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Sample records for canada parental factors

  1. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    OpenAIRE

    Gina Ogilvie; Maureen Anderson; Fawziah Marra; Shelly McNeil; Karen Pielak; Meena Dawar; Marilyn McIvor; Thomas Ehlen; Simon Dobson; Deborah Money; David M Patrick; Monika Naus

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during...

  2. Parental Vaccine Hesitancy in Quebec (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Zhou, Zhou; Deceuninck, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: "Vaccine hesitancy" is a concept frequently used in the discourse around vaccine acceptance. This study aims to contribute to the ongoing reflections on tools and indicators of vaccine hesitancy by providing results of a knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) survey conducted among parents. Methods: Data were collected in 2014 through a computer-assisted telephone interview survey administered to a sample of parents of children aged between 2 months and 17 years of age. Results: The majority of the 589 parents included in the analyses agreed on the importance of vaccination to protect their children’s health and to prevent the spread of diseases in the community. The majority of the parents (81%) reported that their child had received all doses of recommended vaccines and 40% of parents indicated having hesitated to have their child vaccinated. Fear of adverse events and low perceived vulnerability of the child or severity of the disease were the most frequent reasons mentioned by these vaccine-hesitant parents. In multivariate analyses, KAB items remaining significantly associated both with an incomplete vaccination status of the child and parents’ vaccine hesitancy were: not thinking that it is important to have the child vaccinated to prevent the spreading of diseases in the community; not trusting the received vaccination information and having felt pressure to have the child vaccinated. Discussion: Further researches will be needed to better understand when, how and why these beliefs are formed in order to prevent the onset of vaccine hesitancy. PMID:27019766

  3. Parenting Profiles versus Parenting Factors and Adolescents’ Psychological Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan Dwairy; Mona Fayad; Naima Benyaqoub

    2013-01-01

    The association between parenting and child’s psychological states has been studied mainly according toBaumrind’s model of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles or according to Rohner’sacceptance-rejection theory. This study, in contrast, rests on the assumption that since parenting is a complex anddynamic process, it is better studied in terms of parenting profiles comprising several factors than via one or twoparenting factors. We administered a questionnaire measuri...

  4. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Pereira, Jennifer A.; Jeffrey C Kwong; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Margaret L Russell; ,

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Participants Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age child...

  5. Factors Related to Union Formation among Single Mothers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourdais, Ciline; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Using data on 1,257 women from a 1984 survey, attempts to identify factors associated with union formation among single mothers in Canada. Found that the age of mothers at the beginning of their first episode of single parenthood appears closely related to their chances of forming a union. Other results are discussed. (RJM)

  6. Parenting practices and their relevance to child behaviors in Canada and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mowei; Guo, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed that parents in different cultures endorse different child-rearing practices. Studies in the West suggest that there is a cluster of behavioral characteristics in children that are linked with each type of parenting styles. Mixed results, however, were found in non-Western countries. This study examined (1) parenting practices in Canadian and Chinese mothers, and (2) the relevance between parenting practices and child behaviors in Canada and China. Forty Canadian children (average age = 5.40) and 39 Chinese children (average age = 4.84) and their mothers participated in the study. Information on maternal authoritative and authoritarian behaviors and children's behaviors, including coercive request, polite request, and assertiveness, was obtained from observations of mother-child interactions in a laboratory situation. The results indicated that Chinese mothers were less authoritative and more authoritarian than Canadian mothers. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were found on the associations between maternal parenting practices and child behaviors. PMID:20132462

  7. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada ranks ninth in the world in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Canada currently releases 1.9 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of fossil fuels, production and treatment of oil and natural gas, and cement manufacturing. Canadian carbon dioxide emissions doubled between 1956 and 1986, growing at an average rate of about 2.4 percent per year. They reached a peak in 1979 and have since fluctuated within 10 percent of that amount. Despite the significant increase in emissions, Canada's share of global carbon dioxide emissions has declined slightly since 1956. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks fourth among nations in carbon dioxide emissions, with about 4.1 tons in 1986. This rate compares with the U.S. average of 5 tons per capita emissions have grown by about 25 percent since 1956. Canada, though a relatively small source of greenhouse gases, has been deeply involved in finding ways to reduce the risk of climatic change. The nation fortunately possesses opportunities to reduce this risk by saving energy, developing nonfossil energy resources, and facilitating international cooperation for capturing these opportunities worldwide

  8. Influence of Parenting Factors on Childhood Social Anxiety: Direct Observation of Parental Warmth and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rork, Kristine E.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the association of parenting behaviors and social anxiety in children. Three parental factors--including parental socialization, control, and warmth--were investigated in a sample of 31 two-parent families. Rather than solely relying upon retrospective questionnaires, this study incorporated direct…

  9. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear research and development in Canada started in the 1940s as a responsibility of the federal government. An engineering design team was established at Chalk River, Ontario, to carry out research on heavy water moderated lattices. A zero-energy heavy water moderated research reactor, ZEEP, was built and achieved criticality in September 1945; it was in fact the first human-made operating reactor outside the USA. In 1947, the 20 MW heavy water moderated national research experimental reactor (NRX) started up. It served as one of the most valuable research reactors in the world, and provided the basis for Canada's development of the very successful CANDU series of pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) for power generation. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) was established in 1952 as a federal Crown Corporation. It has both a public and a commercial mandate. AECL has overall responsibility for Canada's nuclear research and development programme (its public mandate) as well as for the Canadian reactor design (CANDU), engineering and marketing programme (its commercial mandate). Nuclear energy in Canada is a $5 billion per-year industry, representing about 150 firms, 21 000 direct jobs and 10 000 indirect jobs, and ∼$1.2 billion in exports - the value to the country's economy is much higher than the research and development funding provided by the federal government. The CANDU nuclear reactor system was developed by AECL in close collaboration with the Canadian nuclear industry, and in particular with Ontario Hydro (now Ontario Power Generation). Currently, Canada operates 17 CANDU reactors, which contribute 16% of the country's current electricity consumption. There are also 12 CANDU reactors operating abroad (in Argentina, China, India, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Romania). AECL is now developing the 'third generation plus' Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000), and also has the leading role internationally in developing the Generation IV

  10. Post-Secondary Attendance by Parental Income in the U.S. and Canada: What Role for Financial Aid Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Belley, Philippe; Frenette, Marc; Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of tuition and need-based financial aid policies for family income - post-secondary (PS) attendance relationships. We first conduct a parallel empirical analysis of the effects of parental income on PS attendance for recent high school cohorts in both the U.S. and Canada using data from the 1997 Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and Youth in Transition Survey. We estimate substantially smaller PS attendance gaps by parental income in Cana...

  11. Factor associated with stress among parents of children with autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the factors associated with stress among parents of children with autism. Study Design: A cross-sectional field survey study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Psychology, GC University, Lahore, from September 2012 to November 2013. Methodology: The sample consisted of 100 parents (50 mothers and 50 fathers) of children with autism. Measures of childhood autism rating, sense of coherence, parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress, and demographic data sheet were completed by the parents in outdoor units of children hospital, institutes, and at their homes. Results: Significant correlations were found between severity of impairment and parenting stress (r = .53, p < .01), between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress (r = -.35, p < .01, and between sense of coherence and parenting stress (r = -.26, p < .05). No significant gender difference emerged in terms of parenting self-efficacy, sense of coherence, and parenting stress. Results of stepwise regression partially supported our hypothesized model, as severity of child impairment, and parenting self-efficacy appeared as significant predictors of parenting stress (R2 = .35). However, there was no evidence of role of demographic variables in the parenting stress. Conclusion: The severity of child's impairment emerged as the most salient risk factor for parenting stress; however, it was concluded that parents ability and confidence in their competence of parenting a child in challenging situations may reduce their stress. (author)

  12. Rethinking "Harmonious Parenting" Using a Three-Factor Discipline Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Diana Baumrind's typology of parenting is based on a two-factor model of "control" and "warmth". Her recommended discipline style, labeled "authoritative parenting", was constructed by taking high scores on these two factors. A problem with authoritative parenting is that it does not allow for flexible and differentiated responses to discipline…

  13. Parental Personality Factors in Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinetta, John J.

    1978-01-01

    Demonstrated that abusing parents differ from nonabusing parents in personality variables. Mothers differed in relationship to one's parents, tendency to become upset, tendency toward loneliness, expectations of one's children, inability to separate parental and child feelings, and fear of external threat. Abusers scored at the highest risk levels…

  14. Parental Expression of Disappointment: Should It Be a Factor in Hoffman's Model of Parental Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Renee B.; Gibbs, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The authors addressed whether parental expression of disappointment should be included as a distinct factor in M. L. Hoffman's (2000) well-established typology of parenting styles (induction, love withdrawal, power assertion). Hoffman's 3-factor model, along with a more inclusive 4-factor model (induction, love withdrawal, power assertion, and…

  15. Is Nonsuicidal Self Injury Associated With Parenting and Family Factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Martin, Graham; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the association of parenting and family factors with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in preadolescents. A sample of 1,439 preadolescents and their parents were assessed by means of (a) adolescent-reported parenting behaviors (support and behavioral/psychological control

  16. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  17. Evidence for the alkaline nature of parental carbonatite melts at Oka complex in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Kamenetsky, Vadim S; Simonetti, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's sole active carbonatite volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania), is presently erupting unique natrocarbonatite lavas that are characterized by Na- and K-bearing magmatic carbonates of nyerereite [Na2Ca(CO3)2] and gregoryite [(Na2,K2,Ca)CO3]. Contrarily, the vast majority of older, plutonic carbonatite occurrences worldwide are dominated by Ca-(calcite) or Mg-(dolomite)-rich magmatic carbonates. Consequently, this leads to the conundrum as to the composition of primary, mantle-derived carbonatite liquids. Here we report a detailed chemical investigation of melt inclusions associated with intrusive (plutonic) calcite-rich carbonatites from the ~120 Ma carbonatite complex of Oka (Canada). Melt inclusions are hosted by magnetite (Fe3O4), which crystallizes through a significant period of carbonatite melt solidification. Our results indicate mineral assemblages within the melt inclusions that are consistent with those documented in natrocarbonatite lavas. We propose therefore that derivation of alkali-enriched parental carbonatite melts has been more prevalent than that preserved in the geological record. PMID:24173270

  18. Factors influencing the fertility choices of child immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2014-03-01

    We analysed the fertility of women who migrated to Canada before reaching age 19, using the 20 per cent sample of the Canadian censuses from 1991 to 2006. Fertility increases with age at immigration, and is particularly high for those immigrating in late adolescence. This pattern prevails regardless of the country of origin, and of whether the mother tongue of the migrants was an official language in Canada. The fertility of those for whom it was an official language is always lower on average than of those for whom it was not, but there does not seem to be a critical age at which the fertility of the former and the latter starts to diverge. Formal education has an effect: the fertility of immigrants who arrived in Canada at any age before adulthood and who were or became college graduates is similar to that of their native peers. An appendix to this paper is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2013.802007. PMID:23800074

  19. Parent-Caregiver Relationships among Beginning Caregivers in Canada: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantin, Gilles; Plante, Isabelle; Coutu, Sylvain; Brunson, Liesette

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of establishing meaningful parent-caregiver relationships, little is known about these dyadic relationships among beginning caregivers, who often feel insufficiently prepared to build successful alliances with parents. The present study examined the congruence between parents' and beginning caregivers' perceptions of their…

  20. Risk factors of abuse of parents by their ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Peyman

    2010-01-01

    It is interesting that there is scant research of abuse of parents by their children and no study was found on the abuse of parents by their attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Seventy-four children and adolescents suffering from ADHD and their parents were interviewed. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. A questionnaire was developed to assess the children's abuse toward parents. More than half of the parents are suffering from at least one of the forms of abuse by their ADHD children. Scores of parental abuse were not related to gender. Different types of abuse correlated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), tic, and separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Fathers' and mothers' age, the level of education, and type of occupation were not risk factors of the abuse scores. ODD and mother's major depressive disorder were predictors of the abuse. There was a very disturbing high rate of abuse by children against parents. There is an interrelation of different forms of abuse. This study contributes to increasing awareness on the abuse of parents by their ADHD children. PMID:19820986

  1. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom Jeannette; Leigh Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  2. Parental care by Black-backed Woodpeckers in burned and unburned habitats of eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Junior A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nest care is an important parental contribution to offspring. In woodpeckers, males often have an equal or greater contribution to parental care, including nest sanitation. The Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus is a North American boreal woodpecker for which both parents are highly involved in parental care. By modifying their territory size in optimal and suboptimal habitat (e.g. burned vs unburned habitats, this species seems to have a large tolerance to variation in prey abundance at a landscape scale, and could provide a useful biological model to investigate the adaptability of parent care, particularly to relative contribution of each sex. We investigated sex- and habitat-specific parental care behaviour of Black-backed Woodpeckers at 9 nests by daily monitoring during the nestling period. Specifically, we examined two different aspects of parental care: 1 time spent at the nest, and 2 food delivery. We also compared relative contribution between sexes to nest sanitation. Despite our small sample sizes, our results show that males are more involved in nest sanitation and spend longer at the nest, and both sexes exhibit higher food delivery rates and spend less time at the nest in burned habitat. This latter result may suggest that greater effort is needed to provision Black-backed Woodpecker nestlings in unburned habitat compared to burned habitat.

  3. Predicting Parenting Stress in Families of Children with ADHD: Parent and Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theule, Jennifer; Wiener, Judith; Rogers, Maria A.; Marton, Imola

    2011-01-01

    We examined parental ADHD symptoms and contextual (parental education, social support, marital status) predictors of parent domain parenting stress (parental distress) as a function of child ADHD symptoms in a sample of 95 parents of 8 to 12 year-old children with and without ADHD. Parents' perceptions of parental distress and social support were…

  4. Human embryonic growth : Periconception parental and environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van Uitert (Evelyne Mariët)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__abstract__ Prenatal growth in the second half of pregnancy and subsequent birth weight have been studied for decades and have been shown to be associated not only with pregnancy outcome but also with health and disease in adult life. Many parental and environmental factors during

  5. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  6. A three-factor agricultural production function: The case of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Echevarria

    1997-01-01

    This paper estimates a constant returns to scale agricultural production function with just threeinputs: land, labour and capital -the basic factors of production. It uses the shares approach thatSolow used in 1957 and very disaggregated Canadian data. A constant returns to scale function ofthe three basic factors of production is a useful tool for macroeconomic, and growth anddevelopment studies. The main results of this paper are that, first, in Canada agriculture is lesslabour intensive th...

  7. Is Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Associated with Parenting and Family Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Martin, Graham; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the association of parenting and family factors with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in preadolescents. A sample of 1,439 preadolescents and their parents were assessed by means of (a) adolescent-reported parenting behaviors (support and behavioral/psychological control), (b) parent-reported parenting behaviors…

  8. Parenting and maternal substance addiction: factors affecting utilization of child protective services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Karine; Laventure, Myriam; Bertrand, Karine

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify which personal, familial, environmental, and social factors are associated with the utilization of child protection services, including parental support programs, by mothers who misuse illicit substances. Participants are 56 mothers with substance use and addiction-related problems, of whom 32 were receiving, voluntarily or otherwise, child protection services while 24 mothers had psychotropic drug use-related problems but were receiving no psychosocial services. Data were collected in the province of Quebec, Canada, between August 1998 and August 1999 . Results indicate that mothers who receive services are younger, have fewer interpersonal resources, live in lower socioeconomic conditions, and have greater family dysfunction (less parental supervision and more inconsistent discipline) than mothers who do not receive services from child protection agencies. However, there are no significant differences between groups with regards to maternal childhood trauma, psychological distress, antisocial behavior and the quality of the parent-child bond. The results of this study suggest that although both groups misuse drugs and have personal difficulties, some mothers will not need support from social services to take care of their children. Implications of these findings for prevention are discussed. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:20590376

  9. Factors Associated with Parent-Child (Dis)Agreement on Child Behavior and Parenting Problems in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined familial and cultural factors predicting parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems. Immigrant Chinese parents (89.7% mothers; M age = 44.24 years) and their children (62 boys; 57.9%) between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9) completed measures of parent punitive behavior and child…

  10. Effects of Single Parenting on Adolescent Academic Achievement: Establishing a Risk and Protective Factor Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Sarah

    The effects of single parenting are explored in this paper. Single parenting is viewed in the overall framework of the risk and protective factor model, in which single parenting is viewed as one risk factor that can lead to unsuccessful adolescent academic outcomes. A historical perspective of single parenting is offered, with a focus on how such…

  11. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  12. Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Elementary School Children: Child Social-Cognitive Factors and Parenting Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Oi Poon, Scarlet Fung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined child cognitive-behavioural factors and parenting factors related to childhood depressive symptoms. Results indicate that positive and negative attributional styles were protective and vulnerable factors of depression symptoms, respectively, and the attribution-depression link was mediated by self-esteem and coping responses.…

  13. Human embryonic growth : Periconception parental and environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Uitert, Evelyne Mariët

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__abstract__ Prenatal growth in the second half of pregnancy and subsequent birth weight have been studied for decades and have been shown to be associated not only with pregnancy outcome but also with health and disease in adult life. Many parental and environmental factors during pregnancy have been shown to influence birth weight. Yet although the embryonic period is perhaps the most important period of prenatal development as this is the period in which organogenesis is co...

