepatitis A-IgG presented a prevalence of 6% in the exposed group and 9% in the non exposed not being associated with liver abnormalities. The individual air concentrations of the solvents were below the environmentally permissible

  17. Wastewater reuse in a cascade based system of a petrochemical industry for the replacement of losses in cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Everton; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Aquim, Patrice Monteiro de

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the mapping of opportunities for the water reuse in a cascade based system in a petrochemical industry in southern Brazil. This industrial sector has a large demand for water for its operation. In the studied industry, for example, approximately 24 million cubic meters of water were collected directly from the source in 2014. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the reuse of water in cascade in a petrochemical industry, focusing on the reuse of aqueous streams to replenish losses in the cooling towers. This is an industrial scale case study with real data collected during the years 2014 and 2015. Water reuse was performed using heuristic approach based on the exploitation of knowledge acquired during the search process. The methodology of work consisted of the construction of a process map identifying the stages of production and water consumption, as well as the characterization of the aqueous streams involved in the process. For the application of the industrial water reuse as cooling water, mass balances were carried out considering the maximum concentration levels of turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters. The adopted guideline was the fulfillment of the water quality criteria for each application in the industrial process. The study showed the feasibility for the reuse of internal streams as makeup water in cooling towers, and the implementation of the reuse presented in this paper totaled savings of 385,440 m(3)/year of water, which means a sufficient volume to supply 6350 inhabitants for a period of one year, considering the average water consumption per capita in Brazil; in addition to 201,480 m(3)/year of wastewater that would no longer be generated.

  18. Wastewater reuse in a cascade based system of a petrochemical industry for the replacement of losses in cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Everton; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Aquim, Patrice Monteiro de

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the mapping of opportunities for the water reuse in a cascade based system in a petrochemical industry in southern Brazil. This industrial sector has a large demand for water for its operation. In the studied industry, for example, approximately 24 million cubic meters of water were collected directly from the source in 2014. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the reuse of water in cascade in a petrochemical industry, focusing on the reuse of aqueous streams to replenish losses in the cooling towers. This is an industrial scale case study with real data collected during the years 2014 and 2015. Water reuse was performed using heuristic approach based on the exploitation of knowledge acquired during the search process. The methodology of work consisted of the construction of a process map identifying the stages of production and water consumption, as well as the characterization of the aqueous streams involved in the process. For the application of the industrial water reuse as cooling water, mass balances were carried out considering the maximum concentration levels of turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters. The adopted guideline was the fulfillment of the water quality criteria for each application in the industrial process. The study showed the feasibility for the reuse of internal streams as makeup water in cooling towers, and the implementation of the reuse presented in this paper totaled savings of 385,440 m(3)/year of water, which means a sufficient volume to supply 6350 inhabitants for a period of one year, considering the average water consumption per capita in Brazil; in addition to 201,480 m(3)/year of wastewater that would no longer be generated. PMID

  19. 石化产业空间组织研究进展与展望%Progresses and Perspectives on Spatial Organization of Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹤; 刘毅

    2011-01-01

    Petrochemical industry occupies an important position in the national economy, and is related to national economic security, political security and national security. Spatial organization of petrochemical industry is one of the most important research fields of industrial sector geography, and it is necessary to review its developing history, appraise its research progress and discuss its future developing trends. After clarifying the basic contents and spatial organization of petrochemical industry, the paper narrated the research history and the latest research progress of petrochemical industry' s spatial organization from different studying field, including: (1)location factor and its mechanism, (2) spatial organization patterns of petrochemical industry, (3) spatial organization of transnational oil companies, and (4) spatial organization of petrochemical industry cluster. Then the paper summarized and evaluated its research progress. The study suggests that the future research of China's petrochemical industry' s spatial organization should be strengthened in the following aspects: Firstly, in terms of research scale, the future research should be based on global, national and regional spatial scales to study the spatial organization of petrochemical industry and its evolution mechanisms. Secondly, in terms of research perspectives, the future research should be based on the perspectives of multinational companies and industrial clusters to study the spatial organization pattern and the internal mechanism of transnational oil companies and major petrochemical industrial clusters. Thirdly, in terms of research contents, the future research should be based on the review of evolution history and judgments of evolution phase, combined with studies on the development and problems of China's petrochemical industry, to optimize the spatial organization of petrochemical industry in China.%石化产业在国民经济中占有重要地位,关系到国家经济安全

  20. The Reality of Project Management Office for Construction Organization in the Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industry of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Izadpanah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the Project Management Office (PMO has become a prominent feature in many organizations. Despite the proliferation of PMO in practice, our understanding of this phenomenon remains sketchy at best. The objective of this study is describing the reality of PMOs for Construction Organization in the Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industry of Iran at 2010 year. Nine major Iranian oil, gas and petrochemical organizations were participated in this survey. The study examines the reality of PMOs, the age of PMOs, the reason for their implementation and challenges during their implementation. Research concludes that PMO are a new concept and nearly 60% of PMOs have been in existence for 3 years. Monitoring project performance, supporting project management software tools and preparing project management methodology are the most used functions. Organizations are using PMOs to achieve the golden triangle project objectives (cost/time/quality. The study found that the most significant challenges in PMO implementation are the risk of changing organizational culture and the lack of professional staff.

  1. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers for wall thickness applications in the petrochemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C.; Dixon, S.; Widdowson, A.; Palmer, S. B.

    2000-05-01

    Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are now becoming widely used in the field, for example for boiler tube wall thickness surveys in Power Generation plant. In general EMATs work efficiently on steel components with a surface oxide layer, where the oxides can be residual mill scale from the steel manufacturing process due to in-service growth in boilers or chemical processing plant. Very often these oxides have rough surfaces and have to be removed prior to conventional ultrasonic inspection. This can be both time consuming and costly, in addition the removal of the protective oxide layer accelerates the future wall lose rate of the pipe or vessel. As well as the Power Generation application, EMATs can also be used for ultrasonic inspection of petrochemical tubulars without having to remove oxides giving the same associated benefits. This paper presents results obtained from laboratory trials of EMAT thickness monitoring of petrochemical plant pipe samples and real EMAT surveys carried out on-site on refinery plant. In parallel with the practical application of EMATs we are studying the underlying physics of operation with the aim of predicting the EMAT performance for steels with and without oxide layers.

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  3. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F

    2004-07-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  4. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. 1978-June 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1978-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-07-01

    These citations from Federally funded research cover many aspects of waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. The bibliography includes emissions, economics, control processes, pollution effects, and abatement strategies. (This updated bibliography contains 280 citations, 89 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. Evaluation of DI, WBGT, and SWreq/PHS Heat Stress Indices for Estimating the Heat Load on the Employees of a Petrochemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMADREZA MONAZZAM; FARIDEH GOLBABAEI; RASOUL HEMATJO; MOSTAFA HOSSEINI; PARVIN NASSIRI; SOMAYEH FAHANG-DEHGHAN

    2015-01-01

     Heat stress is a common occupational health hazard at outdoor workplaces especially in a hot-humid climate. Overheating of the body can cause a number of problems, including heat rash, heat cramps, dizziness, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. The present study aimed to assess heat stress indices including DI, WBGT, and SWreq/PHS, as a mean to estimate the heat load on the employees of a petrochemical industry. The study was conducted in Pardis Petrochemical Company. All of the ammonia-phase ...

  6. Petrochemical development in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation highlighted the evolution of the petrochemical industry in Venezuela. Comparative advantages for the industry such as (1) abundant low cost energy, (2) attractive geographical position, (3) good infrastructure, (4) skilled, low cost labour force, and (5) regional integration, were reviewed. A summary of national production, refining, and marketing facts for petrochemicals, coal, orimulsion, and marine transportation were presented, along with financial information concerning revenues from sales, and profits and investments. Future plans to maximize the creation of value for the nation through increased oil production and partial privatization of state petroleum enterprises, were reviewed. The current state and future plans for focused development of fertilizers, olefins and olefin derivatives, and methanol products were outlined. Production statistics for three large petrochemical complexes, - El Tablazo, Moron and Jose - were also presented. 9 figs

  7. SINOPEC's Countermeasure to Withstand the Impact on Petrochemical Industry after China's Accession to WTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jianmin

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 Profile of SINOPEC SINOPEC is the first Chinese company, which was listed in Hong Kong, New York, London and Shanghai. The business portfolio of SINOPEC covers oil exploration and development,petroleum refining, petrochemical and oil products marketing,with a total sales revenue of 324.2 billion RMB and a net profit of 22 billion RMB. SINOPEC is the second largest oil and gas producer in China and is also the biggest oil refiner of China with its crude processing capacity ranked number five in the world. With 24,000 wholly controlled gas stations and 4,127 authorized gas stations, SINOPEC owns an extensive oil products marketing network. It is the largest in China oil products distributor and sales company, and is ranked the sixth largest company in the world.

  8. Developing Measures for Assessing the Causality of Safety Culture in a Petrochemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses safety culture in the petrochemical sector and the causes and consequences of safety culture. A sample of 520 responses selected by simple random sampling completed questionnaires for this survey, the return rate was 86.75%. The research instrument comprises four sections: basic information, the safety leadership scale (SLS), the safety climate scale (SCS), and the safety performance scale (SPS). SPSS 12.0, a statistical software package, was used for item analysis, validity analysis, and reliability analysis. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that (1) SLS abstracted three factors such as safety caring, safety controlling, and safety coaching; (2) SCS comprised three factors such as emergency response, safety commitment, and risk perception; and (3) SPS was composed of accident investigation, safety training, safety inspections, and safety motivation. We conclude that the SLS, SCS, and SPS developed in this paper have good construct validity and internal consistency and can serve as the basis for future research.

  9. The relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership styles in the South African petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Pillay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Although research on emotional intelligence in the context of leadership has remained a recurrent area of interest in theory and practice during the past decade, ongoing debate continues regarding the contribution of emotional intelligence to the understanding of leadership.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-reported emotional intelligence and leadership styles in a South African context and to determine whether emotional intelligence can predict an effective leadership style.Motivation for the study: Research is needed in order to determine a more detailed relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership in the dynamic and globalising South African petrochemical context.Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted in terms of a positivist paradigm, using quantitative research instruments. Leaders (N = 161 were selected from a business unit in a South African petrochemical organisation. Self-reports from the emotional quotient inventory and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X, Version 2009 were analysed. Correlation analyses indicated statistically-significant relationships between emotional intelligence and transformational and laissez-faire leadership.Main findings: Findings indicated positive correlations between self-reported emotional intelligence (specifically adaptability and transformational leadership. Negative correlations were obtained between emotional intelligence (specifically intrapersonal skills and laissez-faire leadership. The research also showed differences between specific demographic variables.Practical/managerial implications: This study provides valuable significance for organisations’ endeavours in improving, training and identifying alternative selection and assessment procedures for evaluating leaders’ strengths.Contribution/value-add: This research contributes to the South African research on emotional

  10. 我国石化行业温室气体排放源识别%Identification of Greenhouse Gas Emission Sources in Chinese Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 赵婧

    2013-01-01

    According to IPCC Guidelines and Green House Gas Protocol,the greenhouse gas emission sources in Chinese petrochemical industry are identified individually.Combined with the results of two division methods for greenhouse gas emission sources,the greenhouse gas emission sources inventories for the main sections in petrochemical industry,such as oil and gas producing,oil refining and processing,petrochemical raw materials and products manufacturing,are presented.Also,the accounting methods for greenhouse gas emission quantity in petrochemical industry are introduced.These will lay a foundation for constructing an accounting system of greenhouse gas emission in Chinese petrochemical industry.%依据《2006年IPCC(政府间气候变化专门委员会)国家温室气体清单指南》及《温室气体协议》,对我国石化行业温室气体排放源进行了识别.结合温室气体排放源范围的两种划分方法,为石化行业的主要生产部门——油气开采、原油炼制与加工、石化原料与制品制造编制了初步的温室气体排放源清单,并简要介绍了石化行业温室气体排放量的核算方法,为石化行业温室气体排放量核算体系的构建奠定基础.

  11. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities...

  13. Careers Canada, Volume 9: Careers in the Hospitality Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, designed for prospective job seekers, describes occupational opportunities within the food service, food preparation and hotel/motel industries in Canada. The preparatory training and job descriptions of cooks, chefs, tourist guides, waiters, hotel and restaurant managers, bartenders and front desk clerks are highlighted.…

  14. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author).

  15. Gasification to petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasification is often used to convert coal, petroleum coke and heavy hydrocarbons to gaseous products for hydrogenation in oil refining and upgrading. Gasification produces a variety of byproducts that can be used to produce petrochemicals. Primary petrochemical derivatives from sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen can enhance the overall economics of the gasification process, and gasification by-products can be combined with other hydrocarbon feedstocks to produce a variety of secondary and tertiary petrochemical products. This presentation examined the potential for primary, secondary and tertiary petrochemicals derived from Alberta's oil sands industry. The gasification units associated with oil sands processing plants are the largest in the world, which suggests that syngas and other gasification products will benefit from economies of scale. A proposed flow scheme for oil sands bitumen using a naphtha cracker to create ethylene and other petrochemicals was presented as well as flow schemes for the creation of light hydrocarbons, syngas and aromatics. Ammonia and methanol synthesis processes from natural gas were reviewed, as well as issues concerning acetic acid synthesis and phenol synthesis from benzene and propylene. It was concluded that all the products and feedstocks reviewed in the analysis are readily transported and have established markets. refs., tabs., figs

  16. A study on the effect of working capital management on profitability on Cement and Petrochemical industries: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khaksarian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of working capital management on profitability on Cement and Petrochemical industries. The study uses the information of 24 firms from Cement industry and 19 firms from Petrochemical industry listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. There are two independent variables including the ratio of current assets on total assets as well as the ratio of current liabilities on total assets in this survey. In addition, there are two dependent variables including return on assets (ROA and Tobin’s Q. The study also considers firm size, sales’ growth, financial leverage, gross domestic product growth as control variables. Using stepwise regression technique, the study confirms a positive and meaningful relationship between working capital criteria and profitability. In addition, the study confirms that as the ratio of current assets to total assets increases, ROA and Tobin’s Q will be reduced, which means lower profitability would be resulted. In addition, as financial leverage increases, ROA in both industries will reduce while Tobin’s Q will increase in Cement industry and will reduce in Petrochemical industry.

  17. Proceedings of the CERI 2003 petrochemical conference : Framing the future. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided an excellent networking opportunity for those involved in the petrochemical industry which is on the verge of corporate growth. Four keynote addresses and 16 papers were presented at the conference, which was divided into five sessions. The first session discussed the place of the Canadian petrochemical industry in global commerce. Topics of discussion included a global overview of the petrochemical industry, politics and the impact on energy prices. Investment growth and implications for Canada were also outlined in the first session. The second session involved a close look at the resource potential with reference to the gas supply outlook for the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, northern gas, natural gas liquids and carbon dioxide management services. The third session outlined strategies for sustainable development with reference to the impact of climate change issues on Canadian oil and gas development and the legal aspects of doing business under the Kyoto Protocol. The fourth session discussed the challenge of product movement. This included new approaches to pipeline shipments, rail transport and maritime transport. The fifth and final session dealt with the foundations for future growth and keeping Canada competitive in the global economy. The main focus of discussion in the last session was on the use of alternative feedstock for the petrochemical industry. Of the 16 papers presented at the conference 6 were indexed separately for inclusion in this database

  18. Harnessing the potential - Atlantic Canada's oil and gas industry : Newfoundland Ocean Industries special releases or publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive overview of Atlantic Canada's oil and gas industry is presented, demonstrating the importance of oil and gas resources and their related industries to Atlantic Canada. The objective of the report is to provide a basis for a strategy to optimize opportunities within the region from the oil and gas sector. The report reviews the current status of the industry, including the region's resource potential and the oil and gas developments currently underway. The evolution of the oil and gas industry is discussed in terms of value chain components. A broad assessment of the region's supply, labour force, infrastructure, training, and research and development capabilities is presented, followed by a description of the industry's potential, its regulatory framework and the barriers and constraints affecting industry development. Appendices contain a chronological history of major events in Atlantic Canada's oil and gas industry (Appendix A); and overview of the Atlantic Accord and the Canada-Nova Scotia Accord's equalization offset provisions (Appendix B); a value chain matrix, detailing some 60 categories of industry requirements and a capsule assessment of the region's ability to meet them (Appendix C); and a listing of research and development institutions in Atlantic Canada, including their areas of specialization (Appendix D)

  19. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. PMID:24824168

  20. A strategic analysis of a service company in the film and television industry in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Nex, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    EP Canada Limited Partnership, a wholly owned subsidiary of Rainmaker Income Fund, is the leading ‘full service’ provider of payroll and employer-of-record services to the film and television industry in Canada. The size of the payroll volume outsourced in the film and television industry in Canada is directly correlated to the level of production activity in Canada. After several consecutive years of growth, the production of feature films and television programs, in Canada, is in ...

  1. Economic feasibility of district heating delivery from industrial excess heat: A case study of a Swedish petrochemical cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work discusses the potential and the economic feasibility of DH (district heating) delivery using industrial excess heat from a petrochemical cluster at the Swedish West Coast. Pinch Analysis was used for estimating the DH capacity targets and for estimating the cost of heat exchanger installation. A discounted cash flow rate of return of 10% was used as a criterion for identifying the minimum yearly DH delivery that should be guaranteed for a given DH capacity at different DH sales prices. The study was conducted for the current scenario in which no heat recovery is achieved between the cluster plants and for a possible future scenario in which 50% of the fuel currently used for heating purposes is saved by increasing the heat recovery at the site. The competition between excess heat export and local energy efficiency measures is also discussed in terms of CO2 emission consequences. The maximum capacity of DH delivery amounts today to around 235 MW, which reduces to 110 MW in the future scenario of increased site heat recovery. The results of our analysis show that feasible conditions exist that make DH delivery profitable in the entire capacity range. - Highlights: • Pinch Analysis targeting approach and short-cut cost accounting procedure. • Economic analysis for different DH delivery capacities up to maximum targets. • Sensitivity analysis of heat sales prices. • Parallel plants and cluster wide heat collection systems considered. Competition between cluster internal heat recovery and excess heat export is discussed

  2. Transformational leadership in business organisations ascending to world-class status: A case study in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. De Kock

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important prerequisites for economic competitiveness in the global economy, is the delivery of a unique product or service. In order to achieve this level of competitiveness, transformational rather than transactional leadership should be a core element in organisation’s ascent to ‘world-class’ status. Inline with other researching results, the most important finding of this study, which was conducted in a petrochemical industry, is that transformational leadership is not up to standard. Opsomming Een van die belangrikste voorvereistes vir ekonomiese kompetering in die globale ekonomie, is die lewering van ‘n unieke produk of diens. ‘n Voorvereiste wat slegs kan realiseer indien transformasionele leierskap eerder as transaksionele leierskap ‘n kernboublok in organisasies se strewe na ‘wêreldklas’ status vorm. Inlyn met die bevindinge van verskeie ander studies, is die vernaamste bevinding van ook die studie wat in ‘n petrochemiese bedryf gedoen is, dat transformasionele leierskap nog nie op standaard is nie.

  3. Entomological study of sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamzeh Alipour; Hossien Darabi; Tahere Dabbaghmanesh; Mehdi Bonyani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the fauna and seasonal activity of different species of sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Asalouyeh, the heartland of an Iranian petrochemical industry, Southern Iran, as a oil rich district. Sand flies are the vectors of at least three different kinds of disease, the most important of which is leishmaniasis, and it is a major public health problem in Iran with increased annual occurrence of clinical episodes.Methods:cleared in puris medium and identified morphologically, twice a month from April to March 2008.Results:A total of 3 497 sand flies of rural regions were collected by sticky traps fixed, and Sinton, 1928, Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, 1910, Phlebotomus bergeroti Parrot and Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot) and one of genus Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia tiberiadis Alder, Theodor & Lourie, 1930). The most prevalent species was Phlebotomus papatasi, presented 56.4% of the identified flies. The others were Phlebotomus sergenti (22.5%), Phlebotomus alexandri (4.5%), Phlebotomusbergeroti Predominant species included four of genus Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus alexandri than that of males (32%). The abundance of sand flies represented two peaks of activity; one in early May and the other one in the first half of September in the region. (12%) and Sergentomyia tiberiadis (5%) as well. The percentage of females (68%) was more Conclusion: Phlebotomus papatasi is the probable vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the region. Further molecular studies are needed to determine the definite vector of the region.

  4. Status and Development of Denitration Technology of Petrochemical Industry%浅谈石化行业脱硝技术的现状及发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩爱菊; 徐伟; 公克

    2013-01-01

      介绍了氮氧化物的危害,石化行业氮氧化物的产生机理和特点,我国现阶段石化行业氮氧化物主要来,包括FCC再生烟气、装置加热炉烟气、酸性气回收装置废气。阐述了不同类型烟气中氮氧化物产生、治理措施、排放现状以及氮氧化物排放限制标准,并对将来石化行业脱硝技术的应用进行了探讨和展望。%This article introduced the hazards of nitrogen oxides, the generation mechanism and characteristics of nitrogen oxides in the petrochemical industry, the main source of nitrogen oxides from petrochemical industry at the present stage-mainly, including FCC regenerator flue gas, devices heating furnace flue gas, and acid gas recovery device exhaust, and described the generation, treatment measures, discharge status and limitation standard of nitrogen oxide for different types of flue gases, and discussed and forcasted the application of denitrification technology in the future petrochemical industry.

  5. Productivity Trends in the Gold Mining Industry in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Smith

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to uncover the factors behind what has been, on average, a strong productivity performance from the Canadian gold mining industry over the past four decades. It is found that real price movements have had a substantial impact on productivity growth in the gold mining industry in Canada. The real price of gold declined steadily throughout the 1990s, squeezing the profits of mines on sites of marginal quality and thereby leading to the closure of the least producti...

  6. Health Risk Assessment of Xylene through Microenvironment Monitoring Data: A Case Study of the Petro-Chemical Industries, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pensri Watchalayann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of environmental health epidemiology, risk managers, policy makers and health-care authorities usually rely on estimates of human exposure level of proximity to hazardous waste site or regional ambient air quality data. Based on ambient concentrations without considering time-activity patterns, the estimation of personal exposure may be overor underestimated. Twelve villages surrounding the petro-chemical industries located in the eastern region of Thailand were randomly selected to be a representative study area. In each village, air samples were collected at thirty-one microenvironments including indoor and outdoor of a household and workplace. The time-activity patterns of the commuters were also recorded. The ambient xylene concentrations were determined by thermal desorption gas chromatograhy/mass spectrometry. The indoor samples were determined by gas chromatography flame ionization detector. Commuters living in the vicinity of the industrial areas spent most of the time indoor (93.2%, especially at home (66.8%. Individuals spent a significant fraction of the day indoors. The concentrations of xylene ranged from less than 1 μg/m3 to 291.3 μg/m3. The highest level was found at the auto repair shop (291.3 μg/m3. Given micro-environmental concentrations and activity times, the average concentrations of xylene to which commuters may be exposed daily ranged from 90.62 to 134.75 μg/m3. The long term exposure level via inhalation was found to be very low. Collectively, no hazard was indicated by the hazard quotient and the results were found to be similar in all villages.

  7. Technical Training in the MNCs in Malaysia: A Case Study Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooi, Lai Wan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to gain insight into some of the types of training and development practices that are carried out in the chemical industry for technical workers. A salient focus of the study is to make a comparative analysis of four MNCs, which were selected based on equity ownership, to ascertain whether T&D practices are…

  8. Efficacy and reliability of upgraded industrial treatment plant at Porto Marghera, near Venice, Italy, in removing nutrients and dangerous micropollutants from petrochemical wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlicchi, Paola; Cattaneo, Serena; Marciano, Ferdinando; Masotti, Luigi; Vecchiato, Giuseppe; Zaffaroni, Carlo

    2011-08-01

    Chemical and petrochemical wastewaters contain a host of contaminants that require different treatment strategies. Regulation of macropollutants and micropollutants in the final discharge from industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have become increasingly stringent in recent decades, requiring many WWTPs to be upgraded. This article presents an analysis of a WWTP treating petrochemicals in Porto Marghera, Italy, that recently was upgraded following legislative changes. Because of strict legal limits for macropollutants and micropollutants and a lack of space necessary for a full-scale WWTP overhaul, the existing activated sludge tank was converted into a membrane biological reactor. The paper presents experimental data collected during a five-month investigation showing the removal rates achieved by the upgraded plant for macropollutants (particularly nitrogen compounds) and micropollutants (heavy metals and organic and inorganic toxic compounds). PMID:21905411

  9. Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R&D Needs for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-11-01

    This report, the second in a series, is designed to summarize and present recommendations for improved CO2 separation technology for industrial processes. This report provides an overview of 1) the principal CO2 producing processes, 2) the current commercial separation technologies and 3) emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO2 separation, and makes recommendations for future research.

  10. Techno-economic studies of environmentally friendly Brayton cycles in the petrochemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nkoi, Barinyima

    2014-01-01

    Brayton cycles are open gas turbine cycles extensively used in aviation and industrial applications because of their advantageous volume and weight characteristics. With the bulk of waste exhaust heat and engine emissions associated, there is need to be mindful of environmentally-friendliness of these engine cycles, not compromising good technical performance, and economic viability. This research considers assessment of power plants in helicopters, and aeroderivative ind...

  11. Canada's nuclear industry: Maturity, confidence and a continuing challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the CANDU system, based on heavy water and natural uranium, Canada has developed an integrated high-technology product that is world scale in concept and that competes successfully in the international arena. This is a great achievement by any standard. The joint effort over many decades by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Onatario Hydro and others, has brought a remarkable record of safe, reliable and cost-effective nuclear generation. Electricity is a Canadian advantage, as the country has abundant hydro, coal and nuclear supplies, and its costs are the lowest among the major Western industrial countries. It is also significant that its nuclear electricity costs are among the lowest in the world

  12. Canada's nuclear industry, greenhouse gas emissions, and the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change, dated December 10, 1997 committed Canada to reduce greenhouse gases to 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Other nations also committed to varying degrees of reduction. The Protocol includes provisions for credit to the 'developed' counties for initiatives which lead to greenhouse gas reduction in the 'developing' countries and for the sharing of credit between 'developed' countries for projects undertaken jointly. The rules and details for implementation of these guidelines remain to be negotiated. We begin our study by establishing the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions already avoided by the nuclear industry in Canada since the inception of commercial power plants in 1971. We then review projections of energy use in Canada and anticipated increase in electricity use up to the year 2020. These studies have anticipated no (or have 'not permitted') further development of nuclear electricity production in spite of the clear benefit with respect to greenhouse gas emission. The studies also predict a relatively small growth of electricity use. In fact the projections indicate a reversal of a trend toward increased per capita electricity use which is contrary to observations of electricity usage in national economies as they develop. We then provide estimates of the magnitude of greenhouse gas reduction which would result from replacing the projected increase in fossil fuel electricity by nuclear generation through the building of more plants and/or making better use of existing installations. This is followed by an estimate of additional nuclear capacity needed to avoid CO2 emissions while providing the electricity needed should per capita usage remain constant. Canada's greenhouse gas reduction goal is a small fraction of international commitments. The Kyoto agreement's 'flexibility mechanism' provisions provide some expectation that Canada could obtain some credit for greenhouse gas

  13. Risk based inspection experience from the European chemical- and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an inspection vendor with 60 years of experience and with more than 25 years of experience as manufacturer of the Automated Ultrasonic NDT systems, the P-scan systems, FORCE Institute is continuously analysing the market for NDT. This is done to assure that both the equipment product line and the service mix provided by FORCE Institute are meeting the requirements from the industry today and in the future. The concept of Risk Based Inspection Programmes were adopted early by the offshore industry and has in the recent years been adopted by many other industries as a reliable and cost efficient way of maintaining a production facility. A Risk/Reliability Based Inspection Programme is a 'living organism' that constantly needs information if it shall be of any value and NDT information is only one type of information that is required. The NDT information required is normally related to corrosion/base material information and weld integrity information. NDT as an integrated part of a plants maintenance system is, in Europe, currently influenced by the following tendencies which all are related to 'Risk Based Inspection': · Increased use of Base-Line Inspections · Reduction in the use of repeated inspections(qualitative- instead of quantitative Inspections). · Inspection results are fed directly into the plant maintenance system. · Fitness-for-Purpose acceptance criteria instead of conventional acceptance criteria. As repeatability and accuracy is a key issue for the data, automated ultrasonic inspection is increasingly used as an alternative to manual ultrasonic inspection, but due to the physical size of most automated ultrasonic inspection systems the gain in productivity has not been as significant as the gain in repeatability and accuracy. In this paper some of FORCE Institute's practical experiences with examinations carried out in connection with Risk Based Inspection is used to illustrate the above described tendencies. Not only examples using automated

  14. A evolução da indústria petroquímica brasileira The evolution of the brazilian petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mc Mannis Torres

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Petrochemical Industry is about to turn fifty years old, and endures profound changes. In less than four years, it has moved from a system of centralized decisions and a national lever of planning, to another which is spread, without massive actions and with less integration with the raw material supplying company. On this issue it is presented, briefly, a small history of the development of this industrial type, including issues on how the growth of this activity, so important to the development of Brazil, shall be lead.

  15. Biological anoxic treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: A proof of concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Glittmann, Lina [Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Department of Supply Engineering, Wolfenbüttel (Germany); Pérez, Rebeca [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Quijano, Guillermo, E-mail: gquijano@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions can be done by means of denitrifying processes. •Toluene vapors were successfully removed under anoxic denitrifying conditions. • A high bacterial diversity was observed. • Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla. • The nature and number of metabolites accumulated varied with the toluene load -- Abstract: An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O{sub 2} supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ∼3 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}, while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m{sup −3} (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria.

  16. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear research and development in Canada started in the 1940s as a responsibility of the federal government. An engineering design team was established at Chalk River, Ontario, to carry out research on heavy water moderated lattices. A zero-energy heavy water moderated research reactor, ZEEP, was built and achieved criticality in September 1945; it was in fact the first human-made operating reactor outside the USA. In 1947, the 20 MW heavy water moderated national research experimental reactor (NRX) started up. It served as one of the most valuable research reactors in the world, and provided the basis for Canada's development of the very successful CANDU series of pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) for power generation. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) was established in 1952 as a federal Crown Corporation. It has both a public and a commercial mandate. AECL has overall responsibility for Canada's nuclear research and development programme (its public mandate) as well as for the Canadian reactor design (CANDU), engineering and marketing programme (its commercial mandate). Nuclear energy in Canada is a $5 billion per-year industry, representing about 150 firms, 21 000 direct jobs and 10 000 indirect jobs, and ∼$1.2 billion in exports - the value to the country's economy is much higher than the research and development funding provided by the federal government. The CANDU nuclear reactor system was developed by AECL in close collaboration with the Canadian nuclear industry, and in particular with Ontario Hydro (now Ontario Power Generation). Currently, Canada operates 17 CANDU reactors, which contribute 16% of the country's current electricity consumption. There are also 12 CANDU reactors operating abroad (in Argentina, China, India, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Romania). AECL is now developing the 'third generation plus' Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000), and also has the leading role internationally in developing the Generation IV

  17. The future of the electric utility industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of future changes in the electric power utility industry in Canada was presented. The impacts of deregulation were considered, including increased competition, and reduced profits resulting from it. Restructuring measures taken by BC Hydro to prepare for industry changes were described. Competition was not only expected to result from new electric utilities, but also gas utilities that are establishing themselves in the home heating business. Emphasis was placed on making the utilities' priorities, the same as their customers'. Flexibility of rate scheduling and increased dependence on customer-owned generation were needed to remain competitive. Exportation of surplus electricity and development of power utilities in developing nations was considered as a potentially lucrative development strategy. It was suggested that making use of strategic alliances within Canada and worldwide, will help to keep utilities ahead of the competition. A warning was issued to the effect that environmental concerns must always be considered well in advance of regulations since they are continually becoming more stringent. Making common cause with customers, and continuous improvement were considered to be the most important keys to future success for the industry

  18. Healthy environment — indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009–2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC–MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at

  19. Strategic Thinking on Industrial Structure Development of Sinopec Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited%上海石化产业结构发展的战略思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张经明

    2012-01-01

    Based on the global and domestic macroeconomic environment and its development trend, the development trend of petrochemical industry both at home and abroad was analyzed, and strategic thinking was raised for SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited (SPC) in aspects of cost leadership, regionalization, differentiation, environmental protection and low carbon. With implementation of the strategic targets, SPC can become a large - scale vertically integrated petrochemical enterprise being domestically advanced and internationally first class.%根据上海石化所处的国内外宏观经济环境及发展趋势,分析国内外石化行业的发展趋势,提出上海石化在低成本、区域化、差异化和绿色低碳等方面的战略思考。通过战略目标的实施,使上海石化成为国内领先和国际一流的大型炼化企业。

  20. Canada's nuclear fuel industry: An overview. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada was among the first countries to mine and process uranium-bearing ores. Such ores contain trace amounts of radium, which was in great demand for medical treatment and for use by research laboratories in the early part of the century. For the last half century, the same basic processes have been used to extract uranium from its ores and convert it to a form suitable for use in nuclear reactors. The process described here is that currently in use in Canada. Mining can take a variety of forms, from open-pit to deep, hard-rock. Mining is typically the most costly step in the process, particularly for lower-grade ores. The ore is crushed and ground in the mill to the consistency of fine sand from which the uranium is extracted chemically to produce the impure concentrate known as yellowcake. In the next step, the impure uranium concentrate is chemically refined into highly purified, nuclear-grade, uranium trioxide (UO3). Uranium trioxide is then converted, in two separate chemical processes, into uranium dioxide (UO2) which is destined for domestic consumption and uranium hexafluoride (UF6) which is exported. In Canada, fabrication is the final step of the fuel production process. Uranium dioxide powder is compressed and sintered into very dense ceramic pellets which are then sealed in zirconium tubes and assembled into fuel bundles for Candu reactors. This background paper will review the Canadian nuclear fuels industry. 1 fig

  1. Canada's East Coast offshore oil and gas industry: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive overview of Canada's offshore oil and natural gas resources is provided, and their significance to the economy of the Maritimes and of Canada as a whole is assessed. The overview describes the ongoing offshore energy projects, the facilities used to produce offshore resources, the processing and transportation of offshore oil and natural gas, the measures taken to protect the environment, the regulatory regime in place and the scientific, technical and economic benefits accruing to the local as well as the national economy. To the end of 1998, some $ 8 billion have been invested by the oil and gas industry in seismic surveys and drilling to explore petroleum potential off Canada's East Coast, and another $ 10 billion had been earmarked for the construction of production and transportation facilities. In September 1998, companies bid a record $ 175 million for additional licences to explore for oil and gas off Newfoundland during the next five years. In 1999, companies bid yet another $ 592 million for exploration rights off Nova Scotia. Four significant projects are currently in development or in production: (1) Hibernia - a crude oil producing field off Newfoundland, (2) Terra Nova - a crude oil development off the Newfoundland coast, (3) Cohasset-Panuke - a crude oil production operation off the the Nova Scotia coast, and (4) the Sable Offshore Energy Project -- a natural gas project of Nova Scotia. A list of sources for further information is appended. Maps. tabs., figs

  2. Canada's east coast offshore oil and gas industry: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Another of the backgrounder series published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, this booklet describes Canada's offshore oil and natural gas operations in the North Atlantic Ocean, specifically in the Hibernia (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Terra Nova (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Cohasset-Panuke (off Nova Scotia, crude oil) and Sable Island (off Nova Scotia, natural gas) fields. Together, these project represent an investment of more than 10 billion dollars and constitute a growing portion of Canada's 400,000 cubic metres of crude oil and natural gas liquids per day production. The booklet explains the importance of the offshore oil and natural gas industry to Canada, the benefits accruing to the maritime provinces locally, prospects for future offshore oil and natural gas development and provides a brief summary of each of the four current major projects. The booklet also provides an overview of the facilities required for offshore energy projects, environmental impacts and safeguards, exploration, drilling, production, processing and transportation aspects of offshore oil and gas projects. 9 refs, photos

  3. Petroleum producers and Canada's north : an industry moving forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts were made by northern industries over the last 20 years to reduce their impact on the environment. The minimization of the footprint on the environment was researched and new exploration and production techniques were developed by petroleum companies, so that clean air, clear water, healthy land and abundant wildlife could be maintained in the north. An example of such techniques is provided by directional drilling technology, which enables oil and gas producers to assess reserves under lakes or other sensitive areas without leaving an impact. Everyone in the north benefits from the oil and gas industry as a result of local employment policies, increased government revenues. Job creation is probably the most obvious benefit derived from oil and gas activities in the north. At present, the jobs are mainly concentrated in the seismic field, drilling and support services sector, as the industry is in the exploration stage. As the industry evolves into the development phase, the jobs and business opportunities will also mature. Training programs are being created by the governments of the Northwest Territories and Canada in partnership with the petroleum industry to enable northern residents to take advantage of the new opportunities. The traditional economies of the north will be strengthened by a strong oil and gas industry. Industry and communities must be ready to share their vision of the north to develop a sustainable northern oil and gas industry. Abundant oil and gas resources are located in the Northwest Territories, and numerous challenges make getting the resources and moving them to market difficult. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has a vision of a strong industry in the north employing local people and where the respect of local knowledge and traditions dominates. The members companies are responsible for the production of 95 per cent of the crude oil and natural gas in Canada. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has a

  4. Non-network Connection for Industrial Control Systems of Petrochemical Enterprises%石化企业工业控制系统非网联接

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马钧; 佘军

    2014-01-01

    石化企业工业控制系统在与接入因特网的其他信息系统联网时有可能受到来自外部网络的攻击。为了实现石化企业工业控制系统与其他网络之间安全的数据交换,本文提出一种利用非网结构进行单向传输的设计方案;论述单向数据传输的原理和采用的安全策略,并对非网联接进行安全性测试。测试结果显示,该非网联接方案能够有效地防止来自外部网络的黑客、木马、病毒等对工业控制系统的攻击,保护石化企业工业控制系统安全运行。%When industrial control systems ( ICS) in petrochemical enterprise access other information systems connected to Inter-net, they may suffer cyber attacks from external networks .In order to achieve secure data exchange between ICS of petrochemical enterprise and its corporate networks , a non-network formula which employed unilateral data transmission method is discussed in this paper.It discusses the principles of unilateral data transmission method and many security policies employed .In addition, the paper offers tests to prove that non-network formula can protect ICS in petrochemical enterprise from being tampered or at -tacked by hackers , Trojans or virus from Internet , and the design could ensure the safe running of ICS in petrochemical enterpri-ses.

