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Sample records for canada petrochemical industries

  1. Wastewater quality control at Sarnia (Ontario, Canada) petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, Arlinda C. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Souza, Eliane S.; Himmelman, William [Lambton College, Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Ontario industries are required by law to meet strict regulations under the provinces under MISA initiative (Municipal-Industrial Strategy for Abatement). The petroleum-petrochemical area was selected as a leader in the development of new environmental objectives, and monitoring and training programs. Sarnia has become a world leader in industrial environmental control systems and the approach toward zero emissions. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Conservation of electrical energy in a petrochemical industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petrochemical industry can achieve system reliability, higher productivity, reduce energy cost, and reduce down time and maintenance costs through proper conservation of electrical power. Key words: Petrochemical industry, Control technologies, Power technologies, Electric motors, Energy efficiency, Power Factor.

  3. Whether integrating refining and petrochemical business can provide opportunities for development of petrochemical industry in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zoran M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 90s of last century both the petroleum industry and petrochemical industry have operated in difficult circumstances. In particularly, margins of petroleum and petrochemical industry were exacerbated during global economic crisis in 2008-2009 years. At that time, as one option that could be the solution, the global analysts had started to more intense investigate the benefits of Refining-Petrochemical Integration. Shortly afterwards, more and more petroleum refineries and petrochemical manufacturers began to see the future in this kind of operational, managerial, marketing and commercial connection. This paper evaluates, in particular, the achieved level of integration of refinery and petrochemical businesses in Central and South-Eastern Europe. And specifically, the paper identifies current capabilities and future chances of linking this kind of integration between Serbian refining and petrochemical players. The viability of integration between possible actors and benefits of every single refining-petrochemical interface in Serbia depend on many factors, and therefore each integrated system is unique and requires prior serious Cost Benefit Analysis.

  4. Components of sustainability considerations in management of petrochemical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanasl, Amir; Ghodousi, Jamal; Arjmandi, Reza; Mansouri, Nabiollah

    2017-06-01

    Sustainability comprises three pillars of social, environmental, and economic aspects. Petrochemical industry has a great inter-related complex impact on social and economic development of societies and adverse impact on almost all environmental aspects and resource depletion in many countries, which make sustainability a crucial issue for petrochemical industries. This study was conducted to propose components of sustainability considerations in management of petrochemical industries.A combination of exploratory study-to prepare a preliminary list of components of sustainable business in petrochemical industries based on review of literature and Delphi-to obtain experts' view on this preliminary list and provide a detailed list of components and sub-components that should be addressed to bring sustainability to petrochemical industries, were used.Two sets of components were provided. First general components, which include stakeholders (staffs, society, and environment) with four sub-components, financial resources with 11 sub-components, improvement of design and processes with nine sub-components, policy and strategy of cleaner production with seven sub-components and leadership with seven sub-components. The second operational components included raw material supply and preparation with five, synthesis with ten, product separation and refinement with nine, product handling and storage with five, emission abatement with eight, and improvement of technology and equipment with 16 sub-components.

  5. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  6. 31 CFR 538.210 - Prohibited transactions relating to petroleum and petrochemical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum and petrochemical industries. 538.210 Section 538.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan, including, but not limited to, oilfield... relating to the petroleum or petrochemical industries in Sudan is prohibited. ...

  7. Air Quality Impacts of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Ragothaman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society’s energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to strive for and maintain good air quality. To manage potential health impacts, it is important to implement proper air quality management by understanding the link between specific pollutant sources and resulting population exposures. These industries release pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds, greenhouse gases and particulate matter, from various parts of their operations. Air quality should be monitored and controlled more meticulously in developing nations where increased energy demands, industrialization and overpopulation has led to more emissions and lower air quality. This paper presents a review of findings and highlights from various studies on air quality impacts of petroleum refining and petrochemical plants in many regions in the world.

  8. Air Quality Impacts of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Aiswarya Ragothaman; William A. Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society’s energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to strive for and maintain good air quality. To manage potential health impacts, it is important to implement proper air quality management by understanding the link between specific pollutant sources and resultin...

  9. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  10. Beyond petrochemicals: The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennestrøm, P.N.R.; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Christensen, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    From petroleum to bioleum: Since biomass is a limited resource, it is necessary to consider its best use. The production of select chemicals from biomass, rather than its use as fuel, could effectively replace the use of petroleum in the chemical industry, but the inherent functionality of biomass...

  11. Petrochemical Characteristics and Industrial Features of Talcose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talc bodies occurring in association with mafic and ultramafic rocks, gneisses, quartzite, and schistose rocks of Ijero-Ekiti area were investigated with a view to determining their compositional characteristics and industrial potentials. The talcose rocks which outcrop as rounded crudely lensoidal bodies, averagely extends for ...

  12. Permeation properties of Concrete Added with a Petrochemical Industry Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres-Agredo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the permeation properties of concrete added with a residue of a petrochemical industry located in Colombia, called catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FCC. Concrete samples with 10, 20 and 30 % of FCC incorporated as cement replacement were evaluated. As reference materials, concrete without addition and concrete added with 20 % of metakaolin (MK were used. MK is a high performance pozzolan of chemical composition similar to the FCC. The properties studied, in addition to the compressive strength, were: water absorption by total immersion, porosity, surface absorption and capillary sorption. The results showed that the concrete added with FCC and MK had similar behavior, and were slightly higher than the control sample. The total absorption and porosity were below 5 % and 10 % respectively for all samples; this means that the incorporation of the addition reduces the permeability of concrete. In this sense, FCC is considered as a good alternative for producing more durable concrete, being the optimum percentage, 10 % cement replacement.

  13. The New Face of Chinese Industrial Policy: Making Sense of Anti-Dumping Cases in the Petrochemical and Steel Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Regina M. Abrami; Yu Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Why have China's petrochemical and steel industries behaved so differently in seeking trade protection through antidumping measures? We argue that the patterning of antidumping actions is best explained in terms of the political economy of economic restructuring in pillar industries and its effect on industry structures. In the petrochemical industry, the shift toward greater horizontal consolidation and vertical integration reduces the collective action problems associated with antidumping p...

  14. Acquired dyschromatopsia among petrochemical industry workers exposed to benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Eum, Ki Do; Cho, Sung-Il; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Paek, Do Myung

    2007-03-01

    Exposure to organic solvents, which are widely used in industry, can lead to dysfunction of the nervous system. However, controversy continues about the nature of early-stage damage to the nervous system from low-grade chronic exposure to organic solvents. Since loss of color-vision can be a sensitive early marker of neurotoxic damage, the main aim of this study was to investigate the association between low-level chronic exposure to organic solvents, especially benzene, and acquired dyschromatopsia. The study initially comprised 1236 workers who were employed at a large petrochemical distillation factory. After excluding those workers who may have had color-vision impairment due to congenital or acquired eye diseases and those with other medical conditions, 908 males who had worked for at least 6 months were included in the final analysis. Those who worked only in the office were categorized as nonexposed, while those who worked at outside facilities were divided into three groups of approximately equal size according to their estimated cumulative exposure levels to benzene (low, medium, high). Color-vision was assessed using the Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel color test. The results showed that the color-confusion index (CCI) was positively related to age. In the qualitative assessment of types of color-vision loss, the prevalence of total dyschromatopsia was significantly higher with increasing cumulative exposure levels in the left eye (pdyschromatopsia was borderline in the left eye (p=0.0571). The relationship between acquired dyschromatopsia and exposure level also showed an increase in the odds ratio in the left eye but not in the right eye. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic low-level exposure to benzene can lead to acquired dyschromatopsia.

  15. Smart Manufacturing for the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart manufacturing will transform the oil refining and petrochemical sector into a connected, information-driven environment. Using real-time and high-value support systems, smart manufacturing enables a coordinated and performance-oriented manufacturing enterprise that responds quickly to customer demands and minimizes energy and material usage, while radically improving sustainability, productivity, innovation, and economic competitiveness. In this paper, several examples of the application of so-called “smart manufacturing” for the petrochemical sector are demonstrated, such as the fault detection of a catalytic cracking unit driven by big data, advanced optimization for the planning and scheduling of oil refinery sites, and more. Key scientific factors and challenges for the further smart manufacturing of chemical and petrochemical processes are identified.

  16. Photocatalytic treatment of spent caustic wastewater in petrochemical industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aَli Haghighi Asl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the photocatalytic method was used for treating the spent caustic in the wastewater of Olefin units used in petrochemical industries which contain large amounts of total dissolved solids (TDS. By using the synthetic photocatalyst of suspended titanium dioxide and measuring the chemical oxygen demand (COD which was reduced in the photocatalyst (lbc process, the values of COD were modeled and evaluated by means of the Box-Behnken (BBD and the artificial neural network (ANN using experimental tests in a double-cylindrical-shell photo reactor. According to the applied calculations, it was found that the artificial neural network was a more suitable method than the experimental design in modeling and forecasting the amount of COD removal. The modeling employed in this research showed that increasing the concentration of the photocatalyst in a state of neutral pH enhanced the COD removal up to the optimal amount of 1.31 g/L without restrictions and 2 g/L with restrictions at the rate of 81% and 79%, respectively. In addition, the study of the parameter effects including oxidizer amount, aeration rate, pH, and the amount of loaded catalyst indicated that all factors except pH  had a positive effect on the model; furthermore, if the interactions were neglected, the COD removal efficiency would increase by increasing each of these factors (except pH. In addition, there was no interaction between the aeration and the concentration of the photocatalyst, and the acidic pH was more suitable at low concentrations of the photocatalyst. Besides that, by increasing the pH, the efficiency of removal was reduced when the oxidant was at its low level. The results showed that photolysis and adsorption adoptions had a very small effect on the efficiency of the removal of COD compared to the photocatalyst adoptions, and it was insignificant. In addition, the photocatalytic method had an acceptable capacity for removing the phenol in the wastewater

  17. Challenges of knowledge sharing in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Chong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing is one of the important and also challenging parts in the success of KM implementation. The objective of this paper is to find out knowledge sharing barriers in the petrochemical companies in a Middle East country. Three main categories are found to have an impact on knowledge sharing in the companies. These categories are potential individual knowledge sharing barriers, potential organizational knowledge sharing barriers and potential technological knowledge sharing barriers. Data were collected by using a convenience sampling survey method. 500 questionnaires were distributed among employees and 302 questionnaires were returned. Trust, knowledge as power, communication, organizational hierarchy and knowledge sharing technological systems are found to have relationships with knowledge sharing. However, reward and recognition system have less significant relationship with knowledge sharing in the petrochemical companies.

  18. Status and direction of waste minimization in the chemical and petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englande Junior, A.J. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an evaluation of the status and direction of toxic/hazardous waste reduction in chemical and petrochemical industries from an international perspective. In almost all cases studied savings have resulted. The importance of pollution prevention by `clean technologies` instead of remediation is stressed. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Biomass alcohols as potential petroleum alternatives in the fuel and petrochemical industries: A generalized network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, R. F.

    A generalized network model called PETNET is developed to address this problem. The focus of the analysis presented is the role of biomass alcohols as potential alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons as raw materials in the petrochemical and oil industries. Illustrative scenarios for biomass-based alcohol replacements are investigated with PETNET by solving for alternative assumptions of price, capacity, resource availability and process technology.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF INNOVATIONS SUSTAINABLE IN DECISION PURCHASE OF INDUSTRIES THIRD GENERATION PETROCHEMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Madureira Domingues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to understand how sustainable innovation influences the decision of industrial purchases. Much has been said about the organizational buying behavior, but little is said about how the industrial buyers consider sustainable innovation in their purchasing procedures. This work aims to contribute to the constructs involving this type of purchase behavior. Therefore, a qualitative survey was conducted with non-probabilistic sample , composed of six companies of different sizes , which make up the chain of the petrochemical industry , more specifically , the third generation of this chain . Data were collected via semi-structured interview guide, and studied by means of categorization by content analysis. The analysis revealed that sustainable innovations not influence the purchasing decisions of the petrochemical industry , since the companies surveyed are strongly linked to criteria such as price , time and quality and do not realize sustainable innovation as an important factor in purchasing decisions .

  1. A study on the effects of subsidies on market value: Evidence from Petrochemical and steel industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Norouzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iran’s 4th development plan has enrolled the federal government to increase energy prices and remove any subsidies paid to energy sector in an attempt to increase productivity and provide better social welfare. It is, therefore, important to investigate the effects of the law on different industries and the subsequent effects on economic growth. This study investigates the impacts of subsidies on the market value of listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange in Petrochemical and Steel industries. The study selects two firms, Esfahan's Mobarakeh Steel Company and Fanavaran Petrochemical Co. using Auto Regressive Distributed Lags (ARDL over the period 2008-2013. The results have indicated that there was a meaningful relationships between removal of subsidies and market value of the firms.

  2. [Evolution of technology and occupational exposures in petrochemical industry and in petroleum refining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The industry of oil refining and petrochemical play an important role in terms of number of employees in the Italian production. Often the terms "petroleum refining" and "petrochemical" are used interchangeably to define processes that occur in complex plants, which grow outdoors on large surfaces and a visual impact is not irrelevant. In reality, the two areas involve potential exposure to different chemical agents, related to raw materials processed and the specific products. The petrochemical uses as raw materials, the oil fractions, obtained by distillation in the refinery, or natural gas; petrochemical products are, usually, single compounds with a specific degree of purity, used as basic raw materials for the entire industry of organic chemistry, from the production of plastics to pharmaceuticals. The oil refining, that is the topic of this paper, processes mainly oil to obtain mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds, the products of which are specified on the basis of aptitude for use. For example gasolines, are obtained by mixing of fractions of the first distillation, reforming products, antiknock. The paper illustrates, necessarily broadly due to the complexity of the productive sectors, the technological and organizational changes that have led to a significant reduction of occupational exposure to chemical agents, the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some refineries both during routine conditions that during scheduled maintenance activities with plant shutdown and a store of petroleum products. The chemical agents measured are typical for presence, physico-chemical properties and toxicological characteristics of the manufacturing processes of petroleum products like benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene, n-hexane, Volatile Hydrocarbons belonging to gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel. Data related to both personal sampling and fixed positions.

  3. Survey of Safety Climate in a Petrochemical Industry in Mahshahr

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    Y. Shokoohi

    2012-07-01

    Results and Discussion: Average score of the industry's safety climate was obtained 5.9. Of 17 studied dimensions, 9 dimensions were weak (score less than 6. Lowest score were related to Event & Accident and Change management dimensions. Highest score were related to Individual priorities and need for safety (8.65. Generally relationship between individual variables (ages, work experience, education and safety climate were not significant (P>0.05. Conclusion: Generally one can conclude that individual variables such as age, education and experience have not significant effect on safety climate. It seems that top management forms the organizational climate and consequently safety climate. It reaffirms the basic principle of senior management commitment to safety and its role in preventing accidents. Thus safety climate can be used as a good method for assessing Occupational Health and Safety Management Performance.

  4. Characteristics of Occupational Exposure to Benzene during Turnaround in the Petrochemical Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun-Kyo; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kwon, Jiwoon; Lee, Naroo; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Lee, Jong-Han; Lee, In-Seop; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Kil

    2010-09-01

    The level of benzene exposure in the petrochemical industry during regular operation has been well established, but not in turnaround (TA), where high exposure may occur. In this study, the characteristics of occupational exposure to benzene during TA in the petrochemical companies were investigated in order to determine the best management strategies and improve the working environment. This was accomplished by evaluating the exposure level for the workers working in environments where benzene was being produced or used as an ingredient during the unit process. From 2003 to 2008, a total of 705 workers in three petrochemical companies in Korea were studied. Long- and short-term (start-up. All works were classified into 12 occupation categories. The long-term geometric mean (GM) benzene exposure level was 0.025 (5.82) ppm (0.005-42.120 ppm) and the short-term exposure concentration during TA was 0.020 (17.42) ppm (0.005-61.855 ppm). The proportions of TA samples exceeding the time-weighted average, occupational exposure level (TWA-OEL in Korea, 1 ppm) and the short-term exposure limit (STEL-OEL, 5 ppm) were 4.1% (20 samples of 488) and 6.0% (13 samples of 217), respectively. The results for the benzene exposure levels and the rates of exceeding the OEL were both statistically significant (p < 0.05). Among the 12 job categories of petrochemical workers, mechanical engineers, plumbers, welders, fieldman and scaffolding workers exhibited long-term samples that exceeded the OEL of benzene, and the rate of exceeding the OEL was statistically significant for the first two occupations (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the periodic work environment must be assessed during non-routine works such as TA.

  5. Statistical analysis of incidents reported in the Greek Petrochemical Industry for the period 1997-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstandinidou, Myrto; Nivolianitou, Zoe; Markatos, Nikolaos; Kiranoudis, Chris

    2006-07-31

    This paper makes an analysis of all reported accidents and incidents in the Greek Petrochemical Industry for the period spanning from 1997 to 2003. The work performed is related to the analysis of important parameters of the incidents, their inclusion in a database adequately designed for the purposes of this analysis and an importance assessment of this reporting scheme. Indeed, various stakeholders have highlighted the importance of a reporting system for industrial accidents and incidents. The European Union has established for this purpose the Major Accident Reporting System (MARS) for the reporting of major accidents in the Member States. However, major accidents are not the only measure that can characterize the safety status of an establishment; neither are the former the only events from which important lessons can be learned. Near misses, industrial incidents without major consequences, as well as occupational accidents could equally supply with important findings the interested analyst, while statistical analysis of these incidents could give significant insight in the understanding and the prevention of similar incidents or major accidents in the future. This analysis could be more significant, if each industrial sector was separately analyzed, as the authors do for the petrochemical sector in the present article.

  6. Technical Reviews on the Petroleum Refining Industry and the Petrochemical Industry for the Development of Industrial Application of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Lee, Na-Young; Kwon, Taek-Yong

    2008-09-15

    Petroleum is the major energy source that supplies 35% of the total power all over the world. And the petrochemical industry generates a 120 times higher value from naphtha, and in cooperates new technology in order to keep its business prosperous. These large plant industries require in-service diagnosis technology for an optimal and efficient operation and maintenance. Since diagnosis information obtained from an on-line plant can be used for a correct operation and maintenance workplan in the case of a deteriorated product quality as well as a mechanical abnormality, this technology can contribute to a huge cost benefit and a product competitiveness. The gigantic plants equipped with heavy materials can hardly be evaluated with conventional techniques due to their harsh environment of a high temperature and a pressure. Radiation and radioisotope application technology has been studied to meet the demand of the industry, but has yet to be developed further. In spite of its usefulness, the strategic support is not enough to carry out the research activities on advanced industrial testing technology using radioisotopes. It is of importance to secure a national competitiveness by intensifying the support for the newly emerging technologies such as an industrial gamma tomography and a process visualization and validation incorporated with a CFD.

  7. Making and Doing Politics Through Grassroots Scientific Research on the Energy and Petrochemical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Wylie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The high stakes of emergent environmental crises, from climate change to widespread toxic exposures, have motivated STS practitioners to innovate methodologically, including leveraging STS scholarship to actively remake environmental scientific practice and technologies. This thematic collection brings together current research that transforms how communities and academics identify, study, and collectively respond to contaminants engendered by the fossil fuel and petrochemical industries, including air contamination from hydraulic fracking, marine pollution from petroleum-derived plastics, and hydrocarbon derivatives such as formaldehyde that intoxicate our homes. These interventions make inroads into the “undone science” and “regimes of imperceptibility” of environmental health crises. Authors, most of whom are practitioners, investigate grassroots methods for collaboratively designing and developing low-cost monitoring tools, crowdsourcing data analysis, and imagining ways of redressing toxicity outside of the idioms of science. Collectively, these articles work towards remaking how knowledge is made about and across industrial systems by networking community grounded approaches for accounting for environmental health issues created by the fossil fuels and allied petrochemical industries.

  8. An application of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA to assess risks in petrochemical industry in Iran

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    Mehdi Kangavari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industries have a high rate of accidents. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA is a systematic method and thus is capable of analyzing the risks of systems from concept phase to system disposal, detecting the failures in design stage, and determining the control measures and corrective actions for failures to reduce their impacts. The objectives of this research were to perform FMEA to identify risks in an Iranian petrochemical industry and determine the decrease of the risk priority number (RPN after implementation of intervention programs. This interventional study was performed at one petrochemical plant in Tehran, Iran in 2014. Relevant information about job categories and plant process was gathered using brainstorming techniques, fishbone diagram, and group decision making. The data were collected through interviews, observation, and documents investigations and was recorded in FMEA worksheets. The necessary corrective measures were performed on the basis of the results of initial FMEA. Forty eight failures were identified in welding unit by application of FMEA to assess risks. Welding processes especially working at height got the highest RPN. Obtained RPN for working at height before performing the corrective actions was 120 and the score was reduced to 96 after performing corrective measures. Calculated RPN for all processes was significantly reduced (p≤0.001 by implementing the corrective actions. Scores of RPN in all studied processes effectively decreased after performing corrective actions in a petrochemical industry. FMEA method is a useful tool for identifying risk intervention priorities and effectiveness in a studied petrochemical industry.

  9. Annoyance and Worry in a Petrochemical Industrial Area—Prevalence, Time Trends and Risk Indicators

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    Lars Barregard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, 1998, and 2006, questionnaires were sent to stratified samples of residents aged 18–75 years living near petrochemical industries (n = 600–800 people on each occasion and in a control area (n = 200–1,000. The aims were to estimate the long-term prevalence and change over time of annoyance caused by industrial odour, industrial noise, and worries about possible health effects, and to identify risk indicators. In 2006, 20% were annoyed by industrial odour, 27% by industrial noise (1–4% in the control area, and 40–50% were worried about health effects or industrial accidents (10–20% in the control area. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significantly lower prevalence of odour annoyance in 1998 and 2006 than in 1992, while industrial noise annoyance increased significantly over time. The prevalence of worry remained constant. Risk of odour annoyance increased with female sex, worry of health effects, annoyance by motor vehicle exhausts and industrial noise. Industrial noise annoyance was associated with traffic noise annoyance and worry of health effects of traffic. Health-risk worry due to industrial air pollution was associated with female sex, having children, annoyance due to dust/soot in the air, and worry of traffic air pollution.

  10. Green Chemistry, Green Engineering and Eco-Innovation Towards a More Sustainable Petrochemical Industry: Determinants of Brazilian Petrochemical Companies´ Engagement in GCE-Based Eco-Innovation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Freire da Silva (Paulo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ It is the general wisdom, within the petrochemical industrial sector, that technological changes, for the development of cleaner products, processes and services, is a basic requirement for companies to achieve advanced states of environmental and

  11. Health Risk Assessment of Harmful Chemicals: Case Study in a Petrochemical Industry

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    M. Motovagheh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims In the most chemical process industries, workers are exposed to various chemicals and working with these chemicals without considering safety and health considerations can lead to different harmful symptoms. For deciding about control measures and reducing risk to acceptable level , it is necessary to assess the health risk of exposing to harmful chemicals by aid of specific risk assessment techniques in the process industries. The purpose of this study was to assess the health risks arising from the exposures to chemicals in a petrochemical industry.  methods A simple and applied method was used for health risk assessment of chemicals in a petrochemical industry. Firstly job tasks and work process were determined and then different chemicals in each tasks identified and risk ranking was calculated in each job task by aid of hazard and exposure rate.   Results The result showed that workers are exposed to 10 chemicals including Methyl ethyl ketone, Epichlorohydrin, Sulfuric acid, Phenol, Chlorobenzene, Toluene, Isopropanol, Methylene chloride, Chlorideric Acid and Acetone during their work in plant. From these chemicals, the highest risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in the jobs of tank and utility operations and maintenance workers. The next high risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in technical inspecting and Methyl ethyl ketone in Tank and utility operations operator.     Conclusion Hazard information and monitoring data of chemical agents in the chemical industries can be used for assessing health risks from exposures to chemicals and ranking jobs by their risk level. These data can be used for resource allocation for control measures and reducing risk level to acceptable level.    

  12. Comparison of Personal BTEX Exposure and Pregnancy Outcomes among Pregnant Women Residing in and Near Petrochemical Industrial Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantaporn Phatrabuddha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industrial air pollution is a major problem in many cities in Asia, including Rayong, Thailand. Some of this pollution, e.g. benzene are human carcinogen.To determine the levels of exposure to BTEX compounds and examine the pregnancy outcomes among pregnantwomen living in and near petrochemical industrial area. 110 pregnancy women were monitored, using a combination of environmental and biological sampling for BTEX exposure.Results showed that personal exposures to BTEX were significantly higher in pregnant women living in the petrochemical industrial area than those living near the petrochemical industrial area (P< 0.001. These were in agree with urinary metabolites of BTEX on Thursday afternoon, i.e. t,t-muconic acid, hippuric acid, mandelic acid and methyl-hippuric acid. The urinary metabolites of BTEX were also correlated well with personal exposure (P< 0.05. For pregnancy outcomes, there were no difference between the groups in the prevalence of low birth weight for gestational age (< 2,500 grams, and APGAR score below 7 at 1 and 5 minutes. Upon data analysis of relations between BTEX exposure level and maternal gain weight, gestation age, birth weight, and APGAR score at 1-minute and 5-minutes, no significant relationship was found. Our data indicates that pregnant women residing ina heavy industrial city such as MapTaPhut have exposed to toxic substances, i.e. BTEX in a higher level than those in more outer industrial city who are exposed to less industrial pollutions.

  13. Assessment of the petrochemical industry pollution on the Skikda bay, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maachia, Leila; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Nafissa, Boutefnouchet; Bouzerna, Noureddine; Chettibi, Houria

    2005-12-01

    The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO[2], Ca(+2) and Mg(+2), chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites.

  14. Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houria Chettibi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO2, Ca+2 and Mg+2, chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites.

  15. Environmental values in the petrochemical industry: A Q-method study in South West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoochani Omid M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving sustainable development in different regional and cultural contexts is dependent, in part, upon an understanding of key actors’ underlying environmental, social and economic values. The social research technique called Q-methodology presents an effective means to explore such values as a matter of discourse: revealing the typologies of stakeholder perspectives within a given debate. Q-method involves factor analysis of participant rank-ordered preselected statements on a topic. The resultant factors are then reinterpreted as social discourses. In this study we use Q-methodology to explore the environmental values of Health Safety and Environmental (HSE managers in petrochemical companies in Khuzestan province in southwest Iran. Khuzestan is a key region of petrochemical product development, with significant associated environmental pollution effects. Understanding HSE managers’ attitudes to environmental protection is of value in predicting broader environmental impacts to the region, given the relative importance of their role in regulating the environmental performance of this industry. Our results reveal four distinct and varied perspectives on environmental protection labelled: ‘Environmental stewardship’, ‘Environmental presentism’, ‘Technological optimism’ and ‘Enlightened anthropocentrism’. We then discuss how these four emergent perspectives correspond to broader environmental discourses as categorized by John Dryzek: i.e. green rationalism, economic rationalism, prometheanism and ecological modernization respectively.

  16. The Impact of Job Stress and Job Satisfaction on Workforce Productivity in an Iranian Petrochemical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoboubi, Naser; Choobineh, Alireza; Kamari Ghanavati, Fatemeh; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Akbar Hosseini, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Job stress and job satisfaction are important factors affecting workforce productivity. This study was carried out to investigate the job stress, job satisfaction, and workforce productivity levels, to examine the effects of job stress and job satisfaction on workforce productivity, and to identify factors associated with productivity decrement among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry. In this study, 125 randomly selected employees of an Iranian petrochemical company participated. The data were collected using the demographic questionnaire, Osipow occupational stress questionnaire to investigate the level of job stress, Job Descriptive Index to examine job satisfaction, and Hersey and Goldsmith questionnaire to investigate productivity in the study population. The levels of employees' perceived job stress and job satisfaction were moderate-high and moderate, respectively. Also, their productivity was evaluated as moderate. Although the relationship between job stress and productivity indices was not statistically significant, the positive correlation between job satisfaction and productivity indices was statistically significant. The regression modeling demonstrated that productivity was significantly associated with shift schedule, the second and the third dimensions of job stress (role insufficiency and role ambiguity), and the second dimension of job satisfaction (supervision). Corrective measures are necessary to improve the shift work system. "Role insufficiency" and "role ambiguity" should be improved and supervisor support must be increased to reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction and productivity.

  17. Control of ammonia and urea emissions from urea manufacturing facilities of Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC), Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A R; Al-Awadi, L; Al-Rashidi, M S

    2016-06-01

    Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC) in Kuwait has mitigated the pollution problem of ammonia and urea dust by replacing the melting and prilling units of finished-product urea prills with an environmentally friendly granulation process. PIC has financed a research project conducted by the Coastal and Air Pollution Program's research staff at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research to assess the impact of pollution control strategies implemented to maintain a healthy productive environment in and around the manufacturing premises. The project was completed in three phases: the first phase included the pollution monitoring of the melting and prilling units in full operation, the second phase covered the complete shutdown period where production was halted completely and granulation units were installed, and the last phase encompassed the current modified status with granulation units in full operation. There was substantial decrease in ammonia emissions, about 72%, and a 52.7% decrease in urea emissions with the present upgrading of old melting and prilling units to a state-of-the-art technology "granulation process" for a final finished product. The other pollutants, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), have not shown any significant change, as the present modification has not affected the sources of these pollutants. Petrochemical Industries Company (PIC) in Kuwait has ammonia urea industries, and there were complaints about ammonia and urea dust pollution. PIC has resolved this problem by replacing "melting and prilling unit" of final product urea prills by more environmentally friendly "granulation unit." Environmental Pollution and Climate Program has been assigned the duty of assessing the outcome of this change and how that influenced ammonia and urea dust emissions from the urea manufacturing plant.

  18. Innovation in a productive chain perspective: competences to innovate in Brazilian plastic packaging and petrochemical industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Chaves Alves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion of competences to innovate taking a productive chain perspective. This notion has been applied to study innovation in a very large perspective as in the case of French industrial studies or in a sectoral perspective. The originality of this paper is to deal with the concept of competences to innovate looking not only at a singular economic segment, but examining the interrelation that exists between actors that are in the same productive chain. In this way, it tries to contribute to the understanding of innovative capacity looking at the firm's internal attributes and extending those attributes to analyze the way innovation occurs in a productive chain. This paper analyses the innovation capability of the plastic productive chain studying the plastic packaging and the petrochemical in Brazil.

  19. An analysis of the inter-project knowledge transfer in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Müller Beuren

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a knowledge transfer (KT analysis in an operational project management environment of the petrochemical industry. The main objective of this paper is to identify the major barriers and to suggest improvements activities aiming to foster the KT process. To this end, interviews with members of the project department were conducted by means of a questionnaire. Results were analyzed to identify the most problematic barriers and to propose improvements. The study concluded that the greatest difficulties are related to the transfer of tacit knowledge between different teams. The main contribution of this paper is that it presents an analysis of an unexplored environment and it proposes an improvement of the adapted method for KT study, by using a relationship matrix between the questionnaire and the barriers, so that problems can be identified in an easier manner.

  20. Perceptions of Private Sector towards the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register: A Case Study on Petrochemical Industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Kondo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 as well as other international agreements, Thailand is currently in the process of adopting the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR through a pilot project in Rayong province with assistance from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA. This research aimed to study perceptions of private sector towards the PRTR through a case study on petrochemical industry in the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate. Through semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews, the study found that the petrochemical industry viewed that benefits of the PRTR for the government and civil society is quite clear, while each petrochemical company has different understanding on such benefit for private sector to be as sustainable industrial management. Various incentive measures and concerns on the PRTR were also indicated in this study.

  1. Petrochemical industries diagnosis concerning competition, quality and productivity programs; Diagnostico de industrias petroquimicas face aos programas de competitividade, produtividade e qualidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Antunes, Adelaide Maria de; Chamas, Claudia Ines [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this study is to evaluate how brazilian petrochemical industries take technological and competitive strategies. New industrial policy emphasizes quality, productivity and competitiveness aspects. The sector company survival depends on fitting to competition patterns. (author) 6 refs.

  2. Used solid catalysts from chemical and petrochemical industries; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive survey of the solid catalysts used in the chemical and petrochemical industries is presented; information on solid catalyst market demand prospective for 1998, the nature of solid catalysts used in the various industrial sectors and for the various chemical products production, the european catalysts manufacturers, solid catalyst poisons and inhibitors according to the various types of chemical reactions, mean compositions of used solid catalysts, an assessment of the volume of used solid catalysts generated by chemical and petrochemical industries, the various ways of solid catalyst regeneration and disposal, the potential for off-site regeneration of used catalysts, and French and European regulations, is presented

  3. Evaluation of Change Schedule of Organic Vapor Respirator cartridges in a Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rshidi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims  In the absence of End of Service Life Indicator (ESLI, a cartridge change schedule should be established for ensuring that cartridges are changed before their end of service life. The aim of this study was determining the efficiency of respirator change schedule and presenting a suitable schedule for changing the cartridges before their end of service life in a petrochemical complex.     Methods  Required information for change criteria, number and time between changing the cartridges were gathered through the existing records in the industry. Also the highest values of measured environmental conditions were used as a worse case condition for estimation of service life of cartridges. Technical data and specification of used cartridges in the industry were collected through the cartridges manufactures.   Manufacturer's service life software was used for estimation of cartridge service life and 10% of threshold limit values were considered for estimation of breakthrough time of cartridges.   Results   The results show that there is no effective change schedule for respirator cartridges in the studied industry. Also there was a significant difference between current schedule and developed schedule for changing the respirators in the studied industry.   Conclusion  Relying on odor thresholds and other warning properties solely as the basis for changing respirator chemical cartridges is not allowed and a change out schedule should be developed base on workplace conditions and specification of respirator cartridges.

  4. On the Hydrogen Embrittlement of Commercially Pure Alpha Titanium: An Example from the Petrochemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawancy, H. M.

    2017-02-01

    Grade 2 of commercially pure Ti consisting of α-phase has many applications in the petrochemical industry such as floaters of gauges used to indicate liquid levels in tanks and reaction vessels. A floater fabricated by welding of 3.5-mm-thick sheet of grade 2 Ti into a thick-walled cylinder to indicate the level of a liquid mixture of isobutane, neobutane and neopentane in a petrochemical plant has lost its structural integrity by puncturing, cracking and blistering particularly at the section in contact with the liquid. The damage has been most severe in the base metal adjacent to the weld. Detailed microstructural characterization of the damaged floater and unwelded section of the same material has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and the results have been complemented by stress analysis and microhardness measurements. It is shown that the mechanical strength of the floater has been degraded by a combination of excessive absorption of hydrogen during welding and rapid cooling from the β-phase field aided by the stresses generated by the liquid pressure. Absorption of hydrogen and rapid cooling are found to alter the desirable morphology of equiaxed grains of α-phase into a multi-phase structure with fine platelet-type morphology. The base metal adjacent to the weld is found to contain the brittle δ-phase of titanium hydride in a low-ductility matrix of α-Ti with some β-Ti. However, β-Ti is found to be the predominant constituent of the weld.

  5. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Employees of Iranian Petrochemical Industries: October 2009 to December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Choobineh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs are a common health problem throughout the world and a major cause of disability in the workplace. Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of MSDs, assessment of ergonomics working conditions and identification of major risk factors associated with MSDs symptoms among employees of Iranian petrochemical industries between October 2009 and December 2012. Methods: In this study, we studied 1184 randomly selected employees of 4 Iranian petrochemical companies with at least one year of work experience in office or operational units. For those with office jobs, data were collected using Nordic Musculoskeletal disorders Questionnaire (NMQ and ergonomics checklist for the assessment of working conditions. For those with operational jobs, NMQ and Quick Exposure Check (QEC method were used for data collection. Results: The most prevalent MSD symptoms were reported in lower back (41.5% and neck (36.5%. The prevalence of MSDs in all body regions but elbows and thighs of the office staff was significantly higher than that of operational workers. Assessment of working conditions in office staff revealed that the lowest index was attributed to workstation. QEC technique among operational workers showed that in 73.8% of the workers studied, the level of exposure to musculoskeletal risks was “high” or “very high.” MSDs were associated with type of job, age, body mass index, work experience, gender, marital status, educational level and type of employment. Conclusion: The prevalence of MSDs in the office staff was higher than that of operational workers. Level of exposure to MSDs risk was high in operational workers. Corrective measures are thus necessary for improving working conditions for both office and operational units.

  6. [Asbestos exposure in the petrochemical industry and interaction with other occupational risk factors: analysis of the last ten years INAIL data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, Mariano; Saldutti, Elisa; Bindi, Luciano; Di Giacobbe, Andrea; Mercadante, Lucina; Innocenzi, Ludovico

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the trend of occupational diseases, in particular those asbestos-related, in the petrochemical industry from 2002 to 2011, taking into account the number of diseases claimed to and compensated by the National Institute for Insurance of Workplace Accidents and Occupational Diseases (INAIL), assessing risk factors and possible interactions. To identify the research areas, we selected INAIL cost codes, related to the petrochemical industry. In the last five years, over the total claims submitted by industrial workers, 54% of claims for asbestosis, 76.7% of claims for neoplastic diseases, and 78.6% of claims for pleural plaques have been compensated. In the petrochemical industry, such percentages are respectively 59.2%, 81.6% and 82.7%. These data suggest possible interactions between asbestos and other risk factors, particularly significant in the petrochemical industry, although difficult to identify, as well as an initial underestimation of asbestos exposure in this industry.

  7. Are Emissions Trading Policies Sustainable? A Study of the Petrochemical Industry in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongrok Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, Korea inaugurated an emissions trading scheme (ETS. In this regard, many studies have considered the sustainable performance and efficiency of industries that emit carbon; however, few have examined ETS at company level. This paper focuses on companies’ data related to Korean ETS in the petrochemical industry. Based on the non-radial, nonparametric directional distance function (DDF, the paper evaluates the governance factors related to ETS policies and sustainable performance in terms of carbon technical efficiency (CTE, the shadow price of carbon emissions, and Morishima elasticity between the input and undesirable output of carbon emissions. Using a dual model, the paper shows that Korean ETS has huge potential for participating companies to improve CTE. If all companies consider the production possibility frontier, they could potentially improve efficiency by 52.8%. Further, Morishima elasticity shows strong substitutability between capital and energy, implying that green technology investment should bring a higher degree of energy-saving performance. Unfortunately, however, the market price of carbon emissions is far too low compared with its shadow price, suggesting that the Korean government’s price-oriented market intervention has resulted in the ETS producing poor sustainable performance. As the title suggests, ETS of Korea is not sustainable at the current stage, but with more efforts on the transition period, all the developing countries should support the governance factors of the ETS in terms of the more effective green investment with easier access to the green technology.

  8. FTIR remote sensor measurements of air pollutants in the petrochemical industrial park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong T.; Chang, Shih-Yi; Chung, Y. W.; Tzou, H. C.; Tso, Tai-Ly

    1995-09-01

    As FT-IR remote sensing techniques become more accessible, there are increasing interests to apply this open-path measurement method to detect and measure airborne pollutants. Thus a research for VOCs emission pollutants in the petrochemical industry park is conducted. In this study, we focused on the identification of the gaseous pollutants as well as the location of the VOCs pollutants from different factories. Measurement is sampled at every half hour period to obtain the time series plots of observed gas concentration for the gaseous pollutants. Besides the inherent components in ambient air such as carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone, the results of the measurement indicate that the major pollutants detected in this industrial park include vinyl chloride, chloroform, hydrogen chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, propylene, n-hexane, acetic acid, methyl acetate and ammonia. Some of these toxic pollutants are carcinogens and also the chloride related compounds are potentially a threat to the depletion of ozone. All of these measurements indicate that the pattern of the pollutants for each location is significantly different from each other pattern. In addition, the concentrations and the presence of absence of pollutants were dramatically affected by wind directions. Under this case, suspicious polluting plants are successfully being identified by examining the pattern of compounds, pollutant's concentration time series, metrology, and manufacturing process.

  9. The effect of social trust on citizens’ health risk perception in the context of a petrochemical industrial complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Navarro, Miguel Angel; Llorens-Monzonís, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

    2013-01-21

    Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust - both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions - affects citizens' health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens' health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies).

  10. Proceedings of the 3. International conference on waste management in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Volume 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Francisco F.; Pereira Filho, Francisco A.; Almeida, Sergio A.S. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    To produce without pollution is today a mandate for the preservation of our society. To produce cleaner means to conserve energy and natural resources, to reduce the use of toxic substances, to invest in the evolution of products and production processes towards a minimum of residues. The Third International Conference on Waste Minimization in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries addresses these challenging questions regarding waste minimization

  11. COD reduction of petrochemical industry wastewater using Fenton's oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, P.; Samanta, A.N.; Ray, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-12-15

    This paper discussed experimental batch tests that were undertaken to determine the optimum process conditions for maximizing the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) value of wastewater in the petrochemical industry using Fenton's oxidation process (FOP). The process parameters investigated were pH, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) dosage, ferrous iron dosage, the ratio of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to ferrous iron, and temperature. To determine the influence of process parameters, only one parameter was varied at a time. It was determined that the initial pH of the solution, the temperature, the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and the iron salt and their molar ratio influence the degree of COD reduction in the wastewater. The optimum conditions were found to be a pH of 3, an H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 3 molar, a ferrous iron concentration of 0.06 molar, and a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius, at which FOP was found to reduce the COD by 97.5 percent in 100 minutes. FOP is a low cost and simple alternative to biological processes for treating wastewater, and it turns pollutants into innocuous compounds. 29 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. Detection and reduction of diffuse liquid and gas emissions in chemical and petrochemical industries; Ermittlung und Verminderung diffuser fluessiger und gasfoermiger Emissionen in der chemischen und petrochemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppke, K.E. [Witten-Herdecke Univ. gGmbH, Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Management; Cuhls, C. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik

    2002-09-01

    In order to improve environmental protection, VOC emissions from diffuse sources are of growing importance. For the first time in Germany the present research report gives a detailed presentation of: constructive measures for the avoidance and reduction of diffuse emissions, adequate assembling procedures for equipments and installations, technical possibilities of leak detection and, different methods for the estimation of total emissions from chemical and petrochemical production plants. On the basis of own investigations and monitoring measures taken at various plants of chemical and petrochemical industries different measuring techniques for leak detection as well as methods for the estimation of total emissions from diffuse sources are analysed and their limits are described. (orig.)

  13. IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES IN AMMONIA UNIT OF RAZI PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX AND FEASIBILITY OF WASTE MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fakheri Raouf, R. Nabizadeh and N. Jafarzadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industries are considered as strategic and important sectors in economic development of Iran. Razi petrochemical factory is one of complex in Iran, established in 1970 with 100 hectare. In this research, the possibility of waste minimization in the ammonia unit of Razi petrochemical complex with about 1000 tons per year was studied for a period of 18 months from September 2003 to April 2005. More than 20 site visits were conducted and the required information was collected. Factors such as industrial solid wastes quality and quantity, sources of generation, production period and the present management practice, were studied. Petrochemical solid wastes were classified based on the recommended method of the United Nations and appropriate policies were suggested for waste minimization. The collected results of this study show production of 185 tons of industrial solid wastes from 45 sources which contained 68.5% catalysts, 10.25% metal barrels, 18.61% aluminum ball, 2.62% plastic barrels and 0.02% paper. 93.3% of these wastes were generated as the result of catalysts change, 3.3% as the result of using chemicals and oils, 1.7% as the result of methanol solution amid application, and 1.1% because of aluminum ball changes. Based on the UNEP methods, the ammonia unit wastes classified as 19/7%hazadrous and 87,12% non hazardous. At present 87.12% of these wastes are being dumped in the area and 12.88% are sold. Proposed procedures for waste minimization contain 68.5% reuse and recycling and 31.5% recycling.

  14. Airborne trace elements near a petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand assessed by the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpeng, Chaiwat; Polyiam, Wetchasart; Sriviboon, Chutima; Sangiamdee, Duangkamon; Watthana, Santi; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Boonpragob, Kansri

    2017-05-01

    Several trace elements discharged by the petrochemical industry are toxic to humans and the ecosystem. In this study, we assessed airborne trace elements in the vicinity of the Map Ta Phut petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand by transplanting the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum to eight industrial, two rural, and one clean air sites between October 2013 and June 2014. After 242 days, the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn in lichens at most industrial sites were higher than those at the rural and the control sites; in particular, As, Cu, Mo, Sb, V, and Zn were significantly higher than at the control site (p industrial sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most elements were associated with industry, with lesser contributions from traffic and agriculture. Based on the pollution load indexes (PLIs), two industrial sites were highly polluted, five were moderately polluted, and one had a low pollution level, whereas the pollution load at the rural sites was comparable to background levels. This study reinforces the utility of lichens as cost-effective biomonitors of airborne elements, suitable for use in developing countries, where adequate numbers of air monitoring instruments are unavailable due to financial, technical, and policy constraints.

  15. The impact of obesity on illness absence and productivity in an industrial population of petrochemical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shan P; Ahmed, Farah S; Wendt, Judy K; Bhojani, Faiyaz; Donnelly, Robin P

    2008-01-01

    Examine employee illness absence and the economic impact of overweight and obesity in a petrochemical industry workforce. A 10-year follow-up (1994-2003) of 4153 Shell Oil Company employees was conducted. Absence frequency rates and average number of workdays lost were calculated for normal weight, overweight, and obese employees with and without the presence of additional risk factors. The study also assessed the change in overweight and obesity prevalence in the study population and estimated the current and future economic impact of these conditions. Overall, obese employees were 80% more likely to have absences (24.0 vs. 13.3 per 100 employees) and were absent 3.7 more days (7.7 vs. 4.0 days) per year compared with those employees with normal body weights. Among employees with no additional risk factors, overweight employees lost more than 1.5 times more days (4.2 vs. 2.6 days) per year, and obese employees more than 2.5 times more days (7.2 vs. 2.6 days) compared with their normal-weight colleagues. Similarly, absence frequency attributable to cardiovascular disease significantly increased among employees with one or two additional risk factors present, such as smoking, high blood pressure, or hypercholesterolemia. The direct cost of illness absence from overweight and obesity for this study population was $1,873,500. Furthermore, 31% of the total illness absence was attributable to overweight and obesity in 1994, and the percentage had risen to 36% by 2003. The economic impact to employers is great and will continue to rise unless measures are taken, particularly to reduce the number of employees moving from overweight to obesity with time.

  16. A Quantitative Risk Analysis Method for the High Hazard Mechanical System in Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The high hazard mechanical system (HHMS has three characteristics in the petroleum and petrochemical industry (PPI: high risk, high cost, and high technology requirements. For a HHMS, part, component, and subsystem failures will result in varying degrees and various types of risk consequences, including unexpected downtime, production losses, economic costs, safety accidents, and environmental pollution. Thus, obtaining the quantitative risk level and distribution in a HHMS to control major risk accidents and ensure safe production is of vital importance. However, the structure of the HHMS is more complex than some other systems, making the quantitative risk analysis process more difficult. Additionally, a variety of uncertain risk data hinder the realization of quantitative risk analysis. A few quantitative risk analysis techniques and studies for HHMS exist, especially in the PPI. Therefore, a study on the quantitative risk analysis method for HHMS was completed to obtain the risk level and distribution of high-risk objects. Firstly, Fuzzy Set Theory (FST was applied to address the uncertain risk data for the occurrence probability (OP and consequence severity (CS in the risk analysis process. Secondly, a fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA and a fuzzy event tree analysis (FETA were used to achieve quantitative risk analysis and calculation. Thirdly, a fuzzy bow-tie model (FBTM was established to obtain a quantitative risk assessment result according to the analysis results of the FFTA and FETA. Finally, the feasibility and practicability of the method were verified with a case study on the quantitative risk analysis of one reciprocating pump system (RPS. The quantitative risk analysis method for HHMS can provide more accurate and scientific data support for the development of Asset Integrity Management (AIM systems in the PPI.