  14. Users’ perspectives of key factors to implementing electronic health records in Canada: a Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    McGinn Carrie; Gagnon Marie-Pierre; Shaw Nicola; Sicotte Claude; Mathieu Luc; Leduc Yvan; Grenier Sonya; Duplantie Julie; Abdeljelil Anis; Légaré France

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Interoperable electronic health record (EHR) solutions are currently being implemented in Canada, as in many other countries. Understanding EHR users’ perspectives is key to the success of EHR implementation projects. This Delphi study aimed to assess in the Canadian context the applicability, the importance, and the priority of pre-identified factors from a previous mixed-methods systematic review of international literature. Methods A three-round Delphi study was held wi...

  15. Workplace System Factors of Obstetric Nurses in Northeastern Ontario, Canada: Using a Work Disability Prevention Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; Larivère, Michel; Rukholm, Ellen; Belanger-Gardner, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship nursing personal and workplace system factors (work disability) and work ability index scores in Ontario, Canada. Methods A total of 111 registered nurses were randomly selected from the total number of registered nurses on staff in the labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum areas of four northeastern Ontario hospitals. Using a stratified random design approach, 51 participants were randomly selected in four northeastern ...

  16. Factors associated with inability to access addiction treatment among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Prangnell, Amy; Daly-Grafstein, Ben; Dong, Huiru; Nolan, Seonaid; Milloy, M-J; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Hayashi, Kanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Addiction treatment is an effective strategy used to reduce drug-related harm. In the wake of recent developments in novel addiction treatment modalities, we conducted a longitudinal data analysis to examine factors associated with inability to access addiction treatment among a prospective cohort of persons who inject drugs (PWID). Methods Data were derived from two prospective cohorts of PWID in Vancouver, Canada, between December 2005 and November 2013. Using multivariate genera...

  17. Firm, market, and regulatory factors influencing innovation and commercialization in Canada's functional food and nutraceutical sector

    OpenAIRE

    Deepananda Herath; John Cranfield; Spencer Henson; David Sparling

    2008-01-01

    Factors influencing the development and commercialization of functional food and nutraceutical (FFN) products are explored. Count data models are developed to relate firm, market, and regulatory covariates to the number of FFN product lines firms have under development, on the market, and in total. Canadian firm-level innovation data were taken from Statistics Canada (2003) Functional Food and Nutraceutical Survey. Firms involved in product development|scale-up had more product lines in total...

  18. Influence of Risk Factors for Child Disruptive Behavior on Parent Attendance at a Preventive Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…

  19. Using Epidemiological Survey Data to Examine Factors Influencing Participation in Parent-Training Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Dyah Ramadewi, Mikha; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based parent-training programmes aim to reduce child behaviour problems; however, the effects of these programmes are often limited by poor participation rates. This study proposes a model of parent, child and family factors related to parental participation in parenting interventions. A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to…

  20. Perceptions of the Acceptability of Parent Training among Chinese Immigrant Parents: Contributions of Cultural Factors and Clinical Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Judy; Yeh, May; McCabe, Kristen; Lau, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Parent training (PT) is well established for reducing child externalizing problems; however, lower rates of engagement in PT among ethnic minority/immigrant families have been found. We assessed PT acceptability among Chinese immigrant parents and explored clinical and cultural factors that may be associated with acceptability. Participants were a…

  1. CHILDHOOD PARENTAL LOSS AND ADULT PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: EFFECTS OF LOSS CHARACTERISTICS AND CONTEXTUAL FACTORS*

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Wier, Lauren; Price, Lawrence H.; ROSS, NICOLE S.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood parental death and childhood parental separation are linked to lifetime depressive and anxiety disorders after controlling for related risk factors. Participants were 105 individuals from the community, including a group with separation/desertion from a parent, a group with childhood parental death, and a matched control group whose parents remained married and living together. Participants completed interviews and questionnaires as...

  2. Causes and risk factors for infant mortality in Nunavut, Canada 1999–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Sorcha A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The northern territory Nunavut has Canada’s largest jurisdictional land mass with 33,322 inhabitants, of which 85% self-identify as Inuit. Nunavut has rates of infant mortality, postneonatal mortality and hospitalisation of infants for respiratory infections that greatly exceed those for the rest of Canada. The infant mortality rate in Nunavut is 3 times the national average, and twice that of the neighbouring territory, the Northwest Territories. Nunavut has the largest Inuit population in Canada, a population which has been identified as having high rates of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS and infant deaths due to infections. Methods To determine the causes and potential risk factors of infant mortality in Nunavut, we reviewed all infant deaths ( Results Sudden death in infancy (SIDS/SUDI; 48% and infection (21% were the leading causes of infant death, with rates significantly higher than for Canada (2003–2007. Of SIDS/SUDI cases with information on sleep position (n=42 and bed-sharing (n=47, 29 (69% were sleeping non-supine and 33 (70% were bed-sharing. Of those bed-sharing, 23 (70% had two or more additional risk factors present, usually non-supine sleep position. CPT1A P479L homozygosity, which has been previously associated with infant mortality in Alaska Native and British Columbia First Nations populations, was associated with unexpected infant death (SIDS/SUDI, infection throughout Nunavut (OR:3.43, 95% CI:1.30-11.47. Conclusion Unexpected infant deaths comprise the majority of infant deaths in Nunavut. Although the CPT1A P479L variant was associated with unexpected infant death in Nunavut as a whole, the association was less apparent when population stratification was considered. Strategies to promote safe sleep practices and further understand other potential risk factors for infant mortality (P479L variant, respiratory illness are underway with local partners.

  3. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety. PMID:20183193

  4. Trends of Hepatitis A hospitalization and risk factors in Quebec, Canada, between 1990 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duval Bernard

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, targeted vaccination of at risk groups for hepatitis A (HA is done since the mid 1990s resulting in declining incidence. This study estimated the year and age specific hospitalization rates and distribution of risk factors for HA in Quebec, Canada, between 1990 and 2003. Methods Records of patients hospitalized with HA-related diagnostic codes were retrieved from the provincial database. Hospital charts of all deceased cases and a random sample of all other records were reviewed. Results From 1503 hospitalization records, 573 charts were reviewed including 49 (91% of the 54 deceased patients. Confirmed acute HA was present in 79% of records where HA was the primary diagnosis, and in 3%–8% of records where HA was a secondary diagnosis. From the total estimated number of hospitalizations, 96% had HA as the primary diagnosis. The hospitalization rate decreased from 1.06 per 100 000 person-years between 1990 and 1997 to 0.36 between 1998 and 2003. During the study period, 54% HA hospitalizations were in 20–39 year-olds. The overall case fatality ratio among hospitalized patients was 1.4%, increasing from 0.4% in those Conclusion HA hospitalization rates have been low since 1998 but the cause of this is unclear given the cyclical pattern of HA. Travel to endemic countries remains the most important risk factor and improved control of HA will require better strategies to vaccinate travelers.

  5. Parent Involvement in School Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Gwynne O; Lengua, Liliana J; McMahon, Robert J

    2000-11-01

    Parent involvement (PI) in school is associated with more positive academic performance and social competence in children. However, there are inadequacies in current measures of PI and a need for a better understanding of predictors of PI. In this study, measures were obtained from a normative sample of 387 children in kindergarten and first grade from high-risk neighborhoods in 4 different sites. First, a confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical factor model of PI identified 6 reliable multiple-reporter PI factors: Parent-Teacher Contact, Parent Involvement at School, Quality of Parent-Teacher Relationship, Teacher's Perception of the Parent, Parent Involvement at Home, and Parent Endorsement of School. Next, the relations among 3 specific family and demographic risk factors-parental education level, maternal depression, and single-parent status-and these 6 PI factors were examined using path analyses in structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the 3 risk factors were differentially associated with the 6 PI factors: Parental education was significantly associated with 4 PI outcomes, maternal depression was significantly associated with 5 PI outcomes, and single-parent status was significantly associated with 3 PI outcomes. No significant ethnic group differences between African American and Caucasian families were found in these relations. PMID:20357900

  6. Factors Associated with Parent Concern for Child Weight and Parenting Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Peyer, Karissa L.; Welk, Gregory; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Yang, Shu; Kim, Jae-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: A parent's perception about their child's overweight status is an important precursor or determinant of preventative actions. Acknowledgment of, and concern for, overweight may be moderated by the parent's own weight status whereas engaging in healthy behaviors at home may promote healthy weight status. It is hypothesized that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and acknowledge overweight in their own children whereas heavier parents may r...

  7. Personality as a factor in parental encouragement and parent-child TV and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to evaluate the relation of personality to parent TV watching, physical activity (PA), and encouragement for child PA as parental influences on child TV and PA. Structural equation modeling (LISREL 8.7) was used to examine cross-sectional responses from 674 parents (63.0% female, 55...

  8. Early Head Start: Factors Associated with Caregiver Knowledge of Child Development, Parenting Behavior, and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Watkins, Katara; Johnson, Elizabeth; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the role of socioeconomic status, parental mental health, and knowledge of child development on parenting styles and perceived parenting stress in caregivers of children, ages 3 months to 3 years, enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS). Caregivers of EHS students were interviewed using the Knowledge of Infant Development…

  9. Gender Differences in Factors Associated with How Parents Communicate with School in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Chin, Meejung

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored different factors that were associated with mothers' and fathers' choice between two forms of parent-school communication: school briefing sessions and parent-teacher conferences. A total of 585 parents--295 mothers and 290 fathers from different households--who had at least one child enrolled in middle school in Korea were…

  10. The Factors Predicting Stress, Anxiety and Depression in the Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nicholas Henry; Norris, Kimberley; Quinn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The factors predicting stress, anxiety and depression in the parents of children with autism remain poorly understood. In this study, a cohort of 250 mothers and 229 fathers of one or more children with autism completed a questionnaire assessing reported parental mental health problems, locus of control, social support, perceived parent-child…

  11. Gender Differences in Factors Related to Parenting Styles: A Study of High Performing Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Carol; Lewko, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Examined parenting styles within families of high performing science students and explored gender differences in the factors associated with authoritative parenting style. Found that the authoritative parenting style was predominant among study participants and that a greater number of family-related variables emerge for females, whereas more…

  12. Factors that Impact West Virginia Head Start Parental Involvement in Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausell, Arlene Midget

    2010-01-01

    The research problem is: Many parents are not involved in their children's early literacy education. Some Head Start parents experience issues that keep them from teaching their children early literacy skills. The research questions were: What are the factors for parental involvement in the support of early literacy skill development for their…

  13. Parental Factors that Influence the Career Development of College-Bound African American High School Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Shenice S.

    2010-01-01

    Parents have been identified as being the most influential factor upon their children career development. There are various factors that influence the career development of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to identify parental factors that influence the career development of college-bound African American…

  14. Users’ perspectives of key factors to implementing electronic health records in Canada: a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinn Carrie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interoperable electronic health record (EHR solutions are currently being implemented in Canada, as in many other countries. Understanding EHR users’ perspectives is key to the success of EHR implementation projects. This Delphi study aimed to assess in the Canadian context the applicability, the importance, and the priority of pre-identified factors from a previous mixed-methods systematic review of international literature. Methods A three-round Delphi study was held with representatives of 4 Canadian EHR user groups defined as partners of the implementation process who use or are expected to use EHR in their everyday activity. These groups are: non-physician healthcare professionals, health information professionals, managers, and physicians. Four bilingual online questionnaire versions were developed from factors identified by the systematic review. Participants were asked to rate the applicability and the importance of each factor. The main outcome measures were consensus and priority. Consensus was defined a priori as strong (≥ 75% or moderate (≥ 60-74% according to user groups’ level of agreement on applicability and importance, partial (≥ 60% when participants agreed only on applicability or importance, or as no consensus ( Results Three Delphi rounds were completed by 64 participants. Levels of consensus of 100%, 64%, 64%, and 44% were attained on factors submitted to non-physician healthcare professionals, health information professionals, managers, and physicians, respectively. While agreement between and within user groups varied, key factors were prioritized if they were classified as strong (≥ 75% from questionnaire answers of user groups, for decision-making concerning EHR implementation. The10 factors that were prioritized are perceived usefulness, productivity, motivation, participation of end-users in the implementation strategy, patient and health professional interaction, lack of time and

  15. Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rashmi; Melanson, Stella; Levin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Youth from single-parent families report lower educational aspirations than those from two-parent families. This study explored the influence of background factors (gender, grade, parental education and SES), parental involvement with education, academic self-concept, and peer influences on educational aspirations. The participants were Canadian…

  16. Factors contributing to parents' selection of a communication mode to use with their deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleweke, C J; Rodda, M

    2000-10-01

    This study examines factors contributing to parents' selection of a communication mode to use with their children with hearing loss. More than 90% of children with prelingual hearing loss have normally hearing parents. Communication difficulties are among the obstacles facing these parents in connection with these children's development. Controversy over manual and aural/oral methods of communication creates further complications. Case studies of two families with deaf children were conducted to identify factors that could influence parents' selection of a communication method. Semistructured questionnaires and unstructured interviews were used in data collection. A qualitative approach was used in data analysis. Based on the results, the factors influencing parental choice were grouped under four themes: (a) the influence of information provided to parents, (b) parents' perceptions of assistive technology, (c) attitudes of service professionals and educational authorities, and (d) quality and availability of support services. Implications of these themes for service provision are discussed. PMID:11037069

  17. The relationships of child and parent factors with children's anxiety symptoms: parental anxious rearing as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Farrell, Lara J

    2012-10-01

    A considerable body of research has identified various child and parent factors that contribute to and maintain anxiety symptoms in children. Yet relatively few studies have examined child factors (including threat-based cognitive bias, neuroticism, gender, puberty and age) as well as parent factors (including maternal anxiety and child-rearing style) in association with child anxiety symptoms, and the extent to which these factors serve as unique predictors of child anxiety. Moreover, research is lacking on whether parent factors such as child-rearing style, which is often targeted in early intervention and treatment programs, might mediate the association between child factors such as neuroticism, and child anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 85 children between 7 and 12 years of age with varying levels of anxiety, including those with diagnosed anxiety disorders, results showed that children were more anxious when they were reported to be more advanced in pubertal status by their parents, when they had a tendency to interpret more threat in ambiguous situations, and when they self-reported more neuroticism. Regarding parent factors, maternal self-reported trait anxiety and children's perceptions of their mother as having an anxious child-rearing style were associated with higher levels of child anxiety. Moreover, when these correlates of child anxiety were examined in a multivariate model to identify those that had direct as well as indirect associations via maternal anxious child-rearing style, child neuroticism remained as a significant and unique predictor of child anxiety that was also mediated by maternal anxious-rearing. Child neuroticism also mediated the relationship between child pubertal stage and anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of relevant theory and empirical evidence regarding the roles of both child and parent factors in the development of child anxiety. PMID:22858900

  18. Perceived Parental Overprotection and Separation Anxiety: Does Specific Parental Rearing Serve as Specific Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Sakineh - Mofrad; Rohani - Abdollah; Bahaman Abu Samah

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the role of perceived parental rearing style in Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD). We examined the association between perceived parental overprotection and rejection rearing style with children’s SAD symptoms. The study was conducted with a normal sample of first grade school children. Findings indicate significant association between parental overprotection and SAD symptoms, means those children with SAD symptom perceived their mother as high overpr...

  19. Factors Mediating Dysphoric Moods and Help Seeking Behaviour Among Australian Parents of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Matthew; Donnelly, James

    2016-06-01

    This study compared levels of state affect, dysphoric mood, and parenting sense of competence in Australian parents of children with or without autism. The effects of personality and location on the parents' experience were also examined, while controlling for current affect. Possible relationships among personality, location factors and help-seeking behavior were also explored in parents of children with autism. Prior findings of higher dysphoric mood levels in parents of children with autism were supported, as was the positive correlation between dysphoric moods and Neuroticism levels. Parenting Sense of Competence did not differ across locations, and there were no parent type by location interactions. Access to services among parents of a child with autism did not moderate dysphoria levels. PMID:26858033

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RISK AND DELINQUENT BEHAVIOUR, CERTAIN CONTEXTUAL FACTORS RELATED TO FAMILY AND PARENTING METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Vrselja; Renata Glavak Tkalić

    2011-01-01

    This paper had two aims. The first aim was to examine whether there is a direct contribution of some family contextual factors (parents' education, perceived family financial situation, parental frequency of drinking, and family size) to the risky and delinquent child behavior. The second aim of the paper was to determine whether there is an indirect contribution of these family contextual factors through parental rearing practices (emotional warmth, rejection, overprotection). The study was ...