  5. Evaluation of DI, WBGT, and SWreq/PHS Heat Stress Indices for Estimating the Heat Load on the Employees of a Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMADREZA MONAZZAM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Heat stress is a common occupational health hazard at outdoor workplaces especially in a hot-humid climate. Overheating of the body can cause a number of problems, including heat rash, heat cramps, dizziness, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. The present study aimed to assess heat stress indices including DI, WBGT, and SWreq/PHS, as a mean to estimate the heat load on the employees of a petrochemical industry. The study was conducted in Pardis Petrochemical Company. All of the ammonia-phase workers (10 men working in the hot-humid condition were selected and other 11 men workers were chosen from the work sites without risk of heat stress. The physiological parameters such as heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and deep and skin temperatures and weather parameters, including: Discomfort Index, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature and Required Sweat Rate based on Predicted Heat Strain were measured simultaneously. All of the subjects in two groups as acclimated and unacclimated were monitored in two different weather and working conditions: the work-site and the rest-room. The mean values of the indices and the physiological parameters for both acclimated and unacclimated groups were significantly higher at the work-site than at the rest-room. For WBGT and DI indices, the highest correlation was found with heart rate (0.731, 0.725, respectively. However; the strongest linear relationship existed between SWreq/PHS and deep body temperature (0.766 among the under study heat stress indices. With regard to the data obtained, the SWreq/PHS index had the greatest correlation with deep body temperature, so, it can be served as a quick tool to evaluate heat stress for a petrochemical industry like Pardis and appraise the approximate amount of heat strain imposed to the employees.

  6. Production of synthetic liquid fuel from run-of-mine oil shales, brown coals and waste of petrochemical and chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern and perspective technologies have been developed for processing run-of-mine oil shales into liquid products foreseen for producing motor fuels and chemical feedstock. Baltic run-of-mine oil shales, high-sulfur oil shales of the Volga basin, brown coals of Kansk-Atchinsk basin, as well as heavy crude oils and oil-bearing sands, solid waste of petrochemical and chemical industry may be processed. The proposed high-efficiency technology enables to produce high yields of naphtha (gasoline fraction) and diesel fuel fraction, feedstock for catalytic and hydro cracking processes, electrode coke, different adhesive materials, refractories, anodic mass, phenols, individual hydrocarbons, Ni- and V- concentrates. The process proposed is carried out using oil shales. Their organic matter has unique hydrogen donor properties which enable them to activate the thermal conversion of brown coals, high-boiling waste of petrochemical industry etc. This complex technology is based on the thermochemical conversion process of oil shales in the hydro carbonic solvent at 333-440 deg C, under the pressure of 3-5 MPa, and volumetric rate 3-6 h-1. A paste-forming substance boiling between 200-340 deg C is used as the medium. The process runs with a deficiency (up to 30 %) of regenerated paste-forming substance and therefore respective measures have been worked out to intensify the process. It enabled to close the process with respect to regenerated paste-forming substance and to design new routes for thermochemical processing of oil shales. These procedures have the following essential advantages: 1.There is no need for previous separation of asphaltenes and metals (Ni, V) from heavy petrochemical feedstock as they precipitate on the mineral part of oil shales and are discharged together with liquid products of the process. 2. Thermal cracking is carried out without molecular hydrogen and thermal hydro cracking without catalysts. 3. Raw material is considerably desulfurized.(author)

  7. The petrochemical industry versus the transformers. Allays or enemies?; A industria petroquimica versus transformadores. Aliados ou inimigos?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigner, Gabriel [Girassol Industria e Comercio de Plasticos Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    The existing different realities between the two companies environment focused, on one side the big petrochemical plants and on the other side, the transformer ones, most of them small and middle companies produces unlike views in terms of the management of these companies. The present economical conjuncture requires an urgent alteration of this procedure, in order to favour improvements in rentability and competitivity in both segments, as well as to provide a more adjusted basis of business expansion and development. (author)

  8. 我国石化产业面临的挑战及对策建议%Challenges Facing China's Petrochemical Industry and Their Countermeasure Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王基铭

    2015-01-01

    阐述了当前我国石化产业面临着原油低价格、市场化进程加快、科技革命兴起等新形势,同时也面临着市场竞争加剧、环保要求日益严格等严峻挑战,指出我国石化工业面对新的机遇和挑战,必须走创新驱动、转型升级、绿色发展之路.%The article expounds on the new situation facing China's petrochemical industry such as low oil price, continuously accelerated commercialization process and accelerated advances in science & technological revolution, as well as severe challenges facing it such as aggravated market competition and increasingly strict environmental protection requirements. It points out that, being faced with new chances and challenges, China's petrochemical industry must walk along the road of innovation drive, transformation and upgrading as well as green development.

  9. 2012年我国石油化工行业进展及展望%Progress of China's petrochemical industry in 2012 and outlook for 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪定一

    2013-01-01

    转型和建设世界一流石化建设等方面取得实质性的新进展.%The progress of China's petrochemical industry under the conditions of high crude oil price and slowdown in economy in 2012 was summarized. Firstly, the running of petrochemical industry was slow but turning to smooth and steady; production output and value and gross profit were all increasing, but compared to the last year, the pace was slower. Secondly, in building a world-class petrochemical industry, crude oil processing volume, ethylene production output maintained the world second, chemical production compared with USA was roughly the same, synthetic resin production was in the forefront, synthetic rubber production ranked the first in the world. Thirdly, about the transformation and upgrading of petrochemical industry, modern coal chemical industry was smoothly integrated into petrochemical production system; petrochemical industry was involved in biomass utilization, and succeeded in trial production of aviation kerosene from biomass; a new progress was made in upgrading to high-end products. And finally, about technical progress, a batch of industrial units were built using proprietary technology, including two sets of diesel liquid phase circulation hydrogenation units in Shijiazhuang refinery and Jiujiang refinery, a new generation of S-Zorb unit for producing EU V grade gasoline, 800 kt/a ethylene cracking plant in Wuhan, S-MTO coal to olefin unit, FCC regeneration flue gas SCR denitrification unit in Zhenhai; a batch of technologies independently developed, including conversion of super heavy oil to light fractions, megaton per year integrated aromatics unit and syn-gas to ethylene glycol synthesis were ready for commercialization; the ebullated bed heavy residual oil hydrogenation technology was being commercial-scale verified; research on production differentiation technology was stepping up aiming at a number of special chemicals and new chemical materials. The petrochemical

  10. Hybrid environment for software sensors design applied to the petrochemical industry problems; Ambiente hibrido para a concepcao de sensores de software aplicados aos problemas da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Bruno X.; Ramalho, Leonardo S.G.; Rodrigues, Igor O.; Martins, Daniel L.; Doria Neto, Adriao D.; Melo, Jorge D.; Oliveira, Luiz A.H.G.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article will show a hybrid environment for the conception of software sensors in Foundation Fieldbus (FF) industrial network. These sensors are focused on the measurement and control problems in the petroleum industry, more specifically in oil and gas refining, contributing for the efficiency increase and operation costs decrease of a refining process. The software sensors are based on intelligent algorithms, as neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. These algorithms need input data, in this case the historical variables data associated to industrial petrochemical plant. One option allowed by the environment is the data acquisition from a simulated process by the FF network. Then, the environment presents a hybrid feature, since it is composed by a real (the industrial network) and a simulated (the process) part, with the use of real control and measurements signals. The environment is flexible, allowing typical dynamics of industrial process reproduction without necessity of the physical network amendment and enabling the creation of several situations from a real industrial environment. (author)

  11. China Strengthens Macro-management in Petrochemical Branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ China will strengthen macro-management in petrochemical branches in order to reasonably utilize the national petroleum resources and improve its competitive capacity in international refinery industrial market.

  12. MBR in Petrochemical Industry Wastewater Treatment with Good Effect%MBR在石化工业废水深度处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽华

    2015-01-01

    采用膜生物反应器( MBR)处理石化工业废水,研究了MBR对CODcr、 BOD5、 NH3-N、TP 及石油类等去除效果.结果表明: MBR对石化工业废水具有良好的稳定处理效果,平均去除率CODcr分别为:86�4%, BOD597�6%, NH3-N 99%, TP 68%,石油类86�7%. MBR出水后CODcr, BOD5, NH3-N, TP,石油类质量浓度平均值分别为35�9,2�9,0�46,0�36,1�35 mg·L-1.研究表明:处理后水质满足国家一级排放标准, MBR可以有效地处理石化工业废水.%Membrane Bioreactor MBR process was used to treat petrochemical industry wastewater and removal rates of CODcr BOD5 NH3⁃N TP and petroleum in MBR system were studied. The experimental result indicates that MBR produces good and steady effects in petrochemical wastewater purification. The removal rates of CODcr BOD5 NH3⁃N TP and petroleum averaged 86�4% 97�6% 99% 68% and 86�7%respectively. The concentrations of CODcr BOD5 NH3⁃N TP and petroleum in the effluent averaged 35�9 2�9 0. 46 0�36 and 1�35 mg·L-1 respectively meeting the national standards for wastewater discharge I and the system operates with stable effect by on⁃line NaClO backwashing. The industrial application of MBR in petrochemical wastewater treatment produces good effects.

  13. Gamma-ray application to the measurement of a media distribution at the catayst cooler of a residue fluid catalytic cracking unit (RFCCU) in the petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic behavior of the process media in the petrochemical industry can hardly be observed during its operation. Because the information on the process media is directly related to the processes efficiency, therefore it is necessary to establish what is actually happening inside the process unit. For this purpose, a field experiment was performed to study the fluidized catalyst patterns and confirm the internal conditions by using a sealed gamma-ray source. From the results, the areas showing a different pattern from the surrounding vicinity were found successfully. Especially at the upper part of the connection point at which the pipeline from are generator was joined, a relatively low amount of catalyst was distributed. Sealed gamma-ray application to the catalyst cooler is considered as a worthwhile technique for a measurement of the catalyst distribution at the RFCCU.

  14. Report on Productivity Trends in Selected Natural Resource Industries in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Centre for the Study of Living Standards

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to shed light on the dynamics and determinants of productivity growth in nine selected natural resource industries and in the overall natural resource sector in Canada. This report provides a concise review of the findings of a detailed analysis undertaken by the Centre for the Study of Living Standards for Natural Resources Canada. The importance of productivity growth is reviewed, and observations are made on the contribution of natural resource industries to a...

  15. SWOT Analysis of Fujian Province's Undertaking Petrochemical Industry from Taiwan District%福建承接台湾石化产业转移的SWOT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建雄

    2012-01-01

    闽台五缘相连,石化产业区际转移合力有利于福建承接台湾石化产业转移。在前人研究的基础上,从区际产业转移力入手,综合考虑经济因素和非经济因素,应用SWOT量化分析法对影响闽台石化产业转移对接的潜在竞争对手的优势、劣势、机会、挑战等因素进行分析,确定福建省在争取承接台湾石化产业过程中应采取SO发展策略。福建省应对内继续提升产业承接拉力,对外加强对台招商引资力度,把握海西建设和闽台石化产业转移的战略机遇,尽力争取承接台湾石化产业转移并发展壮大,在未来闽台跨海石化产业整合中抢占先机。%Fujian province,geographically and culturally,closely related with Taiwan district,is advantageous of undertaking the Taiwan petrochemical industry transferring.Based on the former research and the consideration of economic factors and non-economic factors,as well as the joined forces between petrochemical industry districts,the quantitative SWOT is applied to analyze the advantages and disadvantages,opportunities and challenges of the potential competitors,who have effects on petrochemical industry transferring between Fujian province and Taiwan district,in order to adopt SO development strategy in Fujian province's undertaking petrochemical industry from Taiwan.Fujian province should promote the industrial undertaking forces as well as attract more investment in order to seize the strategic opportunities in the building of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone,accomplish the development after undertaking Taiwan petrochemical industry and grab the opportunities in advance with regard to the petrochemical industry reconstruction between Fujian province and Taiwan district.

  16. Source fingerprint monitoring of air pollutants from petrochemical industry and the determination of their annual emission flux using open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yih-Shiaw Huang; Shih-Yi Chang; Tai-Ly Tso [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (China)

    1996-12-31

    Toxic air pollutants were investigated in several petrochemical industrial park in Taiwan using a movable open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the qualitative and quantitative analysis of emission gases from plants, and also provide the emission rates of various compounds. More than twenty compounds under usual operation were found from these industrial park. The concentration variation with time could be correlated exactly with the distances from the emission source along the wind direction. This means that by changing the measuring points the source of emission could be unambiguously identified. The point, area and line source (PAL) plume dispersion model has been applied to estimate the emission rate of either a point or an area source. The local atmospheric stability was determined by releasing an SF{sub 6} tracer. The origin of errors came mainly from the uncertainty of the source configuration and the variation of the meteorological condition. Through continuous measurement using a portable open-path Fourier transform infrared (POP-FTIR) spectrometer, the maximum value of the emission rate and the annual amount of emission could be derived. The emission rate of the measured toxic gases was derived by the model technique, and the results show that the emission amount is on the order of ten to hundred tons per year.

  17. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea:a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sae Chul Kim; Su Kyoung Kwon; Yeon Pyo Hong

    2011-01-01

    @@ This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea,and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence.The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population,nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized area (Chuncheon) and petrochemical estates (Yeocheon and Ulsan)),between 2000 and 2005.The data (numerator) for new patients were acquired from the National Health Insurance Review Agency,and the data (denominator) for the resident registration population were from the National Statistical Office.Between 2000 and 2005,the national incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias had an increased tendency from 5.01 to 17.43per 10000 persons and from 1.40 to 3.28 per 10000 persons,respectively.The incidence of cryptorchidism was significantly higher in Yeocheon (throughout the study period) and in Ulsan (2001,2002,2004 and 2005) than the national incidence,whereas the incidence in Chuncheon was significantly lower in 2001 and 2002.It was difficult to compare the rates of hypospadias yearly and regionally because of the small number of cases.In conclusion,the incidence of cryptorchidism has recently increased in Korea.The petrochemical estates,Yeocheon and Ulsan,had a significantly higher incidence of cyptorchidism than the national incidence,which suggests that further study is needed to obtain a more precise estimation of the trends in the incidence of the anomalies and to confirm the association between petrochemicals and the anomalies.

  18. Canada's maple syrup industry%加拿大枫糖业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Maple syrup is a natural product with no coloring agents or additives. Canada produces about 85 per cent of the world's maple syrup. Marketing has evolved from selling to traditional markets to more value added markets such as blends with other products (cereals, yogurt, etc.). This industry contributes to Canada's value added exports, since more than 60 per cent of maple exports are now shipped in pre packaged containers.

  19. Development of enterprise mobile informatization trend and application in petrochemical industry%企业移动信息化发展趋势及在石化行业的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘远

    2014-01-01

    This paper from the business characteristics of petrochemical industry, combined with the current development of mobile technology and application, describes the typical application of mobile information as whenever and wherever possible, fragmentation, easy to use and diversity of application and mobile information technology in petrochemical industry.%本文从石化行业业务的特点出发,结合目前移动技术及应用的发展,阐述了移动信息化的随时随地、碎片化、简单易用及多样化应用的特点以及移动信息化在石化行业的典型应用。

  20. Doing their bit : ensuring large industrial emitters contribute adequately to Canada's implementation of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent educational campaign by the Canadian government made use of the slogan: Climate change. Are you doing your bit? It was meant to encourage every segment of society to accept its air share of responsibility in the fight to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which are a major culprit in causing climate change. In December 2002, Canada ratified the Kyoto Protocol, with a commitment to reduce GHGs emissions by 6 per cent below the 1990 level during the period 2008-2012. In 2001, industrial facilities, including electricity generation, were responsible for 53 per cent of GHG emissions in Canada. Between 1990 and 2001, GHG emissions in Canada increased by an average of 18.4 per cent, but emissions from industry increased by 23.3 per cent during that same time period. In November 2002 the Canadian government published a document entitled Climate Change Plan for Canada, which included a blueprint for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in Canada. This present document provides an assessment of the scenario developed for reducing GHG emissions by industry, and questions if industry is being asked to do enough. The following are some of the many issues addressed in this document: the use of emissions intensity targets; offset credits for reductions in emissions not covered by covenants; other measures to reduce emissions from large industry; the special case of electricity generation; allocating emission reductions among sectors and companies; use of international emissions trading mechanisms; and, timing issues. refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  1. Royal Society of Canada expert panel report : environmental and health impacts of Canada's oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosselin, P. [Inst. national de sante publique, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Hrudey, S.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Div. of Analytical and Environmental Toxicology; Naeth, M.A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Faculty of Agricultural, Life, and Environmental Sciences; Plourde, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Economics; Therrien, R. [Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Van Der Kraak, G. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Integrative Biology; Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). College of Biological Science; Xu, Z. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2010-12-15

    This expert panel report was commissioned by the Royal Society of Canada to provide a comprehensive evidence-based assessment of the environmental and health impacts of Canada's oil sands industry. The report evaluated the feasibility of land reclamation and the impacts of oil sands contaminants on downstream residents. Health impacts on residents living in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo were assessed, and the impacts on regional water supplies were evaluated. Regional water and ground water quantities were examined, and issues related to tailing pond operations and reclamation were examined. Ambient air quality impacts were assessed, as well as potential impacts of the oil sands industry on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The environmental regulatory performance of operators in the industry was also evaluated. A summary of economic and policy issues related to the industry was also provided. The study identified major gaps in the process of assessment, prevention, and mitigation of the health impacts of oil sands exploitation, as as major indirect health impacts linked to past exploitation activities. 672 refs., 11 tabs., 11 figs. 10 appendices.

  2. Management of safety, environment and health in expansion of the Petrochemical industry; Gestao de seguranca, meio ambiente e saude na ampliacao da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Sonia Marta Carpinelli; Abreu, Igor Melo de [UTC Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The UTC Engineering S.A. search for excellence results to develop the Health, Environmental, and Safety Integrated Management System (SMS) which is addressed to the Petrochemical Uniao S.A. Project for Productivity Capacity Expansion. Despite challenges to set and maintain the System and besides risks associated to electro-mechanical industrial assembly and civil construction, the plan is being implemented. Due to activity changes associated with distinct enterprise steps execution there is a need of tight control related to alteration and immediate blockage actions as procedure to prevent accidents. Innovative programs as the 'Motivation Program for Prevention of Losses' and the 'Qualification Program and Training of Work', bring up to the workers sense of responsibilities and professional values related to SMS issues. As an aid, the Programs supplied by DuPont as STOP{sup TM} - (Program of Safety for Observation) and IAS (Index of Safe Actions) constituted important tools. But, its production leadership taking part, concerned SMS commitment and responsibilities, was crucial. The good results achievements are expressed by reduction of SMS distortions and by reduction of labor accidents as man hour exposed to the risk. (author)

  3. Waste minimization in a petrochemical company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan, Marcelo [Oxiteno S.A., Industria e Comercio, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A way to manage industrial effluents consists in reducing their generation or treating them when elimination or minimization is economically unachievable. This work aims to present the modifications adopted in a petrochemical plant to adequate and, or, reduce the generation of industrial effluent. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Petrochemical refinery and integrated petrochemical complexes; Refinaria petroquimica e complexos petroquimicos integrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Patricia C. dos; Seidl, Peter R.; Borschiver, Suzana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Global demand for light olefins points to strong prospects for growth, stimulating investments in overall productive capacity. With propylene demand growing slightly faster than that of ethylene, rising prices and difficulties in supplies of petrochemical feedstocks (mainly naphtha and natural gas), steam crackers alone are not able to fill the light olefins gap nor do they allow extraordinary margins. As petrochemical market dynamics also influence refining activities, there has been significant progress in the development of technologies for petrochemical refining, such as Petrochemical FCC. This petrochemistry-refining integration offers great opportunities for synergism since both industries share many common challenges, like more severe environmental requirements and optimizing the use of utilities. However, in the case of valuation of non-conventional oils (which tend to increase in importance in oil markets), to take full advantage of this opportunity to add value to low cost streams, deep conversion and treatment processes are of great significance in refining scheme to have enough feedstock for cracking. In this context, a petrochemical refinery seems to be an important alternative source of petrochemicals and may be integrated or not to a petrochemical complex. (author)

  5. Marketing opportunities and challenges for Canada's oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report demonstrated that effective marketing of Canadian oil sands products has been vital to the success of the industry in the past. Future success was expected to depend on having efficient transportation systems for the industry's products, unrestricted access to markets, and a range of products can competitively meet the needs of specific markets and customs. 9 ills

  6. Material-flow Modeling Technology and Its Application in Manufacturing Execution Systems of Petrochemical Industry%石化MES中的物流建模技术及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德芳; 刘鲁; 朱炜; 荣冈

    2008-01-01

    The management and control of material flow forms the core of manufacturing execution systems (MES) in the petrochemical industry. The bottleneck in the application of MES is the ability to match the material-flowmodel with the production processes. A dynamic material-flow model is proposed in this paper after an analysis of the material-flow characteristics of the production process in a petrochemical industry. The main material-flow events are described, including the movement, storage, shifting, recycling, and elimination of the materials. The spatial and temporal characters of the material-flow events are described, and the material-flow model is con-structod. The dynamic material-flow model introduced herein is the basis for other subsystems in the MES. In addi-tion, it is the subsystem with the least scale in MES. The dynamic-modeling method of material flow has been ap-plied in the development of the SinoMES model. It helps the petrochemical plant to manage the entire flow infor-mation related to tanks and equipments from the aspects of measurement, storage, movement, and the remaining balance of the material. As a result, it matches the production process by error elimination and data reconciliation. In addition, it facilitates the integration of application modules into the MES and guarantees the potential develop-ment of SinoMES in future applications.

  7. Energy cogeneration for the industrial sector. Exploration of possibilities for Bahia Blanca petrochemical complex; Cogeneracion de energia para el sector industrial. Exploracion de posibilidades para el polo petroquimico de Bahia Blanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzman, Carlos H. [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Electrotecnia; Baraychart, Rogelio [Tecnolatina S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    Many industrial plants have installed gas turbines in connection with total energy schemes. By combining a gas turbine with a steam plant, through an Independent Power Producer (IPP), increasing in overall efficiency can be archived compared to a steam plant alone. The general applications and economic considerations after privatization of Argentine Network, indicates that for power supply, combined cycle with cogeneration, is appropriate for generation, because of improving quality service, lowering capital cost improving and high efficiency. Figures are shown in this paper, for a project at the petrochemical development pole in Bahia Blanca city, located in the south of Buenos Aires Province. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.; e-mail: gea at delec.fi.uba.ar; tecnolat at ssdnet.com.ar

  8. Huge Pressure from Energy Supply and Overheated Investment——analysis of China's Petrochemical and Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shiliang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The economic performance of China's petroleum and chemical industry is comprehensively decided by four major factors now: a. economy grows rapidly,boosting consumption demand; b. supply of energy and products consuming resources tends to be tighter; c. global crude oil price will continue to stay high,driving the production cost of its downstream products; d. the overly rapid increase of investment in fixed assets is difficult to control, so more and more products will face surplus production capacity.

  9. 智能化控制阀在石油化工中的应用设计%Application Design of Intelligent Control Valve in Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩

    2015-01-01

    阀门是流体管路的控制装置,它的基本功能是接通或切断管路介质的流通,改变介质的流动方向,调节介质的压力和流量,保护管路和设备的正常运行.随着科技的发展,智能控制被广泛应用于工业控制和工业生产中,阀门也被广泛应用于工业、建筑、农业、国防、科研和人们的日常生活中.它由最初的手动控制逐渐发展为智能化、标准化、小型化、安全化的控制,在生产中替代人力操作,使控制更精确、更合理、更安全.从控制阀智能化方面的内容入手,简要阐述了其在石油化工中的应用.%The valve is the control device of the fluid pipeline, its basic function is to connect or cut off the flow of the pipeline medium, changing the flow direction of the medium, adjust the pressure and flow of the media, and protect the normal operation of the pipeline and equipment. With the development of science and technology, intelligent control is widely used in industrial control and industrial production, the valve is widely used in industrial, construction, agriculture, national defense, scientific research and people's daily life. It is gradually developed from the initial manual control to intelligent, standardized, small, safe control, in the production of alternative human operation, so that control more accurate, more reasonable and more secure. In this paper, the content of intelligent control valve is discussed, and its application in petrochemical industry is briefly described.

  10. Canada's nuclear industry - a leader in the global market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successes of the Canadian nuclear industry at home and abroad are recounted and extolled in this address. It is argued that the industry must become more global in order to compete more effectively in the export market. This means not only setting up operating bases (rather than mere marketing offices) abroad, but also employing nationals of prospective overseas purchasing countries in the headquarters of Canadian companies. Partnership with one or more Asian country may be the key to success

  11. MOS OF CANADA: A FOODSERVICE INDUSTRY ANALYSIS OF GREATER VANCOUVER

    OpenAIRE

    Ryomoto, Craig

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Greater Vancouver commercial food industry and whether the market is ideal for MOS Food Services to fulfil its “MOS of the World” strategy by opening a MOS Burger restaurant in Greater Vancouver. To assess the future viability of MOS Burger opening in Greater Vancouver, this paper identifies and analyzes market size, drivers of demand, various customer segments, key competitors, the strength of key industry forces, and the key sources of advantage for the foodservice i...

  12. The structure of Canada's uranium industry and its future market prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of uranium in Canada began in the 1940s to supply the needs of US weapons development. After 1966 a growing demand for uranium for nuclear power production stimulated exploration, and since then the health of the Canadian uranium industry has been tied to the state of the nuclear power industry. Uranium exploration in Canada is carried out mainly by private enterprise, although the federal and two provincial governments compete through crown corporations. Seven companies produce ore, and six have processing plants. Expansion is underway at several existing operations, and some new projects are underway. The industry is strongly dependent on export markets; only about 15 percent of Canadian production is used in the country. There is one uranium refinery which produces UO2 powder for CANDU reactor fuel and UF6 for export. The uranium hexafluoride facility is being expanded. Federal government policy affects the uranium industry in the fields of regulation, ownership, safeguards, protection of the domestic industry, and international marketing. The short-term outlook for the industry is deteriorating, with declining uranium prices, but prospects seem considerably brighter in the longer term. Canada has about 12 percent of the world's uranium reserves, and is the second-largest producer. Discovery potential is believed to be excellent

  13. Panorama 2012 - Petrochemicals and chemicals from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrochemicals is a mature industry which has undergone, and continues to undergo, deep changes. The historically-important producing areas of the USA, Europe and Japan have seen their share of the market contract in favour of Asia and the Middle East. The investment choices inherent in this shift of emphasis are now beginning to impact significantly on the availability and price of some petrochemical intermediates, and producers increasingly consider basing their production processes on biomass, a renewable and abundant resource. This new channel offers a more favourable greenhouse gas (GHG) balance than the benchmark fossil fuels options. (authors)

  14. The wood industry in Atlantic Canada: A focus on value-added

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report prepared by the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency in consultation with the four Atlantic provinces focuses on the value-added aspects of the wood products industry in Atlantic Canada. It also examines the state of the resource, the state of the industry, productivity and economic benefits, products and markets, trade and regulations, and needs, challenges and targets. The analysis was undertaken to determine the possibility of further utilization of forest resources in the region for value-added products, and to assess the possibilities for the wood products industry of Atlantic Canada exploring world markets for its products. The inventory of resources found 1.4 billion cubic meter of wood-growing productive forest land in the region, with softwoods accounting for 76 per cent of the forests. Concern was expressed about forest stands at regeneration levels. Total Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) for the Atlantic Provinces in 1995 was almost 20 million cubic meter, approximately 10 per cent of the national total. Although total harvests are below the AAC for the region, softwood harvesting in 1994 and in 1995 was well above the AAC. The analysis concluded that given the current level of harvesting, sustained growth in Atlantic Canada's wood industries will have to rely on access to external fibre sources and better use of the existing fibre source. At the same time, since many value-added manufacturers in the region rely on imported wood resources, the health of the value-added wood industry does not appear to be completely dependent on the sustainability of forest resources in the Atlantic region. Part Two of the report provides an economic profile of the industry, including brief reviews on employment, wages and salaries, exports and imports, transportation, education and training, research and technology and marketing. refs., tabs

  15. A radiological health study of industrial gamma radiography in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an occupational group, industrial radiographers receive radiation doses second only to reactor workers. This report is a result of a study carried out to research the causes for this relatively high dose and determine if and how it can be improved. The data presented herein were obtained from questionnaires and field visits to organizations involved in gamma radiography and from the Canadian National Dose Registry. Some applications of radiography such as pipeline work give rise to higher than average doses. When all safety measures are conscientiously aplied, the doses are reasonalbe. However, ignorance, carelessness and indifference account for much unnecessary exposure to radiation. (Auth)

  16. Financing future exports of Canada's electrical power equipment industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact on the Canadian power sector of continued constraints on the availability of concessionary export financing is examined. An overview of the structure of the Canadian electrical power equipment industry is provided, followed by a discussion of its competitiveness and performance. Export prospects are outlined and separate reviews are presented of hydroelectric and thermal expansion. A global market of US $17 billion for hydroelectric power in the 1990s is forecast, and a market of US $300 billion for all forms of power generation in developing Asia. The export strategies of international competitive bidding, forming a consortium within an international multinational enterprise, co-financing with Japanese aid agencies, and direct negotiation are discussed. The costs and benefits of concessional financing are assessed and shown to bring net fiscal benefits. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  17. New Petrochemical Processes Based on Direct Conversion of Methane

    OpenAIRE

    Faraguna F.; Jukić A.

    2015-01-01

    Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry and chemical engineering that studies reactions and processes of the transformation of petroleum derivatives and natural gas into useful petrochemicals. In its beginning, petrochemistry, or rather the organic chemical industry, was based on the acetylene and Reppe chemistry. The main raw materials of the petrochemical industry nowadays are olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons, with a pronounced tendency toward development of new processes and higher usage ...

  18. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  19. The Policy Objectives of a Biofuel Industry in Canada: An Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny G. Le Roy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada has a huge stock of biomass resources, which provides a basis (and a temptation for development of a major bio-fuels industry. Both federal and provincial governments have engaged in a wide array of subsidies, mandates, and other measures to stimulate production and consumption of biofuels. As a result, biofuels has become a growth industry in Canada with production of ethanol almost 10 times higher than it was ten years earlier. However, this has come at considerable cost to taxpayers. Increased biofuel production has resulted in minimal reduction in greenhouse gases, short run (but not long run increases in net farm income (that benefited grain and oilseed producers but hurt livestock producers, large increases in the prices of farm land due to the higher grain and oilseed prices, and minimal impacts on rural economic diversification.

  20. Panorama 2014 - Petrochemicals and green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petrochemical industry will experience structural and economic upheaval in the coming years, driven by the development of shale gas in the United States and increasing tensions surrounding the availability and price of certain intermediate products. A real opportunity exists to further develop a new chemical industry based on processing biomass; the basic framework is in place, but it will need several years to mature. (authors)

  1. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-01-01

    Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management ...

  2. Responsible management of peatlands in Canada, from peat industry to oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, Line

    2013-04-01

    Canada harbors one third of the peat resources of the world. Peat is an accumulated organic matter composed of dead and partly decomposed plant material, forming huge deposit through time in wetlands like peatlands and boreal coniferous swamps. Peat is a valuable resource as a growing media and soil amendments, an eco-friendly absorbent, also used as biofilters, for body care and for wastewater treatment. Peatlands also offer valuable ecological services : for example, they are the most efficient terrestrial ecosystem to store carbon on a long-term basis. Their ability to "cool off" the planet warrants a good look at their management. The horticultural peat industry of Canada has invested 22 years in R&D in habitat restoration and is now a strong leader in managing industrial peatlands in a sustainable way. The oil sand industry, which is strongly impacting the wetland landscapes of northern Canada, does realize that it has to reduce its ecological footprint, which is heavily criticized around the world. Decommissioned open mines near Fort McMurray have already begun recreating peatland ecosystems, and some restoration attempts of former oil pads are underway in the Peace River region. But the restoration of the largely disturbed wetland landscape of the oil sands is commanding innovative solutions.

  3. Selection procedure of pumps of petrochemical industry%石化行业泵类设备的选用程序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国钊; 张恩贵; 张恩勇

    2015-01-01

    为便于机泵专业人员了解石油化工泵的各种标准,掌握选用泵的工作流程,文中从泵标准的选用、泵采购程序、厂商中间文件的审核、泵出厂检验、包装和运输等方面阐述了石化装置中泵类设备的选用程序.%To help professionals understand the standards of petrochemical pumps and grasp working procedure of pump selection,this paper described the selection procedure of pumps of petrochemical plants in the aspects of pump selection, pump purchasing procedure,checking of the intermediate documentation of manufacturer,pump delivery inspection, packing and transportation.

  4. Health Canada and the pharmaceutical industry: a preliminary analysis of the historical relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel

    2013-11-01

    In the past two decades, Health Canada has been accused of favouring the pharmaceutical industry over the public in areas of pharmaceutical policy. This orientation has been tied to the introduction of user fees by the industry in 1994 that help finance key aspects of drug regulation. This paper provides a preliminary examination of the history of the relationship starting in 1939 until the mid-1980s in an attempt to discern whether 1994 really represented a key turning point. Clientele pluralism, a theory that explains the relationship between the state and interest groups, is used to explain the nature of the events described. PMID:24359714

  5. Timing and Institutions: Determinants of the Ownership Structure in the Oil and Gas Industry in Canada and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Thomas

    In response to 1973 oil shock, both the Canadian and Norwegian states expanded public corporate ownership in the oil and gas industry. This thesis questions why the public share of total corporate ownership in the oil industry was greater in Norway than in Canada, and why Petro-Canada was privatized completely while Statoil was not. Two hypotheses are tested from a historical institutionalist perspective. First, the timing of oil development determined whether the private sector would establish itself as the dominant player in the oil and gas industry (in Canada) or not (in Norway) before the 1973 oil shock triggered government interest in public corporate ownership. Second, overlapping jurisdiction over oil resources (in Canada) undermined the effectiveness of mechanisms of reproduction of public corporate ownership. In Norway, the later discovery of oil thus gave the state a stronger bargaining position relative to the oil industry, and in a unitary state the uncontroversial redistributional activities of Statoil attracted more vested interests.

  6. Testing of Usually Used Valves Manufactured by API Standards of Piping Works for Watersupply and Drainage in Petrochemical Industry%石油化工给排水管道常用API标准制造阀门的试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成义祥

    2014-01-01

    该文介绍了石油化工给排水管道常用API标准制造阀门—闸阀、截止阀、蝶阀的试验项目及试验比例,通过在某大型石油化工项目的成功实践,证明了严格执行该阀门试验项目及试验比例对保证石油化工给排水管道施工质量的必要性、合理性。%Testing items and proportion of Usually Used Valves namely gate valve,globe valve, butterfly valve manufactured by API standards of piping worksfor watersupply and drainage in petrochemical industry is introduced. It is proved that strictly performing the testing items and proportion is essential and reasonable to ensure construction quality of piping works for watersupply and drainage in petr- ochemical industry through practicing in some large petrochemical project.

  7. Strategy on Environmental Protection Management of Dayawan Petrochemical Industrial Park in Huizhou%惠州大亚湾石化工业区环境保护现状与策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟生; 纪红兵

    2012-01-01

    The main problem existed in environmental protection was analyzed in view of present situation of environmental development in Dayawan Petrochemical Industrial Park. Some strategy and suggestions for environmental management in Dayawan Petrochemical Industrial Park, including scientific planning and construction of the park, developing a circular economy, taking ecoindustrialization, increasing investment in environmental protection, creating innovation in environmental management philosophy, personnel security and the popularity of environmental knowledge, were given to keep sustainable development of the district and deal with the relationship between economic growth, environmental protection and social responsibility.%结合大亚湾石化工业区的发展概况,分析了该园区存在的主要环境保护现状、问题,并从科学规划,积极发展循环经济,走生态工业化道路,加大环保投入、创新环保管理理念,人才保障和群众环保知识的普及等角度提出了相应的策略及措施建议,为促进园区的可持续发展,处理好经济增长、环境保护和社会责任的关系提供参考。

  8. Public policy implications of tobacco industry smuggling through Native American reservations into Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, Max H; Givel, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    From 1980 to 1994, the Canadian government enacted major tax increases on tobacco products. These actions initiated significant tobacco smuggling from the United States into Canada through a few U.S. Native American reservations to undercut the price of Canadian tobacco products. The tobacco industry blamed rampant smuggling on excessive taxation; however, research shows that the tobacco industry had actually promoted smuggling schemes to both increase profits and provide an argument for tobacco taxation reduction. Although the smuggling has resulted in numerous U.S. and Canadian criminal convictions of tobacco industry officials and partners, significant smuggling continues throughout the world. For the few Native Americans involved, the smuggling was lucrative and they were able to avoid criminal prosecution through tribal sovereignty. Industry-supported tobacco smuggling has had a profoundly negative effect on Canadian public health that must be brought to light to prevent future similar occurrences.

  9. Public policy implications of tobacco industry smuggling through Native American reservations into Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, Max H; Givel, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    From 1980 to 1994, the Canadian government enacted major tax increases on tobacco products. These actions initiated significant tobacco smuggling from the United States into Canada through a few U.S. Native American reservations to undercut the price of Canadian tobacco products. The tobacco industry blamed rampant smuggling on excessive taxation; however, research shows that the tobacco industry had actually promoted smuggling schemes to both increase profits and provide an argument for tobacco taxation reduction. Although the smuggling has resulted in numerous U.S. and Canadian criminal convictions of tobacco industry officials and partners, significant smuggling continues throughout the world. For the few Native Americans involved, the smuggling was lucrative and they were able to avoid criminal prosecution through tribal sovereignty. Industry-supported tobacco smuggling has had a profoundly negative effect on Canadian public health that must be brought to light to prevent future similar occurrences. PMID:18724578

  10. Development of Oilfield Chemicals Based on Advantages in Petrochemical Feedstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xieqing; Peng Pu

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the routes for development of oilfield chemicals by making use of the feedstock advantages of the petrochemical industry. The diversification of oilfield chemicals has re sulted in thousand product grades. Because there are hundred domestic producers of oilfield chemicals,mostly medium and small producers, the fluctuations of feedstock prices and product quality cannot be conducive to the application and development of oilfield chemicals. This article illustrates the feasibility of oilfield chemical production by state-run medium and large petrochemical enterprises by allowing full play to their own advantages in petrochemical feedstocks.