  17. A Cognitive Human Error Analysis with CREAM in Control Room of Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Shokria

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The cognitive human error analysis technique is one of the second-generation techniques used to evaluate human reliability; it has a strong, detailed theoretical background that focuses on the important cognitive features of human behavior. Objectives The aim of this study was to assign task and jobs crisis using analysis of cognitive human error with CREAM. Finally, based on the results, the major causes of error were detected. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 53 people working in an olefin unit. It is one of the most important control rooms located in a special economic zone in Assaluyeh petrochemical industry. In this study, first a job analysis was conducted and the sub-tasks and conditions affecting the performance of the staff were determined. Then, the control mode coefficient and control mode type, as well as the possibility of total error were determined. Finally, the cognitive functions and type of cognitive error related to each sub-task were identified. Results Among the six evaluated occupational tasks, the tasks performed by board-man and site-man had the highest values of total human error in terms of transitory overall error coefficient (0.056 and 0.031, respectively. In addition, the following results were obtained on the basis of the extended CREAM: execution failure (31.72%, interpretation failure (29.20%, planning failure (14.63%, and observation failure (24.39%. Conclusions Common Performance Conditions (CPCs, empowerment, and the time available for work were among the most important factors that reduced occupational performance. To optimize a communication system, it is necessary to arrange the priority of tasks, hold joint meetings, inform the staff about the termination of work permits, hold training sessions, and measure the pollutants.

  18. Industrial Relations in Canada: Contemporary Comparisons and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Paul; Goodman, John, Eds.

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Canadian Industrial Relations: An Introductory Overview" (Blyton, Goodman); "Overview of Canadian Labour Law" (Miller); "Industrial Conflict and Resolution in Canada and Britain" (Haiven); "Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector in Canada" (Calvert); "Canadian Automobile Industry: Work…

  19. Safety Culture Assessment in Petrochemical Industry: A Comparative Study of Two Algerian Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assia Boughaba

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The comparison between the two petrochemical plants of the group Sonatrach confirms these results in which Company A, the managers of which are English and Norwegian, distinguishes itself by the maturity of their safety culture has significantly higher evaluations than the company B, who is constituted of Algerian staff, in terms of safety management practices and safety performance.

  20. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  1. INVESTIGATING THE LEVEL OF BURNOUT AND INFLUENCING FACTORS ON IT AMONG THE WORKERS: CASE STUDY THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES NATIONAL COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan DARVISH; Zare, Ahmad; Hamid Hosseinzadeh NEKOIE

    2011-01-01

    This study is done with the purpose of investigation the level of burnout and influencing factors on it. The method used is measuring or filed-finding, descriptive studies type and the statistic society is made of the entire official and non-official workers in the petrochemical industries national company in the year (2009) including 6901people in the main office and 12 subsidiary companies who are working. The estimation of the sample volume is made using the cochran formula by the volume o...

  2. Wastewater reuse in a cascade based system of a petrochemical industry for the replacement of losses in cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Everton; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Aquim, Patrice Monteiro de

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the mapping of opportunities for the water reuse in a cascade based system in a petrochemical industry in southern Brazil. This industrial sector has a large demand for water for its operation. In the studied industry, for example, approximately 24 million cubic meters of water were collected directly from the source in 2014. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the reuse of water in cascade in a petrochemical industry, focusing on the reuse of aqueous streams to replenish losses in the cooling towers. This is an industrial scale case study with real data collected during the years 2014 and 2015. Water reuse was performed using heuristic approach based on the exploitation of knowledge acquired during the search process. The methodology of work consisted of the construction of a process map identifying the stages of production and water consumption, as well as the characterization of the aqueous streams involved in the process. For the application of the industrial water reuse as cooling water, mass balances were carried out considering the maximum concentration levels of turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters. The adopted guideline was the fulfillment of the water quality criteria for each application in the industrial process. The study showed the feasibility for the reuse of internal streams as makeup water in cooling towers, and the implementation of the reuse presented in this paper totaled savings of 385,440 m(3)/year of water, which means a sufficient volume to supply 6350 inhabitants for a period of one year, considering the average water consumption per capita in Brazil; in addition to 201,480 m(3)/year of wastewater that would no longer be generated

  3. Electric power: governmental view regarding the chemical and petrochemical industries; Energia eletrica: visao governamental de seu contexto envolvendo a industria quimica e petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Demostenes Barbosa da [Departamento Nacional de Aguas e Energia Eletrica, Brasilia (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Points of view regarding the production and supply of energy, the commercialization and tariffs over electric-power consumption are presented. The governmental view is showed, considering economical and political aspects. Consideration and recommendations about the relationship between the chemical and petrochemical industries and the electric power industry are discussing in details. 25 refs, 2 tabs.

  4. Pollution and health risk assessment of industrial and residential area based on metal and metalloids contents in soil and sediment samples from and around the petrochemical industry, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relic, Dubravka; Sakan, Sanja; Andjelkovic, Ivan; Djordjevic, Dragana

    2017-04-01

    Within this study the investigation of pollution state of metal and metalloids contamination in soils and sediments samples of the petrochemical and nearby residential area is present. The pseudo-total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, As, Hg, and Se were monitored with ICP/OES. The pollution indices applied in this work, such as the enrichment factor, the pollution load index, the total enrichment factor, and the ecological risk index showed that some of the soil and sediment samples were highly polluted by Hg, Ba, Pb, Cd, Cr Cu and Zn. The highest pollution indices were calculated for Hg in samples from the petrochemical area: chloralkali plant, electrolysis factory, mercury disposal area, and in samples from the waste channel. The pollution indices of the samples from the residential area indicated that this area is not polluted by investigated elements. Besides the pollution indices, the metal and metalloids concentrations were used in the equations for calculating the health risk criteria. We calculate no carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for the composite worker and residential people by usage adequate equations. In analyzed samples, the no carcinogenic risks were lower than 1. The highest values of carcinogenic risk were obtained in sediment samples from the waste channel within the petrochemical industry and the metal that mostly contributes to the highest carcinogenic risk is Cr. Correlation analysis of pollution indices and carcinogenic risks calculated from the residential area samples showed good correlations while this is not the case for an industrial area.

  5. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F

    2004-07-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  6. Characterizing ozone pollution in a petrochemical industrial area in Beijing, China: a case study using a chemical reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhaofeng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Zhou, Ying; Han, Lihui; Wang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    This study selected a petrochemical industrial complex in Beijing, China, to understand the characteristics of surface ozone (O3) in this industrial area through the on-site measurement campaign during the July-August of 2010 and 2011, and to reveal the response of local O3 to its precursors' emissions through the NCAR-Master Mechanism model (NCAR-MM) simulation. Measurement results showed that the O3 concentration in this industrial area was significantly higher, with the mean daily average of 124.6 μg/m(3) and mean daily maximum of 236.8 μg/m(3), which are, respectively, 90.9 and 50.6 % higher than those in Beijing urban area. Moreover, the diurnal O3 peak generally started up early in 11:00-12:00 and usually remained for 5-6 h, greatly different with the normal diurnal pattern of urban O3. Then, we used NCAR-MM to simulate the average diurnal variation of photochemical O3 in sunny days of August 2010 in both industrial and urban areas. A good agreement in O3 diurnal variation pattern and in O3 relative level was obtained for both areas. For example of O3 daily maximum, the calculated value in the industrial area was about 51 % higher than in the urban area, while measured value in the industrial area was approximately 60 % higher than in the urban area. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of photochemical O3 to its precursors was conducted based on a set of VOCs/NOx emissions cases. Simulation results implied that in the industrial area, the response of O3 to VOCs was negative and to NOx was positive under the current conditions, with the sensitivity coefficients of -0.16~-0.43 and +0.04~+0.06, respectively. By contrast, the urban area was within the VOCs-limitation regime, where ozone enhancement in response to increasing VOCs emissions and to decreasing NOx emission. So, we think that the VOCs emissions control for this petrochemical industrial complex will increase the potential risk of local ozone pollution aggravation, but will be helpful to inhibit the

  7. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  8. The relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership styles in the South African petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Pillay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Although research on emotional intelligence in the context of leadership has remained a recurrent area of interest in theory and practice during the past decade, ongoing debate continues regarding the contribution of emotional intelligence to the understanding of leadership.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-reported emotional intelligence and leadership styles in a South African context and to determine whether emotional intelligence can predict an effective leadership style.Motivation for the study: Research is needed in order to determine a more detailed relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership in the dynamic and globalising South African petrochemical context.Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted in terms of a positivist paradigm, using quantitative research instruments. Leaders (N = 161 were selected from a business unit in a South African petrochemical organisation. Self-reports from the emotional quotient inventory and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X, Version 2009 were analysed. Correlation analyses indicated statistically-significant relationships between emotional intelligence and transformational and laissez-faire leadership.Main findings: Findings indicated positive correlations between self-reported emotional intelligence (specifically adaptability and transformational leadership. Negative correlations were obtained between emotional intelligence (specifically intrapersonal skills and laissez-faire leadership. The research also showed differences between specific demographic variables.Practical/managerial implications: This study provides valuable significance for organisations’ endeavours in improving, training and identifying alternative selection and assessment procedures for evaluating leaders’ strengths.Contribution/value-add: This research contributes to the South African research on emotional

  9. Work ability index (WAI) and its association with psychosocial factors in one of the petrochemical industries in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloumi, Adel; Rostamabadi, Akbar; Nasl Saraji, Gabraeil; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, work ability index (WAI) has been a common practical tool to measure individuals' work ability in many European, Asian and South American countries. However, there is no study concerning work ability in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the work ability index in an Iranian petrochemical job setting and to examine its relationship with psychosocial factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 420 male workers in various occupations. Work ability was evaluated using the WAI questionnaire developed by FIOH; the Job content questionnaire (JCQ) was used to assess psychosocial factors. The mean WAI score was 39.1 (SD=5.7) among workers in the studied petrochemical industry. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between mean WAI score and age, job tenure, educational level, rest and sleep status and vocational education. Moreover, the results showed that skill discretion, coworker support and supervisor support were positively associated with the mean WAI score. On the other hand, it was inversely associated with job demands, job strain and job insecurity. This study was the first research to determine WAI in an important industry in Iran. Overall, work ability was in the "Good" category among the workers in the studied field. On the basis of the WAI guidelines, this level should be maintained and promoted to excellent level by providing supportive countermeasures. The WAI score was significantly associated with psychosocial factors. The results showed that even in heavy physical work, factors such as job insecurity, skill discretion, job strain and social support play an important role in maintaining work ability. A positive combination of "psychosocial characteristics" of the job with "individual resources" can promote work ability in such occupations.

  10. Treatment techniques for the biosolids production in the petrochemical industry[Held jointly with the 4. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids managment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, L.; Ramirez, E.; Garzon-Zuniga, M.; Chacon, J.M.; Paredes, J.L. [Mexican Inst. of Water Technology, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    A petrochemical plant treats its wastewater in an aerated lagoon, depositing 23 tons of dry sludge. This paper presented the results of a study that involved performing experimental tests to show the technical feasibility of producing biosolids from sludge from petrochemical plants, using three experimental modules: solar drying, composting and vermicomposting. The sludge and biosolids were analyzed according to Mexican standards and agronomic criteria and were subjected to evaluation as substrate for ornamental plants nursery. The paper provided background information on the study including definitions of composting, vermicomposting and solar drying of sludge. The study methods and results were also described. Change in the sludge after treatments were discussed. It was concluded that techniques such as solar drying, composting and vermicomposting can transform petrochemical industry sludge from hazardous waste to easy-to-handle products. In addition, these technologies enable the reduction of volume and odor of these residues, in addition to obtaining stable granular products. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  12. Safety culture assessment in petrochemical industry: a comparative study of two algerian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughaba, Assia; Hassane, Chabane; Roukia, Ouddai

    2014-06-01

    To elucidate the relationship between safety culture maturity and safety performance of a particular company. To identify the factors that contribute to a safety culture, a survey questionnaire was created based mainly on the studies of Fernández-Muñiz et al. The survey was randomly distributed to 1000 employees of two oil companies and realized a rate of valid answer of 51%. Minitab 16 software was used and diverse tests, including the descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, mean analysis, and correlation, were used for the analysis of data. Ten factors were extracted using the analysis of factor to represent safety culture and safety performance. The results of this study showed that the managers' commitment, training, incentives, communication, and employee involvement are the priority domains on which it is necessary to stress the effort of improvement, where they had all the descriptive average values lower than 3.0 at the level of Company B. Furthermore, the results also showed that the safety culture influences the safety performance of the company. Therefore, Company A with a good safety culture (the descriptive average values more than 4.0), is more successful than Company B in terms of accident rates. The comparison between the two petrochemical plants of the group Sonatrach confirms these results in which Company A, the managers of which are English and Norwegian, distinguishes itself by the maturity of their safety culture has significantly higher evaluations than the company B, who is constituted of Algerian staff, in terms of safety management practices and safety performance.

  13. Safety Culture Assessment in Petrochemical Industry: A Comparative Study of Two Algerian Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughaba, Assia; Hassane, Chabane; Roukia, Ouddai

    2014-01-01

    Background To elucidate the relationship between safety culture maturity and safety performance of a particular company. Methods To identify the factors that contribute to a safety culture, a survey questionnaire was created based mainly on the studies of Fernández-Muñiz et al. The survey was randomly distributed to 1000 employees of two oil companies and realized a rate of valid answer of 51%. Minitab 16 software was used and diverse tests, including the descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, mean analysis, and correlation, were used for the analysis of data. Ten factors were extracted using the analysis of factor to represent safety culture and safety performance. Results The results of this study showed that the managers' commitment, training, incentives, communication, and employee involvement are the priority domains on which it is necessary to stress the effort of improvement, where they had all the descriptive average values lower than 3.0 at the level of Company B. Furthermore, the results also showed that the safety culture influences the safety performance of the company. Therefore, Company A with a good safety culture (the descriptive average values more than 4.0), is more successful than Company B in terms of accident rates. Conclusion The comparison between the two petrochemical plants of the group Sonatrach confirms these results in which Company A, the managers of which are English and Norwegian, distinguishes itself by the maturity of their safety culture has significantly higher evaluations than the company B, who is constituted of Algerian staff, in terms of safety management practices and safety performance. PMID:25180135

  14. Productivity Trends in Natural Resources Industries in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Centre for the Study of Living Standards

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an overview of the evolution of productivity in the natural resources industries in Canada over the last 40 years. This report presents data and discusses trends in labour and total factor productivity for natural resources industries in Canada over the 1961-2000 period. It also examines the major determinants of these trends. Industries covered by the report are: the energy industries, including crude petroleum and natural gas extraction, refined pe...

  15. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Semi-Quantitative Assessment of the Health Risk of Occupational Exposure to Chemicals and Evaluation of Spirometry Indices on the Staff of Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Dazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Petrochemical industry is an important industry in the economic development of the country that causes employees have exposure with several kinds of contamination. The aim of this study was Semi-quantitative assessment of the health risk of occupational exposure to chemical materials and investigation of spirometry indices between employees of petrochemical industry. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the petrochemical industry complex in a special area of Assaluyeh in Iran in 2016. Health risk assessment of exposure to harmful chemical agents was performed in all of units and during three stages (identification of harmful material, determination of hazard rate of the chemical material, exposure rate and estimate of risk rate. Spirometry indices were measured using spirometry. Results: The results of chemical materials risk assessment showed that Raffinate in Butadiene unit has identified the highest amount of risk rank among 27 chemical materials in investigated units. In comparison with spirometry indices in Olefine unit between age with FVC parameter and history work with FVC and FEV1 parameters has observed a significant and negative correlation (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of risk assessment in all of the petrochemical units showed that 48.14% of materials were at low risk level, 29.62% medium risk, 18.51% high risk and 3.7% had very high risk level. The variables affecting on spirometry employees such as age and work experience play an important role in reducing the pulmonary function tests in exposed subjects.

  17. High Temperature Properties Test and Research of 9Cr1Mo (P9) Seamless Pipe Used in Petrochemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qijiang; Zhou, Yedong; Zhang, Qinglian

    Production technical process of BaoSteel-produced 9Cr1Mo (P9) seamless pipe is presented, and creep property of isothermal annealed state of that steel is studied under the temperatures of 550 °C, 600 °C, 650 °C, 700 °C. Also, isothermal extrapolation method and Larson-Miller method are employed to extrapolate creep rupture strength of the steel at the creep time of 20000h, 40000h, 60000h and 100000h. The results show that high temperature properties of BaoSteel-produced 9Cr1Mo (P9) seamless pipe meets the API 530 standard of USA and the SH/T3037 standard of China's petrochemical industry, and the steel can be used in large scale petroleum cracking equipment. Meantime, the comparison of creep properties at 650 °C and transient elevated temperature properties at different temperatures between isothermal annealed state and normalized + tempered state of 9Cr1Mo (P9) seamless pipe as well as the microstructure analysis show that the normalized + tempered 9Cr1Mo (P9) seamless pipe presents better high temperature properties.

  18. Selection of optimized air pollutant filtration technologies for petrochemical industries through multiple-attribute decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridi, Parvin; Atabi, Farideh; Nouri, Jafar; Yarahmadi, Rasoul

    2017-07-15

    Selecting cost-effective and efficient air filtration technologies that ensure sustainable development is a challenge to national, regional and local policy makers. Various factors such as efficiency, maintainability, and design of the developed devices can affect the selection of optimized technologies. The present study aimed to select optimal technologies for air filtration devices in petrochemical industries through a multi-criteria decision-making (MADM) method based on a fuzzy model of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Five criteria (filtration efficiency, cost, maintainability, designability, and size) were used to rank air pollution control technologies designed to eliminate particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ammonia (NH 3 ). According to the results, the research criteria had different weights for different air pollutants. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA + pre collector) filters, plasma chemistry, and chemical absorption were identified as the most appropriate filtration methods for PM, VOCs, and NH 3 , respectively (coefficients = 0.923, 0.9586, and 0.867, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conventional, microwave, and ultrasound sequential extractions for the fractionation of metals in sediments within the Petrochemical Industry, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relić, Dubravka; Dorđević, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja; Anđelković, Ivan; Pantelić, Ana; Stanković, Ratomir; Popović, Aleksandar

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the main objective was fractionation of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ca, Fe, and K in certificate material and sediment samples gathered from and around the Petrochemical Industry using the conventional, microwave and ultrasonic sequential extraction. Microwave oven and ultrasound bath were used as an energy source for achieving faster extraction. Additional heating and boiling of samples were avoided by using lower power and shorter time for microwave and ultrasound extraction. Precision and accuracy of procedure were evaluated by using certificate material (BCR701). Acceptable accuracy of metals (87.0-111.3 %) was achieved for all three-step sequential of conventional extraction protocol. An accuracy of the fourth step has been verified with two certificate materials: BCR143R and 146R. The range of total extracted metal concentrations from sediments was similar for all three extraction techniques. A significant high percentage of Cd, Cu, and Zn were obtained after extraction of the exchangeable and acid soluble sediment fraction. Principal component analysis of values obtained after determination of risk assessment code using conventional and ultrasound sequential extraction show similarity of these values. Accuracy, recovery, and risk assessment code values imply that ultrasound sequential extraction is a more suitable, accelerated sequential extraction procedure (30 min per extraction step) than microwave extraction in applied conditions.

  20. INVESTIGATING THE LEVEL OF BURNOUT AND INFLUENCING FACTORS ON IT AMONG THE WORKERS: CASE STUDY THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES NATIONAL COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan DARVISH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is done with the purpose of investigation the level of burnout andinfluencing factors on it. The method used is measuring or filed-finding,descriptive studies type and the statistic society is made of the entire officialand non-official workers in the petrochemical industries national company inthe year (2009 including 6901people in the main office and 12 subsidiarycompanies who are working. The estimation of the sample volume is madeusing the cochran formula by the volume of 1742 people and the accidentalclass and the domesticated form of the Maslach Burn Out Inventory has beenused for gathering the dependant variant data of the study. In this study therelevance or effect of 20 independent variables on the burnout and itsconstituents was investigated. In the two variable tests, the emotionalcommitment had a reverse relation with burnout. So that with the increase ofthe interest and bind of the workers to the organization, the level of burnoutdecreased. In analyzing the step by step regression of the burnout accordingto the expected variables, 41percent of the explained burnout (R 2 =41%,and ranking the amount of the standard coefficient, the main elements likethe nature of the job, emotional commitment, work environment, job security,coworkers, education, job type, salary and the premium and jobindependence in the remaining regression equation and on the burnoutvariable have been influencing.

  1. Biological anoxic treatment of O₂-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S O; Glittmann, Lina; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo

    2013-09-15

    An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O2 supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m(-3)h(-1) (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ∼3 g m(-3)h(-1). However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m(-3)h(-1), while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m(-3) (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m(-3)h(-1)), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transformational leadership in business organisations ascending to world-class status: A case study in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. De Kock

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important prerequisites for economic competitiveness in the global economy, is the delivery of a unique product or service. In order to achieve this level of competitiveness, transformational rather than transactional leadership should be a core element in organisation’s ascent to ‘world-class’ status. Inline with other researching results, the most important finding of this study, which was conducted in a petrochemical industry, is that transformational leadership is not up to standard. Opsomming Een van die belangrikste voorvereistes vir ekonomiese kompetering in die globale ekonomie, is die lewering van ‘n unieke produk of diens. ‘n Voorvereiste wat slegs kan realiseer indien transformasionele leierskap eerder as transaksionele leierskap ‘n kernboublok in organisasies se strewe na ‘wêreldklas’ status vorm. Inlyn met die bevindinge van verskeie ander studies, is die vernaamste bevinding van ook die studie wat in ‘n petrochemiese bedryf gedoen is, dat transformasionele leierskap nog nie op standaard is nie.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF INNOVATIONS SUSTAINABLE IN DECISION PURCHASE OF INDUSTRIES THIRD GENERATION PETROCHEMICAL

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Madureira Domingues; Liliane Batista; Valter Soria Ruiz Junior; Edson Luiz Caetano; Denise Pereira Curi

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to understand how sustainable innovation influences the decision of industrial purchases. Much has been said about the organizational buying behavior, but little is said about how the industrial buyers consider sustainable innovation in their purchasing procedures. This work aims to contribute to the constructs involving this type of purchase behavior. Therefore, a qualitative survey was conducted with non-probabilistic sample , composed of six companies of different sizes ,...

  4. [The workplace injury trends in the petrochemical industry: from data analysis to risk management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Giuseppe; Martini, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    The most recent INAIL data show that, in 2009-2011, the accident frequency rate and the severity rate of workplace injuries in the chemical industry are lower than for the total non-agricultural workforce. The chemical industry, primarily because of the complex and hazardous work processes, requires an appropriate system for assessing and monitoring specific risks.The implementation of Responsible Care, a risk management system specific for the chemical industry, in 1984, has represented a historical step in the process of critical awareness of risk management by the chemical companies. Responsible Care is a risk management system specifically designed on the risk profiles of this type of enterprise, which integrates safety, health and environment. A risk management system, suitable for the needs of a chemical company, should extend its coverage area, beyond the responsible management of products throughout the entire production cycle, to the issues of corporate responsibility.

  5. Harnessing the potential - Atlantic Canada`s oil and gas industry : Newfoundland Ocean Industries special releases or publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    A comprehensive overview of Atlantic Canada`s oil and gas industry is presented, demonstrating the importance of oil and gas resources and their related industries to Atlantic Canada. The objective of the report is to provide a basis for a strategy to optimize opportunities within the region from the oil and gas sector. The report reviews the current status of the industry, including the region`s resource potential and the oil and gas developments currently underway. The evolution of the oil and gas industry is discussed in terms of value chain components. A broad assessment of the region`s supply, labour force, infrastructure, training, and research and development capabilities is presented, followed by a description of the industry`s potential, its regulatory framework and the barriers and constraints affecting industry development. Appendices contain a chronological history of major events in Atlantic Canada`s oil and gas industry (Appendix A); and overview of the Atlantic Accord and the Canada-Nova Scotia Accord`s equalization offset provisions (Appendix B); a value chain matrix, detailing some 60 categories of industry requirements and a capsule assessment of the region`s ability to meet them (Appendix C); and a listing of research and development institutions in Atlantic Canada, including their areas of specialization (Appendix D).

  6. Technical Training in the MNCs in Malaysia: A Case Study Analysis of the Petrochemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooi, Lai Wan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to gain insight into some of the types of training and development practices that are carried out in the chemical industry for technical workers. A salient focus of the study is to make a comparative analysis of four MNCs, which were selected based on equity ownership, to ascertain whether T&D practices are…

  7. Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R&D Needs for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-11-01

    This report, the second in a series, is designed to summarize and present recommendations for improved CO2 separation technology for industrial processes. This report provides an overview of 1) the principal CO2 producing processes, 2) the current commercial separation technologies and 3) emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO2 separation, and makes recommendations for future research.

  8. Risk based inspection experience from the European chemical- and petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans; Jeppesen, Leif; Larsen, Bjarne [FORCE Institute, Broendby, (Denmark); Kim, Na Yon [Dong Il International Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-15

    As an inspection vendor with 60 years of experience and with more than 25 years of experience as manufacturer of the Automated Ultrasonic NDT systems, the P-scan systems, FORCE Institute is continuously analysing the market for NDT. This is done to assure that both the equipment product line and the service mix provided by FORCE Institute are meeting the requirements from the industry today and in the future. The concept of Risk Based Inspection Programmes were adopted early by the offshore industry and has in the recent years been adopted by many other industries as a reliable and cost efficient way of maintaining a production facility. A Risk/Reliability Based Inspection Programme is a 'living organism' that constantly needs information if it shall be of any value and NDT information is only one type of information that is required. The NDT information required is normally related to corrosion/base material information and weld integrity information. NDT as an integrated part of a plants maintenance system is, in Europe, currently influenced by the following tendencies which all are related to 'Risk Based Inspection': · Increased use of Base-Line Inspections · Reduction in the use of repeated inspections(qualitative- instead of quantitative Inspections). · Inspection results are fed directly into the plant maintenance system. · Fitness-for-Purpose acceptance criteria instead of conventional acceptance criteria. As repeatability and accuracy is a key issue for the data, automated ultrasonic inspection is increasingly used as an alternative to manual ultrasonic inspection, but due to the physical size of most automated ultrasonic inspection systems the gain in productivity has not been as significant as the gain in repeatability and accuracy. In this paper some of FORCE Institute's practical experiences with examinations carried out in connection with Risk Based Inspection is used to illustrate the above described tendencies. Not only

  9. Biological anoxic treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: A proof of concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Glittmann, Lina [Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Department of Supply Engineering, Wolfenbüttel (Germany); Pérez, Rebeca [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Quijano, Guillermo, E-mail: gquijano@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions can be done by means of denitrifying processes. •Toluene vapors were successfully removed under anoxic denitrifying conditions. • A high bacterial diversity was observed. • Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla. • The nature and number of metabolites accumulated varied with the toluene load -- Abstract: An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O{sub 2} supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ∼3 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}, while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m{sup −3} (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria.

  10. The use of biogas in the petrochemical industry; La valorisation du biogas dans l'industrie petrochimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Nir, M.; Boulanger, D. [CEPSA Chimie Montreal S.E.C., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    In 2001, Montreal-based CEPSA Chemicals was the first company to produce purified terephthalic acid (PTA) in Canada. PTA, is a fine white powder that is created following crude oil refining. It is used in the production of bottles, polyester fibers, paint and clothing. The most recent project undertaken by CEPSA Chemicals was to lower its greenhouse gas emissions through waste product utilization. Flammable gas which was previously burned into the atmosphere is now being converted into a source of energy that could be used within the plant. Significant quantities of water are needed in the production of PTA. Anaerobic digestion is used as a mechanism by which bacteria, without oxygen, feed on organic compounds in water. The process generated biogas which produced mostly methane, although many other contaminants are present in this biogas. The biogas was subjected to a drying process to avoid acid condensation in the pipes. Positive results were noticed regarding reduced environmental impact and economic savings in the plant. This project had many internal challenges, such as pre-operational verification, security issues, and the development of operational procedures. However, many obstacles which could have compromised the project were solved by the the teams 5ositive actions and communications. 5 figs.

  11. Biodegradation of benzene-toluene-xylene in petrochemical industries wastewater through anaerobic sequencing biofilm batch reactor in bench scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Estebar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The optimum BTX removal of 79% was achieved in 3 g COD/l.d and HRT of 3.8 days, at influent BTX concentration of 20 mg/l. Thus, it could be concluded that ASBBR was a feasible, efficient, and consistent technology for treatment of petrochemical wastewaters containing BTX. The ASBBR might be an alternative to intermittent systems as well as batch systems due to its superior operational flexibility.

  12. Careers Canada, Volume 9: Careers in the Hospitality Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, designed for prospective job seekers, describes occupational opportunities within the food service, food preparation and hotel/motel industries in Canada. The preparatory training and job descriptions of cooks, chefs, tourist guides, waiters, hotel and restaurant managers, bartenders and front desk clerks are highlighted.…

  13. ACCC's Response to Industry Canada's Consultation on Improving Canada's Digital Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As the national and international voice representing over 150 publicly-funded colleges, institutes, polytechnics, cegeps, university colleges and universities with a college mandate, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) welcomes the opportunity to provide input to Industry Canada's consultation on a Digital Economy Strategy for…

  14. Hybrid environment for software sensors design applied to the petrochemical industry problems; Ambiente hibrido para a concepcao de sensores de software aplicados aos problemas da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Bruno X.; Ramalho, Leonardo S.G.; Rodrigues, Igor O.; Martins, Daniel L.; Doria Neto, Adriao D.; Melo, Jorge D.; Oliveira, Luiz A.H.G.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article will show a hybrid environment for the conception of software sensors in Foundation Fieldbus (FF) industrial network. These sensors are focused on the measurement and control problems in the petroleum industry, more specifically in oil and gas refining, contributing for the efficiency increase and operation costs decrease of a refining process. The software sensors are based on intelligent algorithms, as neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. These algorithms need input data, in this case the historical variables data associated to industrial petrochemical plant. One option allowed by the environment is the data acquisition from a simulated process by the FF network. Then, the environment presents a hybrid feature, since it is composed by a real (the industrial network) and a simulated (the process) part, with the use of real control and measurements signals. The environment is flexible, allowing typical dynamics of industrial process reproduction without necessity of the physical network amendment and enabling the creation of several situations from a real industrial environment. (author)

  15. Industrial sustainability of competing wood energy options in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackom, Emmanuel K; Mabee, Warren E; Saddler, John N

    2010-12-01

    The amount of sawmill residue available in Canada to support the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry was examined. A material flow analysis technique was employed to determine the amount of sawmill residue that could possibly be available to the ethanol industry per annum. A combination of two key trends--improved efficiency of lumber recovery and increased uptake of sawmill residues for self-generation and for wood pellet production--have contributed to a declining trend of sawmill residue availability. Approximately 2.3 x 10⁶ bone-dry tons per year of sawmill residue was estimated to be potentially available to the cellulosic ethanol industry in Canada, yielding 350 million liters per year of cellulosic ethanol using best practices. An additional 2.7 billion liters of cellulosic ethanol might be generated from sawmill residue that is currently used for competing wood energy purposes, including wood pellet generation. Continued competition between bioenergy options will reduce the industrial sustainability of the forest industry. Recommendations for policy reforms towards improved industrial sustainability practices are provided.

  16. Hazard zoning around electric substations of petrochemical industries by stimulation of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Monireh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Farhang Matin, Laleh; Khosroabadi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetic fields in recent years have been discussed as one of the occupational hazards at workplaces. Hence, control and assessment of these physical factors is very important to protect and promote the health of employees. The present study was conducted to determine hazard zones based on assessment of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at electric substations of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran, using the single-axis HI-3604 device. In measurement of electromagnetic fields by the single-axis HI-3604 device, the sensor screen should be oriented in a way to be perpendicular to the field lines. Therefore, in places where power lines are located in different directions, it is required to keep the device towards three axes of x, y, and z. For further precision, the measurements should be repeated along each of the three axes. In this research, magnetic field was measured, for the first time, in three axes of x, y, and z whose resultant value was considered as the value of magnetic field. Measurements were done based on IEEE std 644-1994. Further, the spatial changes of the magnetic field surrounding electric substations were stimulated using MATLAB software. The obtained results indicated that the maximum magnetic flux density was 49.90 μT recorded from boiler substation, while the minimum magnetic flux density of 0.02 μT was measured at the control room of the complex. As the stimulation results suggest, the spaces around incoming panels, transformers, and cables were recognized as hazardous zones of indoor electric substations. Considering the health effects of chronic exposure to magnetic fields, it would be possible to minimize exposure to these contaminants at workplaces by identification of risky zones and observation of protective considerations.

  17. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias of registry-based data in Korea: a comparison between industrialized areas of petrochemical estates and a non-industrialized area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chul Kim, Sae; Kyoung Kwon, Su; Pyo Hong, Yeon

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to represent the recent trends in the nationwide incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in Korea, and to determine whether there is evidence of spatial heterogeneity in the incidence. The incidence was calculated as the number of newly diagnosed patients (males) during the first 4 years after a live birth in a population, nationally and regionally (a non-industrialized area (Chuncheon) and petrochemical estates (Yeocheon and Ulsan)), between 2000 and 2005. The data (numerator) for new patients were acquired from the National Health Insurance Review Agency, and the data (denominator) for the resident registration population were from the National Statistical Office. Between 2000 and 2005, the national incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias had an increased tendency from 5.01 to 17.43 per 10 000 persons and from 1.40 to 3.28 per 10 000 persons, respectively. The incidence of cryptorchidism was significantly higher in Yeocheon (throughout the study period) and in Ulsan (2001, 2002, 2004 and 2005) than the national incidence, whereas the incidence in Chuncheon was significantly lower in 2001 and 2002. It was difficult to compare the rates of hypospadias yearly and regionally because of the small number of cases. In conclusion, the incidence of cryptorchidism has recently increased in Korea. The petrochemical estates, Yeocheon and Ulsan, had a significantly higher incidence of cyptorchidism than the national incidence, which suggests that further study is needed to obtain a more precise estimation of the trends in the incidence of the anomalies and to confirm the association between petrochemicals and the anomalies. PMID:20729869

  18. Management of safety, environment and health in expansion of the Petrochemical industry; Gestao de seguranca, meio ambiente e saude na ampliacao da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Sonia Marta Carpinelli; Abreu, Igor Melo de [UTC Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The UTC Engineering S.A. search for excellence results to develop the Health, Environmental, and Safety Integrated Management System (SMS) which is addressed to the Petrochemical Uniao S.A. Project for Productivity Capacity Expansion. Despite challenges to set and maintain the System and besides risks associated to electro-mechanical industrial assembly and civil construction, the plan is being implemented. Due to activity changes associated with distinct enterprise steps execution there is a need of tight control related to alteration and immediate blockage actions as procedure to prevent accidents. Innovative programs as the 'Motivation Program for Prevention of Losses' and the 'Qualification Program and Training of Work', bring up to the workers sense of responsibilities and professional values related to SMS issues. As an aid, the Programs supplied by DuPont as STOP{sup TM} - (Program of Safety for Observation) and IAS (Index of Safe Actions) constituted important tools. But, its production leadership taking part, concerned SMS commitment and responsibilities, was crucial. The good results achievements are expressed by reduction of SMS distortions and by reduction of labor accidents as man hour exposed to the risk. (author)

  19. Waste minimization in a petrochemical company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan, Marcelo [Oxiteno S.A., Industria e Comercio, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A way to manage industrial effluents consists in reducing their generation or treating them when elimination or minimization is economically unachievable. This work aims to present the modifications adopted in a petrochemical plant to adequate and, or, reduce the generation of industrial effluent. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Facing the petrochemical competition. Are you prepared?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, P.E. [CMAI, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The factors that impact petrochemical supply, demand and economics were discussed. Petrochemicals are the basis for most commodities consumed in today`s society. The demand for these products is determined by the economy and by the population. Recent changes in the world`s political structure will have an impact on the petrochemical industry. There is evidence that petrochemical activity is shifting to the developing regions of the world as a result of the fall of communism, the fall of some dictatorships and the privatization of state enterprises. In 1980, the world`s economic strength was in Western Europe, North America, and Japan, with 78 per cent of the world`s GDP. It was forecast that by 2010, these three areas will only account for 70 per cent of the world`s GDP. Shifting population and economies will increase per capita incomes in Eastern Europe, South America, and Asia. These areas will see an increase in purchases of petrochemicals products. Demand for base petrochemicals is expected to increase by 106 million tons over the next ten years. However, to survive in a competitive market, companies will have to develop programs to reduce costs, integrate and be prepared to take advantage of opportunities created by the supply/demand cycles.

  1. Petrochemical refinery and integrated petrochemical complexes; Refinaria petroquimica e complexos petroquimicos integrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Patricia C. dos; Seidl, Peter R.; Borschiver, Suzana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Global demand for light olefins points to strong prospects for growth, stimulating investments in overall productive capacity. With propylene demand growing slightly faster than that of ethylene, rising prices and difficulties in supplies of petrochemical feedstocks (mainly naphtha and natural gas), steam crackers alone are not able to fill the light olefins gap nor do they allow extraordinary margins. As petrochemical market dynamics also influence refining activities, there has been significant progress in the development of technologies for petrochemical refining, such as Petrochemical FCC. This petrochemistry-refining integration offers great opportunities for synergism since both industries share many common challenges, like more severe environmental requirements and optimizing the use of utilities. However, in the case of valuation of non-conventional oils (which tend to increase in importance in oil markets), to take full advantage of this opportunity to add value to low cost streams, deep conversion and treatment processes are of great significance in refining scheme to have enough feedstock for cracking. In this context, a petrochemical refinery seems to be an important alternative source of petrochemicals and may be integrated or not to a petrochemical complex. (author)

  2. Energy cogeneration for the industrial sector. Exploration of possibilities for Bahia Blanca petrochemical complex; Cogeneracion de energia para el sector industrial. Exploracion de posibilidades para el polo petroquimico de Bahia Blanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzman, Carlos H. [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Electrotecnia; Baraychart, Rogelio [Tecnolatina S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    Many industrial plants have installed gas turbines in connection with total energy schemes. By combining a gas turbine with a steam plant, through an Independent Power Producer (IPP), increasing in overall efficiency can be archived compared to a steam plant alone. The general applications and economic considerations after privatization of Argentine Network, indicates that for power supply, combined cycle with cogeneration, is appropriate for generation, because of improving quality service, lowering capital cost improving and high efficiency. Figures are shown in this paper, for a project at the petrochemical development pole in Bahia Blanca city, located in the south of Buenos Aires Province. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.; e-mail: gea at delec.fi.uba.ar; tecnolat at ssdnet.com.ar

  3. Investigation of ability to guess safety signs based on cognitive features in one of the petrochemical industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shirali

    2015-07-01

    .Conclusion: According to results of this study, use of principles of ergonomic design of signs and training are necessary to promote the ability to guess the safety signs to the minimum available standards. Therefore, it is possible to balance cognitive features especially “familiarity”, with the lowest score, and “meaningfulness” and “semantic closeness”, with the highest influential relationship with the ability to guess of signs. The developed regression model for this industry can be used to predict the ability to guess of safety signs in future studies

  4. A WRF-Chem model study of the impact of VOCs emission of a huge petro-chemical industrial zone on the summertime ozone in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhao Feng; Li, Yue; Wang, Li Tao; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Liu, Huan

    2018-02-01

    In China, petro-chemical manufacturing plants generally gather in the particular industrial zone defined as PIZ in some cities, and distinctly influence the air quality of these cities for their massive VOCs emissions. This study aims to quantify the local and regional impacts of PIZ VOCs emission and its relevant reduction policy on the surface ozone based on WRF-Chem model, through the case study of Beijing. Firstly, the model simulation under the actual precursors' emissions over Beijing region for July 2010 is conducted and evaluated, which meteorological and chemical predictions both within the thresholds for satisfactory model performance. Then, according to simulated H2O2/HNO3 ratio, the nature of photochemical ozone formation over Beijing is decided, the VOCs-sensitive regime over the urban areas, NOx-sensitive regime over the northern and western rural areas, and both VOCssbnd and NOx-mixed sensitive regime over the southern and eastern rural areas. Finally, a 30% VOCs reduction scenario (RS) and a 100% VOCs reduction scenario (ZS) for Beijing PIZ are additional simulated by WRF-Chem. The sensitivity simulations imply that the current 30% reduction policy would bring about an O3 increase in the southern and western areas (by +4.7 ppb at PIZ site and +2.1 ppb at LLH station), and an O3 decrease in the urban center (by -1.7 ppb at GY station and -2.5 ppb at DS station) and in the northern and eastern areas (by -1.2 ppb at MYX station), mainly through interfering with the circulation of atmospheric HOx radicals. While the contribution of the total VOCs emission of PIZ to ozone is greatly prominent in the PIZ and its surrounding areas along south-north direction (12.7% at PIZ site on average), but slight in the other areas of Beijing (<3% in other four stations on average).

  5. THE EFFECT OF REFINERY AND PETROCHEMICAL EFFLUENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Waste water released by petrochemical industries are characterised by the presence of large quantity of polycyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, metal derivatives, surface active ... accumulation of toxic products in the receiving water bodies with ... and untreated waste water discharge into water bodies and the ...

  6. University-industry research collaborations in Canada: the role of federal policy instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Creso M Sá; Jeffrey Litwin

    2011-01-01

    Canada's research policy has aimed to facilitate technology transfer from universities and induce innovation in industry for the past three decades. This article examines the policy instruments currently employed by the federal government in Canada to stimulate university-industry research linkages. First, the article examines the national landscape of industry R&D and its interface with university research. Then, multiple policy instruments are identified, and their goals and functions are e...

  7. CAUT Response to Industry Canada's 2014 S&T Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2015

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of December 2014, Canada's Prime Minister and Minister of State (Science and Technology) released their science, technology and innovation strategy and launched the Canada First Excellence Research Fund (CFERF). This brief looks at the implications of the proposed policy on academic research and on research and development…

  8. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  9. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  10. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E

    2003-07-01

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  11. Migração, trabalho na indústria petroquímica e consumo de bebidas alcoólicas Recent migration, petrochemical industry jobs and alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma S. Santana

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se testar testar a hipótese de uma associação entre migração recente, trabalho na indústria petroquímica e o consumo excessivo de bebidas alcoólicas, avaliando o papel de variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas como confundidores ou modificadores de efeito. Foi empregada uma amostra aleatória de 452 chefes de família entre 18 e 60 anos de idade, proveniente de um inquérito de saúde conduzido com famílias que residiam em uma área industrial da Região Metropolitana de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Apenas os trabalhadores do setor industrial foram incluídos na análise (n = 299. Consumidores de bebidas alcoólicas foram identificados com o Questionário de Morbidade Psiquiátrica de Adultos, QMPA, aplicado por entrevistadores treinados a informantes chave de cada família selecionada. Migrantes recentes foram definidos como aqueles que tinham até dois anos de residência no local. A prevalência de consumo exagerado de álcool foi maior entre trabalhadores da indústria petroquímica e entre migrantes recentes, em comparação aos trabalhadores de outras indústrias e não migrantes recentes, respectivamente. Petroquímicos migrantes recentes apresentaram uma prevalência de consumo de bebidas alcoólicas 3,4 vezes superior ao grupo de referência. Migração recente e trabalho na indústria petroquímica são fatores de risco potenciais para o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, por um efeito sinérgico entre essas duas variáveis. Os resultados sugerem a escolaridade como fator de proteção para o consumo de álcool, apenas entre não migrantes recentes nessa população de estudo.This study is aimed at to evaluate the hypothesis that recent migration and work in the petrochemical industry are associated with heavy alcohol consumption, and that education and family income are relevant effect modifiers of this association. The study was based on a random sample of 452 head of families, from 18-60 years of age, drawn from a

  12. Response to Industry Canada's Consultation Paper "Seizing Canada's Moment: Moving Forward in Science, Technology and Innovation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Wayne D.; Turk, James L.

    2014-01-01

    According to these authors, Canada is in need of a new science policy and strategy. The current direction of the federal government is threatening to impede scientific progress and compromise the integrity and independence of public science. This is reflected in the government's waning commitment to funding basic research; its attempts to steer…

  13. Royal Society of Canada expert panel report : environmental and health impacts of Canada's oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosselin, P. [Inst. national de sante publique, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Hrudey, S.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Div. of Analytical and Environmental Toxicology; Naeth, M.A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Faculty of Agricultural, Life, and Environmental Sciences; Plourde, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Economics; Therrien, R. [Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Van Der Kraak, G. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Integrative Biology; Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). College of Biological Science; Xu, Z. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2010-12-15

    This expert panel report was commissioned by the Royal Society of Canada to provide a comprehensive evidence-based assessment of the environmental and health impacts of Canada's oil sands industry. The report evaluated the feasibility of land reclamation and the impacts of oil sands contaminants on downstream residents. Health impacts on residents living in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo were assessed, and the impacts on regional water supplies were evaluated. Regional water and ground water quantities were examined, and issues related to tailing pond operations and reclamation were examined. Ambient air quality impacts were assessed, as well as potential impacts of the oil sands industry on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The environmental regulatory performance of operators in the industry was also evaluated. A summary of economic and policy issues related to the industry was also provided. The study identified major gaps in the process of assessment, prevention, and mitigation of the health impacts of oil sands exploitation, as as major indirect health impacts linked to past exploitation activities. 672 refs., 11 tabs., 11 figs. 10 appendices.

  14. Biodegradation of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes) composites present in the petrochemical effluents industries; Biodegradacao dos compostos BTX (Benzeno, Tolueno e Xilenos) presentes em efluentes petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minatti, Gheise; Mello, Josiane M.M. de; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de; Antonio Augusto Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The compounds BTX inside of the petrochemical effluent have presented a high potential of pollution, representing a serious risk to the environment and to the human. The great improvements in the field of biological treatment of liquid effluent were reached through the process using biofilm capable of degrading toxic compounds. The objective of this paper is to determine the degradation kinetics of BTX using biofilm. The experimental data were compared with two kinetic models, kinetic of first order and model of Michaelis-Menten. The kinetic parameters of BTX compounds were experimentally obtained in a bioreactor in batch with biomass immobilized in activated-carbon, being fed daily with solution of nutrients and BTX. For the kinetic models studied in this paper, the best performance was achieved with the model of Michaelis-Menten showing a good correlation coefficient for the three compounds. The biomass amount in these bioreactors was 49.18, 28.35 and 5.15 mg of SSV per gram of support for the toluene, benzene and o-xylene, respectively. The experimental tests showed that the biomass inside of bioreactor is capable to degrade all compounds in a time of approximately 300 minutes. (author)

  15. Les réacteurs à membranes : possibilités d'application dans l'industrie pétrolière et pétrochimique Membrane Reactors: Possibilities of Application in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait le point sur l'état de la recherche dans le domaine des réacteurs chimiques avec séparation par membrane intégrée et de leur applications dans le domaine du raffinage et de la pétrochimie. Trois applications potentiellement intéressantes sont identifiées et, pour chacune, les avantages de l'utilisation d'un réacteur à membrane sont discutés. Ce sont : la déshydrogénation du propane en propylène, la déshydrogénation d'un naphtène cyclohexanique et le vaporéformage du gaz naturel. Pour ces réactions, les membranes à base de palladium apparaissent les plus performantes compte tenu de leur tenue en température, de leur sélectivité et de leur perméabilité à l'hydrogène. Quelques éléments relatifs à leur développement sont présentés en conclusion. Recently, the use of membrane in reaction engineering has been more and more advocated. The selective separation of the products from the reaction mixture allows to achieve higher conversion or better selectivity or to operate under less severe conditions or with smaller units. This paper presents an update on the recent advances in the field of chemical membrane reactors and on their applications in refining and petrochemistry. Previous work. Most of the possible applications of membrane reactors in petroleum and petrochemical industry concern gaseous catalytic reactions. For this reason, gas permeation membranes are the primary component of membrane reactors. Gas permeation membranes present different types of physical structure : dense, microporous or asymmetric which is a combination of the two. Separating properties of dense membranes are function of the solubility and diffusivity of each gaseous component in the membrane material. For microporous membranes, they follow four mechanisms : Knudsen diffusion, surface diffusion, capillary condensation or molecular sieving. Although organic polymers are the common constituent of gas permeation membrane, their

  16. Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, Ccoal and biomass: energy use, economics and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.