  1. Familial Risk Factors to Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Parental Psychopathology and Maternal Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In sample of 177 clinic-referred children aged 7-13, association was found between diagnosis of conduct disorder and several aspects of family functioning: maternal parenting (supervision and persistence in discipline) and parent adjustment (paternal antisocial personality disorder and paternal substance abuse). Children with oppositional defiant…

  2. Parental, Residential, and Self-Belief Factors Influencing Academic Persistence Decisions of College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kelsey J.; Robinson Kurpius, Sharon E.

    2016-01-01

    Based on Tinto's model of academic persistence, this study explored background and personal factors that theoretically impact the academic persistence decisions of college freshmen. The factors studied were (a) parental educational attainment, (b) parental valuing of education, (c) high school grade point average, (d) residential status (on- vs.…

  3. What Matters Most: Factors Influencing the University Application Choice Decisions of Korean International Students and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Breanna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors influencing Korean parents' and students' university application choice decisions in three international schools in the Republic of Korea (South). Institutional and individual factors that influenced Korean students' university application choice decisions and their parents' university application…

  4. Second-Hand Smoke Exposure in Canada: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Association with Respiratory And Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Vozoris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure in Canada, to identify sociodemographic risk factors for second-hand smoke exposure, and to examine the relationship between second-hand smoke exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Second-hand smoke exposure in Canada: Prevalence, risk factors, and association with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Vozoris; M Diane Lougheed

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure in Canada, to identify sociodemographic risk factors for second-hand smoke exposure, and to examine the relationship between second-hand smoke exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.METHODS: Data from the 2000/2001 Statistics Canada Canadian Community Health Survey (n=130,880, aged 12 years or older) were analyzed. Second-hand smoke exposure was based on self-report within the...

  6. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D;

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN...... Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2...... years after death of the offspring. Adjusted relative rates (ARRs) were generated by generalized estimating equation models and adjusted for confounding factors. SETTING Manitoba, Canada. PARTICIPANTS All identifiable parents who had an offspring die by suicide between 1996 and 2007 (n = 1415). MAIN...

  7. Risk factors associated with participation in the Ontario, Canada doctors' strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, R L; Shapiro, M F; Linn, L S; Froelicher, E S

    1989-09-01

    To identify factors associated with participation in the 1986 Ontario, Canada doctors' strike, we surveyed 1,028 physicians; 69 percent responded, of whom 42 percent participated in the strike. Risk factors for participation included income greater than $135,000, being a surgeon or gynecologist, having previously "opted out" of the Ontario Health Insurance Plan, being professionally dissatisfied, being politically conservative, favoring political activism by physicians, holding a positive view of the social consequences of extrabilling, and perceiving family, associates, patients and the public to favor the strike. Eighty percent of strikers, but 32 percent of non-strikers, met criteria we established for four strike-prone groups: the "economically rational," the "ideologically committed," the "professionally disaffected," and the "socially malleable." Respondents belonging to one or more of these groups were much more likely to have participated in the strike (64 percent vs 17 percent). Strategies to deal with physician militancy should address the multiplicity of motives that appeared to have influenced doctors in Ontario. PMID:2764198

  8. La agresividad en la infancia: el estilo de crianza parental como factor relacionado Aggression in childhood: Parenting style as related factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Raya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente estudio se propone analizar la posible relación existente entre la agresividad en los niños medida por sus padres a través del BASC (Sistema de Evaluación de la Conducta de Niños y Adolescentes y el estilo de crianza según el PCRI (Cuestionario de Crianza Parental compuesto por siete factores: apoyo, satisfacción con la crianza, compromiso, comunicación, disciplina, autonomía y distribución de rol, en una muestra de 338 niños (182 niños y 156 niñas entre 3 y 14 años. Los resultados muestran la existencia de una relación significativa entre la agresividad en los niños y la mayoría de los factores del estilo de crianza parental. Además se establece un modelo capaz de predecir el 27% de la varianza con respecto a la agresividad en los niños, compuesto por la disciplina de ambos progenitores, el compromiso y la satisfacción con la crianza de los padres y la autonomía de las madres. Finalmente se discute la utilidad de estos resultados para el planteamiento de estrategias de intervención en el ámbito familiar basadas en el estilo disciplinario.


    Palabras clave: Agresividad, padres, estilo parental, disciplina.
    Aggression

    This current study proposes to analyse the possible relationship which exists between aggression in children reported by parents through the BASC (Behaviour Assessment System for Children, and the parenting style according to the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory composed of seven factors such as support, satisfaction with parenting, involvement, communication, limit setting, autonomy granting, and role orientation, in a sample of 338 children (182 male & 156 female between 3 and 14 years old. The results show the existence of a significant relationship between aggression in children and the majority of the parenting factors. Furthermore, a model is established which is able to predict 27% of the variance with respect to aggression in children, made

  9. Community-level risk factors for notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Pardhan-Ali Aliya; Wilson Jeff; Edge Victoria L; Furgal Chris; Reid-Smith Richard; Santos Maria; McEwen Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Enteric pathogens are an important cause of illness, however, little is known about their community-level risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural and physical environmental conditions) in the Northwest Territories (NWT) of Canada. The objective of this study was to undertake ecological (group-level) analyses by combining two existing data sources to examine potential community-level risk factors for campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis, which are three noti...

  10. Information on the Child Welfare Act (Alberta) & the Young Offenders Act (Canada) for Educators, Parents and Students. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This document provides information on two pieces of legislation which affect children and adolescents in Canada. The introduction to "A Guide to the Young Offenders Act in Alberta" briefly reviews the development of the Young Offenders Act and examines the definition of a young person, offenses covered by the act, and amendments to the act. The…

  11. Factors associated with the subspecialty choices of internal medicine residents in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorpe Kevin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there are more residents enrolled in cardiology training programs in Canada than in immunology, pharmacology, rheumatology, infectious diseases, geriatrics and endocrinology combined. There is no published data regarding the proportion of Canadian internal medicine residents applying to the various subspecialties, or the factors that residents consider important when deciding which subspecialty to pursue. To address the concern about physician imbalances in internal medicine subspecialties, we need to examine the factors that motivate residents when making career decisions. Methods In this two-phase study, Canadian internal medicine residents participating in the post graduate year 4 (PGY4 subspecialty match were invited to participate in a web-based survey and focus group discussions. The focus group discussions were based on issues identified from the survey results. Analysis of focus group transcripts grew on grounded theory. Results 110 PGY3 residents participating in the PGY4 subspecialty match from 10 participating Canadian universities participated in the web-based survey (54% response rate. 22 residents from 3 different training programs participated in 4 focus groups held across Canada. Our study found that residents are choosing careers that provide intellectual stimulation, are consistent with their personality, and that provide a challenge in diagnosis. From our focus group discussions it appears that lifestyle, role models, mentorship and the experience of the resident with the specialty appear to be equally important in career decisions. Males are more likely to choose procedure based specialties and are more concerned with the reputation of the specialty as well as the anticipated salary. In contrast, residents choosing non-procedure based specialties are more concerned with issues related to lifestyle, including work-related stress, work hours and time for leisure as well as the patient populations

  12. Factors Associated with Parental Perception of Child Vulnerability 12 months After Abnormal Newborn Screening Results

    OpenAIRE

    Tluczek, Audrey; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Brown, Roger L

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with elevated parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PPCV) 12 months after newborn screening (NBS) of 136 children: healthy, normal results (H, n=37), cystic fibrosis carriers (CF-C, n=40), congenital hypothyroidism (CH, n=36), and cystic fibrosis (CF, n=23). Controlling for infant and parent characteristics, mixed logit structural equation modeling showed direct paths to PPCV included parent female sex, CF diagnosis, and high documented illness frequenc...

  13. Exploring parental factors related to weight management in survivors of childhood central nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Diane; Swartz, Maria C; Markham, Christine; Chandra, Joya; McCurdy, Sheryl; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Childhood central nervous system tumor survivors (CCNSTS) are at risk for adverse health issues. Little research has been conducted to explore the role of parental factors in weight management to mitigate adverse health outcomes. We conducted 9 group interviews (n=20) with CCNSTS, their parents, and health care providers to ascertain parental factors that may influence weight management practices in CCNSTS. Three main themes were identified: parenting style, parent-child connectedness, and food and physical activity (PA) environment. Although most parents adopted an authoritative parenting style related to diet and PA practices, some adopted a permissive parenting style. Participants expressed high levels of connection that may hinder the development of peer relationships and described the food and PA environments that promote or hinder weight management through parental modeling of healthy eating and PA and access to healthy food and activities. Weight management interventions for CCNSTS may experience greater benefit from using a family-focused approach, promoting positive food and PA environments, parental modeling of healthy eating and exercise, and partnering with youth to adopt weight management behaviors. PMID:24608701

  14. Parental stress, harsh treatment and parental monitoring as factors associated with aggressive behaviour[Estrés parental, trato rudo y monitoreo como factores asociados a la conducta agresiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivón Paola Guevara Marín

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the joint contribution of three parenting practices in the explanation of aggressive behavior. The main interest was to investigate the associations between these factors, the socioeconomic status, and the differences between the reports provided by parents in regards to the aggressive behavior of their children. The sample included 256 couples whose children were teenagers with an age range between 12 and 18 years old. The results show that parental stress, the harsh treatment, and monitoring are significantly associated with aggressive behavior of children. Parental stress was the factor with the highest degree of prediction. Significant differences were found for the three factors in high and low socioeconomic levels, but in medium and high were not. As for the versions of the parents, there were no significant differences in stress and rough management, but monitoring.

  15. Parental Characteristics, Ecological Factors, and the Academic Achievement of African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…

  16. Connecting Vulnerable Children and Families to Community-Based Programs Strengthens Parents' Perceptions of Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Marcia; Joslyn, Allison; Wojton, Morella; O'Reilly, Mairead; Dworkin, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    We employed principles from a nationally recognized prevention model on family support to investigate whether connecting vulnerable children to community-based programs and services through a statewide intervention system, the "Help Me Grow" program, strengthens parents' perceptions of protective factors. We used a parent survey modeled…

  17. Factors Associated with Physical Activity Literacy among Foster Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Gregory M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Hussey, Jim R.; Watkins, Ken W.; W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore associations between physical activity (PA) literacy and psychosocial constructs for providing instrumental social support for youth PA. Methods: Ninety-one foster parents completed surveys assessing PA literacy (overall and specific), perceptions of child PA, coordination, PA enjoyment, psychosocial variables:…

  18. [Being raised by lesbian parents or in a single-parent family is no risk factor for problem behavior, however being raised as an adopted child is].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, F C; Versluis-den Bieman, H O; Balmus, N C

    1997-03-01

    Modern reproductive techniques and alternative family structures (with single or homosexual parents and adoption situations) raise questions about the consequences for the growing children involved. Genetic links appear to be less important for the functioning of a family than a strong wish for parenthood; parents who have become parents only through great efforts display a better quality of parenthood than average natural parents. Characteristics of the parent/parents, such as paedagogic qualities, and the quality of the parent-child relationship appear more important than the type of family. Published results of research reveal no reason why lesbian families should be judged differently from heterosexual ones as family types for the raising of children. The main negative factor for the functioning of the child growing up in a single-parent family is the marriage conflicts that have led to the single-parent situation; being raised by a single parent in itself has no adverse effect. Raising adopted children from other countries makes far greater demands on the adoptive parents than parents of biological children have to meet. The raising of a foreign adopted child by a single parent entails additional risks for the child's development. Data on the development of children in alternative family structures frequently concern exceptionally competent parents, which may have biased the findings. PMID:9173300

  19. Parental factors associated with obesity in children with disability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J; McVilly, K; Skouteris, H; Boganin, C

    2013-07-01

    The current literature on obesity in typically developing children shows that the family context, and specifically the way parents parent their children are major determinants of childhood obesity. The influence of these factors on obesity in children with disability, however, remains unclear. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify the parental and parenting risk factors associated with obesity in children and adolescents with disability. Articles were identified through Medline, Academic Search Complete, PsycINFO, ProQuest, ISI, CINAHL, Cochrane and Scopus databases. There was no restriction on publication dates. The inclusion criteria were empirical papers that tested associations between parental and parenting risk factors and obesity in children and adolescents with intellectual and other developmental disabilities. Only 11 studies met the selection criteria and subsequently included in this review. Results suggest that obesity in children and adolescents with disability may be associated with socioeconomic status; parents' body mass index, perception and attitude towards their children's weight and physical activity; and levels of activity in both parents and children. Firm conclusions about these associations cannot be reached, however, due to mixed findings and methodological limitations of the studies. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:23527696

  20. Association of vitamin D status with socio-demographic factors in Calgary, Alberta: an ecological study using Census Canada data

    OpenAIRE

    Naugler, Christopher; Zhang, Jianguo; Henne, Dan; Woods, Paul; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are a global health problem with northern countries such as Canada at particular risk. A number of sociodemographic factors have been reported to be associated with low vitamin D levels but prior studies have been limited by the ability of the researchers to gather this data directly from clinical trial participants. The purpose of this study was to use a novel methodology of inferring sociodemographic variables to evaluate the correlates of vitamin D...

  1. Factors associated with parental recognition of a child's overweight status - a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaikkonen Kaisu M; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi Sirkka M; Vanhala Marja L; Laitinen Jaana H; Korpelainen Raija I

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the association between a child's lifestyle factors and their parent's ability to recognise the overweight status of their offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with a parent's ability to recognise their own offspring's overweight status. Methods 125 overweight children out of all 1,278 school beginners in Northern Finland were enrolled. Weight and height were measured in health care clinics. Overweight statu...

  2. Plague as a mortality factor in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) reintroduced to Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Margaret A; Shenk, Tanya M; Spraker, Terry R

    2006-07-01

    As part of a species recovery program, 129 Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) originating from British Columbia, the Yukon, Manitoba, and Quebec, Canada, and Alaska, USA, were reintroduced to southwestern Colorado, USA, from 1999 to 2003. Of 52 lynx mortalities documented by October 2003, six lynx, including a female and her 5-mo-old kitten, had evidence of Yersinia pestis infection as determined by fluorescent antibody test and/or culture. Postmortem findings in these lynx were characterized by pneumonia, ranging from acute suppurative pneumonia, to multifocal necrotizing pneumonia, to fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Histopathologic examination of lung revealed multiple areas of inflammation and consolidation, areas of edema and hemorrhage, and bacteria surrounded by extensive inflammation. Spleens had severe lymphoid depletion and hypocellular red pulp. Lymphadenomegaly was observed in only one plague-affected lynx. We hypothesize that these Canada lynx were exposed to Y. pestis by infected prey, and these are the first reports of plague in this species. PMID:17092896

  3. A systematic review on factors and consequences of parental distress as related to childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, S; Leclair, T; Rondeau, É; Burns, W; Abate, C

    2016-07-01

    The literature including correlates of parental distress as related to childhood cancer is abundant. It is important to identify predictive factors and outcomes of this distress in parents. The objective of this review was to update previous syntheses on factors of distress and to identify outcomes of parents' distress in the recent literature (2007-2012). We performed a systematic review to identify all quantitative studies including measures of parental distress and associated factors during the study period. We found 56 eligible studies, of which 43 had a Low risk of bias (Cochrane guidelines). Forty-two reports included potential predictive factors. Significant relationships were found with clinical history of the child, sex of the parent, coping response and personal resources, pre-diagnosis family functioning, but not education/income or marital status. Twenty-five reports studied potential consequences of distress and focused on psychological adjustment in parents and children. Compared to past periods, a higher proportion of studies included fathers. Measures used to evaluate distress were also more homogeneous in certain domains of distress. This review underscores the need for appropriate methods for selecting participants and reporting results in future studies. Appropriate methods should be used to demonstrate causality between factors/consequences and distress. PMID:26354003

  4. Parental Factors that Detract from the Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety: Recommendations for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jerry V., III

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the recent empirical literature on the various parental factors that detract from the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for children with anxiety. Interventions such as treating parental anxiety and increasing parental involvement in the therapeutic process may combat these factors. Newer strategies such as…

  5. Ethnic and Regional Differences in Prevalence and Correlates of Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors in Northern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joykrishna Sarkar, MSc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWe investigated ethnic and geographic variations in major chronic diseases and risk factors in northern Canada, an area that is undergoing rapid changes in its social, cultural, and physical environments.MethodsSelf-report data were obtained from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey in 2000-2001 and 2005-2006 for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal respondents from the 3 regions of northern Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Crude prevalence estimates, adjusted odds ratios (AORs, and confidence intervals were calculated for multiple chronic diseases and risk factors.ResultsThe percentage of Aboriginal respondents who reported having any chronic health condition increased between the 2 cycles of data collection, but did not change for non-Aboriginal respondents. AORs for heart disease, arthritis, and asthma varied by ethnicity or region. AORs for overweight, obesity, daily smoking, regular and binge drinking, and infrequent physical/leisure activity were also substantially different for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal respondents or among respondents from the 3 northern regions.ConclusionThe changing profile of health in northern Canada suggests a need for action on health policy about the delivery of community-based primary prevention interventions and further research about the determinants of health and health care use.