  11. Outlook for ethylene industry worldwide and in North America: Positioning Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of the Alberta and world petrochemical marketplace is reviewed, including the attributes needed to stay competitive, the place of Alberta in this picture, and the outlook for the future. As part of this review, the demand for ethylene in the various regions of the world is analyzed and projected ten years forward. Largest growth is forecast for the Far East with a lower growth rate, but still significant increases in volume in North America and Europe. Recent structural developments in the industry are analyzed, including the emergence of formidable competitors from resource-rich regions of the Middle East, and the factors responsible for assuring success in competing, i.e. net feedstock cost, or the difference between the cost of the feedstock less co-product credits. As far as Alberta is concerned, the primary opportunities lie mostly in North America with some opportunities in the Far East, although facing stiff competition there from Middle East producers in Far Eastern markets. Rail transportation to port and ocean shipping to reach these markets are also high. Filling the recently increased pipeline capacity will continue to be a challenge to producers, as will the ethane content of future gas supplies relative to the past. The implications of the Alliance Pipeline and the construction of the Aux Sable gas plant and fractionator in the Chicago area are as yet unclear, but all factors taken together indicate that olefins production in Alberta will continue to be competitive in North American markets, although less so than in the past. Further expansion of the industry in Alberta is unlikely; indeed, any growth of the industry is likely to be exported to the United States. Strong competition from resource-rich areas outside of North America, higher ethane costs and high transportation costs to reach these markets will be the important challenges if Alberta's competitive position in world markets is to be sustained

  12. Industrial output restriction and the Kyoto protocol. An input-output approach with application to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impacts of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing industrial output in Canada to a level that will meet the target set out in the Kyoto Protocol. The study uses an ecological-economic Input-Output model combining economic components valued in monetary terms with ecologic components - GHG emissions - expressed in physical terms. Economic and greenhouse gas emissions data for Canada are computed in the same sectoral disaggregation. Three policy scenarios are considered: the first one uses the direct emission coefficients to allocate the reduction in industrial output, while the other two use the direct plus indirect emission coefficients. In the first two scenarios, the reduction in industrial sector output is allocated uniformly across sectors while it is allocated to the 12 largest emitting industries in the last one. The estimated impacts indicate that the results vary with the different allocation methods. The third policy scenario, allocation to the 12 largest emitting sectors, is the most cost effective of the three as the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol reduces Gross Domestic Product by 3.1% compared to 24% and 8.1% in the first two scenarios. Computed economic costs should be considered as upper-bounds because the model assumes immediate adjustment to the Kyoto Protocol and because flexibility mechanisms are not incorporated. The resulting upper-bound impact of the third scenario may seem to contradict those who claim that the Kyoto Protocol would place an unbearable burden on the Canadian economy. (author)

  13. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  14. Refining and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  15. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  16. Survey of active solar thermal collectors, industry and markets in Canada : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the solar thermal industry in Canada was presented. The aim of the survey was to determine the size of the Canadian solar thermal industry and market. Data were used to derive thermal energy output as well as avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from solar thermal systems. The questionnaire was distributed to 268 representatives. Results revealed annual sales of 24.2, 26.4 and 37.5 MWTH in 2002, 2003, and 2004 respectively, which represented over 50 per cent growth in the operating base during the 3 year survey period. Sales of all collector types grew substantially during the 3 year period, and survey respondents anticipated 20 per cent growth in both 2005 and 2006. Approximately 10 per cent of all sales were exported during 2002-2004. Unglazed liquid collectors constituted the majority of collector types sold in Canada, almost all of which were sold into the residential sector for swimming pool heating. The majority of air collectors were sold into the industrial/commercial and institutional (I/CI) sectors for use in space heating. Sales of liquid glazed and evacuated tube collectors were split between the residential and I/CI sectors. Residential sales were primarily for domestic water heating. In 2004, 23 per cent of sales in the residential sector were for combination domestic hot water and space heating applications, an indication of strong growth. Results of the survey indicated that the solar thermal market in Quebec differed from other regions, with more than double the annual per capita revenue of any other region as a result of greater market penetration of unglazed air collectors. Calculations of the GHG emissions avoided due to active solar thermal systems were made based on historical estimates of solar thermal installations. A model was developed to calculate an operating base by collector type from 1979 to the present. The model showed that many of the systems installed during the 1980s were decommissioned during the 1990s, and that

  17. Industry perspectives on carbon-offset programs in Canada and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Dodds

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon offsetting is often put forward as a possible mitigation strategy for climate change. This study examines carbon-offset businesses in Canada and the United States to better understand their standards, project types, and project locations and to determine their perspectives regarding the challenges of the carbon-offset industry. Twenty companies (a 40% response rate agreed to a structured interview, although many were reluctant to share some information. Several salient themes emerged and are discussed in more detail: involvement of the hospitality and tourism industry, financial commitment, confusion in the marketplace, transparency, and needs for education. Implementation of three recommendations—covering standardization, education, and further engagement among the industry, its customers, and researchers—could reduce confusion and increase the transparency of carbon offsetting. Yet these changes might not help business since customers might decide that purchasing carbon offsets does little to address climate change.

  18. Petrochemical production from oil, gas to 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seler, M.; Hadzialic, S.; Mijatovic, I.; Zambeli, M.

    Problems in the supply of the necessary raw materials to the petrochemical industry have been especially evident since the curtailment of petroleum imports. The author analyzes the situation in the petroleum and petrochemical industry over the planning period from 1986 to 1990, and makes it evident that raw materials can be furnished to a high degree if the method allocation is agreed upon and if producers of the raw materials discharge their obligations according to the agreed upon schedule. He compares available capacities and projected consumption of petroleum products in Yugoslavia between 1985-1995, then notes differences in the situation with natural gas. He concludes that the Self-Management Accord drafted by producers and consumers of raw materials is the best approach. 13 tables.

  19. Changxing Island in Dalian to Set up A World Class Petrochemical Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In August 2008 "The Plan on Development of Petrochemi-cal Industry in Lingang Industry Area of Changxing Island in Dalian" had been assessed and approved by the expert team.According to this plan the Changxing Island will be basi-cally turned into a world-class Lingang petrochemical in-dustry park characterized by integration of oil refining and petrochemical sectors, and an industry intensive and eco-logical and environmentally friendly region. This industry park is scheduled to be developed in three phases to form in 15 years a national petrochemical base covering a total area of 25 km2. In the late "Eleventh Five-year Plan" period a region for development of specialty chemicals will be formed to prop up the low polluting, light and deep pro-cessing chemical sectors that can manufacture fine chemi-cals and new chemical materials to preliminarily set up a framework of petrochemical industry park.

  20. Project risk management in complex petrochemical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirin Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of risk in complex industrial systems, as well as evaluation of main factors influencing decision making and implementation process using large petrochemical company as an example, has proved the importance of successful project risk management. This is even more emphasized when analyzing systems with complex structure, i.e. with several organizational units. It has been shown that successful risk management requires modern methods, based on adequate application of statistical analysis methods.

  1. 石油化工企业无组织排放的减排对策%Countermeasures of Emission Reduction of Fugitive Emission in Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺飒飒; 田亚团; 刘海龙; 林樱; 孙优娜

    2016-01-01

    Based on the polution characteristics and links of produced polution in petrochemical enterprises, the paper puts forward the countermeasures of emission reduction of VOC fugitive emission. By taking a certain petrochemical enterprise as an example, the paper clariifes the importance of fugitive emission and the supervision measures of comprehensive preven-tion and control of emission reduction.%阐述了挥发性有机化合物和无组织排放的涵义,指出石油化工企业无组织排放具有污染物种类多、排放点广、难以量化和管理难度大等特点;描述了无组织排放标准和排查遵循的原则,根据石油化工企业污染特点和产污环节,提出了无组织排放的减排对策;以某石油化工企业为例,论述了无组织排放排查的重要性及减排的综合防治管理措施。

  2. Opportunities of the development of three dimensional printing technology for the petrochemical industry%3D打印技术的发展给石化行业提供的机会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汉初

    2015-01-01

    综述了三维(3D)打印技术的发展历程、前景、瓶颈及优势,并分析了3D打印技术给石化行业提供的机会。3D打印技术具有可实现个性化生产、产品精度极高以及一次性生产复杂一体化产品等优点。耗材是3D打印产品最主要的成本,是制约3D打印技术广泛应用的瓶颈,耗材研发是3D打印技术发展的关键。3D打印技术的快速发展将给石化行业在科研、设备制造及管理等方面提供良好的发展机会,特别是研发3D打印所需新材料将给石化行业带来效益,开发高端3D打印耗材有利于企业在未来竞争中占据有利位置,提升竞争力。%The development course, prospect, bottleneck and advantages of the three dimensional(3D) printing technology were summarized and the opportunity of 3D printing technology for petrochemical industry was analyzed. 3D printing technology has the characters of realizing personalized production, preparing high-precision products and complex integrated products all at once. Consumables are the most important cost of 3D printing products, which are the bottleneck of restricting the extensive use of 3D printing technology. The research and development of consumables is the key to develop 3D printing technology. The rapid development of 3D printing technology will provide good opportunities for petrochemical industry, such as scientific research, instrument manufacture and management,etc,especially the development of new materials for 3D printing will bring benefits to the petrochemical industry. Developing high-end consumables for 3D printing is beneficial for the enterprises to occupy the advantaged position in the future competition and enhance the competitiveness.

  3. 石油化工工人职业应激因素对工作满意感和心理健康的影响%Appraisal of occupational stressor in petrochemical industry workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晓萍; 王羽; 刘文贺; 田宏迩; 黄童; 李志媛; 胡柯铭; 葛锡泳; 金蕾; 高奇; 张静静

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss the origin of occupational stress among petrochemical industry workers and to access the main occupational stressors that impact job satisfaction and mental health of petrochemical industry workers. Methods A survey on occupational stressor was carried out by Occupational Stress Indicator(OSI) in 532 petrochemical industry workers(345 chemical and 187 logistic workers). Results The environment in workplace of chemical group was worse than that of contrast. The chemical workers had less control over job and they experienced more hazards, monotonous as well as role stressors than the logistic group. The scores of job satisfaction and mental health of chemical group (36.867±0.656, 43.734±0.542, respectively) were higher than that of contrast (40.321 ±0.901, 46.714±0.745, respectively) (P<0.05). Conclusion The occupational stressors exist in chemical workers which affect chemical workers 'job satisfaction and mental health with different levels.%目的 探讨石油化工企业工人职业应激的来源及影响其工作满意感和心理健康的主要职业应激因素.方法 采用职业紧张量表(OSI),对某市石油化工企业532名职工进行职业应激因素的调查,其中化工组345人,后勤部门职工187人作为对照组.结果 化工组工作场所中物理环境差,工作缺乏控制,工作危险性大,工作单调,角色冲突、角色模糊较对照组严重;化工组的工作满意感和心理健康得分(分别为36.867±0.656,43.734±0.542)低于对照组(40.321±0.901,46.714±0.745),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 化工工人工作中存在职业应激因素,这些因素不同程度地影响着化工工人的工作满意感和心理健康.

  4. Migração, trabalho na indústria petroquímica e consumo de bebidas alcoólicas Recent migration, petrochemical industry jobs and alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma S. Santana

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se testar testar a hipótese de uma associação entre migração recente, trabalho na indústria petroquímica e o consumo excessivo de bebidas alcoólicas, avaliando o papel de variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas como confundidores ou modificadores de efeito. Foi empregada uma amostra aleatória de 452 chefes de família entre 18 e 60 anos de idade, proveniente de um inquérito de saúde conduzido com famílias que residiam em uma área industrial da Região Metropolitana de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Apenas os trabalhadores do setor industrial foram incluídos na análise (n = 299. Consumidores de bebidas alcoólicas foram identificados com o Questionário de Morbidade Psiquiátrica de Adultos, QMPA, aplicado por entrevistadores treinados a informantes chave de cada família selecionada. Migrantes recentes foram definidos como aqueles que tinham até dois anos de residência no local. A prevalência de consumo exagerado de álcool foi maior entre trabalhadores da indústria petroquímica e entre migrantes recentes, em comparação aos trabalhadores de outras indústrias e não migrantes recentes, respectivamente. Petroquímicos migrantes recentes apresentaram uma prevalência de consumo de bebidas alcoólicas 3,4 vezes superior ao grupo de referência. Migração recente e trabalho na indústria petroquímica são fatores de risco potenciais para o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, por um efeito sinérgico entre essas duas variáveis. Os resultados sugerem a escolaridade como fator de proteção para o consumo de álcool, apenas entre não migrantes recentes nessa população de estudo.This study is aimed at to evaluate the hypothesis that recent migration and work in the petrochemical industry are associated with heavy alcohol consumption, and that education and family income are relevant effect modifiers of this association. The study was based on a random sample of 452 head of families, from 18-60 years of age, drawn from a

  5. Best in class: hot competition makes Canada an 'incredibly innovative environment' by global industry standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highly innovative environment in the field service sector of the oil and natural gas industry and the intense competition generated by it are discussed. Despite the fact that Canada produces only 3.5 per cent of the world's oil and 7.0 per cent of its natural gas, Canada is a world leader in the development of field service systems and equipment. On a return on investment basis the field service sector outperformed the exploration and production sector, and while many of them are small compared to the giants like Haliburton and Schlumberger, small field service companies frequently outperform the giants, if only because below 100 million dollars in revenues, investors expect a 25 to 30 per cent return on equity. Constant cost cutting and an eye on the bottom line, combined with products and services of high quality, and the intense rivalry and competition keeps the industry constantly on its toes to do more with less, to come up with innovative business practices and to stay on the cutting edge of new technology. Progress by several of the field service companies, large and small, are reviewed by way of illustration

  6. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E

    2003-07-01

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  7. Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. During the recent past, the slowdown in nuclear power development in Canada has curtailed the demand for new nuclear professionals down to a trickle. Without exciting job opportunities in sight the interest of prospective students in nuclear education and research has plunged. Consequently, with declining enrolment in nuclear studies and higher demand from competing disciplines, most universities have found it difficult to sustain nuclear programs. As such the available pool of graduating students is small and insufficient to meet emerging industry demand. With nuclear industry employees' average age hovering around mid-forties and practically no younger cohort to back up, nuclear industry faces the risk of knowledge loss and significant difficulty in recruiting new employees to replenish its depleting workforce. It is, therefore, justifiably concerned. Also, since nuclear generation is now the purview of smaller companies, their in-house capability for mid- to longer-term research is becoming inadequate. Recognizing the above challenges, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited have formed an alliance with prominent Canadian universities and undertaken to invest money and offer in-kind support to accomplish three main objectives: Reinvigorate university-based nuclear engineering research by augmenting university resources by creating new industry supported research professorships and supporting research of other professors; Promote enrolment in graduate programs by supporting students and making use of a course-based Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program that is taught collectively by

  8. Investigation of climate change impacts on Prairie's petroleum industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, the three Prairie provinces of Canada, and their economies strongly depend on the petroleum industry. However, climate change may have potential impacts on the sector that could reverberate onto the socio-economic fabric of the provinces. The petroleum industry in the Prairies is faced with a big challenge: how to adapt to the changing climatic conditions so that they maintain or improve their economic and environmental efficiencies. The attitudes of the different stakeholders concerning climate change and the appropriate measures to be implemented by the petroleum industry were obtained through a questionnaire-based survey conducted between February and June 2001. Based on the responses received, a Chi-square statistical test was applied to look at the complex interactions in the results. An analysis of a number of petroleum-related processes and activities vulnerable to climate change was performed. A sound foundation was obtained for the decision-making process on the climate change measures required in the petroleum industry in the Prairies. 14 refs., 7 tabs

  9. Les réacteurs à membranes : possibilités d'application dans l'industrie pétrolière et pétrochimique Membrane Reactors: Possibilities of Application in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait le point sur l'état de la recherche dans le domaine des réacteurs chimiques avec séparation par membrane intégrée et de leur applications dans le domaine du raffinage et de la pétrochimie. Trois applications potentiellement intéressantes sont identifiées et, pour chacune, les avantages de l'utilisation d'un réacteur à membrane sont discutés. Ce sont : la déshydrogénation du propane en propylène, la déshydrogénation d'un naphtène cyclohexanique et le vaporéformage du gaz naturel. Pour ces réactions, les membranes à base de palladium apparaissent les plus performantes compte tenu de leur tenue en température, de leur sélectivité et de leur perméabilité à l'hydrogène. Quelques éléments relatifs à leur développement sont présentés en conclusion. Recently, the use of membrane in reaction engineering has been more and more advocated. The selective separation of the products from the reaction mixture allows to achieve higher conversion or better selectivity or to operate under less severe conditions or with smaller units. This paper presents an update on the recent advances in the field of chemical membrane reactors and on their applications in refining and petrochemistry. Previous work. Most of the possible applications of membrane reactors in petroleum and petrochemical industry concern gaseous catalytic reactions. For this reason, gas permeation membranes are the primary component of membrane reactors. Gas permeation membranes present different types of physical structure : dense, microporous or asymmetric which is a combination of the two. Separating properties of dense membranes are function of the solubility and diffusivity of each gaseous component in the membrane material. For microporous membranes, they follow four mechanisms : Knudsen diffusion, surface diffusion, capillary condensation or molecular sieving. Although organic polymers are the common constituent of gas permeation membrane, their

  10. Biodegradation of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes) composites present in the petrochemical effluents industries; Biodegradacao dos compostos BTX (Benzeno, Tolueno e Xilenos) presentes em efluentes petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minatti, Gheise; Mello, Josiane M.M. de; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de; Antonio Augusto Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The compounds BTX inside of the petrochemical effluent have presented a high potential of pollution, representing a serious risk to the environment and to the human. The great improvements in the field of biological treatment of liquid effluent were reached through the process using biofilm capable of degrading toxic compounds. The objective of this paper is to determine the degradation kinetics of BTX using biofilm. The experimental data were compared with two kinetic models, kinetic of first order and model of Michaelis-Menten. The kinetic parameters of BTX compounds were experimentally obtained in a bioreactor in batch with biomass immobilized in activated-carbon, being fed daily with solution of nutrients and BTX. For the kinetic models studied in this paper, the best performance was achieved with the model of Michaelis-Menten showing a good correlation coefficient for the three compounds. The biomass amount in these bioreactors was 49.18, 28.35 and 5.15 mg of SSV per gram of support for the toluene, benzene and o-xylene, respectively. The experimental tests showed that the biomass inside of bioreactor is capable to degrade all compounds in a time of approximately 300 minutes. (author)

  11. AspenTech to Provide VPS for CNOOC-Shell Nanhai Petrochemicals Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ AspenTech, a US supplier of software and services to the process industries, recently announced it has been awarded a contract to supply a series of operator training simulators for the US$4.3 billion Nanhai Petrochemicals Project of CNOOC-Shell Petrochemical Company (CSPC)at Daya Bay in Huizhou City in South China's Guangdong Province.

  12. Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, Ccoal and biomass: energy use, economics and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.

    2009-01-01

    The petrochemical industry is faced with the dual challenges of climate change and the security of energy supply. To deal with these challenges, it is necessary to identify technologies for the production of basic petrochemicals that could potentially improve energy efficiency and/or utilizing alter

  13. Latin America second only to Asia in petrochemical prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opportunity in Asia for petrochemical companies generally is well known among global players in the industry. Conventional wisdom dictates that most companies at least consider investing in Asia, and for good reason, in most cases. The more aggressive, growth-oriented companies, however, already are attempting to discover the ''next Asia,'' if there is such a thing. Latin America has been nominated as one of the less developed regions that might inherit the Asia/Pacific region's enviable position. This nomination, however, was made before the Mexican financial crisis and the burgeoning pressure on the currencies of Brazil and Argentina. In light of current events, can Latin America still be considered the next Asia, and, if so, what opportunities will follow the devaluation of the Mexican peso? An analysis of the economic and political factors affecting the petrochemical industry in Latin America indicates that the region still hold excellent prospects for petrochemical companies

  14. New Petrochemical Processes Based on Direct Conversion of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraguna F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry and chemical engineering that studies reactions and processes of the transformation of petroleum derivatives and natural gas into useful petrochemicals. In its beginning, petrochemistry, or rather the organic chemical industry, was based on the acetylene and Reppe chemistry. The main raw materials of the petrochemical industry nowadays are olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons, with a pronounced tendency toward development of new processes and higher usage of syngas, methane and other alkanes. Here, the reactions and new processes of direct conversion of methane into more valuable petrochemicals are reviewed. Reactions of partial oxidation of methane, dehydroaromatization of methane, oxidative and non-oxidative coupling of methane to higher hydrocarbons are also described and discussed.

  15. Industry and provinces fight global warming agreement: Canada still expected to ratify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian government is under intense pressure from the provinces, industry and the United States not to ratify the Kyoto Agreement and to abandon its international commitment to reduce green house gas emissions. Opponents of the treaty claim that it will badly harm the economy, a misconception that is also at the root of the United States government's refusal to seriously address global warming. This belief rests on refusal to accept the scientific evidence. The Suzuki Foundation, and environmental groups in general claim that it is irresponsible for industry and certain provinces to continue to fight against Kyoto. With the documented findings of the world's top climate scientists, it is high time for Ottawa to stop listening to the special interests of the polluters and to stand up on behalf of all Canadians. To refute these ill-conceived claims of polluters a study which appeared in the October 2001 issue of 'Nature' is cited, according to which Italy could save about $2.9 billion annually by cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The study found that compliance with the Kyoto protocols would require 3.1 per cent more industrial spending, but reduce other costs by 35 per cent. Similar expert analysis show comparable savings and gains for other industrialized countries such as Canada and the United States. The principal means of achieving the Kyoto targets will be through reduction of fossil fuel energy consumption and general improvement in energy efficiency. These moves not only protect the climate, they also save money and create jobs. The Foundation is convinced that it is time to make the first step in the right direction, and Kyoto is that essential first step

  16. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.

  17. 石油化工业钢结构的大气腐蚀与防护措施%Corrosion and Protection of Steel Structures in Atmospheric Environment of Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓明; 周学杰; 王玮; 纪方奇; 张琳; 林志坚; 胡章枝

    2013-01-01

    Four kinds of standard metals were tested in exposed atmosphere of petrochemical industry so as to determine the corrosive grade of the corrosive atmosphere. In the meantime, eight kinds of anticorro -sive systems were also tested in the exposed corrosive atmosphere so as to evaluate their protective effect. It was found that high concentrations of corrosive mediums such as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were present in the atmosphere of petrochemical industry. The atmospheric corrosion grade was from C4 to C5, corresponding to serious corrosion of carbon steel. Moreover, in terms of various protective systems, the one consisting of sprayed Al primer or Zn-rich primer, epoxy micaceous iron oxide intermediate paint, and fluorocarbon resin finish (or acrylic polyurethane coating) possessed the best corrosion resistance and weatherability.%化工大气环境中含有较多的腐蚀性介质,对钢结构腐蚀严重.为了评价石油化工大气环境的腐蚀性,采用4种标准金属材料进行石油化工大气环境现场暴露试验,对石油化工大气环境腐蚀性进行评级;同时选用8种防腐蚀体系试样进行暴露试验,以评价其防护效果.结果表明:石油化工大气环境中含有较高浓度的二氧化硫、硫化氢等腐蚀介质,腐蚀等级属C4~C5级;保护层体系中,由喷铝或富锌底漆、环氧云铁中间漆、氟碳树脂(或丙烯酸聚氨酯)面漆组成的防护体系的综合耐蚀性和耐候性较好.

  18. Transformation of the Czech refinery and petrochemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petrochemical and chemical industries in former Czechoslovakia in the period after World War II was built up with a purpose to create a complex whose individual subjects would be closely interlinked from the point of view of their production programmes. The separation of Slovakia as an independent state has disrupted some of these links. In spite of that the petrochemical and chemical industries are nowadays the most prosperous branches of economy of the Czech Republic. The governmental proposal for the reorganizing of the refinery and petrochemical complex elaborated in connection with the resolution of the Governmental Privatization Commission of November 6 1994 proposed the formation of a holding company Unipetrol in the way of merging Chemopetrol and Kaucuk with a new joint stock company Unipetrol established for this purpose by the National Property Fund. The updated proposal offers formation of the holding organization Unipetrol in a substantially simpler, from the point of view of time, organization and financing less demanding manner. This proposal is based on the following principles: respecting the approved privatization projects, the solution must not have influence on the rights and position of natural and juristic persons who became shareholders in accordance with the privatization projects already approved, the influence of the state on decisions of the holding and its daughter companies will be maintained with regard to the security of the state and supplying the strategically important subjects with fuels in situation of a crisis, the share of the business subjects in the shares of the holding will be such that it would enable them from the very beginning to participate effectively and not only formally in the decisions. 2 figs

  19. Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This

  20. Brief Introduction of PetroChina Lanzhou Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ As the largest oil refining and chemical production enterprise in the western part of China, PetroChina Lanzhou Petrochemical Company is a regional company of PetroChina Company Limited, which was restructured and merged from the former Lanzhou Petroleum Processing & Chemical Complex and the former Lanzhou Chemical Industry Company.

  1. 石化乙烯工业废水中关键毒性物质的鉴别%IDENTIFICATION OF THE KEY TOXICANTS IN THE PETROCHEMICAL ETHYLENE INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旦宇; 荣宏伟

    2012-01-01

    This article draws toxicity identification evaluation technology developed by the USEPA (TIE) , starting directly from the process of the production, in accordance with main quality indicators of wastewater for ethylene industrial wastewater of a petrochemical plant for toxicity identification testing, it has been found that benzene and sulfur compounds in wastewater to daphnia magna have significantly toxicity. Among them, benzene is the key toxicant. The 24 h-LC50 mean of wastewater to daphnia magna is 53.68% ,the content of benzene is about 30 mg/L.%借鉴美国环保署制定的毒性物质鉴别评价技术(TIE),直接从企业生产的工艺出发,结合废水的主要水质指标对某石化厂乙烯工业废水进行毒性鉴别试验,发现废水中的苯和硫化物对大型蚤具有明显的致死性,其中苯是废水中的关键毒物。所取废水对测试生物大型蚤的24 h-LC50均值为53.68%,其中主要致毒物质苯的含量大约30 mg/L。

  2. The importance of the treatment of the unsafe acts for the prevention of accidents in petrochemical industry; A importancia do tratamento dos atos inseguros para a prevencao de acidentes na industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneguetti, Alexander A.; Santos, Helio R.F.; Alevato, Hilda; Lima, Luciana S. [Dupont do Brasil S.A., Paulinia, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the fact that, the workers' behavior is characterized by its complexity and diversity, this issue has been seen as a great 'black box' in discussions regarding the Management Systems of SHE. Associated with this issue other arises: How conscious people? How to engage them with the process? How to improve the risk control? How to motivate the prevention? Most of these responses are discussed in the Social and Human Sciences for many years. However, it is necessary to closer the technical-operational knowledge and the human aspects, applying in the organizations' daily work, to make the working environment more safe. The purpose of this study, therefore, is examining the possibility of reducing accidents through the identification and treatment of deviations (unsafe acts and unsafe conditions), cause the whole accident, be it serious or not, begins with a small deviation. It was used as a reference tool, the Behavior audit and it is based on field's observations, applied into a production unit of a large petrochemical industry in northern Brazil, during the years 2006 and 2007. (author)

  3. 石化废水处理中MBR工艺的运行管理%Operational management of the membrane bioreactor process in the treatment of wastewater from petrochemical industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 钟捷

    2011-01-01

    使用MBR工艺处理石化废水,需要针对石化废水的特点,并结合工艺运行的实际情况,采取相应的运行管理措施.通过对产水周期、产水量、曝气量、污泥浓度等运行参数的调整,提高了工艺系统处理能力,降低了处理成本,产水水质完全符合排放标准的要求.在调整运行参数的同时,采取措施控制膜污染速率,确保了工艺系统的运行安全和稳定.%Using membrane bioreactor process for treating the wastewater from petrochemical industry, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the wastewater, combining with the actual situation of technological operation, and take corresponding management measures. Based on the adjustment of operational parameters, such as cycle and quantity of effluent, aeration and sludge concentration, the treatment capacity of technological systems has been improved, cost has been reduced,and effluent water quality has met the requirement of discharge standard. In the meanwhile, some measures have to be taken, so as to control the rate of membrane pollution, and ensure the safety and stability of the MBR system.

  4. Isolation and Screening of Phenol Degrading Bacteria and its Degradation Rate in Petrochemical Industry Wastewater%石化工业污水中分离筛选苯酚降解菌及其降解率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海燕; 张国发; 武燕; 冯伟

    2015-01-01

    自然界中某些微生物具有较强的酚降解能力,利用微生物处理含酚废水的方法受到了越来越广泛的重视。该文通过梯度平板法从石化工业废水中分离筛选得到3株降解酚的细菌,苯酚降解率分别为90.9%、82.5%、74.9%。对其进一步深入研究,进而将其应用到工厂等污水处理方面,降低含苯酚的废水排出,具有一定的指导意义。%Some microorganisms in nature have a strong ability to degrade phenol. The method of treating phenol wastewater by microorganism has been paid more and more attention. In this article,three strains of bacteria were isolated and screened from the petrochemical industrial wastewater by gradient plate method. The degradation rate of phenol was 90.9%,82.5% and 74.9%. It has guiding significance for further study, and then appling to the plant and other wastewater treatment,reducing the wastewater containing phenol wastewater discharge.

  5. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: Feasibility of abatement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, Richard, E-mail: richard.carew@agr.gc.c [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, 4200 Highway 97, P.O. Box 5000, Summerland, British Columbia, VOH1Z0 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    An updated national ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH{sub 3} emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322 kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH{sub 3} emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Quebec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH{sub 3} emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods. - Livestock NH{sub 3} emissions are higher in areas characterized by intensive livestock production with diet manipulation and land spreading offering the greatest potential for NH{sub 3} abatement options.

  6. Inter-temporal and Inter-Industry Effects of Population Ageing: A General Equilibrium Assessment for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Annabi, Nabil; Fougère, Maxime; Harvey, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the inter-industry and labour market occupational effects of population ageing in Canada, using a computable general equilibrium overlapping-generations model. The model is calibrated along a balanced-growth path, taking into account labour-augmenting (Harrod-neutral) technical progress. It also accounts for heterogeneity at the household level, using 25 occupation-specific earnings profiles. In addition to the impact of slower labour force growth, th...

  7. The Level/Preventive Approach to Solving Technical and Economic Tasks as One of Directions in Development of the Enterprises of Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damineva, R.; Daminev, R.; Karimov, O.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, as a tool of strategy generation in development of industrial enterprise, a methodological approach is considered, that allows the choosing the best path of development among many solutions of technical and economic tasks, taking into account both the interests of enterprises and of society as a whole.

  8. Contribuição aos critérios de projeto organizacional para inovação na indústria petroquímica brasileira A contribution to organizational design for innovation in the Brazilian petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marotti de Mello

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A Indústria Petroquímica, incluindo-se aí a brasileira, é um setor consolidado, maduro, acostumado a inovar incrementalmente em produtos e processos. De outro lado, para manter e ampliar sua competitividade, tem a necessidade de inovar mais radicalmente. A literatura disponível recomenda que empresas que necessitem inovar, simultaneamente, de forma incremental e radical, deveriam adotar uma "Organização Ambidestra" (ou "Semiestrutura", utilizando processos, ferramentas de gestão e estruturas adequadas para cada caso. Mas como exatamente deveria ser essa organização ambidestra? Este trabalho objetiva contribuir com esta discussão, propondo critérios para o Projeto Organizacional adequado ao desenvolvimento de inovações incrementais e radicais de forma sistemática em empresas consolidadas de setores maduros. Parte-se do princípio de que não haveria um modelo único a ser prescrito neste caso. O método de pesquisa utilizado foi o estudo de múltiplos casos em três empresas inovadoras do setor, em que onze projetos de inovação foram analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicam que, ainda que haja nas empresas a preocupação de divisão de estruturas para o desenvolvimento de inovações radicais e incrementais, na prática, a forma pela qual os projetos são conduzidos não mostra diferença significativa. O modelo proposto oferece um conjunto de diretrizes e critérios para que cada empresa adapte suas estruturas e processos a diferentes desafios encontrados nos projetos de inovação, em cada etapa de seu desenvolvimento.The Petrochemical Industry (including the Brazilian Petrochemical industry is a well-established and mature sector that has always introduced product and process incremental innovation. On the other hand, in order to maintain its competitiveness, this sector needs more radical innovation. According to the literature, companies that need both incremental and radical innovation should adopt an Ambidextrous

  9. DIRECTION OF DEVELOPMENT FOR NATION'S PETROCHEMICAL PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Baohai

    2001-01-01

    @@ As a result of remarkable advance over the past several dozen years with continuous development of technology, rapid increase of new products, and steady expansion in production scope, China's petrochemical industry has grown into a well-established industrial system composed of more than 20 trades,providing over 40,000 kinds of product which are complete in range and generally serialized in variety.

  10. Research on the Trend of Environmental Information Disclosure of Listed Companies of the Petrochemical Industry%石化行业上市公司环境信息披露变化趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗素清; 林演演

    2015-01-01

    文章以石化行业上市公司在2008~2013年间披露的年报和相关独立报告为研究对象,采用关键字检索和手工统计的方法,运用描述性统计分析方法和规范研究方法发现,中国石化行业上市公司环境信息的披露比例连续6年(2008~2013)呈现上升趋势;披露的内容也呈现连续增长的态势;在披露的模式上仍未达到统一标准,独立方式披露环境报告的比例下降;在披露的形式上多以定性为主,定量或量性结合的形式的比例呈现轻微的下降趋势。当前石化行业上市公司环境信息披露的局限性表现在:披露信息的质量较低,降低了信息的使用价值;披露模式不规范,缺乏可比性;披露未经审计,可靠性得不到保障;披露形式以定性为主,缺乏实质性内容。最后提出了加强上市公司环境信息披露的对策建议:加强公司相关人员的环保意识和社会责任感,健全中国环境信息披露的相关法规制度,加强公司环境信息披露的审计工作,建立环境信息质量监督体系。%Based on annual reports and related independent reports of listed companies of the petrochemi-cal industry from 2008 to 2013,and using the methods of keyword search,manual statistics,descriptive statis-tics analysis and normative research,this paper found that the proportions of environmental information disclo-sure of listed companies of China’s petrochemical industry had been rising for six years(2008-2013)contin-uously;there were continuous growth in contents of disclosure;there was no unified standard for disclosure modes,and the proportions of independent environmental report declined;qualitative disclosures had been given priority to,and the ratios of quantitative or of the combination of quantitative and qualitative disclosure showed a trend of slight decline. The following are the current limitations:the disclosure quality is low,which has reduced

  11. Reuse of a residue from petrochemical industry with portland cement Reutilización de un residuo de la industria petroquímica como adición al cemento portland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the possibility of using waste from the petrochemical industry,as partial replacement of Portland cement is studied, evaluating the presenceof contaminants in the waste and the encapsulation, once it is confined on the cement. This has been done, in order to find a use to this residue without cause damage to the environment. This residue, called spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC, is mainly formed by a type Y zeolite, which is dispersing in an inorganic oxides matrix. The toxicity characteristic leaching proceeding was applied, in mortars adding with 20% of FCC as Portland cement replacement. The results showed that the residue does not represent a problem from the point of view of the leaching of elements, such as As, Pb, Zn, Cr, and La, which were below to the permissible limits. Additionally, the pozzolanic activity of FCC was evaluated according to ASTM C311, where the efficiency of the residue as pozzolanic addition is demonstrated. With the results the importance of reusing a residue of the petrochemical industry is emphasized, that decreases the amount of cement to be used and improves the mechanical resistance of the materials containing it.En el presente artículo se estudia la posibilidad de utilizar un residuo de la industria petroquímica, como sustitución parcial del cemento Portland, evaluando la presencia de elementos contaminantes en el residuo y su encapsulación, una vez se haya confinado con el cemento. Lo anterior, con el fin de determinar si su uso como material de construcción, puede o no causar un efecto negativo al medio ambiente. El residuo, denominado catalizador usado de craqueo catalítico (FCC, es un material que está compuesto por una zeolita tipo Y, dispersa en una matriz de óxidos inorgánicos. Se aplicó la técnica de TCLP (del inglés Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, en morteros adicionados con un 20%, de FCC con respecto a la cantidad de cemento. Los resultados

  12. Research on the Trend of Environmental Information Disclosure of Listed Companies of the Petrochemical Industry%石化行业上市公司环境信息披露变化趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗素清; 林演演

    2015-01-01

    Based on annual reports and related independent reports of listed companies of the petrochemi-cal industry from 2008 to 2013,and using the methods of keyword search,manual statistics,descriptive statis-tics analysis and normative research,this paper found that the proportions of environmental information disclo-sure of listed companies of China’s petrochemical industry had been rising for six years(2008-2013)contin-uously;there were continuous growth in contents of disclosure;there was no unified standard for disclosure modes,and the proportions of independent environmental report declined;qualitative disclosures had been given priority to,and the ratios of quantitative or of the combination of quantitative and qualitative disclosure showed a trend of slight decline. The following are the current limitations:the disclosure quality is low,which has reduced the value of information;disclosure mode has not been regulated,which has resulted in lack of comparability;disclosure has not been audited,which cannot guarantee the reliability of information;and qualitative disclosure lacks substantial contents. Finally,suggestions have been put forward for improving en-vironmental information disclosure:raise the awareness of environmental protection and sense of social respon-sibility of related personnel;improve laws and regulations on environmental information disclosure;enhance auditing environmental information disclosure;and establish surveillance system for environmental information.%文章以石化行业上市公司在2008~2013年间披露的年报和相关独立报告为研究对象,采用关键字检索和手工统计的方法,运用描述性统计分析方法和规范研究方法发现,中国石化行业上市公司环境信息的披露比例连续6年(2008~2013)呈现上升趋势;披露的内容也呈现连续增长的态势;在披露的模式上仍未达到统一标准,独立方式披露环境报告的比例下降;

  13. Proceedings of the CERI 2005 petrochemical conference: competing in a global marketplace. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this conference was on the Canadian petrochemical industry's global competitiveness and potential markets. Recent advances in technology were explored, as well as issues concerning transportation and infrastructure. Capital cost requirements and feedstock availability were examined, as well as opportunities in growth and product diversification. Issues currently challenging the petrochemical industry and its relationship to the energy sector were reviewed. Alberta's place in the North American energy complex was discussed, along with issues concerning feedstock from Canadian oil sands. An overview of North America's position in the world petrochemicals market was presented, and outlooks for future trade with China were discussed. Outlines of the United States and Middle East petrochemical industries were presented, and Russia's role in global energy security was examined. The conference was divided into the following 7 sessions: (1) global conditions for the petrochemical industry; (2) energy supply outlook; (3) transportation and trade; (4) pan-Canadian synergies in petrochemicals and refining; (5) maintaining competitiveness and product and market diversity; (6) capital costs and constraints; and (7) contributions towards global leadership. Twenty-three papers were presented at the conference. refs., tabs., figs

  14. The EU-Canada CETA and the diversity of cultural industries: hegemony or resistance

    OpenAIRE

    García Leiva, María Trinidad

    2015-01-01

    The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), between Canada and the European Union (EU), was leaked to the public opinion in August 2014 after five years of negotiations. The consolidated CETA text was not released until the end of last September, raising deeper issues about the secrecy and democratic deficit surrounding the agreement. As some have already noted (notably civil society organizations), this treaty is about much more than trade. Even though the preamble states tha...

  15. Dalian Petrochemical Sets Ambitious Oil Refining Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As one of PetroChina's most profitable enterprises, Dalian Petrochemical Company, located on the western bank of Pacific Occean, is remarkable for the first-class management and performance. In a recent interview with media, general manger of Dalian Petrochemical Company Jiang Fan said the

  16. Sinopec to Acquire Maoming Petrochem Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Sinopec Corp. is considering a plan to purchase Maoming Petrochemical Company from its parent company next year, said Zhang Jiaren, director and vice president of Sinopec Corp. Maoming Petrochemical Company in Guangdong Province is one of the country's two oil refining enterprises with the production capacity exceeding 10 million tons.