    2009-01-01

    The petrochemical industry is faced with the dual challenges of climate change and the security of energy supply. To deal with these challenges, it is necessary to identify technologies for the production of basic petrochemicals that could potentially improve energy efficiency and/or utilizing

  17. Tracing industrial sulfur emissions in atmospheric sulfate deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernadette C. Proemse; Bernhard. Mayer; Mark E. Fenn

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic S emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada, affect SO4 deposition in close vicinity of industrial emitters. Between May 2008 and May 2009, SO4-S deposition was monitored using open field bulk collectors at 15 sites and throughfall collectors at 14 sites at distances between 3 and 113 km from one of the major emission stacks in...

  18. Competitiveness in the sawmills and wood preservation industry in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao V Nagubadi; Daowei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    We examine relative prices, relative productivity levels, and competitiveness in the sawmills and wood preservation industry in the united states and Canada between 1958 and 2003 by using purchasing power parities and bilateral translog production function. Our results show that the competitiveness of the Canadian industy is facilitated by higher relative productivity...

  19. Air quality in the Industrial Heartland of Alberta, Canada and potential impacts on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Isobel J.; Marrero, Josette E.; Batterman, Stuart; Meinardi, Simone; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The “Industrial Heartland” of Alberta is Canada’s largest hydrocarbon processing center, with more than 40 major chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities. Emissions from these industries affect local air quality and human health. This paper characterizes ambient levels of 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the region using high-precision measurements collected in summer 2010. Remarkably strong enhancements of 43 VOCs were detected, and concentrations in the industrial plumes were often similar to or even higher than levels measured in some of the world’s largest cities and industrial regions. For example maximum levels of propene and i-pentane exceeded 100 ppbv, and 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, reached 27 ppbv. Major VOC sources included propene fractionation, diluent separation and bitumen processing. Emissions of the measured VOCs increased the hydroxyl radical reactivity (kOH), a measure of the potential to form downwind ozone, from 3.4 s−1 in background air to 62 s−1 in the most concentrated plumes. The plume value was comparable to polluted megacity values, and acetaldehyde, propene and 1,3-butadiene contributed over half of the plume kOH. Based on a 13-year record (1994–2006) at the county level, the incidence of male hematopoietic cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was higher in communities closest to the Industrial Heartland compared to neighboring counties. While a causal association between these cancers and exposure to industrial emissions cannot be confirmed, this pattern and the elevated VOC levels warrant actions to reduce emissions of known carcinogens, including benzene and 1,3-butadiene. PMID:25685050

  20. New Petrochemical Processes Based on Direct Conversion of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraguna F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry and chemical engineering that studies reactions and processes of the transformation of petroleum derivatives and natural gas into useful petrochemicals. In its beginning, petrochemistry, or rather the organic chemical industry, was based on the acetylene and Reppe chemistry. The main raw materials of the petrochemical industry nowadays are olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons, with a pronounced tendency toward development of new processes and higher usage of syngas, methane and other alkanes. Here, the reactions and new processes of direct conversion of methane into more valuable petrochemicals are reviewed. Reactions of partial oxidation of methane, dehydroaromatization of methane, oxidative and non-oxidative coupling of methane to higher hydrocarbons are also described and discussed.

  1. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. In the first stage, locating map and dispersion limits were prepared. Then, the types and amounts of industrial waste generated in were evaluated by an inventory and inspection. Wastes were classified according to Environmental Protection Agency and Basel Standards and subsequently hazards of different types were investigated. The waste management of TPC is quite complex because of the different types of waste and their pollution. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. In this study, using different sources and references, generally petrochemical sources, various solid waste management practices were investigated and the best options were selected. Some wastes should be treated before land filling and some of them should be reused or recycled. In the case of solid waste optimization, source reduction ways were recommended as well as prior incineration system was modified.

  2. Small modular reactors (SMRs) - the way forward for the nuclear industry in Canada?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam-Aggrey, H. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) are being touted as safer, more cost effective and more flexible than traditional nuclear power plants (NPPs). Consequently, it has been argued that SMR technology is pivotal to the revitalization of the nuclear industry at the national and global levels. Drawing mainly on previously published literature, this paper explores the suitability of SMRs for various niche market applications in Canada. The paper examines the potential role of SMRs in providing an opportunity for remote mines and communities in northern Canada to reduce their vulnerability and dependence on costly, high-carbon diesel fuel. Other niche market applications of SMRs explored include: SMRs deployment in Saskatchewan for grid augmentation and as replacement options for Saskatchewan's ageing coal plants; the use of SMRs for bitumen extraction in the Oil Sands, and the potential use of SMRs in Canadian-owned foreign based mines. The socio-economic benefits of SMR deployments are also discussed. Building an SMR industry in Canada could complement the country's extensive expertise in uranium mining, reactor technology, plant operation, nuclear research, and environmental and safety standards, thereby enhancing Canada's ability to offer services throughout the entire nuclear life cycle. The paper also outlines some of the technical, economic and social barriers that could impede the successful introduction of SMRs in Canada. (author)

  3. Maximum fossil fuel feedstock replacement potential of petrochemicals via biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Boom, R.M.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The search for feedstock replacement options within the petrochemical industry should logically be based upon non-fossil resources. Retaining the functionality of the biochemicals in biomass for use as chemical products and precursors can lead to a sizeable reduction of fossil fuel consumption. This

  4. The importance of the treatment of the unsafe acts for the prevention of accidents in petrochemical industry; A importancia do tratamento dos atos inseguros para a prevencao de acidentes na industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneguetti, Alexander A.; Santos, Helio R.F.; Alevato, Hilda; Lima, Luciana S. [Dupont do Brasil S.A., Paulinia, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the fact that, the workers' behavior is characterized by its complexity and diversity, this issue has been seen as a great 'black box' in discussions regarding the Management Systems of SHE. Associated with this issue other arises: How conscious people? How to engage them with the process? How to improve the risk control? How to motivate the prevention? Most of these responses are discussed in the Social and Human Sciences for many years. However, it is necessary to closer the technical-operational knowledge and the human aspects, applying in the organizations' daily work, to make the working environment more safe. The purpose of this study, therefore, is examining the possibility of reducing accidents through the identification and treatment of deviations (unsafe acts and unsafe conditions), cause the whole accident, be it serious or not, begins with a small deviation. It was used as a reference tool, the Behavior audit and it is based on field's observations, applied into a production unit of a large petrochemical industry in northern Brazil, during the years 2006 and 2007. (author)

  5. The Policy Objectives of a Biofuel Industry in Canada: An Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny G. Le Roy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada has a huge stock of biomass resources, which provides a basis (and a temptation for development of a major bio-fuels industry. Both federal and provincial governments have engaged in a wide array of subsidies, mandates, and other measures to stimulate production and consumption of biofuels. As a result, biofuels has become a growth industry in Canada with production of ethanol almost 10 times higher than it was ten years earlier. However, this has come at considerable cost to taxpayers. Increased biofuel production has resulted in minimal reduction in greenhouse gases, short run (but not long run increases in net farm income (that benefited grain and oilseed producers but hurt livestock producers, large increases in the prices of farm land due to the higher grain and oilseed prices, and minimal impacts on rural economic diversification.

  6. CANADA

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hakan Mustafa

    . AAAA. Numéro du fournisseur. Protégé B*. (une fois rempli). RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX, FISCAUX ET BANCAIRES DU FOURNISSEUR – CANADA. Section 1 : RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX. Nom du particulier (nom, prénom) ou ...

  7. Petrochemicals for the nonchemical person

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, D.L.; Leffler, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    Petrochemicals for the Nontechnical Person is the second book in a series designed to inform the curious novice or frustrated veteran of what petrochemicals are and how they're made. Contents include: The complete course in organic chemistry; Benzene, toluene, and the xylenes; Cyclohexane; Olefin plants; The C/sub 4/ hydrocarbon family; Cumene and phenol; Ethylbenzene and styrene; Ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride; Ethylene oxide and ethylene glycol; Propylene oxide and propylene glycol; Methanol and synthesis gas; The other alcohols; Acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl isobutyl ketone; The acids; Acrylonitriles and the acrylates; Maleic anhydride; The nature of polymers; Thermoplastics; Resins and fibers; Index.

  8. Responsible management of peatlands in Canada, from peat industry to oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, Line

    2013-04-01

    Canada harbors one third of the peat resources of the world. Peat is an accumulated organic matter composed of dead and partly decomposed plant material, forming huge deposit through time in wetlands like peatlands and boreal coniferous swamps. Peat is a valuable resource as a growing media and soil amendments, an eco-friendly absorbent, also used as biofilters, for body care and for wastewater treatment. Peatlands also offer valuable ecological services : for example, they are the most efficient terrestrial ecosystem to store carbon on a long-term basis. Their ability to "cool off" the planet warrants a good look at their management. The horticultural peat industry of Canada has invested 22 years in R&D in habitat restoration and is now a strong leader in managing industrial peatlands in a sustainable way. The oil sand industry, which is strongly impacting the wetland landscapes of northern Canada, does realize that it has to reduce its ecological footprint, which is heavily criticized around the world. Decommissioned open mines near Fort McMurray have already begun recreating peatland ecosystems, and some restoration attempts of former oil pads are underway in the Peace River region. But the restoration of the largely disturbed wetland landscape of the oil sands is commanding innovative solutions.

  9. Hazardous sludge wastes of petrochemical industries in the developing countries[Held jointly with the 4. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids managment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaheri, M. [Abadan Petrochemical Company, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaheri, S. [Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Surface waters and agricultural fields are becoming more and more polluted as a result of waste sludges from wastewater treatment plants such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and organo-chlor compounds. In developing countries, environmental development is not parallel to industrial development and most industrial wastewater treatment plants in these countries are producing very harmful sludges. This paper discussed the management of hazardous wastes in Iran and the use of harmful chemical compounds that are being produced the country. The progress that has been made on hazardous waste management practices was also discussed with reference to waste management methods. It was noted that there are no comprehensive hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities in Iran although many larger scale industries have installed their individual waste treatment facilities to treat hazardous wastes. It was concluded that the responsibility for proper and safe disposal of toxic and hazardous wastes requires the cooperation of government, industry and the general public in developing countries. In addition, it was recommended that the following facilities should be considered and/or supplied by the government due to the low public awareness and lack of public interest: land treatment facilities such as sludge farms; off-site recovery facilities; off-site treatment facilities such as plasma-energy incinerators requiring a high budget; off-site storage facilities including the premises of transport contractors; and, secure landfills designated for the disposal of scheduled wastes.

  10. Contribuição aos critérios de projeto organizacional para inovação na indústria petroquímica brasileira A contribution to organizational design for innovation in the Brazilian petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marotti de Mello

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A Indústria Petroquímica, incluindo-se aí a brasileira, é um setor consolidado, maduro, acostumado a inovar incrementalmente em produtos e processos. De outro lado, para manter e ampliar sua competitividade, tem a necessidade de inovar mais radicalmente. A literatura disponível recomenda que empresas que necessitem inovar, simultaneamente, de forma incremental e radical, deveriam adotar uma "Organização Ambidestra" (ou "Semiestrutura", utilizando processos, ferramentas de gestão e estruturas adequadas para cada caso. Mas como exatamente deveria ser essa organização ambidestra? Este trabalho objetiva contribuir com esta discussão, propondo critérios para o Projeto Organizacional adequado ao desenvolvimento de inovações incrementais e radicais de forma sistemática em empresas consolidadas de setores maduros. Parte-se do princípio de que não haveria um modelo único a ser prescrito neste caso. O método de pesquisa utilizado foi o estudo de múltiplos casos em três empresas inovadoras do setor, em que onze projetos de inovação foram analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicam que, ainda que haja nas empresas a preocupação de divisão de estruturas para o desenvolvimento de inovações radicais e incrementais, na prática, a forma pela qual os projetos são conduzidos não mostra diferença significativa. O modelo proposto oferece um conjunto de diretrizes e critérios para que cada empresa adapte suas estruturas e processos a diferentes desafios encontrados nos projetos de inovação, em cada etapa de seu desenvolvimento.The Petrochemical Industry (including the Brazilian Petrochemical industry is a well-established and mature sector that has always introduced product and process incremental innovation. On the other hand, in order to maintain its competitiveness, this sector needs more radical innovation. According to the literature, companies that need both incremental and radical innovation should adopt an Ambidextrous

  11. Control of Human Error and comparison Level risk after correction action With the SHERPA Method in a control Room of petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zakerian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims Today in many jobs like nuclear, military and chemical industries, human errors may result in a disaster. Accident in different places of the world emphasizes this subject and we indicate for example, Chernobyl disaster in (1986, tree Mile accident in (1974 and Flixborough explosion in (1974.So human errors identification especially in important and intricate systems is necessary and unavoidable for predicting control methods.   Methods Recent research is a case study and performed in Zagross Methanol Company in Asalouye (South pars.   Walking –Talking through method with process expert and control room operators, inspecting technical documents are used for collecting required information and completing Systematic Human Error Reductive and Predictive Approach (SHERPA worksheets.   Results analyzing SHERPA worksheet indicated that, were accepting capable invertebrate errors % 71.25, % 26.75 undesirable errors, % 2 accepting capable(with change errors, % 0 accepting capable errors, and after correction action forecast Level risk to this arrangement, accepting capable invertebrate errors % 0, % 4.35 undesirable errors , % 58.55 accepting capable(with change errors, % 37.1 accepting capable errors .   ConclusionFinally this result is comprehension that this method in different industries especially in chemical industries is enforceable and useful for human errors identification that may lead to accident and adventures.

  12. Industrial output restriction and the Kyoto protocol. An input-output approach with application to Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lixon, Benoit [A.D.E Consulting Services, Rue de Clairvaux, 40/101, 1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, Paul J. [Department of Agricultural Economics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Hamaide, Bertrand [Faculty of Economics, Social and Political Sciences, Facultes Universitaires Saint-Louis, 43 boulevard du jardin botanique, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impacts of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing industrial output in Canada to a level that will meet the target set out in the Kyoto Protocol. The study uses an ecological-economic Input-Output model combining economic components valued in monetary terms with ecologic components - GHG emissions - expressed in physical terms. Economic and greenhouse gas emissions data for Canada are computed in the same sectoral disaggregation. Three policy scenarios are considered: the first one uses the direct emission coefficients to allocate the reduction in industrial output, while the other two use the direct plus indirect emission coefficients. In the first two scenarios, the reduction in industrial sector output is allocated uniformly across sectors while it is allocated to the 12 largest emitting industries in the last one. The estimated impacts indicate that the results vary with the different allocation methods. The third policy scenario, allocation to the 12 largest emitting sectors, is the most cost effective of the three as the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol reduces Gross Domestic Product by 3.1% compared to 24% and 8.1% in the first two scenarios. Computed economic costs should be considered as upper-bounds because the model assumes immediate adjustment to the Kyoto Protocol and because flexibility mechanisms are not incorporated. The resulting upper-bound impact of the third scenario may seem to contradict those who claim that the Kyoto Protocol would place an unbearable burden on the Canadian economy. (author)

  13. Reuse of a residue from petrochemical industry with portland cement Reutilización de un residuo de la industria petroquímica como adición al cemento portland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the possibility of using waste from the petrochemical industry,as partial replacement of Portland cement is studied, evaluating the presenceof contaminants in the waste and the encapsulation, once it is confined on the cement. This has been done, in order to find a use to this residue without cause damage to the environment. This residue, called spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC, is mainly formed by a type Y zeolite, which is dispersing in an inorganic oxides matrix. The toxicity characteristic leaching proceeding was applied, in mortars adding with 20% of FCC as Portland cement replacement. The results showed that the residue does not represent a problem from the point of view of the leaching of elements, such as As, Pb, Zn, Cr, and La, which were below to the permissible limits. Additionally, the pozzolanic activity of FCC was evaluated according to ASTM C311, where the efficiency of the residue as pozzolanic addition is demonstrated. With the results the importance of reusing a residue of the petrochemical industry is emphasized, that decreases the amount of cement to be used and improves the mechanical resistance of the materials containing it.En el presente artículo se estudia la posibilidad de utilizar un residuo de la industria petroquímica, como sustitución parcial del cemento Portland, evaluando la presencia de elementos contaminantes en el residuo y su encapsulación, una vez se haya confinado con el cemento. Lo anterior, con el fin de determinar si su uso como material de construcción, puede o no causar un efecto negativo al medio ambiente. El residuo, denominado catalizador usado de craqueo catalítico (FCC, es un material que está compuesto por una zeolita tipo Y, dispersa en una matriz de óxidos inorgánicos. Se aplicó la técnica de TCLP (del inglés Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, en morteros adicionados con un 20%, de FCC con respecto a la cantidad de cemento. Los resultados

  14. Screening and Treatment of Immigrants and Refugees to Canada for Tuberculosis: Implications of the Experience of Canada and other Industrialized Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the incidence of tuberculosis in immigrants and refugees in Canada and other industrialized countries; the effectiveness of the screening process; the incidence of drug resistance; recommendations for prophylaxis and therapy; and indications for and effectiveness of directly observed therapy.

  15. Canada's wind energy industry directory 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Canadian federal and provincial governments have launched programs and policies to promote wind energy technology. The wind energy capacity in Canada has recently surpassed 1000 MW. In addition, numerous proposals for industrial expansion have surfaced in most provinces and territories. It is anticipated that a minimum of 8000 MW of wind energy may be installed in Canada by 2015. There are several micro-, small- and large-scale wind power companies that can provide the goods and services needed to develop a project. The wind industry is composed of component manufacturers, project developers, distributors, installers, suppliers, consulting firms and public utilities. This directory of businesses in the Canadian wind power industry is compiled alphabetically by company names. For each listing, the inventory includes a world wide web address and information on whether the company manufactures components, equipment, towers or turbines. The inventory tags each company according to the services they provide, such as engineering, construction, maintenance, financial, consulting, environmental, equipment sales, or project development.

  16. Microbial degradation of petrochemical waste-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulekar, M H

    2017-01-01

    Petrochemical industry is one of the fastest growing industries. This industry has immense importance in the growth of economy and manufacture of large varieties of chemicals. The petrochemical industry is a hazardous group of industry generating hazardous waste containing organic and inorganic compounds. In spite of the present treatment process, the hazardous waste compounds are found untreated to the acceptable level and found discharged at soil-water environment resulting into the persistent organic-inorganic pollutant into the environment. The bioremediation will be the innovative techniques to remove the persistent pollutants in the environment. Petrochemical contaminated site was found to be a rich source of microbial consortium degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Indigenous microbial consortiums were identified and used for bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene and anthracene) at the concentrations of 250, 500, and 750 ppm. The potential microorganism was also identified for naphthalene and anthracene, and their bioremediation was studied at varying concentrations. The bioremediation with consortium was found to be comparatively more effective than the potential microorganism used for bioremediation of each compound. Pseudomonas aeruginosa a potential organism was identified by 16S rRNA and further studied for the gene responsible for the PAH compounds. Indigenous microorganism as a consortium has been found effective and efficient source for remediation of organic compound-Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and this will also be applicable to remediate the toxic compounds to clean up the environment.

  17. Canada's Industry-University Co-Op Education Accreditation System and Its Inspiration for the Evaluation of China's Industry-University-Institute Cooperative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiubo, Yang; Shibin, Wang; Zha, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The high degree of interest that higher education systems around the world have in employability has driven the profound development of industry-university cooperative education. Canada's industry-university co-op education system has served as a model for global cooperative education, and its accreditation system guarantees the high quality of…

  18. Industry sector analysis Canada: Water pollution control equipment and instrumentation. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, T.; Lee, S.

    1992-08-01

    U.S. suppliers of water pollution control equipment are in a prime position to benefit from Canadian industries' needs to modernize equipment in order to comply with tough, new legislation to control water pollution. In selling to the Canadian market, U.S. suppliers clearly benefit from the advantages of advanced technical know-how, proximity to the market, and reduced tariffs under the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement (CFTA). The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Canadian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation (Canadian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, competitive factors), and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). The ISA also contains Key Contact information.

  19. Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, Ccoal and biomass: energy use, economics and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, T

    2009-01-01

    The petrochemical industry is faced with the dual challenges of climate change and the security of energy supply. To deal with these challenges, it is necessary to identify technologies for the production of basic petrochemicals that could potentially improve energy efficiency and/or utilizing alternative primary energy sources, e.g. coal and biomass. This thesis explores the potential of novel process technologies. In total, 24 technological routes were studied and three aspects are analyzed...

  20. Asia's new power : opportunities for Canadian petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, A.B. [Nexant Inc., San Fransisco, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The structure and outlook of the Asian economy was discussed. In 2004, Japan had the largest share of the Asian gross domestic product (GDP) at 50.5 per cent followed by China at 15.7 per cent. Nexant forecasts that Asian growth will average 5 to 6 per cent inclusive of Japan's mature economy. The presentation included a graph comparing GDP on a purchasing power parity basis and exchange rate basis. It was noted that although China's strong growth is due in part to a stable currency fixed to the US$, there are some underlying concerns regarding efficiency improvements in state owned enterprises, non performing loans, and a lack of transparency in growth statistics and inflation. With consumers driving demand, China is the world's largest importer of petrochemicals and polymers, but the purchasing pattern is erratic. This presentation listed some of the major changes under the World Trade Organization (WTO) and illustrated the important role that trades play in importing polymers. It is expected that imported polymers and petrochemicals may be sold directly to end-users. A graph depicting delivered costs of monoethylene glycol (MEG), excluding tariffs, port charges and internal logistics, indicates that the Middle East is favoured. The implications for Canadian petrochemicals was discussed, given that China is Canada's prime MEG export market. tabs., figs.

  1. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected...... from 29 randomly selected dairy goat herds and 21 convenience -selected dairy sheep flocks. Fecal samples were analyzed using bacterial culture (BD BACTEC MGIT 960) and polymerase chain reaction (Tetracore); serum samples were tested with the Prionics Parachek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA......). Using 3-test latent class Bayesian models, true farm-level prevalence was estimated to be 83.0% [95% probability interval (PI): 62.6% to 98.1%] for dairy goats and 66.8% (95% PI: 41.6% to 91.4%) for dairy sheep. The within-farm true prevalence for dairy goats was 35.2% (95% PI: 23.0% to 49...

  2. Industry and provinces fight global warming agreement: Canada still expected to ratify

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchildon, S.

    2002-03-31

    The Canadian government is under intense pressure from the provinces, industry and the United States not to ratify the Kyoto Agreement and to abandon its international commitment to reduce green house gas emissions. Opponents of the treaty claim that it will badly harm the economy, a misconception that is also at the root of the United States government's refusal to seriously address global warming. This belief rests on refusal to accept the scientific evidence. The Suzuki Foundation, and environmental groups in general claim that it is irresponsible for industry and certain provinces to continue to fight against Kyoto. With the documented findings of the world's top climate scientists, it is high time for Ottawa to stop listening to the special interests of the polluters and to stand up on behalf of all Canadians. To refute these ill-conceived claims of polluters a study which appeared in the October 2001 issue of 'Nature' is cited, according to which Italy could save about $2.9 billion annually by cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The study found that compliance with the Kyoto protocols would require 3.1 per cent more industrial spending, but reduce other costs by 35 per cent. Similar expert analysis show comparable savings and gains for other industrialized countries such as Canada and the United States. The principal means of achieving the Kyoto targets will be through reduction of fossil fuel energy consumption and general improvement in energy efficiency. These moves not only protect the climate, they also save money and create jobs. The Foundation is convinced that it is time to make the first step in the right direction, and Kyoto is that essential first step.

  3. Present and future use of energy in the cement and concrete industries in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    The Canadian cement industry has a clinker producing capacity of 15 million tonnes/y and a clinker grinding capacity of ca 17 million tonnes/y. The average specific fuel consumption to produce one tonne of clinker is 4.10 GJ/tonne. This is high compared to other countries since nearly half of Canadian clinker is produced in relatively inefficient wet or long dry kilns. Most of the fuel used by these plants is coal and coke (64%). Only 2% of the fuel was waste, compared to 8.7% in the USA. Total energy presently required to produce 1 tonne of cement in Canada is 4.35 GJ. The Canadian concrete industry produces ca 26 million m[sup 3]/y of concrete at a total energy consumption of ca 1.65 GJ/tonne. Energy-related environmental impacts of the cement industry include air pollution from cement plant stacks and solid waste. Projections for the year 2000 and 2010 indicate that more fuel-efficient kilns will be installed in Canadian cement plants, and energy saving modifications of plants will also be made. These improvements will lower specific fuel consumption to 3.97 GJ/tonne of clinker or 4.22 GJ/tonne of cement in 2000 and 3.61 GJ/tonne of clinker or 3.85 GJ/tonne of cement in 2010. Energy saving measures in the concrete industry will reduce total energy consumption to ca 1.54 GJ/m[sup 3] and 1.38 GJ/m[sup 3] of concrete produced in 2000 and 2010 respectively. Reduction of specific fuel consumption and implementation of new technologies are expected to reduce emissions of NOx and CO[sub 2] from cement plants by 7% and 25% per tonne of clinker produced by 2000, respectively. Waste fuels are forecast to account for 25% of industry requirements by 2010. Means to promote energy efficiency in the industry are identifed. 32 refs., 31 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. Potential of best practice technology to improve energy efficiency in the global chemical and petrochemical sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Gielen, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for 30% of the industry's total final energy use. However, due to its complexity its energy efficiency potential is not well understood. This article analyses the energy efficiency potential on a country

  5. Tracing industrial ammonium in atmospheric deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, B.; Proemse, B. C.; Fenn, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The expanding industrial development in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta, Canada, has raised concerns about increasing nitrogen (N) emissions from oil sands operations and their potential effects on the surrounding terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Stable isotope techniques may help to trace industrial emissions provided that they are isotopically distinct from background isotope ratios of atmospheric N compounds. Ammonium deposition rates (NH4-N) typically exceed nitrate deposition rates (NO3-N) in the AOSR (Proemse et al., 2013), suggesting that emissions of reduced nitrogen compounds play a significant role for the atmospheric nitrogen budget in the AOSR. We collected atmospheric ammonium in open field bulk deposition and throughfall using ion exchange resins over ~6 months time periods from summer 2007 to summer 2011 located at distances between 3 to 113 km to one of the major oil sands developments in the AOSR. Ammonium deposition rates and δ15N-NH4 values were determined using ion chromatography and the ammonium diffusion method (Sebilo et al., 2004) on resin extracts. Atmospheric ammonium deposition rates in open field bulk collectors and throughfall collectors ranged from 1.0 to 4.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 NH4-N, and from 1.0 to 18.3 kg ha-1 yr-1 NH4-N, respectively. δ15N-NH4 values varied from -6.3 to +14.8‰ with the highest δ15N values typically associated with elevated NH4-N deposition rates. δ15N-NH4 values of up to +20.1‰ were observed for industrially emitted NH4 in particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions (Proemse et al., 2012) suggesting that industrial NH3 and NH4 emissions are associated with elevated δ15N values providing a potential tracer. Applying a two-end-member mixing analysis using a background δ15N-NH4 value of -3.6‰ for summer and -3.2‰ for winter periods revealed that particularly sites within ~30 km radius from the main oil sands developments are significantly affected by industrial contributions to

  6. Integrating strategic environmental assessment with industry planning: a case study of the Pasquai-Porcupine forest management plan, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Bram F

    2004-03-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is gaining widespread recognition as a tool for integrating environmental considerations in policy, plan, and program development and decision-making. Notwithstanding the potential of SEA to improve higher-order decision processes, there has been very little attention given to integrating SEA with industry planning practices. As a result, the benefits of SEA have yet to be fully realized among industrial proponents. That said, SEA practice is ongoing, albeit informally and often under a different label, and is proving to be a valuable tool for industry planning and decision-making. Based on a case study of the Pasquai-Porcupine forest management plan in Saskatchewan, Canada, this paper illustrates how an integrated approach to SEA can contribute to industry environmental decision-making and can enhance the quality and deliverability of industry plans.

  7. Evaluation of geothermal energy as a heat source for the oilsands industry in Northern Alberta (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M.; Gray, A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Babadagli, T.; Walsh, N.; Weides, S.; Verveda, R.

    2012-12-01

    The extraction and processing of bitumen from the oilsands of Northern Alberta requires very large amounts of heat that is obtained by burning natural gas. At current levels, the gas used represents 6% of Canada's natural gas production. Geothermal energy could potentially provide this heat, thereby reducing both the financial costs and environmental impact of the oilsands industry. The Helmholtz Alberta Initiative is evaluating this application of geothermal energy through an integrated program of geology, geophysics, reservoir simulation and calculations of the cost benefit. A first stage in this evaluation is refining estimates of subsurface temperature beneath Northern Alberta. This has involved three stages: (1) Corrected industrial thermal data have been used to revise estimates of the upper crustal temperatures beneath the oilsands regions in Alberta. The geothermal gradient map produced using heat flow and thermal conductivity for the entire Phanerozoic column suggests that the overall gradient of the entire column is less than the gradients calculated directly from industry measurements. (2) Paleoclimatic corrections must be applied , since this region has experienced a significant increase in surface temperatures since the end of the last ice age causing a perturbation of shallow heat flow. For this reason, estimates of geothermal gradient based on shallow data are not necessarily characteristic of the whole sedimentary column and can lead to errors in temperature prediction at depth. (3) Improved measurements have been made of the thermal conductivity of the crystalline basement rocks (average = 2.9±0.8 W/m K). Thermal conductivity exhibits significant spatial variability and to a large degree controls the temperature conditions in the Precambrian crystalline basement rocks and its heat content at given heat flow-heat generation. When these steps are used to calculate subsurface temperatures, it can be shown that the temperatures required for geothermal

  8. High risk, high reward : Search and Rescue and the oil and gas industry off Canada's east coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, B.F. [Canadian Coast Guard, Newfoundland and Labrador Region, NF (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The development of the Canada's offshore oil and gas industry has been made possible by many technological achievements. Oil and gas fields are being exploited farther from land and in ever deeper and more hostile waters. The industry has a duty to respond to accidents to ensure the safety of its workforce. The federal search and rescue (SAR) system has a duty to respond when an accident escalates beyond the first response capabilities of the industry. This presentation described the events that led to the sinking of two mobile offshore drilling units (MODU), the Ocean Ranger on February 15, 1982 which killed 84 people, and the Rowan Gorilla I, on December 15, 1988. The Ocean Ranger was engaged in an exploratory drilling program at the site of the Hibernia oilfield, 315 km east of St. John's, Newfoundland. A fierce Atlantic storm combined with poor training, inadequate safety equipment, and design flaws resulted in the sinking of the Ocean Ranger. Three ocean supply vessels responded to the distress calls but were unsuccessful in recovering any survivors. The search continued for a 5 day period, but only 22 bodies were recovered. This tragedy continues to influence the offshore industry. The safety issues that contributed to the disaster have been examined and several changes have been implemented to improve the safety for the offshore workforce. Significant legislative and regulatory changes were made to the Atlantic Accord Acts by both the federal and provincial governments to establish strict safety guidelines. This presentation includes statistics of east coast offshore oil and gas industry SAR activities from 1997 to 2002. It describes the levels of activity, industry's obligation, and the role of the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Industrial wind turbine post-construction bird and bat monitoring: A policy framework for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisé, Jason; Walker, Tony R

    2017-10-01

    Electricity generation from wind energy has proliferated throughout North America and will continue to grow. Given Canada's expected increase in wind energy capacity, consideration of the potential adverse impacts to bird and bat populations is prudent given their sensitivity to these projects. The province of Ontario, Canada is currently the leading jurisdiction for wind energy development, and for provincial guidance on pre- and post-construction monitoring. With uniform monitoring guidance in Ontario, wind energy proponents, and third-party consultants, have developed post-construction monitoring protocols that meet provincial guidance, while also providing standardized reporting. In Atlantic Canada, post-construction guidelines vary between provinces, depending mostly on guidance from the Environment Canada Canadian Wildlife Service and relevant provincial agencies. To ensure quality post-construction monitoring results in Atlantic Canada and other provinces, it is imperative that all Canadian provinces adopt similar approaches to those employed in Ontario. This paper reviews major causes of bird and bat mortalities; reviews Canadian federal and Ontario provincial bird and bat monitoring guidelines to elucidate gaps between environmental assessment (EA) theory and application; summarizes post-construction monitoring protocols from eight bird and bat post-construction monitoring programs used in Ontario; and, proposes recommendations to support future wind development opportunities across Canada and specifically in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Obtaining petrochemical products from ethanol; Obtencao de produtos petroquimicos a partir do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverio, Carlos Augusto N.; Oliveira, Claudia Vasconcellos R. de; Joao, Rafael Richard; Hashizume, Tulio Kenji C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Currently, high oil prices, low availability of traditional raw material (natural gas and petrochemical naphtha), increasing recognition of the importance of the preservation of nature and reducing emissions of pollutants have been creating a great opportunity for the petrochemical industry to seek alternative materials from renewable resources. The ethanol, which obtained a virtuous journey as fuel, is a very promising alternative to be used for the production of petrochemical products. However, the use of ethanol as a raw material will require a considerable increase in its production, what can be achieved through the development of new production technologies based on biomass and the construction of integrated biorefineries. So, this study aims to identify and compare conventional petrochemical routes with routes from this renewable raw material in order to evaluate their technical and economic feasibility. A preliminary analysis was performed between four petrochemical products: acetic acid, acetaldehyde, the ethyl acetate and ethylene. From this initial analysis, acetic acid and ethylene were selected for a more comprehensive feasibility study considering their production using ethanol as raw material, what is called ethanol chemistry. (author)

  11. Opportunities and challenges at the interface between petrochemicals and refinery. The OMV view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtscheidl, J. [OMV Refining and Marketing GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    OMV's refineries have been integrated into petrochemicals since the first steam cracker came on line in 1970. The refineries in Schwechat, Burghausen and Romania, especially Arpechim, have significant petrochemical capacities. In 1998 PCD was merged with Borealis, a leading producer of high grade polymers. OMV's initial 25% stake in Borealis increased to 36 in 2007. The last years have seen major investments in Schwechat and Burghausen: Schwechat's cracker was expanded by approximately 150 KTA to a nominal 500 KTA of ethylene. And in Burghausen the revamp of the cracker has been combined with a metathesis unit in order to feed a new 330 KTA polypropylene plant. The polymer market is still growing. However, the bulk of investments to increase capacity are located in the Middle East and in the Asia-Pacific region, predominately in China. As more and more products from these regions find their way to Europe, the European petrochemicals industry faces fierce competition. The response is restructuring: the creation of Arkema (Total), the takeover of BP's petrochemical assets by INEOS, the disposal of Shell-BASF subsidiary Basell to Haldia Petrochemical and Accent Industries, and the transfer of Statoil's interest in Borealis to IPIC and OMV. And most recently, Basell's acquisition of Lyondell. Compared with competitors in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, producers in Europe are burdened with serious disadvantages: fairly old, small units and high costs of labor, energy and raw materials. There is no single solution. OMV, however, will continue to follow the strategies that have been successful so far: - Ever closer integration of refining and petrochemicals; - Capturing market opportunities for profitable growth; -Remaining market orientated. (orig.)

  12. Effect of the exposure time in coke making atmosphere on the microstructure and properties of a refractory castable used in the petrochemical industry; Efeito do tempo de exposicao a uma atmosfera coqueificante na microestrutura e nas propriedades de um concreto refratario usado na industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrelon, M.D.; Pereira, A.H.A.; Rodrigues, J.A., E-mail: marcelodezena@gmail.com [Grupo de Engenharia de Microestrutura de Materiais - GEMM, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - DEMa, Universidade Federal de S. Carlos - UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, J. [CENPES, Petroleo Brasileiro S/A - PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Toledo-Filho, R.D. [Laboratorio de Estruturas e Materiais - LABEST, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Refractory castables used in Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU) are said to deteriorate due coke formation during the production of light hydrocarbons, causing a shortening in the operating time of the reactor. Consequently, a significant financial loss for the petrochemical will occur. Several studies have been carried out, but none of them showed clearly how much is the contribution of the coke for the concrete final deterioration. It still remains the doubt if the coke is the responsible for the damage observed macroscopically in a FCCU's riser. In this way, this work aimed to study the effect of the time in a coke making atmosphere on an anti-erosive class-C refractory castable, seeking for microstructural changes or on physical properties that indicate degradation mechanisms and give support to the understanding of the phenomenon. Samples of an industrial refractory castable used in petrochemical units were prepared and subjected to a forced coke making process in a simulation reactor. The temperature and the heating rate were kept constant at 540 deg C and 50 deg C/h, respectively. The values of 10, 60, 120, 240 and 480 h were used for the time of exposition to the propene gas. The microstructure of the samples was characterized through optical and scanning electron microscopy and its mineralogical phases through X-ray diffraction. Complementary analyses were necessary to a better understanding of the phenomenon. The results show that the surface and the microstructure are gradually impregnated by coke, which fills up pores, microcracks and cracks. Evidences of microcracking around the coke filled pores were not found. However, many aggregates present some type of deterioration related to the time of exposition to propene. Those damages are not necessarily caused by coke directly (author)

  13. The High Technology Industry and Education in Canada. New Technologies in Canadian Education Series. Paper 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Judith

    This paper reports the results of a survey of a number of high technology companies in Canada who were asked to provide information about their relationship with the educational system, the application of their products in education, and their views on the implications for education in general of the new technology in information and…

  14. Quality of Working Life in the Automobile Industry: A Canada-UK Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewchuk, Wayne; Stewart, Paul; Yates, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    Surveys in five automobile plants in Canada and the United Kingdom (n=2,600+) indicated that implementation of lean production methods has been uneven across companies and countries and is not associated with greater employee involvement or control. Variations may reflect company-specific responses to the pressures of international competition.…

  15. A multi-isotope approach for assessing industrial contributions to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Athabasca oil sands region in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernadette C. Proemse; Bernhard Mayer; Mark E. Fenn; Christopher S. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Industrial nitrogen (N) emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, affect nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4) deposition rates in close vicinity of industrial emitters. NO3-N and NH4-N open field and throughfall deposition rates were determined at various...

  16. Análise comparativa e avaliação de prioridades de competição em três cadeias de suprimentos do setor petroquímico Comparative analysis and competitive priorities assessment in three supply chains from the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa comparativamente e avalia qualitativamente prioridades de competição em três cadeias de suprimentos da indústria petroquímica, A, B e C. A pesquisa foi feita no segundo semestre de 2006. O artigo revisa definições sobre cadeias de suprimentos, destacando principalmente a forma de rede que estas podem assumir. A seguir, apresenta os três casos estudados. A pesquisa identificou sete prioridades de competição em petroquímica: qualidade, entrega, flexibilidade, custo, inovação, comunicação e segurança, que foram desdobradas em dimensões. As prioridades foram ponderadas por gestores, com apoio do método multicriterial AHP, chegando-se a uma estrutura de competitividade, que apoiou a avaliação, baseada em julgamento. Ao fim, as diferenças entre as prioridades e os desempenhos julgados formaram uma estrutura de objetivos para as cadeias. A deve priorizar qualidade, B flexibilidade e C redução de custo.The purpose of this article is to comparatively analyze and quantitatively assess the competitive priorities in three supply chains from the petrochemical industry: A, B, and C. The research was carried out in the second half of 2006. The article revises definitions on supply chains with emphasis on network shapes. Then, it presents the three case studies: A, B, and C. The research identifies seven competitive priorities in the petrochemical industry: quality, lead-time, flexibility, cost, innovation, communication and safety, which were unfolded in dimensions. The priorities were analyzed by managers with the support of the AHP multi-criteria method, reaching a competitiveness structure that supported the assessment based on judgment. Finally, the differences betweenthe priorities and the assessed performances formed a structure of objectives for the chains. Results showed that Ashould prioritize quality,B should prioritize flexibility, while C should prioritize cost reduction.

  17. Biotreatment of Petrochemical Wastewater: A Case Study from Northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemli, Meryem; Zaghden, Hatem; Rezgi, Fatma; Kchaou, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-03-01

      A full-scale study has been conducted to assess the bioaugmentation efficiency of trickling filter process to treat petrochemical wastewater from a lubricant industry recycling waste oils. During 45 weeks, the organic loading rate (OLR) in the trickling filter was increased stepwise from 0.9 to 4 kg of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3·day) at the end of the upgrading period as the flow rate (FR) reached the value of 30 m3/day. The removal, obtained in terms of percentage, for COD ranged from 60 to 84.5 and greater than 98 for total n-alkane (TNA), while those of total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphor (TP) were about 32 and 55, respectively. The analytical profile index (API) of trickling biofilm has confirmed that 5 strains are closely related to Acinobacter junii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio metschnikovi, Pseudomona slulzeri and Trichosporon spp2.

  18. Study of different pretreatments for reverse osmosis reclamation of a petrochemical secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Alcázar, C; Vincent-Vela, M C; Gozálvez-Zafrilla, J M; Lora-García, J

    2010-06-15

    Conventionally treated petrochemical wastewaters contain substantial quantities of hazardous pollutants. In addition, wastewater reuse is being enhanced as a consequence of the shortage of fresh water. Advanced petrochemical wastewater treatment for water reuse will reduce hazardous pollutants discharges as well as water consumption. Reverse osmosis is a suitable technology to obtain pure water. This work studies the adequacy of different pretreatments applied to a petrochemical secondary effluent to produce a suitable feeding for reverse osmosis treatment. The permeate obtained can be used in the petrochemical industry for different processes. In this work, several experiments (granulated activated carbon filtration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and granulated activated carbon filtration coupled with nanofiltration) were performed to improve the conventional pretreatment. Total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity and silt density index were used to evaluate water quality for reverse osmosis feeding. In granulated activated carbon filtration, all the measured parameters but silt density index indicated a good filtrate quality to feed reverse osmosis membranes. Although the ultrafiltration permeate obtained was suitable for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and granulated activated carbon filtration coupled with NF provided a better effluent quality for reverse osmosis than the other pretreatments studied. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. DGMK guideline: safety of fired process heaters in refineries and petrochemical plants; DGMK-Leitfaden: Sicherheit von Prozessoefen in Raffinerien und Petrochemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.; Ries, L.; Roith, W.; Stroebl, J.; Steiglecher, J.

    2002-08-01

    The DGMK guideline compares the requirements for the safely instrumentation of Fired Process Heaters in refineries and petrochemical plants based on the EN 746-2, published in 1997 with actual installations in the industry and other regulations i.e. the American NFPA 85 from 2001. Main focus is the safety related instrumentation for Multiburner Installations, mainly used in Refineries and Petrochemical Plants in combination with the relevant operating procedures (orig.)

  20. Bienvenidos a Canadá? Globalization and the Migration Industry Surrounding Temporary Agricultural Migration in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna L. Hennebry

    2008-12-01

    participant observation in Ontario, and interviews with migrant workers and their families, farmers, government representatives and other intermediaries, this paper examines the extent to which a migration industry has formed around the Mexican-Canadian Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program.

  1. Understanding Universities in Ontario, Canada: An Industry Analysis Using Porter's Five Forces Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, James; Huisman, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    In analyses of higher education systems, many models and frameworks are based on governance, steering, or coordination models. Although much can be gained by such analyses, we argue that the language used in the present-day policy documents (knowledge economy, competitive position, etc.) calls for an analysis of higher education as an industry. In…

  2. Bilateral foreign direct investment in forest industry between the U.S. and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao V Nagubadi; Daowei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examine the trends and various factors influencing bilateral foreign direct investment (FDI) in the U.S. and Canadian forest industry between 1989 and 2008. Using panel data analysis methods, we find that bilateral FDI is positively influenced by depreciation of host country's real exchange rates and exchange rate volatility, and home country...

  3. Challenging Transitions: Trades and Trade-Offs for Racialised Youth in Canada's Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the precarious learning-to-work transitions experienced by aboriginal youth in the Canadian oil sands mining industry. Drawing from an empirical case study of a mine-sponsored, pre-apprenticeship training programme, challenges experienced by programme participants, as well as their socialisation into the world of work are…

  4. Public Health Ethics, Legitimacy, and the Challenges of Industrial Wind Turbines: The Case of Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While industrial wind turbines (IWTs) clearly raise issues concerning threats to the health of a few in contrast to claimed health benefits to many, the trade-off has not been fully considered in a public health framework. This article reviews public health ethics justifications for the licensing and installation of IWTs. It concludes that the…

  5. Health risk assessment of chemical pollutants in a petrochemical complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Golbabaie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: workers in petrochemical industries are exposed to various contaminants and are facing to serious hazards, therefore a comprehensive risk assessment program for identification of hazardous chemicals that affect human health and also determination of hazardous tasks and processes is necessary.     Methods : This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in three stages. First stage consisted of identifying hazardous chemicals and determination of chemicals risk ratio, the second stage included the evaluation of worker's exposure to hazardous chemicals, and the third stage was estimating the relative risk of blood cancer caused by exposure to benzene through epidemiological studies.     Results: With regard to risk assessment method, 40 chemicals were identified in this Petrochemical Company. Among them, Benzene introduced as the most hazardous chemical. The results of the second stage showed that site man workers in noon shift work and in aromatic site with mean exposure 4.29 ppm had the highest exposure to benzene. The results of estimated leukemia relative risk stage in benzene exposure, the highest relative risk in workers related to site man workers in aromatic units with cumulative benzene exposure of 4.149 ppm. Years that obtained the relative risk of 2.3. The statistical test results showed that the relationship between worker's exposure to benzene and their job was significant(p<0/001     Conclusion : This study showed that benzene with a risk ratio of 4.5 -5 have 5th rank in risk levels and this indicates that preventative actions regarding to this hazardous and carcinogenic chemical must be started as soon as possible.