  6. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior. PMID:25772427

  7. Factors associated with parental recognition of a child's overweight status - a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaikkonen Kaisu M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the association between a child's lifestyle factors and their parent's ability to recognise the overweight status of their offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with a parent's ability to recognise their own offspring's overweight status. Methods 125 overweight children out of all 1,278 school beginners in Northern Finland were enrolled. Weight and height were measured in health care clinics. Overweight status was defined by BMI according to internationally accepted criteria. A questionnaire to be filled in by parents was delivered by the school nurses. The parents were asked to evaluate their offspring's weight status. The child's eating habits and physical activity patterns were also enquired about. Factor groups of food and physical activity habits were formed by factor analysis. Binary logistic regression was performed using all variables associated with recognition of overweight status in univariate analyses. The significant risk factors in the final model are reported using odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Fifty-seven percent (69/120 of the parents of the overweight children considered their child as normal weight. Child's BMI was positively associated with parental recognition of overweight (OR 3.59, CI 1.8 to 7.0. Overweight boys were less likely to be recognised than overweight girls (OR 0.14, CI 0.033 to 0.58. Child's healthy diet (OR 0.22, CI 0.091 to 0.54 and high physical activity (OR 0.29, CI 0.11 to 0.79 were inversely related to parental recognition of overweight status. Conclusions Child's healthy eating habits and physical activity are inversely related to parental recognition of their offspring's overweight. These should be taken into account when planning prevention and treatment strategies for childhood obesity.

  8. A Persian version of the parental bonding instrument: factor structure and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Behnaz; Parker, Gordon

    2015-02-28

    The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) is a widely used self-report measure for quantifying key parenting styles as perceived by the child during its first 16 years. While its development study identified two key parental dimensions, subsequent studies have variably confirmed those two or argued for one or more additional parental constructs. We developed a Persian translation of the PBI and administered it to a sample of 340 high school students. The construct validity of the Persian PBI was examined by Exploratory Factor Analysis while Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to identify the most adequate model. Analyses of the Persian PBI favored a four-factor model for both parental forms. The Persian PBI has a factorial structure consistent with constructs identified in western cultures, as well as high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Multivariate analyses indicated significant differences between boys and girls across some factors. The PBI appears an acceptable and appropriate measure for quantifying parent-child bonding in Iranian samples. PMID:25530418

  9. Emotion Regulation in Sexually Abused Preschoolers: The Contribution of Parental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Rachel; Hébert, Martine; Allard-Dansereau, Claire; Bernard-Bonnin, Anne-Claude

    2016-04-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with emotion regulation deficits in childhood. Parents play a crucial role in the development of emotion regulation in their children, especially at younger ages. Close to 50% of mothers of sexually abused children report having been sexually victimized themselves as children. They are consequently at risk of experiencing significant distress following the disclosure of sexual abuse of their child. Parents' distress could interfere with their ability to provide support and to foster development of emotion regulation in their children. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship of parental factors (history of sexual victimization in childhood and the current level of distress) to sexually abused preschoolers' emotion regulation competencies. Emotion regulation was assessed in 153 preschoolers by their parents with the Emotion Regulation Checklist; 75 of these children were abused (14 boys); 78 were not abused (21 boys) and were part of a comparison group. Parents reported their level of distress using the Psychiatric Symptom Index. Results indicated that parental factors contributed to some dimensions of preschoolers' emotion regulation (namely displays of underregulation of emotion) above and beyond children's victimization status and gender (Cohen's ƒ(2) = .15). Identifying parental distress and history of sexual victimization as positively associated with emotional dysregulation in preschool children victims of CSA has important research and clinical implications. PMID:26915665

  10. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-11-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium that can cause abortion in sheep in late gestation, as well as the delivery of stillborn, and non-viable lambs (Rodolakis, 2006). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, to investigate C. burnetii exposure in sheep. Between August 2010 and January 2012, sera from 2363 reproductively active ewes from 72 farms were tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using the CHEKIT Q fever ELISA Test kit (IDEXX Laboratories). Overall, exposure was common; sheep-level seroprevalence was 14.7% (347/2363, 95% CI: 13.3-16.2), and was higher in dairy sheep (24.3%, 181/744) than meat sheep (10.2%, 166/1619) (psheep. A mixed multivariable logistic model that controlled for farm-level clustering, identified risk factors associated (psheep seropositivity. Increasing female flock size (logarithmic scale) was associated with increased odds of seropositivity. By way of illustration, increasing the female flock size from 100 to 200 increased the odds of seropositivity by 2.26 times (95% CI: 1.5-3.5). Sheep that lambed in an airspace separate from the flock had 11.3 times (95% CI: 2.9-43.6) the odds of seropositivity relative to other sheep. The practice of loaning sheep that returned to the farm increased odds of seropositivity by 8.1 times (95% CI: 1.8-33.6). Lambing pen hygiene practices also influenced odds of seropositivity. Relative to sheep from farms where all lambing pen hygiene measures were practiced after lambing (i.e., adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection), sheep from farms that only added bedding, or those that just added bedding and removed birthing materials had 5.9 times (95% CI: 1.1-32.1) and 9.0 times (95% CI: 2.2-36.9) the odds of seropositivity, respectively. These results can be used to inform prevention and control strategies with the aim of reducing C. burnetii exposure in sheep. PMID:26376066

  11. The role of parents and related factors on adolescent computer use

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Research suggested the importance of parents on their adolescents’ computer activity. Spending too much time on the computer for recreational purposes in particular has been found to be related to areas of public health concern in children/adolescents, including obesity and substance use. Design and Methods. The goal of the research was to determine the association between recreational computer use and potentially linked factors (parental monitoring, social influences to use com...

  12. Parental Support as a Mediating Factor in the Relationship Between ADHD Symptoms and Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Stefana Kristín Ólafsdóttir 1983

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address the relationship between ADHD diagnosis and self-esteem as well as examining whether parental support could serve as a mediating factor in this relationship. The hypotheses set forth were three: First, students with ADHD diagnosis have lower average self-esteem then students without ADHD diagnosis. Second, there is a positive association between parental support and self-esteem. Third, the effects of ADHD diagnosis on self-esteem are mediated through paren...

  13. Predicting the change of child’s behavior problems : sociodemographic and maternal parenting stress factors

    OpenAIRE

    Viduolienė, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - evaluate 1) whether child's externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2) the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3) which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child's externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach' participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months) with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990) ...

  14. PREDICTING THE CHANGE OF CHILD’S BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS: SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC AND MATERNAL PARENTING STRESS FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Evelina Viduoliene

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: evaluate 1) whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2) the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3) which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months) with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990) a...

  15. Parent education and biologic factors influence on cognition in sickle cell anemia

    OpenAIRE

    King, Allison A; Strouse, John J.; Rodeghier, Mark J.; Compas, Bruce E.; Casella, James F; McKinstry, Robert C.; Noetzel, Michael J.; Quinn, Charles T.; Ichord, Rebecca; Dowling, Michael M.; Miller, J. Philip; DeBaun, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia have a high prevalence of silent cerebral infarcts (SCIs) that are associated with decreased full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). While the educational attainment of parents is a known strong predictor of the cognitive development of children in general, the role of parental education in sickle cell anemia along with other factors that adversely affect cognitive function (anemia, cerebral infarcts) is not known. We tested the hypothesis that both the prese...

  16. Parental Intermittent Claudication as a Risk Factor for Claudication in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Prushik, Scott G.; Farber, Alik; Gona, Philimon; Shrader, Peter; Pencina, Michael J.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Joanne M Murabito

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the familial aggregation of intermittent claudication (IC). Our objective was to examine whether parental IC increased adult offspring risk of IC independent of established cardiovascular risk factors. We evaluated Offspring cohort participants of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) who were 30 years or older, cardiovascular disease (CVD) free, and had both parents enrolled in the FHS (n= 2970 unique participants, 53% women). Pooled proportional hazards regression was used ...

  17. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Sieh; J.M.A. Visser-Meily; F.J. Oort; A.M. Meijer

    2012-01-01

    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and exter

  18. Effect of Demographic Factors on Empowerment Attributions of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ashley H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of demographic factors on empowerment attributions of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Data were collected to determine differences between demographic factors of participants and self-reported empowerment attributions. A quantitative research design was employed in…

  19. Influence of Parental Factors on Sex-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Unmarried Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian CUI; Min-xiang LI; Ai-ping TIAN; Li XIE; Shi-yuan LUO; Xiao-qin CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of parental factors on sexual and reproductive health awareness,attitudes to pre-marital sex, and pre-marital sexual activity among unmarried youth Methods Data were collected by anonymous self-completed questionnaire survey among eligible unmarried youth aged 15~22 in Chengdu City, Southwest China during 1998~1999 and the study comprised of 3 307 valid subjects.Results Awareness of safe sex and contraception among unmarried youth was limited and their attitudes towards pre-marital sexual activity appeared to be positive. Large proportions of dating subjects were sexually active and reported ever-using contraceptives, regular or appropriate use of contraceptives was likely to be limited. About two thirds of adolescents had communication with their parents frequently, but fewer had communicated with their parents on sex-related issues. But they did influence the sexual behaviours of adolescents. In fact, it appeared that coresidence and extensive communication with parents on sex-related issues could delay sexual activity among adolescents, and the sexually active youth co-resided with their parents were more likely to take contraceptive measures.Conclusion Programmes are needed not only for youth to encourage them to communicate with their parents on sex-related issues, but also for parents to know the current sexual health status of youth and realize the necessity to communicate with their adolescent children about sexual and reproductive health issues.

  20. Linking Sensory Factors to Participation: Establishing Intervention Goals With Parents for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Roseann C; Cohn, Ellen S; Burke, Janice; Dumont, Rachel; Miller, Amy; Mailloux, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    Parents often focus on independence in activities of daily living and social participation when setting goals for their children with autism spectrum disorders. Occupational therapy practitioners use clinical reasoning to translate these goals to define occupation-based outcomes. This article describes an exploratory analysis of 160 parent-identified goals for children with autism. We identified sensory integrative factors hypothesized to influence each goal and then categorized the goals using the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Most goals were at the ICF participation and activity levels. Activities of daily living were the most common area of occupation identified, followed by social participation and play. Sensory reactivity and somatopraxis were the most frequently occurring sensory integrative factors. The value of addressing parent goals using a systematic reasoning process to identify factors affecting participation and the importance of measuring participation outcomes are discussed. PMID:26356657

  1. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  2. Depression in young adolescents: investigations using 2 and 3 factor versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham; Bergen, Helen A; Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen

    2004-10-01

    Associations between parenting style and depressive symptomatology in a community sample of young adolescents (N = 2596) were investigated using self-report measures including the Parental Bonding Instrument and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Specifically, the 25-item 2-factor and 3-factor models by Parker et al. (1979), Kendler's (1996) 16-item 3-factor model, and Parker's (1983) quadrant model for the Parental Bonding Instrument were compared. Data analysis included analysis of variance and logistic regression. Reanalysis of Parker's original scale indicates that overprotection is composed of separate factors: intrusiveness (at the individual level) and restrictiveness (in the social context). All models reveal significant independent contributions from paternal care, maternal care, and maternal overprotection (2-factor) or intrusiveness (3-factor) to moderate and serious depressive symptomatology, controlling for sex and family living arrangement. Additive rather than multiplicative interactions between care and overprotection were found. Regardless of the level of parental care and affection, clinicians should note that maternal intrusiveness is strongly associated with adverse psychosocial health in young adolescents. PMID:15457107

  3. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Y Ghazwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS, for the evaluation of SAD, were used. Results: A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90-8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17-5.19, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial.

  4. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazwani, Jaafar Y.; Khalil, Shamsun N.; Ahmed, Razia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS), for the evaluation of SAD, were used. Results: A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90–8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17–5.19, respectively). Conclusion: The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial. PMID:26929726

  5. Influence of parental factors on adolescents’ transition to first sexual intercourse in Nairobi, Kenya: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Okigbo, Chinelo C.; Kabiru, Caroline W; Mumah, Joyce N.; Mojola, Sanyu A.; Beguy, Donatien

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated a link between young people’s sexual behavior and levels of parental monitoring, parent-child communication, and parental discipline in Western countries. However, little is known about this association in African settings, especially among young people living in high poverty settings such as urban slums. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of parental factors (monitoring, communication, and discipline) on the transition to first...

  6. Suicide and violence in parents : risk factors and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lysell, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Suicide and deadly violence directed towards other people are two different expressions of aggression. In family life, lethal violent behaviour may have devastating consequences, obviously for the victims but also for the surviving and bereaved children. In this thesis, focus is on violent behaviour related to parenthood; violence in the form of suicide as well as violent behaviour directed towards others. The aim has been to identify risk factors of violent expression, for...

  7. Multiple carbon and nitrogen sources associated with the parental mantle fluids of fibrous diamonds from Diavik, Canada, revealed by SIMS microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, D. C.; Stachel, T.; Stern, R. A.; Hunt, L.; Fomradas, G.

    2016-02-01

    Fibrous diamonds are often interpreted as direct precipitates of primary carbonate-bearing fluids in the lithospheric mantle, sourced directly from common reservoirs of "mantle" carbon and nitrogen. Here we have examined fibrous growth layers in five diamonds (as three rims or "coats" and two whole-crystal cuboids) from the Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, using in situ C- and N-isotope and N-abundance measurements to investigate the origin and evolution of their parental fluids, and in particular, to test for isotopic variability within a suite of fibrous diamonds. High-resolution growth structure information was gleaned from cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and, in combination with the isotopic data, was used to assess the nature of the transition from gem to fibrous growth in the coated diamonds. The two cuboids are characterized by fine concentric bands of fibrous and/or milky opaque diamond, with one sample (S1719) having intermittent gem-like growth layers that are transparent and colourless. The three coated diamonds comprise octahedral gem cores mantled by massive or weakly zoned fibrous rims, with sharp and well-defined gem-fibrous boundaries. For the two cuboid samples, δ 13C and δ 15N values were -7.7 to -3.2 ‰ (mean -6.3 ± 1.3 ‰; 1 SD; n = 84) and -5.6 to -2.1 ‰ (mean -4.0 ± 0.8 ‰; 1 SD; n = 48), respectively. The three fibrous rims have combined δ 13C values of -8.3 to -4.8 ‰ (mean -6.9 ± 0.7 ‰; 1 SD; n = 113) and δ 15N values of -3.8 to -1.9 ‰ (mean -2.7 ± 0.4 ‰; 1 SD; n = 43). N-abundances of the combined cuboid-fibrous rim dataset range from 339 to 1714 at. ppm. The gem cores have δ 13C and δ 15N values of -5.4 to -3.5 ‰ and -17.7 to +4.5 ‰, respectively, and N-abundances of 480 to 1699 at. ppm. Broadly uniform C- and N-isotope compositions were observed in each of the gem cores (variations of ~parental fluid histories. Notably, in the combined fibrous diamond dataset prominent C- and N-isotope differences between the whole

  8. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    The issue of productivity growth in Canada has received considerable attention reflecting its marked slowdown since the early 1970s and concerns about its implications for Canadian competitiveness. To better understand productivity developments in Canada, it is useful to decompose total factor productivity (TFP) into investment-specific productivity change (ISP) and technologically neutral productivity change (TNP). The gap in manufacturing productivity growth between Canada and the United St...