  17. Petrochemical producers gain advantage with novel business strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 50 years of gradual change in the petrochemicals industry, the rules of the game are rapidly being written. Parity among competitors has made strategies based on minimizing costs increasingly ineffectual. Some competitors are now finding new business approaches that may allow them to leave others behind. Although the recent upturn in the chemical cycle has brought with it high utilization rates and encouraging financial returns for manufacturers of both petrochemicals and other chemicals, chemical managers need to be aware that the next downturn may erase these gains. The industry has experienced periods of poor financial performance in the past, and there is little reason to expect that the future will bring improvements. Until recently, petrochemical companies have generally pursued strategies focused on optimizing particular portions of the value chain. For the purposes of this article, it is helpful to think of the value chain in terms of four main business segments: feedstocks, products, production processes, and service/distribution. Some chemical companies have managed to avoid a competitive stalemate by developing strategies that have fundamentally changed the way the game is played. Granted, it will still be necessary to pursue maximum efficiency, but the emerging strategies will allow the companies that adopt them to differentiate themselves further than they otherwise could have done. These strategies are discussed

  18. Resources and energy trends of petrochemical industry in low carbon era%低碳时代石油化工产业资源与能源走势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华贲

    2013-01-01

    The constraint of carbon emission is promoting the third transition of the world primary energy constitution. Fossil energy would gradually decrease after achieving peak consumption, and nuclear and renewable energy would become the main components. Science and technology innovation will push forward the revolution of terminal utilizing model from primary energy, and result in significant change of petrochemical industry up to 2030. Transportation fuel and chemical raw material will shift from solely oil towards a new, multi-source pattern; oil, coal (electricity) and biomass. This situation calls for dealing with the relationship among macroscopic planning, energy saving and carbon emission reduction, providing great potential, opportunity and challenge for energy system optimization. 2012-2030 is the key transition period. Changing traditional idea and thinking, enlarging time and space sight, and emphasizing science and technology progress will guarantee fast development of China's organic chemical industry in the low carbon era.%碳排放约束使世界一次能源构成发生第三次大转型,石油和煤炭消耗达到顶峰后逐渐减少,核能和可再生能源逐渐成为主体;天然气则是向低碳能源过渡历史时期最重要的化石能源;科技创新将推动从一次能源到终端利用的模式和技术不断变革,并导致石油化工产业资源与能源的格局在未来20年发生重大变化.交通运输燃料和化学品将从完全依赖石油的局面转向石油、煤(电)、生物质并存的新格局.从而要求处理好有机化工产业宏观规划布局与节能减排和能量系统优化的关系,提供了能量系统在时间和空间多个维度上优化的机遇和挑战,并催生了新的内涵和潜力.2012-2030年期间是大转型的关键过渡时期,改变传统观念和思维定势,拓宽时间和空间的视野,依靠科技创新,必能推进中国有机化工产业顺利转型、快速发展.

  19. Potential of best practice technology to improve energy efficiency in the global chemical and petrochemical sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Gielen, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for 30% of the industry's total final energy use. However, due to its complexity its energy efficiency potential is not well understood. This article analyses the energy efficiency potential on a country l

  20. 宁波某石化企业员工牙周健康状况调查分析%Sample survey on periodontal health of people in petrochemical industry community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘恒标; 陈晖; 周娜; 金丹; 张静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study periodontal health of people in a petrochemical industry community in East China and to provide fundamental documents and guidance for oral health care. Methods The periodontal status of 2 108 samples were selected. Each subject was examined according to the principles and fundamental methods which were used in the third national oral health epidemical survey. Results ① The periodontal healthy rate was 20.5% ; the periodontitis rate was 52.3% [ 95% CI: (52.3 ± 2.1 % ) ]; the gingi-val blood index was 61.5% ; the calculus rate was 64.2% ; the deep periodontal pocket index was 26.2% ; the prevalence rate of attachment loss ≥4 mm was 51.0%. ②The rate of attachment lost in the group aged 65-74 was 76.9% .higher than the average rate of 73.6% in East China. Conclusions ①The periodontal status was better than that in other places in East China. ?The male individuals aged 35 to 59 would be more likely to lose their periodontal attachment. Oral hygiene education should be emphasized.%目的 了解宁波某石化企业员工的牙周健康状况,为企业提供口腔职业保护信息.方法 根据第3次全国口腔健康流行病学调查所采用的《口腔健康调查基本方法》(世界卫生组织制定的第4版)的调查方法和标准,2008年3-9月,对宁波某石化企业2 108名抽样员工,进行检查牙周状况,结果 ①2 108名抽样员工的牙周健康率为20.5%,牙周炎患病率52.3%[95%CI:(52.3±2.1)%];牙龈出血检出率为61.5%,人均患牙(1.20±1.93)颗;牙结石检出率为64.2%,人均患牙(5.96±7.80)颗;牙周袋检出率为26.2%,人均患牙(0.94±2.37)颗;牙周附着丧失≥4 mm者的检出率为51.0%,人均患牙(5.63±6.88)颗.②65 ~74岁组的员工牙周附着丧失检出率为76.9%,高出全国东部的73.6%.结论 宁波石化企业员工牙周健康状况均好于全国东部同类地区的居民;35 ~59岁组的男性员工应成为牙周附着丧失的重点监控

  1. 石化作业可穿戴式智能应急信息装备系统研究%Study on Wearable Intelligent Emergency Information Equipment System for Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锟湃; 柯文德

    2015-01-01

    This study mainly takes the STM 32 microcontroller as the control core,and the design includes the intelligent information helmet, the intelligent wireless control watches and the PC software for real-time transmission with helmet.As the core of intelligent information equipment of petrochemical emergency system,the intelligent information helmet and intelligent wireless control watches have many functions including acquisition and display of environmental information for petrochemical,photographic of petrochemical environment,real-time monitoring of workers heart rate,risk alarm for petrochemical dynamic environment together with gas,positioning of precise GPS,as well as two-way assistance of emergency calling for help when workers are in danger,and so on.Remote real-time monitor of PC software in the computer port can be completed by means of wireless communication transmission.The effectiveness of the method is verified by the experi-ments.%以STM32单片机为控制核心板,设计智能信息头盔、智能无线控制手表和用于实时与头盔传输的上位机软件,构建起以智能信息头盔和智能信息手表为核心的可穿戴式的石化应急智能信息装备系统,用于对石化环境监测及拍摄、工作者脉搏心率实时监测、动态石化环境毒气危险报警、精确GPS定位系统定位以及协助工作者险情应急双向通话呼救等功能,并通过无线通讯传输技术,实现计算机端上位机软件对石化环境的远程实时监控.实验验证了方法的有效性.

  2. Petrochemical trends and the chemical company in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some trends discernible in the petrochemical industry in Quebec and world-wide -- cyclicality, increasing globalization, environmental concerns, and a high degree of integration between olefins and derivative production -- were discussed. On a global basis, the incremental feedstock for ethylene production during the 1990s will likely be naphtha and propane. The challenge for Quebec lies in its distance from low-priced olefin feedstocks and its limited petrochemical infrastructure. In practice that means that despite Quebec's well-educated and productive work force, local producers will not have the feedstock advantage that would translate to low-priced natural gas liquids such as ethane, butane and propane. Against this backdrop what would be the agenda of a world-class petrochemical company in Quebec? This author's prescription called for a clear company vision that would include an appropriate business focus and downstream integration, the development of the required core competencies and strategies, with emphasis on low-cost feedstock acquisition, feedstock flexibility, maximum by-product values, and super-efficient manufacturing. 9 figs

  3. Fracture mechanics based life assessment in petrochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of thick walled pressure vessels in petrochemical plants operating at high pressure under severe service conditions could lead to catastrophic failure. In the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), initial efforts are underway to apply fracture mechanics approach for assessment of significance of defects detected during periodic in service inspection (ISI) of industrial plants. This paper outlines the integrity management strategy based on fracture mechanics and proposes a new procedure for life assessment of petrochemical plants based on ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, BSI PD 6493:1991, BSI 6539:1994, BSI Standard 7910:1999 and API 579:2000. Essential relevant data required for the assessment is listed. Several methods available for determination of fracture toughness are reviewed with limitations in their application to petrochemical plants. A new non destructive method for determination of fracture toughness based on hardness testing and normalized key roughness curve is given. Results of fracture mechanics based life assessment conducted for 100 mm thick ammonia converter of Ni r o steel and 70 mm thick plat forming reactor vessel of ASTM A 38 7 grade B steel in operational fertilizer and petroleum refining plants are presented. (Author)

  4. Anging Petrochemical Co.Adopts Novel Acrvlonitrile Catalyst Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The SANC catalyst for synthesis of acrylonitrile developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied in the 80 kt/a acrylonitrile unit at the Anqing Petrochemical Company.At present the bulk catalyst used in the acrylonitrile unit at Anqing Petrochemical Company cannot meet the requirements for increasingly elevating operating level.Starting May 2008 the novel SANC catalyst,developed by SPRI and manufactured by the SINOPEC Catalyst Branch Company

  5. Understanding Universities in Ontario, Canada: An Industry Analysis Using Porter's Five Forces Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, James; Huisman, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    In analyses of higher education systems, many models and frameworks are based on governance, steering, or coordination models. Although much can be gained by such analyses, we argue that the language used in the present-day policy documents (knowledge economy, competitive position, etc.) calls for an analysis of higher education as an industry. In…

  6. Public Health Ethics, Legitimacy, and the Challenges of Industrial Wind Turbines: The Case of Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While industrial wind turbines (IWTs) clearly raise issues concerning threats to the health of a few in contrast to claimed health benefits to many, the trade-off has not been fully considered in a public health framework. This article reviews public health ethics justifications for the licensing and installation of IWTs. It concludes that the…

  7. Forecasting: Canada's NGL [natural gas liquids] supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A perspective is given on Canada's supply and demand balance of ethane, propane, and butane, and Canada's participation in meeting the expected increases in United States import requirements. Increases in Canadian natural gas liquids (NGL) supply depends on increases in natural gas production. Since new production (except for the Shell Caroline gas discovery) is tending to have lower yields of liquids, NGL supply will not increase as much as the increase in natural gas production. Nearly 50% of Canadian NGLs are produced in straddle plants located at the inlet of gas transmission lines. Surpluses of ethane and high capital costs means that new straddle plants will not be built in the near future, but expansions of existing plants will occur to maximize propane and butane production. The potential ethane supply will increase, notably from the Shell Caroline project. The primary market for ethane in Canada is the Alberta petrochemical industry, and a new ethylene plant to be started up in 1994 will increase demand. The use of ethane for miscible flooding will decrease to the end of the decade. Propane production is expected to increase to a total of 180,000 bbl/d by 2000; demand growth in traditional markets such as heating and cooking is expected to be marginal, and the petrochemical sector is expected to show the largest growth in propane demand. The use of butane for producing methyl tertiary butyl ether is expected to increase butane demand for the rest of the decade. Exports of NGL to the USA are largely via the Cochin pipeline system. Modest increases in NGL exports are expected. A number of gas pipeline projects are at various stages of planning, and completion of these projects would enable an increase in Canadian exports. 8 figs

  8. A Mathematical Model Based on Supply Chain Optimization for International Petrochemical Engineering Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ning; Sun Wei

    2015-01-01

    Based on the study of supply chain (SC) and SC optimization in engineering projects, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) optimization model is developed to minimize the total SC cost for international petrochemical en-gineering projects. A steam cracking project is selected and analyzed, from which typical SC characteristics in international engineering projects in the area of petrochemical industry are summarized. The MINLP model is therefore developed and applied to projects with detailed data. The optimization results are analyzed and compared by the MINLP model, indicat-ing that they are appropriate to SC management practice in engineering projects, and are consistent with the optimal price-effective strategy in procurement. As a result, the model could provide useful guidance to SC optimization of international engineering projects in petrochemical industry, and improve SC management by selecting more reliable and qualiifed part-ner enterprises in SC for the project.

  9. Bienvenidos a Canadá? Globalization and the Migration Industry Surrounding Temporary Agricultural Migration in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennebry, Jenna L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available English“Migrant workers” have become an important resource in the global economy, and not solelyfor employers and governments. Multilateral agreements, trade liberalization, and advancementsin communication and transportation have enabled flows of the world’s poor into internationallabour migration systems, often mediated by a migration industry that profits fromproviding services to employers and migrants. Based on ethnographic case studies in Mexico,participant observation in Ontario, and interviews with migrant workers and their families,farmers, government representatives and other intermediaries, this paper examines the extentto which a migration industry has formed around the Mexican-Canadian Seasonal AgriculturalWorker Program.FrenchLes «travailleurs migrants » sont devenus une source importante de main d’oeuvre dansl’économie globale, et pas seulement pour les employeurs et les gouvernements. Les accordsmultilatéraux, la libéralisation des échanges, et les progrès accomplis dans les sphères dela communication et des transports on rendu possible l’épanchement des pauvres du mondeentier dans les systèmes internationaux de migration de main d’oeuvre, souvent négocié parune industrie de migration qui profite d’offrir des services auprès des employeurs et des migrants.Basé sur une étude de cas ethnographique au Mexique, une observation participanteen Ontario, et des entrevues de travailleurs migrants et de leurs familles, d’agriculteurs, dereprésentants gouvernementaux et d’autres intermédiaires, cet article examine l’étendue del’industrie de migration qui s’est formée autour du Programme des travailleurs agricolessaisonniers mexico-canadien.

  10. Overview on the application of anaerobic digestion to the treatment of chemical and petrochemical wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Macarie, Hervé

    1999-01-01

    Today, with at least 848 reactors constructed in the world, anaerobic digestion is considered to have reached technical maturity. Until now however, it has been used quite exclusively for the treatment of food industry effluents. It is only during the last 10 years that anaerobic digestion has started to be applied massively to the treatment of sewage and effluents from other industrial activities. During the 70's and 80's, the chemical and petrochemical industries were almost refractory to t...

  11. An application of data envelopment analysis to investigate the efficiency of lumber industry in northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thakur Prasad Upadhyay; Chander Shahi; Mathew Leitch; Reino Pulkki

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at exploring the technical efficiency of lumber industry in northwestern Ontario,Canada using data envelopment analysis (DEA).The DEA model analyzes relative technical efficiency of lumber mills with disproportionate inputs and outputs by dividing the 10-year time series data,for inputs and outputs of 24 lumber mills,over two periods (1999-2003 and 2004-2008).Four inputs,namely,material (log volume),labour (man-hours),two types of energy (hog-fuel and electricity),and one output (lumber volume) are used in this study.The trend analysis shows an annual reduction of 10%,13% and 13% for lumber output,log consumption (input) and number of employees,respectively,during the period 1999-2008.The results from DEA with two scenarios with energy inputs and without energy inputs,for the two periods are found to be mixed and interesting.While some mills have improved their performance in terms of best use of available scarce inputs in the second period,some have shown negative per cent change in efficiency.In the with energy input and the without energy input scenario,some of the mills show a reduction in efficiency in the second period from the first period,with the highest estimated reductions of-13.9% and-47.6%,respectively.A possible explanation for these negative performances of mills in the latter period is the decline in production in the second period compared to the first period,where these mills were not able to adjust their inputs (mostly labour) as proportional lay-offs might not have been possible.These results provide policy makers and industry stakeholders with an improved understanding of the trends of efficiency and employment as well as reallocation opportunities of future inputs in order to increase benefits from this sector.

  12. E-business Sees Rapid Development in China's Oil and Petrochemical Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ A two-day high-level e-business forum on petroleum and petrochemical industry, sponsored by China Chemicals Information Center, was held in Beijing in late-April, at which Vice President of CNPC Yan Sanzhong addressed opening speech.

  13. Examination of food industry progress in reducing the sodium content of packaged foods in Canada: 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, JoAnne; Jefferson, Katherine; Schermel, Alyssa; Shah, Ferdeela; Trang, Susan; Kutlesa, Daniela; Lou, Wendy; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    In 2010, as part of a national sodium reduction strategy, Canada published sodium reduction benchmark targets for packaged foods; however, no evaluation of this policy has occurred. The objective was to evaluate changes in the sodium content of packaged foods, identify categories reduced in sodium, and determine the proportion meeting Health Canada's sodium reduction benchmarks. This was a cross-sectional analysis of Canadian packaged foods in 2010 and 2013 (n = 10 487 and n = 15 394, respectively). Sodium content was obtained from the Nutrition Facts table. Overall, 16.2% of food categories had significantly reduced sodium levels. The greatest shifts in the distribution of sodium within food categories occurred in imitation seafood (mean ± SD, mg/100 g; 602 ± 50 to 444 ± 81, 26.2%, p = 0.002), condiments (1309 ± 790 to 1048 ± 620, 19.9%, p = 0.005), breakfast cereals (375 ± 26 to 301 ± 242, 19.7%, p = 0.001), canned vegetables/legumes (269 ± 156 to 217 ± 180, 19.3%, p < 0.001), plain chips (462 ± 196 to 376 ± 198, 18.6% p = 0.004), hot cereals (453 ± 141 to 385 ± 155, 15.0%, p = 0.011), meat analogues (612 ± 226 to 524 ± 177, 14.4%, p = 0.003), canned condensed soup (291 ± 62 to 250 ± 57, 14.1%, p = 0.003), and sausages and wieners (912 ± 219 to 814 ± 195, 10.7%, p = 0.012). The proportion of foods meeting at least 1 of the 3 phases of the sodium reduction benchmark targets slightly increased (51.4% to 58.2%) and the proportion exceeding maximum benchmark levels decreased (25.2% to 20.8%). These data provide a critical evaluation of changes in sodium levels in the Canadian food supply. Although progress in reducing sodium in packaged foods is evident, the food industry needs to continue efforts in reducing the sodium in the foods they produce. PMID:27113326

  14. Obtaining petrochemical products from ethanol; Obtencao de produtos petroquimicos a partir do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverio, Carlos Augusto N.; Oliveira, Claudia Vasconcellos R. de; Joao, Rafael Richard; Hashizume, Tulio Kenji C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Currently, high oil prices, low availability of traditional raw material (natural gas and petrochemical naphtha), increasing recognition of the importance of the preservation of nature and reducing emissions of pollutants have been creating a great opportunity for the petrochemical industry to seek alternative materials from renewable resources. The ethanol, which obtained a virtuous journey as fuel, is a very promising alternative to be used for the production of petrochemical products. However, the use of ethanol as a raw material will require a considerable increase in its production, what can be achieved through the development of new production technologies based on biomass and the construction of integrated biorefineries. So, this study aims to identify and compare conventional petrochemical routes with routes from this renewable raw material in order to evaluate their technical and economic feasibility. A preliminary analysis was performed between four petrochemical products: acetic acid, acetaldehyde, the ethyl acetate and ethylene. From this initial analysis, acetic acid and ethylene were selected for a more comprehensive feasibility study considering their production using ethanol as raw material, what is called ethanol chemistry. (author)

  15. A New Cultivation-Evolution Technology of Accident Immune Function for a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhenhong; Zhang Xuhua; Wang Xiangyao; Wang Zhihu; Liu Yan; Zhang Xuan

    2007-01-01

    For the purpose of developing an immune function on production accidents in a petrochemical enterprise, a new cultivation-evolution approach of preventive mechanism is suggested by analyzing various factors relating to immune deficiency syndrome and by referring to immunity genetic algorithm and relevant concepts applied in medicine science. Accident-immunity system for highly hazardous petrochemical enterprise, which is made up of its productive system's Safety Organ and Safety Organization, is typically an evolution-cultivation progress for immune function, The new B immune cell is generated after several layers' screening, clone expanding, receptor editing, organizing in immune system of work accident in petrochemical enterprise. There is a B immune cell with high appetency and a manipulative function chain for accident-immunity. Taking the antigen of accidents in industry as the target function and the immune antibody as the solution, the authors carried out a computation diagram for prediction of appetency between the antigen and antibody.

  16. Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemicals and refinery. The OMV view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtscheidl, J. [OMV Refining and Marketing GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    OMV's refineries have been integrated into petrochemicals since the first steam cracker came on line in 1970. The refineries in Schwechat, Burghausen and Romania, especially Arpechim, have significant petrochemical capacities. In 1998 PCD was merged with Borealis, a leading producer of high grade polymers. OMV's initial 25% stake in Borealis increased to 36 in 2007. The last years have seen major investments in Schwechat and Burghausen: Schwechat's cracker was expanded by approximately 150 KTA to a nominal 500 KTA of ethylene. And in Burghausen the revamp of the cracker has been combined with a metathesis unit in order to feed a new 330 KTA polypropylene plant. The polymer market is still growing. However, the bulk of investments to increase capacity are located in the Middle East and in the Asia-Pacific region, predominately in China. As more and more products from these regions find their way to Europe, the European petrochemicals industry faces fierce competition. The response is restructuring: the creation of Arkema (Total), the takeover of BP's petrochemical assets by INEOS, the disposal of Shell-BASF subsidiary Basell to Haldia Petrochemical and Accent Industries, and the transfer of Statoil's interest in Borealis to IPIC and OMV. And most recently, Basell's acquisition of Lyondell. Compared with competitors in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, producers in Europe are burdened with serious disadvantages: fairly old, small units and high costs of labor, energy and raw materials. There is no single solution. OMV, however, will continue to follow the strategies that have been successful so far: - Ever closer integration of refining and petrochemicals; - Capturing market opportunities for profitable growth; -Remaining market orientated. (orig.)

  17. Effect of the exposure time in coke making atmosphere on the microstructure and properties of a refractory castable used in the petrochemical industry; Efeito do tempo de exposicao a uma atmosfera coqueificante na microestrutura e nas propriedades de um concreto refratario usado na industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrelon, M.D.; Pereira, A.H.A.; Rodrigues, J.A., E-mail: marcelodezena@gmail.com [Grupo de Engenharia de Microestrutura de Materiais - GEMM, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - DEMa, Universidade Federal de S. Carlos - UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, J. [CENPES, Petroleo Brasileiro S/A - PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Toledo-Filho, R.D. [Laboratorio de Estruturas e Materiais - LABEST, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Refractory castables used in Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU) are said to deteriorate due coke formation during the production of light hydrocarbons, causing a shortening in the operating time of the reactor. Consequently, a significant financial loss for the petrochemical will occur. Several studies have been carried out, but none of them showed clearly how much is the contribution of the coke for the concrete final deterioration. It still remains the doubt if the coke is the responsible for the damage observed macroscopically in a FCCU's riser. In this way, this work aimed to study the effect of the time in a coke making atmosphere on an anti-erosive class-C refractory castable, seeking for microstructural changes or on physical properties that indicate degradation mechanisms and give support to the understanding of the phenomenon. Samples of an industrial refractory castable used in petrochemical units were prepared and subjected to a forced coke making process in a simulation reactor. The temperature and the heating rate were kept constant at 540 deg C and 50 deg C/h, respectively. The values of 10, 60, 120, 240 and 480 h were used for the time of exposition to the propene gas. The microstructure of the samples was characterized through optical and scanning electron microscopy and its mineralogical phases through X-ray diffraction. Complementary analyses were necessary to a better understanding of the phenomenon. The results show that the surface and the microstructure are gradually impregnated by coke, which fills up pores, microcracks and cracks. Evidences of microcracking around the coke filled pores were not found. However, many aggregates present some type of deterioration related to the time of exposition to propene. Those damages are not necessarily caused by coke directly (author)

  18. China's Innovations in Petrochemicals, Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ As far as the chemical industry is concerned, development is the petroleum sector was voted third among the achievements according to the country's official survey, the inorganic chemical industry was rated the 20th, and rare metal the 22nd. Petroleum is a major source of energy and a raw material for the clothing, food, housing and transportation industries,China has established its own petroleum industry almost from nothing. In 2001, a total of 160 million tons of crude oil was extracted from the mainland oil deposits.

  19. Casting a cold eye on LNG : the real possibilities and pitfalls for Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors that drive the economic viability of a proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) project in Atlantic Canada were discussed along with its impact on the region's energy future. The proximity of Atlantic Canada to the high-priced US northeast energy market and the accessibility of its ports gives the region a competitive advantage to become North America's first mover for LNG. Three proposed LNG projects in Atlantic Canada are located in industrial areas where local support is strong. The projects represent more than $5 billion in direct investment. These include the Irving Oil/Repsol terminal at Canaport in Saint John, New Brunswick; Anadarko's terminal at Bear Head, Nova Scotia and Keltic Petrochemical's proposed integrated petrochemical plant and LNG terminal at Goldboro, Nova Scotia. The market issues that must be addressed prior to any LNG project include long-term supply contracts, market response and pipeline capacity. The issues will ultimately be decided by markets and regulatory processes. This document emphasized the significance of the first-mover advantage, and noted that those who gain an early market share will profit from higher prices, access to better customers and potential economies of scale from a well-established presence. Short-term benefits include the jobs created by the construction and operation of a terminal, and the municipal tax revenues it would generate. Long-term benefits include transportation cost savings from pipeline expansion; access to additional gas supplies; and gains for regional prosperity. The final factors in support of LNG projects in Atlantic Canada include the need to strengthen trade ties with the New England States and access to the US gas markets. refs., tabs., figs

  20. 2013年我国石油化工行业进展回顾与展望%Progress of China’s petrochemical industry in 2013 and outlook for 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪定一

    2014-01-01

    有的贡献。%The progress of China’s petrochemical industry under the conditions of high crude price and slowdo

  1. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  2. Harbor Expansion Facilitates Crude and Petrochemicals Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Douwei Harbor attracting petrochem investment Substantial progress has been made in the preliminary preparation of Douwei Harbor project in Hui'an, Fujian Province. It is one of the major four transfer ports in China planned by the Ministry of Transportation. A number of projects, with a total investment approaching 10 billion yuan,will come under construction in the harbor zone.

  3. Study on impact factors of rotary machine price (investment) in petrochemical industry%石油化工动设备价格(投资)影响因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗明

    2011-01-01

    The prices of rotary machine for petrochemical service, which account for 10% -15% of cost of equipment and materials, have a great impact on the capital investment of process units. There are many factors affecting the prices and the extents of impacts are different for different times, locations and project conditions. By a case study, the impact factors of rotary machine prices are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in respect of cost, special project requirements, import of overseas equipment, codes & standards requirements, competition environment in the bidding for equipment procurement and time of equipment delivery. The main causes of increased capital investment are found out, which provides a good guideline for project implementation , such as design scheme comparison and selection, design review, invitation for bidders and bidding for procurement of equipment and materials, etc.%石油化工动设备的价格对装置建设投资影响较大,通常占到设备材料费的10%~15%。其价格影响因素很多,视时间、地点、项目具体情况的不同,影响程度也不相同。通过实例,从成本、项目特殊要求、引进国外设备、标准要求、设备采购招投标竞争环境及交货周期等方面,定性和定量分析了动设备价格影响因素,找出了投资增加的主要原因,对工程建设领域设计方案比选、设计审查、采购招投标等等有参考作用。

  4. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  5. Análise comparativa e avaliação de prioridades de competição em três cadeias de suprimentos do setor petroquímico Comparative analysis and competitive priorities assessment in three supply chains from the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa comparativamente e avalia qualitativamente prioridades de competição em três cadeias de suprimentos da indústria petroquímica, A, B e C. A pesquisa foi feita no segundo semestre de 2006. O artigo revisa definições sobre cadeias de suprimentos, destacando principalmente a forma de rede que estas podem assumir. A seguir, apresenta os três casos estudados. A pesquisa identificou sete prioridades de competição em petroquímica: qualidade, entrega, flexibilidade, custo, inovação, comunicação e segurança, que foram desdobradas em dimensões. As prioridades foram ponderadas por gestores, com apoio do método multicriterial AHP, chegando-se a uma estrutura de competitividade, que apoiou a avaliação, baseada em julgamento. Ao fim, as diferenças entre as prioridades e os desempenhos julgados formaram uma estrutura de objetivos para as cadeias. A deve priorizar qualidade, B flexibilidade e C redução de custo.The purpose of this article is to comparatively analyze and quantitatively assess the competitive priorities in three supply chains from the petrochemical industry: A, B, and C. The research was carried out in the second half of 2006. The article revises definitions on supply chains with emphasis on network shapes. Then, it presents the three case studies: A, B, and C. The research identifies seven competitive priorities in the petrochemical industry: quality, lead-time, flexibility, cost, innovation, communication and safety, which were unfolded in dimensions. The priorities were analyzed by managers with the support of the AHP multi-criteria method, reaching a competitiveness structure that supported the assessment based on judgment. Finally, the differences betweenthe priorities and the assessed performances formed a structure of objectives for the chains. Results showed that Ashould prioritize quality,B should prioritize flexibility, while C should prioritize cost reduction.

  6. Quantitative risks analysis of maritime terminal petrochemical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Leandro Silveira; Leal, Cesar A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica (PROMEC)]. E-mail: leandro19889900@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This work consists of the application of a computer program (RISKAN) developed for studies of quantification of industrial risks and also a revision of the models used in the program. As part the evaluation made, a test was performed with the application of the computer program to estimate the risks for a marine terminal for storage of petrochemical products, in the city of Rio Grande, Brazil. Thus, as part of the work, it was performed a Quantitative Risk Analysis associated to the terminal, both for the workers and for the population nearby, with a verification of acceptability using the tolerability limits established by the State Licensing Agency (FEPAM-RS). In the risk analysis methodology used internationally, the most used way of presenting results of social risks is in the graphical form with the use of the FN curves and for the individual risk it is common the use of the iso-risk curves traced on the map of the area where is the plant. In the beginning of the study, both a historical analysis of accidents and use of the technique of Preliminary Analysis of Risks were made in order to aid in the process of identification of the possible scenarios of accidents related to the activities in the terminal. After identifying the initiating events, their frequencies or probabilities of occurrence were estimated and followed by the calculations of the physical effects and deaths, with the use, inside the computer program, of published models of Prins Mauritz Laboratory and of American Institute of Chemical Engineers. The average social risk obtained for the external populations was of 8.7x10{sup -7} fatality.year{sup -1} and for the internal population (people working inside the terminal), 3.2x10{sup -4} fatality.year-1. The accident scenario that most contributed to the social risk was death due to exposure to the thermal radiation caused by pool fire, with 84.3% of the total estimated for external populations and 82.9% for the people inside the terminal. The

  7. Extractive leviathan: The role of the government in the relationships between oil and gas industries and indigenous communities in the Arctic regions of Canada, United States and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Evgeniia

    This comparative research analyzes the extent to which the governments of Canada, the United States and Russia affect the relationships between the petroleum extractive industries and Indigenous peoples of the Arctic in order to protect Indigenous peoples from the negative impacts of oil and gas extraction. The hypothesis of this study is that the government can protect Indigenous communities only by providing for their participation in decision-making processes about oil and gas development. The comparative analysis showed that in comparison with Canada and the United States, Russia has the worst legal protection of Indigenous peoples in petroleum-extractive regions. The recognition of Aboriginal title by Canada and the U.S. allowed Indigenous communities the best opportunities to be involved in oil and gas development, whereas Russia failed to grant this recognition. Therefore, the recognition of land claims by the government is the best way to protect traditional lands and lifestyles of Indigenous peoples from the negative externalities of petroleum extraction.

  8. A multi-isotope approach for estimating industrial contributions to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Athabasca oil sands region in Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial nitrogen (N) emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, affect nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4) deposition rates in close vicinity of industrial emitters. NO3–N and NH4–N open field and throughfall deposition rates were determined at various sites between 3 km and 113 km distance to the main oil sand operations between May 2008 and May 2009. NO3 and NH4 were analyzed for δ15N–NO3, δ18O–NO3, Δ17O–NO3 and δ15N–NH4. Marked differences in the δ18O and Δ17O values between industrial emissions and background deposition allowed for the estimation of minimum industrial contributions to atmospheric NO3 deposition. δ15N–NH4 values also allowed for estimates of industrial contributions to atmospheric NH4 deposition. Results revealed that particularly sites within ∼30 km radius from the main oil sands developments are significantly affected by industrial contributions to atmospheric NO3 and NH4 deposition. -- Highlights: •Atmospheric NO3 and NH4 deposition rates are elevated near industrial emitters. •δ18O and Δ17O values of NO3 at high N deposition sites are isotopically distinct. •Industrial contributions to NO3 deposition are estimated using δ18O and Δ17O values. •Elevated δ15N values of NO3 and NH4 deposition indicate industrial contributions. -- Distinct δ18O, Δ17O, and δ15N values were used to estimate industrially derived N contributions to atmospheric nitrate and ammonium deposition in the Athabasca oil sands region

  9. Partnering for Learnware: Critical Success Factors in the Use of Learnware by Human Resources Sector Councils and Industry Associations in Canada = Partenariats pour les technologies d'apprentissage: Facteurs critiques de succes dans l'utilisation des technologies d'apprentissage par les conseils sectoriels des ressources humaines et les associations industrielles au Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Anna; Green, Lyndsay

    The use of learnware by human resources sector councils and industry associations in Canada was examined to identify critical success factors in the use of technology-based training. Eight case studies--four involving sector councils and four involving industry associations that either have national mandates or distribute their products across…

  10. The Challenge of Integrating OHS into Industrial Project Risk Management: Proposal of a Methodological Approach to Guide Future Research (Case of Mining Projects in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Badri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although risk management tools are put to good use in many industrial sectors, some large projects have been met with numerous problems due to failure to take occupational health and safety (OHS into consideration. In spite of the high level of risk and uncertainty associated with many industrial projects, the number of studies of methods for managing all known risks systematically remains small. Under effervescent economic conditions, industries must meet several challenges associated with frequent project start-ups. In highly complex and uncertain environments, rigorous management of risk remains indispensable for avoiding threats to the success of projects. Many businesses seek continually to create and improve integrated approaches to risk management. This article puts into perspective the complexity of the challenge of integrating OHS into industrial project risk management. A conceptual and methodological approach is proposed to guide future research focused on meeting this challenge. The approach is based on applying multi-disciplinary research modes to a complex industrial context in order to identify all scenarios likely to contain threats to humans or the environment. A case study is used to illustrate the potential of the proposed approach for application and its contribution to meeting the challenge of taking OHS into consideration. On-site researchers were able to develop a new approach that helped two mining companies in Quebec (Canada to achieve successful integration of OHS into expansion projects.

  11. Improving occupational health and safety in a petrochemical environment through culture change / R.A. Farmer

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Ruan Alexander

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the vast technological progress and improvement in the standard of management systems within hazardous industries around the world, occupational health and safety incidents and fatalities continue to devastate thousands of lives each year. Throughout the last decade, significant improvement has been achieved in the reduction of health and safety incident rates across the South African petrochemical environment. However, a persistent roller-coaster fatality rate s...

  12. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  13. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method. PMID:24640914

  14. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method.

  15. Canada's mining industry and its developing trends%加拿大矿业发展现状及其动向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新元; 张振芳; 叶锦华

    2012-01-01

    加拿大是发达的矿业大国.由于自然地质-地理条件的差别,加拿大各省区的优势矿产资源区域属性明显,各省区勘查投入和矿业发展情况也不均衡.中国与加拿大形成良好的资源互补态势,并且在矿业领域开展积极合作.矿业作为加拿大的重要支柱产业,联邦政府和各省、区政府非常重视面向全球开展矿业招商引资;有些矿业大省还对本区域内的矿业发展做出了规划.%Canada is one of the world's major mining countries. Because of geographical differences,the mineral resources endowments of the different administrative jurisdictions show obvious regional characteristics. The exploration investments and mining developments are also differing from provinces to provinces. China and Canada are in good mutual complementarities in mineral resources endowments; and the two countries are cooperating well in mineral sector. Taking mineral sector as one of the mainstay industries,the federal government of Canada and all the local governments are keen in advertising their mineral sector and try their best to attract overseas mining funds. Some of the major mining provinces have issued their plans for mining developments.

  16. Chinese Oil Industry Faces New Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese petrochemical companies should gird for new challenges in three years, triggered by cost-competitive products flooding in from overseas, especially the Middle East countries.This advice was highlighted by company executives and association leaders during a discussion on the sidelines of a petrochemical conference organized by the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association in early April.

  17. Brief Introduction to CNPC Daqing Petrochemical Complex(DPC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Daqing Petrochemical Complex (DPC), as a subsidiary enterprise of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), was founded in April,1962 and is a giant scale integrated petrochemical enterprise in China. With great efforts in the past four decades, DPC has developed four product series including oil, chemical, fibre and fertilizer according to its development strategy of construction and production being synchronously done. At the end of 1980s, it has become the integrated base for petrochemical production, scientific research and construction, which is involved in RD, design,mechanical manufacture, construction and comprehensive community service system. DPC has made great contribution to the construction for Daqing Oilfield and the economic development for Daqing area. After the reorganization in 1999, DPC has formed six systems including petrochemical extended processing, engineering technology service, production technology service, machine manufhcturing,multi-business and living base service for its employees. Its main businesses are involved in petrochemical & petrochemical extended processing, design & construction for large petrochemical plant, civil building and road, installation for petrochemical plant, engineering supervision,equipment maintenance, manufacturing & processing for machine and instrument, computer software development & application, network administration, passenger & cargo transportation, equipment & material purchase, realty management and logistic service for its employees.

  18. Cleaner production and methodological proposal of eco-efficiency measurement in a Mexican petrochemical complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M A; Herrero, V M; Martínez, S A; Rodríguez, M G; Valdivieso, E; Garcia, G; de los Angeles Elías, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In the frame of the Petróleos Mexicanos Institutional Program for Sustainable Development, processes were evaluated in the manufacture operation of the petrochemical industry, with the purpose of reducing their ecological fingerprint. Thirteen cleaner production opportunities were registered in six process plants: ethylene oxide and glycols, acetaldehyde, ethylene, high density polyethylene, polypropylene switch and acrylonitrile, and 45 recommendations in the waste water treatment plant. Morelos is the second most important petrochemical complex in the Mexican and Latin American petrochemical industry. A tool was developed to obtain eco-efficiency indicators in operation processes, and as a result, potential savings were obtained based on best performance, as well as the integrated distribution of Sankey diagrams. Likewise, a mechanism of calculation to obtain economic savings based on the reduction of residues during the whole productive process is proposed. These improvement opportunities and recommendations will result in economic and environmental benefits minimising the use of water, efficient use of energy, raw materials and reducing residues from source, generating less environmental impacts during the process.

  19. A application and development studies for large high-pressure reciprocating compressor in the field of petrochemical industry%大型高压往复式压缩机在石化领域的应用发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文斌

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of large high-pressure reciprocating compressor productwhich the piston force ≥1250kN ,combined with analysis and applied research on products and technology indeveloped countries,analysis of the situation of the large-scale reciprocating high-pressure compressor in thedomestic petrochemical field is presented in itAnd the summary about large reciprocating compressors to im-port industry and localization is employedThe conclusions are helpful to provide consult and reference for thedomestic users with equipment procurement, maintenance and management and other aspects in the future.%针对国内外对活塞力≥1250kN的大型高压往复式压缩机产品的需求现状,结合多年来对国外发达国家关于大型高压往复式压缩机产品及技术的分析研究和应用研究,通过对大型往复式压缩机产品及技术在国内石化领域的应用状况分析,对在国内石化领域引进大型往复式压缩机产品、技术及国产化进行了分析论证,并在此基础上进行了归纳总结,为大型高压往复式压缩机产品及技术在国内石化领域有效使用及其国产化、设备采购、维护及管理工作等方面提供参考和借鉴.