  6. Quantifying potential propagule pressure of aquatic invasive species from the commercial shipping industry in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Veronica B; Levings, Colin D; Chan, Kai M A

    2012-02-01

    We quantify and compare different measures of potential propagule pressure (PPP) of aquatic invasive species (AIS) from commercial vessels in Canada. We used ship arrivals and ballast water discharge volumes as proxies for PPP from ballast water organisms, and wetted surface area (WSA) as a proxy for hull fouling PPP, to determine their relative contributions to total PPP. For three regions studied, PPP proxies correlated significantly across ports and some vessel categories. Relative contributions of ship arrivals, ballast discharge, and WSAs to PPP, evidenced by non-significant correlations across these measures, varied across regions, ports, vessel types, and seasons. Flow-through (dominant on east and west coasts) and empty-refill (in Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region) were the major ballast water exchange methods employed by the vessels surveyed. These methods have different biological efficacy for AIS removal, influencing PPP. Our study illustrates benefits and limitations of using different PPP proxies to estimate invasion risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bienvenidos a Canadá? Globalization and the Migration Industry Surrounding Temporary Agricultural Migration in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennebry, Jenna L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available English“Migrant workers” have become an important resource in the global economy, and not solelyfor employers and governments. Multilateral agreements, trade liberalization, and advancementsin communication and transportation have enabled flows of the world’s poor into internationallabour migration systems, often mediated by a migration industry that profits fromproviding services to employers and migrants. Based on ethnographic case studies in Mexico,participant observation in Ontario, and interviews with migrant workers and their families,farmers, government representatives and other intermediaries, this paper examines the extentto which a migration industry has formed around the Mexican-Canadian Seasonal AgriculturalWorker Program.FrenchLes «travailleurs migrants » sont devenus une source importante de main d’oeuvre dansl’économie globale, et pas seulement pour les employeurs et les gouvernements. Les accordsmultilatéraux, la libéralisation des échanges, et les progrès accomplis dans les sphères dela communication et des transports on rendu possible l’épanchement des pauvres du mondeentier dans les systèmes internationaux de migration de main d’oeuvre, souvent négocié parune industrie de migration qui profite d’offrir des services auprès des employeurs et des migrants.Basé sur une étude de cas ethnographique au Mexique, une observation participanteen Ontario, et des entrevues de travailleurs migrants et de leurs familles, d’agriculteurs, dereprésentants gouvernementaux et d’autres intermédiaires, cet article examine l’étendue del’industrie de migration qui s’est formée autour du Programme des travailleurs agricolessaisonniers mexico-canadien.

  8. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method.

  9. Examination of food industry progress in reducing the sodium content of packaged foods in Canada: 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, JoAnne; Jefferson, Katherine; Schermel, Alyssa; Shah, Ferdeela; Trang, Susan; Kutlesa, Daniela; Lou, Wendy; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    In 2010, as part of a national sodium reduction strategy, Canada published sodium reduction benchmark targets for packaged foods; however, no evaluation of this policy has occurred. The objective was to evaluate changes in the sodium content of packaged foods, identify categories reduced in sodium, and determine the proportion meeting Health Canada's sodium reduction benchmarks. This was a cross-sectional analysis of Canadian packaged foods in 2010 and 2013 (n = 10 487 and n = 15 394, respectively). Sodium content was obtained from the Nutrition Facts table. Overall, 16.2% of food categories had significantly reduced sodium levels. The greatest shifts in the distribution of sodium within food categories occurred in imitation seafood (mean ± SD, mg/100 g; 602 ± 50 to 444 ± 81, 26.2%, p = 0.002), condiments (1309 ± 790 to 1048 ± 620, 19.9%, p = 0.005), breakfast cereals (375 ± 26 to 301 ± 242, 19.7%, p = 0.001), canned vegetables/legumes (269 ± 156 to 217 ± 180, 19.3%, p foods meeting at least 1 of the 3 phases of the sodium reduction benchmark targets slightly increased (51.4% to 58.2%) and the proportion exceeding maximum benchmark levels decreased (25.2% to 20.8%). These data provide a critical evaluation of changes in sodium levels in the Canadian food supply. Although progress in reducing sodium in packaged foods is evident, the food industry needs to continue efforts in reducing the sodium in the foods they produce.

  10. Cleaner production and methodological proposal of eco-efficiency measurement in a Mexican petrochemical complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M A; Herrero, V M; Martínez, S A; Rodríguez, M G; Valdivieso, E; Garcia, G; de los Angeles Elías, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In the frame of the Petróleos Mexicanos Institutional Program for Sustainable Development, processes were evaluated in the manufacture operation of the petrochemical industry, with the purpose of reducing their ecological fingerprint. Thirteen cleaner production opportunities were registered in six process plants: ethylene oxide and glycols, acetaldehyde, ethylene, high density polyethylene, polypropylene switch and acrylonitrile, and 45 recommendations in the waste water treatment plant. Morelos is the second most important petrochemical complex in the Mexican and Latin American petrochemical industry. A tool was developed to obtain eco-efficiency indicators in operation processes, and as a result, potential savings were obtained based on best performance, as well as the integrated distribution of Sankey diagrams. Likewise, a mechanism of calculation to obtain economic savings based on the reduction of residues during the whole productive process is proposed. These improvement opportunities and recommendations will result in economic and environmental benefits minimising the use of water, efficient use of energy, raw materials and reducing residues from source, generating less environmental impacts during the process.

  11. Progression of noise-induced hearing loss. A survey of workers in selected industries in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, S.M.; Haythornthwaite, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    An in-depth investigation of the progression of noise induced hearing loss is reported for individuals working in three major Canadian industries. The particular approach taken was to select occupational groups within each industry, who had the same noise exposure for a continuous period, and on whom standard hearing tests were undertaken at regular intervals. Two methods of evaluating the audiometric data were used. The first was a cross-sectional design, in which one audiogram was analyzed for each employee. The second focused on the rate of hearing loss over time within individuals. The results confirmed previous reports that the effect of continuous noise exposure was maximal in the region of 2-6 kHz. Significant differences in hearing loss were noted across job types. Over a 10 year period the rate of loss within exposed individuals was on the average 1.5 dB per year for 4 kHz, as compared with 0.5 dB for control subjects who held office jobs. The absolute difference between hearing thresholds measured at the beginning and end of this period ranged widely from a slight improvement in hearing to losses often as great as 55 dB. In general the greatest loss occurred at 4 kHz. The number of frequencies at which there was a risk of exceeding a 25 dB fence increased with the number of years of exposure.

  12. Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate by Bacillus axaraqunsis BIPC01 using Petrochemical Wastewater as Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Mayeli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use petrochemical wastewater as the source of carbon for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA in an effort to decrease its cost of production. For this purpose, PHA producing bacteria were isolated from the petrochemical wastewater of Bandar Imam, Iran. The purified colonies were screened for PHA by Sudan Black B and Nile Blue A staining. Among positively stained bacteria, the best PHA producer was selected on the basis of cell growth, PHA content and the monomer composition of PHA. The phenotypic and genotypic identification this isolate showed it to be Bacillus axaraqunsis. The PHA was produced at a cell density of about 9.46 g/l of maximum concentration of 6.33g/l l, corresponding to 66% of cell dry weight. These results showed that B. axaraqunsis BIPC01 could be a potent PHA producer using wastewater for industrial purpose and simultaneously reducing the environmental pollution.

  13. Estudio comparativo de la productividad y calidad obtenidas en la soldadura de tubos de calidad T9 empleados en el sector petroquímico, mediante los procesos TIG, HW-TIG y PAW Comparative study of productivity and quality obtained in tube welding quality T9 employees in the petrochemical industry, through TIG, HW-TIG and PAW processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César García González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente, la fabricación soldada de tuberías de acero Cr-Mo empleadas en serpentines de hornos para la industria petroquímica se ha venido realizando de forma masiva mediante procesos de baja productividad, principalmente TIG para la pasada de raíz y SMAW para las pasadas de relleno, ambos manuales. En este estudio se muestran los resultados de la investigación realizada por el Centro Tecnológico AIMEN, en relación al empleo de tecnologías de alto rendimiento, concretamente TIG, HW-TIG y PAW robotizadas, aplicadas a los mismos materiales y productos. De este modo se calculan y comparan cuatro índices de productividad: Tiempo de Soldadura, Tasa de Deposición, Material Depositado y Volumen de Gas Consumido. El objetivo del estudio es contribuir a la reducción de los tiempos de producción, de los costes de fabricación, y a la mejora de la calidad del producto.Traditionally, the manufacture of welded Cr-Mo steel pipes used in furnace coils for petrochemical industry has been carried out on a massive scale by low productivity processes, mainly TIG for root pass and SMAW for layers of filling run, both of them manuals. This study presents the results of a research, conducted by AIMEN Technology Centre, related to the use of high performance technologies, specifically robotic processes such as TIG, TIG-HW and PAW, applied to the same materials and products. Thus, four productivity ratios have been calculated and compared: welding time, deposition rate, deposited material and volume of consumed gas. The aim of the study is to contribute to the reduction of the production time, manufacturing costs and to the improvement of the product quality.

  14. Coagulation pretreatment of highly concentrated acrylonitrile wastewater from petrochemical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dongju; Qin, Lin; Wang, Tao; Ren, Xiaojing; Zhang, Zhongguo; Li, Jiding

    2014-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) wastewater is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is generated during the production of AN. Several chemical methods for the pretreatment of AN wastewater are available in laboratory scale. However, the harsh reaction conditions and high operational cost make these methods undesirable. Until now, four-effect evaporation is the only pretreatment method used for AN wastewater in industry despite its huge energy consumption and high cost. It is difficult to find an energy-saving pretreatment technique from the perspective of industrial application. In this study, a safe and low-cost coagulation technique was developed for the pretreatment of AN wastewater. Three types of inorganic coagulant and three types of polymer coagulant were investigated for the coagulation treatment of highly concentrated AN wastewater from petrochemical plants. The effects of coagulant type, dosage, and coagulation conditions on the pretreatment efficiency of AN wastewater were investigated. The results show that a combination of inorganic and polymer coagulants is effective for the pretreatment of AN wastewater.

  15. Heat conversion alternative petrochemical complexes efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrakin, A. N.; Selivanov, A. A.; Morev, A. A.; Batrakov, P. A.; Kulbyakina, A. V.; Sotnikov, D. G.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the energy and economic efficiency calculation results of the petrochemical complexes based upon the sulfur oil shales processing by solid (ash) heat-carrier low-temperature carbonization plants by Galoter technology. The criterion for such enterprises fuel efficiency determining was developed on the base of the exergy methodology taking into account the recurrent publications consolidation. In this case, in supplying the consumers with paving bitumen, motor benzol, thiophene, toluene, 2-methylthiophene, xylene, gas sulfur, complex thermodynamic effectiveness was founded to amount to 53 %, and if ash residue realization is possible then it was founded to be to 70 %. The project economic attractiveness determining studies depending on the feedstock cost, its delivery way and investments amount changing were conducted.

  16. Environmental Exposure to Emissions from Petrochemical Sites and Lung Cancer: The Lower Mississippi Interagency Cancer Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Simonsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate potential links between environmental exposure to petrochemical plant emissions and lung cancer, a population-based case-control study (LMRICS was conducted in eleven Louisiana parishes bordering the Mississippi River. Cases and age, gender, and race-matched controls were interviewed regarding potential risk factors. Residential history was geocoded to provide indices of long-term proximity to industrial sites. Cases were more likely to have lived near a petrochemical site. Models adjusted for other risk factors, however, showed small or no association with lung cancer (odds ratio for residence within a half-mile of a site =1.10, 95% confidence interval 0.58–2.08. While associations were strongest for exposures exceeding 15 years, none approached statistical significance and there was no clear dose-response across exposure duration, distance categories, or when sites were grouped according to carcinogenicity rating of chemical releases. Residential proximity to petrochemical plants along the lower Mississippi thus showed no significant association with lung cancer.

  17. Life cycle guideline of petrochemical plant underground piping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Jeng-Ywan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to statistics of petrochemical plant disaster, the type of underground pipeline leakage is the highest proportion, for example, Kaohsiung gas explosion in 2014 is a typical case. Therefore, improvement strategy of petrochemical plant underground piping system from both engineering and management becomes an important issue. Through reviewing regulations as well as surveying questionnaire, including kinds of piping materials, 3D drawing files, operation procedures, information sharing, etc., the findings show lack contact of integrated management with engineering executive and insufficient technical requirements are major defects. Overviewing current problems of domestic petrochemical plant underground piping system management, and comparing to international criteria and specifications, this research focuses on the of piping design, construction, operations, maintenance, and inspection. Then management procedures and engineering technical feasibility strategies are suggested. In addition, the proposed life cycle guideline in order to reduce the disaster incidence of petrochemical plant underground pipelines.

  18. Important TQM Implementation Contributors in Pakistani Petrochemical Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Latif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses quality practices in Pakistani Petrochemical sector to understand TQM practices and their implementation in Pakistan. It helps to understand the role of leadership, vision & plan statement, employee participation and education & training as important constructs of TQM. It shows how these constructs help to speed up the TQM implementation in petrochemical sector like other constructs of TQM and finally company moves towards quality approach. The responses of executives, managerial staff and workers were received using questionnaire and online surveys which are sent through Google Drive. Data of 106 respondents was taken in this study and analyzed by SPSS18. Study shows that Total Quality Management culture is less understood by employees, thus less adopted and implemented in Pakistan. Petrochemical companies fail to adopt the TQM philosophy and processes, hence reducing productivity and profits. This research paper is very helpful for executives for TQM implementation in petrochemical sector.

  19. Evaluation of phase chemistry and petrochemical aspects of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    petrographic and petrochemical evidences. Tectonic discrimination diagrams involving clinopyroxene chemistry strongly suggest within plate alkaline affinity for the parental magma which is in conformity with the regional plume tectonics.

  20. History of the atmospheric deposition of major and trace elements in the industrialized St. Lawrence Valley, Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Yves; Lucotte, Marc; Schmit, Jean-Pierre

    The history of the atmospheric deposition of major and trace elements over southwestern Quebec, Canada, was reconstructed using multielemental analysis of lacustrine sediments sampled in a small and undisturbed lake located on top of a mountain in the heart of the industrialized St. Lawrence Valley. Acid leachable and residual elements were extracted from a 37-cm long core (1-cm resolution) using clean techniques and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Organic matter and sulfur concentrations were high and played a major role in the low postdepositional diagenetic remobilization of many trace elements. Sulfur, manganese, iron, arsenic, molybdenum and barium displayed a high mobility making it exceedingly difficult to infer unambiguously time-dependent changes in atmospheric deposition for these elements. Atmospheric deposition rates for the less mobile elements (e.g., potassium, vanadium, chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, rubidium, cadmium, tin, antimony, mercury, thallium, lead, and bismuth) increased regularly between 1942 and 1960-1975 in the Lake Hertel area and then stabilized for most of these elements, with the exception of nickel, copper, zinc and tin. Lead deposition rate was reduced by about 25% between 1982 and 1995, and a slight decreasing trend was also found for cobalt, mercury, and thallium during the same period. Present-day atmospheric deposition of metals directly on the lake surface represents a small percentage of the sedimentary deposition rates at this location. Deposition followed by surface runoff and outwash of terrestrial organic and inorganic matter most likely is the driving mechanism leading to the non-diagenetic enrichment of metals in Lake Hertel sediments.

  1. Human reliability in petrochemical industry: an action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, João Alexandre Pinheiro; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to identify conflicts and gaps between the operators' strategies and actions and the organizational managerial approach for human reliability. In order to achieve these goals, the research approach adopted encompasses literature review, mixing action research methodology and Ergonomic Workplace Analysis in field research. The result suggests that the studied company has a classical and mechanistic point of view focusing on error identification and building barriers through procedures, checklists and other prescription alternatives to improve performance in reliability area. However, it was evident the fundamental role of the worker as an agent of maintenance and construction of system reliability during the action research cycle.

  2. Excess cancer mortality among children and adolescents in residential districts polluted by petrochemical manufacturing plants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, B J; Hong, Y J; Chang, G C; Wang, M T; Cinkotai, F F; Ko, Y C

    1994-09-01

    We have collected data on the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old living in a residential area near 3 large petroleum and petrochemical complexes in and near Kaohsiung city (petrochemical industrial districts, PIDs) in the period of 1971-1990 and compared these with the cancer deaths of children and adolescents 0-19 yr old among the entire population of Taiwan (national reference) and among the residents of 26 administrative districts, comprising all of Kaohsiung city and Kaohsiung county (local reference), except for 8 sparsely populated, rural districts. Having scrutinized all cancer death certificates, we have identified various statistically significant excess deaths, as compared with the national and local reference, due to cancers at all sites. Cancer of the bone, brain, and bladder in boys and girls 0-9 yr and 10-19 yr of age in the 1981-1990 decade that followed the establishment of petrochemical production in the PIDs was studied. However, excess cancer deaths seemed to have clustered in the 10-19 yr age group, who had been potentially exposed to the petrochemical pollutants for the longest period of time from the youngest age. Almost all bone, brain, and bladder cancer deaths registered were within 3 km of the 3 complexes. Bone and brain cancers in particular occurred in girls in the PIDs more frequently than in boys, even though these are believed to occur more in males than females elsewhere.

  3. INTEGRATING THE EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS WITH EMISSION LIMITATIONS FOR REFINERY AND PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kamiński

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on selected activities undertaken in the refinery and petrochemical complex with the projected capacity of 17 Mg crude oil annually with own energy system, the present study shows possible ways of bringing production installations into line with binding legal rules and European Union guidelines on environmental protection. Having adopted an integrated approach, we correlated some environmental protection undertakings with energy-related efficiency improvements affecting the whole plant. Our aim was to try to answer the following question - what consequences follow from the limitation of industrial emissions.

  4. Oil policies and privatization strategies in Mexico: implications for the petrochemical sector and its production spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguna, N.M. E-mail: nmlaguna@igiris.igeograf.unam.mx

    2004-12-01

    Through a retrospective analysis of Mexico's oil history, this work examines the privatization processes that occurred in the petrochemical sector, from the abolishment of the government's monopoly, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) during the 1980s, until the restructuring and open liberalization in the early 1990s, focusing on the areas incorporated to production processes, particularly along the Gulf coast. As a result of the industrial policies and regional development strategies promoted by the government from the sixties, oriented towards strengthening production in areas with the highest potential, attractive business investment areas were developed. These included southern Tamaulipas, a strategic region where a number of industrial factors facilitated access to raw materials at competitive prices, as well as their processing and distribution to local and international markets, all of these within a single location. The strategic nature of the petrochemical location and production have made southern Tamaulipas a key factor for the territorial shaping and industrial development linked to the behavior of transnational companies that, seeking comparative advantages, have relocated parts of their production capacity in this region.

  5. Efeito do tempo de exposição a uma atmosfera coqueificante na microestrutura e nas propriedades de um concreto refratário usado na indústria petroquímica Effect of the exposure time in cokemaking atmosphere on the microstructure and properties of a refractory castable used in the petrochemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Cabrelon

    2012-06-01

    Cracking Units (FCCU are said to deteriorate due coke formation during the production of light hydrocarbons, causing a shortening in the operating time of the reactor. Consequently, a significant financial loss for the petrochemical will occur. Several studies have been carried out, but none of them showed clearly how much is the contribution of the coke for the concrete final deterioration. It still remains the doubt if the coke is the responsible for the damage observed macroscopically in a FCCU's riser. In this way, this work aimed to study the effect of the time in a cokemaking atmosphere on an anti-erosive class-C refractory castable, seeking for microstructural changes or on physical properties that indicate degradation mechanisms and give support to the understanding of the phenomenon. Samples of an industrial refractory castable used in petrochemical units were prepared and subjected to a forced cokemaking process in a simulation reactor. The temperature and the heating rate were kept constant at 540 ºC and 50 ºC/h, respectively. The values of 10, 60, 120, 240 and 480 h were used for the time of exposition to the propene gas. The microstructure of the samples was characterized through optical and scanning electron microscopy and its mineralogical phases through X-ray diffraction. Complementary analyses were necessary to a better understanding of the phenomenon. The results show that the surface and the microstructure are gradually impregnated by coke, which fills up pores, microcracks and cracks. Evidences of microcracking around the coke filled pores were not found. However, many aggregates present some type of deterioration related to the time of exposition to propene. Those damages are not necessarily caused by coke directly.

  6. Asthma, respiratory symptoms and lung function in children living near a petrochemical site.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovira, E.; Cuadras, A.; Aguilar, X.; Esteban, L.; Borràs-Santos, A.; Zock, J.P.; Sunyer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Residential proximity to environmental hazards has been related to adverse health outcomes. Respiratory health and allergies in children living near petrochemical sites have not been extensively studied. We evaluated the association between residential proximity to the petrochemical site of

  7. Energy-saving Lighting Technology of Petrochemical Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohu Gu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of energy resources is a serious problem our country is facing the world today, petrochemical enterprises are the main pillar of our economy, in our country, because petrochemical companies accounted for about 30.2% of the total energy consumption of energy. This paper focuses on the traditional energy-saving lighting methods proposed intelligent energy-saving system based on a fuzzy control. The purpose is to make the electrical equipment to fully meet, under the premise of improving its functional requirements, as far as possible to reduce energy consumption and improve energy efficiency.

  8. Partnering for Learnware: Critical Success Factors in the Use of Learnware by Human Resources Sector Councils and Industry Associations in Canada = Partenariats pour les technologies d'apprentissage: Facteurs critiques de succes dans l'utilisation des technologies d'apprentissage par les conseils sectoriels des ressources humaines et les associations industrielles au Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Anna; Green, Lyndsay

    The use of learnware by human resources sector councils and industry associations in Canada was examined to identify critical success factors in the use of technology-based training. Eight case studies--four involving sector councils and four involving industry associations that either have national mandates or distribute their products across…

  9. The Challenge of Integrating OHS into Industrial Project Risk Management: Proposal of a Methodological Approach to Guide Future Research (Case of Mining Projects in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Badri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although risk management tools are put to good use in many industrial sectors, some large projects have been met with numerous problems due to failure to take occupational health and safety (OHS into consideration. In spite of the high level of risk and uncertainty associated with many industrial projects, the number of studies of methods for managing all known risks systematically remains small. Under effervescent economic conditions, industries must meet several challenges associated with frequent project start-ups. In highly complex and uncertain environments, rigorous management of risk remains indispensable for avoiding threats to the success of projects. Many businesses seek continually to create and improve integrated approaches to risk management. This article puts into perspective the complexity of the challenge of integrating OHS into industrial project risk management. A conceptual and methodological approach is proposed to guide future research focused on meeting this challenge. The approach is based on applying multi-disciplinary research modes to a complex industrial context in order to identify all scenarios likely to contain threats to humans or the environment. A case study is used to illustrate the potential of the proposed approach for application and its contribution to meeting the challenge of taking OHS into consideration. On-site researchers were able to develop a new approach that helped two mining companies in Quebec (Canada to achieve successful integration of OHS into expansion projects.

  10. Strategic Management of People in Organizations of Petrochemical Camaçari – Bahia: Reflections on its Strategies for Attracting, Retaining and Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildes Pitombo Leite

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation object of this research, the primary objectives was to identify and analyze what changes made in people management by the petrochemical organizations, from the trajectory of diversification in the Industrial Complex of Camaçari and their reflections into strategies for attraction, retention and professional development, much in line with the justifications, as with the question asked. The subjects involved were directors, managers and / or coordinators HR, minimum 10 and maximum of 32 years, two respondents per organization, totaling twenty-one organizations. This investigation was answered in each category and gradually increased at the junction of them all. The results show that the changes made in managing people in the petrochemical investigated are not, necessarily, computed from the trajectory of diversification: Petrochemical Pole / Industrial Complex of Camaçari. These results suggest that mergers are among the main responsible. However, there is the record that this change in context was beneficial to these organizations promote the output of the comfort zone that were since deploying Pole. It reinforces the premise that such an investigation ends innovative and contributory aspect for: the area of people management, petrochemical industry and the country.

  11. Metabolic profiling of residents in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Chung, Ming-Kei [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ching-Yu [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shu-Ting; Wu, Kuen-Yuh [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chan, Chang-Chuan, E-mail: ccchan@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-01

    No previous studies have simultaneously measured the biomarkers of environmental exposure and metabolome perturbation in residents affected by industrial pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic effects of environmental pollutants such as vanadium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on residents in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex. The study subjects were 160 residents, including 80 high-exposure subjects exposed to high levels of vanadium and PAHs and 80 age- and gender-matched low-exposure subjects living within a 40-km radius of a petrochemical complex. The exposure biomarkers vanadium and 1-hydroxypyrene and four oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers were measured in these subjects. Plasma samples from the study subjects were also analyzed using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy for metabolic profiling. The results showed that the urinary levels of vanadium and 1-hydroxypyrene in the high-exposure subjects were 40- and 20-fold higher, respectively, than those in the low-exposure subjects. Higher urinary levels of stress biomarkers, including 8-OHdG, HNE-MA, 8-isoPF2α, and 8-NO{sub 2}Gua, were also observed among the high-exposure subjects compared with the low-exposure subjects. Partial least squares discriminant analysis of the plasma metabolome demonstrated a clear separation between the high- and low-exposure subjects; the intensities of amino acids and carbohydrate metabolites were lower in the high-exposure subjects compared with the low-exposure subjects. The exposure to vanadium and PAHs may cause a reduction in the levels of amino acids and carbohydrates by elevating PPAR and insulin signaling, as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress. - Highlights: • Metabolic effects when exposure to pollutants near a petrochemical complex • V and PAHs exposure associated with elevated oxidative/nitrosative stress responses • V and PAHs exposure related to reduced amino acid and carbohydrate levels • V and PAHs affect metabolic

  12. Ecotoxicology of waters under the influence of a petrochemical complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, R.; Zandonai, V.; Ries, M.A. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petrquimico do Sul

    1993-12-31

    This work summarizes the regular monitoring and studies conducted by SITEL - The Integrated Wastewater Treatment System of South Petrochemical Complex (South Brazil) - in order to evaluate the full environmental impact on waters in the area of influence of the effluents of the above mentioned Complex. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. Implementation of a quantum cascade laser-based gas sensor prototype for sub-ppmv H2S measurements in a petrochemical process gas stream

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Harald; P?lz, Walter; Waclawek, Johannes Paul; Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of a sensitive and selective as well as industrial fit gas sensor prototype based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (2f-WMS) employing an 8-?m continuous-wave distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (CW-DFB-QCL) for monitoring hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at sub-ppm levels is reported. Regarding the applicability for analytical and industrial process purposes aimed at petrochemical environments, a synthetic methane (CH4) matrix of up to 1000?...

  14. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection II. Location of study herds relative to the oil and gas industry in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    During the late part of 2000 and early months of 2001, project veterinarians recruited 205 beef herds to participate in a study of the effects of emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry on cattle reproduction and health. Researchers developed herd-selection criteria to optimize the range of exposure to facilities, including oil and gas wells, battery sites, and gas-gathering and gas-processing facilities across the major cattle-producing areas of Western Canada. Herds were initially selected on the basis of a ranking system of exposure potential on the basis of herd-owner reports of the locations of their operations in relation to oil and gas industry facilities. At the end of the study, researchers summarized data obtained from provincial regulatory agencies on facility location and reported flaring and venting volumes for each herd and compared these data to the original rankings of herd-exposure potential. Through this selection process, the researchers were successful in obtaining statistically significant differences in exposure to various types of oil and gas facility types and reported emissions among herds recruited for the study.

  15. Site remediation and risk assessment in Canada: current CPPI activities and a vision for the 21. century - a perspective from the Canadian Petroleum Products Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calder, L.M. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre

    1997-12-31

    The scope of site remediation in the Canadian petroleum products industry was discussed. It was estimated that the cost to clean up the nearly 100,000 contaminated sites in Canada would be in the order of $20 billion. One alternative to the high cost of clean up is the use of risk assessment for the development of soil remediation criteria that would be appropriate to the real impact of a given contaminated site, instead of the use of arbitrary criteria that are intended to protect all sites. In this way, most dollars would be spent at cleaning up the highest risk sites. Recommendations were made as to how the science and the administration of risk assessments could be improved. It was suggested that a more holistic approach to site remediation must be taken. The issues of risk, risk trade-offs, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and prioritization within the site remediation context was also discussed. A comparative study of two risk assessment models, the ASTM-RBCA model used in Atlantic Canada, and the B.C. Vapour Intrusion Model Validation study was described. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. New Paradigms in International University/Industry/Government Cooperation. Canada-China Collaboration in Advanced Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgak, Akif Asil; Liquan, He

    1996-01-01

    A Chinese university and a Canadian university collaborated on an advanced manufacturing technologies project designed to address human resource development needs in China. The project featured university/industry/government partnership and attention to environmental issues. (SK)

  17. CO{sub 2} Reuse in Petrochemical Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Trembly; Brian Turk; Maruthi Pavani; Jon McCarty; Chris Boggs; Aqil Jamal; Raghubir Gupta

    2010-12-31

    To address public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from power plant and industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE/NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focused on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse to support the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} into valuable chemicals and fuels. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing an innovative beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse process for converting CO{sub 2} into substitute natural gas (SNG) by using by-product hydrogen (H{sub 2)-containing fuel gas from petrochemical facilities. This process leveraged commercial reactor technology currently used in fluid catalytic crackers in petroleum refining and a novel nickel (Ni)-based catalyst developed by RTI. The goal was to generate an SNG product that meets the pipeline specifications for natural gas, making the SNG product completely compatible with the existing natural gas infrastructure. RTI's technology development efforts focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of this novel CO{sub 2} reuse process and obtaining the necessary engineering information to design a pilot demonstration unit for converting about 4 tons per day (tons/day) of CO{sub 2} into SNG at a suitable host site. This final report describes the results of the Phase I catalyst and process development efforts. The methanation activity of several commercial fixed-bed catalysts was evaluated under fluidized-bed conditions in a bench-scale reactor to identify catalyst performance targets. RTI developed two fluidizable Ni-based catalyst formulations (Cat-1 and Cat

  18. Identifying and Tackling Entry Barriers in Canada : A study for the Dutch shipbuilding and marine equipment industry

    OpenAIRE

    Laan, Jari

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to retain Dutch prominence in the global maritime cluster by enabling the Dutch shipbuilding and marine equipment industry to respond to Canada’s National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy opportunities through identifying and proposing solutions to the market entry barriers existing in the Canadian shipbuilding industry. The reviewed literature focuses on internationalizing theories, market entry barriers and various tools to assess the attractiveness of international ma...

  19. Petrochemical types of kimberlites and their diamond-bearing capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrovitsky, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    Kimberlite rocks of Yakutian province (belong to 1 group of kimberlites after Smith, 1983) are characterized by wide variations of rock-forming oxides [Ilupin et al., 1986; Milashev, 1965; Kharkiv et al., 1991]. A number of factors could be discussed to explain the variety of chemical compositions of rocks. The first factor, explaining the regional differences in the kimberlite composition with primarily different composition of source kimberlite melt-fluid, is conventionally called «primary». All other factors are connected with the secondary redistribution of chemical components of kimberlites. Irrespective of intensity of secondary factors, the primary composition of kimberlites varies broadly, which is noticeable in kimberlites of some provinces, kimberlites fields, pipe clusters and individual pipes. The petrochemical types are classified based on the contents of such oxides as FeO, TiO2 and K2O, being relatively inert in the secondary processes. In the Yakutian Province we have distinguished 5 petrochemical types of kimberlites (Kostrovitsky et al, 2007); with principal ones - high-Mg, magnesium-ferruginous (Mg-Fe) and ferruginous-titaniferous, their composition: diamond-bearing capacity of kimberlites were identified some time before. The essence of petrochemical criterion consists of the inverse correlation dependence between the contents FeOtotal, TiO2 in kimberlite rocks and their diamond-bearing capacity (Milashev, 1965; Krivonos, 1998). The mineralogical criteria of diamond-bearing capacity infer presence of direct dependence of the rate of capacity on the content in kimberlites of low-Ca, high-Cr garnet and chrome spinellids with Cr2O3 > 62% and TiO2 diamond-bearing capacity exemplified by the deposits of Yakutian Province. The high-Mg kimberlites of the Njurba, Botuoba, International and Aikhal pipes are known as mostly diamondiferous. Kimberlites of these fields are marked by absence or minor abundance of minerals of low-Cr megacryst association

  20. The Mexican petrochemical sector in the NAFTA negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, G.; Kim, C.S. [Instituto Technologico Autonomo de Mexico, Magdalena Contreras (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Since 1985, there have been important changes in the Mexican petrochemical sector, including trade liberalization, deregulation and the elimination of subsidies. NAFTA represents another step towards liberalization of the sector. Given the low tariffs currently applied to international trade among the three nations, the authors do not anticipate major impacts of NAFTA on trade flows. Nevertheless, the elimination of restrictions to foreign investment is expected to increase capital flows into the sector and to promote productivity increases. On the other hand, the new barriers to trade in petrochemical feedstocks and the restrictions on private investment in infrastructure may negatively affect the sector`s growth, making it necessary to adjust domestic regulations to improve the performance of Pemex. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Raw Materials It Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The raw materials used by the industry are considered in this section of the annual chemical industry report, including data covering: natural gas, lead, mercury, phosphate rock, potash, salt, petroleum products including petrochemical feedstocks. (PR)

  2. A safety culture maturity model for petrochemical companies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves Filho, Anastacio Pinto; Andrade,José Célio Silveira; Marinho,Marcia Mara de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 615-624 A framework to measure safety culture maturity in the Brazilian oil and gas companies was formulated based on the model of Hudson (2001). Following a review of the safety culture literature, a questionnaire was designed to measure five aspects of organisational safety indicative of five levels of cultural maturity. The questionnaire was completed by the safety managers of 23 petrochemical companies based in Camacari,Bahia, Brazil and they were...

  3. Canada's resource economy in transition : the past, present, and future of Canadian staples industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howlett, M. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Brownsey, K. [Mount Royal College, Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Policy Studies] (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    This book examined changes in contemporary Canadian primary resource staples-driven political economies. It referred to the period of transition in which sectors moved from older models of staples development to post-staples modes of production. Specialists provided overviews of past and present developments of principal primary stables economies and discussed issues that are now changing modes of production. Subjects included genetically modified foods; aquaculture; forest certification; the participation of First Nations and other communities in mining project developments; and the growth of the offshore oil and gas industry. The book demonstrated that all sectors followed a similar pattern of rapid growth followed by resource depletion. Sectors now face additional challenges due to more complex regulatory and production environments. Challenges include determining appropriate levels of environmental protection, integrating high technology inputs, and successfully navigating free trade treaties and open competition. The book was divided into the following 5 main sections: (1) an introduction; (2) the post-staples state in theory and practice; (3) consumption industries : agriculture and the fisheries; (4) extraction industries : minerals and forests; and (5) transmission industries : oil and gas and water. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Cancer incidence in a population living near a petrochemical facility and oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Petar; Ivić, Milka L Avramov; Jovanović, Mića B; Petrović, Slobodan D; Miljus, Dragan; Todorović, Tanja; Miladinov-Mikov, Marica M; Bogdanović, Milka

    2011-06-01

    There is growing concern that pollution from petrochemical and oil refinery installations in Pancevo (Serbia) has increased the incidence of various diseases including cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate cancer incidence in Pancevo and to compare it with the region of central Serbia. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the corresponding Serbian Cancer Registries. Systematic local monitoring of benzene, toluene and methyl mercaptane in the atmosphere within Pancevo's industrial area indicated that the average monthly and yearly concentrations often exceeded permitted levels proposed by EU standards (5 microgm(-3)). Cancer incidence was lower in Pancevo than in central Serbia (the standardised incidence for all types of cancers in Pancevo was 218.3 and in central Serbia it was 241.7 per 100,000 inhabitants). The available data do not allow us to correlate air pollution in Pancevo with increased cancer incidence.

  5. Soil-Air Mercury Flux near a Large Industrial Emission Source before and after Closure (Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, Chris S; Blanchard, Pierrette; McLennan, Daniel; Mintz, Rachel; Sekela, Mark

    2015-08-18

    Prior to its closure, the base-metal smelter in Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada was one of the North America's largest mercury (Hg) emission sources. Our project objective was to understand the exchange of Hg between the soil and the air before and after the smelter closure. Field and laboratory Hg flux measurements were conducted to identify the controlling variables and used for spatial and temporal scaling. Study results showed that deposition from the smelter resulted in the surrounding soil being enriched in Hg (up to 99 μg g(-1)) as well as other metals. During the period of smelter operation, air concentrations were elevated (30 ± 19 ng m(-3)), and the soil was a net Hg sink (daily flux: -3.8 ng m(-2) h(-1)). Following the smelter closure, air Hg(0) concentrations were reduced, and the soils had large emissions (daily flux: 108 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The annual scaling of soil Hg emissions following the smelter closure indicated that the landscape impacted by smelter deposition emitted or re-emitted almost 100 kg per year. Elevated soil Hg concentrations and emissions are predicted to continue for hundreds of years before background concentrations are re-established. Overall, the results indicate that legacy Hg deposition will continue to cycle in the environment long after point-source reductions.

  6. The use of plasticizing additives based on recycled raw materials in the petrochemical rubber mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Shashok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the development of alternative products for elastomers based on recycling petrochemical raw materials is a new trend of the rubber industry progress. Petrochemical raw materials include spent lubricants and motor oils are among such recycling products. In this context, the influence of the products of recycling waste engine oil (DVCH and RA in comparison with industrial oil (I-20 on the technological properties of filled elastomeric compositions was investigated. The elastomeric compositions were based on poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers. The plasticizing components were manufactured by IOOO “DVCH-Menedzhment”. They are mixture of hydro-carbons, C16–C20 and differ from each other in the content of linear and branched paraffin. Plastic-elastic properties of rubber compounds on the shear disk viscometer MV2000 in accordance with GOST 10722–76 was carried out. Kinetics of vulcanization on the rheometer ODR2000 according to GOST 12535–84 was defined. It is shown that the introduction of RA test plasticizing component provides a significant effect on Mooney viscosity, as compared to elastomeric compositions containing a plasticizer and I-20 and plasticizing additive DVCH. It revealed that the administration of all components in the studied plasticizing elastomer compositions based on a combination poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers has no significant effect on the rate of relaxation of stress of rubber compounds. It is found that elastomeric compositions containing as additives investigated processing waste oil products (DVCH and RA are characterized by a slightly smaller value of time to reach an optimal degree of vulcanization.

  7. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  8. Industry-university collaborations in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA--with emphasis on publication freedom and managing the intellectual property lock-up problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kneller

    Full Text Available As industry-university collaborations are promoted to commercialize university research and foster economic growth, it is important to understand how companies benefit from these collaborations, and to ensure that resulting academic discoveries are developed for the benefit of all stakeholders: companies, universities and public. Lock up of inventions, and censoring of academic publications, should be avoided if feasible. This case-study analysis of interviews with 90 companies in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA assesses the scope of this challenge and suggests possible resolutions. The participating companies were asked to describe an important interaction with universities, and most described collaborative research. The most frequently cited tensions concerned intellectual property management and publication freedom. IP disagreements were most frequent in the context of narrowly-focused collaborations with American universities. However, in the case of exploratory research, companies accepted the IP management practices of US universities. It might make sense to let companies have an automatic exclusive license to IP from narrowly defined collaborations, but to encourage universities to manage inventions from exploratory collaborations to ensure development incentives. Although Canada, the UK and US have strong publication freedom guarantees, tensions over this issue arose frequently in focused collaborations, though were rare in exploratory collaborations. The UK Lambert Agreements give sponsors the option to control publications in return for paying the full economic cost of a project. This may offer a model for the other three countries. Uniquely among the four countries, Japan enables companies to control exclusively most collaborative inventions and to censor academic publications. Despite this high degree of control, the interviews suggest many companies do not develop university discoveries to their full potential. The steps suggested

  9. Industry-university collaborations in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA--with emphasis on publication freedom and managing the intellectual property lock-up problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Robert; Mongeon, Marcel; Cope, Jeff; Garner, Cathy; Ternouth, Philip

    2014-01-01

    As industry-university collaborations are promoted to commercialize university research and foster economic growth, it is important to understand how companies benefit from these collaborations, and to ensure that resulting academic discoveries are developed for the benefit of all stakeholders: companies, universities and public. Lock up of inventions, and censoring of academic publications, should be avoided if feasible. This case-study analysis of interviews with 90 companies in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA assesses the scope of this challenge and suggests possible resolutions. The participating companies were asked to describe an important interaction with universities, and most described collaborative research. The most frequently cited tensions concerned intellectual property management and publication freedom. IP disagreements were most frequent in the context of narrowly-focused collaborations with American universities. However, in the case of exploratory research, companies accepted the IP management practices of US universities. It might make sense to let companies have an automatic exclusive license to IP from narrowly defined collaborations, but to encourage universities to manage inventions from exploratory collaborations to ensure development incentives. Although Canada, the UK and US have strong publication freedom guarantees, tensions over this issue arose frequently in focused collaborations, though were rare in exploratory collaborations. The UK Lambert Agreements give sponsors the option to control publications in return for paying the full economic cost of a project. This may offer a model for the other three countries. Uniquely among the four countries, Japan enables companies to control exclusively most collaborative inventions and to censor academic publications. Despite this high degree of control, the interviews suggest many companies do not develop university discoveries to their full potential. The steps suggested above may rebalance the

  10. Industry-University Collaborations in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA – With Emphasis on Publication Freedom and Managing the Intellectual Property Lock-Up Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Robert; Mongeon, Marcel; Cope, Jeff; Garner, Cathy; Ternouth, Philip

    2014-01-01

    As industry-university collaborations are promoted to commercialize university research and foster economic growth, it is important to understand how companies benefit from these collaborations, and to ensure that resulting academic discoveries are developed for the benefit of all stakeholders: companies, universities and public. Lock up of inventions, and censoring of academic publications, should be avoided if feasible. This case-study analysis of interviews with 90 companies in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA assesses the scope of this challenge and suggests possible resolutions. The participating companies were asked to describe an important interaction with universities, and most described collaborative research. The most frequently cited tensions concerned intellectual property management and publication freedom. IP disagreements were most frequent in the context of narrowly-focused collaborations with American universities. However, in the case of exploratory research, companies accepted the IP management practices of US universities. It might make sense to let companies have an automatic exclusive license to IP from narrowly defined collaborations, but to encourage universities to manage inventions from exploratory collaborations to ensure development incentives. Although Canada, the UK and US have strong publication freedom guarantees, tensions over this issue arose frequently in focused collaborations, though were rare in exploratory collaborations. The UK Lambert Agreements give sponsors the option to control publications in return for paying the full economic cost of a project. This may offer a model for the other three countries. Uniquely among the four countries, Japan enables companies to control exclusively most collaborative inventions and to censor academic publications. Despite this high degree of control, the interviews suggest many companies do not develop university discoveries to their full potential. The steps suggested above may rebalance the

  11. Guide of social and ambient responsibility for projects of enterprises of refiners and petrochemicals; Guia de responsabilidade social e ambiental para projetos de empreendimentos de refinarias e petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruella, Nildemar Correa [PETROBRAS, Cubatao, SP (Brazil). Refinaria Presidente Bernardes Cubatao; Richa, Newton M.M. [Instituto Brasileiro de Petroleo, Gas e Biocombustiveis (IBP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to provide practical guidelines for environmental, social accountability, occupational safety and health for all stages of the life cycle of projects (identification of opportunities, conceptual design, basic design, detail design, deployment (construction and assembly), pre-operation, operation, maintenance and deactivation) in large enterprises of the industry of refining and petrochemicals. This work was based on the legal requirements, guidelines Safety, Environment and Health of PETROBRAS, standards and international publications and the experience of the authors. (author)

  12. Mortality and morbidity study of petrochemical employees in a polluted site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasetto Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The area of Gela was included among the 57 Italian polluted sites of national interest for environmental remediation because of its widespread contamination from a petrochemical complex. The present study investigates mortality and morbidity of the cohort of Gela petrochemical workers with the aim of disentangling occupational from residential risk. Methods Mortality was assessed for 5,627 men hired from 1960, year of the plant start-up, to 1993; it was followed up for vital status in the period 1960–2002. Morbidity was analysed for 5,431 workers neither dead nor lost to follow-up from 1960 to 2001 and was based on Hospital Discharge Records in the period 2001–2006. The work experience was classified in terms of job categories such as blue collars, white collars, and both – workers who shifted from blue to white collar (95% or vice versa. An ad hoc mobility model was applied to define qualitative categories of residence in Gela, as residents and commuters. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs and Mortality Rate Ratios (MRRs were computed, the latter by using a Poisson regression model. Morbidity was analyzed in terms of Hospital Discharge Odds Ratios (HDORs through a logistic regression model. While performing the internal comparisons, white collars was the reference category for the job analysis, and commuters was the reference category for the residential analysis. Results In the light of epidemiological evidence about health risk from petrochemical industries in both occupational and environmental settings, and/or on the basis of information about occupational and residential contamination and health risk in the area of Gela, noteworthy results are shown for lung cancer [MRR: 2.11 (CI 90%; 0.96-4.63 in blue collars; 1.71 (1.09-2.69 in residents], respiratory diseases [HDOR: 2.0 (1.0-3.0 in blue collars; 1.4 (0.96-2.06 in residents] and genitourinary diseases [HDOR: 1.34 (1.06-1.68 in blue collars; 1.23 (1.04-1.45 in

  13. Séparation par membranes organiques : applications et prévisions de marché dans l'industrie pétrolière et pétrochimique Separation by Organic Membranes: Applications and Market Outlook in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les principales applications des membranes en séparation portent aujourd'hui sur la perméation gazeuse : récupération de l'hydrogène sous haute pression en raffinage (hydrocraquage, en pétrochimie (synthèse de l'ammoniac, enrichissement du gaz de synthèse; traitement du gaz naturel (élimination des gaz acides, récupération du CO2 pour récupération assistée, extraction de l'hélium. En matière de purification de l'eau de mer, la technique d'osmose inverse est limitée à des capacités de 10 000 m3/j pour des raisons d'économie d'échelle. Le marché des membranes est en forte croissance, 10 % et plus en moyenne annuelle, essentiellement pour les applications déjà implantées industriellement, qui déplacent ou complètent par association les technologies classiques de séparation. The principal applications of separation membranes now have to do with gaseous permeation such as high-pressure hydrogen recovery in refining (hydrocracking and in petrochemistry (ammonia synthesis, enrichment of synthetic gas; the processing of natural gas (sour-gas removal, CO2 recovery for enhanced recovery, helium extraction. For seawater purification, the technique of reverse osmosis is limited to capacities of 10 000 m3/d for reasons of economy of scale. The market for membranes is increasing strongly, at a rate of 10% and more for the yearly average, mainly for applications that are already industrially installated and that are moved or completed by the adding on of conventional separation technologies.

  14. Considerations for Planning a Monitoring Campaign at Petrochemical Complexes: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuclis, A.

    2010-12-01

    An air quality monitoring campaign was developed for the late spring of 2009 near Houston area petrochemical facilities. The focus of the field campaign was to measure free radicals that contribute to the formation of ozone, however refinery and chemical plants monitored are also emitters of many different volatile organic compounds (vocs) and hazardous air pollutants (haps). The Houston area is home to the largest aggregation of petrochemical facilities in the U.S. Three specific geographical areas with industrial facilities were considered: Mont Belvieu, the Houston Ship Channel and the Texas City Industrial Complex. Previous experiences with field campaigns in the area led to the presumption that there would be little if any access inside the facilities. Considerations for which areas to focus on included: how close could the facility be approached, what were the directions of the prevailing winds, what kind of barriers to measurement existed (e.g. trees, buildings, highways, privately owned land, etc.), and what were the possible chemical interferences from other sources near the measurement sites? Close communications with the plant security, the local police, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Homeland Security, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) were required. Substantial delays can occur due to local concerns regarding homeland security and plant safety. Also, a system of communications is essential to coordinate the participating scientists operating stationary analyzers with the scientists who have analyzers mounted in ground vehicles and in aircraft. The researchers were provided with information regarding plant operations, types of equipment and potential pollutants. A wide variety of stationery and mobile ambient air monitoring techniques were used to measure formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds. In order to identify likely formaldehyde sources the self

  15. Assessing post-industrial land cover change at the Pine Point Mine, NWT, Canada using multi-temporal Landsat analysis and landscape metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClerc, Emma; Wiersma, Yolanda F

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates land cover change near the abandoned Pine Point Mine in Canada's Northwest Territories. Industrial mineral development transforms local environments, and the effects of such disturbances are often long-lasting, particularly in subarctic, boreal environments where vegetation conversion can take decades. Located in the Boreal Plains Ecozone, the Pine Point Mine was an extensive open pit operation that underwent little reclamation when it shut down in 1988. We apply remote sensing and landscape ecology methods to quantify land cover change in the 20 years following the mine's closure. Using a time series of near-anniversary Landsat images, we performed a supervised classification to differentiate seven land cover classes. We used raster algebra and landscape metrics to track changes in land cover composition and configuration in the 20 years since the mine shut down. We compared our results with a site in Wood Buffalo National Park that was never subjected to extensive anthropogenic disturbance. This space-for-time substitution provided an analog for how the ecosystem in the Pine Point region might have developed in the absence of industrial mineral development. We found that the dense conifer class was dominant in the park and exhibited larger and more contiguous patches than at the mine site. Bare land at the mine site showed little conversion through time. While the combination of raster algebra and landscape metrics allowed us to track broad changes in land cover composition and configuration, improved access to affordable, high-resolution imagery is necessary to effectively monitor land cover dynamics at abandoned mines.