  9. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  10. Factors Influencing Middle and High Schools' Active Parental Consent Return Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peter Y.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined factors influencing the return rates for attempting to collect active parental consent forms from 21,123 students in the 7th through 10th grades in 41 middle and high schools. Overall return rates from middle schools were higher than from high schools. Schools that offered high levels of staff support for collecting consent…

  11. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  12. Parents' Perceptions of the Factors Essential for Integrated Physical Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, John H.; Rebollo, Joanne

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 75 parents of elementary students with physical disabilities investigated their perspectives regarding the factors essential for placement into integrated physical-education programs. Results found they believed that class size, program support, physical and communicative skills, health status, and motivation were prerequisites of an…

  13. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  14. Mexican American Parents' Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Barbara J.; Barr, Kathleen L.; Baker, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the norms, values, and perceptions of urban immigrant Mexican American (MA) parents of school children relative to physical activity, healthy eating, and child risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Investigators facilitated five focus groups in an urban elementary school setting and analyzed data using qualitative…

  15. Bullying and Victimization: Predictive Role of Individual, Parental, and Academic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Gökhan; Güneri, Oya Yerin

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the roles of individual factors (age, gender, locus of control, self-esteem, and loneliness), parenting style, and academic achievement in discriminating students involved in bullying (as bullies, victims, and bully/victims) from those not involved. Participants comprised 742 middle school students (393 females, 349 males). The…

  16. Family Poverty, School-Based Parental Involvement, and Policy-Focused Protective Factors in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Carey E.

    2010-01-01

    Multilevel models of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (N = 19,375) revealed that the negative association between family poverty and school-based parental involvement in education varied according to family and school factors targeted by large-scale policy interventions. Specifically, the association was weaker…

  17. The Influence of Parental Socialization Factors on Family Farming Plans of Preadolescent Children: An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Angela R.; Bogg, Timothy; Ringo Ho, Moon-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Previous scholarship on farm families emphasizes the importance of socializing children to become farmers. This study is the first to focus on the parental socialization factors that are associated with preadolescent children's attachment to, and plans to take over, the family farm. Forty-seven 7- to 12-year-old children and their farming parents…

  18. Factor structure and differential item functioning of the BASC-2 BESS Spanish Language Parent Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Bridget V; Raines, Tara C; Dowdy, Erin

    2016-06-01

    Given the steady increase of students from diverse backgrounds in the U.S. educational system, in particular immigrant and Latino students, it is important to consider how to best support all students within our schools. The present study focuses on the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2) Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) Parent Spanish form, which is a promising assessment tool for those who are interested in screening for behavioral and emotional risk among Spanish-speaking populations. The present study included 725 students of Latino descent in Grades K-6 in an urban school district and their parents or legal guardians, who served as the informants. All parents completed the BESS language form (English or Spanish) of their choice. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported a 4-factor structure (Externalizing, Internalizing, Inattention, and Adaptive Skills) similar to that of the BESS Parent English form: χ2(77) = 248.06, p < .001; CFI = 0.903; TLI = 0.940. However, differential item functioning (DIF) analyses revealed 5 items (16.7%) demonstrated significant levels of DIF, with 4 of the 5 being easier to endorse in English. This study provides preliminary evidence of partial invariance of the BESS Parent across language forms. Although some evidence of invariance across language forms at the structural and item levels exists, more research is necessary to determine whether the DIF found in the present study results in any perceptible test bias. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243244

  19. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes. PMID:27376846

  20. Factors Influencing Middle and High Schools’ Active Parental Consent Return Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Y. Ji; Pokorny, Steven B.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined factors influencing the return rates for attempting to collect active parental consent forms from 21,123 students in the 7th through 10th grades in 41 middle and high schools. Overall return rates from middle schools were higher than from high schools. Schools that offered high levels of staff support for collecting consent forms had higher return rates. Procedures where the consent form was attached to a school form that parents had to complete and return to the school y...

  1. The Effect of Parents' Attitudes toward Divorce on Offspring's Attitudes: Gender and Parental Divorce as Mediating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinus, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses three questions: (a) What influence do parents' attitudes toward divorce have on offspring's attitudes? (b) How are offspring's attitudes toward divorce influenced by parental divorce, and do the effects vary depending on the gender of the child? and (c) How do conditions surrounding parental divorce influence young adults'…

  2. Perceptions of predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in same-sex parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lori E; Steele, Leah; Sapiro, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women are choosing to have children in the context of same-sex relationships or as "out" lesbian or bisexual individuals. This study used qualitative methods to assess perceived predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) women. Two focus groups with LGBQ women were conducted: 1) biological parents of young children and 2) nonbiological parents of young children or whose partners were currently pregnant. Three major themes emerged. Issues related to social support were primary, particularly related to disappointment with the lack of support provided by members of the family of origin. Participants also described issues related to the couple relationship, such as challenges in negotiating parenting roles. Finally, legal and policy barriers (e.g., second parent adoption) were identified as a significant source of stress during the transition to parenthood. Both lack of social support and relationship problems have previously been identified as risk factors for perinatal depression in heterosexual women, and legal and policy barriers may represent a unique risk factor for this population. Therefore, additional study of perinatal mental health among LGBQ women is warranted. PMID:16260356

  3. Evaluation of What Parents Know about Their Children's Drug Use and How They Perceive the Most Common Family Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Jose-Ramon Fernandez; Villa, Roberto Secades; Seco, Guillermo Vallejo; Perez, Jose-Manuel Errasti

    2003-01-01

    Research on family risk factors for addictive behaviors in young people has not paid a great deal of attention to parents' knowledge of their children's addictive behaviors and of the family risk factors that affect such behaviors. The aim of this work is to compare knowledge about these two aspects in two groups of parents that differ regarding…

  4. Risk Factors of Parents Abused as Children: A Mediational Analysis of the Intergenerational Continuity of Child Maltreatment (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Louise; Browne, Kevin; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study provides an exploration of factors implicated in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child (AP families) were compared in terms of risk factors to families where the parents had no childhood history of…

  5. Prevalence of and risk factors for hock and knee injuries on dairy cows in tiestall housing in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C G R; Kelton, D F; DeVries, T J; Vasseur, E; Coe, J; Heyerhoff, J C Zaffino; Bouffard, V; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Haley, D B

    2016-08-01

    Canada. Several animal- and housing-based factors contribute to their presence. Further research to confirm causal relationships between these factors would help identify the cause of knee and hock injuries and determine how to best reduce the incidence of injuries in cows on commercial tiestall dairy farms in Canada. PMID:27320673

  6. The role of parents and related factors on adolescent computer use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Epstein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research suggested the importance of parents on their adolescents’ computer activity. Spending too much time on the computer for recreational purposes in particular has been found to be related to areas of public health concern in children/adolescents, including obesity and substance use. Design and Methods. The goal of the research was to determine the association between recreational computer use and potentially linked factors (parental monitoring, social influences to use computers including parents, age of first computer use, self-control, and particular internet activities. Participants (aged 13-17 years and residing in the United States were recruited via the Internet to complete an anonymous survey online using a survey tool. The target sample of 200 participants who completed the survey was achieved. The sample’s average age was 16 and was 63% girls. Results. A set of regressions with recreational computer use as dependent variables were run. Conclusions. Less parental monitoring, younger age at first computer use, listening or downloading music from the internet more frequently, using the internet for educational purposes less frequently, and parent’s use of the computer for pleasure was related to spending a greater percentage of time on non-school computer use. These findings suggest the importance of parental monitoring and parental computer use on their children’s own computer use, and the influence of some internet activities on adolescent computer use. Finally, programs aimed at parents to help them increase the age when their children start using computers and learn how to place limits on recreational computer use are needed.

  7. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior. PMID:23241718

  8. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  9. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

    OpenAIRE

    Varga Csaba; Middleton Dean; Walton Ryan; Savage Rachel; Tighe Mary-Kathryn; Allen Vanessa; Ahmed Rafiq; Rosella Laura

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT) in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a) have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE case...

  10. PREDICTING THE CHANGE OF CHILD’S BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS: SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC AND MATERNAL PARENTING STRESS FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Viduoliene

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: evaluate 1 whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2 the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3 which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990 and Child Behavior Checklist 1.5−5 years (Achenbach, Rescorla, 2000 questionnaires. Findings: Child’s externalizing problems decreased within 12 months period. There were no effects of child’s age, gender and age*gender interaction on externalizing problems change within 12 months period. Higher initial level and more negative change within 12 months period of maternal parenting stress related to child characteristics, more stressful events in family life predicted the increase of child’s externalizing problems. Research limitations/implications: maternal parenting stress and child’s externalizing problems are related and may influence each other simultaneously. Child’s externalizing problems decrease within one year period in overall 2−5 years old children group. The change of child’s aggressive behavior and hyperactivity, distractibility should be evaluated individually, separately from each other. Practical implications: maternal parenting stress and child’s behavior problems are closely related to each other, it may be meaningful organize intervention for mothers in order to prevent child’s externalizing problems increase. Keywords: maternal parenting stress, externalizing problems, childhood, toddlerhood, longitudinal research. Research type: research paper.

  11. Parental awareness, habits, and social factors and their relationship to baby bottle tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres, C; Echeverri, E A; Keene, H J

    1997-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental awareness, habits, and social factors in a particular parent population and the occurrence of baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) in their children. The sample consisted of Hispanic, Black, and White families and included 100 parents with 100 children from the Pediatric Clinic and the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at Houston Medical Center, University of Texas, Houston. Questionnaires including information related to demographic data, educational level, marital status, baby care, and knowledge and beliefs about BBTD were completed by the parents. Each child was examined with mouth mirror and tongue blade to determine the presence of BBTD. Overall, 19 of the children were found to have BBTD. The racial distribution of the children with and without BBTD was statistically significant (P = 0.03) with the Hispanic population being over-represented in the BBTD group (72.2% versus 37.0%) and Blacks under-represented (16.2% versus 50.6%). The ages at which babies with BBTD were weaned from the bottle were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than those with no BBTD, and those weaned after 14 months of age were more likely to have BBTD. The percentage of babies with BBTD weaned from the bottle after 14 months old was higher (36.8%) than babies without the condition (26.5%). Awareness of BBTD was generally lower among parents of the BBTD children than parents of children without BBTD, as reflected by the feeding patterns of their children and their responses to questions dealing with their knowledge of BBTD. PMID:9048409

  12. Physically Abused Children’s Adjustment at the Transition to School: Child, Parent, and Family Factors

    OpenAIRE

    CARMODY, KAREN APPLEYARD; Haskett, Mary E.; Loehman, Jessisca; Rose, Roderick A.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood physical abuse predicts emotional/behavioral, self-regulatory, and social problems. Yet factors from multiple ecological levels contribute to children’s adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which the social-emotional adjustment of physically abused children in first grade would be predicted by a set of child-, parent-, and family-level predictors in kindergarten. Drawing on a short-term longitudinal study of 92 physically abused children and their prima...

  13. Bullying and victimization: Predictive role of individual, parental, and academic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Güneri, Oya Yerin; ATİK, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the roles of individual factors (age, gender, locus of control, self- esteem, and loneliness), parenting style, and academic achievement in discriminating students involved in bullying (as bullies, victims, and bully/victims) from those not involved. Participants comprised 742 middle school students (393 females, 349 males). The results of multinomial logisti...

  14. Risk factors of parents abused as children: a mediational analysis of the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise; Browne, Kevin; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study provides an exploration of factors implicated in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child (AP families) were compared in terms of risk factors to families where the parents had no childhood history of victimization (NAP families). The mediational properties of risk factors in the intergenerational cycle of maltreatment were then explored. METHODS: Infor...

  15. The Contribution of Parenting Practices and Parent Emotion Factors in Children at Risk for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Holland, Kerry A.; Frankling, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of different parenting characteristics on child disruptive behavior and emotional regulation among a sample of at-risk children. The sample consisted of 373 Australian 5- to 9-year-old children who were screened for serious behavior problems. Seven parenting variables based on self-report were…

  16. Perceptions of factors contributing to intimate partner violence among Sri Lankan Tamil immigrant women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ilene; Mason, Robin; Guruge, Sepali; Berman, Helene; Kanagaratnam, Pushpa; Manuel, Lisa

    2011-09-01

    In this article we explore Sri Lankan Tamil immigrant women's views on factors contributing to intimate partner violence (IPV). We conducted eight focus groups with young, midlife, and senior women and women who experienced IPV. Three main themes emerged: postmigration sources of stress and conflict, patriarchal social norms that dictated gendered behavior, and individual male attributes and behaviors. Study participants recognized gender inequality and financial dependence as contributing factors and the role of women in promoting marital harmony. Findings suggest that pre- and postmigration factors need to be considered in the prevention of IPV in newcomer communities. PMID:21834718

  17. La agresividad en la infancia: el estilo de crianza parental como factor relacionado Aggression in childhood: Parenting style as related factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio F. Raya; Mª José Pino; Javier Herruzo

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio se propone analizar la posible relación existente entre la agresividad en los niños medida por sus padres a través del BASC (Sistema de Evaluación de la Conducta de Niños y Adolescentes) y el estilo de crianza según el PCRI (Cuestionario de Crianza Parental) compuesto por siete factores: apoyo, satisfacción con la crianza, compromiso, comunicación, disciplina, autonomía y distribución de rol, en una muestra de 338 niños (182 niños y 156 niñas) entre 3 y 14 años. L...

  18. Parental 'affectionless control' as an antecedent to adult depression: a risk factor refined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, A; Henderson, A S; Andrews, G

    1993-02-01

    It has been well established that individuals with a history of depression report their parents as being less caring and more overprotective of them than do controls. 'Affectionless control' in childhood has thus been proposed as a risk factor for depression. Evidence is presented from a logistic regression analysis of data from a volunteer community sample that lack of care rather than over-protection is the primary risk factor. No evidence for an interaction effect of low care and over-protection was found. PMID:8475201

  19. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition

    OpenAIRE

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Oort, Frans Jeroen; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (102...

  20. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  1. Factors That Contribute to the Improvement in Maternal Parenting after Separation from a Violent Husband or Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

    2012-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A…

  2. A Review of Declared Factors Identified by Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Making Intervention Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlon, Sarah; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The range of interventions available for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has increased in recent years. This has led to an interest in the decision-making process related to intervention choices for parents of children with ASD. The present paper reviewed 16 studies examining the factors declared by parents as affecting their…

  3. Factors Associated with Perceived Parental Academic Monitoring in a Population of Low-Income, African American Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Jessica Miller; Gielen, Andrea C.; Haynie, Denise L.; Solomon, Barry S.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent academic achievement is closely linked to numerous health outcomes. Studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between parental academic monitoring and adolescent academic achievement. Less is known about factors associated with parental academic monitoring, and research is particularly lacking with low-income, African American…

  4. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper reviews the factors that may explain high and persistent unemployment in Canada, with particular emphasis on the role that a decline in the relative cost of capital may have had on trend unemployment. The analysis suggests that in Canada a declining trend in the cost of capital, associated with technological changes and innovations, has been an important factor in explaining the rise and persistence of unemployment. The paper also analyzes recent trends in personal ...

  5. Comparison of toxaphene congeners levels in five seal species from eastern Canada: what is the importance of biological factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouteux, Bruno; Lebeuf, Michel; Hammill, Mike O; Muir, Derek C G; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2005-03-15

    Environmentally relevant chlorobornanes (CHBs) were measured in blubber samples of harbor (Phoca vitulina), gray (Halichoerus grypus), harp (Phoca groenlandica), and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) sampled in different part of the St. Lawrence marine ecosystem (SLME) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) sampled in the eastern Canadian Arctic waters. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of six CHBs (Parlar-26, -40/-41, -44, -50, and -62) among the five seal species. Seal species could be separated into three groups based on their respective sigmaCHB mean concentrations (+/-standard error): gray (49+/-3.9 ng/g lipid weight) and harbor (80+/-20 ng/g lipid weight) seals were more contaminated than ringed seals (18+/-7.6 ng/g lipid weight) but less contaminated than harp (370+/-87 ng/g lipid weight) and hooded (680+/-310 ng/g lipid weight) seals. These differences are not expected to be related to different sources of toxaphene contamination, since both the SLME and the eastern Canadian Arctic environments are thought to be mainly contaminated via atmospheric transportfrom the southeastern part of the United States. Thus, biological factors such as sex, age, nutritive condition, metabolism capacity, and diet of the animals collected were considered. Results reported in this study indicated that the diet is likely the main factor accounting for interspecies variations in toxaphene contamination in seals from eastern Canada. PMID:15819196

  6. THE SEXUAL ORIENTATION OF A PARENT AS A FACTOR WHEN CONSIDERING CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle Feldhaus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Section 28(2 of the Constitution states that a child's best interest is of paramount importance in every matter concerning the child. Section 9 further provides that every person is considered equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law. Several grounds are listed relating to the unfair discrimination of persons, including their sexual orientation. The concept of care is incorporated in the Children's Act, and it entails a comprehensive description of parents' daily life regarding children and the powers and duties expected to ensure the general protection, well-being and best interests of the child.The aim of this contribution is to discuss the sexual orientation of a parent as a factor when considering care and the extent to which courts may give consideration to such a factor. The article will also address the question of whether or not the role of a parent's sexual orientation in determining the best interests of the child has changed since the common law concept of custody was replaced by the concept of care in the Children's Act. In this article, care and the best interests of the child will be discussed first. International law will be considered thereafter, followed by a discussion on the approach of our courts, pre- and post-1994, in order to come to a conclusion and make recommendations.