  20. Estudio comparativo de la productividad y calidad obtenidas en la soldadura de tubos de calidad T9 empleados en el sector petroquímico, mediante los procesos TIG, HW-TIG y PAW Comparative study of productivity and quality obtained in tube welding quality T9 employees in the petrochemical industry, through TIG, HW-TIG and PAW processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César García González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente, la fabricación soldada de tuberías de acero Cr-Mo empleadas en serpentines de hornos para la industria petroquímica se ha venido realizando de forma masiva mediante procesos de baja productividad, principalmente TIG para la pasada de raíz y SMAW para las pasadas de relleno, ambos manuales. En este estudio se muestran los resultados de la investigación realizada por el Centro Tecnológico AIMEN, en relación al empleo de tecnologías de alto rendimiento, concretamente TIG, HW-TIG y PAW robotizadas, aplicadas a los mismos materiales y productos. De este modo se calculan y comparan cuatro índices de productividad: Tiempo de Soldadura, Tasa de Deposición, Material Depositado y Volumen de Gas Consumido. El objetivo del estudio es contribuir a la reducción de los tiempos de producción, de los costes de fabricación, y a la mejora de la calidad del producto.Traditionally, the manufacture of welded Cr-Mo steel pipes used in furnace coils for petrochemical industry has been carried out on a massive scale by low productivity processes, mainly TIG for root pass and SMAW for layers of filling run, both of them manuals. This study presents the results of a research, conducted by AIMEN Technology Centre, related to the use of high performance technologies, specifically robotic processes such as TIG, TIG-HW and PAW, applied to the same materials and products. Thus, four productivity ratios have been calculated and compared: welding time, deposition rate, deposited material and volume of consumed gas. The aim of the study is to contribute to the reduction of the production time, manufacturing costs and to the improvement of the product quality.

  1. Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate by Bacillus axaraqunsis BIPC01 using Petrochemical Wastewater as Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Mayeli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use petrochemical wastewater as the source of carbon for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA in an effort to decrease its cost of production. For this purpose, PHA producing bacteria were isolated from the petrochemical wastewater of Bandar Imam, Iran. The purified colonies were screened for PHA by Sudan Black B and Nile Blue A staining. Among positively stained bacteria, the best PHA producer was selected on the basis of cell growth, PHA content and the monomer composition of PHA. The phenotypic and genotypic identification this isolate showed it to be Bacillus axaraqunsis. The PHA was produced at a cell density of about 9.46 g/l of maximum concentration of 6.33g/l l, corresponding to 66% of cell dry weight. These results showed that B. axaraqunsis BIPC01 could be a potent PHA producer using wastewater for industrial purpose and simultaneously reducing the environmental pollution.

  2. Cumulative impact of 40 years of industrial sulfur emissions on a forest soil in west-central Alberta (Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of 40 years of sulfur (S) emissions from a sour gas processing plant in Alberta (Canada) on soil development, soil S pools, soil acidification, and stand nutrition at a pine (Pinus contorta x Pinus banksiana) ecosystem was assessed by comparing ecologically analogous areas subjected to different S deposition levels. Sulfur isotope ratios showed that most deposited S was derived from the sour gas processing plant. The soil subjected to the highest S deposition contained 25.9 kmol S ha-1 (uppermost 60 cm) compared to 12.5 kmol S ha-1 or less at the analogues receiving low S deposition. The increase in soil S pools was caused by accumulation of organic S in the forest floor and accumulation of inorganic sulfate in the mineral soil. High S inputs resulted in topsoil acidification, depletion of exchangeable soil Ca2+ and Mg2+ pools by 50%, podzolization, and deterioration of N nutrition of the pine trees

  3. Waste water from petrochemical plants and refineries. Treatment and recycling; Abwasser aus Petrochemie- und Raffineriebetrieben. Behandlung und Wiedernutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzke, Bernd [WEHRLE Umwelt GmbH, Emmendingen (Germany); Wienands, Hubert

    2008-07-01

    The high demand for fossil fuels and products of the petrochemical industry leads to a strong growth in this sector of the economy. This also is connected with a production of large amounts of waste water. With the industrial processing of waste water, increasingly membrane procedures are used as an alternative for conventional procedures. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on possibilities of waste water treatment on the basis of case studies from the petrochemical industry. It is shown that the membrane technology also in the future plays a large role in the industrial waste water purification. So, the membrane individually is applicable to waste water being not accessible to a conventional biological treatment.

  4. Risk of Respiratory Health Impairment among Sus¬ceptible Population Living near Petrochemical Indus¬try- A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Ashikin SOPIAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petrochemical industry emits air pollutants in abundance, which may harm human health, especially the population living near the industry. Children are reported to be the population group of main concern since this susceptible population spends the majority of their time outdoors and their active lifestyle can increase their breathing rate, which then leads to a greater inhalation dose of air pollutants and greater risk of health effects.Method: The materials for this review were obtained from several on-line databases such as PubMed, Proquest, Scopus and Science Direct (year 1990-2015. In this review, we highlighted several relevant studies on respiratory health effects from petrochemical air pollutant exposure among children living in the neighborhood and highlighted the factors, which contributed to the severity of the health outcomes.Results: Short term petrochemical air pollutant exposure increases respiratory symptom, reduces lung function and incidence of asthma especially for those who living within 5 km radius from the industry.Conclusion: This review will provide a compilation of potential respiratory health outcomes that arises from the inhalation of petrochemical air pollutants among children. Keywords: Petrochemical industry, Respiratory health effects, Children

  5. New Paradigms in International University/Industry/Government Cooperation. Canada-China Collaboration in Advanced Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgak, Akif Asil; Liquan, He

    1996-01-01

    A Chinese university and a Canadian university collaborated on an advanced manufacturing technologies project designed to address human resource development needs in China. The project featured university/industry/government partnership and attention to environmental issues. (SK)

  6. Identifying and Tackling Entry Barriers in Canada : A study for the Dutch shipbuilding and marine equipment industry

    OpenAIRE

    Laan, Jari

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to retain Dutch prominence in the global maritime cluster by enabling the Dutch shipbuilding and marine equipment industry to respond to Canada’s National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy opportunities through identifying and proposing solutions to the market entry barriers existing in the Canadian shipbuilding industry. The reviewed literature focuses on internationalizing theories, market entry barriers and various tools to assess the attractiveness of international ma...

  7. 国内钛焊管的发展及其在石化行业的应用%Development of Domestic Titanium Welded Tubes and Its Application in Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢祎; 罗求能; 吴芝华; 李建飞

    2016-01-01

    简要介绍了常用钛合金的牌号、 钛合金直缝焊管(简称"钛焊管")的生产工艺流程以及近年来国内钛焊管行业的发展情况.通过钛焊管与钛无缝管在力学性能、 质量、 经济性以及环保性等方面的对比,表明钛焊管的综合性能更好.目前,在日本、 美国和欧洲等国家和地区,钛焊管在很多领域正在逐步取代钛无缝管和其他管材.由于钛焊管具有优异的耐腐蚀性,将其用在石油精炼的热交换器、 蒸馏塔、 反应器等,会大幅度降低设备的维修维护成本,提高设备的使用寿命,因此钛焊管在石油化工行业的应用将成为必然的发展趋势.%In this article, it briefly introduced the mark of titanium alloy in common use, the production process flow of titanium alloy longitudinal welded pipe(Hereinafter referred to as "titanium welded pipe") , and the development situation of titanium welded pipe industry in recent years. Through contrast between titanium welded pipe and titanium seamless pipe in mechanical performance, quality, economy and environmental protection property, it showed that the comprehensive performance of titanium welded pipe is better. At present, in Japan, the United States,Europe,and other countries and regions, the titanium welded pipe gradually replaces titanium seamless tube and other tubular product. Because the titanium welded pipe has excellent corrosion resistance, it's usage in heat exchanger, distillation column, reactor, etc. can sharply reduce the cost of equipment maintenance and improve the service life of equipment, so the application of titanium welded pipe in petroleum and chemical industry will become the inevitable development trend.

  8. Noise pollution in a Refining & Petrochemical Company in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Osarenmwinda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the concern about noise pollution is acquiring considerable importance especiallly in industrial enviroment where there exist alot of machinerys and equipment. The aim of this study was to determine the level of noise pollution generated by some plants specifically Carbon Black Plant, Power Plant & Utilities, Waste Water treatment Plant and Fuels Plant in Warri Refining & Petrochemical Company (WRPC, Warri, Nigeria and recommmend strageties for noise control. Noise level data was obtained from the environmental monitoring unit of WRPC for period April to November, 2012 .The results showed that the noise level exceeded the 85 dB(A WHO recommended limit for industrial area in the Carbon Black Plant,Power Plant & Utilities and Fuels Plant in WRPC but was lower than 85 dB(A in Waste Water treatment Plant section of WRPC.It was observed that such noise pollution can present health problems to the workers.Recommendations have been made to the company in this study to remedy this problems and challenges.

  9. A review of present research, research needs, and research capabilities related to the uranium mining and milling industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report surveys the views of those associated with uranium mining in northern Saskatchewan on the research needs of the industry. Research resources, both human and material, available in the province are outlined. The author makes recommendations that would lead to a viable uranium research program. Appendices list information on current uranium-related research in Saskatchewan and available research resources

  10. Dynamic modeling of uncertainty in the planned values of investments in petrochemical and refining projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a large gap between the planned value of investment in a project and its financial implementation. This fact creates a mismatch between the planned and effectively achieved net present value (NPV) of the project. Considering the project portfolio of a company, this could even threaten your solvency in the future. Therefore, a quantitative-risk analysis that takes into account different possible scenarios for these values of investment is extremely important to measure statistically the real value of a project. The aim of this paper is to present the reasons for this mismatch between planned and executed investments and, from this study, obtain a suitable stochastic process to generate different scenarios for these investments in the oil industry. Although the results are valid for projects in the petrochemical and refining sector, also called in the oil industry as downstream, the methodology can be applied to the upstream or even other branches of industry. - Highlights: • We measure statistically the real value of an investment project. • We present the reasons for the mismatch between planned and executed investments. • We obtain a stochastic process to generate scenarios for oil industry investments. • Results are valid for projects in the petrochemical and refining sector, downstream. • The methodology can be applied to the upstream or even other branches of industry

  11. Industry-university collaborations in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA--with emphasis on publication freedom and managing the intellectual property lock-up problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kneller

    Full Text Available As industry-university collaborations are promoted to commercialize university research and foster economic growth, it is important to understand how companies benefit from these collaborations, and to ensure that resulting academic discoveries are developed for the benefit of all stakeholders: companies, universities and public. Lock up of inventions, and censoring of academic publications, should be avoided if feasible. This case-study analysis of interviews with 90 companies in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA assesses the scope of this challenge and suggests possible resolutions. The participating companies were asked to describe an important interaction with universities, and most described collaborative research. The most frequently cited tensions concerned intellectual property management and publication freedom. IP disagreements were most frequent in the context of narrowly-focused collaborations with American universities. However, in the case of exploratory research, companies accepted the IP management practices of US universities. It might make sense to let companies have an automatic exclusive license to IP from narrowly defined collaborations, but to encourage universities to manage inventions from exploratory collaborations to ensure development incentives. Although Canada, the UK and US have strong publication freedom guarantees, tensions over this issue arose frequently in focused collaborations, though were rare in exploratory collaborations. The UK Lambert Agreements give sponsors the option to control publications in return for paying the full economic cost of a project. This may offer a model for the other three countries. Uniquely among the four countries, Japan enables companies to control exclusively most collaborative inventions and to censor academic publications. Despite this high degree of control, the interviews suggest many companies do not develop university discoveries to their full potential. The steps suggested

  12. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  13. PETROCHEMICAL SUPPLY CHAIN’S SHARE IN EMISSION OF GREEN HOUSE GASES, CASE STUDY: SHAZAND PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Moharamned

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study petrochemical supply chain shares in global warming is studied by monitoring carbon footprint during manufacturing and distribution phase. For identification and measurement of carbon emissions in petrochemical supply chain, at first step necessary data are collected. Then carbon footprint is calculated in manufacturing process. So GHG is measured during fossil fuel use for chemical productions and electricity production in exclusive power plant in production phase. Also carbon emissions are calculated during chemical process (non-energy use of fossil fuels. The other activity that has an impact on GHG emissions is transportation. In this study Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC methodology was employed. For conducting this research Shazand petrochemical complex in Iran is selected as a case study. The calculations and monitoring GHG will help to greening the petrochemical supply chain.The result shows GHG emissions in Shazad petrochemical complex supply chain is 6108960.35 tons per year. 6100434.9 tones CO2equ per year emit from manufacturing phase and 8525.4 tones CO2equ per year emit from distribution phase. Based on a comparison with statistics from United Nation Statistics division reports contribution of manufacturing phase of Shazand Petrochemical supply chain in global warming is about 0.020% and Based on a comparison with statistics from Iranian fuel Conservation Company and energy balance reports the contribution of distribution phase of Shazand Petrochemical supply chain in global warming is about 0.004%.

  14. Brief Introduction of PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company is capable of processing 20.50 million tons of crude oil once a year and manufacturing series of petrochemical products, such as gasoline,kerosene, diesel, lube oil, paraffin wax, benzene, polypropylene and fine fibre, etc. PetroChina Dalian Petrochemical Company is in the national leading position in terms of its key performance indicators,some of which are advanced in the world. As the largest oil refining base in China, it has leaped to a demonstrative refining and chemical enterprise with greatest competitiveness in PetroChina. It has become one of the important bases for exporting and transferring petrochemical products in China for its advantageous geographical position in Dalian, shore of the Yellow Sea and complete marine and land transportation facilities.

  15. Brief Introduction of PetroChina Fushun Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Fushun Pertrochemical Company (PFPC) is a large-scale integrated petrochemical complex, which owns three oil refineries, three large and medium-size chemical plants and one company for storage and transportation of oil products.

  16. Important TQM Implementation Contributors in Pakistani Petrochemical Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Latif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses quality practices in Pakistani Petrochemical sector to understand TQM practices and their implementation in Pakistan. It helps to understand the role of leadership, vision & plan statement, employee participation and education & training as important constructs of TQM. It shows how these constructs help to speed up the TQM implementation in petrochemical sector like other constructs of TQM and finally company moves towards quality approach. The responses of executives, managerial staff and workers were received using questionnaire and online surveys which are sent through Google Drive. Data of 106 respondents was taken in this study and analyzed by SPSS18. Study shows that Total Quality Management culture is less understood by employees, thus less adopted and implemented in Pakistan. Petrochemical companies fail to adopt the TQM philosophy and processes, hence reducing productivity and profits. This research paper is very helpful for executives for TQM implementation in petrochemical sector.

  17. FCC FAMILY TECHNOLOGY BRIDGING PETROLEUM REFINING WITH PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    FCC family technologies,such as DCC,MGG and CPP,take the advantages of both thermal and catalytic reactions. A zeolite containing material is acted as heat carrier and catalyst as well. Versatile objectives can be achieved through regulating the catalyst formulation and optimizing the process variables. The ethylene,propylene and isobutylene yields from these FCC family technologies can be 24.3%, 22.9% and 6.1%,respectively,with heavy feeds. The cracked naphtha is rich in toluene and xylenes.

  18. Radiotracer study for process optimization in petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behavior of tracer gas (Ar-41) was monitored in a wax slurry bed reactor (SBR) and a pilot fluidized thermal cracking unit (FTCU) reactor. The investigation was mean to understand the gas behavior inside the reactors for design improvement. The synthetic gas behavior showed noticeable channeling in the both reactors. In the upper portion there was possible different mixing zones and occurrence of air pockets.(Author)

  19. China's Petrochemical Industrial Development Against High Oil Prices Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Dingyi

    2006-01-01

    @@ As China's oil consumption enters a rapid growth period,increasingly serious oil shortage has become the major factor restricting the nation from economic and social development. It is predicted that China's annual oil consumption will reach 450 million tons by 2020 when the peak crude production is around 200 million tons.

  20. Dalian Petrochemical Targets at World-class Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Min

    2002-01-01

    @@ As one of PetroChina's most profitable enterprises, Dalian Petrochemical Company, located on the western bank of Pacific Occean, is remarkable for the first-class management and performance. In a recent interview with media, general manger of Dalian Petrochemical Company Jiang Fan said the company has made ambitious efforts to adopt advanced information technology, establish the internal corporate website and information platform for optimization and sharing of resources and boost the management efficiency in the past few years.

  1. Oil policies and privatization strategies in Mexico: implications for the petrochemical sector and its production spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through a retrospective analysis of Mexico's oil history, this work examines the privatization processes that occurred in the petrochemical sector, from the abolishment of the government's monopoly, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) during the 1980s, until the restructuring and open liberalization in the early 1990s, focusing on the areas incorporated to production processes, particularly along the Gulf coast. As a result of the industrial policies and regional development strategies promoted by the government from the sixties, oriented towards strengthening production in areas with the highest potential, attractive business investment areas were developed. These included southern Tamaulipas, a strategic region where a number of industrial factors facilitated access to raw materials at competitive prices, as well as their processing and distribution to local and international markets, all of these within a single location. The strategic nature of the petrochemical location and production have made southern Tamaulipas a key factor for the territorial shaping and industrial development linked to the behavior of transnational companies that, seeking comparative advantages, have relocated parts of their production capacity in this region

  2. Efeito do tempo de exposição a uma atmosfera coqueificante na microestrutura e nas propriedades de um concreto refratário usado na indústria petroquímica Effect of the exposure time in cokemaking atmosphere on the microstructure and properties of a refractory castable used in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Cabrelon

    2012-06-01

    Cracking Units (FCCU are said to deteriorate due coke formation during the production of light hydrocarbons, causing a shortening in the operating time of the reactor. Consequently, a significant financial loss for the petrochemical will occur. Several studies have been carried out, but none of them showed clearly how much is the contribution of the coke for the concrete final deterioration. It still remains the doubt if the coke is the responsible for the damage observed macroscopically in a FCCU's riser. In this way, this work aimed to study the effect of the time in a cokemaking atmosphere on an anti-erosive class-C refractory castable, seeking for microstructural changes or on physical properties that indicate degradation mechanisms and give support to the understanding of the phenomenon. Samples of an industrial refractory castable used in petrochemical units were prepared and subjected to a forced cokemaking process in a simulation reactor. The temperature and the heating rate were kept constant at 540 ºC and 50 ºC/h, respectively. The values of 10, 60, 120, 240 and 480 h were used for the time of exposition to the propene gas. The microstructure of the samples was characterized through optical and scanning electron microscopy and its mineralogical phases through X-ray diffraction. Complementary analyses were necessary to a better understanding of the phenomenon. The results show that the surface and the microstructure are gradually impregnated by coke, which fills up pores, microcracks and cracks. Evidences of microcracking around the coke filled pores were not found. However, many aggregates present some type of deterioration related to the time of exposition to propene. Those damages are not necessarily caused by coke directly.

  3. Try to Talk About Green Petrochemical Production Technology Progress of Sustainable Development%绿色可持续发展石油化工生产技术新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Has been in the petrochemical industry is to create a large environmental pollution, with the gradual development of the concept of sustainable development, implementing green petrochemical process improvement has become a modern petrochemical industry one of the key research problems. Green petrochemical process designed to make the waste gas petrochemical production, minimize waste, waste water pollution degree and realize the recycling of waste polymer. The following briefly discusses the related contents for petrochemical production technology, for reference only.%石化工业从出现开始就一直伴随着环境污染,随着可持续发展理念的逐渐深入,实行绿色石化工艺改进成为了当代石化工业的重点研究问题之一。绿色石化工艺其目的在于使石化生产中产生的废气、废物、废水的污染程度尽量降低,实现废弃聚合物的回收利用。

  4. A staff shortage in Canada?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, P. [Human Resources Development Canada, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members` future personnel requirements. (author).

  5. iWitness pollution map: crowdsourcing petrochemical accident research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Risha; Hrybyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Community members living near any one of Louisiana's 160 chemical plants or refineries have always said that accidents occurring in these petrochemical facilities significantly impact their health and safety. This article reviews the iWitness Pollution Map tool and Rapid Response Team (RRT) approach led by the Louisiana Bucket Brigade, an environmental nonprofit group, and their effectiveness in documenting these health and safety impacts during petrochemical accidents. Analysis of a January 2013 RRT deployment in Chalmette, LA, showed increased documentation of current petrochemical accidents and suggested increased preparedness to report future accidents. The RRT model encourages government response and enforcement agencies to integrate with organized community groups to fully document the impacts during ongoing accidents, lead a more timely response to the accident, and prevent future accidents from occurring. PMID:24135064

  6. Trends in petrochemical technology. The impact of the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownstein, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Existing petrochemicals and their basic building blocks, and most important, the economics of processing and product qualities are discussed. Petrochemicals are presented in their respective groups indicating the relationship between fossil fuels and petrochemicals. A critique of current process economics is provided, and potential competitive technology is described. Individual chapters included are: (1) Energy-analysis of the oil producing countries; (2) Aromatics Production-catalytic reforming processes; leaded and unleaded gasoline; (3) Olefins Production-feedstock trends, ethylene production economics; (4) Coal, ammonia and methanol-US reserves, coal gasification and liquefaction processes; ammonia and methanol processes and economics; (5) Olefin Derivatives-polyethylenes, ethylene oxide and glycol, propylene oxide, vinyl chloride, vinyl acetate, acrylonitrile, acrylates, methacrylates, acetaldehyde, acetic acid; and (6) Aromatics Derivatives-impact of raw materials costs; comparative economics of processes-tolylene diisocyanate, styrene, ethylbenzene, phenol, adipic acid, hexamethylenediamine, caprolactam, terephthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, Maleic anhydride and butadiene as a competitive raw material for aromatics. (DP)

  7. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF PEOPLE IN ORGANIZATIONS OF PETROCHEMICAL CAMAÇARI – BAHIA: REFLECTIONS ON ITS STRATEGIES FOR ATTRACTING, RETAINING AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildes Pitombo Leite

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation object of this research, the primary objectives was to identify and analyze what changes made in people management by the petrochemical organizations, from the trajectory of diversification in the Industrial Complex of Camaçari and their reflections into strategies for attraction, retention and professional development, much in line with the justifications, as with the question asked. The subjects involved were directors, managers and / or coordinators HR, minimum 10 and maximum of 32 years, two respondents per organization, totaling twenty-one organizations. This investigation was answered in each category and gradually increased at the junction of them all. The results show that the changes made in managing people in the petrochemical investigated are not, necessarily, computed from the trajectory of diversification: Petrochemical Pole / Industrial Complex of Camaçari. These results suggest that mergers are among the main responsible. However, there is the record that this change in context was beneficial to these organizations promote the output of the comfort zone that were since deploying Pole. It reinforces the premise that such an investigation ends innovative and contributory aspect for: the area of people management, petrochemical industry and the country.

  8. Competitiveness in Canada's nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameco, now a publicly traded company, mines and processes uranium. The mines are mostly in northern Saskatchewan. In 1996, Cameco increased its market share to about 15% of the western world's U3O8, and more than 20% of conversion to UF6. Cameco is the only commercial converter of uranium for Candu reactors. In 1996, sales were C$591 million. Net earnings last year were C$137.5 million - a fourfold increase over six years earlier - and long-term debt had been reduced to C$200 million. Cameco's position is secured by its substantial ownership position in Cigar Lake and McArthur River, the richest uranium deposits in the world. To answer questions by investors, Cameco has had to provide good public information about uranium and nuclear power

  9. Industrial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economic scope for industrial process electrification in Canada is assessed in the light of increasing costs of combustion fuels relative to electricity. It is concluded that electricity is capable of providing an increasing share of industrial energy, eventually aproaching 100 percent. The relatively low cost of electricity in Canada offers industry the opportunity of a head start in process electrification with consequent advantages in world markets both for industrial products and for electrical process equipment and technology. A method is described to promote the necessary innovation by providing access to technology and financing. The potential growth of electricity demand due to industrial electrification is estimated

  10. Analysis of corrosion failure of petrochemical pipe elbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-yan; L(U) Tao

    2005-01-01

    Corrosive failure is frequently found in petrochemical pipelines which may lead to the leakage of the pipes and even the shutdown of the system. However, the corrosion mechanism is still not well understood due to the complex service environment, e.g. the corrosive fluids and the long term operation at higher temperature. The corrosion behaviour of a petrochemical pipe elbow was evaluated via visual examination and microanalysis with optical microscope and scanning electron microscope(SEM) together with energy dispersive analysis X-ray (EDAX). The corresponding corrosion mechanisms, the combination of grain boundary attach and the crevice attach together with the flow-accelerated corrosion, were proposed consequently.

  11. PetroChina Faces Challenge from Domestic Petrochemical Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ With China's entry into World Trade Organization,PetroChina is facing the unprecedented severe challenge from its domestic counterparts in the chemicals sector, where PetroChina is relatively weak in the production scale and facilities. One of the key issues for PetroChina to solve urgently to reinforce its profit-making capability rapidly is to boost the competitiveness of its ethylene facilities.Currently, PetroChina has seven sets of ethylene units with a total annual production capacity of 1.65 million tons. The units are usually small in the scale except for those at Jilin Petrochemical Company and Daqing Petrochemical Company.

  12. Ecotoxicology of waters under the influence of a petrochemical complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, R.; Zandonai, V.; Ries, M.A. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petrquimico do Sul

    1993-12-31

    This work summarizes the regular monitoring and studies conducted by SITEL - The Integrated Wastewater Treatment System of South Petrochemical Complex (South Brazil) - in order to evaluate the full environmental impact on waters in the area of influence of the effluents of the above mentioned Complex. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. Guangdong to Invest Heavily in Natural Gas and Petrochemical Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Guangdong Provincial Government has decided to focus on 10 key projects this year with a total investment of 210,2 billion yuan, including energy infrastructure projects, natural gas projects,petrochemical projects, and auto projects. It is expected to complete an investment of 40 billion yuan

  14. Huizhou: Model City for Chinese-Foreign Petrochem Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Riyal Dutch/Shell Group has been very active in China since it re-entered the nation in the early 1980s. The largest investment project Shell has made in China is the Nanhai petrochemicals project, a 50-50 joint venture with CNOOC in Huizhou City in South China's Guangdong Province.

  15. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ; Nuclear Waste Management Organization submitted a report to the federal government in November 2005 providing solutions to managing used fuel. Nuclear research: AECL promoting its Gen III+ Advanced Candu Reactor (ACR); Research continues on improved production and maintenance Competences; Nuclear energy is a $5-billion-a-year industry; Provides 21,000 direct jobs and 10,000 indirect jobs; 17% of the existing workforce is eligible to retire in the next 5 years; 37% by 2014; UNENE and UOIT nuclear universities set up in 2002 to help address the human resource issue; Women make up less than 20% of the nuclear industry in Canada; Women make up 9% of registered apprentices in Canada and 52% of skilled trades people are set to retire by 2015. Innovative new web site; Well established GIRLS Science Club; Focus on attracting women in trades through Skills Canada Young Women's Events; Adopt a Book program promotes science; Best attended Annual Conference; Professional development at 20 quarterly local chapter meetings; Achieved goal of 500 members in 2007 - today 610 members

  17. Feasibility Study of Implementing Process Safety Management (PSM Requirements in an Iranian Petrochemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Narimannejad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of good process safety management (PSM is widely considered as the most effective means of improving safety levels in process industries. This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of establishing and implementing PSM requirements based on Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001 standards (OHSAS 18001 and Health, Safety and Environment management systems (HSE-MS in an Iranian petrochemical plant. Firstly, the requirements of PSM, OHSAS 18001 standards and HSE-MS were compared via literature review and their levels of agreement were determined. Next, the degree of implementation of PSM requirements at a selected petrochemical site was investigated. The study’s results show that PSM requirements complied with HSE-MS to a greater degree than with OHSAS 18001 standards. Although the plant studied had not yet formally applied process safety management requirements, based on the HSE-MS and OHSAS 18001 it had already applied, 67% of PSM requirements had in effect been put in place. By revising certain requirements of existing management systems, including PSM requirements in them, and providing the outstanding necessary documentation, this study concludes that the establishment of a PSM system in the plant is feasible.

  18. Feasibility Study of Implementing Process Safety Management (PSM Requirements in an Iranian Petrochemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMADAMIN NOROZI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  The establishment of good process safety management (PSM is widely considered as the most effective means of improving safety levels in process industries. This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of establishing and implementing PSM requirements based on Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001 standards (OHSAS 18001 and Health, Safety and Environment management systems (HSE-MS in an Iranian petrochemical plant. Firstly, the requirements of PSM, OHSAS 18001 standards and HSE-MS were compared via literature review and their levels of agreement were determined. Next, the degree of implementation of PSM requirements at a selected petrochemical site was investigated. The study’s results show that PSM requirements complied with HSE-MS to a greater degree than with OHSAS 18001 standards. Although the plant studied had not yet formally applied process safety management requirements, based on the HSE-MS and OHSAS 18001 it had already applied, 67% of PSM requirements had in effect been put in place. By revising certain requirements of existing management systems, including PSM requirements in them, and providing the outstanding necessary documentation, this study concludes that the establishment of a PSM system in the plant is feasible.

  19. New technology to reduce fugitive emissions in drilling, production and petrochemical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum and petrochemical industry has embraced new technology to meet the fugitive emission standards by D.O.T., the E.P.A. and the various air pollution quality standards of the individual states. The regulatory agencies themselves have encouraged the use of this new technology. Fortunately, in the case of relief devices, required fugitive emission solutions are simple and cost effective. This paper reviews the limitations and problems of conventional rupture disc relief and of conventional spring loaded relief systems. A new technology, pioneered for NAM (Shell and Exxon) in Holland (1987), A.S.M.E. approved in 1990 code case number-sign 2091, is rapidly moving to solve fugitive emission problems in the drilling, production, and petrochemical fields using a simple, precise pin that acts as a mechanical flip-flop. The pin acts as a slender column. At a precise axial force, the pin buckles and a safety device is activated. The basic principle behind the Rupture Pin Safety System is simple. Hold a piston, subject to the system pressure, on seat by a pin that precisely senses axial force. When the axial force reaches a critical, exact value governed by Euler's Law, the pin buckles and the piston instantly moves to a full open position. The resulting Rupture Pin Device is precise, reliable, rugged and meets safety requirements

  20. Major Contaminants in Industrial and Domestic Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Vysokomornaya Olga V.; Kurilenko E. Yu.; Shcherbinina Anastasia A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the type and concentration of the major contaminants in industrial and domestic wastewater. The present study was conducted to analyze and collect data on hazardous substances in wastewater from petrochemical plants, pulp and paper mills, electroplating industries, power plants, and municipal sources (households and small industries).

  1. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  2. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  3. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  4. CO{sub 2} Reuse in Petrochemical Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Trembly; Brian Turk; Maruthi Pavani; Jon McCarty; Chris Boggs; Aqil Jamal; Raghubir Gupta

    2010-12-31

    To address public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from power plant and industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE/NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focused on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse to support the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} into valuable chemicals and fuels. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing an innovative beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse process for converting CO{sub 2} into substitute natural gas (SNG) by using by-product hydrogen (H{sub 2)-containing fuel gas from petrochemical facilities. This process leveraged commercial reactor technology currently used in fluid catalytic crackers in petroleum refining and a novel nickel (Ni)-based catalyst developed by RTI. The goal was to generate an SNG product that meets the pipeline specifications for natural gas, making the SNG product completely compatible with the existing natural gas infrastructure. RTI's technology development efforts focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of this novel CO{sub 2} reuse process and obtaining the necessary engineering information to design a pilot demonstration unit for converting about 4 tons per day (tons/day) of CO{sub 2} into SNG at a suitable host site. This final report describes the results of the Phase I catalyst and process development efforts. The methanation activity of several commercial fixed-bed catalysts was evaluated under fluidized-bed conditions in a bench-scale reactor to identify catalyst performance targets. RTI developed two fluidizable Ni-based catalyst formulations (Cat-1 and Cat

  5. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  6. Les médiations sociales, culturelles et technologiques dans la production et l’appropriation des intergiciels de l’industrie du jeu vidéo au Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Charrieras, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Le secteur industriel des intergiciels de jeux vidéo (game middleware) est très lié au développement des industries du jeu vidéo dans lequel le Canada est très actif et dont l’importance économique ne cesse de croître. Dans son étude du rôle des industries de l’intergiciel dans la filière de production d’un jeu vidéo l’auteur s'est penché sur la circulation des intergiciels de jeux vidéo pour explorer les multiples relations existantes entre les sociétés d’intergiciel, les entreprises de déve...

  7. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  8. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  9. Industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the role-plays by nuclear technology to enhance productivity in industry. Some of the techniques, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) - x, gamma, electron and neutron radiography, nuclear gauges, materials characterization are discussed thoroughly

  10. Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited egins a New Round of Leap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuihua; Yu Guangxian

    2000-01-01

    @@On June 18, 2000 the construction of the fourth phase project worth 6.5 billion RMB was officially kicked off at Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited (SPC) . Mr. Chen Jinghua, the vice-chairman of Chinese Peo ple's Political Consultative Conference, Mr. Jiang Yiren, member of the Standing Committee of Shanghai Communist Party and the vice-mayor of Shanghai, and Mr. Chen Tonghai, the deputy president of SINOPEC and vice-chairman of Board of China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation, attended the opening ceremony of the con struction project, symbolizing a new round of leap forward at the turn of century by Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited after having created previously brilliant achieve ments.

  11. Suicide policy in Canada: lessons from history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Elias, Brenda; Bolton, James M; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-07-18

    In Canada, suicide has transitioned from being a criminal activity with much associated stigma, to being a public health concern that needs to be managed by governments and clinicians in a culturally sensitive manner. In Canada and worldwide, the social attitudes toward and legal interpretation of suicide have been dynamic. Much has been proposed in the development of suicide policy in Canada, however Canada is unique in that it remains one of the only industrialized countries without a national suicide prevention strategy. The current article provides a critical review of the history of suicide in Canada, as well as an appraisal of Canadian suicide prevention policies and key government and political milestones that have impacted suicide policy. Current activity regarding a national suicide prevention strategy in Canada is discussed, as well as potential options for clinician involvement.

  12. Hengli Petrochemical Opens PTA Plant Utilizing INVISTA Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Sept. 19, 2012, in the city of Shanghai, INVISTA Performance Technologies (IPT) and Hengli Petrochemical (Dalian) Co, Ltd celebrated the successful start-up of the first phase of Hengli's purified terephthalic acid (PTA) project in Changxing Island of Dalian, Liaoning Province, at the plant's opening ceremony today. The world-scale PTA plant utilizes INVISTA's market leading PTA process technology, provided to Hengli under a license agreement.

  13. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  14. Guide of social and ambient responsibility for projects of enterprises of refiners and petrochemicals; Guia de responsabilidade social e ambiental para projetos de empreendimentos de refinarias e petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruella, Nildemar Correa [PETROBRAS, Cubatao, SP (Brazil). Refinaria Presidente Bernardes Cubatao; Richa, Newton M.M. [Instituto Brasileiro de Petroleo, Gas e Biocombustiveis (IBP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to provide practical guidelines for environmental, social accountability, occupational safety and health for all stages of the life cycle of projects (identification of opportunities, conceptual design, basic design, detail design, deployment (construction and assembly), pre-operation, operation, maintenance and deactivation) in large enterprises of the industry of refining and petrochemicals. This work was based on the legal requirements, guidelines Safety, Environment and Health of PETROBRAS, standards and international publications and the experience of the authors. (author)

  15. Séparation par membranes organiques : applications et prévisions de marché dans l'industrie pétrolière et pétrochimique Separation by Organic Membranes: Applications and Market Outlook in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les principales applications des membranes en séparation portent aujourd'hui sur la perméation gazeuse : récupération de l'hydrogène sous haute pression en raffinage (hydrocraquage, en pétrochimie (synthèse de l'ammoniac, enrichissement du gaz de synthèse; traitement du gaz naturel (élimination des gaz acides, récupération du CO2 pour récupération assistée, extraction de l'hélium. En matière de purification de l'eau de mer, la technique d'osmose inverse est limitée à des capacités de 10 000 m3/j pour des raisons d'économie d'échelle. Le marché des membranes est en forte croissance, 10 % et plus en moyenne annuelle, essentiellement pour les applications déjà implantées industriellement, qui déplacent ou complètent par association les technologies classiques de séparation. The principal applications of separation membranes now have to do with gaseous permeation such as high-pressure hydrogen recovery in refining (hydrocracking and in petrochemistry (ammonia synthesis, enrichment of synthetic gas; the processing of natural gas (sour-gas removal, CO2 recovery for enhanced recovery, helium extraction. For seawater purification, the technique of reverse osmosis is limited to capacities of 10 000 m3/d for reasons of economy of scale. The market for membranes is increasing strongly, at a rate of 10% and more for the yearly average, mainly for applications that are already industrially installated and that are moved or completed by the adding on of conventional separation technologies.

  16. The Challenge of Integrating OHS into Industrial Project Risk Management: Proposal of a Methodological Approach to Guide Future Research (Case of Mining Projects in Quebec, Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Badri

    2015-01-01

    Although risk management tools are put to good use in many industrial sectors, some large projects have been met with numerous problems due to failure to take occupational health and safety (OHS) into consideration. In spite of the high level of risk and uncertainty associated with many industrial projects, the number of studies of methods for managing all known risks systematically remains small. Under effervescent economic conditions, industries must meet several challenges associated with ...

  17. Industrial processes of olefin metathesis. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwel, S.

    1987-05-01

    Olefin metathesis opens new synthetic routes to typical petrochemicals (ethylene, propylene, n-butenes), special olefins (neohexene, higher molecular linear olefins, , -dienes) and unsaturated polymers (polynorbornene, -cyclooctene, -dicyclopentadiene) in an industrial scale. The 8 metathesis processes used in industry and further possible applications of olefin metathesis are reviewed.

  18. Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuclis, A.

    2010-12-01

    An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area is home to the largest aggregation of petrochemical facilities in the U.S. Three specific geographical areas with industrial facilities were considered: Mont Belvieu, the Houston Ship Channel and the Texas City Industrial Complex. Previous experiences with field campaigns in the area led to the presumption that there would be little if any access inside the facilities. Considerations for which areas to focus on included: how close could the facility be approached, what were the directions of the prevailing winds, what kind of barriers to measurement existed (e.g. trees, buildings, highways, privately owned land, etc.), and what were the possible chemical interferences from other sources near the measurement sites? Close communications with the plant security, the local police, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) were required. Substantial delays can occur due to local concerns regarding homeland security and plant safety. Also, a system of communications is essential to coordinate the participating scientists operating stationary analyzers with the scientists who have analyzers mounted in ground vehicles and in aircraft. The researchers were provided with information regarding plant operations, types of equipment and potential pollutants. A wide variety of stationery and mobile ambient air monitoring techniques were used to measure formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds. In order to identify likely formaldehyde sources the self

  19. Quebec industry and climatic changes : Quebec Industry Working Group on Climatic Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climatic change is a phenomenon greatly influenced by greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activity and the natural greenhouse effect necessary to sustain life on the planet. Carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere now exceed the levels prior to the industrial revolution by 31 per cent. Half of this increase occurred during the past 30 years, while the average temperature increased by 0.3 to 0.6 degrees C. By using climate change models, scientists have linked this increase to the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and predict that the average temperature will rise by 1 to 3.5 degrees C during the next century with increases of 5 to 10 degrees C being felt in certain parts of Canada. In an effort to curb the emissions of carbon dioxide, the Quebec Industry Working Group on Climatic Change was created to represent different sectors of the industry, including energy, metallurgy, aluminium, cement, environment, mines, plastics, petrochemicals, pulp and paper, and manufacturing. The group worked at meeting the following objectives: (1) to examine the possibilities of reducing greenhouse gases emissions in the industrial sector, (2) to propose and evaluate measures and initiatives for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions including their cost, impact and potential timetable for implementation, (3) to identify new and promising technologies in the field of greenhouse gases reduction, (4) to identify business opportunities and risks for industry in Quebec, and (5) to recommend an implementation strategy for the Kyoto Protocol for each sector, in terms of reduction measures that would be economical and in agreement with the various plans in place at the federal, provincial and municipal levels. A total of 22 recommendations were proposed covering the entire spectrum of the mandate. 15 tabs, 2 appendices

  20. Commercial Application of the CTV-IV Type Catalyst for Synthesis of Vinyl Acetate Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Instit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The CTV-IV type catalyst for synthesis of vinyl acetate developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied on the #2 vinyl acetate unit at SINOPEC's Shanghai Petrochemical Company.