  16. Volatile Organic Compound Observations near Oil Sands Mining, Upgrading and Refining Facilities in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Marrero, J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Krogh, E.; Blake, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The oil sands of Alberta are the world's third-largest proven oil reserve. Even though the expansion of the oil sands industry has led to concerns about its impact on air quality, water quality and human health, emissions from the oil sands industry are very poorly characterized in the literature. During 2008-2012 our group collected 398 whole air samples downwind of (1) oil sands surface mining and upgrading facilities north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, and (2) chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities in the "Industrial Heartland" region of Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. These high-precision measurements were made primarily in July 2008, August 2010, and July 2012 using canister sampling followed by multi-column gas chromatography analysis for 80 speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with ppt-level detection limits. Strong VOC enhancements were measured downwind of upgrading operations near Fort McMurray, especially alkanes, aromatics and solvents. For example, maximum concentrations of 2,3-dimethylbutane, p-xylene and n-octane were 800-2400× the local background value (LBV), and the industrial solvent trichloroethene was up to 260× the LBV. We measured only small VOC enhancements at sites of naturally exposed oil sands, confirming that degraded air quality results from industrial activity rather than emission from natural sources. Remarkably strong VOC enhancements were detected in the Industrial Heartland, which is the largest hydrocarbon processing region in Canada. Some of the largest VOC excesses were measured in samples designated as "no smell", showing that absence of odor is not necessarily an indicator of good air quality. The maximum concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethylbenzene were 6200× the LBV, and concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, were 2400× the LBV. Thirty VOCs were present at levels above 1 ppbv, and maximum propene and i-pentane levels exceeded 100 ppbv. Remarkably, the maximum propene

  17. Industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Blundel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Industrialization, the historical development that saw cheesemaking transformed from a largely craft-based or artisanal activity, often located on a dairy farm, to a production process that, for the most part, takes place in large ‘cheese factories’ or creameries [See ARTISANAL]. The principal features of modern industrialized cheesemaking, which set it apart from traditional approaches include: high production volumes; sourcing of milk from multiple dairy herds; pasteurization and re-balanci...

  18. Lymphohematopoietic Cancer Mortality and Morbidity of Workers in a Refinery/Petrochemical Complex in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee Koh

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: The results showed a potential relationship between leukemia and lymphohematopoietic cancers and exposure to benzene in refinery/petrochemical complex workers. This study yielded limited results due to a short observational period; therefore, a follow-up study must be performed to elucidate the relationship between petrochemical exposure and cancer rates.

  19. Modal and Vibration Analysis of Filter System in Petrochemical Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchi Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Filter systems are widely used in petrochemical plants for removing solid impurities from hydrocarbon oils. The backwash is the cleaning process used to remove the impurities on the sieves of the filters without a need to interrupt the operation of the entire system. This paper presents a case study based on the actual project of a filter system in a petrochemical plant, to demonstrate the significant effect of vibration on the structural integrity of piping. The induced vibration had led to the structural fatigue failure of the pipes connecting the filter system. A preliminary assessment suggested that the vibrations are caused by the operation of backwashing of the filter system. A process for solving the vibration problem based on the modal analysis of the filter system using the commercial finite element software for simulation is therefore proposed. The computed natural frequencies of the system and the vibration data measured on site are assessed based on the resonance effect of the complete system including the piping connected to the filters. Several approaches are proposed to adjust the natural frequencies of the system in such a way that an optimal and a reasonable solution for solving the vibration problem is obtained.

  20. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  1. Industrial processes of olefin metathesis. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwel, S.

    1987-05-01

    Olefin metathesis opens new synthetic routes to typical petrochemicals (ethylene, propylene, n-butenes), special olefins (neohexene, higher molecular linear olefins, , -dienes) and unsaturated polymers (polynorbornene, -cyclooctene, -dicyclopentadiene) in an industrial scale. The 8 metathesis processes used in industry and further possible applications of olefin metathesis are reviewed.

  2. Influence analysis of kinetic parameters in biodegradation of the petrochemicals compounds in rivers; Analise da influencia de parametros cineticos na biodegradacao de compostos petroquimicos em rios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, E.V.; Krause, B.B.; Ulson de Souza, A.A.; Guelli U. Souza, S.M.A. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e Engenharia de Alimentos]. E-mail: selene@enq.ufsc.br

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work is to simulate a discharge and biodegradation of soluble products proceeding from one of the some ramifications of the Petroleum Industry in rivers. The one-dimensional model in transient regime is used to represent the mass transfer process in the river. A discharge with five species (isopropanol, acetone, methanol, phenol and LAS), gotten for petrochemical process, is simulated and the concentration profiles are obtained. The effect of the biodegradation on the concentration profile of these pollutants is verified. The kinetic models of Monod, Haldane and first-order are used to obtain the concentration profile in rivers. It is studied the influence of the temperature on biodegradation of these petrochemical products. (author)

  3. A Strategic Analysis of Canada Post's Parcel Ecommerce Growth Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Canada Post is a market leader in the business to consumer residential delivery of parcels in Canada. There is an increasing demand for residential delivery due to the worldwide growth in ecommerce sales. This paper presents a strategic analysis of the opportunity for Canada Post to increase its breadth and depth in the parcel delivery industry in Canada. The analysis will review the parcel industry, the ecommerce opportunity, an internal review of Canada Post, develop and evaluate four strat...

  4. Personnel reliability impact on petrochemical facilities monitoring system's failure skipping probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukov, V. N.; Naumenko, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    The paper dwells upon urgent issues of evaluating impact of actions conducted by complex technological systems operators on their safe operation considering application of condition monitoring systems for elements and sub-systems of petrochemical production facilities. The main task for the research is to distinguish factors and criteria of monitoring system properties description, which would allow to evaluate impact of errors made by personnel on operation of real-time condition monitoring and diagnostic systems for machinery of petrochemical facilities, and find and objective criteria for monitoring system class, considering a human factor. On the basis of real-time condition monitoring concepts of sudden failure skipping risk, static and dynamic error, monitoring systems, one may solve a task of evaluation of impact that personnel's qualification has on monitoring system operation in terms of error in personnel or operators' actions while receiving information from monitoring systems and operating a technological system. Operator is considered as a part of the technological system. Although, personnel's behavior is usually a combination of the following parameters: input signal - information perceiving, reaction - decision making, response - decision implementing. Based on several researches on behavior of nuclear powers station operators in USA, Italy and other countries, as well as on researches conducted by Russian scientists, required data on operator's reliability were selected for analysis of operator's behavior at technological facilities diagnostics and monitoring systems. The calculations revealed that for the monitoring system selected as an example, the failure skipping risk for the set values of static (less than 0.01) and dynamic (less than 0.001) errors considering all related factors of data on reliability of information perception, decision-making, and reaction fulfilled is 0.037, in case when all the facilities and error probability are under

  5. Performance Measurement for a Logistics Services Provider to the Polymer Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tok, King Lai

    2007-01-01

    This management project discusses the form of performance measurement system suitable for a logistics services provider who focuses on providing its services to large multinational petrochemical companies in the polymer industry

  6. Monitoring PAHs in the petrochemical area of Tarragona County, Spain: comparing passive air samplers with lichen transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Morueco, Noelia; Augusto, Sofia; Trabalón, Laura; Pocurull, Eva; Borrull, Francesc; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2017-05-01

    The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 8 passive air samples (PAS) and 6 lichen transplants (Ramalina fastigiata) deployed for a period of 2 months in different zones of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), an area with an important number of chemical and petrochemical industries. The accumulated amount of the sum of the 16 PAHs ranged between 1363 to 7866 ng/sample in air samples. The highest concentration was found in the neighborhood of Puigdelfí (village of Perafort), in the vicinity of a big oil refinery and well under the potential influence of the petrochemical emissions. In lichen samples, the sum of the 16 PAHs ranged between 247 and 841 ng/g (dry weight), being the greatest value also observed in Puigdelfí. Data on the levels and profiles of PAHs in both passive monitoring methods were compared. A significant positive linear correlation was found between the concentrations of low molecular weight PAHs in lichens and the amounts accumulated in passive air samples (R = 0.827, P lichens can be used to monitor gas-phase PAHs, providing data that can be quantitatively translated into equivalents for air.

  7. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg2+ and Cd2+ from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Hasani, Amirhesam; Eisakhani, Mahdieh; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain

    2011-07-15

    Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03±0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52±0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg(2+) and 96-98% of Cd(2+). The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg(2+) and Cd(2+) implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Onset of industrial pollution recorded in Mumbai mudflat sediments, using integrated magnetic, Chemical, sup(210) Pb dating, and microscopic methods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Blaha, U.; Basavaiah, N.; Deenadayalan, K.; Borole, D.V.; Mohite, R.D.

    for the environment and human health. Magnetic particles gener- ated in combustion processes of industry, road traffic, and coal-fired power plants are frequently associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and metals (e.g., refs 1-7)and can accumulate... industries include a thermal power plant, refineries, petrochemical factories, fertilizer production, textile mills, engineering, and foundry units (9). Most of these are situated in industrial areas around Thane Creek (THC). Petrochemical complexes and a...

  9. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers...

  10. DI-(2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION BY FENTON PROCESS IN SYNTHETIC AND REAL PETROCHEMICAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Esmaeli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Di-(2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP belongs to the class of phthalate esters and is used as an additive in many products including plastics, paints and inks or as a solvent in industrial formulations. The degradation of DEHP in aqueous solution using oxidative Fenton reaction (H2O2/Fe2+ was carried out in this study. It was found that H2O2 concentration, Fe2+ concentration, and pH were the three main factors that could significantly influence the degradation rates of DEHP. The highest degradation percentage (85.6 % of DEHP was observed within 60 min at pH 3 in H2O2/Fe2+ system. The results of our study suggested that the concentration with 90 mg/L H2O2, 5 mg/L Fe2+, and 20 mg/L DEHP in the solution at pH 3 were the optimal conditions. The optimized reaction parameters were preceded for treatment of real wastewater obtained from a petrochemical plant.

  11. Environmental comparison of biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammens, Tijs M; Potting, José; Sanders, Johan P M; De Boer, Imke J M

    2011-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents, that is, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and succinonitrile (SCN). A consequential life cycle assessment was performed, wherein glutamic acid was obtained from sugar beet vinasse. The removed glutamic acid was substituted with cane molasses and ureum. The comparison between the four biobased and petrochemical products showed that for NMP and NVP the biobased version had less impact on the environment, while for ACN and SCN the petrochemical version had less impact on the environment. For the latter two an optimized scenario was computed, which showed that the process for SCN can be improved to a level at which it can compete with the petrochemical process. For biobased ACN large improvements are required to make it competitive with its petrochemical equivalent. The results of this LCA and the research preceding it also show that glutamic acid can be a building block for a variety of molecules that are currently produced from petrochemical resources. Currently, most methods to produce biobased products are biotechnological processes based on sugar, but this paper demonstrates that the use of amino acids from low-value byproducts can certainly be a method as well.

  12. Lanthanum and lanthanides in atmospheric fine particles and their apportionment to refinery and petrochemical operations in Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Pranav; Chellam, Shankararaman; Fraser, Matthew P.

    A study was conducted in Houston, TX focusing on rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric fine particles and their sources. PM 2.5 samples were collected from an ambient air quality monitoring site (HRM3) located in the proximity of a large number of oil refineries and petrochemical industries to estimate the potential contributions of emissions from fluidized-bed catalytic cracking operations to ambient fine particulate matter. The elemental composition of ambient PM 2.5, several commercially available zeolite catalysts, and local soil was measured after microwave assisted acid digestion using inductively coupled plasma—mass spectrometry. Source identification and apportionment was performed by principal component factor analysis (PCFA) in combination with multiple linear regression. REE relative abundance sequence, ratios of La to light REEs (Ce, Pr, Nd, and Sm), and enrichment factor analysis indicated that refining and petrochemical cat cracking operations were predominantly responsible for REE enrichment in ambient fine particles. PCFA yielded five physically meaningful PM 2.5 sources: cat cracking operations, a source predominantly comprised of crustal material, industrial high temperature operations, oil combustion, and sea spray. These five sources accounted for 82% of the total mass of atmospheric fine particles (less carbon and sulfate). Factor analysis confirmed that emissions from cat cracking operations primarily contributed to REE enrichment in PM 2.5 even though they comprised only 2.0% of the apportioned mass. Results from this study demonstrate the need to characterize catalysts employed in the vicinity of the sampling stations to accurately determine local sources of atmospheric REEs.

  13. Assessing corrosion in oil refining and petrochemical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Randy C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the development of an information system used to manage corrosion of metals and alloys by high temperature gases found in many different oil refining, petrochemical, power generation, and chemical processes. The database currently represents about 7.9 million h of exposure time for about 5,500 tests with 89 commercial alloys for a temperature range of 200 - 1,200°C. The system manages corrosion data from well-defined exposures and determines corrosion product stabilities. New models used in the analysis of thermochemical data for the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co-C-O-S-N-H system are being compiled. All known phases based upon combinations of the elements have been analyzed to allow complete assessments of corrosion product stabilities. Use of these data allows prediction of stable corrosion products and hence identification of the possible dominant corrosion mechanisms. The system has the potential to be used in corrosion research, alloy development, failure analysis, lifetime prediction, and process operations evaluations. The corrosion mechanisms emphasized are oxidation, sulfidation, sulfidation/oxidation, and carburization.

  14. Industrial Hardening: 1981 Technical Status-Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    that are sensitive to rapid shutdown would include petroleum refining and petrochemicals, rubber and plastics, and chemical and fertilizer plants. The...HEAVY-DUTY IMPACT MILLS DESCRIPTION INDUSTRIES WHERE USED Cage mills Quarries, phosphate, fertilizer , colors, presscake (e.g. vegetable oils...bauxite, rollers that operate in coke, magnesite , iron oxide pigments, conjunction with grinding sulfur, talc, graphite, calcium phosphates, rings

  15. ISO 9000: The challenge of Camacari petrochemical complex, Bahia State - Northeast Brazil; ISO 9000: o desafio do polo petroquimico de Camacari, BA, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos Antonio Lima de; Carvalho Neto, Jose

    1992-12-31

    The petrochemical complex of Camacari, BA, Brazil, involves 40 companies, responsible for 55% of brazilian production. The companies were installed using the most modern techniques related to quality available at that time, strongly centered in quality control. The new industrial policy towards reducing import taxes and allowing the entrance of foreign products at competitive prices, besides the quality exigencies of international market, induced the companies to develop new techniques for quality management based in the ISO 9000 standards. The paper shows the stage of implementation of these standards in 30 companies, corresponding to 90% of global sales of all the complex. (author)

  16. Effluents and Solid Waste Analysis in a Petrochemical Company- A Case Study of Eleme Petrochemical Company Ltd, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effluents and soil samples where sediments from the treated effluents are dumped were analyzed for physicochemical properties, metallic and non-metallic ions. These parameters were compared with established international standard (FEPA. Effluents were classified as process waste water (PWW, clarified water (CW, and final discharge (FD. The petrochemical effluents contained very high concentration of TDS (284.00±014 mg/L and significant concentrations of TSS (78.89±0.01 mg/L, COD (30.10±0.02 mg/L, DO (13.20±0.01 mg/L, BOD (6.12±0.00 mg/L, PO43- (4.34±0.00 mg/L, SO42- (3.59±0.00 mg/L, Cl- (55.52±0.01 mg/L and NO3- (8.40±0.01 mg/L. Low concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and cobalt was also observed. Some heavy metals were not detected at all in some of the effluent samples analyzed. Apart from temperature and total dissolved solid TDS, all the other parameters were below FEPA effluent limitations for guidelines for Petroleum Refinery, Fuel/Gasoline oil category in Nigeria.

  17. A flare for decommissioning : a push to close flare pits in B.C. earns Petro-Canada an industry award for environmental stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.

    2009-01-15

    Flaring is widely used to dispose of natural gas liberated during oil production and processing in remote areas where there is no pipeline on site to make use of the gas. Sources of flaring include well testing, solution gas from oil wells, underbalanced drilling, gas gathering systems and gas processing plants. Flaring is a source of pollution and a waste of energy. This article described Petro-Canada's efforts to eliminate flaring. In the late 1990s, the company began environmental assessments of its flare pits in British Columbia (BC). Since 2005, the producer has decommissioned 106 of its 108 pits in the province and ring-fenced the other 2. As the staff advanced the task of decommissioning, it often consolidated flaring hardware, installing a single, vertical flare stack to serve where 3 or 4 flare pits had previously served as many well sites. Before decommissioning began, Petro-Canada carried out its own environmental protocol and assessed its pits for the presence of contaminants and for their potential to leach into local waterways. Monitoring of groundwater through wells drilled on the company's BC flare pit sites will continue for some time, particularly on sites with bodies of water. BC's Oil and Gas Commission estimated that between 1996 and 2006, conservation of solution gas rose from 87 to 97 per cent among the province's producers. Petro-Canada was commended for being among the first to secure all flare pits under its control in BC. It was estimated that 49 per cent of all flare pits decommission in BC by 2007 were completed by Petro-Canada. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  18. [Application of association rule in mental health test for employees in a petrochemical enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L F; Zhang, D N; Wang, Z P

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the occurrence ruleof common psychological abnormalities in petrochemical workers using association rule. Methods: From July to September,2014,the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90)was used for the general survey of mental healthamong all employees in a petrochemical enterprise.The association rule Apriori algorithm was used to analyze the data of SCL-90 and investigate the occurrence rule of psychological abnormalities in petrochemical workers with different sexes,ages,or nationalities. Results: A total of 8 248 usable questionnaires were collected. The SCL-90 analysis showed that 1623 petrochemical workers(19.68%) had positive results,among whom 567(34.94%)had one positive factor and 1056 (65.06%)had two or more positive factors. A total of 7 strong association rules were identified and all of them included obsessive-compulsive symptom and depression. Male({obsessive-compulsive symptom,anxiety}=>{depression}) and female workers ({somatization,depression}=>{obsessive-compulsive symptom}) had their own special association rules. The workers aged 35-44 years had 17 special association rules,and ethnic minorities had 5 special association rules. Conclusion: Employeesin the petrochemical enterprise have multiple positive factors in SCL-90, and employees aged 35-44 years and ethnic minorities have a rich combination of psychological symptoms and need special attention during mental health intervention.

  19. Data on greenhouse gases emission in condensate separation unit of a petrochemical company in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Dastorian, Mehrshad; Jafarzadeh, Nemat; Jorfi, Sahand; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    Since global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions is no respecter of geographical boundaries of countries, concerted mitigation activities such as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), are suitable. In this mechanism, some developed countries can gain certified emission reduction credits from emission reduction actions undertaken in developing countries. Thus, the data of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries would be informative for implementing of CDM. Herein, the data of greenhouse gas emissions of Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex, one of the biggest petrochemical companies in the Middle East region is presented. The data was acquired using emission factor method and self-presented raw information of the Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex. Overall, the data will be interesting for environmentalists, non-governmental organization (NGO), and developed countries to perform CDM.

  20. Use of Low-cost Adsorbents to Chlorophenols and Organic Matter Removal of Petrochemical Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretha Moreira de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The removal of 2,4 diclorophenol (2,4-DCF and 2,4,6 trichlorophenol (2,4,6 TCF present in  petrochemical wastewater was evaluated using low-cost adsorbents, such as chitin, chitosan and coconut shells. Batch studies showed that the absorption efficiency for 2,4 DCF and 2,4,6 TCF follow the order: chitosan > chitin > coconut shells. Langmuir and Freundlich models have been applied to experimental isotherms data, to better understand the adsorption mechanisms. Petrochemical wastewater treatment with fixed bed column system using chitinous adsorbents showed a removal of COD (75% , TOG (90% and turbidity (74-89%.

  1. STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS OF BREAKWATER STRUCTURES OF THE “EASTERN PETROCHEMICAL COMPANY” JSC OIL REFINERY AND PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS PORT COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhod’ko Oleg Alekseevich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of MGSU Corporation for testing of design solutions of the “Eastern petrochemical company” JSC oil refinery and petrochemical plants port complex using the physical modeling method. Construction of the marine terminal of the oil refinery and petrochemical plants port complex is planned to be on the Eastern shore of the Vostok Bay which is the part of Peter the Great Bay in the Sea of Japan. The port area is created by means of an artificial land site. The water area of the terminal will be guarded against sea waves by a breakwater. Experiments on the study of wave propagation in the port model water area at the Eastern and Western breakwaters were performed in the laboratory wave basin in three-dimensional layout, with the aim of obtaining of data about wave heights at berthing facilities. Effectiveness of the breakwater designs was studied in two-dimensional layout in a wave flume. During the port model construction all the designed waterworks as well as the project bathymetry of the port water area were reproduced at a scale of 1:100. Analysis of the experiment results with the slope protection embodiment version demonstrates that this engineering solution is able to withstand waves of the design parameters.

  2. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  3. Basic petrochemicals from natural gas, coal and biomass: energy use and CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.; Patel, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    While high-value basic petrochemicals (HVCs) are mostly produced through conventional naphtha and ethane-based process routes, it is also possible to produce them through coal and biomass-based routes. In this paper, we compared these routes in terms of energy use and CO2 emissions per ton of HVCs.

  4. Comparison of the sustainability metrics of the petrochemical and biomass-based routes to methionine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Sheldon, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability metrics, based on material efficiency, energy input, land use and costs, of three processesfor the manufacture of methionine are compared. The petrochemical process affords dl-methionine whilethe two biomass-based routes afford the l-enantiomer. From the point of view of the major

  5. Source pollution control program at the Camacari Petrochemical Complex: overall and individual improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, P.A.; Neto, D.B.; Carvalho, D.M. [CETREL S.A., Camacari, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Along with the technical progress experienced by the Camacari Petrochemical Complex in the last few years, new policies, following new worldwide trends, in pollution control and prevention became mandatory. This work describes some of these experiences as well as future perspectives. 3 refs., 2 fig., 13 tabs.

  6. Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, coal and biomass: production costs in 2030–2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.; Daniëls, B.; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X; Blok, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07170275X

    2009-01-01

    Methane, coal and biomass are being considered as alternatives to crude oil for the production of basic petrochemicals, such as light olefins. This paper is a study on the production costs of 24 process routes utilizing these primary energy sources. A wide range of projected energy prices in

  7. Ultrasonic and Thermal Pretreatments on Anaerobic Digestion of Petrochemical Sludge: Dewaterability and Degradation of PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Weizhong; Wong, Jonathan W. C.; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yan, Binghua; Zhang, Xueying; Jia, Honghua

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge dewaterability and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion were studied. Results showed that the total biogas production volume in the thermal pretreatment system was 4 and 5 times higher than that in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system, and the corresponding volatile solid removal efficiencies reached 28%, 15%, and 8%. Phenanthrene, paranaphthalene, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthene, and benzopyrene removal rates reached 43.3%, 55.5%, 30.6%, 42.9%, and 41.7%, respectively, in the thermal pretreatment system, which were much higher than those in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system. Moreover, capillary suction time (CST) of sludge increased after pretreatment, and then reduced after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved after anaerobic digestion. The decrease of protein and polysaccharide in the sludge could improve sludge dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that thermal pretreatment might be a promising enhancement method for petrochemical sludge solubilization, thus contributing to degradation of the PAHs, biogas production, and improvement of dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. PMID:26327510

  8. Safety culture assessment among laboratory personnel of a petrochemical company

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shekari; G. A. Shirali; T. Hosseinzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Investigation of accidents have shown that more than 90% of industrial accidents are related to human aspects. What is more, safe behaviors can not be institutionalized in industries by only using technical-engineering measures and enacting safety rules. Building a positive and effective safety culture can make individuals aware of hazards and consequently reduce accidents in the workplace. .Material and Method: In this analytical-descriptive study, a standardized safety cul...

  9. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost

  10. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Gujar, Amit; Rochfort, Simone; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-02-28

    Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of "green" gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants' metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for efficient bio

  11. Implementation of a quantum cascade laser-based gas sensor prototype for sub-ppmv H2S measurements in a petrochemical process gas stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Harald; Pölz, Walter; Waclawek, Johannes Paul; Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of a sensitive and selective as well as industrial fit gas sensor prototype based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (2f-WMS) employing an 8-μm continuous-wave distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (CW-DFB-QCL) for monitoring hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at sub-ppm levels is reported. Regarding the applicability for analytical and industrial process purposes aimed at petrochemical environments, a synthetic methane (CH4) matrix of up to 1000 ppmv together with a varying H2S content was chosen as the model environment for the laboratory-based performance evaluation performed at TU Wien. A noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity (NEAS) for H2S targeting the absorption line at 1247.2 cm(-1) was found to be 8.419 × 10(-10) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2), and a limit of detection (LOD) of 150 ppbv H2S could be achieved. The sensor prototype was then deployed for on-site measurements at the petrochemical research hydrogenation platform of the industrial partner OMV AG. In order to meet the company's on-site safety regulations, the H2S sensor platform was installed in an industry rack and equipped with the required safety infrastructure for protected operation in hazardous and explosive environments. The work reports the suitability of the sensor prototype for simultaneous monitoring of H2S and CH4 content in the process streams of a research hydrodesulfurization (HDS) unit. Concentration readings were obtained every 15 s and revealed process dynamics not observed previously.

  12. Resistance of blended concrete containing an industrial petrochemical residue to chloride ion penetration and carbonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Torres Castellanos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the resistance of blended concrete containing catalytic cracking residue (FCC to chloride ion penetration and carbonation was examined. FCC was added at the levels of 10%, 20%, and 30% as partial replacement for cement. Concretes with 10% of silica fume (SF, 10% of metakaolin (MK, and without additives were evaluated as reference materials. The rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT performed according to ASTM C1202 standards and an accelerated carbonation test in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions (23 °C, 60% RH and 4.0% CO2, were used in order to evaluate the performance of these concretes. Additionally, their compressive strength was determined. The results indicate that binary blends with 10% FCC had similar compressive strength to concrete without additives and had lower chloride permeability. 10% SF and 10% MK exhibited better mechanical behavior and a significant decrease in chloride penetration when compared to 10% FCC. It is noted that there was an increase in concrete carbonation when FCC or MK were used as additives. It was also observed that with longer curing time, the samples with and without additives, presented higher resistance to carbonation. The accelerated corrosion test by impressed voltage was also performed to verify the findings and to investigate the characteristics of corrosion using a 3.5% NaCl solution as electrolyte. The mixtures that contained 10% FCC were highly resistant to chloride ion penetration and did not present cracking within the testing period.

  13. The Impact of Job Stress and Job Satisfaction on Workforce Productivity in an Iranian Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Hoboubi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Corrective measures are necessary to improve the shift work system. “Role insufficiency” and “role ambiguity” should be improved and supervisor support must be increased to reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction and productivity.

  14. Welded pipes for petrochemical industry; Tubos com costura para a industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Sergio Seijo [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: cfbssk@confab.com.br; Morais, Willy Ank de [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (COSIPA), Cubatao, SP (Brazil); Universidade Santa Cecilia, Santos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: willymorais@cosipa.com.br; willyank@unisanta.br

    2005-10-15

    The development of petroleum and gas exploration in the last years led to sophistication on the methods of pipe production. This consequently led to specifications more and more stringent on the characteristics of the pipes. The main restrictions are on pipe geometry, mechanical properties, as well as chemistry. To cope with this trend the pipe mills had to make new developments and investments, and the pipe production cost has increased. (author)

  15. Hydrogen Absorption Induced Slow Crack Growth in Austenitic Stainless Steels for Petrochemical Pressure Vessel Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Rusli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 304Land type 309 austenitic stainless steels were tested either by exposed to gaseous hydrogen or undergoing polarized cathodic charging. Slow crack growth by straining was observed in type 304L, and the formation of α‘ martensite was indicated to be precursor for such cracking. Gross plastic deformation was observed at the tip of the notch, and a single crack grew slowly from this region in a direction approximately perpendicular to the tensile axis. Martensite formation is not a necessary condition for hydrogen embrittlement in the austenitic phase.

  16. New approaches to digital transformation of petrochemical production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andieva, E. Y.; Kapelyuhovskaya, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The newest concepts of the reference architecture of digital industrial transformation are considered, the problems of their application for the enterprises having in their life cycle oil products processing and marketing are revealed. The concept of the reference architecture, providing a systematic representation of the fundamental changes in the approaches to production management based on the automation of production process control is proposed.

  17. On the solution of petrochemical blending problems with classical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all three problems were obtained using ranked fitness assignment with tournament selection. ... used in industry [12]. On the other hand, metaheuristics are useful alternative methods to search for alternative efficient recipes. The objective of this study is to present a ...... Intelligent Control and Automation, 1(1), pp. 375–377.

  18. On the solution of petrochemical blending problems with classical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blending problems are especially important in process industries such as petroleum, chemical and food. The decision maker must determine the ingredients to use as well as the quantities thereof. ∗Department of Logistics, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. †Corresponding author: Department of Logistics, University ...

  19. Eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.G.; Roliff, W.A.; Sealey, R.; Palonen, P.A.

    1981-10-01

    Uncertainty of increased taxation of petroleum revenues proposed under the Canadian national energy program effected a minor slowdown of the rapid exploration in 1980. Total numbers of wells drilled in eastern Canada were: Ontario, 224; Quebec, 3; Nova Scotia, 1; and the Atlantic offshore, 13. Much of the Ontario drilling, 123 wells, was for development purposes. The success ratio on exploratory drilling in Ontario was 34.7, while all Quebec and Nova Scotia wells were dry. Production of oil and gas declined by 16.8% and 18.5% in New Brunswick. Oil production in Ontario increased by 1.2%. The increase in gas production of 14.3% to almost 443,535.5 x 10/sup 3/m/sup 3/ was due almost entirely to development of known fields underlying Lake Erie. The exploration of offshore eastern Canada continued at a stable rate, with 12 wells completed. Of these, 2 were in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 3 on the Grand Banks, 6 on the Labrador Shelf, and 1 in Davis Strait. All wells were abandoned or suspended at year end, although discoveries of hydrocarbon were made in Davis Strait and the Grand Banks. The early exploration stage, combined with record water depths, prevented any of these wells from being put into production, although testing will be continued on the most promising shows. Seismic exploration increased to approximately 30,000 km in the Atlantic offshore areas. In addition, 1,420.94 km was shot in Lake Erie. Onshore seismic exploration accounted for 1,078.67 km in Ontario, 350 km in Nova Scotia and 242.76 km in Quebec. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  20. Human resource development formulation and evaluation in an Iranian Petrochemical Company using ANP and grey relational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, human capital is considered a key factor of achieving the competitive advantage in different industries. The present study, as an applied and descriptive research, aims at providing formulation and evaluation of human resource development of an Iranian Petrochemical Company (APC. The human resource experts and managers of APC together with university professors of human capital and familiar with local conditions of Khuzestan province, Iran, made up the statistical population of this research. In this connection, first the internal factors (including advantages and disadvantages were identified using human resource excellence indicators. Then, the opportunities and threats of human resource system were found via PESTEL approach. In the next step, the primary strategies were formulated using the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT Matrix. The next phases of the study were included evaluation and ranking of human resource development strategies based on analytical network process (ANP multi-criteria decision making method and grey systems theory. According to results of the research, defensive strategies (WT are suggested as the best and most appropriate strategies in human resource area. In other words, the internal and external factors of APC are problematic. Accordingly, APC is expected to adopt WT strategy, minimize the weaknesses, and avoid threats. Subsequent to the above policy, the strategies of WO, ST, and SO are advised to employ.

  1. Development of refractory ceramic using waste of petrochemical catalysts; Desenvolvimento de ceramica refrataria utilizando residuos de catalisadores petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso, M.A.; Mymrine, V. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The manufacturing of catalytic catalysts by the company FCC SA. for the Brazilian petrochemical industry is 25,000 tons per annum, which after going through the cracking process cannot undergo regeneration any longer, being wasted with humidity near 70%. To increase the economical and environmental efficiency of the use of this rejected catalyst, without preliminary drying, a method of using it as main raw material in composition like kaolin was developed, as well as in ash and glass for the manufacturing of common (regular) and refractory ceramic. The mixture of these components were burnt at temperatures of 1100 deg C, 1200°C, 1250°C and 1300°C. The ceramics with 30% and 40% in weight of wasted catalyst, sintered in 1250 deg C or 1300 deg C have flexion of 10,8 - 12,9 MPa. After burning the mixtures, the chemical interaction of the initial components was determined by the methods of RXD, MEV and EDS, synthesizing new minerals like Diopside Ca(Mg,Al)(Si,Al){sub 2}O{sub 6}, Nepheline (K,Na)AlSiO{sub 4}, Lazurite Na{sub 8}[Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}[SO{sub 4},S]{sub 2}, Magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Albite Na Al Si{sub 3}O{sub 8} and high content of vitreous amorphous phase. (author)

  2. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Method: Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using the objective test such as continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness scale was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale...

  3. Waste minimization promotes biophysical treatment of complex petrochemical wastes in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel, A. [Invirotreat International Ltd., Fulleron, CA (United States); Raveh, A. [Raveh Ecology Ltd., Haifa (Israel)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes a full-scale waste treatment system which was put into operation in a petrochemical manufacturing plant in Israel for the purpose of detoxifying its complex organic waste stream. The treatment plant design incorporates an innovative waste management approach to accommodate the limited space allocated for the facility. Initial performance data indicate a high efficient inorganic waste reduction. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour, employee engagement and intention to leave in a petrochemical laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Sonet van Schalkwyk; Danie H. du Toit; Adriaan S. Bothma; Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: Engaging individuals at work plays an important role in retaining them. Job security and leadership empowerment behaviour are antecedents of employee engagement.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour (as perceived by the employees who report to leaders), employee engagement and intention to leave their jobs in a petrochemical laboratory.Motivation for the study: Knowledge of the e...

  5. The toxic impact of petro-chemical and oil-refining waste on hydrobionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramshina, N.G.; Kuramshin, E.M.; Pavlov, S.V. [Institute for Problems of Applied Ecology and Natural Resources Use, Ufa, Bashkortostan (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes research carried out on the potential impacts of petro-chemical and oil refining wastes on molluscs. The acute and chronic effects of 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane on gastropod molluscs are described. Studies were also conducted on the effects of diesel fuel, aviation fuel and multigrade oil. The results indicate the importance of assessing both lethal and sub-lethal effects. Sub-lethal effects noted included behavioural changes and effects on hemolymph. (Author)

  6. Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

    2011-08-15

    Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater.

  7. A Study of the Unsafe Actions of Staff in the Maintenance and Overhaul Unit at a Petrochemical Complex and the Presentation of Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Today, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries are of strategic significance in the macro-development of oil-rich countries. These industries, given the nature of the work and the technical complexity of the various processes, are hazardous and susceptible to occupational accidents. More than 90% of the accidents are related to the faults and unsafe actions of personnel, either directly or indirectly. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the unsafe actions of staff working in the maintenance unit of a petrochemical complex. Materials and Methods This is a descriptive and analytical study conducted on 167 morning-shift workers at the Mahshahr petrochemical complex. The data were collected based on a checklist of unsafe actions prepared through a direct observation of their activities and an analysis of work instructions, documents, and incident reports. SPSS statistical software was also used for data analysis and relevant testing. Results According to the results of this study, the mean number of unsafe actions performed by the employees was 42%. The highest number of unsafe actions achieved in the maintenance mechanical unit was 52.8%, 47.1% in repair services, and 43.8% in machinery. The highest frequency of unsafe actions were caused by indiscretion and negligence, a failure to use a face shield and goggles, and non-compliance with safety principles. Conclusions According to the findings, there has been a rise in the number of unsafe actions in machinery and maintenance service units compared to other maintenance units. As such, training courses based on the behavior-based safety principles at the beginning of employment, close monitoring of health safety environment (HSE officials on the implementation of regulations, and provision of appropriate scheduling based on weather conditions and the nature of maintenance services are recommended. In addition, a refrainment from hastiness in performing duties, enhanced

  8. Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations around a petrochemical complex and a petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Eylem; Odabasi, Mustafa; Seyfioglu, Remzi

    2003-08-01

    Air samples were collected between September 2000 and September 2001 in Izmir, Turkey at three sampling sites located around a petrochemical complex and an oil refinery to measure ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. VOC concentrations were 4-20-fold higher than those measured at a suburban site in Izmir, Turkey. Ethylene dichloride, a leaded gasoline additive used in petroleum refining and an intermediate product of the vinyl chloride process in the petrochemical complex, was the most abundant volatile organic compound, followed by ethyl alcohol and acetone. Evaluations based on wind direction clearly indicated that ambient VOC concentrations measured were affected by the refinery and petrochemical complex emissions. VOC concentrations showed seasonal variations at all sampling sites. Concentrations were highest in summer, followed by autumn, probably due to increased evaporation of VOCs from fugitive sources as a result of higher temperatures. VOC concentrations generally increased with temperature and wind speed. Temperature and wind speed together explained 1-60% of the variability in VOC concentrations. The variability in ambient VOC concentrations that could not be explained by temperature and wind speed can be attributed to the effect of other factors (i.e. wind direction, other VOC sources).

  9. Deadly dialing : as cell-related accidents climb, Canada's oil industry does its part to make our roads a little safer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2008-04-15

    Cellphone use while driving is having a noticeable impact on driver safety. Driving is the leading cause of death in the petroleum industry. Traffic collisions have increased by nearly 15 per cent since 2005. Driver error is considered to be a contributing factor in 9 out of 10 traffic collisions. The media has desensitized and conditioned most people to accept road deaths as inevitable. However, a number of people are now expressing deep concerns over the carelessness of drivers who use their cellphones while on the road. This paper described a campaign recently launched by Alberta's safety training company Enform to develop a policy about cellphone use. The awareness program has been developed to inform the public of the dangers of cellphone use. A team of people have also been hired to conduct safety initiatives in local communities in Alberta. The program is part of the The Alberta Traffic Safety Plan (TSP), which was formed in order to consider methods of increasing public education and awareness, sustained enforcement, legislation, best practices, and safety-based engineering. 3 figs.

  10. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  11. Wastewater Treatment Costs and Outlays in Organic Petrochemicals: Standards Versus Taxes With Methodology Suggestions for Marginal Cost Pricing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Russell G.; Singleton, F. D., Jr.

    1986-04-01

    With the methodology recommended by Baumol and Oates, comparable estimates of wastewater treatment costs and industry outlays are developed for effluent standard and effluent tax instruments for pollution abatement in five hypothetical organic petrochemicals (olefins) plants. The computational method uses a nonlinear simulation model for wastewater treatment to estimate the system state inputs for linear programming cost estimation, following a practice developed in a National Science Foundation (Research Applied to National Needs) study at the University of Houston and used to estimate Houston Ship Channel pollution abatement costs for the National Commission on Water Quality. Focusing on best practical and best available technology standards, with effluent taxes adjusted to give nearly equal pollution discharges, shows that average daily treatment costs (and the confidence intervals for treatment cost) would always be less for the effluent tax than for the effluent standard approach. However, industry's total outlay for these treatment costs, plus effluent taxes, would always be greater for the effluent tax approach than the total treatment costs would be for the effluent standard approach. Thus the practical necessity of showing smaller outlays as a prerequisite for a policy change toward efficiency dictates the need to link the economics at the microlevel with that at the macrolevel. Aggregation of the plants into a programming modeling basis for individual sectors and for the economy would provide a sound basis for effective policy reform, because the opportunity costs of the salient regulatory policies would be captured. Then, the government's policymakers would have the informational insights necessary to legislate more efficient environmental policies in light of the wealth distribution effects.

  12. Reducing the carbon footprint of fuels and petrochemicals. Preprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Balfanz, U.; Buchholz, S.; Lichtscheidl, J.; Marchionna, M.; Nees, F.; Santacesaria, E. (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Within the DGMK conference between 08th and 10th October, 2012, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Energy demand and mix for global welfare and stable ecosystems (A. Jess); (2) The EU's roadmap for moving to a low-carbon economy - Aspirations and reality for refiners (J. Lichtscheidl); (3) Applications of CCS technology to the oil and gas industries (M. Marchionna); (4) A new chemical system solution for acid gas removal (M. Seiler); (5) Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide towards synthetic natural gas - A route to effective future energy storage (M. Schoder); (6) Bio-MTBE - How to reduce CO{sub 2} footprint in fuels with a well known premium gasoline component (O. Busch); (7) Use of waste materials for Biodiesel production (R. Vitiello); (8) From algae to diesel and kerosene - Tailored fuels via selective catalysis (C. Zhao); (9) Chemo-catalytic valorization of cellulose (R. Palkovits); (10) Cellulosic ethanol: Potential, technology and development status (M. Rarbach); (11) Methanation of carbon oxides - History, status quo and future perspectives (W. Kaltner); (12) Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H{sub 2} (H. Eilers); (13) Materials for the 21st century: Can the carbon come from CO{sub 2} (S. Kissling); (14) Effect of CO{sub 2} admixture on the catalytic performance of Ni-Nb-M-O catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene (A. Qiao); (15) Oxidative dehydrogenation of light alkanes (A. Meiswinkel); (16) Low carbon fuel and chemical production from waste gases (S. Simpson); (17) Methanol to propylene: From development to commercialization (S. Haag); (18) On the impact of olefins and aromatics in the methanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion over H-ZSM-5 catalysts (X. Sun); (19) Mn-Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} - An industrial catalyst for methane coupling (M. Yildiz); (20) Biorefineries - Prerequisites for the realization of a future bioeconomy (K. Wagemann); (21) A new process

  13. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection III. Methods of assessing animal exposure to contaminants from the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    Researchers measured exposure to oil and gas industry emissions in 205 cow-calf herds located in Western Canada. They measured airborne concentrations of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds with passive monitors placed in each pasture, wintering, or calving area that contained study animals from the start of the breeding season in the spring of 2001 until June 30, 2002. Researchers continued air monitoring in a subset of herds to the end of the study in fall 2002. Each sampling device was exposed for 1 month and then shipped to the laboratory for analysis. New samplers were installed and the shelters relocated, as necessary, to follow the movements of herd-management groups between pastures. Researchers linked the results of the air-monitoring analysis to individual animals for the relevant month. For the 205 herds examined at pregnancy testing in 2001, monthly mean exposures on the basis of all available data were as follows: sulfur dioxide, geometric mean (GM)=0.5 ppb, geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.2; hydrogen sulfide, GM=0.14 ppb, GSD=2.3; benzene, GM=0.247 microg/m3, GSD=2.5; and toluene, GM=0.236 microg/m3, GSD=2.7. Benzene and toluene were surrogates for volatile organic compound exposure. In addition to passive measurements of air quality, researchers obtained data from provincial regulatory agencies on the density of oil and gas field facilities and on flaring and venting from the surrounding facilities. They developed the data into additional measures of exposure that were linked to each animal at each location for each month of the study.

  14. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein, E-mail: amirhossein@petronas.com.my [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Hasani, Amirhesam [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eisakhani, Mahdieh [School of Social, Development and the Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} concentrations. {yields} Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  15. State and prospects petrochemical complex of the Euroasian Economic Union States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Khvorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the competitiveness of national products and the acceleration of economic development in modern conditions are largely determined by their role in the world integration structures. One of the promising directions of Russia's participation in the integration process is the development of economic relations within the EEUS. Among the member countries the greatest potential petrochemical complex have Russia and Kazakhstan. Demand for oil, gas and petroleum products in Kyrgyzstan and Armenia are mainly met by imports from neighboring countries. Russia is a major exporter of energy resources for the neighboring countries, and one of the major consumers of manufactured goods in the countries of the EEUS. In this regard, it is Russia that is the determining reference point in matters of cooperation and harmonization of the various national systems of member countries. The most important direction of development of the Eurasian Economic Union is to create common markets for oil, gas, electricity and petroleum products. The geographical position allows you to create general transport routes, which can serve as a basis to accelerate economic growth in Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. Among the topical issues of the integration of significantly different structure of tax systems and the structure of the state budget, the most important is to create a unified system of taxation petrochemical complex. In this regard, it is necessary planned reform of the tax systems of all the participants in the taxation and control of subsoil users on the combined area, as well as in matters of indirect taxation of hydrocarbons. The next step is to improve the system of determining the tariffs for the transportation of various types of transport resources. High potential petrochemical complex in Russia and Kazakhstan and significant experience in the taxation of subsoil users in these countries suggests that they will have a leading role in the

  16. Utilization of shale oil as a feedstock for steam pyrolysis and petrochemical intermediate production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, P.F.; Yesavage, V.F.

    1979-09-01

    The major objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prerefining on product yields for steam pyrolysis of a shale oil feed and to determine the suitability of shale oil as a petrochemical feedstock. The results of this research program have in general been highly successful. A bench scale pyrolysis reactor was designed and constructed which was used to obtain yield data for variable operating conditions in the range typically employed commercially. Two crude shale oils were used in this study, a Tosco II shale oil as an example of above ground retorting and simulated in-situ shale oil as an example of in-situ processing. Each crude oil was processed to four different levels of prerefining: vacuum distillation and hydrogenation of the vacuum distillate at three levels of severity. A total of 112 experimental runs have been performed on the 10 shale oil samples. An initial comparison of shale oil with petroleum feedstocks indicates that yields of all major gaseous components for shale oil feedstocks are comparable with yields for petroleum fractions with the exception of ethylene. Yields of ethylene are in general considerably higher for the shale oil feedstocks than for typical petroleum feedstocks. A tendency for severely hydrogenated samples to gasify is at present the major qualification to the potential advantages of using shale oil as a petrochemical feedstock. To more fully define the sutiability of shale oil and prerefined shale oil as petrochemical feedstocks more thorough investigation of the liquid products is essential. A preliminary kinetics model was developed which consists of a reaction of feed shale oil to primary products, with subsequent reaction of these products to secondary products.

  17. Study Canada: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    The document presents the first of five units on Canada developed for classroom use in American secondary schools. This unit, an overview of Canada, offers a sequence of information sheets for students and class activity suggestions for teachers which use a comparative approach stressing an understanding of Canada from the viewpoints of both…

  18. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  19. Ignition of the Soaring Droplet Sets of Waste-Derived Coal-Water Slurry With Petrochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiullin Timur R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the ignition of droplet sets of waste-derived coal-water slurry with petrochemicals for the case of their soaring inside special combustion chamber. The fuel composition consists of filter cake of bituminous coal type G, waste turbine oil, water and plasticizer. Features of the ignition process were emphasized for groups of three soaring droplets in comparison with single droplet ignition. The ignition delay times were registered for particles that were deformed or segregated due to the interaction of initial fuel droplets with walls of the combustion chamber.