  7. Factors Associated with Parents’ Perceptions of Parental Smoking in the Presence of Children and Its Consequences on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parental smoking is the major source of children’s secondhand smoke exposure and is influenced by parents’ perception of children’s exposure. However, the factors associated with these perceptions remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with parents’ perceptions about parental smoking in the presence of children and its consequences. We conducted a cross-sectional study on parents’ perceptions of parental smoking and measured their evaluations of its consequences using a self-report questionnaire. Other variables include socio-demographic characteristics and smoking-related experience. Results show that parents’ gender, education level, occupational type, smoking status, and agreement on a home smoking ban independently predict parents’ evaluation of the consequences of parental smoking in the presence of children. Parents’ gender, education level, annual family income, smoking status, agreement on a home smoking ban, and evaluation of the consequences of parental smoking independently predicted parents’ perceptions. Findings indicated that a specific group expressed greater acceptance of parental smoking and was less aware of its risks. Motivating parents to create a smoke-free home and increasing awareness of the adverse consequences of parental smoking is beneficial in reinforcing attitudes opposed to parental smoking.

  8. Prevalence of asthma and risk factors for asthma-like symptoms in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in the northern territories of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiwei Gao; Rowe, Brian H; Carina Majaesic; Cindy O’Hara; Senthilselvan, A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of asthma and asthma-like symptoms, as well as the risk factors for asthma-like symptoms, in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the northern territories of Canada.METHODS: Data on 2404 children, aged between 0 and 11 years, who participated in the North component of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth were u...

  9. Parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Factor structure and normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J; Reid, Robert; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Lambert, Matthew C; Watkins, Marley W; Power, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms includes parent and teacher questionnaires. The ADHD Rating Scale-5 was developed to incorporate changes for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study examined the fit of a correlated, 2-factor structure of ADHD (i.e., DSM-5 conceptual model) and alternative models; determined whether ADHD symptom ratings varied across teacher and child demographic characteristics; and presented normative data. Two samples were included: (a) 2,079 parents and guardians (1,131 female, 948 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for children (N = 2,079; 1,037 males, 1,042 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 10.68; SD = 3.75) and (b) 1,070 teachers (766 female, 304 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for students (N = 2,140; 1,070 males, 1,070 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 11.53; SD = 3.54) who attended kindergarten through 12th grade. The 2-factor structure was confirmed for both parent and teacher ratings and was invariant across child gender, age, informant, informant gender, and language. In general, boys were higher in symptom frequency than girls; older children were rated lower than younger children, especially for hyperactivity-impulsivity; and non-Hispanic children were rated higher than Hispanic children. Teachers also rated non-Hispanic African American children higher than non-Hispanic White, Asian, and Hispanic children. Non-Hispanic White teachers provided lower hyperactivity-impulsivity ratings than non-Hispanic, African American, and Hispanic teachers. Normative data are reported separately for parent and teacher ratings by child gender and age. The merits of using the ADHD Rating Scale-5 in a multimodal assessment protocol are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26011476

  10. Fat Taxes and Health Outcomes: An Investigation of Economic Factors Influencing Obesity in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Cash, Sean B.; Goddard, Ellen W.; Lacanilao, Ryan D.

    2007-01-01

    Tax policy has been proposed as a possible instrument for reducing the incidence of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. This has become popularly known as the "fat tax" approach. Also, physical access to energy-dense, nutrition-poor food items has been suggested as a causal factor for rising obesity rates. This project investigates both the role that food price interventions and physical access to “fast food” may play in population levels of obesity.

  11. Incidence of Depression and Associated Factors in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Quebec, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lunghi, Carlotta; Moisan, Jocelyne; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It has been reported that the risk of depression is higher among people with type 2 diabetes compared with a nondiabetic population. Among diabetic patients, depression has been associated with worse self-care behaviors, poor glycemic control, and an increased risk of diabetes complications. Identifying factors associated with the occurrence of depression may help physicians identify earlier diabetic patients at a high risk of developing depression, improve prevention, and accelerate...

  12. Financial Factors and Labour Market Transitions of Older Workers in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the influence of financial factors on the labour market transitions of Canadian older workers. Also, in contrast to previous studies, the analysis focuses on transitions between full-time work, part-time work, and retirement. Sequential annual observations of employment and retirement choices are examined for samples of full-time and part-time workers, drawn from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID, 2001–2006. Measures of potential pension wealth and one-year and peak pension accruals are imputed using data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, 1973–1997, and the SLID, 1997–2006. Regression results indicate that financial factors influence workers to move from full-time to part-time jobs and support the evidence found in previous studies that retirement is usually a process, not a single event. Also, an increase in pension accruals increases the probability of working full-time for lower-income earners only. Among nonfinancial factors, a negative health shock increases the probability of working part-time or retiring for full-time workers but has little effect on the labour market transitions of part-time workers. Finally, these results suggest that policies to encourage phased retirement are unlikely to have a significant labour market effect since bridge employment is already a common transition process among older workers.

  13. Acute gastro-intestinal illness and its association with hydroclimatic factors in British Columbia, Canada: A time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, L. P.; Allen, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Rising global temperatures and expected shifts in regional hydroclimatology in a changing climate are likely to influence the risk of infectious waterborne illness. This study examines the role of hydroclimatology as an underlying driver of the epidemiology of waterborne gastro-intestinal illness and contributes to our currently limited understanding of the possible ecosystem-mediated impacts of climate change on health. Using time-series regression analysis, we examine the associations between three hydroclimatic factors (monthly temperature, precipitation, and streamflow) and the monthly occurrence of AGI illness in two communities in the province of British Columbia, Canada. The two communities were selected as study sites to represent the dominant hydroclimatic regimes that characterize the province of BC: the rainfall-dominated hydroclimatic regime and snowmelt-dominated hydroclimatic regime Our results show that the number of monthly cases of AGI increased with increasing temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in the same month in the context of a rainfall-dominated regime and with increasing streamflow in the previous month in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime. These results suggest that hydroclimatic factors play a role in driving the occurrence and variability of AGI illness in this setting. Further, this study has highlighted that the nature and magnitude of the effects of hydroclimatic factors on waterborne illness vary across different hydroclimatic settings. We conclude that the watershed may be an appropriate context within which we can and should enhance our understanding of water-related climate change impacts on health. Examining the role of hydroclimatology as an underlying driver of the epidemiology of infectious disease is key to understanding of the possible ecosystem-mediated impacts of climate change on health and developing appropriate adaptation responses.

  14. Risk factors for influenza among health care workers during 2009 pandemic, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kuster, Stefan P; Coleman, Brenda L.; Raboud, Janet; McNeil, Shelly; De Serres, Gaston; Gubbay, Jonathan; Hatchette, Todd; Katz, Kevin C.; Loeb, Mark; Low, Donald; Mazzulli, Tony; Simor, Andrew; McGeer, Allison J.

    2013-01-01

    This prospective cohort study, performed during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, was aimed to determine whether adults working in acute care hospitals were at higher risk than other working adults for influenza and to assess risk factors for influenza among health care workers (HCWs). We assessed the risk for influenza among 563 HCWs and 169 non-HCWs using PCR to test nasal swab samples collected during acute respiratory illness; results for 13 (2.2%) HCWs and 7 (4.1%) non-HCWs were posit...

  15. Risk Factors for Influenza among Health Care Workers during 2009 Pandemic, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kuster, Stefan P; Coleman, Brenda L.; Raboud, Janet; McNeil, Shelly; De Serres, Gaston; Gubbay, Jonathan; Hatchette, Todd; Katz, Kevin C.; Loeb, Mark; Low, Donald; Mazzulli, Tony; Simor, Andrew; McGeer, Allison J.; ,

    2013-01-01

    This prospective cohort study, performed during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, was aimed to determine whether adults working in acute care hospitals were at higher risk than other working adults for influenza and to assess risk factors for influenza among health care workers (HCWs). We assessed the risk for influenza among 563 HCWs and 169 non-HCWs using PCR to test nasal swab samples collected during acute respiratory illness; results for 13 (2.2%) HCWs and 7 (4.1%) non-HCWs were posit...

  16. Incidence of Depression and Associated Factors in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Carlotta; Moisan, Jocelyne; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It has been reported that the risk of depression is higher among people with type 2 diabetes compared with a nondiabetic population. Among diabetic patients, depression has been associated with worse self-care behaviors, poor glycemic control, and an increased risk of diabetes complications. Identifying factors associated with the occurrence of depression may help physicians identify earlier diabetic patients at a high risk of developing depression, improve prevention, and accelerate proper treatment. To our knowledge, very few population-based studies have reported on the incidence of clinically diagnosed depression as a consequence of type 2 diabetes over a long follow-up period. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of clinically diagnosed depression among type 2 diabetic patients newly treated with oral antidiabetic drugs (ADs) and to identify factors associated with the occurrence of depression. Administrative claims data from the public health insurance plan were used to identify a cohort of new oral AD users aged ≥18 years between 2000 and 2006. Patients were followed from oral AD treatment initiation until the diagnosis of depression, ineligibility for the public drug plan, death, or the end of the study, whichever came first. Incidence rates were determined using person-time analysis. Factors associated with depression were identified using multivariable Cox regression analysis. We identified 114,366 new oral AD users, of which 4808 had a diagnosis of depression. The overall incidence rate of depression was 9.47/1000 person-years (PYs) (10.72/1000 PYs for women and 8.27/1000 PYs for men). The incidence of depression was higher during the year after oral AD treatment initiation. Independent factors associated with depression included having had mental disorders other than depression, hospitalization, a higher number of different drugs taken and of physicians visited during the year before oral AD initiation. Moreover, we

  17. Occupational risk factors for bladder cancer: results from a case-control study in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemiatycki, J; Dewar, R; Nadon, L; Gérin, M

    1994-12-15

    A population-based case-control study of the associations between various cancers and occupational exposures was carried out in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Between 1979 and 1986, 484 persons with pathologically confirmed cases of bladder cancer and 1,879 controls with cancers at other sites were interviewed, as was a series of 533 population controls. The job histories of these subjects were evaluated by a team of chemist/hygienists for evidence of exposure to a list of 294 workplace chemicals, and information on relevant non-occupational confounders was obtained. On the basis of results of preliminary analyses and literature review, 19 occupations, 11 industries, and 23 substances were selected for in-depth multivariate analysis. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to estimate the odds ratio between each of these occupational circumstances and bladder cancer. There was weak evidence that the following substances may be risk factors for bladder cancer: natural gas combustion products, aromatic amines, cadmium compounds, photographic products, acrylic fibers, polyethylene, titanium dioxide, and chlorine. Among the substances evaluated which showed no evidence of an association were benzo(a)pyrene, leather dust, and formaldehyde. Several occupations and industries were associated with bladder cancer, including motor vehicle drivers and textile dyers. PMID:7998589

  18. Factors associated with the desire for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filogônio Cintia B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the period of adolescence physical appearance takes on significant importance in the construction of personal identity, including one's relationship with one's own body. A variety of social, cultural, psychological and personal factors influences the self-perception of dental appearance and the decision to undergo orthodontic treatment. Adolescents who seek orthodontic treatment are concerned with improving their appearance and social acceptance. The aim of the present study was to determine factors associated to the desire for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents and their parents. Methods The sample consisted of 403 subjects aged 14 to 18 years, selected randomly from a population of 182,291 schoolchildren in the same age group. The outcome variable "desire for orthodontic treatment" was assessed through a questionnaire. Self-perception of dental aesthetics was assessed using the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI was used for clinical assessment. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test as well as both simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results The majority (78% of the Brazilian adolescents desired orthodontic treatment and 69% of the parents reported that their children were not in orthodontic treatment due to the high costs involved. There was significant association (p ≤ 0.05 between the desire for orthodontic treatment and most types of malocclusion. However, there was no significant association between the desire for orthodontic treatment and the variables gender and age. Conclusions The following were considered factors associated to the desire for treatment: upper anterior crowding ≥ 2 mm and parents' perception of their child's need for treatment.

  19. Risk factors for male breast cancer in Canada, 1994-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K C; Pan, S; Mao, Y

    2002-06-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the aetiology of male breast cancer and the current understanding of female breast cancer, primarily related to reproductive events, cannot be readily transferred to understanding the cancer in males. However, since male breast cancer occurs in the absence of factors related to childbearing and menstruation, its aetiology may provide special insights into the causes of breast cancer in women. We examined lifestyle risk factors for male breast cancer as part of a Canadian, multi-site, population-based, case-control study. Eighty-one newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases and 1905 male controls aged 42-74 were analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Increased risks were found for men with a mother or sister with breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.62-8.19). Higher physical activity levels (moderate, and strenuous recreational plus occupational) were associated with a decreased risk of male breast cancer (highest quartile, adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.91). Similarly, higher risks were associated with higher weight 2 years before interview (2.19, 95% CI 1.08-4.43), maximum weight (OR 2.66) and higher body mass index (OR 1.60). Higher vegetable consumption and coffee consumption were associated with decreased risk, whereas higher beta-carotene, vitamin E and calcium supplementation were associated with statistically significant increased risk. The small number of cases and multiple comparisons preclude strong conclusions, but our study is consistent with studies suggesting obesity and family history increase risk, and physical activity decreases risk of breast cancer. PMID:12131659

  20. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Feeding Emotions Scale. A measure of parent emotions in the context of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie; Fisher, Jennifer O; Power, Thomas G; Chen, Tzu-An; Cross, Matthew B; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-08-01

    Assessing parent affect is important because studies examining the parent-child dyad have shown that parent affect has a profound impact on parent-child interactions and related outcomes. Although some measures that assess general affect during daily lives exist, to date there are only few tools that assess parent affect in the context of feeding. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure parent affect specific to the feeding context and determine its validity and reliability. A brief instrument consisting of 20 items was developed that specifically asks how parents feel during the feeding process. This brief instrument draws on the structure of a well-validated general affect measure. A total of 296 Hispanic and Black Head Start parents of preschoolers completed the Feeding Emotions Scale along with other parent-report measures as part of a larger study designed to better understand feeding interactions during the dinner meal. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model with independent subscales of positive affect and negative affect (Cronbach's alphas of 0.85 and 0.84, respectively). Concurrent and convergent construct validity was evaluated by correlating the subscales of the Feeding Emotions Scale with positive emotionality and negative emotionality from the Differential Emotions Scale - a measure of general adult emotions. Concurrent and convergent criterion validity was evaluated by testing mean differences in affect across parent feeding styles using ANOVA. A significant difference was found across maternal weight status for positive feeding affect. The resulting validated measure can be used to assess parent affect in studies of feeding to better understand how interactions during feeding may impact the development of child eating behaviors and possibly weight status. PMID:25865665

  1. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyerdahl Sonja

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Methods Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Conclusions Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family

  2. “Expectant Parents”: Study protocol of a longitudinal study concerning prenatal (risk factors and postnatal infant development, parenting, and parent-infant relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas A Janneke BM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of the infant-parent relationship from the child’s perspective is acknowledged worldwide, there is still a lack of knowledge about predictors and long-term benefits or consequences of the quality of parent-infant relationships from the parent’s perspective. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the quality of parent-infant relationships from parents’ perspectives, both in the prenatal and postpartum period. This study therefore focuses on prenatal (risk factors that may influence the quality of pre- and postnatal bonding, the transition to parenthood, and bonding as a process within families with young children. In contrast to most research concerning pregnancy and infant development, not only the roles and experiences of mothers during pregnancy and the first two years of infants’ lives are studied, but also those of fathers. Methods/design The present study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, in which pregnant women (N = 466 and their partners (N = 319 are followed from 15 weeks gestation until their child is 24 months old. During pregnancy, midwives register the presence of prenatal risk factors and provide obstetric information after the child’s birth. Parental characteristics are investigated using self-report questionnaires at 15, 26, and 36 weeks gestational age and at 4, 6, 12, and 24 months postpartum. At 26 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum, parents are interviewed concerning their representations of the (unborn child. At 6 months postpartum, the mother-child interaction is observed in several situations within the home setting. When children are 4, 6, 12, and 24 months old, parents also completed questionnaires concerning the child’s (social-emotional development and the parent-child relationship. Additionally, at 12 months information about the child’s physical development and well-being during the first year of life is retrieved from