  1. Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ruei-Hao [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chan, Chang-Chuan, E-mail: ccchan@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage dispersion models can estimate exposures to hazardous air pollutants. • Spatial distribution of V levels is derived for sources without known emission rates. • A distance-to-source gradient is found for V levels from a petrochemical complex. • Two-stage dispersion is useful for modeling air pollution in resource-limited areas. - Abstract: The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM{sub 10} filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040–0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398–0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents’ addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources.

  2. Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two-stage dispersion models can estimate exposures to hazardous air pollutants. • Spatial distribution of V levels is derived for sources without known emission rates. • A distance-to-source gradient is found for V levels from a petrochemical complex. • Two-stage dispersion is useful for modeling air pollution in resource-limited areas. - Abstract: The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM10 filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040–0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398–0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents’ addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources

  3. The nuclear debate in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author argues that the nuclear debate in Canada is concerned less with the safety of nuclear power plants and more with arguments of economics and social decision-making. The nuclear industry cannot afford to neglect the continuing need to inform the public about nuclear risks. But there is also a need to develop specific arguments to increase public acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic, democratic and equitable energy option

  4. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  5. Electricity - a great asset for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has a great national asset in its ability to generate electricity economically from its abundant hydro, coal, and uranium resources. Its nuclear industry has an excellent product. Despite lack of orders for now, the CANDU will be a competitive force when the reactor market recovers. Canada has a proven record of reliability for electricity trade with the United States. There appear to be some opportunities for plants in Canada dedicated to the export of electric power. The federal government is prepared to work closely with the provinces to develop projects which will be attractive to customers in the United States

  6. 石油化工可燃气体和有毒气体检测报警设计规范的应用体会%Application Experiences on Specification for Design of Combustible Gas and Toxic Gas Detection and Alarm for Petrochemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯省利

    2012-01-01

    针对可燃气体和有毒气体的定义,可燃气体检测点的设置范围,报警值的设定等,对GB50493--2009和SH3063--1999标准的差异性进行了比较和分析。从工程角度阐述了GB50493--2009对可燃气体和有毒气体检测报警设计的新要求,实施新标准对工程设计的影响,着重介绍了现场声光报警器和气体报警监控系统的工程设计经验。在借鉴国内外监控系统设计方案的基础上,对石油化工装置火灾报警系统和气体检测报警系统合并设置的概念和工程实施过程中遇到的问题进行了总结和分析。最后,对火灾及气体检测报警系统(FGS)的安全度等级要求进行了探讨。%The difference between GB 50493--2009 and SH 3063--1999 is compared and analyzed in respect of definition of combustible gas and toxic gas, setting range of combustible gas detection points, alarm value setting, etc. From engineering point of view, new requirements in GB 50493--2009 on design of combustible gas and toxic gas detection and alarm system, and the influence on engineering design for implementing new standard are introduced, and the practical engineering design experience of field audible-visual annunciator and gas alarm monitor system are emphasized. On the basis of referring to the design scheme of monitor system at home and abroad, the concept of integrated setting of fire alarm system and gas detection alarm system in petrochemical plant and existing problems in actual project implementation are summarized and analyzed. The safety integrity level (SIL) requirements of fire gas detection alarm system (FGS) is discussed.

  7. The future of scientific, technical and industrial information to Third World users - A donors view. The experience of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Access to scientific information by poorer countries, sometimes referred to as the ''South'', is limited in contrast to the countries in the ''North''. The South lacks the infrastructure, management and technical expertise to develop and support the range of services now commonplace in the information rich industrial countries of the ''North''. The programme of support to information systems and services in poorer countries by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is described with specific examples drawn from its industry and technology information programme. Third world countries are in a difficult position and need help to keep on the cutting edge of new information-communication technologies. Any help, however must focus on such factors as persistence, impact and sustainability of information systems and services. (author). 5 refs

  8. Long-term environmental monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and metals in a chemical/petrochemical area: Human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, Marti [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as some metals are periodically monitored in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona County (Spain). We here report the temporal trends of the concentrations of the above pollutants between the initial survey (2002) and that recently (2009) performed. The area under evaluation was divided into 4 sections (chemical, petrochemical, urban/residential and unpolluted). In general terms, urban soils presented the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCNs and PAHs, confirming that traffic is a very important emission source of these pollutants. In addition, substantially higher levels of PAHs and some metals were found in vegetation samples from the petrochemical complex. The assessment of health risks of these contaminants indicated that the current concentrations of micropollutants did not mean additional non-carcinogenic or cancer risks for the population living in the zone. - Highlights: > Traffic is an important emission source of persistent organic pollutants. > Oil refineries could be notable releasers of PAHs and some metals in the area. > Soil pollutant levels are notably lower than threshold values. > The air quality of Tarragona area is not greatly affected by metals and POPs. > The current exposure to micropollutants does not mean additional health risks. - Human exposure to environmental micropollutants in the industrial area of Tarragona does not mean additional health risks.

  9. Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-04-30

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM10 filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040-0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398-0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents' addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources. PMID:24607528

  10. Canada's commitment to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a broad update on all facets of the Canadian nuclear industry and demonstrates Canada's continuing commitment to nuclear technology. Canada has developed a global leadership position in nuclear technology for power generation, uranium production and isotope supply. This commitment is being further enhanced by successes in international markets with Candu technology, new uranium mine developments in our province of Saskatchewan, and expanding isotope capabilities including the construction of two new production reactors. Korea's economy is benefiting through collaboration with Canada's leading nuclear companies, both in Korea and Canada. These collaborations have the potential to expand considerably with the implementation of the Kyoto Framework Convention on Climate Change and the anticipated increased demand for new nuclear power generation installations in all major global markets. Much has been publicized about the situation surrounding Ontario Hydro Nuclear and its nuclear recovery program. This paper gives the background and highlights the actions within Ontario and Ontario Hydro designed to ensure the long term recovery of all twenty nuclear units in Ontario. The presentation at the conference will bring the audience completely up-to-date on recent events. (author)

  11. Petro-Canada 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is a dominant player in the petroleum industry in Western Canada as well as on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. This report presents a review of operations, provides detailed statements of the corporation's finances, and a wealth of information of interest to shareholders. The report states that in 1997 Petro-Canada achieved record financial results, following a dramatic turnaround over the past five years. Net earnings for 1997 were $306 million, a $59 million increase over 1996. The company's share price appreciated 34 per cent in 1997 and was one of the most heavily traded stocks in Canada. The company plans to maximize shareholder value by reducing its interests in conventional oil from mature fields in western Canada and by re-investing the proceeds in natural gas development. Petro-Canada is also committed to an expansion that will double production at the Syncrude oil sands plant over the next decade and has tested large in-situ oil sands resources for potential development in northeastern Alberta. On the Atlantic coast too, Petro-Canada is delivering leadership with increasing production from Hibernia, and final approvals in place to proceed with development of the Terra Nova field. International operations are also contributing to the Corporation's profitability by delivering new production from oil fields offshore Norway and from the Sahara Desert in North Africa. tabs., figs

  12. Women in physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Ghose, Shohini; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; McKenna, Janis; Bhadra, Sampa; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Dasgupta, Arundhati; Campbell, Melanie; Barkanova, Svetlana; Steinitz, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While the overall climate for women physicists both in academia and industry has improved significantly over the past decade in Canada, it will be some time before women are well represented. Numbers of women in physics at all academic levels have increased, but are less than ideal at the full professor level. Organizations such as the Canadian Association of University Teachers and local initiatives are striving to minimize the socio-economic and professional gaps between women and men. The Canadian Association of Physicists, through its Committee to Encourage Women in Physics, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council are supportive and serve as catalysts, bringing together men and women to discuss and address issues concerning women in physics across Canada.

  13. Study on Expansion of Steam Cracking Unit to 660 kt/a at Yanshan Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xianghong

    2003-01-01

    Yanshan Petrochemical Company after having expanded its 300 kt/a steam cracking unit to 450 kt/a in 1994 is still experiencing such problems as low feedstock flexibility, high energy consumption and smaller scale of ethylene unit. In order to fully improve technical capability of steam crackers, reduce energy consumption, improve feedstock flexibility and increase production capacity, a lot of technical revamp cases on steam cracking were studied and compared. Revamp of relevant facilities has expanded the ethylene capacity to the target of 660 kt/a with the actual capacity reaching 710 kt/a. This revamp project has remarkably reduced the energy consumption, which is capable of using naphtha, light diesel fuel, heavy diesel fuel and the hydrocracked tail oil as the steam cracking feedstock. This project is the first to apply refrigeration by means of a mixed cooling agent and has succeeded in using C3 catalytic rectification/hydrogenation technology, which has given an impetus to the progress of steam cracking industry in the world.

  14. DI-(2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION BY FENTON PROCESS IN SYNTHETIC AND REAL PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Esmaeli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP belongs to the class of phthalate esters and is used as an additive in many products including plastics, paints and inks or as a solvent in industrial formulations. The degradation of DEHP in aqueous solution using oxidative Fenton reaction (H2O2/Fe2+ was carried out in this study. It was found that H2O2 concentration, Fe2+ concentration, and pH were the three main factors that could significantly influence the degradation rates of DEHP. The highest degradation percentage (85.6 % of DEHP was observed within 60 min at pH 3 in H2O2/Fe2+ system. The results of our study suggested that the concentration with 90 mg/L H2O2, 5 mg/L Fe2+, and 20 mg/L DEHP in the solution at pH 3 were the optimal conditions. The optimized reaction parameters were preceded for treatment of real wastewater obtained from a petrochemical plant.

  15. Conversion of carbon dioxide to valuable petrochemicals:An approach to clean development mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farnaz Tahriri Zangeneh; Saeed Sahebdelfar; Maryam Takht Ravanchi

    2011-01-01

    The increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global warming due to its greenhouse effect resulted in worldwide concerns. On the other hand, carbon dioxide might be considered as a valuable and renewable carbon source. One approach to reduce carbon dioxide emissions could be its capture and recycle via transformation into chemicals using the technologies in C1 chemistry. Despite its great interest, there are difficulties in CO2 separation on the one hand, and thermodynamic stability of carbon dioxide molecule rendering its chemical activity low on the other hand. Carbon dioxide has been already used in petrochemical industries for production of limited chemicals such as urea.The utilization of carbon dioxide does not necessarily involve development of new processes, and in certain processes such as methanol synthesis and methane steam reforming, addition of CO2 into the feed results in its utilization and increases carbon efficiency. In other cases,modifications in catalyst and/or processes, or even new catalysts and processes, are necessary. In either case, catalysis plays a crucial role in carbon dioxide conversion and effective catalysts are required for commercial realization of the related processes. Technologies for CO2 utilization are emerging after many years of research and development efforts.

  16. Analysis of Waste Water Treatment in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemicals Corporation (KRPC (NNPC Kaduna Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. (Mrs. Bertha Abdu Danja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific data and results have to be accurate, precise and reliable and are subject to ever increasing scrutiny by regulators in industry, the environment and medicine, in validation and also in research and development. Given our numerous environmental problems, the need for accurate, precise and reliable results cannot be overemphasized in environmental pollution control. This research was undertaken by visiting the analytical laboratory involved in environmental pollution control in Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC Kaduna which is known as Kaduna Refining and Petrochemicals (KRPC. Results were taken within a span of three years at different times of the year. End of month results were also taken for the two receiving rivers (River Kaduna & Romi River and effluent from the refinery. The waste water was analyzed using available instruments in the Refinery such as PH meter, Dissolved Oxygen (DO Meter, Conductivity Meter, Gas chromatography, burette, pipette, Double beam Spectrometer, and Thermometer. The results showed that many parameters meet the standard of limit set by the Nigerian Standard Organization but there are many vital parameters whose limits are very low but not measured for lack of instruments. The point of concern here becomes the availability of suitable analytical instruments for quality control in the waste water treatment.

  17. Operational planning optimization of steam power plants considering equipment failure in petrochemical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We develop a systematic programming methodology to address equipment failure. ► We classify different operation conditions into real periods and virtual periods. ► The formulated MILP models guarantee cost reduction and enough operation safety. ► The consideration of reserving operation redundancy is effective. - Abstract: One or more interconnected steam power plants (SPPs) are constructed in a petrochemical complex to supply utility energy to the process. To avoid large economic penalties or process shutdowns, these SPPs should be flexible and reliable enough to meet the process energy requirement under varying conditions. Unexpected utility equipment failure is inevitable and difficult to be predicted. Most of the conventional methods are based on the assumption that SPPs do not experience any kind of equipment failure. Unfortunately, a process shutdown cannot be avoided when equipment fails unexpectedly. In this paper, a systematic methodology is presented to minimize the total cost under normal conditions while reserving enough flexibility and safety for unexpected equipment failure conditions. The proposed method transforms the different conditions into real periods to indicate normal scenarios and virtual periods to indicate unexpected equipment failure scenarios. The optimization strategy incorporating various operation redundancy scheduling, the transition constraints from equipment failure conditions to normal conditions, and the boiler load increase behavior modeling are presented to save cost and guarantee operation safety. A detailed industrial case study shows that the proposed systematic methodology is effective and practical in coping with equipment failure conditions with only few additional cost penalties

  18. Action plan for electric mobility in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric mobility is an important emerging industry in Canada, where there is significant expertise in electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries, hybrid technologies, grid-connected technologies and fuel cell vehicles. This paper presented a case for the formation of Electric Mobility Canada, a proposed network of private companies and public sector agencies that aims to stimulate industry and provide support to government agencies involved with meeting Canada's obligations under the Kyoto Protocol, as well as in new industry sectors. The environmental, health, economic and industrial benefits of electric mobility were outlined. Current programs for electric mobility were reviewed, and details of financial incentives and initiatives were presented. An overview of electric mobility programs in the United States and Europe was provided. Research and development needs were evaluated. The former Electric Vehicle Association of Canada was discussed. An organizational structure for the proposed network was presented, along with a mission statement and outline of future goals. Recommendations for the future of the network included identifying short and long-term market opportunities for electric mobility technologies for all surface transport modes in Canada; determining research and development needs and appropriate funding and investment opportunities; determining other actions necessary to allow the electric mobility industry to play a growing role in meeting Canada's transport needs; and raising public awareness of the importance of electric mobility trends. It was concluded that the federal government should be approached for start-up funds for the network, which will be followed by further investment from provincial and business interests once the network is in place and functioning. 84 refs

  19. Yangzi Petrochemical Company Uses Natural Gas to Supplement Steam Cracker Fuel Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A major energy conservation and retrofitting project-ap-plication of natural gas as supplementary fuel for steam crackers has been successfully put into operation starting April 30, 2008 at the SINOPEC Yangzi Petrochemical Company.

  20. Elaboration of volume norms for repair works and maintenance costs of petrochemical units in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouachria, S. [Institut National des Hydrocarbures et de la Chimie, Boumerdes (Algeria); Steklov, O.I.

    1994-12-31

    This work is a reflexion on how to find a solution for the big repairs of petrochemical units which exceed the time estimated by the scheduling without disadvantaging the good quality of repairs. (O.L.). 9 tabs.

  1. Daqing Petrochemical Adopted Technology of Agglomeration New Energy Saving Production%Daqing Petrochemical Adopted Technology of Agglomeration New Energy Saving Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption of equipment and exhaust emission to the uttermost, Daqing Petrochemical Company has developed pre-agglomeration production flow successfully and confirmed an optimized energy-saving method of differential pressure agglomeration. For a long time, BR equipment of 80,000 tons per year in Daqing Petrochemical Company have been adopting general isobaric technology and elutriation method to separate polymer and solvent, which caused over 10 tons of steam per ton of rubber and restricted the energy conservation and emission reduction of the enterprise.

  2. Environmental comparison of biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammens, Tijs M; Potting, José; Sanders, Johan P M; De Boer, Imke J M

    2011-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents, that is, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and succinonitrile (SCN). A consequential life cycle assessment was performed, wherein glutamic acid was obtained from sugar beet vinasse. The removed glutamic acid was substituted with cane molasses and ureum. The comparison between the four biobased and petrochemical products showed that for NMP and NVP the biobased version had less impact on the environment, while for ACN and SCN the petrochemical version had less impact on the environment. For the latter two an optimized scenario was computed, which showed that the process for SCN can be improved to a level at which it can compete with the petrochemical process. For biobased ACN large improvements are required to make it competitive with its petrochemical equivalent. The results of this LCA and the research preceding it also show that glutamic acid can be a building block for a variety of molecules that are currently produced from petrochemical resources. Currently, most methods to produce biobased products are biotechnological processes based on sugar, but this paper demonstrates that the use of amino acids from low-value byproducts can certainly be a method as well. PMID:21870885

  3. Sources of Particular Pollutants in Ambient Air at a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Jianliang; Zhao Dongfeng; ChengJianguang; Chen Lu; Liu Wei

    2013-01-01

    The study on source apportionment of particular pollutants in ambient air at a petrochemical enterprise is the ba-sis of the control over air pollution. Through analyzing particular pollutants in the samples collected from one petrochemi-cal enterprise in northwestern China, the sources of particular pollutants were discussed. The test results showed that con-centrations of particular pollutants in different sites were remarkably different. Results showed that the sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants, including toluene, xylenes, NH3 and H2S, were located at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. Instead, the concentrations of NMHC in the ambient air sampling sites were higher than those at the boundary of the petrochemical enterprise. The sampling sites with higher concentrations of particular pollutants were located in the area that was close to the petrochemical enterprise. The results obtained from the Pearson correlation co-efifcients analyses, the factor analyses, andχ2-tests of the particular pollutants had revealed that NH3, H2S, toluene and xylenes at all sampling sites came from the same source, while NMHC might come from some other sources besides the petrochemical enterprise.

  4. Lanthanum and lanthanides in atmospheric fine particles and their apportionment to refinery and petrochemical operations in Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankararaman; Fraser, Matthew P.

    A study was conducted in Houston, TX focusing on rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric fine particles and their sources. PM 2.5 samples were collected from an ambient air quality monitoring site (HRM3) located in the proximity of a large number of oil refineries and petrochemical industries to estimate the potential contributions of emissions from fluidized-bed catalytic cracking operations to ambient fine particulate matter. The elemental composition of ambient PM 2.5, several commercially available zeolite catalysts, and local soil was measured after microwave assisted acid digestion using inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry. Source identification and apportionment was performed by principal component factor analysis (PCFA) in combination with multiple linear regression. REE relative abundance sequence, ratios of La to light REEs (Ce, Pr, Nd, and Sm), and enrichment factor analysis indicated that refining and petrochemical cat cracking operations were predominantly responsible for REE enrichment in ambient fine particles. PCFA yielded five physically meaningful PM 2.5 sources: cat cracking operations, a source predominantly comprised of crustal material, industrial high temperature operations, oil combustion, and sea spray. These five sources accounted for 82% of the total mass of atmospheric fine particles (less carbon and sulfate). Factor analysis confirmed that emissions from cat cracking operations primarily contributed to REE enrichment in PM 2.5 even though they comprised only 2.0% of the apportioned mass. Results from this study demonstrate the need to characterize catalysts employed in the vicinity of the sampling stations to accurately determine local sources of atmospheric REEs.

  5. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    The issue of productivity growth in Canada has received considerable attention reflecting its marked slowdown since the early 1970s and concerns about its implications for Canadian competitiveness. To better understand productivity developments in Canada, it is useful to decompose total factor productivity (TFP) into investment-specific productivity change (ISP) and technologically neutral productivity change (TNP). The gap in manufacturing productivity growth between Canada and the United St...

  6. 石化行业销售物流集中化的分析与展望%The Analysis of Centralized Storage Model in Petrochemical Logistics and Its Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽华; 索寒生

    2012-01-01

    Based on the status of the petrochemical industry sales logistics, this paper introduces the Centralized Storage Model. It analyzes the four superiorities of the Centralized Storage Model from both the qualitative angle and the quantitative angle, so as to supply new thinking for the development and reform of the petrochemical industry sales logistics.%立足石化行业销售物流的现状,提出物流集中化模型,从定性与定量两个角度分析集中仓储模式的四大优势,为石化行业销售物流的发展及改革提供新的思路。

  7. Petrochemical wastewater treatment by means of clean electrochemical technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimoglo, A.; Akbulut, H.Y.; Cihan, F.; Karpuzcu, M. [Gebze Institute of Technology, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2004-09-01

    The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, phenol, hydrocarbon and grease from petrochemical wastewater (PCWW) was experimentally done by using electroflotation (EF) and electrocoagulation (EC). In the EF unit, a graphite anode and a stainless steel mesh as cathode were used. In the EC unit, iron and aluminium were used simultaneously as materials for two blocks of alternating electrodes. The reactor voltage was 12 V, current density (CD) was varied from 5 to 15 mA cm{sup -2}, and the residence time varied in the limits of 2-20 min for EF and 1-10 min for EC. The results have shown that EC removes the mentioned contaminants from PCWW more effectively than EF. Turbidity removal in the process of PCWW purification was estimated as 83% for EF and 88% for EC. The yields of phenol, hydrocarbon and grease removal by EC were examined under different values of residence time, CD, and with iron and aluminium as materials for electrodes. (orig.)

  8. Market Expansion Opportunity Analysis for Adigy Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This project develops business and marketing strategies for the expansion of Adigy Canada, a medical heart telemetry device developer, into the golfing market. It researches the needs of this market, analyzes industry forces and recommends target market segments, a business model, distribution channels, and marketing strategies. The design and marketing of a training aid product is recommended as this segment of the golf industry seems to have a medium to high level of attractiveness. The rec...

  9. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, J.T. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs.

  10. Modeling and simulation for business processes of interior supply chain in petrochemical enterprise%石化企业内部供应链业务流程分析及建模仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雯; 任立鹏; 钟洁西; 傅卫平; 华金

    2014-01-01

    石化企业是典型的流程型企业,是石化供应链的核心企业,其内部业务流程管理对整个石化供应链运作性能具有决定性作用。以某石化公司为研究对象,分析其内部供应链原有业务流程,建立相应的概念模型;为了优化原有企业内部供应链业务流程,引入SCOR建模框架;采用AnyLogic仿真平台,分别建立采用SCOR框架前后企业内部供应链的仿真模型。仿真分析表明,采用SCOR框架改进业务流程,可以有效改善企业内部供应链性能。%Petrochemical enterprises are of typical features of process industry, and core enterprises of petrochemical supply chain, whose inner business process management is crucial to the operational performances of the whole petrochemical supply chain. Taking a petrochemical company as the research object, this paper builds a conceptual model of the original business processes in the interior supply chain, introduces SCOR modelling framework to optimize the business processes. Using the AnyLogic platform, it establishes the simulation models for the interior supply chain of pre and post SCOR opti-mization. The simulation analysis shows that using SCOR can improve the performance of the petrochemical enterprise interior supply chain.

  11. Design and Certification of Industrial Predictive Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Three decades have passed since milestone publications by several industrial and academic researchers spawned a flurry of research and commercial, industrial activities on model predictive control (MPC). The improvement in efficiency of the on-line optimization part of MPC led to its adoption in mechanical and mechatronic systems from process control and petrochemical applications. However, the massive strides made by the academic community in guaranteeing stability through state-space MPC h...

  12. One Canada, Two Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ByMurrayGreig; 赵金前

    2004-01-01

    Canada is one of the few nations in theworld to have two official languages: Englishand French. There are 10 provinces in thecountry but only one of these--Quebec isknown as "French Canada". This is because itwas founded by French explorers while Britishadventurers discovered the rest.

  13. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  14. The Mexican oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX)-the Mexican national oil company-faces the challenge of not only responding adequately to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but making a significant contribution towards solid and stable growth. This paper reports that the relevant concern is how PEMEX is going to live up to these expectations. The Mexican oil industry, especially including the petrochemical sector, has great potential in terms of an ample domestic market as well as external foreign-currency-generating markets

  15. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  16. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg2+ and Cd2+ from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg2+ and Cd2+. → SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg2+ and 96-98% of Cd2+. → COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg2+ and Cd2+ concentrations. → Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 ± 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 ± 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg2+ and 96-98% of Cd2+. The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg2+ and Cd2+ implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  17. Workplace health and safety: report from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, R

    1986-01-01

    This article represents a critical analysis of the major policy responses to workplace health and safety in Canada. It examines the deficiencies inherent in the legislative development of Joint Health and Safety Committees in most Canadian jurisdictions, the limitations regarding standard-setting of worker exposure to contaminants, and disincentive for employers to positively improve the workplace because of Workers Compensation legislation. Collective bargaining agreements in Canada have had only limited positive effects, while the ultimate legal sanction of criminal prosecution by the regulatory agencies has weakened enforcement and compliance of existing regulations. There has never been a successful criminal prosecution of an employer in Canada, even for multiple deaths. The article suggests the following four reasons for this "underdevelopment" of occupational health and safety in Canada: the concealment of the dimension of the incidence of industrial disease based on Workers Compensation Board statistics; the application of an incorrect theory of causation of both industrial disease and injury by both managers and government administrators of occupational health and safety programs; the resistance of both senior and middle managers against increased worker participation in both work organization and job design questions; and the general "moral underdevelopment," rather than ignorance, of managers in favoring economic considerations or values at the expense of worker health and safety. In light of the magnitude of the problem and the deficiencies of existing policy approaches, the author proposes the need for greater workplace democratization of production and industry as a necessary and sufficient reform of workplace health and safety.

  18. Energy in Canada: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent changes in the North American natural gas industry are discussed, with a focus on how these changes will affect the ability of Alberta and Canadian natural gas supply to meet market growth. These changes include a decline in the merchant role of many of the major interstate pipelines, resulting in a larger number of smaller-sized purchasers for natural gas marketers to deal with; a greater extent of direct purchasing by local distribution companies and large industrial users, combined with a preference for spot sales rather than long-term commitments; direct marketing of uncontracted gas by many producers and brokers; a bidding type of sales process rather than a negotiated process; and price deregulation. It is foreseen that long term security of supply will again become an important factor to North American buyers, and Canada can offer substantial supplies under secure long term contracts. Marketers will have to seek new market targets such as cogeneration plants and the transportation sector. Access to pipeline transport will be one of the major factors in obtaining new markets. The Canada-USA free trade agreement is viewed as a positive development which should help Canadian gas marketers to gain and retain U.S. customers

  19. Experimental research on vibration reduction of high-rise petrochemical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wind-induced vibration of high-rise petrochemical equipment would do great harm to equipment operation and cause fatigue damage easily. Thus it is necessary to install some control device to reduce the vibration actively. Existing reinforcement methods include enlarging structural section, welding wind girder, adding braced frame system, fixing taut cable, etc. But each has some shortcomings. Therefore, the tuned mass damper (TMD), rarely used in high-rise petrochemical equipment, is studied by experiment to minimize wind-induced vibration, ensure safety operation and prolong service life. In the experiment, high-rise petrochemical equipment is properly simplified in order to verify the feasibility of the TMD. Parameters of the TMD are mainly researched, which include mass ratio and damping ratio. During the process, different mass ratios and damping ratios have been taken into account to understand the characteristics of the TMD under different conditions. By experiment, the changing tendencies of the natural frequency, damping ratio and top maximum displacement have been given after the simulator is implemented with the TMD. Experimental results show that the TMD is feasible for the wind-induced vibration control of high-rise petrochemical equipment, and that top maximum displacement of the simulator reduces by about 45% in the experimental condition. The experimental research has provided valuable preferences for practical application of the TMD in petrochemical field.

  20. Genotoxicity biomarkers for airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) in an area under petrochemical influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Andréia Torres; Lemos, Clarice Torres de; Flores, Andressa Negreiros; Pantoja, Eduarda Ozório; Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida Vaz; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2016-09-01

    The effects of fine inhalable particles (PM2.5) were evaluated in an area under the influence of a petrochemical industry, investigating the sensitivity of different genotoxicity biomarkers. Organic extracts were obtained from PM2.5 samples at two sites, positioned in the first and second preferential wind direction in the area. The extracts were evaluated with Salmonella/microsome assay, microsuspension method, strains TA98, YG1021 and YG1024. The mammalian metabolization fraction (S9) was used to evaluate metabolite mutagenicity. The Comet Assay (CA) and Micronuclei Test were used in a Chinese hamster lung cell line (V79). All extracts showed mutagenicity in Salmonella, and nitrogenated compounds were strongly present. Genotoxicity were found in CA in almost all extracts and the micronuclei induction at the Site in the first (Autumn 1, Winter 1), and in the second (Spring 2) wind direction. V79 showed cytotoxicity in all samples. The three biomarkers were concordant in characterization Site NO with worse quality, compatible with the greater pollutants dispersion in the first wind direction. All PM2.5 concentrations were lower than those recommended by air quality standards but genotoxic effects were detected in all samples, corroborating that these standards are inadequate as quality indicators. The Salmonella/microsome assay proved sensitive to PM2.5 mutagenicity, with an outstanding influence of nitroarenes and aromatic amines. Analyses using CA and the micronucleus test broadened the levels of response that involve different damage induction mechanisms. Results show that the complex PM2.5 composition can provoke various genotoxic effects and the use of different bioassays is essential to understand its effects. PMID:27343868

  1. Modeling of Flow and Water Quality Processes with Finite Volume Method due to Spreading and Dispersion of Petrochemical Pollution in the Hydro-Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhadi Zadeh, Ehsan; Hejazi, Kourosh

    2009-11-01

    Having two water frontiers, namely (everlasting) Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in the south and Caspian Sea in the north, intense dependence on extracting and exporting oil, especially via marine fleets and ever-increasing development of petrochemical industry, Iran is exposed to severe environmental damages caused by oil and petrochemical industries. This essay investigates how oil spill is diffused and its environmental pollution is spread. The movement of oil spill, and its diffusion in water and its effects on water and the environment has been simulated by developing a Depth-Averaged numerical model and using the Finite Volume method. The existing models are not efficient enough to fulfill current modeling needs. The developed model uses the parameters useful in the advection and diffusion of oil pollutions in a model appropriate for predicting the transport of oil spill. Since the Navier-Stokes Equations play an important role in the advection and diffusion of oil pollutions, it is highly important to choose an appropriate numerical method in the advection and diffusion section. In this essay, choosing the methods used in the advection and diffusion have been emphasized and highly-accurate algorithms has been used in the advection terms. These algorithms are not present in similar models. The resulting equations have been solved using the ADI method. This method solves the unknown parameters with solving a Penta-Diagonal matrix in each time step. It does so without sacrificing the desired precision.

  2. SCWR Concept in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL is designing the Canadian SCWR concept, which has evolved from the well-established pressuretube type CANDU® reactor. The Canadian SCWR is designed to produce electrical energy as the main product, plus process heat, hydrogen, industrial isotopes, and drinking water (through the desalination process) as supplementary products, all within a more compact reactor building. Another potential application of the available co-generated process heat is the extraction and refining of oil sands, which is presently achieved using co-generation with natural gas turbines and process heat. The extraction and upgrading process requires: thermal power to lower the viscosity and extract the oil; electric power for separation and refining equipment; and hydrogen gas for upgrading the oil product prior to transport. A National Program has been established in Canada to support R&D studies for the Canadian SCWR design. It covers key areas of interest (such as thermal hydraulics, safety, materials, and chemistry) to participants in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) SCWR designs. Results generated from the program are contributed to the GIF SCWR project management boards (PMBs). For example, heat transfer correlations have been derived using experimental data primarily obtained from fossil-plant related studies (which were started as early as 1930s. Materials and chemistry studies have evolved from operating experience of fossil-fired power plants to a) develop, and perform targeted testing of, materials for key components, in particular in-core reactor components that will be exposed to conditions not encountered in a fossil-fired boiler (such as irradiation and water radiolysis), and b) develop a suitable water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport

  3. Data on greenhouse gases emission in condensate separation unit of a petrochemical company in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Dastorian, Mehrshad; Jafarzadeh, Nemat; Jorfi, Sahand; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    Since global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions is no respecter of geographical boundaries of countries, concerted mitigation activities such as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), are suitable. In this mechanism, some developed countries can gain certified emission reduction credits from emission reduction actions undertaken in developing countries. Thus, the data of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries would be informative for implementing of CDM. Herein, the data of greenhouse gas emissions of Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex, one of the biggest petrochemical companies in the Middle East region is presented. The data was acquired using emission factor method and self-presented raw information of the Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex. Overall, the data will be interesting for environmentalists, non-governmental organization (NGO), and developed countries to perform CDM. PMID:27500190

  4. Data on greenhouse gases emission in condensate separation unit of a petrochemical company in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Dastorian, Mehrshad; Jafarzadeh, Nemat; Jorfi, Sahand; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    Since global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions is no respecter of geographical boundaries of countries, concerted mitigation activities such as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), are suitable. In this mechanism, some developed countries can gain certified emission reduction credits from emission reduction actions undertaken in developing countries. Thus, the data of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries would be informative for implementing of CDM. Herein, the data of greenhouse gas emissions of Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex, one of the biggest petrochemical companies in the Middle East region is presented. The data was acquired using emission factor method and self-presented raw information of the Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex. Overall, the data will be interesting for environmentalists, non-governmental organization (NGO), and developed countries to perform CDM.

  5. 石油化工工程质量监督系统网络信息平台的设计%Design of Network Information Platform on Petrochemical Project Quality Supervision System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明辉

    2015-01-01

    With the development of science and technology management level unceasing enhancement,the emergence of the Internet technology,the information exchange platform and the database is gradually applied to the modern office automation on the basis of interactive information platform and database. To promote the petroleum chemical industry construction engineering quality supervision work better,improve the level of service for the enterprise,and to make the petrochemical industry get better manage key projects and ensure project quality better,the author combined with nearly 10 years of experience in petrochemical project management,according to the petrochemical construction and expansion of the characteristics of petrochemical projects designed a set of petrochemical construction project information platform system. Practice has proved that using the Internet as a auxiliary petrochemical project quality management of channels the network information platform made the petrochemical enterprises filing procedures of quality supervision shorten, further standardized and managed the petrochemical enterprises in Hebei province construction and expansion of the project,built a convenient highway for surveillance and petrochemical companies.%随着科技管理水平的不断提高,互联网技术的出现,以信息交换平台和数据库为基础,数据处理及分析程序为手段的互动信息平台,也逐渐应用到了现代办公自动化领域。为促进石油化工建设工程质量监督工作更好地开展,提高为企业服务的水平,使石油化工重点项目得到更好的管理,工程质量得到更好的保证,本文结合近10年的石油化工项目管理经验,根据石油化工新建、扩建石油化工项目的特点,设计了一套石油化工建设工程项目信息平台系统。实践证明,该网络信息平台利用互联网作为辅助石油化工工程质量管理的渠道,缩短了石油化工

  6. Impact of petrochemicals on the photosynthesis of Halophila ovalis using chlorophyll fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, P.J.; Burchett, M.D. [University of Sydney (Australia). Institute for Coastal Resource Management and Dept. of of Environmental Biology and Horticulture

    1998-06-01

    Laboratory-cultured Halophila ovalis showed tolerance to petrochemical exposure up to 1% (w/v) solution of Bass Strait crude oil, an oil dispersant (Corexit 9527) and a mixture of crude oil and dispersant. Quantum yield, as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence, was the most sensitive measure of the photosynthetic processes affected by petrochemical. The results indicated clearly that chlorophyll fluorescence was effective at monitoring the onset and development of stress and recovery of H. ovalis when exposed to crude oil, dispersant and a mixture of the two compounds. Photosynthetic pigment content generally confirmed the chlorophyll fluorescence response; however, several anomalies occurred. (author)

  7. Use of Low-cost Adsorbents to Chlorophenols and Organic Matter Removal of Petrochemical Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretha Moreira de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The removal of 2,4 diclorophenol (2,4-DCF and 2,4,6 trichlorophenol (2,4,6 TCF present in  petrochemical wastewater was evaluated using low-cost adsorbents, such as chitin, chitosan and coconut shells. Batch studies showed that the absorption efficiency for 2,4 DCF and 2,4,6 TCF follow the order: chitosan > chitin > coconut shells. Langmuir and Freundlich models have been applied to experimental isotherms data, to better understand the adsorption mechanisms. Petrochemical wastewater treatment with fixed bed column system using chitinous adsorbents showed a removal of COD (75% , TOG (90% and turbidity (74-89%.

  8. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper reviews the factors that may explain high and persistent unemployment in Canada, with particular emphasis on the role that a decline in the relative cost of capital may have had on trend unemployment. The analysis suggests that in Canada a declining trend in the cost of capital, associated with technological changes and innovations, has been an important factor in explaining the rise and persistence of unemployment. The paper also analyzes recent trends in personal ...

  9. Radiation safety in industrial radiography in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents the application of radiography in almost all sectors of the industry from construction stage of plants, in oil and gas, petrochemical and power industry which are the biggest users of radiography. Industrial radiography is being conducted using a set of operational procedures developed by the level 3 radiographer and approved by the Radiological Health and Safety Officer (RHSO) to ensure safe and successful completion of the activity

  10. 48 CFR 225.870-8 - Industrial security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial security. 225... Coordination 225.870-8 Industrial security. Industrial security for Canada shall be in accordance with the U.S.-Canada Industrial Security Agreement of March 31, 1952, as amended....

  11. Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Landfill gas management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (1015 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring

  13. China's Oil Industry Facing Challenge & Opportunity from WTO Entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ With ups and downs in the past 15 years, China was officially admitted into World Trade Organization in November 2001. China's entry into WTO inevitably poses a severe challenge to the country's domestic petroleum and petrochemical industry, which has been protected by means of tariff hurdles and other administrative measures for a long time.

  14. Make strategic deployment for China's IC industry ahead of time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to the long-wave theory, the world economy saw a four-phase development driven respectively by industrial engines, namely,textile, iron and steel, electricity power and petrochemicals, and car-making during the two centuries from 1780 to 1980.

  15. Public health assessment for Mattiace Petrochemical Company, Glenwood Landing, Nassau County, New York, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NYD000512459. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-28

    The Mattiace Petrochemical Site, which is on the National Priorities List, is on the north shore of Nassau County, near Hempstead Harbor, in the City of Glen Cove. On-site soils and groundwater are contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Metals are elevated in groundwater. The site is next to several one-story, industrial-commercial buildings. Glen Cove Creek, a tributary to the Hempstead Harbor portion of Long Island Sound, is about 500 feet from the site. The contaminated soil and shallow groundwater may result in contamination of the vapor-phase of soil (soil gas) and may affect indoor-air quality in the industrial-commercial buildings. Runoff from the site may have contaminated the driveway and storm drains. Employees of adjacent businesses may be exposed to contaminated soils from the site.