  20. Sleep quality and general health status of employees exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields in a petrochemical complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in science and technology of electrical equipment, despite increasing human welfare in everyday life, have increased the number of people exposed to Electro-Magnetic Fields (EMFs). Because of possible adverse effects on the health of exposed individuals, the EMFs have being the center of attention. This study was performed to determine possible correlation between Extremely Low Frequency Electro-Magnetic Fields (ELF EMFs) and sleep quality and public health of those working in substation units of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran. Materials and method To begin with, magnetic flux density was measured at different parts of a Control Building and two substations in accordance with IEEE std 644–1994. Subsequently, the questionnaires “Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index” (PSQI) and “General Health Quality (GHQ)” were used to investigate relationship between ELF exposure level and sleep quality and public health, respectively. Both questionnaires were placed at disposal of a total number of 40 workers at the complex. The filled out questionnaires were analyzed by T-test, Duncan and the Chi-square tests. Results The obtained results revealed that 28% of those in case group suffered from poor health status and 61% were diagnosed with a sleep disorder. However, all members in control group were in good health condition and only 4.5% of them had undesirable sleep quality. Conclusion In spite of a significant difference between the case and control groups in terms of sleep quality and general health, no significant relationship was found between the exposure level and sleep quality and general health. It is worth noting that the measured EMF values were lower than the standard limits recommended by American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). However, given the uncertainties about the pathogenic effects caused by exposure to ELF EMFs, further epidemiological studies and periodic testing of personnel working in high voltage substations

  1. 48 CFR 225.870-8 - Industrial security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial security. 225... Coordination 225.870-8 Industrial security. Industrial security for Canada shall be in accordance with the U.S.-Canada Industrial Security Agreement of March 31, 1952, as amended. ...

  2. New South Africa–Canada Research Chairs Initiative | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-08

    Dec 8, 2016 ... They build on NRF's existing South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI), as well as on the Industrial Research Chairs program, funded in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Canada Research Chairs Program (CRCP). Funded jointly by ...

  3. Job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour, employee engagement and intention to leave in a petrochemical laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonet van Schalkwyk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Engaging individuals at work plays an important role in retaining them. Job security and leadership empowerment behaviour are antecedents of employee engagement.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job insecurity, leadership empowerment behaviour (as perceived by the employees who report to leaders, employee engagement and intention to leave their jobs in a petrochemical laboratory.Motivation for the study: Knowledge of the effects of job insecurity and leadership on employee engagement and turnover intention will contribute to improved talent management.Research design, approach and method: A correlational design was used. A total of 169 employees in a petrochemical laboratory were studied. The measuring instruments included the Job Insecurity Index, the Leadership Empowerment Behaviour Questionnaire, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Two questions were used to measure intention to leave.Main findings: The results showed that job insecurity was not statistically significantly related to employee engagement and turnover intention. Leadership empowerment behaviour contributed statistically significantly to employee engagement and low turnover intention. Employee engagement partially mediated the relationship between leadership empowerment behaviour and turnover intention.Practical implications: Leaders should be developed to show empowerment behaviour, because it affects employee engagement, which in turn affects their turnover intentionContribution: This was the first study that demonstrated the effect of empowerment behaviour of leaders on the engagement and turnover intention of employees.

  4. Identifying and responding to weak signals to improve learning from experiences in high-risk industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaume, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    1. Context This thesis forms part of an extended study funded by FonCSI (Fondation pour une Culture de Sécurité Industrielle) about learning systems of major hazard companies. All French industrial sites running a risky activity – e.g. petrochemicals, steel making plants – must put a Safety

  5. Evaluation of chlorine dispersion from storage unit in a petrochemical complex to providing an emergency response program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parsarad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims  Chlorine gas is a dangerous material that is used in chemical industries. In spite of the attempts for chlorine gas release control, sudden releases still occur in the related installations. Not taking proper emergency measures after chlorine gas dispersion may result in serious harm to health of the personnel and the people residing around the industrial area. The present study considers chlorine gas dispersion scenarios, determines emergency levels and presents an optimized pattern for more effective and faster response with the least required measures for emergency conditions control.   Methods   In the present paper by using Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP and risk matrix the possible scenarios of chlorine gas dispersion in storage tanks unit of a petrochemical complex were considered. Then the intervals of these scenarios were determined with a view to Emergency Response Planning Guideline 1-2-3. With a view to the intensity of pollution extension and the population exposed to risk the scenarios were classified in the four emergency levels defined by Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS. Finally for each class of scenarios with a view to the related emergency level an optimum pattern of response plan in emergency conditions was presented.   Results  On the basis of the results of this study, chlorine gas dispersion scenario of the catastrophic explosion of the tank and scrubber system failure in the summer was classified in emergency level 4, in the winter in emergency level 3, chlorine gas dispersion due to chlorine lines rupture in the summer and winter in emergency level 3 and chlorine gas dispersion due to leakage of flanges and gaskets in emergency level 2 according to emergency levels of CCPS.  Conclusion The results of this study showed that systematic process risks analysis by use of risks recognition methods such as HAZOP and consequence analysis may have an effective role in recognition of the

  6. Alternative refining configurations and petrochemical integration in Brazil; Configuracoes alternativas de refino e integracao com petroquimica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Gabriel Lourenco [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results of alternative configurations for a new refinery in Brazil, with the objective of transforming national heavy oils into low sulfur derivatives and petrochemical products, until 2020. The hypothetical refinery proposed has a processing capacity of 10.000 t/year of Marlim heavy oil, through distillation and delayed coking units. Two base cases of conversion units were considered, one with a Fluid Catalytic Cracking - FCC, and another with a Hydro-cracking - HCC. Both cases also have several hydro-treating units to be able to achieve future fuel quality specifications in Brazil and for export. The refinery-petrochemical integration was considered through the use of a petrochemical FCC instead of a conventional FCC, and through the addition of a steam cracking and aromatics separation unit, included as an option to the 3 refinery cases: FCC, HCC, and Petro FCC. All the results were compared in terms of economic return. The best return on investment is obtained in the Petro FCC case. The FCC and HCC cases present lower and similar results for 2006 prices. However, the HCC has the advantage of producing a greater amount of middle distillates, with a higher expected demand growth in Brazil. Finally, the addition of a steam cracking unit reduces the return on investment of the hypothetical refinery for all cases using 2006 prices. However, the return of the petrochemical activity on the same period could still justify this investment, depending on the petrochemicals market evolution. With the steam cracking unit, the Petro FCC and HCC cases present similar returns using 2006 prices. (author)

  7. The effects of intellectual capital on financial performance: A case study of petrochemical and pharmaceutical firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that traditional accounting does not provide actual value of assets since they only measure tangible assets. Intellectual capital provides a new concept for measuring actual value of the assets and we can calculate future values of the firm. In this paper, we first calculate intellectual capital based on the ratio of market value/book value for three years period. Then we investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and growth rate of intellectual capital as well as financial performance of some publicly traded petrochemical and pharmaceutical firms. The results of our survey indicate that there is a positive relationship between intellectual capital and equity growth with EVA and return of assets. However, there is no meaningful relationship between intellectual assets with net earnings.

  8. A new tool for risk analysis and assessment in petrochemical plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Arkam Mechhoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was the implementation of a new automated tool dedicated to risk analysis and assessment in petrochemical plants, based on a combination of two analysis methods: HAZOP (HAZard and OPerability and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. Assessment of accident scenarios is also considered. The principal advantage of the two analysis methods is to speed-up hazard identification and risk assessment and forecast the nature and impact of such accidents. Plant parameters are analyzed under a graphical interface to facilitate the exploitation of our developed approach. This automated analysis brings out the different deviations of the operating parameters of any system in the plant. Possible causes of these deviations, their consequences and preventive actions are identified. The result is risk minimization and dependability enhancement of the considered system.

  9. Voluntary GHG reduction of industrial sectors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Tung; Hu, Allen H

    2012-08-01

    The present paper describes the voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreements of six different industrial sectors in Taiwan, as well as the fluorinated gases (F-gas) reduction agreement of the semiconductor and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industries. The operating mechanisms, GHG reduction methods, capital investment, and investment effectiveness are also discussed. A total of 182 plants participated in the voluntary energy saving and GHG reduction in six industrial sectors (iron and steel, petrochemical, cement, paper, synthetic fiber, and textile printing and dyeing), with 5.35 Mt reduction from 2004 to 2008, or 33% higher than the target goal (4.02 Mt). The reduction accounts for 1.6% annual emission or 7.8% during the 5-yr span. The petrochemical industry accounts for 49% of the reduction, followed by the cement sector (21%) and the iron and steel industry (13%). The total investment amounted to approximately USD 716 million, in which, the majority of the investment went to the modification of the manufacturing process (89%). The benefit was valued at around USD 472 million with an average payback period of 1.5 yr. Moreover, related energy saving was achieved through different approaches, e.g., via electricity (iron and steel), steam and oil consumption (petrochemical) and coal usage (cement). The cost for unit CO(2) reduction varies per industry, with the steel and iron industrial sector having the highest cost (USD 346 t(-1) CO(2)) compared with the average cost of the six industrial sectors (USD 134 t(-1) CO(2)). For the semiconductor and Thin-Film Transistor LCD industries, F-gas emissions were reduced from approximately 4.1 to about 1.7 Mt CO(2)-eq, and from 2.2 to about 1.1 Mt CO(2)-eq, respectively. Incentive mechanisms for participation in GHG reduction are also further discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Delusions of power : vanity, folly and the uncertain future of Canada`s hydro giants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skene, W.

    1997-12-31

    The current state of Canada`s power supply industry was reviewed. The author explained how Canada`s biggest electrical empires (Ontario Hydro, B.C. Hydro and Hydro-Quebec) were forged and how they have influenced not only Canada`s economic development but also how Canadians live their daily lives. He investigates how political and corporate decisions being made today will influence our future ability to have access to a reliable supply of low-cost electricity. The environmental and social costs of alternative power generation were also examined. He outlines the past behaviour of publicly owned utilities which was characterized by overspending and excessive generating capacity. These practices invited the current round of restructuring, deregulation, demonopolization and privatization. He feels that these forces are threatening to break up Canada`s publicly owned and regulated electric power system. Arguments for and against dismantling, selling off, or reorganizing the public utilities were dissected in an attempt to find answers as to how we got ourselves into the current mess. This unprecedented drive for restructuring may turn out to be an event more profound in terms of its implications for our future than the eighteenth century transition from agricultural society to an industrial society. The overall conclusion was that large public utilities, especially those relying on nuclear and fossil-fuel generation, will have to make way for renewable sources. It was predicted that new technologies will be developed that will inevitably lead to the dismantling of the large utilities over time. If we are wise enough to learn from our mistakes, publicly-owned and regulated utilities will continue to be allowed to co-exist with new entrants to provide the reliability and quality of service that competition and new competitive entrants into the field cannot provide. 112 refs.

  11. Bioethanol from lignocellulosics: Status and perspectives in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabee, W E; Saddler, J N

    2010-07-01

    Canada has invested significantly in the development of a domestic bioethanol industry, and it is expected that bioethanol from lignocellulosics will become more desirable to the industry as it expands. Development of the Canadian industry to date is described in this paper, as are examples of domestic research programs focused on both bioconversion and thermochemical conversion to generate biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. The availability of lignocellulosic residues from agricultural and forestry operations, and the potential biofuel production associated with these residues, is described. The policy tools used to develop the domestic bioethanol industry are explored. A residue-based process could greatly extend the potential of the bioethanol industry in Canada. It is estimated that bioethanol production from residual lignocellulosic feedstocks could provide up to 50% of Canada's 2006 transportation fuel demand, given ideal conversion and full access to these feedstocks. Utilizing lignocellulosic biomass will extend the geographic range of the bioethanol industry, and increase the stability and security of this sector by reducing the impact of localized disruptions in supply. Use of disturbance crops could add 9% to this figure, but not in a sustainable fashion. If pursued aggressively, energy crops ultimately could contribute bioethanol at a volume double that of Canada's gasoline consumption in 2006. This would move Canada towards greater transportation fuel independence and a larger role in the export of bioethanol to the global market. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil properties and microbial ecology of a paddy field after repeated applications of domestic and industrial sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Qingling; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The effects of repeated application of two types of sewage sludge, domestic and industrial (petrochemical, PSS) sludges, into paddy fields over a 5-year period on the soil properties and microbial ecology were studied and compared with conventional NPK fertilizer application. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents were significantly higher in the two sludge treatments than that in fertilized plots after 5 years. Soil concentrations of potentially toxic metals were low after 5 years of both sludge treatments, but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed differences between the two sludge types. Concentrations of high-molecular-weight PAHs were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the petrochemical sludge treatment than the domestic sludge treatment or the fertilizer control, although the total concentrations of 16 types of PAH in the petrochemical sludge treatment were only slightly higher than in the domestic sludge treatment and the control. The biological toxicity of soil dimethyl sulfoxide extracts from the petrochemical sludge treatment was also significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those from the fertilizer control and the domestic sludge treatment when evaluated using Photobacterium phosphoreum T3. Both types of sewage sludge increased soil microbial activity, but only the petrochemical sludge led to enrichment with specific PAH degraders such as Mycobacterium, Nocardioides, and Sphingomonas.

  13. Taking the (right?) fork in the road: Canada's two-track approach to domestic and international science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Dufour

    2002-01-01

    Canada's approach to developing a strategic capability of integrating science and technology into its international trade and foreign relations agenda has remained largely stagnant, while its domestic strategy for S&T has flowered. Canada is not perceived by the global industry and investment community to have a strong industrial R&D capacity: this may be hindering ready access to emerging international technology. Nevertheless, the quality of Canada's academic and industrial research is wide...

  14. A weighted fuzzy Petri-net based approach for security risk assessment in the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Reniers, Genserik; Zhang, Laobing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: As large amounts of hazardous chemicals are handled in the petrochemical industries, the plants in these industries are attractive for terrorists because they can cause great losses and have important social impact. Security risk assessment is important to determine the risk level of a plant in order to take targeted measures to reduce the security risk. Based on Security Risk Factor Table (SRFT) which covers the essential elements for the security risk assessment, a weighted fuzzy ...

  15. Effects of Probiotics on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Factors in Petrochemical Workers: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Jazayeri, Shima; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Solati, Zahra; Mohammadpour, Nakisa; Asemi, Zatollah; Adab, Zohre; Djalali, Mahmoud; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostafa; Eghtesadi, Shahryar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine effects of probiotic yoghurt and multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in petrochemical workers...

  16. Development of a framework for assessing organizational performance based on resilience engineering and using fuzzy AHP method- a case study of petrochemical plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Omidvar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Resilience engineering (RE, as a new approach in the system safety domain, is intended to preserve the performance of socio-technical systems in various conditions; and accentuates the positive activities instead of the failure modes. The aim of this study was to develop a new framework for safety assessment on the basis of RE, using the Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method.   Material and Method: Current study is an analytical cross-sectional survey performed in a petrochemical industry. Initially, six RE indicators were selected, including top management commitment, just culture, learning culture, awareness, flexibility and emergency preparedness and accordingly an assessment framework was established. Then, the selected RE indicators were evaluated and validated by experts in a specialized panel. Following, an indicator was proposed named “resilience early warning indicator”. Finally, the RE indicator score of the total process was determined using the fuzzy evaluating vector.    Result: Findings revealed that top management commitment and learning indicators have the most and the least effects on the RE level of the process, respectively. Besides, the flexibility (C3 indicator was located in orange early warning zone (OEWZ while other indicators were positioned in the no early warning zone (NEWZ. Furthermore, the overall resilience level of the process was evaluated as level III (NEWZ. Conclusion: Management commitment and emergency preparedness are two main indicators of RE and can carry out the most important effect for remaining the RE in the NEWZ level.

  17. The relationship between performance evaluation and motivational patterns amongst production workers within a petro-chemical company

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M. Phil. The purpose of this study was to establish if there is a difference in motivational patterns among different performance evaluation categories of process controllers within a petro-chemical company in South Africa, and what role money plays to create high levels of performance. The process controllers fall within the ambit of the Chemical Bargaining Council and therefore receive the same annual salary increments as a result of centralised bargaining. Good performance, there fore, ...

  18. Carbonaceous materials in petrochemical wastewater before and after treatment in an aerated submerged fixed-bed biofilm reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trojanowicz Karol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of the studies for determining fractions of organic contaminants in a pretreated petrochemical wastewater flowing into a pilot Aerated Submerged Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactor (ASFBBR are presented and discussed. The method of chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation consisted of physical tests and biological assays. It was found that the main part of the total COD in the petrochemical, pretreated wastewater was soluble organic substance with average value of 57.6%. The fractions of particulate and colloidal organic matter were found to be 31.8% and 10.6%, respectively. About 40% of COD in the influent was determined as readily biodegradable COD. The inert fraction of the soluble organic matter in the petrochemical wastewater constituted about 60% of the influent colloidal and soluble COD. Determination of degree of hydrolysis (DH of the colloidal fraction of COD was also included in the paper. The estimated value of DH was about 62%. Values of the assayed COD fractions were compared with the same parameters obtained for municipal wastewater by other authors.

  19. Assessing the current Brazilian sugar cane industry and directing developments for maximum fossil fuel mitigation for the international petrochemical market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The EU proposes that 5.75% of the transportation fuels market consist of biofuels by 2010 and the USA proposes that all gasoline be blended with 10% bioethanol by 2012. While these targets have not yet been reached, an aura of critique is emerging, arguing that biofuel mandates are not sustainable.

  20. Centrifugal positive displacement pumps for emergency transfer of high-viscosity petrochemical cargoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, J.B.; Hackman, D.J.; Tierney, J.M.

    1978-05-01

    Centrifugal positive displacement pumps for emergency transfer of high-viscosity petrochemical cargoes from tankers which ground or sink may require heating of the cargo to lower its viscosity before it can be pumped. Since the energy needed for heating can be much greater than that required for pumping, and because the flow rate is highly dependent on the oil temperature, the amount of heat added must be optimized. To accurately compare the pumping and heating energy inputs, both must be converted into fuel input. The actual heat input is simply divided by a 75Vertical Bar3< boiler efficiency. Assume that the pumping power comes from a diesel engine consuming 0.4 lb of fuel/bhp at 18,000 Btu/lb and that power is transmitted by an 80Vertical Bar3< efficient hydraulic transmission for an over-all conversion factor of 150 Btu/hp min. Once these conversions are made, the pumping and heating energies can be added directly to find total energy in Btu/min.

  1. Investigation on evaluation criteria of backwashing effects for a pilot-scale BAF treating petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liya; Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Zuo, Jiane; Ding, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Parameters for evaluation criteria of air-water backwashing effects of a pilot-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) treating petrochemical wastewater were investigated. The parameters included the suspended solids (SS) and specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) of the backwashing effluent, recovery of the BAF after backwashing, and the removal of the biomass/bioactivity attached on the filter media after backwashing. Results showed that the weight of the total sludge produced in the backwashing effluent increased with the increase in water-backwashing intensity, while the total SOUR of backwashing effluent rose notably with the increase of air-backwashing intensity. The optimal backwashing intensity of 14 L/(m(2)·s) for air and 4 L/(m(2)·s) for water were obtained. When the BAF was backwashed on this condition, the BAF recovered with high average removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen [Formula: see text] of 14.3% and 50.3%, respectively. High amount of biomass removal at 15.8% and low level of bioactivity removal at 8.8% attached on the filter media were also found. Concentrations of the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and (o-, m-, p-) xylenes (BTEX) and phenol in the backwashed sludge were analyzed, showing that the backwashing was essential to remove some aromatic compounds adsorbed in the microorganisms.

  2. Formation of aerobic granular sludge during the treatment of petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwé, Michel; Dobbeleers, Thomas; D'aes, Jolien; Miele, Solange; Akkermans, Veerle; Daens, Dominique; Geuens, Luc; Kiekens, Filip; Blust, Ronny; Dries, Jan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, petrochemical wastewater from the port of Antwerp was used for the development of aerobic granular sludge. Two different reactor setups were used, (1) a completely aerated sequencing batch reactor (SBRae) with a feast/famine regime and (2) a sequencing batch reactor operated with an anaerobic feast/aerobic famine strategy (SBRan). The seed sludge showed poor settling characteristics with a sludge volume index (SVI) of 285mL.gMLSS-1 and a median particle size by volume of 86.0µm±1.9µm. In both reactors, granulation was reached after 30days with a SVI of 71mL.gMLSS-1 and median granule size of 264.7µm in SBRan and a SVI of 56mL.gMLSS-1 and median granule size of 307.4µm in SBRae. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal was similar in both reactors and above 95%. The anaerobic DOC uptake increased from 0.13% to 43.2% in 60days in SBRan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Shift Work on Cognitive Performance, Sleep Quality, and Sleepiness among Petrochemical Control Room Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza

    2016-02-03

    Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using a number of objective tests, including continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); and sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. ANCOVA, t-test, and repeated-measures ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses, and the significance level was set at p cognitive performance, except for omission error, significantly decreased at the end of both day and night shifts (p sleep quality on both day and night shifts, and there were significant differences between the day and night shifts in terms of subjective sleep quality and quantity (p sleep, induced cognitive performance decline at the end of both day and night shifts, and increased sleepiness in night shift. It, thus, seems necessary to take ergonomic measures such as planning for more appropriate shift work and reducing working hours.

  4. Environmental indicators of the combustion of prospective coal water slurry containing petrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Nyashina, Galina S; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2017-09-15

    Negative environmental impact of coal combustion has been known to humankind for a fairly long time. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are considered the most dangerous anthropogenic emissions. A possible solution to this problem is replacing coal dust combustion with that of coal water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Coal processing wastes and used combustible liquids (oils, sludge, resins) are promising in terms of their economic and energy yield characteristics. However, no research has yet been conducted on the environmental indicators of fuels based on CWSP. The present work contains the findings of the research of CO, CO2, NOx, SOx emissions from the combustion of coals and CWSPs produced from coal processing waste (filter cakes). It is demonstrated for the first time that the concentrations of dangerous emissions from the combustion of CWSPs (carbon oxide and dioxide), even when combustible heavy liquid fractions are added, are not worse than those of coal. As for the concentration of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, it is significantly lower for CWSPs combustion as compared to coals. The presented research findings illustrate the prospects of the wide use of CWSPs as a fuel that is cheap and beneficial, in terms of both energy output and ecology, as compared to coal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Design issues of a reinforcement-based self-learning fuzzy controller for petrochemical process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, John; Wang, Haojin; Daugherity, Walter C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuzzy logic controllers have some often-cited advantages over conventional techniques such as PID control, including easier implementation, accommodation to natural language, and the ability to cover a wider range of operating conditions. One major obstacle that hinders the broader application of fuzzy logic controllers is the lack of a systematic way to develop and modify their rules; as a result the creation and modification of fuzzy rules often depends on trial and error or pure experimentation. One of the proposed approaches to address this issue is a self-learning fuzzy logic controller (SFLC) that uses reinforcement learning techniques to learn the desirability of states and to adjust the consequent part of its fuzzy control rules accordingly. Due to the different dynamics of the controlled processes, the performance of a self-learning fuzzy controller is highly contingent on its design. The design issue has not received sufficient attention. The issues related to the design of a SFLC for application to a petrochemical process are discussed, and its performance is compared with that of a PID and a self-tuning fuzzy logic controller.

  6. Microbial surfactant activities from a petrochemical landfarm in a humid tropical region of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, B.M.; Dias, J.C.T.; Santos, A.C.F.; Argolo-Filho, R.C.; Fontana, R.; Loguercio, L.L.; Rezende, R.P. [Univ. Estadual de Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2007-08-15

    Studies have suggested that biosurfactants can enhance the biodegradation of almost insoluble organics by increasing cell uptake availability. In this study, micro-organisms were isolated from a soil sample from a Brazilian petrochemical waste landfarm and grown in petroleum as a carbon source in order to assess their surfactant potential. Isolated colonies were inoculated into tubes, and a drop-collapse method was used to select micro-organisms with surfactant activity. Surfactant activity of the isolates was assessed when the activity was detected for the first time in each culture. The supernatant of each micro-organism was then diluted. The surfactant activity of each dilution was then observed via micelles formation. DNA was then extracted from the samples. A total of 60 microbial strains were selected. Results showed that a variety of petroleum-grown micro-organisms obtained from the landfarm soil showed surfactant activity. Results showed that the micro-organisms were able to use petroleum as a sole carbon source. The production of surfactant compounds occurred during the declining stages of microbial culture curves, which suggested that the nutritional stress achieved on the fourth day of the culture induced the synthesis and secretion of biosurfactants by the isolates. It was concluded that micro-organisms derived from soils polluted with hydrocarbons can be used in bioremediation processes. 21 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Analysis of organizational conditions for risk management: the case study of a petrochemical site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinne, Gaudart; Alain, Garrigou; Karine, Chassaing

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an ergonomic intervention in the petrochemical sector. The scheduled shutdown of one of the gas production sites has led the management to reduce the number of personnel on site, and then to get new recruits and experienced technicians from other sites as the policy for leaving personnel had not been properly planned, resulting in understaffing on site. Workers with seniority on the site, and who are also the most experienced do not accept the way newcomers are induced on site, whereas the management accuses them of resisting change. The intervention consisted in reconnecting local and corporate management through making the work activity visible and linking two sets of data that they held separately. Different types of analyses were made, work demography, decision making processes and tools used by the management, analysis of the building of career and work logics. Those different levels of analysis are gathered in macro-ergonomics, while showing the possible combinations between top down and bottom up approaches. The intervention resulted in concrete changes: HR simulation tool, training organisation, feedback.

  8. Integration of Microalgae-Based Bioenergy Production into a Petrochemical Complex: Techno-Economic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of modern society has resulted in an increased demand for energy, mainly from fossil fuels. The use of this source of energy has led to the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2 in the atmosphere. In this context, microalgae culturing may be an effective solution to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, since these microorganisms can capture CO2 and, simultaneously, produce bioenergy. This work consists of a techno-economic assessment of a microalgal production facility integrated in a petrochemical complex, in which established infrastructure allows efficient material and energy transport. Seven different scenarios were considered regarding photosynthetic, lipids extraction and anaerobic digestion efficiencies. This analysis has demonstrated six economically viable scenarios able to: (i reduce CO2 emissions from a thermoelectric power plant; (ii treat domestic wastewaters (which were used as culture medium; and (iii produce lipids and electrical and thermal energy. For a 100-ha facility, considering a photosynthetic efficiency of 3%, a lipids extraction efficiency of 75% and an anaerobic digestion efficiency of 45% (scenario 3, an economically viable process was obtained (net present value of 22.6 million euros, being effective in both CO2 removal (accounting for 1.1 × 104 t per year and energy production (annual energy produced was 1.6 × 107 kWh and annual lipids productivity was 1.9 × 103 m3.

  9. Removal of phenolic compounds from the petrochemical effluent with a methanogenic consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charest, A.; Bisaillon, J.G.; Lepine, F.; Beaudet, R. [Quebec Univ., Laval, PQ, (Canada) INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier

    1999-03-01

    A specific petrochemical effluent was treated with a methanogenic consortium enriched for its ability to degrade phenolic compounds. The aim of using a well defined consortium, rather than undefined anaerobic sludges, was an interest in isolation of the bacterium responsible for the initial transformation of phenol into benzoic acid. The effluent was determined, and the degradation of the phenol was followed while the consortium was adapted by successive transfers in serum bottles with increasing concentrations of effluent. An assessment was made of the significance of some of the culture medium components on phenol removal. A study was carried out, after developing an upflow fixed-film anaerobic bioreactor, of the degradation of the various phenolic compounds present in two different batches of the same specific chemical effluent. The toxicity of batch A effluent was reduced by a factor of 2 after being treated in in the bioreactor, which is partially due to phenol and o-cresol removal. The biofilm was still active after exposure to the more concentrated and toxic B effluent, as evidenced by the the excellent phenol removal obtained with this effluent. Gas production was observed after exposure of the biofilm to effluent B, which showed that the methanogenic bacteria was still active. While there are other more efficient biological means for treating global petroleum refinery wastewaters, the anaerobic reactor indicates a good potential for the treatment of phenolic compounds in this specific effluent for the improvement of, at low cost, an existing wastewater treatment process. 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Energy intensive industry for Alaska. Volume I: Alaskan cost factors; market factors; survey of energy-intensive industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, W.H.; Clement, M.; Baker, E.G.; Elliot, D.C.; Jacobsen, J.J.; Powers, T.B.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The Alaskan and product market factors influencing industry locations in the state are discussed and a survey of the most energy intensive industries was made. Factors external to Alaska that would influence development and the cost of energy and labor in Alaska are analyzed. Industries that are likely to be drawn to Alaska because of its energy resources are analyzed in terms of: the cost of using Alaska energy resources in Alaska as opposed to the Lower 48; skill-adjusted wage and salary differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48; and basic plant and equipment and other operating cost differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48. Screening and evaluation of the aluminum metal industry, cement industry, chlor-alkali industry, lime industry, production of methanol from coal, petroleum refining, and production of petrochemicals and agrichemicals from North Slope natural gas for development are made.

  11. Comparing Non-Steady State Emissions under Start-Up and Shut-Down Operating Conditions with Steady State Emissions for Several Industrial Sectors: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Juwairia Obaid; Ashraf Ramadan; Ali Elkamel; William Anderson

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study investigated multiple facilities worldwide for each of these industrial categories. The different potential contaminants characteri...

  12. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  13. Uranium industry annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  14. Canadian synthetic resins industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margeson, J. [Industry Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The growth of the synthetic resin industry in Canada is described. In 1999 the industry had shipments totalling $6.3 billion and employed about 9,000 people in 105 establishments. The industry is concentrated in Alberta, Ontario and Quebec. Plants in Alberta produce commodity-grade thermoplastic resins from raw materials derived mainly from natural gas, whereas plants in Ontario and Quebec produce both thermoplastic and thermoset resins using raw materials derived from both crude oil and natural gas. Sixty-four per cent of the synthetic reins produced in Canada, worth about $4.1 billion, are exported. This is offset by imports of 68 per cent of domestic consumption, (valued at $5.0 billion) reflecting rationalization and specialization of the resin industry on a continental basis. Process and product technologies used in Canada are up-to-date and licensed from parent or other foreign chemical companies. Capital investment in the Canadian resin industry is lagging behind investment in the United States, however, this is expected to change once the impact of recent investments in the industry in Alberta is reflected in the statistics. A five to seven per cent real average annual growth in world-wide consumption is predicted over the next five years. Growth in North America is projected to be in the three to four per cent range. The Alberta-based component of the industry, being relatively new, is expected to improve its ability to compete globally in commodity thermoplastics. In contrast, the plants in Ontario and Quebec suffer from the fact that they were built prior to the Free Trade Agreement and were designed to satisfy domestic requirements. They are attempting to compensate for their lack of economics of scale by developing strategies to supply niche products. 8 figs.

  15. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... ​This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system. Published by the Centre for International Governance Innovation, Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

  16. Anaerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol in petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, Mohammad; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat

    2012-09-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was used to evaluate treatment of a synthetic substrate mixture representing petrochemical wastewater containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethanol and acetic acid. Influent MTBE concentrations were 5, 10 and 50 mg/l (corresponding to MTBE loading rates of 0.2, 0.4 and 2 mg/l.d) with overall organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.51, 3.23 and 3.25 g COD/1.d, respectively. These OLRs resulted in removal efficiencies for MTBE of 78%, 98% and 88%. Removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand were 85% and 90% with influent MTBE concentrations of 5 and 10mg/l, but were significantly reduced to 72% with influent MTBE concentrations of 50mg/l. During all reactor runs, effluent concentrations oftert-butyl alcohol (TBA) were below the detection limit. Batch degradation of the organic substrate mixture demonstrated initial inhibitory effects when exposed to MTBE concentrations of 50 mg/l and complete inhibition with MTBE concentrations above 2000 mg/l. It is interesting to note that in batch tests using MTBE as the sole organic substrate (initial MTBE concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/l), the specific methanogenic activity decreased to below detection within the first 96 hours, but following a 72-hour lag phase the methane production increased again. Based on low volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, disappearance of TBA peaks and no findings of any other intermediate via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the MTBE concentration is still high, it can be suggested that during the batch tests the breakdown of gas production and the following lag phase were the direct effect of higher MTBE concentrations (more than 50 mg/l) and not because of the TBA or VFA accumulations.

  17. In-plant noise as occupational risk factor at petrochemical plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Volgareva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the data obtained in long-term research on working conditions estimates and studying damages to hearing organs in workers employed at petrochemical plants. We chose workers employed at five basic organic synthesis productions as an object of our study; these productions include ethylene-propylene, ethylbenzene-styrene, organic alcohols production (butanol and 2-ethylhexanol, phthalic anhydride. We detected that heating furnaces, compressors, and pumps were the main noise sources at the examined productions. Our research revealed that noise levels at the examined productions varied from 60 to 99 decibel, and calculated equivalent noise levels reached the 3 hazard class with 1st and 2nd hazard degree. Audiometric research showed that signs of impacts exerted by noise on hearing organs of workers belonging to basic occupational groups (processing machine operators and pumps and compressor operators occurred authentically more frequently than in case of control equipment mechanics and automatic equipment operators (comparison group (<0,001. The highest risk of occupational hearing loss was detected for drivers while the same pathology evolved 1.5–2.0 times less frequently in processing machines operators. Frequency of hearing organs damage in all basic occupational groups authentically increased as working period grew. Signs of such damage increased dramatically in processing machines operators' group after 10 years of work but still the overall level was slightly lower than in drivers' group. It is shown that the most efficient measures of collective protection aimed at noise reduction are application of low-noise technological equipment, acoustic protection (sound insulation and sound absorption, etc, remote control, as well as rational labor and leisure regime. Medical care and vocational rehabilitation of people with occupational hearing loss also contribute significantly into sensory deafness prevention.

  18. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch

    2001-07-01

    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  19. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  20. Suicide in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    1998-01-01

    ... provides long-awaited information that focuses specifically on Canada. It addresses suicide as a multidimensional problem with biological, psychological, cultural, sociological, personal, and philosophical aspects. The contributions integrate both critical analysis and personal experience. There are accounts from Inuit elders, fr...

  1. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  2. Acid precipitation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. W. Summers; D. M. Whelpdale

    1976-01-01

    The total annual emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in Canada are estimated to be 7.2 x 106 tons and 1.4 x 106 tons, respectively. These figures represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the estimated worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Nearly two-thirds of the Canadian SO2 emissions come from...

  3. A case study on failure of AISI 347H stabilized stainless steel pipe in a petrochemical plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghalambaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study failure of AISI 347 stabilized stainless steel pipe after 60,000 of working in a petrochemical plant was investigated. Result showed that the main cause of failure was thermal stress fatigue. Fatigue cracks were formed at the outer surface of the investigated pipe, and were grown towards the inner surface at the fusion line of welded area. The formation of chromium-rich phases together with thermal fatigue stresses were found to be main causes of failure.

  4. System for alarms analysis and optimization in petrochemicals plants; Sistema para analise e otimizacao de alarmes em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Gustavo; Pifer, Aderson; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Saito, Kaku; Aquino, Leonardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents a group of algorithms, techniques and functionalities on alarms management which can be used efficiently on the treatment of 'disturbances' caused by the informal management of the alarm systems. Among the disturbances handled by these techniques, there is the recognition of intermittent alarms and false alarms, location of alarm floods and correlation between alarms, aiming the identification of communal root causes. The results will be presented through a case study on petrochemical alarm plants. At last, the results obtained by the utilization of such functionalities will be presented and discussed. (author)

  5. Going beyond Language: Soft Skill-ing Cultural Difference and Immigrant Integration in Toronto, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Kori

    2016-01-01

    This article traces how a language and soft skills training approach to Canadian immigrant integration emerged with Canada's shift towards a post-industrial tertiary economy. In this economy, soft skills index characteristics of ideal workers that fit the needs of Canada's post-Fordist labour regime. It examines how skills' training is not viewed…

  6. Canada's Post-war Manufacturing Performance : A Comparison with the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Gjalt

    1996-01-01

    This study uses the ‘industry of origin’ approach to calculate 200 unit value ratios for the benchmark year 1987 which are used to convert the output value in Canada and the United States into a common currency.In 1987, Canada's comparative labor productivity was 77.4 per cent, measured in persons

  7. A Review of Industrial Heat Exchange Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junjie

    2018-01-01

    Heat exchanger is an energy exchange equipment, it transfers the heat from a working medium to another working medium, which has been wildly used in petrochemical industry, HVAC refrigeration, aerospace and so many other fields. The optimal design and efficient operation of the heat exchanger and heat transfer network are of great significance to the process industry to realize energy conservation, production cost reduction and energy consumption reduction. In this paper, the optimization of heat exchanger, optimal algorithm and heat exchanger optimization with different objective functions are discussed. Then, optimization of the heat exchanger and the heat exchanger network considering different conditions are compared and analysed. Finally, all the problems discussed are summarized and foresights are proposed.

  8. Petrochemical variation of Topopah Spring tuff matrix with depth (stratigraphic level), drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, F.M. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    This study describes and interprets petrochemical variation of the matrix (excluding fractures and large gas cavities) of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This tuff includes the candidate host rock for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. Cored hole USW G-4, near the site of a potential exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, penetrated 359.4 m (1179 ft) of the member within the unsaturated zone. This study shows that petrographic textures and chemistry of the matrix vary systematically within recognizable lithologic subunits related to crystallization (cooling) zones, welding (compaction) zones, and compositional zones (rhyolite versus quartz latite). The methods used for this study include petrographic modal thin section analysis using an automated counter and electron microprobe analysis of the groundmass. Distinctive textural categories are defined, and they can be ranked from finest to coarsest as vitrophyre (glass), cryptocrystalline groundmass, spherulites, granophyre, lithic fragments, and phenocrysts. The two main groundmass compositions are also defined: rhyolite high silica) and quartz latite. The value of these petrochemical studies lies in providing microscopic criteria for recognizing the zonal subunits where they may have greatly limited exposure, as in mined drifts and in core from horizontal drill holes. For example, the lower nonlithophysal zone can be distinguished microscopically from the middle nonlithophysal zone by (1) degree of compaction, (2) amount of quartz, and (3) amount of lithic fragments. The variability between these textural categories should also be considered in designing physical and chemical tests of the Topopah Spring.

  9. Long-term environmental monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and metals in a chemical/petrochemical area: human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2011-07-01

    Organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as some metals are periodically monitored in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona County (Spain). We here report the temporal trends of the concentrations of the above pollutants between the initial survey (2002) and that recently (2009) performed. The area under evaluation was divided into 4 sections (chemical, petrochemical, urban/residential and unpolluted). In general terms, urban soils presented the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCNs and PAHs, confirming that traffic is a very important emission source of these pollutants. In addition, substantially higher levels of PAHs and some metals were found in vegetation samples from the petrochemical complex. The assessment of health risks of these contaminants indicated that the current concentrations of micropollutants did not mean additional non-carcinogenic or cancer risks for the population living in the zone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Midwifery education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle M; Hutton, Eileen K; McNiven, Patricia S

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a special series on midwifery education and describes the approach to midwifery education in Canada We begin with an overview of the model of midwifery practice introduced in Canada in the 1990s. We describe the model of midwifery education developed and report how it is implemented, with particular attention to the two longest established programs. Midwifery education programs in Ontario and British Columbia. Midwifery education programs in Canada are offered at the undergraduate baccalaureate level at universities and are typically four years in length. Programs are competence-based and follow a spiral curriculum. The first semesters focus on on core sciences, social sciences and introduction to midwifery concepts. Students spend fifty percent of the program in clinical practices with community-based midwives. Innovative education models enable students to be placed in distant placements and help to align theoretical and practice components. Clinically active faculty adds to the credibility of teaching but bring its own challenges for midwifery educators. The Canadian model of midwifery education has been very effective with low attrition rates and high demand for the number of places available. Further program expansion is warranted but is contingent on the growth of clinical placements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. All projects related to Canada | Page 11 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SOUTHEAST ASIA, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, EPIDEMICS, TERRORISM, DISASTER PREVENTION. Region: South Asia, Far East Asia, Canada, Thailand. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 335,000.00. Building Human Resource Capacity in Uruguay's Extractive Industry. Project. Properly ...

  12. All projects related to Canada | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SMALL FARMS, MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRY, Evaluation, CANADA, EAST AFRICA. Region: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, ... Total Funding: CA$ 1,025,419.00. Youth employment to reduce violence in Central America ... Topic: VIOLENCE, EMPLOYMENT CREATION, YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT. Region: Costa Rica, El ...

  13. Canada : tous les projets | Page 8 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, WOMEN, SMALL SCALE INDUSTRY, AFRICA, ECONOMIC GROWTH, EMPOWERMENT, ARTISINAL AND SMALL SCALE GOLD MINING (ASGM). Région: Rwanda, Canada, United Kingdom. Programme: Croissance de l'économie et débouchés économiques des femmes.

  14. Canada Among Nations 2013, Canada-Africa Relations: Looking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    19 août 2013 ... Depuis 1984, la collection Canada Among Nations invite d'éminents chercheurs et praticiens du Canada et de l'étranger à évaluer ensemble la politique étrangère du Canada. Préparé par la Norman Paterson School of International Affairs (NPSIA) de l'Université Carleton, le numéro de 2013 est le premier ...

  15. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  16. Auxiliaries for the textile industry and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda VISAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is an industrial field that affects the environment, from the plant growth until the production process. The obtaining of environmental licence for Romanian companies that produce textile products is related to elaboration and implementation of a modern system for an environmental management, that consist in utilization of ecological technologies for finishing, in diminution the water and energy consumption, cleaning of waste waters, reutilization of cleaned waters, sustainable management of wastes. In this study, the surfactant categories used in the textile industry that fulfil the conditions of environment protection, are presented. Some exemplifications were made involving the existing surfactants in Romanian textile industry, obtained from both domestic and external production. Also, some recommendation are suggested regarding the utilization of surfactants manufactured from either vegetal oils or chemical/petrochemical wastes, with similar properties as those from import having decreased prices an that affect as small as possible the environment.

  17. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Canada's space program, 1958 1989: A program without an agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainor, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Canada's space program began in 1958 with the work that led to the launch of Canada's first satellite, Alouette 1, in 1962. In 1967, two major reports on Canadian space research efforts called for a Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The Canadian government declined to set up an agency but chose instead in 1969 to establish an interdepartmental committee to coordinate Canada's space efforts. The CSA finally began operations on March 1, 1989. This paper will look at government documents, reports and statements about Canadian space efforts during this time to trace the efforts to establish a CSA. This paper will also examine the creation of the Interdepartmental Committee on Space in 1969. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Canadian government focused on satellites as a communications tool and as a means of encouraging high technology industry in Canada. After joining the US space shuttle program in the 1970s, Canada was invited in the 1980s to send astronauts into space and take part in the US space station program. Although the committee structure was awkward and inconvenient, Canada's space efforts during that time saw a high degree of political and economic success.

  19. Canada's population is aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jennifer; Samis, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Canada's population is aging, and the authors of this issue's lead article, Neena Chappell and Marcus Hollander, present a policy prescription for how to design a healthcare system that better responds to needs of older Canadians. The timing of this issue of Healthcare Papers is important: the first of the baby boomers turned 65 in January 2011. There is a pressing need to develop policies and implement sustainable reforms that will allow older adults to stay healthier and maintain their independence longer in their place of choice, while also creating efficiencies and quality improvements in our overall healthcare system that will benefit Canadians of all ages.

  20. Caribbean immigrants in Britain and Canada: socio-economic adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A H

    1988-12-01

    This paper compares the socioeconomic experiences of Caribbean immigration in Britain and Canada and shows how differing immigration trends together with changing economic circumstances influenced the process of integration. Caribbean immigrants in Canada are more recent arrivals than those in Britain and, in 1981, were still experiencing initial adjustment problems aggravated by an economy in which unemployment is still high. Unlike Britain, which has a large population born in that country of West Indian parentage, the "2nd generation" in Canada is small and mostly still in school. Despite higher levels of education and qualifications than their counterparts in Britain, Caribbean immigrants in Canada faced similar problems. Males were relatively more concentrated in manufacturing industries in Canada and in transportation in Britain, sectors which were undergoing significant structural change and experiencing high levels of unemployment. Earned income was below average in both countries but there were interesting gender differences. Caribbean women experienced the same "earnings gap", relative to men, that characterized most women in the labor force. However, Caribbean women were relatively more successful than men, as measured by unemployment rates and earned incomes. This appears to be due to their qualifications in nursing and other service occupations that continued to expand, and to be in demand in the 1970s and 1980s, when other occupations were declining in response to technological change and "post-industrial" developments. In both countries there were residual disadvantages, faced by Caribbean men and women, which cannot be statistically explained by factors such as age, education, period of immigration, or structural changes in the economy. These can be attributed, at least in part, to the institutionalized prejudice and discrimination against racial minorities which is prevalent in both societies. In absolute terms Caribbean immigrants in Canada are

  1. Developing Closer Ties with the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor; Hoddinott, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The need for research administrators to understand and appreciate the pharmaceutical industry's research and development environment is discussed, using examples from Canada. The research administrator's role in the technology transfer process and implications for faculty are examined. Ways to build closer school-industry ties are discussed. (MSE)

  2. Radiation Protection in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, P. M.

    1964-01-01

    The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the last of a three-part series. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. A radioactive fallout study program has been established involving the systematic collection of air and precipitation samples from 24 locations, soil samples from 23 locations, fresh-milk samples from 16 locations, wheat samples from nine areas and human-bone specimens from various hospitals throughout Canada. A whole-body-counting facility and a special study of fallout in Northern areas have also been initiated. For any age group, the highest average strontium-90 concentration in human bone so far reported has been less than four picocuries per gram of calcium compared with the maximum permissible level of 67 derived from the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations. By the end of 1963 a general downward trend of levels of radioactivity detected in other parts of the program has been observed. Programs to assess the contribution to the radiation exposure of members of the population from medical x-rays, nuclear reactor operations and natural background-radiation sources have also been described. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in Canadian public hospitals has been estimated to be 25.8 mrem. Results from the reactor-environment monitoring programs have not suggested the presence of radioactivity beyond that contributed from fallout. PMID:14143681

  3. Impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition in western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of transportation sectors (road vehicles and marine vessels, industry (e.g., oil and gas and urban centres in western Canada has triggered a growth in research, monitoring and modelling activities investigating the impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This special issue presents an overview of related research in British Columbia (Georgia Basin, Alberta (Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The research provides a valuable benchmark for future studies across the region and points the way forward for 'acid rain' policies in western Canada.