  3. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in goats in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium, and infection in goats with this bacterium can result in abortion, stillbirth or birth of non-viable kids. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in Ontario goats. Sera were collected between August 2010 and February 2012, and tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX). Overall, 63.2% (48/76, 95% CI=51.9-73.4) of farms had one or more seropositive goats. A higher farm-level seroprevalence of 78.6% (33/42) was found on dairy goat farms, compared to 44.1% (15/34) on meat goat farms (pgoats were seropositive. Similarly, a higher individual-level seroprevalence was identified for dairy goats (43.7%, 633/1447) compared to meat goats (10.8%, 81/748) (pgoat farms were located in a 5-km radius, goats had 5.6 times (95% CI=1.01-30.8) times the odds of seropositivity compared to those that were not. Relative to goats from farms where all kidding pen hygiene was practiced (adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection after kidding), goats from farms which only added bedding and removed birth materials had a higher odds of seropositivity (OR=19.3, 95% CI=1.1-330.4), as did goats from farms which practiced none of these measures (OR=161.0, 95% CI=2.4-10822.2). An interaction term revealed kidding outdoors when there were no swine on farm had a protective effect on seropositivity compared to kidding indoors, or kidding outdoors with swine on the farm. These results can inform strategies to mitigate exposure to C. burnetii in Ontario. PMID:26231909

  4. Factors associated with the referral of anxious children to mental health care: the influence of family functioning, parenting, parental anxiety and child impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongerden, Loes; Simon, Ellin; Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age = 10.28, standard deviation (SD) = 1.35], 176 non-referred anxious children recruited in primary schools (M age = 9.94, SD = 1.22). Child anxiety and other disorders were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Child anxiety symptoms, behavioural problems, parental anxiety, the parenting styles overprotection, autonomy encouragement, rejection, and the family functioning dimensions control and relational functioning, were assessed with child, father and mother report on questionnaires. The summed interference rating of children's anxiety disorders was a predictor of referral, consistent over child and parent reports, but not comorbidity. Most family and parenting variables did not predict referral, nor differed between the referred and non-referred sample. Contrary to our hypothesis, maternal self-reported anxiety decreased the odds of referral and child reported parental autonomy granting increased, while child reported overprotection decreased the odds of referral. The impairment for the child due to the number and severity of their anxiety disorder(s) is, based on child, mother and father report associated with referral. This indicates that those who need it most, receive clinical treatment. PMID:25511424

  5. Community-level risk factors for notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardhan-Ali Aliya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric pathogens are an important cause of illness, however, little is known about their community-level risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural and physical environmental conditions in the Northwest Territories (NWT of Canada. The objective of this study was to undertake ecological (group-level analyses by combining two existing data sources to examine potential community-level risk factors for campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis, which are three notifiable (mandatory reporting to public health authorities at the time of diagnosis enteric infections. Methods The rate of campylobacteriosis was modeled using a Poisson distribution while rates of giardiasis and salmonellosis were modeled using a Negative Binomial distribution. Rate ratios (the ratio of the incidence of disease in the exposed group to the incidence of disease in the non-exposed group were estimated for infections by the three major pathogens with potential community-level risk factors. Results Significant (p≤0.05 associations varied by etiology. There was increased risk of infection with Salmonella for communities with higher proportions of ‘households in core need’ (unsuitable, inadequate, and/or unaffordable housing up to 42% after which the rate started to decrease with increasing core need. The risk of giardiasis was significantly higher both with increased ‘internal mobility’ (population moving between communities, and also where the community’s primary health facility was a health center rather than a full-service hospital. Communities with higher health expenditures had a significantly decreased risk of giardiasis. Results of modeling that focused on each of Giardia and Salmonella infections separately supported and expanded upon previous research outcomes that suggested health disparities are often associated with socioeconomic status, geographical and social mobility, as well as access to health care (e.g. facilities

  6. Aboriginal birth cohort (ABC): a prospective cohort study of early life determinants of adiposity and associated risk factors among Aboriginal people in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Wahi, Gita; Wilson, Julie; Miller, Ruby; Anglin, Rebecca; McDonald, Sarah; Morrison, Katherine M; Teo, Koon K; Anand, Sonia S

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people living in Canada have a high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To better understand the pre and postnatal influences on the development of adiposity and related cardio-metabolic factors in adult Aboriginal people, we will recruit and follow prospectively Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their children – the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Methods/design We aim to recruit 300 Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their newborns...

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents' and adolescents' demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12-18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents' obesity. PMID:26712779

  8. Youth suicide attempts and the dose-response relationship to parental risk factors: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, E; Goldney, R D; Beautrai, A L;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of specific knowledge about the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors for suicide attempts among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors on an offspring's risk...... for suicide attempt.MethodWe designed a population-based two-generation nested case-control study and used Danish register data. A population of 403 431 individuals born between 1983 and 1989 was sampled. Among these, 3465 (0.8%) were registered as having had a suicide attempt. Twenty controls were matched...... to each case and a link to the offspring's biological parents was established. RESULTS: There was a dose-response relationship between the number of exposures and the risk of suicide attempts, with the increased risk seeming to be a multiplicative effect. Parental suicide, suicide attempt, psychiatric...

  9. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  10. RISK FACTORS OF DEVELOPMENT AND PREVALENCE OF CARIES IN EARLY AND PRESCHOOL AGE CHILDREN FROM TWO-PARENT FAMILIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kan Vsevolod Vladimirovich; Kapitonov Vladimir Fedorovich; Vitkin Artyom Sergeevich; Gavrilyuk Oksana Aleksandrovna

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of studying of risk factors of development and prevalence of caries in children of early and preschool age, socially-hygienic and medical and biologic characteristics of 423 two-parent families have been studied. The study base included 619 children at the age from 1 to 6 years and their parents. The estimation of the medical and biologic and socially-hygienic characteristics was carried out with the use of the original questionnaire which contained 70 questions concerning the...

  11. [The parenting style as protective or risk factor for substance use and other behavior problems among Spanish adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; Fuentes, María C; García, Fernando; Madrid, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the parental socialization styles as a protective or a risk factor for substance use in a sample of 673 Spanish adolescents (51.7% were women) aged 14-17 (M = 15.49, SD = 1.06). All participants completed the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) and a scale of substance use. Additionally, they also completed a scale of delinquency and another one of school misconduct. A multivariate (4×2×2) analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied for substance use, delinquency and school misconduct with parenting style, sex and age. Results from this study showed that indulgent parenting style was a protective factor for substance use whereas authoritarian style was identified as a risk factor. Moreover, results from protective and risk parenting styles on delinquency and school misconduct were consistent with those obtained on substance use. These findings have important implications for the development of family-based substance use prevention programs among Spanish adolescents and other similar cultures where indulgent parenting style is currently displaying a beneficial impact. PMID:23880836

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Patsopoulou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents’ and adolescents’ demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ, the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2 and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ. Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy, maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents’ obesity.

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents’ and adolescents’ demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents’ obesity. PMID:26712779

  14. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUHAMMAD, Noor Azimah; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; OMAR, Khairani; SHAH, Shamsul Azhar; MOHD AMIN, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. Methods: The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Results: Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (overprotection factor. All the items loaded positively on their respective factors. Conclusion: The Malaysian population favoured positive items in answering questions. The PBI-M confirmed the three-factor model that consisted of care, autonomy and overprotection. The PBI-M is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the Malaysian parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Keywords: Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity PMID:25977634

  15. Factors Affecting Parent-Adolescent Discussion on Reproductive Health Issues in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Open family discussion on reproductive health (RH issues often leads to increased awareness on RH matters and reduces risky behaviors among adolescents. This study was conducted to assess factors affecting parent-adolescent discussion on RH issues in Harar, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey using face to face interview supplemented with focus group discussion (FGD was conducted on 751 randomly selected parents of 10–19-year-old adolescents. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results. More than one-fourth (28.76% of parents reported discussing RH issues with their adolescents during the last six months. In the logistic regression, parents who have demonstrated good RH knowledge and positive attitude towards RH were almost six times and seventy percent (AOR 5.69, 95% CI: 3.67–8.82; AOR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08–2.68 higher in discussing RH with their adolescents than their counterparts, respectively. Conclusion. Parent-adolescent discussion about RH issues rarely occurs and is bounded by lack of knowledge, sociocultural norms, and parental concern that discussion would encourage premarital sex. Reproductive health programs should target on improving awareness of parents and addressing sociocultural norms surrounding reproductive health issues.

  16. La agresividad en la infancia: el estilo de crianza parental como factor relacionado

    OpenAIRE

    Raya Trenas, Antonio Félix; Pino Osuna, M. José; Herruzo Cabrera, Javier

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio se propone analizar la posible relación existente entre la agresividad en los niños medida por sus padres a través del BASC (Sistema de Evaluación de la Conducta de Niños y Adolescentes) y el estilo de crianza según el PCRI (Cuestionario de Crianza Parental) compuesto por siete factores: apoyo, satisfacción con la crianza, compromiso, comunicación, disciplina, autonomía y distribución de rol, en una muestra de 338 niños (182 niños y 156 niñas) entre 3 y 14 a...

  17. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo Helen P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Methods Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters, we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1 parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2 factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. Results With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes. Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Conclusions Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent

  18. Viewing Generativity and Social Capital as Underlying Factors of Parent Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sharon; Patel, Nimisha

    2015-01-01

    Parent involvement in education is a multifaceted support that has many well-documented benefits for students of all ages. Parent involvement is also a common expression of generativity as defined in Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. The activities parents engage in during their children's educational pursuits, as well as their…

  19. Nonoffending Parent Expectations of Sexually Abused Children: Predictive Factors and Influence on Children's Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…

  20. Flexible Work Hours and Other Job Factors in Parental Time with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Flexible working hours are typically seen to be advantageous to working parents, as the flexible hours more easily allow responsibilities of care and employment be balanced. But do flexible work hours actually mean that parents can spend more time with their children? This article explores this for parents of young children in Australia. The…

  1. Biogeochemical factors influencing net mercury methylation in contaminated freshwater sediments from the St. Lawrence River in Cornwall, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramescu, Mary-Luyza; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel [Biology Department, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Hintelmann, Holger [Chemistry Department, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Ridal, Jeff [St. Lawrence River Institute of Environmental Sciences, 2 Belmont Street, Cornwall, ON, K6H 4Z1 (Canada); Fortin, Danielle, E-mail: dfortin@uottawa.ca [Earth Science Department, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Lean, David R.S. [Biology Department, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    The activity of various anaerobic microbes, including sulfate reducers (SRB), iron reducers (FeRP) and methanogens (MPA) has been linked to mercury methylation in aquatic systems, although the relative importance of each microbial group in the overall process is poorly understood in natural sediments. The present study focused on the biogeochemical factors (i.e. the relative importance of various groups of anaerobic microbes (FeRP, SRB, and MPA) that affect net monomethylmercury (MMHg) formation in contaminated sediments of the St. Lawrence River (SRL) near Cornwall (Zone 1), Ontario, Canada. Methylation and demethylation potentials were measured separately by using isotope-enriched mercury species ({sup 200}Hg{sup 2+} and MM{sup 199}Hg{sup +}) in sediment microcosms treated with specific microbial inhibitors. Sediments were sampled and incubated in the dark at room temperature in an anaerobic chamber for 96 h. The potential methylation rate constants (K{sub m}) and demethylation rates (K{sub d}) were found to differ significantly between microcosms. The MPA-inhibited microcosm had the highest potential methylation rate constant (0.016 d{sup -1}), whereas the two SRB-inhibited microcosms had comparable potential methylation rate constants (0.003 d{sup -1} and 0.002 d{sup -1}, respectively). The inhibition of methanogens stimulated net methylation by inhibiting demethylationand by stimulating methylation along with SRB activity. The inhibition of both methanogens and SRB was found to enhance the iron reduction rates but did not completely stop MMHg production. The strong positive correlation between K{sub m} and Sulfate Reduction Rates (SRR) and between K{sub d} and Methane Production Rates (MPR) supports the involvement of SRB in Hg methylation and MPA in MMHg demethylation in the sediments. In contrast, the strong negative correlation between K{sub d} and Iron Reduction Rates (FeRR) shows that the increase in FeRR corresponds to a decrease in demethylation

  2. Biogeochemical factors influencing net mercury methylation in contaminated freshwater sediments from the St. Lawrence River in Cornwall, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of various anaerobic microbes, including sulfate reducers (SRB), iron reducers (FeRP) and methanogens (MPA) has been linked to mercury methylation in aquatic systems, although the relative importance of each microbial group in the overall process is poorly understood in natural sediments. The present study focused on the biogeochemical factors (i.e. the relative importance of various groups of anaerobic microbes (FeRP, SRB, and MPA) that affect net monomethylmercury (MMHg) formation in contaminated sediments of the St. Lawrence River (SRL) near Cornwall (Zone 1), Ontario, Canada. Methylation and demethylation potentials were measured separately by using isotope-enriched mercury species (200Hg2+ and MM199Hg+) in sediment microcosms treated with specific microbial inhibitors. Sediments were sampled and incubated in the dark at room temperature in an anaerobic chamber for 96 h. The potential methylation rate constants (Km) and demethylation rates (Kd) were found to differ significantly between microcosms. The MPA-inhibited microcosm had the highest potential methylation rate constant (0.016 d-1), whereas the two SRB-inhibited microcosms had comparable potential methylation rate constants (0.003 d-1 and 0.002 d-1, respectively). The inhibition of methanogens stimulated net methylation by inhibiting demethylationand by stimulating methylation along with SRB activity. The inhibition of both methanogens and SRB was found to enhance the iron reduction rates but did not completely stop MMHg production. The strong positive correlation between Km and Sulfate Reduction Rates (SRR) and between Kd and Methane Production Rates (MPR) supports the involvement of SRB in Hg methylation and MPA in MMHg demethylation in the sediments. In contrast, the strong negative correlation between Kd and Iron Reduction Rates (FeRR) shows that the increase in FeRR corresponds to a decrease in demethylation, indicating that iron reduction may influence net methylation in the SLR

  3. Do parental coronary heart disease risk factors(non-modifiable) effect their young ones?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun; Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the differences between the lipid profiles of the subjects whose parents are having known non-modifiable risk factors such as obesity,hypertension(HTN),myocardial infarction and diabetes,and compare them with the lipid profiles of the subjects whose parents are not having those risk factors.Methods:A total of 402 subjects were recruited to this study.A detailed questionnaire which included information on the past medical history,height,weight,blood pressure,physical activity,smoke,alcohol,family history of coronary heart disease,HTN.diabetics and obesity.Basic demographic data and dietary habits were completed by all participants.Blood samples were obtained from all subjects after 14 h.Lipid profiles were analyzed using automated analyzer.The results were analyzed using SPSS software packages.Results:The mean body mass index of the population was well below the cut-off value of obesity(>24.5 kg/m") and high risk of future cardiovascular disorder(CVD) events in this age group.The mean levels of total cholesterol(TC),triglycerides(TG) and TC/high density lipoprotein(HDL) were less than the risk levels indicative of future CVD events according to the ATP Ⅲ cut-off values.However the mean HDL level in our population was slightly greater than the cut-off value while the mean low density lipoprotein level was almost similar to the risk level.Differences were observed when the subjects without history of maternal obesity were compared with subjects with history of maternal obesity.The greater percentage of subjects who are having risk levels of body mass index.TC.low density lipoprotein.TG.and TC/HDI.indicated that maternal obesity contributed to the greater susceptibility of developing CVD risk in their offspring.Conclusions:Advancing age may result in changes that could be atherogenic in the future.Such atherogenic changes have already initialed when the subjects are about 21 years old.The incidence of atherogenic changes is far greater when mothers

  4. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  5. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; O`Malley, C.D. [California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Results of studies determine whether women who smoke during early pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering infants with orofacial clefts have been mixed, and recently a gene-environment interaction between maternal smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFa), and clefting has been reported. Using a large population-based case-control study, we investigated whether parental periconceptional cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk for having offspring with orofacial clefts. We also investigated the influence of genetic variation of the TGFa locus on the relation between smoking and clefting. Parental smoking information was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers of 731 (84.7% of eligible) orofacial cleft case infants and with mothers of 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed control infants. DNA was obtained from newborn screening blood spots and genotyped for the allelic variants of TGFa. We found that risks associated with maternal smoking were most elevated for isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, (odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6]) and for isolated cleft palate (odds ratio 2.2 [1.1-4.5]) when mothers smoked {ge} 20 cigarrettes/d. These risks for white infants ranged from 3-fold to 11-fold across phenotypic groups. Paternal smoking was not associated with clefting among the offspring of nonsmoking mothers, and passive smoke exposures were associated with at most slightly increased risks. This study offers evidence that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele. 56 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Pediatrician identification of child behavior problems: the roles of parenting factors and cross-practice differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C

    2012-06-01

    While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care. PMID:21964826

  7. A qualitative study exploring factors associated with mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bonia, Kimberly; Twells, Laurie; Halfyard, Beth; Ludlow, Valerie; Newhook, Leigh Anne; Murphy-Goodridge, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has numerous health benefits. In 2010, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador had the lowest breastfeeding initiation rate (64.0%) in Canada. Formula feeding is associated with well-known health risks. Exclusive formula feeding is the “cultural norm” in some regions of the province. Women appear resistant to changing their infant feeding behaviors and remain committed to their decision to formula-feed. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to examine indivi...