  16. Underground waters management program at Camacari petrochemical complex; Programa de gerenciamento das aguas subterraneas do Polo Petroquimico de Camacari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo Roberto Penalva dos [Empresa de Protecao Ambiental S.A. (CETREL), Camacari, BA (Brazil); Nobre, Manoel de Melo Maia [Maia Nobre Engenharia Ltda., Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    The Camacari Petrochemical Complex, situated in the state of Bahia, is the largest and most important integrated industrial complex in Latin America. With the primary objective of preventing any environmental impact that could be caused by its processes, monitoring the quality of the air and water resources in the vicinity became common practice. In regard to the water resources, since 1992, the industries of the Camacari Complex, under the coordination of CETREL - Empresa de Protecao Ambiental S.A - have conducted an integrated program to monitor, protect and establish rational use of the groundwater resources at the region. This program complies with the conditions established by the Environmental Protection Board of Bahia State (CEPRAM). Several specific goals were already achieved by this program and others still under way. Some of them include: Elimination of most of the primary contaminant sources to groundwater; Evaluation of secondary sources based on plumes behavior and remediation of isolated areas with contaminated saturated and unsaturated zones; Interruption of production wells in the region to prevent contamination of deeper formations; Operations of a pump-and-treat system consisting of 12 extraction wells located down gradient of the Camacari Complex. (author) 7 refs.

  17. 石化企业能源管理系统的研发与应用%Development and application of energy management system for petrochemical enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德芳; 索寒生; 刘暄

    2015-01-01

    石化工业在为经济发展提供物质支撑的同时,也消耗着大量的能源。石化企业节能降耗的潜力很大,信息技术在节能降耗方面前景广阔。在对石化企业能源管理业务范围、介质、管理维度进行分析的基础上,进行了系统的功能设计,描述了工厂模型,按照用能优化、管网优化与动力优化3方面刻画了能源优化模型。最后,从试点企业的应用成效出发,为石化企业推进能源管理信息化建设提供了借鉴和参考。%Petrochemical industry provides material support for economic development, but it also consumes a lot of energy. Petrochemical enterprises have a great potential for energy saving, and information technology has a great prospect in energy saving area. Based on the analysis of the petrochemical enterprises energy management business, material and management dimensions, the paper proposes the function of the energy management system, which consists of six functions: energy plan, energy operation, energy optimization, energy statistics, energy assessment and energy performance. Then the paper describes the plant model, which includes four layers:measurement layer, operation layer, statistics merge layer and accounting model layer. Next, the energy optimization model is described from the aspect of energy assumption optimization, pipeline optimization and energy power optimization. By establishing energy demand planning model, the energy assumption optimization refines energy media description, optimize device energy programs to improve the accuracy of energy plan to promote the production consumption balance, reduce energy backup redundancy and energy costs. Pipeline optimization is a process for water, electricity, steam, nitrogen, air, fuel and other energy media in the supply, production, transportation, transformation, consumption optimization. Considering the price factor of various field devices constraints and utilities, the energy

  18. Source pollution control program at the Camacari Petrochemical Complex: overall and individual improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, P.A.; Neto, D.B.; Carvalho, D.M. [CETREL S.A., Camacari, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Along with the technical progress experienced by the Camacari Petrochemical Complex in the last few years, new policies, following new worldwide trends, in pollution control and prevention became mandatory. This work describes some of these experiences as well as future perspectives. 3 refs., 2 fig., 13 tabs.

  19. Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, coal and biomass: production costs in 2030–2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.; Daniëls, B.; Patel, M.K.; Blok, K.

    2009-01-01

    Methane, coal and biomass are being considered as alternatives to crude oil for the production of basic petrochemicals, such as light olefins. This paper is a study on the production costs of 24 process routes utilizing these primary energy sources. A wide range of projected energy prices in 2030–20

  20. Comparison of the sustainability metrics of the petrochemical and biomass-based routes to methionine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Sheldon, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability metrics, based on material efficiency, energy input, land use and costs, of three processesfor the manufacture of methionine are compared. The petrochemical process affords dl-methionine whilethe two biomass-based routes afford the l-enantiomer. From the point of view of the major

  1. A life-cycle inventory for the production of petrochemical intermediates in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, M.; Berna, J.L.; Cavalli, L.; Renta, C.; Stalmans, M.; Thomas, H.

    1995-09-01

    The resource requirements and environmental emissions involved in the production of n-paraffins, n-olefins, benzene, ethylene and ethylene oxide from petrochemical feedstocks are presented. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der Rohstoffbedarf und die Umweltemissionen bei der Herstellung von n-Olefin, n-Paraffin, Benzen, Ethylen und Ethylenoxid auf der Basis petrochemischer Rohstoffe werden dargestellt. (orig./SR)

  2. Urinary Heavy Metal levels of Residents in the Vicinity of a Petrochemical Complex in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan T. H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A petrochemical complex located in central Taiwan is a major emission source of air pollutants locally. Among these air pollutants, it is concern that the health effects of exposure to heavy metal because of its toxicity and persistency. Therefore, we conducted a biological monitoring study to investigate the effect of heavy metal pollutants on inhabitants around this petrochemical complex. According to the distance and the wind direction from the petrochemical complex, the study area was divided into high exposure (HE and low exposure (LE areas, and a total of 673 study subjects who aged above 35 years old living in HE and LE areas were recruited to be collected urine sample and personal information by health screen and questionnaire administration. The concentrations of ten kinds of urinary heavy metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. After adjusting for age, gender, socioeconomic status, smoking, dietary habits and other potential confounders, the multiple linear regression models showed that the urinary levels of vanadium, manganese, arsenic and strontium of inhabitants in HE area were significantly higher than those of inhabitants in LE area. This study indicated the potential effects of emitted metal pollutants from a petrochemical complex on the residents nearby.

  3. Development of biodegradation testing within a whole effluent assessment scheme: petrochemical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonards, P.E.G.; Postma, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed for Concawe to obtain information on the development of an approach for assessing biodegradation of petrochemical effluents and the impact on assessing the toxicity and potential to bioaccumulate of the constituents. Whole Effluent Assessments (WEA) are being investigated as

  4. Basic petrochemicals from natural gas, coal and biomass: energy use and CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.; Patel, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    While high-value basic petrochemicals (HVCs) are mostly produced through conventional naphtha and ethane-based process routes, it is also possible to produce them through coal and biomass-based routes. In this paper, we compared these routes in terms of energy use and CO2 emissions per ton of HVCs.

  5. The relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership styles in the South African petrochemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Maggie Pillay; Rian Viviers; Claude-Helene Mayer

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Although research on emotional intelligence in the context of leadership has remained a recurrent area of interest in theory and practice during the past decade, ongoing debate continues regarding the contribution of emotional intelligence to the understanding of leadership.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-reported emotional intelligence and leadership styles in a South African context and to determine whether emotional intell...

  6. Advancements in NDE for utilities and the petrochemical industry through electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, M. O.; Stevens, Donald M.; Schlader, Daniel M.; Tilley, Richard M.

    1998-03-01

    The ultrasonic testing (UT) method continues to broaden in its effectiveness and capabilities for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Much of this expansion can be attributed to advancements in specific techniques of the method. The utilization of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) in dedicated ultrasonic systems has provided McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), formerly Babcock & Wilcox, with significant advantages over conventional ultrasonics. In recent years, through significant R&D, MTI has been instrumental in bringing about considerable advancements in the maturing EMAT technology. Progress in electronic design, magnet configurations, and sensor concepts has greatly improved system capabilities while reducing cost and equipment size. These improvements, coupled with the inherent advantages of utilizing the non-contact EMAT technique, have combined to make this technology a viable option for many commercial system inspection applications. MTI has recently completed the development and commercialization of an EMAT-based UT scanner for boiler tube thickness measurements. MTI is currently developing an automated EMAT scanner, based on phased array technology, for complete volumetric inspection of circumferential girth welds associated with pipelines (intended primarily for offshore applications). Additional benefits of phased array technology for providing materials characterization are currently being researched.

  7. Infrared thermography inspection and monitoring in oil and gas and petrochemical plant industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared thermography is an electronic technique that quite literally allows us to see thermal energy. The technique allows for the monitoring of temperatures and thermal patterns while the equipment is online and running under full load. Armed with guidelines of allowable operating temperature limits of the equipment, the technique may enhances company's, ?ability to predict equipment failure and plan corrective action before a costly shutdown, equipment damage, or personal injury occurs. Infrared thermography is an excellent condition monitoring tool to assist in the reduction of maintenance costs on mechanical, electrical and equipment. With this new capability plant maintenance personnel have recognized infrared thermography as one of the most versatile and effective condition monitoring tools available today. Infrared can be used on a wide variety of equipment including pumps, motors, bearings, pulleys, fans, drives, conveyors etc. This paper will explain the benefits of Infrared Thermography as a condition monitoring tool for plant equipment and mechanical systems and some examples of infrared thermography application is discussed. (Author)

  8. Antistatic Footwear Used in Petrochemical Industry%石化行业用防静电鞋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云朋; 刘全桢; 孙立富; 李义鹏; 高鑫; 孟鹤

    2014-01-01

    本文对石化场所用防静电鞋进行了分析与讨论.先简要介绍了防静电鞋的检测标准及检测方法;其次分析了防静电鞋的防静电原理;最后结合工作实践及相关的试验数据,对防静电鞋的选择和使用提出了一些建议,以期保证石化行业用防静电鞋的安全性,减少静电事故的发生.

  9. 面向石化行业的化工原理教学改革探%Teaching Reformation on Petrochemical-oriented Chemical Engineering Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贵秋; 陈艳辉; 熊拯; 陈敏娥

    2011-01-01

    在面向石油化工行业的《化工原理》课程教学中,教师应该注重实践,尤其要注重理论与石油化工行业实践的结合,使理论教学工作与时俱进、不断创新;要找准教学切入点,认真设计教学环节,合理分解教学难点;要充分调动学生学习积极性,运用各种教学方法与手段调整学生学习状态。%In the teaching of petrochemical-oriented Chemical Engineering Principles, the teacher ought to focus the following points. Great importance should be attached to practice, in particular to the integration of theory with the practice of petrochemical industry, so teaching activity can be innovated and updated as the times proceed ; with starting point being pinpointed by teachers, the teaching procedures ought to be carefully designed, so that difficult points can be rationally handled; students' motivation need stimulating while various teaching methods and strategies need to be used to adjust students' learning state.

  10. NMR shielding and a thermodynamic study of the effect of environmental exposure to petrochemical solvent on DPPC, an important component of lung surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajjemi, M.; Afsharnezhad, S.; Jaafari, M. R.; Abdolahi, T.; Nikosade, A.; Monajemi, H.

    2007-12-01

    The chemical and petrochemical industries are the major air polluters. Millions of workers are exposed to toxic chemicals on the job, and it is becoming more toxic, causing much damage to respiratory system, today. One of the main components of lung alveoli is a surfactant. DPPC (Dipalmitolphosphatidylcholine) is the predominant lipid component in the lung surfactant, which is responsible for lowering surface tension in alveoli. In this article, we used an approximate model and ab initio computations to describe interactions between DPPC and some chemical solvents, such as benzene, toluene, heptane, acetone, chloroform, ether, and ethanol, which cause lung injuries and lead to respiratory distress such as ARDS. The effect of these solvents on the conformation and disordering of the DPPC head group was investigated by calculations at the Hatree-Fock level using the 6-31G basis set with the Onsager continuum solvation, GAIO, and frequency models. The simulation model was confirmed by accurate NMR measurements as concerns conformational energy. Water can be the most suitable solvent for DPPC. Furthermore, this study shows that ethanol has the most destructive effect on the conformation and lipid disorder of the DPPC head group of the lung surfactant in our model. Our finding will be useful for detecting the dysfunction of DPPC in the lung surfactant caused by acute or chronic exposures to air toxics from petrochemical organic solvent emission source and chronic alcohol consumption, which may lead to ARDS.

  11. Evaluating the Cost-effectiveness of Pharmaceuticals in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Boothe

    2016-01-01

    Canada adopted guidelines for the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in 1994, and a central process for drug assessment in 2003. The context and the way the issue reached the agenda in the two time periods differed. The guidelines were adopted amidst growing academic interest in methods for economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in Canada and internationally, and were first promoted by an entrepreneur from the pharmaceutical industry. The Common Drug Review (CDR) was adopted in a context ...

  12. Nuclear energy's continuing benefits to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Canadian nuclear power program when it began twenty years ago was to reduce Canadian dependence on imported coal. This goal has been met, with 35 percent of Ontario's electricity being produced by CANDU reactors. These reactors have been proven reliable and safe, and provide a considerable cost advantage over coal. The CANDU reactor was developed with the strengths and limitations of Canadian industry in mind, the newest stations have over 85 percent Canadian-manufactured components. A similar benefit should be found in many countries with manufacturing capabilities comparable to Canada's. The use of natural uranium as a fuel has been a wise choice both technically and economically. A new industry was created in Canada in order to gain an assured supply of heavy water. The personnel brought to or trained in Canada to work in all parts of the nuclear industry represent a valuable asset in themselves. Radioisotope exports are making a significant contribution. Nuclear power is likely to make its greatest impact in the next century, when it will be a necessity

  13. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

    1988-01-01

    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  14. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  15. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  16. Human resource development formulation and evaluation in an Iranian Petrochemical Company using ANP and grey relational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, human capital is considered a key factor of achieving the competitive advantage in different industries. The present study, as an applied and descriptive research, aims at providing formulation and evaluation of human resource development of an Iranian Petrochemical Company (APC. The human resource experts and managers of APC together with university professors of human capital and familiar with local conditions of Khuzestan province, Iran, made up the statistical population of this research. In this connection, first the internal factors (including advantages and disadvantages were identified using human resource excellence indicators. Then, the opportunities and threats of human resource system were found via PESTEL approach. In the next step, the primary strategies were formulated using the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT Matrix. The next phases of the study were included evaluation and ranking of human resource development strategies based on analytical network process (ANP multi-criteria decision making method and grey systems theory. According to results of the research, defensive strategies (WT are suggested as the best and most appropriate strategies in human resource area. In other words, the internal and external factors of APC are problematic. Accordingly, APC is expected to adopt WT strategy, minimize the weaknesses, and avoid threats. Subsequent to the above policy, the strategies of WO, ST, and SO are advised to employ.

  17. The Comparisons of Commonly Used Pumps in Petrochemical%浅谈石化常用泵的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚智喜; 刘鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    泵是油库的心脏,在石油储存和运输中广泛运用各种泵,掌握各类泵的优缺点、泵的使用范围和泵适合输送油品的种类对更好的利用各种泵尤为重要。只有合理的使用各类泵,才能保证泵的高效运行,才能确保油库的安全等。文章就是针对离心泵,容积泵,以及其他石化行业经常用到的泵做了一个比较细致的总结和概括。%A pump was the heart of an oil depot, a variety kinds of pumps were widely used in oil storage and trans- portation. Mastering the advantages and disadvantages of all kinds of pumps, the usable ranges of pumps and the pumps suitable for transporting different kinds of oil was quite important for the better usage of various pumps. Only the reasonable usage of various pumps can ensure the efficient operation of pumps and the safety of oil depots, etc. The detailed summary and conclusion of centrifugal pumps, positive displacement pumps, and other petrochemical industry used pumps was made.

  18. Development of refractory ceramic using waste of petrochemical catalysts; Desenvolvimento de ceramica refrataria utilizando residuos de catalisadores petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso, M.A.; Mymrine, V. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The manufacturing of catalytic catalysts by the company FCC SA. for the Brazilian petrochemical industry is 25,000 tons per annum, which after going through the cracking process cannot undergo regeneration any longer, being wasted with humidity near 70%. To increase the economical and environmental efficiency of the use of this rejected catalyst, without preliminary drying, a method of using it as main raw material in composition like kaolin was developed, as well as in ash and glass for the manufacturing of common (regular) and refractory ceramic. The mixture of these components were burnt at temperatures of 1100 deg C, 1200°C, 1250°C and 1300°C. The ceramics with 30% and 40% in weight of wasted catalyst, sintered in 1250 deg C or 1300 deg C have flexion of 10,8 - 12,9 MPa. After burning the mixtures, the chemical interaction of the initial components was determined by the methods of RXD, MEV and EDS, synthesizing new minerals like Diopside Ca(Mg,Al)(Si,Al){sub 2}O{sub 6}, Nepheline (K,Na)AlSiO{sub 4}, Lazurite Na{sub 8}[Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}[SO{sub 4},S]{sub 2}, Magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Albite Na Al Si{sub 3}O{sub 8} and high content of vitreous amorphous phase. (author)

  19. Measurement of fugitive volatile organic compound emissions from a petrochemical tank farm using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Wu, Tzong-gang; Hashmonay, Ram A.; Chang, Shih-Ying; Wu, Yu-Syuan; Chao, Chun-Ping; Hsu, Cheng-Ping; Chase, Michael J.; Kagann, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Fugitive emission of air pollutants is conventionally estimated based on standard emission factors. The Vertical Radial Plume Mapping (VRPM) technique, as described in the US EPA OTM-10, is designed to measure emission flux by directly monitoring the concentration of the plume crossing a vertical plane downwind of the site of interest. This paper describes the evaluation results of implementing VRPM in a complex industrial setting (a petrochemical tank farm). The vertical plane was constructed from five retroreflectors and an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The VRPM configuration was approximately 189.2 m in width × 30.7 m in height. In the accompanying tracer gas experiment, the bias of the VRPM estimate was less than 2% and its 95% confidence interval contained the true release rate. Emission estimates of the target VOCs (benzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene, and toluene) ranged from 0.86 to 2.18 g s-1 during the 14-day field campaign, while estimates based on the standard emission factors were one order of magnitude lower, possibly leading to an underestimation of the impact of these fugitive emissions on air quality and human health. It was also demonstrated that a simplified 3-beam geometry (i.e., without one dimensional scanning lines) resulted in higher uncertainties in the emission estimates.

  20. Precautionary interventions in industrial areas. An optimal stopping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution consists of an abstract of a PhD thesis. The thesis deals with the precautionary evacuation of an industrial facility's workforce threatened by a radiological release from a nuclear power plant nearby. The issue of deferring intervention decisions until additional information is available is addressed. Furthermore, interventions in industrial areas with a concentration of chemical and petrochemical plants form part of this study

  1. 框架协议采购在石油石化企业中的应用%Application of framework agreement procurement in petrochemical enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪刚

    2015-01-01

    文中介绍了框架协议采购的总体原则,分析了针对石油石化行业应用的注意事项,提出了具体改进措施.利用这种采购方式高效地完成采购任务,是物资采购与招标工作探索和研究的目标.%This paper introduced the general principle of framework agreement procurement,analyzed matters needing attention of petrochemical industry,and proposed specific improvement measure. Application of this procurement method to efficiently complete procurement is the goal of exploration and research in materials procurement and bid invitation work.

  2. Radioactive waste management in Canada - Science, strategy, and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear electric power amounts to >15% of the electric power in Canada with 12,750-MW Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy-water reactors installed and 3,500 MW under construction. Three nuclear utilities, Ontario Hydro, Quebec Hydro, and New Brunswick Power, together with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and the nuclear industries share the burden of radioactive waste management in Canada. Radioactive wastes in Canada include uranium mine and mill tailings, low- and intermediate-level wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle and the Canadian nuclear industry, and used fuel from the once-through CANDU fuel cycle. In all cases, the objective is to manage these wastes in a way that creates minimal detriment to humans and the environment. In Canada, plans are for a gradual transition from interim facilities to long-term facilities, meeting the requirements of protection of humans and the environment in the long term. As in most nations, the solutions are evolving in a methodological manner, taking into account public sensitivities and concerns

  3. Structural characteristics and oil-removal mechanisms of the adsorbents made from petrochemical sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-bin; SANG Yi-ming; TAN Wen-jie; HE Xu-wen; LI Fa-sheng

    2004-01-01

    A new type of carbon-inorganic absorbent with good oil-removing performance is prepared by sintering and activating petrochemical sludge. Of the absorbents prepared by three different methods (non-activated, vapor /840 ℃/6 h, CO2/1 000 ℃/2 h), the one prepared by the second method is the best in oil-removing, which can remove 60% of oil from petrochemical wastewater with a concentration of 76.42 mg/L. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the constituents of the adsorbents are basically similar to those of inorganic granulating materials, such as SiO2, Al2O3, orthoclase feldspar, iron ore, etc. Composition analysis reveals that the activated absorbent has a large specific surface area with a high carbon content in activated compositions and a good oil-removing capability.

  4. Waste minimization promotes biophysical treatment of complex petrochemical wastes in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel, A. [Invirotreat International Ltd., Fulleron, CA (United States); Raveh, A. [Raveh Ecology Ltd., Haifa (Israel)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes a full-scale waste treatment system which was put into operation in a petrochemical manufacturing plant in Israel for the purpose of detoxifying its complex organic waste stream. The treatment plant design incorporates an innovative waste management approach to accommodate the limited space allocated for the facility. Initial performance data indicate a high efficient inorganic waste reduction. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Bioremediation of Pharmaceuticals, Pesticides, and Petrochemicals with Gomeya/Cow Dung

    OpenAIRE

    Gurpreet Kaur Randhawa; Jagdev Singh Kullar

    2011-01-01

    Use and misuse of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and petrochemicals by man is causing havoc with nature, as they persist as such or as their toxic metabolites. These pollutants bioaccumulate in environment, and they ultimately reach man through various means. They are hazardous because of potential toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity. To rejuvenate nature, remediation methods currently available are usually expensive and might convert one toxic pollutant to another. Biorem...

  6. FBG Temperature and Pressure Sensing System for Hot Water Pipeline of Petrochemical Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Hui Lü; Shao-Hua Shang; Xu Jiang; Jin-Ping Ou; Chao Yang; Chuan-Di Li; Wei Xu

    2008-01-01

    A spatial and wavelength division multi-plexing fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system is reported for monitoring the temperature and the pressure (T-P) of hot water pipeline in petrochemical factory. The FBG sensing system has 72 channels independently, and it provides the capability to monitor large number sensors at same time. A resolution of 0.1 ℃ and 0.01 MPa with a measurement bandwidth of 150 Hz has been achieved.

  7. Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

    2011-08-15

    Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater. PMID:22545355

  8. Investigating Density and Type of Bioaerosols in a Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Plant: Mahshar - Iran, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Jahangiri; Masoud Neghab; Vahid Kahdemain; Reza Rostami; Ali Karimi; Mandana Aghabeigi; Abasali Kasayee Nasab

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Wastewater contains various pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi, etc. These microorganisms can easily become airborne during normal operations of wastewater treatment plant and contaminate the neighborhood environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the type and density of bioaerosols in a petrochemical wastewater treatment plant in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, bioaerosols density was measured in different units o...

  9. 80 kt/a Styrene Unit Put on Stream at Jinzhou Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The core unit of the 80-kt/a styrene project--the styrene unit was put on stream at the first attempt at Jinzhou Petro-chemical Company, symbolizing the completion of con-struction and startup of the 80 kt/a styrene unit comprised of the styrene section and the ethylbenzene section, the in-vestment in which totals 394 million RMB.

  10. Job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour, employee engagement and intention to leave in a petrochemical laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Sonet van Schalkwyk; Danie H. du Toit; Adriaan S. Bothma; Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: Engaging individuals at work plays an important role in retaining them. Job security and leadership empowerment behaviour are antecedents of employee engagement.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour (as perceived by the employees who report to leaders), employee engagement and intention to leave their jobs in a petrochemical laboratory.Motivation for the study: Knowledge of the e...

  11. Increasing a large petrochemical company efficiency by improvement of decision making process

    OpenAIRE

    Kirin Snežana D.; Nešić Lela G.

    2010-01-01

    The paper shows the results of a research conducted in a large petrochemical company, in a state under transition, with the aim to "shed light" on the decision making process from the aspect of personal characteristics of the employees, in order to use the results to improve decision making process and increase company efficiency. The research was conducted by a survey, i.e. by filling out a questionnaire specially made for this purpose, in real conditions, during working hours. The sample of...

  12. Petrochemical characterization of gneissic rocks from Colmeia Complex -Colmeia region - Tocantins State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gneissic rocks of the Colmeia Complex from the surrounding of the Colmeia City (Tocantins State) have been analysed in terms of their petrochemical aspects. The major and trace element chemistry has been treated through several compositional diagrams. The oxygen isotope data for whole rocks and separate minerals have also been investigated. They showed a very good isotopic equilibrium and they permit to associate these rocks to the I type granites. They also suggest no post-metamorphic isotope exchange of these rocks. (author)

  13. DEWI partnership in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutilleux, P.; Klug, H.; Molly, J.P. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Canada is with its 9.982.000 km{sup 2} the second largest country in the world. It has plenty of natural resources for a population density of 3 inhabitants per km{sup 2}. Now that the time for wind energy is coming, DEWI is willing to contribute with its know-how to the development of wind energy in this country. In this article we review briefly two of the market drivers for the development of wind energy: the need for additional electricity generation capacity and the political framework. After considering the volume of projects under development, a way is shown how DEWI will be present in Canada in order to support its clients. (orig.)

  14. University/industry collaboration for mutual benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pace of technological change in terms of product and process life cycles in petroleum and petrochemical industries is well-suited for industry to utilize for commercial ends, the basic knowledge produced in universities. This paper reports that collaboration works best when the partners understand and adhere to their respective roles, vis., knowledge building for the universities and commercialization and job-creation for industry. Both partners benefit from collaboration: industry gains the fruits of basic research if its researchers commit adequate time toward relationships with academia; and universities gain by industrial funding of their research and industry assistance in setting research and curriculum direction. The role of the government is to provide consistent funding for university education and research. It is beneficial for the government to involve industry scientists and technology managers in setting research support priorities

  15. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality.

  16. Research on human-computer interaction method for petrochemical DCS based on augmented reality%基于增强现实的石化DCS人机交互方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 袁纪武; 李磊; 王春

    2013-01-01

    本文对石油化工行业现有DCS人机交互方式进行分析,提出理想的石化DCS人机交互方式应该是“人-计算机-设备”之间融于现场环境之中的有机互动,并从终端用户灵活应用的角度,讨论了一种基于增强现实技术的DCS人机交互改进方法。方法在不改变现有DCS系统总体结构的基础上,通过引入增强现实技术,将真实场景与虚拟实时数据叠加在一起并通过手势识别技术实现对现场设备的自控操作,进而为石化装置一线操作人员提供一个感官效果真实、状态信息明确、操控方便的全新工作环境,最终达到对石化行业DCS人机交互方式进行改进与增强的目的。%The paper analyses on the existing methods of the human-computer interaction on petrochemical DCS, and put forward ideal petrochemical DCS human computer interaction should be organic interaction between the “human-computer-equipment” in the real environment, and introduces an improved method for the human-computer interaction of petrochemical DCS based on augmented reality technology from the perspective of the flexible application of terminal user. Without changing the overall structure of the existing DCS system, the method puts to use augmented reality technology to combine the real scene with virtual real-time data and realizes the operation of the automatic control of field devices through gesture and action recognition technologies. It provides a new working environment that has true sensory effects, clear state information, convenient manipulation for the petrochemical plant site operators, and ultimately achieves the purpose of improvement and enhancement of the human-computer interaction on petrochemical technology industry DCS system.

  17. Survey on alternative energy for industrial processes in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In consequence of the national industrial development, it is necessary to supply a lot of energy. This paper presented a discussion about the option of supplying nuclear processed heat as alternative energy sources for industry especially in Java island. The electrical energy requirement can be estimated rising. The stock and the requirement of energy in Indonesia is unbalance. If the oil production rate is constant, such as that of today, it can be estimated that the oil stock would be over in 20 years. The country is trying to difertify its source of energy and reduce its dependence on oil. High Temperature Reactor (HTR) produces electric and also heat at various temperature in the form of steam and gas. Heat processes from a high temperature reactor, could be used in industry for supplying heat for coal hidroforming, gasification of coal, metal annealing, petrochemical hydrogenation, distillation, purification of petrochemicals, evaporation, water heat, etc. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  18. State, Institutions and Industrial Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    to 1991 (Chapters 10, 11 and 12). Part III investigates the three above-mentioned industrial upgrading and deepening policies in Taiwan covering generic policies as well sectoral policies along the petrochemical-plastic production chain (Chapters 13-16). The final Chapter 17 targets the underlying macro...... and on the other hand competition from innovators in the advanced capitalist countries. To climb onwards to higher income levels they must deepen and upgrade their industries. The dissertation is based on the assumption that this transition from low to high value-added activities does not take place ‘automatically......' as a result of the working of market forces or of the choices and activities of transnational companies. Hence it examines the role of the state in such late-industrial transformation processes in Taiwan and Thailand. Most scholars have dealt with this issue from the perspective of trade and have studied...

  19. State, Institutions and Industrial Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    to 1991 (Chapters 10, 11 and 12). Part III investigates the three above-mentioned industrial upgrading and deepening policies in Taiwan covering generic policies as well sectoral policies along the petrochemical-plastic production chain (Chapters 13-16). The final Chapter 17 targets the underlying macro...... and on the other hand competition from innovators in the advanced capitalist countries. To climb onwards to higher income levels they must deepen and upgrade their industries. The dissertation is based on the assumption that this transition from low to high value-added activities does not take place ‘automatically......’ as a result of the working of market forces or of the choices and activities of transnational companies. Hence it examines the role of the state in such late-industrial transformation processes in Taiwan and Thailand. Most scholars have dealt with this issue from the perspective of trade and have studied...

  20. Reducing the carbon footprint of fuels and petrochemicals. Preprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Balfanz, U.; Buchholz, S.; Lichtscheidl, J.; Marchionna, M.; Nees, F.; Santacesaria, E. (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Within the DGMK conference between 08th and 10th October, 2012, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Energy demand and mix for global welfare and stable ecosystems (A. Jess); (2) The EU's roadmap for moving to a low-carbon economy - Aspirations and reality for refiners (J. Lichtscheidl); (3) Applications of CCS technology to the oil and gas industries (M. Marchionna); (4) A new chemical system solution for acid gas removal (M. Seiler); (5) Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide towards synthetic natural gas - A route to effective future energy storage (M. Schoder); (6) Bio-MTBE - How to reduce CO{sub 2} footprint in fuels with a well known premium gasoline component (O. Busch); (7) Use of waste materials for Biodiesel production (R. Vitiello); (8) From algae to diesel and kerosene - Tailored fuels via selective catalysis (C. Zhao); (9) Chemo-catalytic valorization of cellulose (R. Palkovits); (10) Cellulosic ethanol: Potential, technology and development status (M. Rarbach); (11) Methanation of carbon oxides - History, status quo and future perspectives (W. Kaltner); (12) Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H{sub 2} (H. Eilers); (13) Materials for the 21st century: Can the carbon come from CO{sub 2} (S. Kissling); (14) Effect of CO{sub 2} admixture on the catalytic performance of Ni-Nb-M-O catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene (A. Qiao); (15) Oxidative dehydrogenation of light alkanes (A. Meiswinkel); (16) Low carbon fuel and chemical production from waste gases (S. Simpson); (17) Methanol to propylene: From development to commercialization (S. Haag); (18) On the impact of olefins and aromatics in the methanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion over H-ZSM-5 catalysts (X. Sun); (19) Mn-Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} - An industrial catalyst for methane coupling (M. Yildiz); (20) Biorefineries - Prerequisites for the realization of a future bioeconomy (K. Wagemann); (21) A new process

  1. Acid mine drainage research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidic drainage resulting from base metal, precious metal, and uranium mining is the largest single environmental problems facing the Canadian mining industry today. Technologies to prevent acidic drainage from occurring in waste rock piles and tailings sites, and on the walls of open pits and underground mines, need to be developed and demonstrated. There are two grounds in Canada which have accepted this challenge: the national Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) program and the British Columbia Acid Mine Drainage (BC AMD) Task Force. This paper summarizes the activities of these two organizations

  2. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  3. The Problems of the Waste Management in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Željka Šiljković

    1996-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the waste (communal, industrial, dangerous, and radioactive one) removing in the territory of Canada. The danger from dioxin and furan chemicals to which the government of the developed industrial countries pay more attention, has been stressed out. Radioactive waste problem grows up, as much because of big quantities of exhausting gasses, that much because of their storing location problems.

  4. Identifying and responding to weak signals to improve learning from experiences in high-risk industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaume, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    1. Context This thesis forms part of an extended study funded by FonCSI (Fondation pour une Culture de Sécurité Industrielle) about learning systems of major hazard companies. All French industrial sites running a risky activity – e.g. petrochemicals, steel making plants – must put a Safety Managem

  5. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein, E-mail: amirhossein@petronas.com.my [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Hasani, Amirhesam [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eisakhani, Mahdieh [School of Social, Development and the Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} concentrations. {yields} Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  6. Canada's disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept for the safe and permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes from Canada's CANDU reactors has been developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). The waste would be placed in an engineered disposal vault 500 to 1000 m below the surface in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The multiple barriers to retain the waste and retard the release of radioactivity would be the waste form, the containers, buffer and backfill, and the rock overlying the vault. Numerous research programmes have been carried out to develop the technology for the concept. These include work on materials corrosion and failure mechanisms to assess the performance of the used fuel containers. Predictive modelling has shown that more than 97% of ASTM Grade 2 titanium containers will retain their integrity, even under pessimistic assumptions, for 1200-6000 years after emplacement, and even longer times may be achieved with other grades of titanium or copper. Other research has been aimed at vault sealing, at site characterization for an underground research laboratory and at the development of a methodology for assessing radiological and environmental effects after closure of the facility. A review of the safety and environmental impacts of the concept is now being carried out by an independent panel appointed by the government. (2 figures, 3 references) (UK)

  7. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  8. Nuclear fuel waste policy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste established the approach in Canada for dealing with all radioactive waste, and defined the respective roles of Government and waste producers and owners. The Policy Framework sets the stage for the development of institutional and financial arrangements to implement long-term waste management solutions in a safe, environmentally sound, comprehensive, cost-effective and integrated manner. For nuclear fuel waste, a 10-year environmental review of the concept to bury nuclear fuel waste bundles at a depth of 500 m to 1000 m in stable rock of the Canadian Shield was completed in March 1998. The Review Panel found that while the concept was technically safe, it did not have the required level of public acceptability to be adopted at this time as Canada's approach for managing its nuclear fuel waste. The Panel recommended that a Waste Management Organization be established at arm's length from the nuclear industry, entirely funded by the waste producers and owners, and that it be subject to oversight by the Government. In its December 1998 Response to the Review Panel, the Government of Canada provided policy direction for the next steps towards developing Canada's approach for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. The Government chose to maintain the responsibility for long-term management of nuclear fuel waste close with the producers and owners of the waste. This is consistent with its 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste. This approach is also consistent with experience in many countries. In addition, the federal government identified the need for credible federal oversight. Cabinet directed the Minister of NRCan to consult with stakeholders, including the public, and return to ministers within 12 months with recommendations on means to implement federal oversight. (author)

  9. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  10. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  11. Making highly flammable liquid wastes of petrochemical works safe by combustion without burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelygin, B.L.; Bakhirev, V.I.; Gudzyuk, V.L.

    1983-11-01

    At the V.I. Lenin Energy Institute in Ivanov a technological program was implementd for combustion of highly flammable bulk wastes (for example, piperylene fractions) of petrochemical enterprises, with a moisture content of under 10% and mechanical admixtures (particles of catalyst dust) of up to 5%, without the use of burners. In devising the program, the results of mathematical theoretical analysis of pre-igniting preparation of substances to make them safe were utilized as well as the experience acquired in burning petroleum sludge in furnaces with bubbling equipment.

  12. Process improvement technology for petrochemical plant; Sekiyu kagaku puranto ni okesu purosesu kaizen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shin

    1999-05-05

    Before, GTC technology Co. was a manufacturer of the tray as a Greenwich technology. It is the subsidiary, which undertakes technology and licence of the engineering firm in U.S.A. at present. It carries out besides the technology licence support in the startup for the prolonged driving of technical service, operating condition of the plant of improvement and optimization and, etc. Has made separation and purification technology, which made extractive distillation to be a beginning good and has the process improvement technology to the PTA (high-pure terephthalic acid) from BTX (benzene toluene xylene) of petrochemical plant. (NEDO)

  13. Raw material demand and sourcing options for the development for a bio-based chemical industry in Europe : Part 1 : Estimation of maximum demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective presents an estimation of the future demand for biomass of the chemical industry in Europe, provided that naphtha, the present feedstock of the petrochemical industry, is fully replaced by biomass. Data are based on the Eurostat data on manufactured goods for EU27 in 2007. Two diffe

  14. Impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition in western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of transportation sectors (road vehicles and marine vessels, industry (e.g., oil and gas and urban centres in western Canada has triggered a growth in research, monitoring and modelling activities investigating the impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This special issue presents an overview of related research in British Columbia (Georgia Basin, Alberta (Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The research provides a valuable benchmark for future studies across the region and points the way forward for 'acid rain' policies in western Canada.

  15. Energy storage in Canada - Embassy report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having outlined what is at stake in energy storage in the world (brief presentation of storage methods, overview of world electricity production and its storage challenges), and given an overview of the Canadian energy sector, this report gives an overview of the Canadian key and particularly innovating actors: main organisations, scientific research (in the fields of advanced batteries, of fuel cells, and of thermal storage), industrial sector (leaders in electricity production, in the electric or hybrid automotive sector and in the field of portable electronic devices, in the Li-ion battery sector, and in the hydrogen fuel cell sector, innovating actors in other energy storage methods). The author then discusses the innovation momentum in Canada: examples of energy storage projects by public organisations (CNRC, RNC), industrial projects in energy projects, investment dynamics

  16. Gambling households in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  17. Contaminant Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren C.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Contaminant Research in CanadaPages 9 - 11 (ReportChristopher WrenAbstract:During the 1983/84 and 1984/85 trapping seasons, carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis were collected for contaminant analysis from trappers in Ontario. The studies identified clear differences in tissue levels of Hg, Pb and Cd between different collection areas. There is evidence to support Hg poisoning as the cause of death in at least one otter along this river system. The studies emphasize the potential interactions of toxic chemicals with each other and with natural stresses (e.g. cold, starvation, disease. More research is required along these lines since simultaneous exposure to more than one chemical and other stresses is more typical of conditions in the wild.

  18. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas.