  4. Chlorinated solvents in a petrochemical wastewater treatment plant: an assessment of their removal using self-organising maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-05-01

    The self-organising map approach was used to assess the efficiency of chlorinated solvent removal from petrochemical wastewater in a refinery wastewater treatment plant. Chlorinated solvents and inorganic anions (11 variables) were determined in 72 wastewater samples, collected from three different purification streams. The classification of variables identified technical solvents, brine from oil desalting and runoff sulphates as pollution sources in the refinery, affecting the quality of wastewater treatment plant influent. The classification of samples revealed the formation of five clusters: the first three clusters contained samples collected from the drainage water, process water and oiled rainwater treatment streams. The fourth cluster consisted mainly of samples collected after biological treatment, and the fifth one of samples collected after an unusual event. SOM analysis showed that the biological treatment step significantly reduced concentrations of chlorinated solvents in wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of fractional control techniques in petrochemical process; Aplicacao de tecnicas de controle fracionario para processos petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isfer, Luis A.D.; Lenzi, Marcelo K. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lenzi, Ervin K. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work deals with the study of petrochemical process modeling and control using fractional differential equations. This kind of equation has been successfully used in modeling/identification, due to its powerful phenomenological description capability, generalizing conventional/classical models commonly used. Experimental data from literature were used for process identification and the mathematical model obtained, based on fractional differential equations, was the study of servo closed-loop control. Owing to its simplicity, the proportional type controller was used for this task, being able to control the process, keeping its stability, despite off-set. Different controller gains were used for simulation purposes, indicating that the higher the value of K{sub c}, the lower the off-set. (author)

  6. Performance and microbial community dynamics of electricity-assisted sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of saline petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaxin; Shi, Shengnan; Ji, Xiangyu; Jiang, Bei; Xue, Lanlan; Li, Meidi; Tan, Liang

    2017-07-01

    High-salinity wastewater is often difficult to treat by common biological technologies due to salinity stress on the bacterial community. Electricity-assisted anaerobic technologies have significantly enhanced the treatment performance by alleviating the impact of salinity stress on the bacterial community, but electricity-assisted aerobic technologies have less been reported. Herein, a novel bio-electrochemistry system has been designed and operated in which a pair of stainless iron mesh-graphite plate electrodes were installed into a sequencing batch reactor (SBR, designated as S1) to strengthen the performance of saline petrochemical wastewater under aerobic conditions. The removal efficiency of phenol and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in S1 were 94.1 and 91.2%, respectively, on day 45, which was clearly higher than the removal efficiency of a single SBR (S2) and an electrochemical reactor (S3), indicating that a coupling effect existed between the electrochemical process and biodegradation. A certain amount of salinity (≤8000 mg/L) could enhance the treatment performance in S1 but weaken that in S2. Illumina sequencing revealed that microbial communities in S1 on days 45 and 91 were richer and more diverse than in S2, which suggests that electrical stimulation could enhance the diversity and richness of the microbial community, and reduce the negative effect of salinity on the microorganisms and enrich some salt-adapted microorganisms, thus improve the ability of S1 to respond to salinity stress. This novel bio-electrochemistry system was shown to be an alternative technology for the high saline petrochemical wastewater.

  7. Robust flow-batch coulometric/biamperometric titration system: determination of bromine index and bromine number of petrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Celio; de Aquino, Emerson Vidal; das Virgens Reboucas, Marcio; Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri

    2007-09-26

    A flow-batch system was constructed and evaluated to perform coulometric titrations with biamperometric end point detection. The flow section of the system is employed for sampling by injecting a sample volume (50-300 microL) in a flow injection-like system. About 1.5 mL of a suitable carrier solution is delivered by a peristaltic pump in order to quantitatively transfer the sample to the system titration cell (2.0 mL total inner volume). The carrier contains the coulometric precursor for the titrant species. The cell contains two pairs of platinum electrodes used for coulometric generation of reagent and biamperometric detection and is actively stirred. The titrant species is generated and the titration is performed by the usual batch procedure with the excess of titrant being detected by biamperometry following the analysis of the titration curve. System operation is computer controlled and all operations are automated, including titration curve analysis and cell cleaning after the titration is ended. The system is characterized by its robustness because its operation does not depend on flow rates, and the work using coulometric methods which generate gases at the counter-electrode is not troublesome. The flow-batch system has been evaluated for determination of bromine index and bromine number (relative to the total reactive olefin content) in petrochemicals according to an ASTM procedure. Typical precision (R.S.D.) is between 0.5 and 6% for different petrochemicals whose bromine number/index vary from 1000 to 10mg of bromine per 100g of sample, respectively. Recoveries for standard additions are between 92 and 123% for 10mg of Br(2) per 100g increments and 98 to 101% for 100mg per 100g increments. Accuracy of the proposed system was evaluated against results obtained by the standard ASTM with no significant difference detected at 95% confidence level.

  8. Óleo da castanha de caju: oportunidades e desafios no contexto do desenvolvimento e sustentabilidade industrial Cashew nut oil: opportunities and challenges in the context of sustainable industrial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Elaine Mazzetto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The new millennium is marked by a growing search for renewable fuels and alternative raw materials from biomass in the petrochemicals industry. However, there are many challenges to overcome regarding technological and human resources aspects. In this scenario, cashew nut oil, which is rich in natural phenols, is considered to be very promising for the development of synthetic and functional products and as a feedstock for production of fine chemicals and a wide variety of new materials.

  9. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  10. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    61 Access to Medicines ...and Mexico . Canada claims the rule is a non-tariff barrier that has led to a steep drop in beef and hog shipments to U.S. processors...concern about trade in pirated and counterfeit goods in Canada, as well as weak enforcement and relatively lax penalties

  11. Fuzzy process control and knowledge engineering in petrochemical and robotic manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, R. (Azerbaijan Industrial Univ., Dept. of Automatic Control Systems, Baku (Russia)); Aliev, F. (Azerbaijan Polytechnique Institute, Dept. of Automation and Computer Science, Baku (Russia)); Babaev, M. (Azerbaijan Industrial Univ., Laboratory of Intelligent Control Systems, Baku (Russia))

    1991-01-01

    This book presents the methodology, the functionality and the pragmatics of implementing and applying AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques enhanced by the new mathematical discipline of fuzzy sets. Emphasis is put on the design and modelling of fuzzy controllers and intelligent control equipment for the oil processing and chemical industries, as well as on robotics and CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing), including the development of appropriate algorithms and computer programs. The content is strongly application-oriented in order to explain the main features of the theory of fuzzy systems using different real examples from concrete engineering projects. It excels over the present literature available on this subject by its descriptions new classes of industrial systems to be controlled with fuzzy logic, as well as by its descriptive introduction to intelligent control systems and fuzzy controllers developed and successfully implemented by the authors in working industrial plants. (orig.).

  12. Changes in Tree Ring Width and Density of Pinus thunbergii Growing in the Vicinity of Industrial Complex in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Kab, Kim; Kazumi, Fukazawa; Department of Forestry, Gyeongsang National University; Department of Forest Science Hokkaido University

    1997-01-01

    There has been a decline in tree growth since the operation of factories at Pinus thunbergii forests around a petrochemical industrial complex in Korea. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of air pollution on tree ring width and ring density of Pinus thunbergii. Soft X-ray densitometrical method was used. Decline of ring width was the highest during 3 years immediately after the operation of factories. The percentage of decrease was almost bigger immediately after operation ...

  13. Kent and Riegel's Handbook of industrial chemistry and biotechnology. 11th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, James A. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    This handbook provides extensive information on plastics, rubber, adhesives, textile fibers, pharmaceutical chemistry, synthetic organic chemicals, soaps and detergents, as well as various other major classes of industrial chemistry. There is detailed coverage of coal utilization technology, dyes and dye intermediates, chlor-alkali and heavy chemicals, paints and pigments, chemical explosives, propellants, petroleum and petrochemicals, natural gas, industrial gases, synthetic nitrogen products, fats and oils, sulfur and sulfuric acid, phosphorous and phosphates, wood products, and sweeteners. The chapter on coal is entitled: coal technology for power, liquid fuels and chemicals. 100 ills.

  14. Petroleum industry in China: its planning in the development of energy resources; a bibliography with selective annotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The bibliography provides 228 references that can be used to understand the development of China's energy resources and its future implications. Primary and secondary sources in Chinese, English, and Japanese including reference works, monographs, articles, and documents are listed and annotated selectively. The subject area has been divided between the petroleum industry and the petrochemical industry. Petroleum industry in Nationalist China (Taiwan) has been integrated into the general context. Foreign language materials are listed separately and arranged according to English romanization.

  15. The effects of effluents from the Canadian plastics industry on aquatic organisms: a literature review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunka, D.L

    1974-01-01

    This literature review describes the extent of the plastics industry in Canada, presents a summary of processes in plastics and discusses characteristics of plastic industrial effluents and waste treatments...

  16. Status and trends : profile of structural panels in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Spelter; David McKeever; Matthew Alderman

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the North American (United States and Canada) structural panel industry, which consists of softwood plywood and oriented strandboard (OSB). The paper describes the evolution of overall capacities, effective capacity utilization, and manufacturing costs. As part of that, it describes changes in industry operating parameters such as...

  17. Monitoring of meteorology and air quality at influence area of COMPERJ (Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex); Monitoramento meteorologico e da qualidade do ar na regiao de influencia do COMPERJ (Complexo Petroquimico do Rio de Janeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Edler Lins de; Villa, Felipe de Santana; Lyra, Diogenes Ganghis Pimentel de [CETREL-LUMINA Solucoes Ambientais, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Secron, Marcelo; Iorio, Patricia Freire; Mendes, Marcos Faistauer [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Rio de Janeiro Petrochemical Complex (COMPERJ) will be installed in the north region of Itaborai city. The start of COMPERJ operations is foreseen to 2012. Because of the intensification of industrialization and urbanization processes, the implantation of COMPERJ will bring environmental modifications for Itaborai city and neighbors areas. Thus, meteorological and air quality monitoring was initiated in February of 2007 with the intention of carrying out a characterization of air pollution in this area, before COMPERJ operations. In this work are presented the results found in campaigns performed of February of 2007 until April of 2008. The meteorological monitoring disclosed that the meteorological parameters have varied enough throughout the months, but these are representative of a global behavior of the studied area. Monitoring of air quality has shown that atmospheric levels of monitored pollutants has been generally below of Brazilian air quality standards. This fact corroborates the basic aspect of the present study: identification of the concentrations 'background' in the studied area. Throughout the period of monitoring, the primary air quality standard for ozone has been reached. Observations of meteorological parameters indicate that this fact is associated to the emissions originated from Sao Goncalo, Niteroi and Rio de Janeiro cities. (author)

  18. Characterization of co-digestion of industrial sludges for biogas production by artificial neural network and statistical regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Biswanath; Zafar, Mohd; Park, Hung-Suck

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics and impact of industrial sludges of paper, chemical, petrochemical, automobile, and food industries situated in the Ulsan Industrial Complex, Ulsan, Republic of Korea in co-digestion for biogas production were assessed by artificial neural network (ANN) and statistical regression models. The regression model was based on a simplex-centroid mixture design and the ANN was based on a resilient back-propagation algorithm (topology 5-7-1). Using connection weights and bias of the trained ANN model, the impact of each sludge of co-digestion was assessed using Garsons' algorithm. Results suggested that the modelling and predictability of ANN were superior to the regression model with accuracy (A(f)) 1.01, bias (B(f)) 1.00, root mean square error 3.56, and standard error of prediction 2.51%. Sludge from the chemical industry showed the highest impact on specific methane yield (SMY(VS)) with a relative importance of 28.59% followed by sludges from paper (20.07%), food (19.59%), petrochemical (15.92%), and automobile (15.82%) industries. The interactions between diverse industrial sludges were successfully modelled and partitioned into various synergistic and antagonistic effects on SMY(VS). Synergistic interactions between the chemical industry sludge and either petrochemical or food industry sludges on SMY(VS) were detected. However, strong negative interaction between automobile sludge and other sludges was observed. This study indicates that though the ANN model performed better in prediction and impact assessments, the regression model reveals the synergistic and antagonistic interactions among sludges.

  19. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    stopped, in traversing the two countries’ 5,500- mile border. About 70% of U.S.-Canada merchandise trade crosses the border by truck; many of these...concern about trade in pirated and counterfeit goods in Canada, as well as weak enforcement and relatively lax penalties...pirated and counterfeit goods by customs agents without a court order. The government introduced a new Copyright Modernization Act (C-32) in June 2010

  20. Canada and the green economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuszewski, Judy; Crowther, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has a complex relationship with the global efforts to move to a green economy. Its policymakers and business leaders need to balance the country’s vast natural resources and the economic growth that they can foster, with the need to develop in a low-carbon, resource-efficient and socially inclusive manner. This report explores what the green economy means to Canada, with a particular focus on Canadian companies and the accountancy profession. Publisher PDF

  1. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Hunt, Andrew J; Sherwood, James

    2015-07-28

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  2. Co-evaluation of plant extracts as petrochemical substitutes and for biologically active compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McChesney, J.D.; Adams, R.P.

    Recent efforts to discover phytochemicals that could substitute for petroleum-derived fuels and industrial feedstocks have not given much attention to the potential of these same phytochemicals to provide sources of biologically active compounds. The suitability of extraction products made to assess specific plants as potential botanochemical sources has been evaluated for use in screening procedures for evidence of biologically active compounds. Screening procedures for antibacterial, antifungal and toxic properties are discussed. Screening results are presented for extracts of nearly 80 species of plants from the southeastern United States and southern Great Plains that had previously been evaluated as sources of botanochemicals.

  3. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H.; Farmer, Thomas J.; Hunt, Andrew J.; Sherwood, James

    2015-01-01

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents. PMID:26225963

  4. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Changyong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhou, Yuexi, E-mail: zhouyuexi@263.net [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Sun, Qingliang [School of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Fu, Liya [Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yu, Ruozhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process can be used to treat petrochemical wastewater. • The toxicity and treatability changed significantly after hydrolysis acidification. • The type and concentration of organics reduced greatly after treatment. • The effluent shows low acute toxicity by luminescent bacteria assay. • Advanced treatment is recommended for the effluent. - Abstract: A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic–oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m{sup 3} h{sup −1}) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD{sub 5}/COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L{sup −1} for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L{sup −1} for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L{sup −1} on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L{sup −1}. There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  5. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  6. One Step In-Situ Formed Magnetic Chitosan Nanoparticles as an Efficient Sorbent for Removal of Mercury Ions From Petrochemical Waste Water: Batch and Column Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In the recent years, mercury contamination has attracted great deal of attention due to its serious environmental threat. Objectives The main goal of this study was application of one-step synthesized magnetic (magnetite chitosan nanoparticles (MCNs in the removal of mercury ions from petrochemical waste water. Materials and Methods This study was performed in batch and column modes. Effects of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature and agitation speed for the removal of mercury ions by MCNs investigated in batch mode. Afterwards, optimum conditions were exploited in column mode. Different kinetic models were also studied. Results An effective Hg (II removal (99.8% was obtained at pH 6, with 50 mg of MCNs for an initial concentration of this ion in petrochemical waste water (5.63 mg L-1 and 10 minutes agitation of the solution. The adsorption kinetic data was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order model. Conclusions Experimental results showed that MCNs is an excellent sorbent for removal of mercury ions from petrochemical waste water. In addition, highly complex matrix of this waste does not affect the adsorption capability of MCNs.

  7. Preliminary assessment of Miramar Petrochemical Harbor as PAH source to Guajará bay (Belém-PA-Brazil surface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana do Socorro Veloso Sodré

    Full Text Available Abstract A preliminary study on a petrochemical harbor as a potential source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH to surface sediments of Guajará bay, located in Belém City, Pará State, Brazil, over the last 10 years is presented here. The 16 priority USEPA PAH were identified and quantified. Surface sediment samples, collected at 5 sites in the bay, near Miramar Petrochemical Harbor (TEMIR, were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Total PAH concentration ranged from 533.0 to 3123.3 ng g-1 dry weight with a mean concentration of 1091.9 ng g-1. The most contaminated places were those where muddy sediments were found with highest concentrations of organic matter. The priority PAH with low molecular weight represented 54.4% of the total abundance and indicate that the main source of contamination of the sediments was petrogenic, indicative of the relevant contribution of the petrochemical harbor activity to the input of PAH to Guajará bay. However, pyrolytic PAH coming from fuel combustion, household waste combustion and untreated sewage discharge are also potential contamination sources to this environment.

  8. Technology Adoption: A Comparison Between Canada and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, John R.; Sabourin, David

    1999-01-01

    This study examines differences in technology use in Canada as opposed to the United States as well as reasons for these differences. It examines different aspects of technology use-numbers of technologies used, types of technologies used, as well as regional, size and industry variations in their use. It then investigates differences in benefits that plant managers perceive stem from advanced technology use and differences in the factors that managers assess as impediments. While managers in...

  9. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  10. Canada-China Conference on advanced reactor development (CCCARD-2014). Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Canada-China Conference on Advanced Reactor Development (CCCARD-2014) was held on April 27-30, 2014 in Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. About 80 engaged registrants attended the conference, which provided a direct link between Canada and China in Advanced Reactor Development helping to establish bridges between utilities, industries, research organizations and academic institutions from the two countries. The four-day conference was created to provide a forum to discuss advances and issues, share information and promote future collaborations on advanced nuclear reactor development. The technical sessions focussed on: Reactor Designs; Materials, Chemistry and Corrosion; Thermal hydraulics and Safety Design; Reactor Physics and Fuel. (author)

  11. Soil radionuclide concentrations and radiological assessment in and around a refining and petrochemical company in Warri, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibiri, N N; Emelue, H U

    2008-09-01

    Radioactivity measurements have been carried out using gamma-ray spectroscopy to determine the radionuclide concentrations in soil samples in the premises of the Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company located in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and also in communities around it. The radionuclide contents of the crude oil and petroleum additives were also similarly determined. Results indicate that on the premises used by the company, the ranges of activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Th in the soil samples were 261.3-932.3 Bq kg(-1),company premises. These values are less than the world average outdoor value of 70 microSv y(-1) given by UNSCEAR. Overall, it can be concluded that the long duration of refining activities does not seem to have affected radionuclide concentrations in the environment. Measurements also showed that the observed radiation dose rates did not vary significantly from the previously determined Warri City outdoor gamma radiation dose rates, for which the probability of occurrence of any health effects of radiation was judged low. The measurements, therefore, are interpreted to represent baseline radiometric data for future reference and research in the area.

  12. A novel total reflection X-ray fluorescence procedure for the direct determination of trace elements in petrochemical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinosi, Amedeo [Sasol Italy SpA, Paderno Dugnano (Italy); GNR srl, Agrate Conturbia, Novara (Italy); Andriollo, Nunzio [Sasol Italy SpA, Paderno Dugnano (Italy); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Monticelli, Damiano [Universita degli Studi dell' Insubria - sede di Como, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Ambientali, Como, CO (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    A total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) procedure was developed for the determination of metal traces in petrochemical end products or intermediates for surfactant synthesis. The method combines a fast and straightforward sample preparation, i.e. deposition on the sample holder and evaporation of the sample matrix, with an efficient quantification method based on internal standardization (organic gallium standard). The method developed showed detection limits below 0.05 {mu}g g{sup -1} and in most cases below 0.005 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Fifteen elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rh, Sn, Sr, V and Zn) were determined in matrices such as paraffins, n-olefins, linear alkylbenzenes, long-chain alkyl alcohols and esters: typical metal contents were below 1 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The results were compared with the reference method ASTM D5708 (test method B) based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy: advantages and drawbacks of the two procedures were critically evaluated. The TXRF method developed showed comparable precision and absence of bias with respect to the reference method. A comparison of the performances of the two methods is presented. (orig.)

  13. Spectral range optimization for the near-infrared quantitative analysis of petrochemical and petroleum products: naphtha and gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngbok; Chung, Hoeil; Kim, Nakjoong

    2006-08-01

    The proper selection of the spectral range in partial least squares (PLS) calibration is critical when highly overlapping spectra from compositionally complex samples are used, such as naphtha and gasoline. In particular, the relevant spectral information related to a given property is frequently localized in a narrow range, and the most selective region may be difficult to locate. We have presented the importance of range optimization in near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the analyses of petrochemical and petroleum products that are generally highly complex in composition. For this purpose, the determination of a detailed compositional analysis (so called PIONA) and the distillation temperature of naphtha were evaluated. In the same fashion, the research octane number (RON) and Reid vapor pressure (RVP) were selected for gasoline. By optimizing the range using moving window (MW) PLS, the overall calibration performance was improved by finding the optimal spectral range for each property. In particular, for a detailed compositional analysis of naphtha, it was effective to search for localized spectral information in a relatively narrow range with fewer factors.

  14. Residue-based iron oxide catalyst for the degradation of simulated petrochemical wastewater via heterogeneous photo-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaratti, Gidiane; Rauen, Thalita Grando; Baldissarelli, Vanessa Zanon; José, Humberto Jorge; Moreira, Regina De Fátima Peralta Muniz

    2017-08-10

    Iron oxide with a high degree of purity was recovered from waste and used as an environmentally friendly, low-cost catalyst in the application of the photo-Fenton process to simulated petrochemical wastewater (SPW). Iron oxide nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, zeta potential, toxicity and atomic absorption spectrometry. The experiments were performed in a batch photochemical reactor, at 20 ± 2.0°C and pH 3.0. The SPW was efficiently mineralized and oxidized using a low catalyst dosage. The results showed that the organic compounds present in the wastewater were not adsorbed onto the solid surface. The solid was found to be stable with negligible leaching and low toxicity. The kTOC/kCOD ratios were calculated and varied according to the process: for a homogeneous reaction, the ratio obtained was 0.31 and for the heterogenous photo-Fenton process, it was closer to 1. The chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon removal values were very close, indicating that the SPW is immediately mineralized, without producing partially oxidized compounds. The residue-based goethite studied represents a good alternative to commercially available catalysts in terms of sources and availability.

  15. Industry Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  16. Behavioural science at work for Canada: National Research Council laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jennifer A

    2007-03-01

    The National Research Council is Canada's principal research and development agency. Its 20 institutes are structured to address interdisciplinary problems for industrial sectors, and to provide the necessary scientific infrastructure, such as the national science library. Behavioural scientists are active in five institutes: Biological Sciences, Biodiagnostics, Aerospace, Information Technology, and Construction. Research topics include basic cellular neuroscience, brain function, human factors in the cockpit, human-computer interaction, emergency evacuation, and indoor environment effects on occupants. Working in collaboration with NRC colleagues and with researchers from universities and industry, NRC behavioural scientists develop knowledge, designs, and applications that put technology to work for people, designed with people in mind.

  17. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  18. SABIC Green Logistics Systems & Profitability : To explore chemical industries green logistics and contribution to profitability with a particular case of SABIC

    OpenAIRE

    Alabdullatif, Talal

    2017-01-01

    Background: Logistics is paramount in the business operations as it ensures transit of goods from one point to the other. Green logistics are measures in the logistics systems that are put in place to minimize the environmental implication of logistics operations while at the same time saving on cost. Thus, green logistics is adopted as it conveys a competitive merit which enhances performance of a company. Saudi Basic Industries (SABIC) is one of the biggest petrochemicals in Saudi Arabia an...

  19. Assessment of a new procedure for modelling industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinneck, J.W.

    1984-08-03

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the assessment of a new procedure for modelling industrial energy systems. The new procedure combines second-law methods of analysis with simple component models that allow all of the plant energy forms to be included in a single model. As an example, the new procedure is used to analyze the steam system for a large Canadian petrochemicals plant. Changes in the system operation resulting in an estimated savings of $600,000 per year are identified. It is concluded that the new procedure can be used in Canadian industry to save energy and money. The recommended course of action is to incorporate the second-law measures into the ENERGY Mark II program that is currently under develpment and to consider funding the development of a version of the optimization model at a later date. 58 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Petro-chemical features and source areas of volcanic aggregates used in ancient Roman maritime concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, F.; Anzidei, M.; Benini, A.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Gaeta, M.; Ventura, G.; Cavallo, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present and discuss data from petrographic observation at the optical microscope, electron microprobe analyses on selected glass shards, and trace-element analyses on 14 mortar aggregates collected at the ancient harbors and other maritime structures of Latium and Campania, spanning the third century BCE through the second CE, aimed at identify the volcanic products employed in the concretes and their area of exploitation. According to Latin author Vitruvius assertion about the ubiquitous use of Campanian pozzolan in the ancient Roman sea-water concretes, results of this study show a very selective and homogeneous choice in the material employed to produce the concretes for the different investigated maritime structures, evidencing three main pumice compositions, all corresponding to those of the products of the post-Neapolitan Yellow Tuff activity of the Phlegraean Fields, and a systematic use of the local Neapolitan Yellow Tuff to produce the coarse aggregate of these concretes. However, mixing with local products of the Colli Albani volcanic district, located 20 km east of Rome, has been evidenced at two fishponds of Latium, in Punta della Vipera and Torre Astura. Based on these petrographic and geochemical data, we conclude that the selective use of pozzolan from Campania, rather than of unproved different chemical properties, was the consequence of a series of logistic, economic, industrial and historical reasons.

  1. Dimensions of Competitiveness: Lessons from the Danish Pork Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Jill E.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional evaluations of industry competitiveness tend to focus on a narrow range of production cost variables. Using these criteria, we would expect industries such as the Danish pork industry to be uncompetitive relative to the pork industries of Canada and the United States, given relatively high input costs and legislative limits on farm size for environmental reasons. Yet Denmark accounts for 25 to 30 percent of global pork exports. To explain this apparent paradox, a broader concepti...

  2. Industrial processes and process-control - 2005 research programme; Industrielle und verfahrenstechnische Prozesse VTP. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettler, M.

    2006-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a concise overview of research and development projects for the year 2005. Projects are listed in the areas process-integration / process optimisation, improving complex production processes and more efficient drying processes. Projects briefly described include modelling and optimisation of energy consumption in multi-purpose batch plants, energy conversion in the pulp and paper industry, energetic process integration in greenhouses, improving energy efficiency in the manufacture of bricks, improving efficiency in drying plant, solvent recycling in the chemical industry and eco-inventories of petrochemical solvents. National and international co-operation is discussed.

  3. Canada Among Nations 2013, Canada-Africa Relations : Looking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    expansion la plus rapide dans le monde et un virage vers une bonne ... Le CRDI, l'Israel Science Foundation, la Fondation Azrieli et les Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada annoncent l'appel de propositions pour la ...

  4. Industry diversity, competition and firm relatedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cong; Madsen, Jakob B.; Steiner, Bodo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which indicators of external scale economies impacted employment growth in Canada over the period 2004-2011. We focus on knowledge spillovers between firms while accounting for Marshallian specialization, Jacobs’ diversity, and competition by industry, as well...

  5. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A.; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J.; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C.; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G.; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K. Thomas; Mullen, Robert T.; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M.; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds. PMID:26916792

  6. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-02-26

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds.

  7. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  8. Industrial bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000072.htm Industrial bronchitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Industrial bronchitis is swelling (inflammation) of the large airways ...

  9. Survey of recreational fishing in Canada, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 Survey of Recreational Fishing in Canada collected information about recreational fishing activities to assess the economic and social importance of recreational fisheries to Canada's provinces and territories...

  10. A National Palliative Care Strategy for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, R. Sean

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify barrier to achieving universal access to high quality palliative care in Canada, review published national strategies and frameworks to promote palliative care, examine key aspects that have been linked to successful outcomes, and make recommendations for Canada.

  11. Kunststofverwerkende industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijssen PHM; Duesmann HB; Poel P van der; Koot JE

    1993-01-01

    This document on plastics processing industry has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes,

  12. Building better health care leadership for Canada: implementing evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denis, Jean-Louis; Sullivan, Terrence James

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund for our publishing activities. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Building better health care leadership for Canada: imple...

  13. canada's “thousand talent program”i: how canada research chair ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-24

    Oct 24, 2013 ... richer explanation of brain circulation, using the case study of Chinese holders of Canada Research Chairs. (CRC). Canada suffered brain drain in the 1990s, in particular to the United States. The Canada. Research Chair Program (CRCP), launched in 2000 by the Government of Canada, signalled the ...

  14. Comparing pyloromyotomy outcomes across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ednie, Alexander C; Amram, Ofer; Schuurman, Nadine; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2017-05-01

    Changing patterns of referral and management of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) in North America have recently been described. Comfort with perioperative management, anesthesia, and corrective surgery have been cited as reasons for these changes. Our primary objective was to assess pyloromyotomy outcomes between different hospital types across Canada. The secondary objective was to geospatially map all pyloromyotomies to identify regions of higher HPS incidence across Canada. Data of all pyloromyotomies done between 2011 and 2013 were acquired from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Complication rates and length of hospital stay (LOS) were analyzed. Postal codes for each patient were used to geospatially map regions of higher HPS incidence. A total of 1261 pyloromyotomies were assessed. There was no difference in LOS or complication rates between different hospital types or surgeon group. Open pyloromyotomies were done in 75% of the cases. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified across Canada. This study found no difference in complication rate or LOS stay between hospital type and surgeon type across Canada. This may reflect a previously identified referral trend in the United States towards pediatric centers. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified, and may aid in identifying genetic elements causing HPS. 2c. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Computerized Library Networking in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Roderick M.; Islam, Mazharul

    1979-01-01

    Reviews a study which examined computerized bibliographic centers in Canada identifying three types: (1) library processing facility; (2) library network user group; and (3) information retrieval facility. The study also reported on ways to promote a computerized library network with emphasis on national location service. (CWM)

  16. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  17. Compute Canada: Advancing Computational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan

    2012-02-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) is redefining the way that research is done. Compute Canada's HPC infrastructure provides a national platform that enables Canadian researchers to compete on an international scale, attracts top talent to Canadian universities and broadens the scope of research.

  18. Unique Measles Virus in Canada

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, discusses a measles outbreak in Canada.  Created: 8/24/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  19. Identifying and responding to weak signals to improve learning from experiences in high-risk industry

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    1. Context This thesis forms part of an extended study funded by FonCSI (Fondation pour une Culture de Sécurité Industrielle) about learning systems of major hazard companies. All French industrial sites running a risky activity – e.g. petrochemicals, steel making plants – must put a Safety Management System in place, according to the Seveso II EC Directive . Amongst other things, it requires implementing a Feedback of Experience process (Retour d’Expériences – Rex - in French). The objective...

  20. Valve selection handbook engineering fundamentals for selecting the right valve design for every industrial flow application

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Valves are the components in a fluid flow or pressure system that regulate either the flow or the pressure of the fluid. They are used extensively in the process industries, especially petrochemical. Though there are only four basic types of valves, there is an enormous number of different kinds of valves within each category, each one used for a specific purpose. No other book on the market analyzes the use, construction, and selection of valves in such a comprehensive manner.-Covers new environmentally-conscious equipment and practices, the most important hot-button issue in the p

  1. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  2. A novel "wastes-treat-wastes" technology: role and potential of spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst assisted ozonation of petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunmao; Yu, Ji; Yoza, Brandon A; Li, Qing X; Wang, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Catalytic ozonation is a promising wastewater treatment technology. However, the high cost of the catalyst hinders its application. A novel "wastes-treat-wastes" technology was developed to reuse spent fluid catalytic cracking catalysts (sFCCc) for the ozonation of petrochemical wastewater in this study. Multivalent vanadium (V(4+) and V(5+)), iron (Fe(2+) and Fe(3+)) and nickel (Ni(2+)) oxides that are distributed on the surface of sFCCc and poisoned FCC catalysts are the catalytic components for ozonation. The sFCCc assisted catalytic ozonation (sFCCc-O) of nitrobenzene indicated that the sFCCc significantly promoted hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation. The degradation rate constant of nitrobenzene in sFCCc-O (0.0794 min(-1) at 298 K) was approximately doubled in comparison with that in single ozonation (0.0362 min(-1) at 298 K). The sFCCc-O of petrochemical wastewater increased chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency by three-fold relative to single ozonation. The number of oxygen-containing (Ox) polar contaminants in the effluent (253) from sFCCc-O treatment decreased to about 70% of the initial wastewater (353). The increased oxygen/carbon atomic ratio and decreased number of Ox polar contaminants indicated a high degree of degradation. The present study showed the role and potential of sFCCc for catalytic ozonation of petrochemical wastewater, particularly in an advantage of the cost-effectiveness through "wastes-treat-wastes". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Briefing book: Major projects in the upstream, downstream, petrochemical and power sectors of Vietnam. Final definitional mission report. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-06

    The purpose of the briefing book is to provide project information to U.S. Businesses who seek cooperative partnerships with Vietnamese officials on a number of major development projects. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Overview of Vietnam; (3) Overview of the Upstream Sector; (4) Overview of the Downstream Sector; (5) Overview of the Petrochemical Sector; (6) Overview of the Electric Energy Sector; (7) Project Development Processes; (8) Project Financing; (9) Foreign Competition and U.S. Competitiveness; (10) Project Profiles; (11) Key Contracts; (12) U.S. Commercial Service.

  4. Nuclear waste management in Canada : critical issues, critical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, D.; Fuji Johnson, G. (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    As Canada plans to build more nuclear reactors to increase energy production, the benefits and hazards of nuclear power and nuclear waste management continue to be debated. This book provided a discerning opposition to the supportive position taken by government and industry regarding the management of high-level nuclear fuel waste and the nuclear generation of electricity. The contributors explored key issues associated with nuclear energy development, such as safety, risk assessment, site selection and the public consultation process in Canada and its failure to address ethical and social issues. The technical challenges of nuclear waste management were reviewed along with the nature and means of developing social and ethical frameworks within which to assess technical options, consultative practices and decision-making processes. Strategies for thinking of the long term were also discussed. refs.

  5. International trade regulation and publicly funded health care in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, A S

    2001-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) creates new challenges for the Canadian health care system, arguably one of the most "socialized" systems in the world today. In particular, the WTO's enhanced trade dispute resolution powers, enforceable with sanctions, may make Canadian health care vulnerable to corporate penetration, particularly in the pharmaceutical and private health services delivery sectors. The Free Trade Agreement and its extension, the North American Free Trade Agreement, gave multinational pharmaceutical companies greater freedom in Canada at the expense of the Canadian generic drug industry. Recent challenges by the WTO have continued this process, which will limit the health care system's ability to control drug costs. And pressure is growing, through WTO's General Agreement on Trade in Services and moves by the Alberta provincial government to privatize health care delivery, to open up the Canadian system to corporate penetration. New WTO agreements will bring increasing pressure to privatize Canada's public health care system and limit government's ability to control pharmaceutical costs.

  6. Clean growth 2.0 - how Canada can be a leader in energy and environmental innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    Canada is blessed with a variety of natural resources in significant quantities; the country has important reserves of oil, natural gas, uranium and coal as well as a significant potential for renewable energies such as hydroelectricity, biofuels, wind and tidal power. This abundance of natural resources combined with a strategic location from which to access both the United States and Chinese markets play a significant part in contributing to Canada's prosperity. The aim of this paper is to show that Canada can be an energy and resource powerhouse and a leader in energy and environmental innovation. The Canadian Council of Chief Executives believes that government, industry and Canadians need to pull in the same direction in order to achieve it. This document points out that Canada can have an important role in the development of new energy and environmental technologies and 5 recommendations are made on how to achieve this goal.

  7. Caracterização de amostras petroquímicas e derivados utilizando cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente (GCxGC Characterization of petrochemical samples and their derivatives by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin von Mühlen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to discuss the application of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC to petrochemical samples. The use of GCxGC for petroleum and petroleum derivatives characterization, through group type analysis, or BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, total aromatic hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur-containing, oxygen-containing, and nitrogen-containing compounds is presented. The capability of GCxGC to provide additional specific chemical information regarding petroleum processing steps, such as dehydrogenation of linear alkanes, the Fischer-Tropsch process, hydrogenation and oligomerization is also described. In addition, GCxGC analyses of petrochemical biomarkers and environmental pollutants derived from petrochemicals are reported.

  8. Relationship between residential district and health-related quality of life in Chungnam industrial complex area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heechan Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between residential district of people, such as power plant, steel-mill and petrochemical industries, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we randomly recruited participants for our study from industrial areas (thermoelectric power plant, steel-mill, petrochemical industry and rural areas. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the relationships between Euro quality of life-5 dimension (EQ-5D scores and living region, while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results In adjusted model, quality of life decreased with increasing category of age and were lower for females than males. EQ-5D scores of people living in the vicinity of thermoelectric power plant were significant lower than those of people living the vicinity of comparison region (odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 2.53. Conclusions Living region of thermoelectric power plant, was strongly associated with scores on the EQ-5D. More research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms which makes the relationship with the living regions and HRQoL.

  9. Relationship between residential district and health-related quality of life in Chungnam industrial complex area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between residential district of people, such as power plant, steel-mill and petrochemical industries, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we randomly recruited participants for our study from industrial areas (thermoelectric power plant, steel-mill, petrochemical industry) and rural areas. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the relationships between Euro quality of life-5 dimension (EQ-5D) scores and living region, while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results In adjusted model, quality of life decreased with increasing category of age and were lower for females than males. EQ-5D scores of people living in the vicinity of thermoelectric power plant were significant lower than those of people living the vicinity of comparison region (odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 2.53). Conclusions Living region of thermoelectric power plant, was strongly associated with scores on the EQ-5D. More research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms which makes the relationship with the living regions and HRQoL. PMID:27608718

  10. Simulation of adsorption process of benzene present in effluent of the petrochemical industry; Simulacao do processo de adsorcao do benzeno presente em efluentes da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Adriana D. da; Mello, Josiane M.M. de; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Adriano da [Universidade Comunitaria Regional de Chapeco (UNOCHAPECO), SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The adsorption processes have shown quite efficient in the removal of pollutant in liquid effluents, especially hydrocarbons of difficult removal, such as benzene. This work presents a phenomenological model that describes the process of benzene removal through the adsorption in a fixed bed column, being used coal activated as adsorbent. The model considers the internal and external resistances of mass transfer to the adsorbent particle. The method of Finite Volumes is used in the discretization of the equations. The numerical results obtained through the simulation presented good correlation when compared with experimental data found in the literature, demonstrating that the developed computational code, together with the mathematical modeling, represents an important tool for the project of adsorption columns. (author)

  11. Kunststofverwerkende industrie

    OpenAIRE

    Eijssen PHM; Duesmann HB; van der Poel P; Koot JE

    1993-01-01

    This document on plastics processing industry has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and standards and licen...

  12. An analysis of workplace exposures to benzene over four decades at a petrochemical processing and manufacturing facility (1962-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmel, J; Devlin, K; Burns, A; Ferracini, T; Ground, M; Paustenbach, D

    2013-01-01

    Benzene, a known carcinogen, can be generated as a by-product during the use of petroleum-based raw materials in chemical manufacturing. The aim of this study was to analyze a large data set of benzene air concentration measurements collected over nearly 40 years during routine employee exposure monitoring at a petrochemical manufacturing facility. The facility used ethane, propane, and natural gas as raw materials in the production of common commercial materials such as polyethylene, polypropylene, waxes, adhesives, alcohols, and aldehydes. In total, 3607 benzene air samples were collected at the facility from 1962 to 1999. Of these, in total 2359 long-term (>1 h) personal exposure samples for benzene were collected during routine operations at the facility between 1974 and 1999. These samples were analyzed by division, department, and job title to establish employee benzene exposures in different areas of the facility over time. Sampling data were also analyzed by key events over time, including changes in the occupational exposure limits (OELs) for benzene and key equipment process changes at the facility. Although mean benzene concentrations varied according to operation, in nearly all cases measured benzene quantities were below the OEL in place at the time for benzene (10 ppm for 1974-1986 and 1 ppm for 1987-1999). Decreases in mean benzene air concentrations were also found when data were evaluated according to 7- to 10-yr periods following key equipment process changes. Further, an evaluation of mortality rates for a retrospective employee cohort (n = 3938) demonstrated that the average personal benzene exposures at this facility (0.89 ppm for the period 1974-1986 and 0.125 ppm for the period 1987-1999) did not result in increased standardized mortality ratio (SMRs) for diseases or malignancies of the lymphatic system. The robust nature of this data set provides comprehensive exposure information that may be useful for assessing human benzene exposures at

  13. A Synthesis of Human-related Avian Mortality in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Calvert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many human activities in Canada kill wild birds, yet the relative magnitude of mortality from different sources and the consequent effects on bird populations have not been systematically evaluated. We synthesize recent estimates of avian mortality in Canada from a range of industrial and other human activities, to provide context for the estimates from individual sources presented in this special feature. We assessed the geographic, seasonal, and taxonomic variation in the magnitude of national-scale mortality and in population-level effects on species or groups across Canada, by combining these estimates into a stochastic model of stage-specific mortality. The range of estimates of avian mortality from each source covers several orders of magnitude, and, numerically, landbirds were the most affected group. In total, we estimate that approximately 269 million birds and 2 million nests are destroyed annually in Canada, the equivalent of over 186 million breeding individuals. Combined, cat predation and collisions with windows, vehicles, and transmission lines caused > 95% of all mortality; the highest industrial causes of mortality were the electrical power and agriculture sectors. Other mortality sources such as fisheries bycatch can have important local or species-specific impacts, but are relatively small at a national scale. Mortality rates differed across species and families within major bird groups, highlighting that mortality is not simply proportional to abundance. We also found that mortality is not evenly spread across the country; the largest mortality sources are coincident with human population distribution, while industrial sources are concentrated in southern Ontario, Alberta, and southwestern British Columbia. Many species are therefore likely to be vulnerable to cumulative effects of multiple human-related impacts. This assessment also confirms the high uncertainty in estimating human-related avian mortality in terms of species

  14. Pharmacy information systems in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jeff; Jennings, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Canada Health Infoway is to provide at least 50% of all Canadians with an electronic health record (EHR) by 2010. The goal of the Infoway Drug Information Systems Program is to develop an interoperable drug information system that will keep each patient's medication history: prescribed and dispensed drugs, allergies, ongoing drug treatment, etc. Drug and drug-interaction checks will be performed automatically and added to the patients' drug profiles. Physicians and pharmacists will be supplied with data to support appropriate and accurate prescribing and dispensing, thereby avoiding adverse drug interactions and drug-related deaths [1]. This paper describes Canadian developments in pharmacy eHealth. It presents the results of the Pharmacy Informatics Pharmacy Special Networks (PSN) survey about computer systems used in hospital pharmacies across Canada including information concerning Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems deployed; which may reduce the number of errors in orders.

  15. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    2008 budget seeks to ensure continuity through the Canada First Defence Strategy , which will provide for yearly increases of 2% beginning in 2011-12...Minister Harper of permitting Canada’s Afghanistan strategy “to be defined by Washington.” He stated that “once [Canada’s] military mission ends in...56 RBC Financial Group, Daily Forex Fundamentals, February 27, 2009. [ http

  16. Can Canada Avoid Arctic Militarization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    global market and the evolution of new fracking technology for the extraction of shale hydrocarbons, the development of the Canadian Arctic might not...Powers and Prospects in Canada’s North, ed. Abele Frances (Montréal: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 2009), 378. 167Richard Spencer, “ Fracking ...Boom Frees the US from Old Oil Alliances,” The Telegraph, December 13, 2013, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/energy/oil/10476647/ Fracking -boom-frees

  17. Canada: expanding nuclear fuel exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paehlke, R.

    1978-01-01

    Uranium is soon to be a very big business in Canada and most of the expansion is bound for export markets. The expansions that are planned are both in uranium mining and in fuel processing. Almost all environmental problems associated with the nuclear fuel cycle thus far in Canada have been associated with these two phases of the cycle: mining and processing. The water in Elliot Lake has been found to have high concentrations of radium and the drinking water of Serpent River, Ontario--downwater from Elliot Lake--has been found to be contaminated by excess radioactivity. Buildings in both Port Hope, Ontario, and Uranium City, Saskatchewan (near Eldorado's Saskatchewan minesite), have excess radiation counts attributable to radon and radon daughter gases. Several aspects of the expansion are currently undergoing environmental impact assessment. Far and away the most careful and balanced inquiry is the Saskatchewan government-appointed inquiry under Mr. Justice E. D. Bayda of the Saskatchewan Appeals Court. This inquiry is, in the first instance, examining a proposal by Amok Ltee., a consortium of a French multinational and the French government, to develop a $135 million uranium mine and mill at Cluff Lake in the northern portion of Saskatchewan. But the inquiry is considering all aspects and implications of the full nuclear fuel cycle. The second stage of the uranium boom in Canada centers on processing. Here two major new plants are proposed by Eldorado Nuclear: one at Port Granby, Ontario; the second at Varman, Saskatchewan. Several massive nuclear power stations are planned east of Toronto, but nuclear opposition is growing in Canada. (MCW)

  18. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  19. Women in Physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  20. The effect of Health, Safety and Environment Management System (HSE-MS on the improvement of safety performance indices in Urea and Ammonia Kermanshah Petrochemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Poursoleiman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related accidents may cause damage to people, environment and lead to waste of time and money. Health, Safety and Environment Management System has been developed in order to reduce accidents. This study aimed to investigate the effect of implementation of this system on reduction of the accidents and its consequences and also on the safety performance indices in Kermanshah Petrochemical Company. Material and Method: In this study, records of accidents were collected by OSHA incident report form 301 over 4 years. Following, the mean annual accidents and its consequences and safety performance indices were calculated and reported. Then, using statistical analysis, the impacts of two years implementation of this system on the accidents and its consequences and safety performance indices were evaluated. Result: The results showed that the implementation of HSE system was significantly correlated with Frequency Severity Indicator, Accident Severity Rate, lost days, minor accidents and total incidents (P-value 0.05. Conclusion: The implementation of Health, Safety and the Environment Management System caused a reduction in accidents and its consequences and most of the safety performance indices in the entire process cycle of Kermanshah Petrochemical Company. Overall, safety condition has been improved considerably.

  1. Assessment of urinary thiodiglycolic acid exposure in school-aged children in the vicinity of a petrochemical complex in central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Chin; Liu, Li-Hsuan; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Wang, Chih-Wen; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Chiang, Hung-Che; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2016-10-01

    School-aged children living in the vicinity of vinyl chloride (VCM)/polyvinyl chloride (PVC) factories may have an increased risk of exposure to hazardous air pollutants. We aimed to evaluate the urinary thiodiglycolic acid (TDGA) level, as TDGA is a major metabolite of VCM, for students at elementary schools near a petrochemical complex in central Taiwan. We recruited 343 students from 5 elementary schools based on distance to the VCM/PVC factory. First-morning urine and blood samples were obtained from our subjects from October 2013 to September 2014. Urine samples were analyzed for urinary creatinine and TDGA using LC/MS-MS. Hepatitis virus infection were assessed using blood samples. We determined their vitamin consumption, resident location, parent's employment, and other demographic or lifestyle characteristics using a questionnaire. Median urinary TDGA levels for 316 students at 5 elementary schools from the closest (schools. Further, median urinary TDGA levels for students during school time were 4.1-fold higher than those during summer vacation. After adjusting for confounders, urinary TDGA levels for the school-aged children decreased with increasing distances between the elementary schools and the petrochemical complex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics investigation on the effects of petrochemical contamination in posterior adductor muscles of caged mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Tiziana; Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2017-08-01

    Environmental metabolomics is a high-throughout approach that provides a snapshot of the metabolic status of an organism. In order to elucidate the biological effects of petrochemical contamination on aquatic invertebrates, mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis were caged at the "Augusta-Melilli-Priolo" petrochemical area and Brucoli (Sicily, south Italy), chosen as the reference site. After confirming the elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mercury (Hg) in Augusta sediments in our previous work (Maisano et al., 2016a), herein an environmental metabolomics approach based on protonic nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), coupled with chemometrics, was applied on the mussel posterior adductor muscle (PAM), the main muscular system in bivalve molluscs. Amino acids, osmolytes, energy storage compounds, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and nucleotides, were found in PAM NMR spectra. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that mussels caged at the polluted site clustered separately from mussels from the control area, suggesting a clear differentiation between their metabolic profiles. Specifically, disorders in energy metabolism, alterations in amino acids metabolism, and disturbance in the osmoregulatory processes were observed in mussel PAM. Overall, findings from this work demonstrated the usefulness of applying an active biomonitoring strategy for environmental risk assessment, and the effectiveness of metabolomics in elucidating changes in metabolic pathways of aquatic organisms caged at sites differentially contaminated, and thus its suitability to be applied in ecotoxicological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ' CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. N. Aniekwu. Civil Engineering Department,. University of Benin,. Benin City. Nigeria. ABSTRACT. This paper deals with safety in the Nigerian construction industry. Three aspects of safety were identified as paramount in the study and include accident causations, accident prevention and the.

  4. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Kazuo; Fushimi, Chihiro; Tsutsumi, Atsushi; Kishimoto, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The conventional approach for energy saving in a process system is to maximize heat recovery without changing any process conditions by using pinch technology. “Self-heat recuperation technology” was developed to achieve further energy saving in the process system by eliminating the necessity for any external heat input, such as firing or imported steam. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry introduces the concept of self-heat recuperation and the application of such technology to a wide range of processes from heavy chemical complexes to other processes such as drying and gas separation processes, which require heating and cooling during operation.   Conventional energy saving items in a utility system are applied and implemented based on a single site approach, however, when looking at heavy chemical complexes, it was apparent that the low-grade heat discharged as waste from a refinery could also be used in an adjacent petrochemical plant. There could therefore be a large energy savin...

  5. Hydrogen fuel cells in chemical industry: The assemini project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caserza, G.; Bozzoni, T.; Porcino, G.; Pasquinucci, A. [Ansaldo CLC s.r.l., Genova (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Chemical and petrochemical industries generate large quantities of hydrogen-rich streams, in the range 50%-100% H{sub 2} concentration by volume, as by-products of electrochemical or dehydrogenation processes, or exhausts/purging in hydrogenation processes. Due to safety aspects, and because of the low density, which makes difficult transportation and storage, such streams often constitute a problem for plant managers. In most cases recycling within the plant processes is not possible, and transportation to other sites, generally by truck after compression in cylinders, is not economical. Many of these streams arc therefore simply co-burned in plant boilers, and in some cases even wasted by venting or flaring. Their value ranges from zero (if vented), to the value of the fuel used in the boiler, where they are co-burned.

  6. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  7. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  8. Fueling industrial biotechnology growth with bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, José Manuel; Panagiotou, Gianni; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology is the conversion of biomass via biocatalysis, microbial fermentation, or cell culture to produce chemicals, materials, and/or energy. Industrial biotechnology processes aim to be cost-competitive, environmentally favorable, and self-sustaining compared to their petrochemical equivalents. Common to all processes for the production of energy, commodity, added value, or fine chemicals is that raw materials comprise the most significant cost fraction, particularly as operating efficiencies increase through practice and improving technologies. Today, crude petroleum represents the dominant raw material for the energy and chemical sectors worldwide. Within the last 5 years petroleum prices, stability, and supply have increased, decreased, and been threatened, respectively, driving a renewed interest across academic, government, and corporate centers to utilize biomass as an alternative raw material. Specifically, bio-based ethanol as an alternative biofuel has emerged as the single largest biotechnology commodity, with close to 46 billion L produced worldwide in 2005. Bioethanol is a leading example of how systems biology tools have significantly enhanced metabolic engineering, inverse metabolic engineering, and protein and enzyme engineering strategies. This enhancement stems from method development for measurement, analysis, and data integration of functional genomics, including the transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome. This review will show that future industrial biotechnology process development will benefit tremendously from the precedent set by bioethanol - that enabling technologies (e.g., systems biology tools) coupled with favorable economic and socio-political driving forces do yield profitable, sustainable, and environmentally responsible processes. Biofuel will continue to be the keystone of any industrial biotechnology-based economy whereby biorefineries leverage common raw materials and unit operations to integrate

  9. Upstream petroleum industry financial conditions and distribution of industry generated revenue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    A review of profitability of Canada`s upstream petroleum industry and of the direct fiscal burden (all payments to governments) on the industry was presented based on a study conducted during June-September 1996. Information was collected from 200 companies that represent over 90 per cent of the total oil and gas production revenue and most of the refining and fuel sales. Part 2 of the review examined taxes and other payments to government by 58 companies. It was concluded that the Canadian oil and gas industry is a major contributor of taxes to all three levels of government. While the industry has made concerted efforts to reduce its controllable costs and increase its profitability, it is claimed that Canadian petroleum industry profit margins are extremely low. A plea was made to all levels of governments to consider the highly competitive nature of the industry, the constantly changing market forces, shifts in world politics, regulatory trends, currency values and technology that affect the industry, and the high risks inherent in exploration and development prior to establishing ever-increasing claims on the industry`s dwindling profits. 22 tabs., 17 figs.

  10. Energy and exergy analyses of energy consumptions in the industrial sector in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladiran, M.T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Botswana, P/Bag 0061, Gaborone (Botswana)]. E-mail: Oladiran@mopipi.ub.bw; Meyer, J.P. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)]. E-mail: jmeyer@up.ac.za

    2007-10-15

    The energy-utilization over a 10-year period (1994-2003) has been analysed for the South African industrial sector, which consumes more primary energy than any other sector of the economy. Four principal sub-sectors, namely iron and steel, chemical and petrochemical, mining and quarrying, and non-ferrous metals/non-metallic minerals were considered in this study. Primary-energy utilization data were used to calculate the weighted mean energy and exergy efficiencies for the sub-sectors and then overall values for the industrial sector were obtained. The results indicate that exergy efficiency is considerably lower than energy efficiency in all the sub-sectors, particularly in mining and quarrying processes, for which the values were approximately 83% and 16%, respectively. The performance of exergy utilization in the industrial sector can be improved by introducing various conservation strategies. Results from this study were compared with those for other countries.

  11. Electric industry restructuring review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slocum Hollis, S. [Duane Morris LLP, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Restructuring of the electric power industry began in the early 1990's in many jurisdictions in the United States. Restructuring was an attempt to offer large industrial customers lower rates and freedom from regulation for generators and traditional public utilities. The move has gained most attention in the past two years as some utilities report high profits while others, such as Pacific Gas and Electric Co., the largest investor-owned utility in the United States, is in bankruptcy. The August 2003 blackout in the Midwest and Northeast United States and Canada also raised questions regarding electric reliability. The question now remains whether markets should be allowed to determine the need for services and the prices to be charged, and who is in charge in the imperfect market. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 2000 led to the formation of a Regional Transmission Organizations which is still in the implementation stage. Its influence on precursor Order numbers 888 and 889 were discussed in this paper with reference to independent system operators; regional transmission organizations; standard market design; rates and pricing devices; congestion management; market monitoring; market investigations; reliability measures; OASIS and other information access; interconnection policy; jurisdiction; mergers and merger policy; standards of conduct; policing affiliates; municipal utilities; stranded costs; and, state restructuring scorecards. refs.

  12. Falling behind - Canada's lost clean energy jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    With the depletion of conventional resources and the increasing concerns about the environment, emphasis has been put on developing clean energy. Clean energy is expected to become one of the main industrial sectors within the next decade, thus creating numerous jobs. While significant investments have been made by several countries to shift to clean energy, Canada is investing in highly polluting resources such as the tar sands. It is shown that if Canada were to match U.S. efforts in terms of clean energy on a per person basis, they would need to invest 11 billion additional dollars and this would result in the creation of 66,000 clean energy jobs. This paper showed that Canada is falling behind in terms of clean energy and the authors recommend that the Canadian government match U.S. investments and design policies in support of clean energy and put a price on carbon so as to favor the development of the clean energy sector and its consequent job creation.

  13. Canada as an energy superpower : how clean, how powerful, how super?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, M. [Canadian Gas Association, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Policy and Economics

    2007-12-15

    In 2006, Canada's Prime Minister declared Canada to be an emerging energy superpower due to its vast reserves of oil, gas, and uranium. This article clarified the attributes of a superpower and explained how they can be used to evaluate Canada's situation. The attributes of a superpower include a capability to potentially influence the behaviour of other countries and the course of world events; the capacity to deploy that capability when it can be effective; a clear understanding of one's national interests and policies; and, a will to use the energy capacity when called upon. This framework was used to test the hypothesis of Canada as a power in energy. It was agreed that in terms of reserves, production and exports, Canada is a significant player by world standards. Canada has technological leadership in some parts of the fuel cell industry, possibly nuclear energy and the deployment of advanced technology in resource extraction. However, it was argued that deployment capacity must be maintained and enhanced. The author claimed that Canada's ability to exercise power through unilateral deployment of energy resources is modest, although Canada does have an implicit policy expressed through international treaties such as its membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO), International Energy Agency (IEA), and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Canada also benefits from pipeline and powerline regulations for shared regulation of electricity reliability. It was suggested that Canada has the capability to be a voice in support of market-based approaches to energy and an open international trade and investment regime. It was determined that Canada is committed to market-based energy policies and to North American partnership in a broader international context. The author suggested that although Canada has many capabilities regarding energy resources and the capacity to deliver them to markets, it lacks energy policy at the national

  14. Quantification of industrial VOC emissions in China using Solar Occultation Flux (SOF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, John; Mellqvist, Johan; Lingbo, Li

    2017-04-01

    As a part of a comprehensive measurement campaign in Beijing during the spring 2016, a two week study to quantify industrial VOC emissions from industrial sources using the Solar Occultation Flux (SOF) method was undertaken in Tianjin. Located approximately 100 km east of Beijing, Tianjin is the largest port in northern China and the largest hub of oil and petrochemical industries in the area. The aim of the study was to investigate how well industrial VOC emissions are accounted for in emission inventories, and the importance of these emissions for the formation of photochemical smog and secondary aerosols. The SOF method is based on absorption spectroscopy of direct infrared sunlight, which is performed from a measurement van, while driving through emission plumes containing the species of interest. Using the measured gas columns in the plume, GPS information of the movement of the van and wind measurements, the total flux of the species can be calculated. The method has previously been used to quantify VOC emissions from a large number of oil refineries and petrochemical industries in Europe, North America and the Middle East. Preliminary emission rates of alkanes as well as number of alkenes, such as ethene, propene, 1,3-butadiene and vinyl chloride has been compiled for most of the largest industrial sources in the Tianjin area. These emissions have been incorporated into a Lagrangian atmospheric chemistry model along simulated trajectories passing Tianjin on their way to Beijing. This has yielded some preliminary results for the total impact of these emissions on photochemical smog in the area.

  15. Industrial pioneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2014-01-01

    With their knowledge of metallurgy, mechanics and thermodynamics, mechanical engineers had to give shape to the industrial revolution in the Netherlands 150 years ago. This revolution only slowly gathered momentum, however, especially in comparison with England.

  16. Industrial Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajdas, C.; Karpińska, A.; Kulczycki, A.

    'Industrial lubricant' gaseous, liquid and solid products cover many applications. A new systems analysis approach is used combining heterogeneous catalysis and tribochemistry. Bearing lubricant applications are discussed in terms of the bearing film thickness and tribological regimes, for liquid and solid lubricants. Compressor and vacuum pump lubricant applications are described. The various classes of hydraulic fluids for industrial applications are explained. The properties, applications and selection of various industrial lubricants for different gears are described. Steam and industrial gas turbine lubricant formulations are discussed and the effects of their degradation products, particularly for valves and filters, are presented. Metalworking lubricant applications are divided into cutting and forming operations and their actions are described. Speciality applications such as process, textile, food-grade, slideway, cylinder and wire rope lubricants are explained.

  17. Lanthanide complexes as luminogenic probes to measure sulfide levels in industrial samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorson, Megan K. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah College of Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Ung, Phuc [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Leaver, Franklin M. [Water & Energy Systems Technology, Inc., Kaysville, UT 84037 (United States); Corbin, Teresa S. [Quality Services Laboratory, Tesoro Refining and Marketing, Salt Lake City, UT 84103 (United States); Tuck, Kellie L., E-mail: kellie.tuck@monash.edu [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Graham, Bim, E-mail: bim.graham@monash.edu [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Barrios, Amy M., E-mail: amy.barrios@utah.edu [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Utah College of Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States)

    2015-10-08

    A series of lanthanide-based, azide-appended complexes were investigated as hydrogen sulfide-sensitive probes. Europium complex 1 and Tb complex 3 both displayed a sulfide-dependent increase in luminescence, while Tb complex 2 displayed a decrease in luminescence upon exposure to NaHS. The utility of the complexes for monitoring sulfide levels in industrial oil and water samples was investigated. Complex 3 provided a sensitive measure of sulfide levels in petrochemical water samples (detection limit ∼ 250 nM), while complex 1 was capable of monitoring μM levels of sulfide in partially refined crude oil. - Highlights: • Lanthanide–azide based sulfide sensors were synthesized and characterized. • The probes have excitation and emission profiles compatible with sulfide-contaminated samples from the petrochemical industry. • A terbium-based probe was used to measure the sulfide concentration in oil refinery wastewater. • A europium-based probe had compatibility with partially refined crude oil samples.

  18. Metabolic engineering of plant oils and waxes for use as industrial feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C; Stymne, Sten; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-02-01

    Society has come to rely heavily on mineral oil for both energy and petrochemical needs. Plant lipids are uniquely suited to serve as a renewable source of high-value fatty acids for use as chemical feedstocks and as a substitute for current petrochemicals. Despite the broad variety of acyl structures encountered in nature and the cloning of many genes involved in their biosynthesis, attempts at engineering economic levels of specialty industrial fatty acids in major oilseed crops have so far met with only limited success. Much of the progress has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation pathways. This review covers new insights based on metabolic flux and reverse engineering studies that have changed our view of plant oil synthesis from a mostly linear process to instead an intricate network with acyl fluxes differing between plant species. These insights are leading to new strategies for high-level production of industrial fatty acids and waxes. Furthermore, progress in increasing the levels of oil and wax structures in storage and vegetative tissues has the potential to yield novel lipid production platforms. The challenge and opportunity for the next decade will be to marry these technologies when engineering current and new crops for the sustainable production of oil and wax feedstocks. © 2012 CSIRO Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Canada CRS-8 20 “Spend More On Military, U.S. Envoy Urges Ottawa.” Toronto Star. Feb. 25, 2004. 21 “Canada’s Flying Coffins .” Peter Newman...introduction of alien species of aquatic life may disturb the ecological balance and endanger fishing in Lake Winnipeg, into which the Red River empties...have been under review. The two countries have continued the long-standing debate over the ecological impact of possible development in Alaska’s

  20. Numerical analysis of radiographic image applied in measurements and examinations of corrosion development in petrochemical installations; Numeryczna analiza obrazu radiograficznego w zastosowaniu do pomiarow i sledzenia rozwoju korozji w instalacjach petrochemicznych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helleringer, H.

    1995-12-31

    Corrosion control of petrochemical pipelines is the great importance for the safety and economy of their exploitation. The gamma radiography is one of the best tools for material testing. The numerical analysis of radiographic images in the paper enables significant elevation of their interpretation.

  1. Effects of probiotics on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in petrochemical workers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the current study was to determine effects of probiotic yoghurt and multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in petrochemical workers. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done among petrochemical workers. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups to receive 100 g/day probiotic yogurt (n = 12 or one probiotic capsule daily (n = 13 or 100 g/day conventional yogurt (n = 10 for 6 weeks. The probiotic yoghurt was containing two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis with a total of min 1 Χ 10 7 CFU. Multispecies probiotic capsule contains seven probiotic bacteria spices Actobacillus casei 3 Χ 10 3 , L. acidophilus 3 Χ 10 7 , Lactobacillus rhamnosus 7 Χ 10 9 , Lactobacillus bulgaricus 5 Χ 10 8 , Bifidobacterium breve 2 Χ 10 10 , Bifidobacterium longum 1 Χ 10 9 and Streptococcus thermophilus 3 Χ 10 8 CFU/g. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the trial to quantify biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. Results: Although a significant within-group decrease in plasma protein carbonyl levels was seen in the probiotic capsule group (326.0 ± 308.9 vs. 251.0 ± 176.3 ng/mL, P = 0.02, the changes were similar among the three groups. In addition, significant within-group decreases in plasma iso prostaglandin were observed in the probiotic supplements group (111.9 ± 85.4 vs. 88.0 ± 71.0 pg/mL, P = 0.003 and in the probiotic yogurt group (116.3 ± 93.0 vs. 92.0 ± 66.0 pg/mL, P = 0.02, nevertheless there were no significant change among the three groups. Conclusions: Taken together, consumption of probiotic yogurt or multispecies probiotic capsule had beneficial effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress in petrochemical workers.

  2. The effects of probiotics on mental health and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in petrochemical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Jazayeri, Shima; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Solati, Zahra; Mohammadpour, Nakisa; Asemi, Zatollah; Adab, Zohre; Djalali, Mahmoud; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostafa; Eghtesadi, Shahryar

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects of probiotic yogurt and multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on mental health and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in petrochemical workers. The present randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 70 petrochemical workers. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups to receive 100 g/day probiotic yogurt + one placebo capsule (n = 25) or one probiotic capsule daily + 100 g/day conventional yogurt (n = 25) or 100 g/day conventional yogurt + one placebo capsule (n = 20) for 6 weeks. Mental health parameters including general health questionnaire (GHQ) and depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS) scores were measured. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and 6 weeks after the intervention to quantify hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. After 6 weeks of intervention, a significant improvement of GHQ was observed in the probiotic yogurt (18.0 ± 1.5 vs. 13.5 ± 1.9, P = 0.007) and in the probiotic capsule group (16.9 ± 1.8 vs. 9.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.001), as well as a significant improvement in DASS scores in the probiotic yogurt (23.3 ± 3.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.7, P = 0.02) and the probiotic capsule group (18.9 ± 3.2 vs. 9.4 ± 4.0, P = 0.006). However, there was no significant improvement in the conventional yogurt group (P = 0.05 for GHQ and P = 0.08 for DASS). The consumption of probiotic yogurt or a multispecies probiotic capsule had beneficial effects on mental health parameters in petrochemical workers.

  3. Uranium industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world`s largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market.

  4. Para-petroleum industry. International context and results of the 2004 French inquiry; L'industrie parapetroliere. Contexte international et resultats de l'enquete francaise 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document makes a brief overview of the international petroleum context, and then presents the results of the last inquiry allowing to precise the situation of the French para-petroleum industry in 2003 and to propose some estimations for 2004 according to the data supplied by companies. Content: 1 - international context: exploration-production (investments, investments evolution since 25 years, geophysics sector, drilling sector, sector of construction of offshore production equipments, regional analysis in the exploration-production domain, conclusions), refining and petrochemistry (economic context, refining industry, petrochemical industry, conclusions); 2 - the French para-petroleum industry: evolution of the global turnover, turnover share by sector of activity, offshore activity, foreign activity, manpower, conclusions. (J.S.)

  5. Evaluating the Cost-effectiveness of Pharmaceuticals in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Boothe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada adopted guidelines for the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in 1994, and a central process for drug assessment in 2003. The context and the way the issue reached the agenda in the two time periods differed. The guidelines were adopted amidst growing academic interest in methods for economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in Canada and internationally, and were first promoted by an entrepreneur from the pharmaceutical industry. The Common Drug Review (CDR was adopted in a context of broader intergovernmental negotiations over health reforms, and came onto the agenda as a policy option that addressed pharmaceuticals but avoided the fraught question of public insurance. Both processes aim to harmonize drug assessment in Canada and ensure that publicly reimbursed drugs are cost-effective. Neither is the subject of legislation or regulation, but the CDR enjoys greater uptake as a result of an intergovernmental agreement that all new drugs will be subject to its review. Evaluation of the CDR has been more robust, and finds a split in opinion among stakeholders concerning the CDR’s benefits. This article describes the reforms using information drawn from government and CCOHTA/CADTH documents, published reflections of participants and secondary literature, and nine expert interviews. It finds that although the CDR’s design and implementation respond to some of the shortcomings of the Canadian guidelines, there are still important unresolved tensions between harmonization and transparency in drug assessment, and new challenges regarding pharmaceutical pricing and use of evidence. The way these tensions are resolved has important implications for broader attempts to reform public drug coverage in Canada.

  6. Data on metals biomonitoring in the body of schoolchildren in the vicinity of a heavily industrialized site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Kafaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This data is obtained from analyzing the concentration of metals include Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Pb, and Zn in the urine of schoolchildren in Asalouyeh city in vicinity to a heavily industrialized site and comparison with a reference city. The significance of sex groups on urine metal level was evaluated through this data. The urinary content of metals was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Statistical analyze of data were done by Mann–Whitney test. The herein presented date could beneficial for health assessment of gas and petrochemical companies.

  7. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... State Canada, Inc., Phillips 66 Canada ULC, St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC, Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc., United Refining Company v. Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on..., Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc., and United Refining Company (Complainants) filed a formal complaint...

  8. An education and training programme for livestock transporters in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The transport of live animals is known to be stressful and therefore can have a direct impact on animal welfare and on food safety and quality. The livestock production and transport industries are increasingly interested in improving animal well-being. This can be accomplished through the use of careful animal handling and good driving practices before, during and after transport. The recently developed Certified Livestock Transporter (CLT training programme in Canada is aimed at ensuring livestock transporters are educated and have access to up-to-date information regarding the humane handling of animals. An overview of the CLT includes examples from the main training manual and species-specific modules. The relationship between education and improved animal welfare is discussed and possible future directions proposed. The examples provided may be modified by other users to develop new education and training programmes relevant to their geographic locations and livestock industries.

  9. Industrial diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  10. Anticoking Coatings for High Temperature Petrochemical Reactors Revêtements pour réacteurs pétrochimiques à cokage réduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropital F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coke deposition is a major problem for several refinery and petrochemical processes, among which steam cracking for ethylene production. Decreasing coking rates will reduce decoking frequency and will also decrease heat transfer degradation. For these processes, a means of reducing coking phenomena is the application of anticoking coatings on the reactor walls. For this purpose a methodology was developed under a CEC Brite-Euram project with steam cracking as the main application. A first selection of the coatings and their techniques of deposition was performed according to their composition (non catalytic compounds, their resistance to carburization and oxidation and also according to the nature of the substrate. The feasibility of coating deposition was studied for small diameter furnace tubes and the techniques were perfected in particular with respect to the physicochemical characterization of the coatings and their resistance during thermal cycling and coking-decoking cycles. For the thermal cycling and the coking evaluation, industrial conditions were reproduced as closely as possible. For coking tests, a microreactor with complete mixing of the gas phase was developed for temperatures up to 950°C. The coking behavior of the coated samples was compared with conventional refractory alloys: reduction of the coking rate by a factor of 3 was measured with the most promising coating. This work was completed by the kinetic modelling of coking on uncoated materials. La formation de coke est un problème crucial pour de nombreux procédés pétrochimiques. Ralentir le cokage permet de réduire la fréquence des décokages et de limiter la dégradation du transfert thermique. Un des moyens envisageables pour réduire le cokage est le dépôt d'un revêtement à la paroi de ces réacteurs. La mise au point de tels revêtements a fait l'objet d'un projet de recherche européen Brite-Euram, pour lequel le vapocraquage a été la principale

  11. Global Affairs Canada | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As a Government of Canada Crown Corporation, we are an important part of Canada's foreign affairs and development efforts. ... The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund is a CA$125 million initiative that aims to bring market-ready agriculture innovations to more people, improving lives and livelihoods.

  12. Canada's World : a Deliberative Dialogue | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Call for proposals for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 competition. IDRC, the Israel Science Foundation, the Azrieli Foundation, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research announce the call for proposals for the fourth round of the Joint Canada-Israel Health... View moreCall for proposals for the ...

  13. Canada's Changing Geography of Jobs and Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of globalization on the jobs and trade of Canada. Emphasizes new relationships with countries in Latin America and Africa. Notes the types of trade that Canada enjoys with these two areas and encourages expansion of business into them. (DSK)

  14. Mexico-Canada Knowledge Translation Partnership | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  15. The OECD Reports on Canada's Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, P.

    1976-01-01

    Extracts from a 1975 study undertaken by the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on the state of education in Canada is presented. The extracts focus on the vocational technical field and call for a vigorous and creative rethinking in the practical and technical education of Canada's youth. (Author/EC)

  16. Industry Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Angie Ngoc; Jeppesen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    regulation and greater industry pressure with regard to quality and safety of products than to labour standards in both sectors. Most factories in the TGF sector assembled products for global supply chains and were under pressure by industry norms, while most companies in the FBP sector produced......This chapter draws on a study investigating what corporate social responsibility (CSR) means to Vietnam’s small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) owner/managers and workers, using Scott’s three-pillar (norms, regulation, cognition) institutional framework. The findings are based on factory visits...... for the domestic market and were subjected to greater state regulation. Moreover, contributing critical perspectives to Scott’s framework, we found an overlap between the normative and the regulatory, and between the cognitive and the industry norms, which reveals how institutional and cultural pressures...

  17. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds – a former mining site in western Denmark. Exploring this industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different natural resources appear, we argue that what is even recognized as resources shifts over time...... according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. Natural resources emerge as feats of particular political and historical landscape configurations, rather than fixed dormant sediments waiting to be exploited. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness...... has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...

  18. Agua Milpa powers Mexico`s industrialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Friedrich [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    With the establishment of the new free trade area in the United States, Canada and Mexico, it is anticipated that a new industrial zone will develop in Northern Mexico, near to the U.S. border. To meet the resulting power demand, various projects, including the Agua Milpa hydroelectric power plant scheme, have been initiated. The planning, construction and commissioning of the plant, which has a total capacity of 3 x 341 MVA, is described. (UK)

  19. Fiabilidad industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Griful Ponsati, Eulàlia

    2001-01-01

    El presente libro ha sido escrito y editado para los estudios de segundo ciclo de Ingeniería de Organización Industrial que se imparten en la ETSEIT de la UPC. La materia de fiabilidad que se imparte en este texto es una introducción a las técnicas estadísticas para resolver cuestiones de fiabilidad industrial. Se estudian distintos modelos probabilísticos del tiempo de vida y se presentan distintas formas de recabar información y de estimar, en cada caso, la fiabilidad de los componentes y s...

  20. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...... analysis of shifting landscape projects and has an essential methodological corollary, namely that fieldwork must be improvisational, situated, and humble. Rather than finding the ‘right’ field materials for a canonical landscape history of Søby, we develop a method of ‘dustballing’ – being blown here...

  1. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  2. Paint removal activities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1993-03-01

    Paint removal activities currently under way in Canada include: research and development of laser paint stripping; development and commercialization of a new blasting medium based on wheat starch; commercialization of a new blasting medium and process using crystalline ice blasting for paint removal and surface cleaning; and the development of automated and robotic systems for paint stripping applications. A specification for plastic media blasting (PMB) of aircraft and aircraft components is currently being drafted by NDHQ for use by the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and contractors involved in coating removal for the CAF. Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) is studying the effects of various blast media on coating removal rates, and minimizing the possibility of damage to substrates other than aluminum such as graphite epoxy composite and Kevlar. The effects of plastic media blasting on liquid penetrant detection of fatigue cracks is also under investigation.

  3. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Forest insect pests in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The papers presented in this book cover the range of forest insect pest management activities in Canada. The first section contains papers on the current status of insect pests by region, including data on insect populations and extent of defoliation caused by the insect. The next section covers pest management technology, including the use of insecticides, insect viruses, fungal pathogens, growth regulators, antifeedants, pheromones, natural predators, and aerial spraying. The third section contains papers on the application of technology and equipment for forest pest control, and includes papers on the impacts of insecticides on the forest environment. The fourth section describes operational control programs by province. The final paper presents future strategies for the management of forest pests. An author index is included.

  5. Creative Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This journal welcomes contributions exploring the intrinsic features of the field of creative industries and activities of entrepreneurs who use creativity as the basis of their work; analyses of literature concerning evolutionary developments in companies and their adaptations linked to the management of creativity; and, finally, reviews of books in cutting-edge research on the evolution of the creative enterprise.

  6. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  8. Optimization of manufacturing parameters of 2 1/4 Cr- 1 Mo steel grade heavy forged shells for petrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badeau, J.P.; Bocquet, P.; Blondeau, R.; Poitrault, I.; Dumont, R.

    1988-04-01

    The increase of operating pressures and temperatures in petrochemistry leads to the development of optimized grades with improved properties. This paper describes the research works to optimize the chemical composition and the heat treatment of 2.25 Cr - 1 Mo grade, while remaining within the standards limits, along with an example of industrial manufacture. 13 refs, 8 tables, 8 figs.

  9. Optimization of a waste heat utilization network in an eco-industrial park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Song Hwa; Kim, Sang Hun; Yoon, Sung-Geun; Park, Sunwon [Department of Chemical and Bio-molecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea)

    2010-06-15

    Development of an eco-industrial park (EIP) has drawn attention as a promising approach seeking for the mutual benefit to the economy and environment. In recent years, the reduction of energy consumption has become a global necessity due to the high oil price and environmental regulations. In order to find energy strategies in an EIP, a framework to investigate waste heat of an industrial complex was proposed. A mathematical model was developed to synthesize a waste heat utilization network, including nearby companies and communities. A case study of an existing petro-chemical complex in Yeosu, South Korea showed that the total energy cost and the amount of waste heat of the region can be reduced by more than 88% and 82% from the present values, respectively, applying the suggested waste heat utilization networks. (author)

  10. Development of an activatable nanospheres tracer for use in industry and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Raquel Luiza M.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: rlmf@cdtn.br, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SEMAM/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Servico ao Meio Ambiente; Moura, Igor Felipe S., E-mail: igorfelipedx@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/PCTN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2015-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NP's) can act as tracers for the study of several transport phenomena in industrial practice and environmental processes provided their physical and chemical properties meet specific requirements dictated by the application. Silica-coated gold nanoparticles in the size interval from 20 to 200 nm can be produced by gamma-ray irradiation. Submitted to neutron bombardment in a nuclear reactor, they will convert gold nuclides into {sup 198}Au (E{sub γ} = 412 keV). These NP's can used as a tracer in oil fields, in petrochemical and refinery industrial processes in which conventional organic radioactive labeled compounds would not withstand, as well as in some hydrology and hydrogeology studies. (author)

  11. Pompes à chaleur dans l'industrie Heat Pumps in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benchecroun N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les pompes à chaleur pourraient permettre une réduction de la consommation énergétique de l'industrie française estimée à 3,5 Mtep à l'horizon 1990 (300 000 tep en 1982. Ces installations se situeront dans les domaines du chauffage des locaux industriels, du séchage à basse température, du réchauffage de liquides et de certaines opérations de fractionnement. Pour les utilisations dans des procédés industriels les secteurs concernés sont principalement les industries agroalimentaires et, à plus long terme, celui de la chimie (y compris pétrochimie. On constate que les ventes de machines de forte puissance restent faibles (environ 500 de 1973 à 1982. Le climat général d'investissement, la nécessité d'adapter les procédés à l'utilisation d'une pompe à chaleur, et le faible niveau de température Heat pumps could be used to reduce energy consumption by French industry which may attain 3. 5 million tOE by 1990 (300 000 tOE in 1982. Such installations will be used in the fields of industrial space heating, low-temperature drying, the heating of liquids and various fractionating operations. For uses in industrial processes, the sectors involved are mainly agribusiness and food industries and, in the longer range, the chemical industry (including petrochemicals. Sales of high-powered machinery are still low (about 500 from 1973 to 1982. The general investment climate, the need to adapt processes to the use of heat pumps, and the low temperature level (< 120 °C of the heat delivered are the main factors holding back the penetration of this type of equipment in industry. The use of a nonazeotropic mixture of fluids (particularly hydrocarbons gives compression heat pumps a flexibility of adaptation which should help remove these technicalobstacles and thus make it easier for heat pumps to penetrate, especially in the chemical sector.

  12. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...

  13. Biotechnology Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release ; distribution unlimited 13...to run research labs, bioreactors and manufacturing facilities affect all the companies involved. Aside from industry giants such as Monsanto or...chemical-based resources used in manufacturing processes (fuel, plastics and textiles ). The US is the world leader in GM crop production. In 2003 eleven

  14. Microscopic coal research in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebard, P.A.

    1955-01-01

    Since the industrial developments of Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, coal has been considered as the most important mineral wealth a country could possess. Coal was often referred to as King Coal, and it was not until around 1950 that its position as the major fuel for modern

  15. The study and industrial application of a new recycle decalcifying integrated technology for crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lailong, L.; Zhongting, M.; Shuyan, Y.; Chunge, N. [Petrochemical Research Inst., Karamay Petrochemical Co., PetroChina, Karamay, Xinjiang (China)

    2004-07-01

    The Petrochemical Research Institute of the Karamay Petrochemical Company has developed a novel and environmentally sound method to decalcify viscous crude oil using a CDCa decalcifying agent. The process has been tested on heavy crudes from the Karamay, Liaohe and Sudan oil fields. The complex extraction decalcification method solves bottleneck processing problems and addresses the issue of transference and dispersion between oil and solvent phases, increasing costs for decalcification and environmental concerns. This paper described the integrated technique with reference to the regeneration reaction temperature of CDCa, reaction time, separation effects of solid-liquid phases, and properties of the regeneration agent. It also described the crude property changes before and after decalcification as well as the property changes of the lubricant and coke before and after decalcification. When applied in an industrial electric crude oil desalting unit, the technology stabilized the decalcifying performance and enabled complete regeneration. In addition to reducing electricity requirements by more than 50 per cent, the technology reduces decalcifying costs by more than 70 per cent. The chemical oxygen demand of the sewage discharge is also reduced by 90 per cent compared to desalting systems.

  16. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck... Manifest, Customs Form 7512-B Canada 81/2. The driver shall present the manifest in four copies to U.S...

  17. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  18. Cost Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination for Rotavirus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Coyle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.

  19. Opportunities for manufactured housing in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bairstow, Dale

    1985-01-01

    In the fall of 1984, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation commissioned this study because it wanted to find out why manufactured housing appeared to be increasing in importance in certain foreign...

  20. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  1. The future of Canada's radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensler, Bryan M.

    2017-11-01

    Through involvement in CHIME, ALMA, the Jansky VLA and the Murchison Widefield Array, Canada is well placed in current radio astronomy facilities and the future looks even brighter, with strategic interest in the SKA and the Next Generation VLA.

  2. Driver's Licences for the handicapped in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg; Clarke, Bryan R.

    1985-01-01

    The article reviews Canada's Guide for Physicians in Determining Fitness to Drive a Vehicle and then considers sections of provincial motor vehicle acts that regulate the issuance of licenses to the handicapped. (CL)

  3. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  4. Comprehensive school health in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugelers, Paul J; Schwartz, Margaret E

    2010-01-01

    The Canadian education system is among the best in the world academically. In contrast, students' (children and youth) eating and activity levels are so poor that they have led to prevalence rates of overweight that are among the highest in the world. Given the enormous public health burden associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, Canada needs to address this health risk. Comprehensive school health (CSH) is a promising approach to promoting healthy eating and active living (HEAL). This article provides a review of CSH and discusses its four essential elements: 1) teaching and learning; 2) social and physical environments; 3) healthy school policy; and 4) partnerships and services. It also provides a common understanding of the implementation and broader benefits of CSH, which, in addition to health, include student learning and self-esteem. The article further discusses some complexities of a rigorous evaluation of CSH, which comprises proof of implementation, impact and positive outcome. Though such an evaluation has yet to be conducted, some studies did confirm successful implementation, and another study observed positive outcomes. Rigorous evaluation is urgently needed to provide a stronger evidence base of the benefits of CSH for learning, self-esteem and disease prevention. This evidence is essential to justify devoting more school time to promote HEAL and more resources to implement and support CSH to the benefit of both learning and health.

  5. Export opportunities for Czech companies in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Otta, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the theses is to analyze economic cooperation of Czech republic and Canada. There is a particular information about Canadian economical and political setting as well as local business environment. The theses places emphasis on how to help Czech exporters trading with Canada, and gives complete overview of opportunities for export, entrance to the market and helps to understand local business customs.

  6. The Beginning Farmers’ Problem In Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliot, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about beginning farmers in Canada derive from trends in data that show that the population of farmers and the number of young farmers are declining. This paper discusses and analyses issues regarding the constraints and opportunities beginning farmers in Canada face. The discussion covers whether issues peculiar to beginning farmers are, from an economic policy point of view, a source of concern and whether there are motives for government intervention. The main conclusions are 1) th...

  7. The Factors Affecting the Adoption of Enviromental Management Accounting in the Oil Refining and Petrochemical Companies with Structural Equation Modeling Aprpoach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Karimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, businesses must focus on profits on the one hand and social and environmental issues on the other hand to make balance between them. Conservation and sustainability are increasingly dependent on observance of corporate social responsibilities. For this reason, business units report on their sustainability and environmental accounting. The aim of this study was to examine and model the factors influencing the use of environmental management accounting tools from the points of view of financial managers and assistants who are in the oil refining and petrochemical companies. Method: The method used in this study was based on a descriptive survey and its design was quasi-experimental. For the field of study, a questionnaire including 5 general and 31 specific questions was used. The population consisted of financial administrators and assistants in oil refining and petrochemical companies, a subsidiary of the national oil company. There was no sampling method used and we tested the whole society including 182 people. To evaluate the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach’s Alpha and spilit-half were used. The measurement tools used in the study were reliable and none of the questions was removed. One sample t-test, Pearson correlation, confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis, structural equation modeling, two sample T-test and analysis of variance were performed by using LISREL and SPSS software. Results: The result of this test by using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation test showed that the significance level of all the factors were larger than 1/96 and all the routes specified in the model were significant. Culture of the society in dealing with environmental issues, with a significance level of 5/54, had the greatest impact among the factors influencing the use of environmental management accounting tools. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it is recommended that, by using

  8. Energy efficiency opportunity guide in the lime industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The lime industry processes limestone, an abundant inorganic mineral, for metallurgical, industrial and chemical, environmental, and construction applications. The energy the industry uses results in greenhouse gas emissions and the Canadian Lime Institute, in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada, sponsored the development of this guidebook which is intended to provide ideas for saving energy in the lime industry. This document is a practical source of information and can be used to develop self-audit and evaluation techniques to monitor energy usage. The report first provides an overview of the lime industry, then presents its energy costs. General energy efficiency methodologies are highlighted and, in conclusion, advice on improving energy efficiency in general and specifically for lime industry operations is given. This guidebook provides useful information for lime industry operators who are trying to improve the energy efficiency of their operations.

  9. The regulation of oil and gas activity in northern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.W. [Lawson Lundell, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The legal aspects regarding Aboriginal rights and the duty by the petroleum industry to consult First Nations regarding treaty rights was discussed with reference to land claim issues in the Yukon and Northwest Territories. The paper presents an update on the status and devolution of responsibilities from the federal government to the territorial governments. The paper also described the procedures in place for the disposition of oil and gas interests, and access to Crown-owned subsurface resources on First Nations' lands. The author described the principle terms of the land claim agreements with Yukon First Nations as set out in the Umbrella Final Agreement (UFA). Other topics of discussion included access to settlement land, land management processes, development assessment, land use planning, water management, and transboundary land claims agreements. The Canada-Yukon Oil and Gas Accord Implementation Act gave the responsibility of managing oil and gas resources in the Yukon to the Yukon government. Administrative procedures for minerals, water forestry and land management remain with the federal government. In the Northwest Territories, Crown lands and resources, including oil and gas resources in the Northwest Territories are owned by Canada and subject to regulation under federal laws. 170 refs.

  10. Carbon monoxide and methane over Canada: July - August 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriss, R. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Wade, L.; Bartlett, K. B.; Talbot, R. W.; Browell, E. V.; Barrie, L. A.; Hill, G. F.; Burney, L. G.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) were measured in the 0.15- to 6-km portion of the troposphere over subarctic and boreal landscapes of midcontinent and eastern Canada during July - August 1990. In the mid-continent region, Arctic air entering the region was characterized by relatively uniform CO concentrations (86-108 parts per billion by volume (ppbv)) and CH4 concentrations (1729-1764 ppbv). Local biomass burning and long-range transport of CO into the area from industrial/urban sources and distant fires did frequently produce enhanced and variable concentrations. Emissions of CH4 from the Hudson Bay lowlands was the primary source for enhanced and variable concentrations, especially at altitudes of 0.15-1 km. In eastern Canada, most of the observed variability in CO and CH4 was similar in origin to the phenomena described for the midcontinent region. However, unexpectedly low concentrations of CO (51 ppbv) and CH4 (1688 ppbv) were measured in the midtroposphere on several flights. Combined meteorological and chemical data indicated that the low CO-CH4 events were the result of long-range transport of tropical Pacific marine air to subarctic latitudes.

  11. Fire Regime along Latitudinal Gradients of Continuous to Discontinuous Coniferous Boreal Forests in Eastern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanne Portier; Sylvie Gauthier; Alain Leduc; Dominique Arseneault; Yves Bergeron

    2016-01-01

    Fire is the main disturbance in North American coniferous boreal forests. In Northern Quebec, Canada, where forest management is not allowed, the landscape is gradually constituted of more opened lichen woodlands. Those forests are discontinuous and show a low regeneration potential resulting from the cumulative effects of harsh climatic conditions and very short fire intervals. In a climate change context, and because the forest industry is interested in opening new territories to forest man...

  12. Local Authorities’ contribution on Gastronomy Tourism Development: the case of Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Karagiannis, Dimitris; Metaxas, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    The role of Local Government (LG) in achieving tourism development is extremely important. A characteristic example is the province of Ontario in Canada, which managed with the assistance of the Ministries of Tourism and Culture and with the cooperation of the private sector, to create an effective tourism development tool promote the region through its gastronomy - Ontario Culinary Tourism Alliance (OCTA), a non-profit, industry driven organization which leads the implementation of the provi...

  13. Croatian Language Maintenance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Petrović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the topic of language maintenance has received considerable attention from linguists around the world, there are still many aspects of this language-contact phenomenon that could be examined further. This paper aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge by exploring the state of Croatian as a heritage language in Canada. The aim of the paper is two-fold. The first is to describe the demographic characteristics of the Croatian community by investigating the number of people of Croatian descent and the number of Croatian speakers in Canada. The second, and more specific, aim of the paper is to provide an account of the state of Croatian as a minority language and examine the extent of language maintenance in the community. To accomplish the first objective, Canadian census data (1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 was analyzed, with special focus on linguistic census data (number and age of Croatian speakers in Canada, mother tongue of people of Croatian descent, language most used at home, etc.. To accomplish the second objective, census data was supplemented with data from a questionnaire-based survey completed by members of the Croatian community in Toronto. The survey was completed by 220 participants; 110 first-generation Croatian Canadians and 110 second-generation Croatian Canadians. Two versions of the questionnaire were designed, one for first-generation participants and the other for second-generation participants. The great majority of items in the two versions were identical; each version contained questions about demographic characteristics, language use in everyday life, and self-perceived language proficiency in English and Croatian. The majority of questions were of a closed type (multiple-choice questions and rating scales, but there were also some open-ended questions, so as to give participants the opportunity to express their viewpoint or comment on certain issues. Questions were written in both Croatian and English

  14. Industry X.0 : Reimaging industrial development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zachar, H

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses how Industry X.0 is steadily rising in importance to industry executives. A framework for Industry X.0, as well as several focus areas, are supplied....

  15. Industry X.0 : Reimaging industrial development.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zachar, H

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses how Industry X.0 is steadily rising in importance to industry executives. A framework for Industry X.0, as well as several focus areas, are supplied....

  16. Reimagining Haj Khalil v. Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Bahdi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of cultural competence for tort law by analyzing the Federal Court’s decision in Haj Khalil v. Canada. Given that this symposium in honour of Rose Voyvodic’s life and work is entitled “Re-Imagining Access to Justice,” this paper asks “how do the principles of cultural competence allow us to think about the facts of the Haj Khalil differently. In particular, what would a cause in fact analysis look like if it were informed by the principles of cultural competence?” My analysis proceeds by “reading the silences” or focusing on the unstated assumptions and unexplored elements of Haj Khalil’s story to bring into focus factors relevant to factual causation which remain largely unexplored or undervalued by the Federal Court. An examination of the facts that framed Haj Khalil`s claim against immigration officials through a culturally competent lens would open the possibility of a different understanding of causation as it arises on the facts of the case. While Canadian courts have emphasized the importance of social context for fair judgment, they have not fully come to grips with the implications of social context for judicial decision-making. This is particularly the case within negligence law which remains vexed by the need to maintain an objective standard while simultaneously recognizing the importance of context and circumstance to particular claims. Cet article souligne l’importance de la compétence culturelle pour le droit de la responsabilité civile délictuelle en analysant le jugement Haj Khalil c. Canada de la Cour Fédérale. Vu que ce symposium en honneur de la vie et de l’oeuvre de Rose Voyvodic est intitulé « Re-Imagining Access to Justice», cet article pose la question «comment les principes de compétence culturelle nous permettent-ils de concevoir différemment les faits de Haj Khalil. En particulier, comment se présenterait la causalité si l’analyse des faits

  17. Effects of financial crisis on the industry sector of Chinese stock market — from a perspective of complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yanhua; Hao, Weiwei; Shen, Ying; Tang, Minxuan; Niu, Lei

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we use mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between 23 industry sectors of Shanghai stock market and construct corresponding correlation network to analyze the shock of 2008 financial crisis on industry sectors. The obtained meaningful facts are as follows. First, such crisis has only a limited impact on leading industries such as Manufacturing, Commercial trade and Machinery & Equipment, which still play an important role in Chinese economy. Second, the crisis badly attacks China's export industries like Electronics, Wood & Furniture and Textile & Clothing. The damage further hurts other industries, and then export industries' influence becomes larger. Third, the crisis adversely impacts the import industries like Petrochemical, Metal & Nonmetal and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. While due to the stimulation of macroeconomic policies, the influence of crisis on import industries is limited. Similarly, due to relatively strict capital control and the macroeconomic policies stimulating the domestic demand, those industries like Construction, Real Estate and Financial Services are slightly wounded. All these findings suggest that Chinese government should transform from the external demand to the domestic consumption to sustain economic growth.

  18. Les réacteurs à membranes : possibilités d'application dans l'industrie pétrolière et pétrochimique Membrane Reactors: Possibilities of Application in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Guy C.

    2006-01-01

    Cet article fait le point sur l'état de la recherche dans le domaine des réacteurs chimiques avec séparation par membrane intégrée et de leur applications dans le domaine du raffinage et de la pétrochimie. Trois applications potentiellement intéressantes sont identifiées et, pour chacune, les avantages de l'utilisation d'un réacteur à membrane sont discutés. Ce sont : la déshydrogénation du propane en propylène, la déshydrogénation d'un naphtène cyclohexanique et le vaporéformage du gaz natur...

  19. Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, Anar S.; Tracy, Bliss L.

    2008-08-01

    In Canada, nuclear and radiological regulatory responsibilities are shared between the provinces/territories and the federal government. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates nuclear fuel cycle materials and man-made radionuclides under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (2000). The provinces and territories regulate NORM arising from industrial activities, not involving the nuclear fuel cycle materials. Present guideline—Canadian Guidelines for the Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)—was published in 2000 in order to bring uniformity to the management of NORM-related procedures to provide adequate radiation protection for workers and the general public. The basic premise of these guidelines is that the NORM-related activities should not be posing any greater hazard than those activities regulated under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act; these concepts are described in this paper.

  20. Canadian Adjuvant Initiative Workshop, March 26-27, 2013--Ottawa, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Lakshmi; Twine, Susan; Gerdts, Volker; Barreto, Luis; Richards, James C

    2014-01-01

    Novel adjuvants hold the promise for developing effective modern subunit vaccines capable of appropriately modulating the immune response against challenging diseases such as those caused by chronic and/or intracellular pathogens and cancer. Over the past decade there has been intensive research into discovering new adjuvants, however, their translation into routine clinical use is lagging. To stimulate discussion and identify opportunities for networking and collaboration among various stakeholders, a Canadian Adjuvant Initiative Workshop was held in Ottawa. Sponsored by the National Research Council Canada, Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Vaccine Industry Committee, a two day workshop was held that brought together key Canadian and international stakeholders in adjuvant research from industry, academia and government. To discover innovation gaps and unmet needs, the presentations covered a board range of topics in adjuvant development; criteria for selection of lead adjuvant candidates from an industry perspective, discovery research across Canada, bioprocessing needs and challenges, veterinary vaccines, Canadian vaccine trial capabilities, the Canadian regulatory framework and WHO formulation laboratory experience. The workshop concluded with a discussion on the opportunity to create a Canadian Adjuvant Development Network. This report details the key discussion points and steps forward identified for facilitating adjuvant development research in Canada.