  20. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. PMID:23628429

  1. Industrial applications of nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within of advanced nuclear reactor design, at present is considered the modular of high temperature gas-cooled reactors using helium as refrigerating gas, which had the finality of to supply the industrial heating of high temperature market, moreover to generate electricity. These reactors cover the normativity for the second generation reactors because of its situated as intrinsic safety reactors. By the design of its fuel particles, that is the key of these reactors type, it is possible to follow high temperatures than in the generators at present extended (1000 Centigrade degrees approx.), so as efficiencies in the thermodynamic charge to environment. Another properties demonstrated in experimental installation and prototype plants are its high disponibility and a low exposition of operational personal and maintenance. The high temperature gas reactors can provide vapor for to generate electric energy, so as heat and vapor for industrial process in refining plants, petrochemicals and siderurgical. (Author)

  2. Treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent by an up-flow biological aerated filter (BAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L Y; Wu, C Y; Zhou, Y X; Zuo, J E; Ding, Y

    2016-01-01

    In this study, petrochemical secondary effluent was treated by a 55 cm diameter pilot-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) with a media depth of 220 cm. Volcanic rock grains were filled as the BAF media. Median removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) was 29.35 and 57.98%, respectively. Moreover, the removal profile of the COD, NH3-N, total nitrogen and total organic carbon demonstrated that the filter height of 140 cm made up to 90% of the total removal efficiency of the final effluent. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, removal efficiencies of 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane, and benzonitrile, indene and naphthalene were obtained, ranging from 30.12 to 63.01%. The biomass and microbial activity of the microorganisms on the filter media were in general reduced with increasing filter height, which is consistent with the removal profile of the contaminants. The detected genera Defluviicoccus, Betaproteobacteria_unclassified and the Blastocatella constituted 1.86-6.75% of the identified gene, enhancing the COD and nitrogen removal in BAF for treating petrochemical secondary effluent. PMID:27120658

  3. Laboratory testing protocol for the impact of dispersed petrochemicals on seagrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Seagrass were exposed to dispersed and non-dispersed crude and fuel oil. ► Dispersed oil led to significant reductions in photosynthetic health of seagrass. ► Non-dispersed oil resulted in only minor reductions in seagrass health. ► Testing protocol developed enables rapid comparisons of oil spill mitigation options. - Abstract: To improve the effectiveness of oil spill mitigation, we developed a rapid, logistically simple protocol to detect petrochemical stress on seagrass. Sections of leaf blades from Zostera muelleri subsp. capricorni were exposed to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of non-dispersed and dispersed Tapis crude oil and fuel oil (IFO-380) for 5 h. Photosynthetic health was monitored by assessing changes in effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΔF/Fm′) and chlorophyll a pigment concentrations. Loss of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was measured using an oil-in-water fluorometer, whilst GC–MS analyses quantified the hydrocarbon components within each treatment. Few significant differences were detected in the chlorophyll a pigment analyses; however, ΔF/Fm′ appeared sensitive to petrochemical exposure. Dispersing both types of oil resulted in a substantial increase in the TPH of the WAF and was generally correlated with a greater physiological impact to the seagrass health, compared with the oil alone.

  4. Job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour, employee engagement and intention to leave in a petrochemical laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonet van Schalkwyk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Engaging individuals at work plays an important role in retaining them. Job security and leadership empowerment behaviour are antecedents of employee engagement.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour (as perceived by the employees who report to leaders, employee engagement and intention to leave their jobs in a petrochemical laboratory.Motivation for the study: Knowledge of the effects of job insecurity and leadership on employee engagement and turnover intention will contribute to improved talent management.Research design, approach and method: A correlational design was used. A total of 169 employees in a petrochemical laboratory were studied. The measuring instruments included the Job Insecurity Index, the Leadership Empowerment Behaviour Questionnaire, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Two questions were used to measure intention to leave.Main findings: The results showed that job insecurity was not statistically significantly related to employee engagement and turnover intention. Leadership empowerment behaviour contributed statistically significantly to employee engagement and low turnover intention. Employee engagement partially mediated the relationship between leadership empowerment behaviour and turnover intention.Practical implications: Leaders should be developed to show empowerment behaviour, because it affects employee engagement, which in turn affects their turnover intentionContribution: This was the first study that demonstrated the effect of empowerment behaviour of leaders on the engagement and turnover intention of employees.

  5. Use of an open-path FTIR sensor at Camacari Petrochemical Complex--Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Neuza; Couto, Elizabeth d. R.; Kagann, Robert H.

    1995-05-01

    CETREL--Empresa de Protecao Ambiental, is an environmental engineering company, which is owned by the member companies in the Camacari Petrochemical Complex, the largest petrochemical complex in Brazil. CETREL operates a centralized waste treatment plant, treatment and disposal facilities, an incineration unit, groundwater monitoring and air quality monitoring networks. The air monitoring network was designed based on mathematical modeling, and the results showed that the monoitoring of hydrocarbons is important not just within the complex but also at the area surrounding the complex. There are presently no regulations for hydrocarbons in Brazil, however they are monitored due to concerns about health problems arising from human exposure. The network has eight multiparameter monitoring stations, located at the villages nearby, where hydrocarbons are sampled with Summa canisters and subsequently analyzed with a GC/MS, using a Cryogenic trap at the interface. The open-path FTIR is used to monitor at the individual plants and in the areas in between because it is more efficient and costs less than it would to attempt to achieve the same level of coverage using the canisters. Ten locations were selected based on mathematical modeling and knowledge of the likely emission sources. Since August 1993, there have been five different measurement campaigns.

  6. Petrochemical characteristics of leucogranite and a case study of Bensbu leucogranites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO SuShu; LI ShuGuang

    2009-01-01

    Leucogranites have a relatively narrow variation in SiO2 content (70.5%-75.5%). Giving similar SiO2 content, leucogranites have relatively higher Al2O3 (>13.5%) and lower TFeO + MgO (<2.5%) contents than those of normal granites. These petrochemical characteristics suggest that leucogranites are de-rived from partial melting at relatively low temperature and are not significantly affected by fractional crystallization. In the present study, we propose that the A2O3 vs SiO2 and TFeO + MgO vs SiO2 dia-grams can be used to distinguish leucogranites from normal granites. In addition, we report the major element compositions of the Jurassic granitic intrusions from Jingshan-Tushan-Mayishan in the Bengbu area, east-central China. Using the A2O3 vs SiO2 and TFeO + MgO vs SiO2 diagrams and the comparison with the High Himalayan leucogranites in mineralogical and petrochemical characteristics, we suggest that the Jingshan-Tushan-Mayishan intrusions belong to a leucogranite belt. Similar to those of the High Himalayan leucogranites, the Bengbu leucogranites have low Mg# values, indicating that they resulted from low temperature dehydration partial melting of the subducted continental crust of the South China Block at the crustal depth.

  7. Gamma irradiation as a means of food preservation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of food irradiation has changed significantly in the past three years with the establishment of inter-national standards by the Codex Alimentarious Commission of the United Nations and the setting of wholesomeness guidelines for a wide variety of foods by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation. This report examines: the technology of food irradiation; the biochemical, nutritional and microbiological effects on food, with special attention paid to radiolytic products and their possible toxicity; the economic feasibility of a food irradiation industry; food irradiation in Canada -experience, outlook and regulatory proposals, and consumer reaction to irradiated foods; and presents conclusions and recommendations to Health and Welfare Canada and to Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada

  8. Para-petroleum industry: international context. Results of the 2002 inquiry carried out by GEP, CEP and M and IFP (part. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is the 2. part of the presentation of the inquiry about the 2002 economic results of the world para-petroleum industry: 1 - exploration-production: investments, geophysical activity (number of seismic survey teams, geophysical services market), drilling activity, construction of offshore production facilities (platforms construction, production equipments engineering), regional analysis (North America, North Sea, Latin America, Africa, Commonwealth of Independent States, Middle-East, Asia-Pacific). 2 - Refining and petrochemistry: economic context, refining industry expenses, fusions and results of refining companies, world petrochemical expenses, fusion and results of petrochemical companies. (J.S.)

  9. America's gas tank : the high cost of Canada's oil and gas export strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high environmental cost of exporting oil and gas from Canada to the United States is discussed. The increased demand for fossil fuels by the United States has coincided with Canada's deregulation of the energy industry and a greater control of Canadian energy companies by American interests. The authors note that most of the oil and gas produced in Canada is exported to the United States, where many of the extraction and production decisions affecting Canadians and the Canadian environment are made. It was cautioned that if the current trend continues, oil and gas development will degrade habitat for endangered species and greenhouse gases will escalate. This is because the fossil fuel industry, particularly the development of Alberta's tar sands, is helping to increase greenhouse gas emissions outside of Canada by selling fossil fuels that are burned outside of Canada. It is recommended that federal and provincial governments in Canada should shift their policies away from fossil fuel production and promote renewable energy production. The United States plans to increase Canadian oil and gas imports in the coming decade, requiring more wells to be drilled and pipelines to carry it. If the fossil fuel industry proceeds with the current plans, greenhouse gas emissions in Canada will grow to 827 million tonnes by 2010, 44 per cent beyond the Kyoto target, having an overall negative impact on public health, wildlife and fresh water supplies. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Obstetric medical care in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Laura A; Cote, Anne-Marie; Joseph, Geena; Firoz, Tabassum; Sia, Winnie

    2016-09-01

    Obstetric medicine is a growing area of interest within internal medicine in Canada. Canadians continue to travel broadly to obtain relevant training, particularly in the United Kingdom. However, there is now a sufficient body of expertise in Canada that a cadre of 'home-grown' obstetric internists is emerging and staying within Canada to improve maternity care. As this critical mass of practitioners grows, it is apparent that models of obstetric medicine delivery have developed according to local needs and patterns of practice. This article aims to describe the state of obstetric medicine in Canada, including general internal medicine services as the rock on which Canadian obstetric medicine has been built, the Canadian training curriculum and opportunities, organisation of obstetric medicine service delivery and the future.

  11. Canada goose behavior: Fall 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese use four divisions of the Mark Twin NWR: Louisa, Delair, Cannon, and Calhoun. There was a shortage of cultivated crops, corn and soybeans, on all...

  12. Private Health Insurance in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremiah Hurley; Emmanuel Guindon

    2008-01-01

    Although a majority of Canadians hold some form of private health care insurance -- most commonly obtained as an employment benefit -- private insurance finances only 12% of health care expenditures in Canada and its financing role is essentially limited to complementary coverage for services not covered by public insurance programs. Private supplementary insurance for services covered by the public insurance system does not exist in Canada. This limited role for private insurance in health c...

  13. Small dams in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grapel, C.K. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mitchelmore, P. [Mitchelmore Engineering Co. Ltd., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Small dams are often used for irrigation, municipal water supplies and storm water management. Small dams outnumber large hydro-electric projects in Canada by a wide margin, and tend to be located closer to large population centres. Despite their lower profile with the general public, small dams frequently have high consequence classifications. This study discussed the distribution of various consequence classifications for small dams of varying heights. Databases from different Canadian provinces were used to develop sets of statistics on dam features, the distribution of risk, and other relevant information. Approximately 6000 dams were classified in the database. Of these, 444 were greater than 15 metres in height. A significant portion of with high consequence classifications qualified as small dams, and the majority of the high consequence dams were under 10 metres in height. The largest population of dam owners have limited resources available for adequate engineering design, construction supervision, and dam safety management programs. It was concluded that economical methods of estimating probable maximum flood (PMF) rates are needed for small dams. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Unit for Production of MTBE and Butene-1 from Refinery C4 Successfully Put on Stream at Guangzhou Petrochemical Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The unit for manufacture of MTBE with co-production of butene-1 was successfully put on stream at Guangzhou Pet-rochemical Complex (GPC). It is told that this is the first domestic unit that utilizes the refinery C4 fraction to make MTBE and butene-1.

  15. Comparative Life Cycle Studies on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-Based Composites as Potential Replacement for Conventional Petrochemical Plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietrini, M.; Roes, A.L.; Patel, M.K.; Chiellini, E.

    2007-01-01

    A cradle-to-grave environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of a few poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) based composites has been performed and was compared to commodity petrochemical polymers. The end products studied are a cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor housing (conventionally produced from high-impact

  16. Difficulties Assessing Multifactor Productivity for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Harper; Nakamura, Alice O.; Lu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, Canada's business sector multifactor productivity (MFP) index, as estimated by Statistics Canada, was below that for 1977, a third of a century earlier. Over these years, public policies were enacted to try to improve Canada's productivity. Yet the nation's MFP continued to fall, relative to both the past and Canada's main trading partners. Policymakers and business decision makers need to know whether Canada's MFP statistics accurately reflect the nation's productivity. We argue tha...

  17. Decomposition of energy consumption and energy intensity in Indian manufacturing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Binay Kumar Ray; Sudhakara Reddy, B.

    2007-01-01

    Of the total final energy consumption in India, the industrial sector accounts for about 37 percent, of which the manufacturing sector consumes about 66 percent (2004-2005 figures) with chemicals and petrochemicals, iron and steel, pulp and paper and cement industries being the largest energy users. In the recent past, energy intensity in the manufacturing sector has been decreasing. This decline is mainly due to fuel substitution away from coal in some of the sectors, most notably cement. Wh...

  18. Application of water mist fire extinguishing system in the heat-oil pump zone of petrochemical corporation%高压细水雾灭火系统在石化企业热油泵区的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭虎城

    2011-01-01

    The theory of making fog of water mist fire extinguishing system, fire-fighting mechanism, performance, merits and special technology were described.The advantages come from replacing steam extinguishing system with water mist fire extinguishing system in heat-oil pumps district of catalytic equipments were introduced based on the situation of petrochemical enterprises, the fire plan, design parameters and applicatian results are briefly introduced too.The future application of water mist fire extinguishing system in the petrochemical industry was described.%简述细水雾灭火系统的成雾原理、灭火机理、性能、优点和特殊技术的应用,并结合石油化工企业热油泵区的实际状况,对细水雾灭火系统在催化装置热油泵区替代蒸汽灭火系统的优势及其灭火方案、设计参数和应用效果作简要介绍,展望细水雾灭火系统在石油化工企业的工程应用前景.

  19. TPM-300型无扰动装置在锦西石化分公司的应用%TPM-300 Type without disturbances of the device is given to the application in petrochemical branch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金福鑫; 白宇; 郭滨诗

    2012-01-01

    Operation condition and necessity of the existing standby auto power switch devjces and motor autostart device in Jinxi petrochemical branch by summary of power system in petrochemical industry were presented and necessity of choosing fast switching device was discussed in this paper; Fast switching device based on the principle and technology of fast switching device TPM-300 is considered in the high pressure test substation the commissioning and applications,and other power source for the pitch,since the launch of the motor in the wiring way,the revamping the comparison of the revamping and results of the perfect measures.%综述石化行业电系统特点,锦西石化分公司目前现有的备用电源自动投入装置及电机自启动装置运行情况及选用快切装置的必要性;快切装置原理与基于快切装置技术的TPM-300无扰动稳定控制装置在重催中心高压间等变电所上的实验调试与应用,及其与其它电源备自投、电机自启动等在接线方式、投用效果上的比较与投用后的完善措施.

  20. The Study of Petrochemical Plant Piping Corrosion and Anticorrosive Countermeasures%石油化工装置配管的腐蚀及防腐对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯飞龙

    2012-01-01

    配管是石油化工行业中必不可少的设备之一,在长时间运行的过程中常因受管道内部流体的性质、温度、压力、流速及滞留时间等因素的影响而发生腐蚀,甚至导致泄漏而引发事故。本文对石油化工装置配管的腐蚀原因进行了分析,并且研究了相应的防腐措施。%Piping in petrochemical industry was one of the essential equipment, which was often corroded because of the pipeline internal fluid properties, temperature, pressure, flow, residence time and other factors in the long time run- ning process, and even lead to accident caused by leakage. The reasons of petrochemical piping corrosion were analyzed and the corresponding measures of corrosion prevention were proposed.

  1. Uranium industry annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  2. UML-based Business Model of Petrochemical MES%基于UML的石化MES业务模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文必龙; 姚俊名; 刘红林

    2011-01-01

    Domestic petrochemical manufacturing execution system (MES) implementation for enterprise security and the economy has brought tremendous benefits, but in the implementation process were also found in some of the problems.The situation with the petrochemical companies large differences lead to duplication of work.The problem is that portability has been implemented MES poor, and has no uniform pattern.MES establishment of a domestic petrochemical business model and a unified system framework is particularly important.The characteristics of the petrochemical business of MES is summarized, carding key business processes; business models will be split with the multiple models approach for the establishment of a common business model, and unified modeling language to describe, for the petrochemical MES formation of a unified standard reference.%国内石化生产制造执行系统(Manufacturing Execution System即MES)的实施为企业带来了安全和经济的巨大效益,但在实施过程中也发现了一些问题,不同石化企业情况差异导致重复工作量大.问题在于现在已实施的MES可移植性差,没有统一的模式,建立国内石化MES业务模型及统一系统框架显得尤为重要.分析总结了石化MES的业务特点,梳理关键业务流程,用将业务模型拆分为多个模型的方式建立一个通用的业务模型,并用统一建模语言描述,为石化MES统一标准的形成提供参考.

  3. Analysis of Energy Consumption and Energy Conservation Measures for RFCCU at Shengli Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Xu Zhenling

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces a string of energy conservation measures adopted over the past several years by the RFCC unit at Shengli Petrochemical Complex, including the optimization of feedstock properties, the adoption of high-efficiency atomizing nozzles, the revamp of CO boiler, the atomization by means of dry gas, the post-burning of flue gas as well as the application of frequency converting machines and pumps, resulting in ideal effects. The energy consumption of the RFCC unit was gradually decreased to 2984.25 MJ/t from the original level of 3716.99 MJ/t. After comparing basic energy consumption values with actual consumption values, the authors have set forward measures for further energy conservation, such as the recovery of low-temperature excess heat contained in oil/gas streams exiting from the fractionation tower top, addition of the fourth cyclone, delivery of hot oil slurry, and heat tracing with hot water.

  4. The effects of intellectual capital on financial performance: A case study of petrochemical and pharmaceutical firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that traditional accounting does not provide actual value of assets since they only measure tangible assets. Intellectual capital provides a new concept for measuring actual value of the assets and we can calculate future values of the firm. In this paper, we first calculate intellectual capital based on the ratio of market value/book value for three years period. Then we investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and growth rate of intellectual capital as well as financial performance of some publicly traded petrochemical and pharmaceutical firms. The results of our survey indicate that there is a positive relationship between intellectual capital and equity growth with EVA and return of assets. However, there is no meaningful relationship between intellectual assets with net earnings.

  5. Application of Olefin-Reducing Catalyst in FCC Unit at Daqing Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinfeng; Yang Daoxue; Zhang Guojing; Yao Hua

    2003-01-01

    This article refers to the application of DOCO olefin-reducing catalyst developed by RIPP and manufactured by the Catalyst Factory of Changling Refining and Chemical Company in the 1.4 Mt/a RFCCU at Daqing Petrochemical Company. Results of operation over two months had revealed that this catalyst had good olefin-reducing ability and heavy oil converting ability adapted to paraffinic feedstock. The gasoline olefin yield had been reduced to 36.1 v% from 54.2 v% with gasoline RON rating decreased by 1.4 units. The induction period of gasoline had significantly increased to 952 mm, while the coke yield was increased by 0.05 percentage point with light oil yield dropping by only 0.02 percentage point. The FCC product distribution is favorable.

  6. Modeling the Spill in the Songhua River after the Explosion in the Petrochemical Plant in Jilin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing; Fu, Huijin; Skøtt, Karen;

    2008-01-01

    An explosion in a petrochemical plant in Jilin in the northeast of China on 13 November 13 2005 was responsible for the discharge of large quantities of benzene and nitrobenzene into Songhua River. This endangered the water supply of Harbin city and influenced the daily life for millions of people....... The dispersion-advection equation was solved analytically and numerically and used to simulate the concentration of benzene and nitrobenzene in the Songhua River after the accident. Both solutions gave practically identical results. The main elimination process for both compounds was volatilization. The model...... results are quite close to the results obtained by measurements at monitoring stations. Arrival time of the pollutant wave, peak concentrations and end of the pollutant wave at Harbin and along the river were predicted successfully. The peak concentrations of nitrobenzene at Harbin were more than 30 times...

  7. BC Alaska-Canada gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, K. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada). BP Alaska Canada Gas Pipelines

    2006-07-01

    The Alaska natural gas pipeline project was discussed in relation to the Canadian oil and gas industry and pipeline infrastructure. Total project costs for the pipeline were estimated at approximately $20 billion. Options out of Alberta include increasing existing capacity to the west coast, as well as expanding pipeline capacity to supply midwest and east coast markets. Existing pipeline systems will be expanded, and a new pipeline from Alaska to Chicago has been proposed. The gas pipeline project is expected to be the largest private construction project in the history of North America, and will provide 6500 jobs in both the United States and Canada. Project challenges to date have included the development of relationships with Aboriginals and First Nations groups in Canada and the United States, as well as ensuring access to efficient, competitive market-based regulatory processes. Project risks to date have included capital and operating cost over-runs, regulatory and legal delays, completion risks, and commodity price risks. Stranded gas act processes were discussed, as well as fiscal contracts related to the legislative and public process. Elements of the fiscal contract were provided, as well as details of First Nations relationships and Crown consultation processes. tabs., figs.

  8. A fusion engineering program for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980 the National Research Council asked DSMA ATCON Ltd., in collaboration with Ontario Hydro, the University of Toronto, and McMaster University, to evaluate concepts for a national fusion engineering program, to define a facility that could be constructed in Canada to meet the program goals, and to suggest a strategy for encouraging industrial participation. The central element of the proposed fusion engineering and development program is tritium technology, with additional emphasis on the broader field of all hydrogen isotopes and their interactions with materials. The Canadian program in the initial phase would concentrate on fusion fuel systems, materials development, equipment development, and safety and the environment. A preliminary concept for the facility required has been developed, and key organizational activities identified. The total program costs should be $1 million in the first year, rising to a steady state of $5 million from the fourth year onward. The capital cost of the research facility is estimated to be $20 million spread over three years, and its operating budget around $7 million. The program as envisioned would make use of Canada's existing tritium resources and handling experience to contribute to worldwide fusion research

  9. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  10. Canada's response to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant damage occurred to the six units of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami on March 11, 2011. As a response to this event, the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) had issued a request to all CANDU Utilities to provide a documented summary of our ability to address beyond design basis events, as had the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to Canadian nuclear facilities. Based on the extent of the event and impact on all aspects of nuclear power plant design basis, safety standards and operating practices, the Senior Executives in CANDU nuclear facilities decided to work on the response to this event in a joint collaborative manner. To achieve this objective, a CANDU Industry Team (CIT) was created to share information and promote industry collaboration. This team has now completed the initial phase of this event response and provided feedback to both WANO and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. This team has now transitioned to a sustaining mode to ensure that defined activities continue to progress and industry collaboration preserved. The following presentation documents the progress to date and provides an overview of the CIT activities, lessons learned and a summary of the short and long term steps being taken to implement enhancements to plant mobile support equipment, emergency measures capability and inter-utility mutual aid protocol.

  11. [Application of Micro-aerobic Hydrolysis Acidification in the Pretreatment of Petrochemical Wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Wu, Chang-yong; Zhou, Yue-xi; Fu, Xiao-yong; Chen, Xue-min; Qiu, Yan-bo; Wu, Xiao-feng

    2015-10-01

    Micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification technology was applied in the reconstruction of ananaerobic hydrolysis acidification tank in a north petrochemical wastewater treatment plant. After put into operation, the monitoring results showed that the average removal rate of COD was 11.7% when influent COD was 490.3-673.2 mg x L(-1), hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 24 and the dissolved oxygen (DO) was 0.2-0.35 mg x L(-1). In addition, the BOD5/COD value was increased by 12.4%, the UV254 removal rate reached 11.2%, and the VFA concentration was increased by 23.0%. The relative molecular weight distribution (MWD) results showed that the small molecule organic matter ( 100 x 10(3)) percentage was decreased from 31.8% to 14.0% after micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification. The aerobic biodegradation batch test showed that the degradation of petrochemical wastewater was significantly improved by the pretreatment of micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification. The COD of influent can be degraded to 102.2 mg x L(-1) by 48h aerobic treatment while the micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification effluent COD can be degraded to 71.5 mg x L(-1) on the same condition. The effluent sulfate concentration of micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification tank [(930.7 ± 60.1) mg x L(-1)] was higher than that of the influent [(854.3 ± 41.5) mg x L(-1)], indicating that sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was inhibited. The toxic and malodorous gases generation was reduced with the improvement of environment. PMID:26841606

  12. Comparing the steam and electric heat tracing solutions for petrochemical or refining facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.; McQueen, Greg [Tyco Thermal Controls, Belgie (Belgium)

    2012-07-01

    In this era of energy conservation and cost reduction, the ability to effectively select the optimal solution to meet the heat management system needs of petrochemical or refining facilities is becoming increasingly important. Depending on the type and location of the plant, a heat management system (HMS) can comprise a significant portion of the overall capital expenditure, as well as the ongoing operating and maintenance costs. Several important heat management system design decisions affect the financial operations of a facility, including the selection of the heat tracing technology, the utility distribution scheme, and the insulation system criteria, among others. However, most of these decisions are made early in the project life-cycle without thorough analysis of the various options available. From a high level perspective, numerous heat trace media should be considered, including electric, steam, tempered water, and glycol. These systems also have different impacts on piping systems within the plant battery limits (ISBL) and transfer lines outside of the battery limits (OSBL). This paper takes a careful look at two of the predominant heat tracing technologies - electric heat tracing and steam tracing - and compares these within the larger framework of the heat management system, and relative to petrochemical or refining facilities within the general Brazil geography. In the broader context, a heat management system is defined as the heat tracing technology itself, the utility distribution associated with that technology, the control and monitoring scheme associated with that technology, and the insulation system. We will evaluate the capital expenditure cost, operating expenditure cost, and overall reliability of the electric and steam tracing mediums in both the ISBL and OSBL environments within this broader context. (author)

  13. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, after a comprehensive industry review, the Canadian government announced that steps would be taken to revitalize the nuclear industry. Canada's nuclear utilities made a commitment to bear a large share of the cost of nuclear research and development. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) reported its first financial loss in twelve years, as anticipated at the start of the year. Four of the 20 CANDU reactors operating worldwide were in the top ten based on lifetime performance. By year-end one foreign and two domestic utilities had announced their intention to build more CANDU units. The federal government has agreed to stabilize AECL's research funding at 1989-90 levels ($31.5 million above levels planned in 1985), has authorized AECL to negotiate with New Brunswick to build Point Lepreau-2 as the prototype for the CANDU-3 reactor, and has allowed the restructuring of AECL so utility and private sector investors can become equity partners in AECL CANDU

  14. Canada. National Biotechnology Advisory Committee: Annual report 1985-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The Committee is to recommend, to the Minister of State for Science and Technology, policies and focused strategies for the continued economic growth of Canada by enhancing the international competitiveness of Canadian industry through the development, application and commercialization of biotechnology. This annual report includes a list of members, and Committee activities. It discusses research, technology transfer, precommercial development, and marketing and commercialization. Next, it looks at opportunities in agriculture, forestry and health care. Finally, the document touches on future activities.

  15. Job matching for Chinese and Asian Indian immigrants in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Fong; Peter Shi Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Using recently collected data from Toronto, a major city in Canada, we explored job mismatch among Chinese and Asian Indian immigrants. Our study shows that a relatively small percentage of Chinese immigrants, and an even lower percentage of Asian Indian immigrants, work in the same industry and occupation as they did before immigrating. The multivariate analysis suggests that higher education before immigration does help immigrants secure first jobs that match their jobs before immigration. ...

  16. Canada's CO2 capture and storage technology roadmap : a preview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation consists of a PowerPoint slide presentation on the development, conclusions, recommendations and path forward for Canada's CO2 Capture and Storage Technology Roadmap. The Roadmap was developed over three years with input from industry, academia, research organizations and international experts as well as provincial and federal governments. The document identifies both the challenges and opportunities for CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS), the technology pathways and identifies concrete requirements and critical objectives for the path forward

  17. The Veterinary Practitioner and Diseases Exotic to Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Dukes, T. W.

    1981-01-01

    Veterinarians, in clinical practice, regulatory field work, laboratory diagnosis or research, must work together as a team, each within his area of expertise in order to protect the livestock industry of Canada from exotic diseases. This freedom from many of the serious animal plagues has allowed the development of intensive animal production units with increased vulnerability to disease and in which the impact of disease outbreaks may be more serious.

  18. Impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition in western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick D. SHAW; Julian AHERNE

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of transportation sectors (road vehicles and marine vessels), industry (e.g., oil and gas) and urban centres in western Canada has triggered a growth in research, monitoring and modelling activities investigating the impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This special issue presents an overview of related research in British Columbia (Georgia Basin), Alberta (Athabasca Oil Sands Region), Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The research provides ...

  19. Energy intensive industry for Alaska. Volume I: Alaskan cost factors; market factors; survey of energy-intensive industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, W.H.; Clement, M.; Baker, E.G.; Elliot, D.C.; Jacobsen, J.J.; Powers, T.B.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The Alaskan and product market factors influencing industry locations in the state are discussed and a survey of the most energy intensive industries was made. Factors external to Alaska that would influence development and the cost of energy and labor in Alaska are analyzed. Industries that are likely to be drawn to Alaska because of its energy resources are analyzed in terms of: the cost of using Alaska energy resources in Alaska as opposed to the Lower 48; skill-adjusted wage and salary differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48; and basic plant and equipment and other operating cost differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48. Screening and evaluation of the aluminum metal industry, cement industry, chlor-alkali industry, lime industry, production of methanol from coal, petroleum refining, and production of petrochemicals and agrichemicals from North Slope natural gas for development are made.

  20. Future directions of dam safety in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verzeni, Gerard [Hydro Quebec, QC, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Gerard Verzeni, former director of the dam safety & environment at Hydro-Quebec introduced the future directions of dam safety in Canada. New and numerous challenges are emerging for the dam safety community. Measurable effects of climate changes illustrate that hydraulic forecasts would change drastically. Loads with times and amplitudes which are different from the actual knowledge will apply on dams. The development of new types of dams using recent technologies raises several issues, for example the longevity of such installations. The installations are becoming old and soon will require complete renovation and update for regulation and standards compliance. Concrete dams already need efforts and investment to maintain then in a safe state. Various factors will influence these challenges such as human resources in the dam safe community. In these conditions, it is important that organizations like CDA play an important role in providing support and reference and in being a driver for the whole industry.

  1. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  2. Chinese Lessons : State Owned Enterprises and the Regulation of Foreign Investment in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen Pau Woo

    2013-01-01

    A recent influx of Asian investment is changing the character of the Canadian oil and gas industry and reviving old debates on the regulation of foreign investment. Particular attention has been placed on investment by state-owned enterprises (SOEs), driven in part by public suspicion about investment from China, which has been the largest source of SOE capital flows to Canada. Recent amendments to the Investment Canada Act have made SOE investment more difficult and have raised questions abo...

  3. The Potential Economic Impact of an Outbreak of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Krystynak, Ronald H.E.; Charlebois, Pierre A.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease is of concern to Canada's livestock industry due to the resulting economic consequences. The primary economic impact of a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak would arise from the trade embargo placed on Canadian exports of animals and animal products to countries free of the disease. Agriculture Canada's Food and Agriculture Regional Model was used to estimate the economic impact of such a trade embargo. Two scenarios, a small and large out...

  4. Relative Multifactor Productivity Levels in Canada and the United States: A Sectoral Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Wulong; Baldwin, John R.; Yan, Beiling

    2008-01-01

    This paper has three main objectives. First, it examines the level of multifactor productivity (MFP) in Canada relative to that of the United States for the 1994-to-2003 period. Second, it examines the relative importance of differences in capital intensity and MFP in accounting for the labour productivity differences between the two countries. Third, it traces the overall MFP difference between Canada and the United States to its industry origins and estimates the contributions of the goods,...

  5. Impact of Canada's Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2006-01-01

    On April 5, 2005, a voluntary agreement between the automobile industry and government officials of Canada was reached to commit to greenhouse gas emission reductions through the year 2010. This report compares Canada's voluntary agreement with other voluntary and mandatory greenhouse gas reduction programs around the world in terms of what technologies are likely to be deployed and how much vehicle fuel consumption is likely to improve. It investigates various methods and measurement approac...

  6. Canada's offshore : jurisdiction, rights, and management. 3. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderbank, B. [Hydrographic Survey Consultants Intl. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); MacLeod, A.M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geomatics for Sustainable Development; McDorman, T.L. [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). Environmental Law Centre; Gray, D.H. [Canadian Hydrographic Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This book addressed practical issues related to Canada's offshore oil and gas industry with particular reference to international practices, customs, laws and treaties concerning the oceans and their effects on Canada. It included arbitration decisions concerning Canada, with specific focus on ocean boundary delimitations. The book deals comprehensively and systematically with the issues pertaining to the jurisdiction, rights, and management in Canada's offshore. It is a reference book for the mechanics of describing and determining ocean boundaries, and interpreting ocean-related Canadian legislation. In November 2003, Canada ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The basis for national interests and sovereign rights beyond the traditional 3 nautical mile territorial sea was established in 1982. Through the 1997 Oceans Act, Canada also consolidated various pieces of legislation to provide a more cohesive statement on Canada's offshore interests, including the juridical continental shelf beyond the 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone. Canada's Oceans Action Plan of 2005 identified issues such as sovereignty, integrated ocean management, and health of the oceans as priorities. Ocean science and technology was identified as one of the tools to meet these priorities. The material in this book is organized from the Pacific Coast, to the Atlantic Coast and the Arctic Coast. It begins with international concepts, followed by Canadian applications and practical demonstrations. 73 refs., 23 tabs., 64 figs., 3 appendices.

  7. Electricity Market Deregulation and CO2 Emissions Reduction: Dancing at Different Tune across Canada and U.S. Border

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Jean-Thomas; Clavet, Frederic; Ondo, Jean-Cleophas

    2003-01-01

    Canada has ratified the Kyoto Protocol while the United States, its main trading partner, have not. A major concern of Canadian industrial producers is the negative impact on competitiveness of progorams designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). To alleviate this concern, the Government of Canada is proposing an approach that puts a ceiling on the price of emission permits paid by industrial users and that allocate emission permits on the base of output. We analyze how such a scheme ...

  8. [History of trachoma in canada].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Jean

    2010-06-01

    The author retraces the history of trachoma in Canada. The numerous articles in Canadian medical journals from the middle of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century show the remarkable contribution of Canadian ophthalmologists. The clinical symptoms and signs followed by the etiology and the different modes of treatment are reviewed. The presence and prevention of trachoma in Canada, ranging from Montreal to Toronto, also in Halifax with the arrival of the transatlantic immigrants, as well as those reaching the western provinces of Canada are described. How the Canadian Department of Health belatedly introduced a prevention campaign only after a widespread dissemination of trachoma across the country is also examined.

  9. Analysis on the new mode of safety management of petrochemical enterprises%炼化企业安全管理新模式的分析探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永林

    2015-01-01

    炼化企业作为高危行业,做好安全管理工作是企业面临的首要课题.文中从明确企业各部门的职责、全员参与安全管理入手,分析了发挥企业各部门齐抓共管安全工作的优势.安全管理新模式有效提升了企业安全管理职能,开创了企业安全管理工作的新局面.%Petrochemical enterprises as a high-risk industry, good safety management is the most important issue facing enterprises. In this paper, the full participation in safety management is the beginning of the full participation of all departments, and the advantages of each department to manage the safety work of the enterprises, effectively improve the safety management functions, and create a new situation of enterprise security management.

  10. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil... Rules Applicable to Oil Pipeline Proceedings, 18 CFR 343.2, ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint...

  11. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  12. Industrial Instrument Mechanic. Occupational Analyses Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Ann; Zagorac, Mike; Bumbaka, Nick

    This analysis covers tasks performed by an industrial instrument mechanic, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as industrial instrumentation and instrument mechanic. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate…

  13. Implementing the GISB standards in Canada - electronic gas trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standards promulgated by the Gas Industry Standards Board (GISB) in the United States, its objective and applicability in Canada are discussed. The standards, while sponsored by an American trade organization, have had significant Canadian input, and are considered applicable throughout North America, although implementation in Canada is voluntary. In developing the standards, the intent of the GISB was to developing business practice and electronic commerce standards for the natural gas industry. Despite voluntary application in Canada, Canadians are affected by the standards since some 50 per cent of Canadian gas is exported to U.S. consumers, and U.S. gas is imported for Canadian consumers in certain parts of the country. In actual fact. a Canadian GISB Implementation Task Force has been established to develop recommendations for Canadian implementation. The task force is broadly representative of the industry and published its report in March of 1997. It explains the nature of the standards and provides details about the definition of 'gas day' , nomination schedules, accounting issues, electronic delivery mechanisms, capacity release, standard unit of measure for nominations, confirmations, scheduling, measurement reports and invoicing. Questions regarding electronic contracting and enforceability of electronic contracts also have been reviewed. Details are currently under consideration by a Working Group. Status of contracts under the Statute of Frauds, the Evidence Act and the Interpretation Act is reviewed, and legislative requirements in Canada to make electronic commerce legally enforceable are outlined. At present electronic transactions would likely be enforceable provided they are preceded by a paper-based Electronic Commerce Trading Partner Agreement

  14. APPLICATION OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL CLASSIFICATION TOOLS FOR INDUSTRIAL POLICY MEASURES SUBSTANTIATION: CASE OF IMDUSTRIAL CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Smirnova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The modeling stage of development of industrial cluster is significant for the formation of industrial policy and institutional conditions for economic growth. The work deals with the modeling stage of the life cycle of industrial cluster, the results of testing applied to the petrochemical industry of the Russian Federation. Also, highlights issues approbation of this method by applying the results of simulation as a training set for building the classification tree and the interpretation of the results to justify investment and infrastructure projects.

  15. The Metis: Canada's Forgotten People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, D. Bruce; Lussier, Antoine S.

    The Metis appeared early on the pages of Canada's history, were a major determinant in the westward expansion of the nation, and are still a significant segment of modern Canadian society. This book (1) traces their origin and their slow evolution to nationhood; (2) examines the Golden Age; (3) describes the battles won and lost with the nation of…

  16. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  17. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  18. Canada: International Perspectives on Business Communication Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Rebecca J.

    1998-01-01

    Offers an overview of Canada's business-communication research efforts. Describes its definition and scope; issues facing Canadian researchers (gaining an institutional presence, creating Canada as a viable research site, and creating a Canadian research focus); disseminating research in Canada; and expanding Canadian business-communication…

  19. Efficient multi-product multi-BOM batch scheduling for a petrochemical blending plant with a shared pipeline network

    OpenAIRE

    HILL, Alessandro; CORNELISSENS, Trijntje; Sörensen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    We present an effective scheduling heuristic for realistic production planning in a petrochemical blending plant? The considered model takes into account orders spanning a multi-product portfolio with multiple bills of materials per product, that need to be scheduled on shared production facilities including a complex pipeline network. Capacity constraints, intermediate storage restrictions, due dates, and the dedication of resources to specific product families have to be respected. The prim...

  20. Analysing value-based management as decision-making tool in a petrochemical company / Zonwabele Zweli Tom

    OpenAIRE

    Tom, Zonwabele Zweli

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate the understanding of value – based management (VBM) as a decision making tool, how it is embraced in all management levels and its impact on the performance of a petrochemical company. The application of VBM links business strategy, finance, performance management and management processes all together to create value. VBM is a powerful management framework with the aim to focus all managerial processes on shareholder value creation. It encourages employees at all...