  8. Factors associated with unmet dental care needs in Canadian immigrants: an analysis of the longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Calvasina, Paola; Muntaner, Carles; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Immigrants are often considered to have poorer oral health than native born-populations. One possible explanation for immigrants’ poor oral health is lack of access to dental care. There is very little information on Canadian immigrants’ access to dental care, and unmet dental care needs. This study examines predictors of unmet dental care needs among a sample of adult immigrants to Canada over a three-point-five-year post-migration period. Methods A secondary data analysis was con...

  9. Parental free descriptions of their infants/toddlers: do they resemble the Five-Factor Model of personality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, developmental psychologists have begun to search for the antecedents of the Five-Factor Model (FFM adult personality dimensions in childhood. Based on a free-descriptive approach the Five-Factor domains were strongly replicated in descriptions by parents of 3 to 12-year-old children in different countries. This study was designed to examine whether the parental free-descriptions of their infants and toddlers could as well be categorised by the FFM taxonomy. It compared the frequency of category use for several groups of children to determine how they might vary by the child's age, gender, and by which parent provided the descriptions. 101 Slovenian children (mean age 14.4 months were described by 100 mothers and 85 fathers. Their expressions were coded by an elaborate coding scheme including five main categories, with three subcategories each, and nine additional categories outside the FFM. Approximately four fifths of the parental responses were classified within the FFM, which proves the taxonomy useful for describing the infants and toddlers. No significant differences in the proportions of the descriptors were obtained by the rater and by the child's gender for any of the (subcategories. Several age differences between the parental perceptions of infants and toddlers were found significant. They are suggested to reflect rapid behavioural changes during the first two years of the child's life. These changes are supposed to shift the parental focus of attention to additional and/or different aspects of the child's behaviour in his/her second year compared to the first year. Thus the parents use somewhat different aspects of the child's behaviour to make social comparisons between the toddlers than between the infants.

  10. Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program to Prevent Child Abuse: Impact in Reducing Parental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Anne; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of a home visiting program in reducing malleable parental risk factors for child abuse in families of newborns identified, through population-based screening, as at-risk of child abuse. Methods: This randomized trial focused on Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based organizations on…

  11. Predicting Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Five Years by Child and Parental Factors in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Luoma, Ilona; Latva, Reija; Salmelin, Raili K.; Tamminen, Tuula

    2012-01-01

    This study examined child and parental factors in infancy and toddlerhood predicting subclinical or clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing problems at 5 years of age. Ninety-six children and their families participated. They were assessed when the children were 4-10 weeks old (T1), 2 years (T2) and 5 years old (T3). Child risks…

  12. Periconceptional health and lifestyle factors of both parents affect the risk of live-born children with orofacial clefts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapels, Ingrid P. C.; Zielhuis, Gerhard A.; Vroom, Fokaline; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne-Marie; van der Molen, Aebele B. Mink; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) or cleft palate only (CPO) are orofacial clefts and have a multifactorial etiology. The identification of amendable parental risk factors may contribute to a reduced occurrence of these malformations in the future. METHODS: Stand

  13. Maternal Discourse, Attachment-Related Risk, and Current Risk Factors: Associations with Maternal Parenting Behavior during Foster Care Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Haight, Wendy L.; Black, James E.; Sokolowski, Margaret Szewczyk; Giorgio, Grace; Tata, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relations among mothers' discourse about experiences in their families of origin and with child protective services (CPS), attachment-related and current risk factors, and the quality of mothers' parenting behavior with their young children during supervised visits. Twenty-nine 2- to 6-year-old children in foster care and their…

  14. The role of economic factors on women's risk for intimate partner violence: a cross-national comparison of Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth; Powers, Ráchael A

    2015-02-01

    National data from Canada and the United States are used to examine the connection between women's economic contributions to the family and their risk for physical and emotional abuse. Analyses show that American women are at a twofold greater risk; however, the relationship between economic variables and the risk of both physical violence and coercive control are more complex. Income serves to reduce the risk of both violence and coercive control for both Canadian and American women, whereas education serves as a clear protective factor for American women, but does not provide the same benefit for Canadian women. PMID:25540258

  15. Psychological complaints among children in joint physical custody and other family types: Considering parental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Emma; Turunen, Jani; Hjern, Anders; Östberg, Viveca; Bergström, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Increasing proportions of Scandinavian children and children in other Western countries live in joint physical custody, moving between parents’ homes when parents live apart. Children and parents in non-intact families are at risk of worse mental health. The potential influence of parental ill-health on child well-being in the context of differing living arrangements has not been studied thoroughly. This study investigates the psychological complaints of children in joint physical custody in comparison to children in sole parental care and nuclear families, while controlling for socioeconomic differences and parental ill-health. Methods: Data were obtained from Statistics Sweden’s yearly Survey of Living Conditions 2007–2011 and child supplements with children 10–18 years, living in households of adult participants. Children in joint physical custody (n=391) were compared with children in sole parental care (n=654) and children in nuclear families (n=3,639), using a scale of psychological complaints as the outcome measure. Results: Multiple regression modelling showed that children in joint physical custody did not report higher levels of psychological complaints than those in nuclear families, while children in sole parental care reported elevated levels of complaints compared with those in joint physical custody. Adding socioeconomic variables and parental ill-health only marginally attenuated the coefficients for the living arrangement groups. Low parental education and parental worry/anxiety were however associated with higher levels of psychological complaints. Conclusions: Psychological complaints were lower among adolescents in joint physical custody than in adolescents in sole parental care. The difference was not explained by parental ill-health or socioeconomic variables. PMID:26553250

  16. Case studies: Experience in Canada [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has 22 nuclear reactors that, at this time, supply approximately 15% of the country's electricity. Canada's spent nuclear fuel is now stored on an interim basis at licensed facilities at the reactor sites located in Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick and at the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) facility in Manitoba. The issue of long-term management of spent fuel has been the subject of considerable study in Canada. At the request of the federal and Ontario governments, and after a 20-year research program, a concept for the management of spent fuel was developed by AECL. In its 1998 report, the environmental assessment panel provided insight and direction on key issues that had to be addressed in order to move the decision-making forward. The Government of Canada considered and responded to the panel report, and in November 2002 brought into force the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act (NFWA) which assigned roles and responsibilities and established the legislative framework for decision-making framework for the long-term management of its spent nuclear fuel. As required by that legislation, the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) was established by the nuclear energy corporations. The NWMO was tasked with conducting a study of storage and disposal options, and will be responsible for implementing the management approach selected by government. After the Government selects the approach, implementation will unfold under the ongoing oversight of Natural Resources Canada. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is responsible for the licensing and ensuring NWMO's compliance with regulatory requirements. The immediate task of the NWMO was to conduct a three year examination of different management options. The NWMO believed that an approach that generates confidence for the long term would need to resonate with citizen values and objectives for the study, and bring to bear the best science and technical understanding. A dynamic and iterative study was conducted

  17. Hindering and buffering factors for parental sleep in neonatal care. A phenomenographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla; Angelhoff, Charlotte; Johnsson, Ewa; Karlsson, Jenny; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe how parents of preterm and/or sick infants in neonatal care perceive their sleep. BACKGROUND: Parents experience many stressful situations when their newborn infant is preterm and/or sick. This affects bonding. By developing more family-centred care units with single-family rooms, parents are given the opportunity to stay and care for their newborn infant(s) 24 hours a day. Lack of sleep may affect new parents' ability to cope with the many challen...

  18. Parental risk factors and anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwink Nadine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anorectal malformations (ARM are rare forms of congenital uro-rectal anomalies with largely unknown causes. Besides genetic factors, prenatal exposures of the parents to nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, illicit drugs, occupational hazards, overweight/obesity and diabetes mellitus are suspected as environmental risk factors. Methods Relevant studies published until August 2010 were identified through systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library databases. Furthermore, related and cross-referencing publications were reviewed. Pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were determined to quantify associations of maternal and paternal smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, underweight (body mass index [BMI] Results 22 studies that reported on the association between prenatal environmental risk factors and infants born with ARM were included in this review. These were conducted in the United States of America (n = 12, Spain (n = 2, Sweden (n = 2, the Netherlands (n = 2, Japan (n = 1, France (n = 1, Germany (n = 1 and Hungary (n = 1. However, only few of these studies reported on the same risk factors. Studies were heterogeneous with respect to case numbers, control types and adjustment for covariates. Consistently increased risks were observed for paternal smoking and maternal overweight, obesity and diabetes, but not for maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. In meta-analyses, pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals for paternal smoking, maternal overweight, obesity, pre-gestational and gestational diabetes were 1.53 (1.04-2.26, 1.25 (1.07-1.47, 1.64 (1.35-2.00, 4.51 (2.55-7.97 and 1.81 (1.23-2.65, respectively. Conclusion Evidence on risk factors for ARM from epidemiological studies is still very limited. Nevertheless, the few available studies indicate paternal smoking and maternal overweight, obesity and diabetes to be associated with increased risks. Further, ideally large

  19. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  20. Longitudinal effects of parental, child and neighborhood factors on moderate-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in Latino children

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy F. Butte; Gregorich, Steven E.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Penilla, Carlos; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L; Flores, Elena; Deardorff, Julianna; Greenspan, Louise C; Martinez, Suzanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Moderate-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) confers beneficial effects on child musculoskeletal health, cardiovascular fitness, and psychosocial well-being; in contrast, sedentary time (%SED) is emerging as a risk factor for health. This study aimed to identify parental, child and neighborhood factors influencing longitudinal assessments of body mass index (BMI) and activity patterns among Latino children, and to estimate lagged and cross-lagged effects between child BMI, %MVPA and...

  1. Longitudinal effects of parental, child and neighborhood factors on moderate-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in Latino children

    OpenAIRE

    Butte, NF; Gregorich, SE; Tschann, JM; Penilla, C.; Pasch, LA; de Groat, CL; Flores, E.; Deardorff, J; Greenspan, LC; Martinez, SM

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Butte et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Background: Moderate-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) confers beneficial effects on child musculoskeletal health, cardiovascular fitness, and psychosocial well-being; in contrast, sedentary time (%SED) is emerging as a risk factor for health. This study aimed to identify parental, child and neighborhood factors influencing longitudinal assessments of body mass index (BMI) and activity patterns among Latino children, and to estimate lagged an...

  2. Attitude and flexibility are the most important work place factors for working parents' mental wellbeing, stress, and work engagement.

    OpenAIRE

    Eek, Frida; Axmon, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The need to combine active employment and parenthood is a reality for many parents today. Knowing more about which work place factors are associated with better or worse health could help employers to form a work environment that provides optimal conditions to maintain or increase health and work engagement in this group. The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between different subjective and objective work factors and benefits, and a range of outcome variables such ...

  3. Associations between parental BMI, socioeconomic factors, family structure and overweight in Finnish children: a path model approach

    OpenAIRE

    Parikka, Suvi; Mäki, Päivi; Levälahti, Esko; Lehtinen-Jacks, Susanna; Martelin, Tuija; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the less studied interrelationships and pathways between parental BMI, socioeconomic factors, family structure and childhood overweight. Methods The cross-sectional LATE-study was carried out in Finland in 2007–2009. The data for the analyses was classified into four categories: younger boys and girls (ca 3–8 years) (n = 2573) and older boys and girls (ca 11–16 years) (n = 1836). Associations between parental BMI, education, labor market status, ...

  4. Parent-Reported Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptomatology in Preschool-Aged Children: Factor Structure, Developmental Change, and Early Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Pek, Jolynn; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Although Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increasingly been studied in preschool-aged children, relatively few studies have provided a comprehensive evaluation of the factor structure and patterns of developmental changes in parent-reported ADHD symptomatology across the early childhood period. This study used confirmatory factor analyses to test for longitudinal measurement invariance of ADHD symptoms and semi-parametric finite mixture models to identify prototypic pattern...

  5. Prevalence and the Relationship between Characteristics and Parental Conditions with Risk Factors for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Gholamzadeh Baeis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is a disease which causes unexpected death of infants aged less than 1 year. Given the undeniable role of parents in the presence or absence of SIDS risk factors, the present study aimed to studythe prevalence and the relationship between characteristics and conditions of parent’s infants with SIDS risk factors. Materials and Methods  In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, 1,021 infants aged 1 to 12 months in the health centers in Qom-Iran in 2014 were selected as the sample by stratified random sampling method. The required data were collected using an author-made questionnaire on SIDS risk factors. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS 18 at a significance level of 95%. Results 4.5% of mothers were younger than 20 years, 92.3% infants had a co-sleeping with their parents, and 35.7% of infants had a bed-sharing with their parents. 19% of infants used Soft pillow. Study findings showed that there is no significant relationship between the age of mothers and using a shared bedroom (P>0.05, while such a relationship exists between education backgrounds of parents and sharing a bedroom (P

  6. Evaluation of Skill Maintenance, Performance Factors, and External Validity in a Behavioral Parent Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbarth, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Child maltreatment affects 900 thousand children in the U.S. every year and impacts all areas of daily functioning. Behavioral parent training (BPT) programs have effectively taught parenting & demonstrated externally valid outcomes (i.e., lower recidivism rates). Skill maintenance assessments for BPTs have mixed results. The Behavior Management…

  7. Predicting Change in Parenting Stress across Early Childhood: Child and Maternal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…

  8. Factors Contributing to Stress in Parents of Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehee, Erin; Honan, Rita; Hevey, David

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study explores the experiences of parents of individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs), and examines the influences of parent gender and child age on perceived stress, stress and coping, child-rearing involvement, support and information/education accessed. Methods and Materials: Questionnaires assessed general perceived…

  9. Parenting Styles: A Key Factor to Self Determination and Personal Growth of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Manika Arbab; Sultan, Sarwat

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to explore the impact of parenting styles of adolescents on their self-determination and personal growth. The data was collected from 300 adults evenly divided by gender, aged 23-38 years. To measure the parenting styles, level of self-determination and personal growth, the Caregivers Practices Report, Self Determination…

  10. Parenting styles as a tobacco-use protective factor among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondowski, Cláudia S; Bedendo, André; Zuquetto, Carla; Locatelli, Danilo P; Opaleye, Emérita S; Noto, Ana R

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the relationship between tobacco use (previous month and frequent use), parenting styles and parental smoking behavior in a sample of high school students. Participants were recruited from public and private high schools from 27 Brazilian state capitals (N = 17,246). The overall prevalence of tobacco use in life was 25.2%; 15.3% in the previous year; 8.6% in the previous month; and 3.2% for frequent use. Tobacco use by the parents was reported by 28.6% of the students. Regarding parenting styles, 39.2% were classified as negligent, 33.3% authoritative, 15.6% as indulgent and 11.9% authoritarian. Compared to adolescents with authoritative parents, those with negligent or indulgent parents were more prone to report tobacco use during the last month or frequent use. This study showed an association between parenting styles and tobacco use by high school students. Authoritative parents were associated with protection from frequent and previous month tobacco use among adolescents. PMID:26872228

  11. Parental Factors in Children's Motivation for Learning English: A Case in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2015-01-01

    Schools in China and elsewhere are starting to teach English as a second language or foreign language (FL) to students at increasingly earlier ages. Although young learners (YLs), due to their developmental stage, are likely to be particularly susceptible to the influence of parents, parents' roles in YLs' motivation to learn English as…

  12. Association of parental history of type 2 diabetes with age, lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and clinical severity at type 2 diabetes diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Berencsi, Klara; Sander, Simone;

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes cohort. We examined the prevalence ratios (PR) of demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, and clinical factors according to parental history, using Poisson regression adjusting for age and gender. RESULTS: Of 2825 T2D patients, 34% (n = 964) had a parental history of T2D. Parental......BACKGROUND: We investigated whether parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with age, lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and clinical severity at the time of T2D diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in...... diabetes complications or comorbidities at T2D diagnosis was not associated with parental history. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of an association between parental history and adverse lifestyle factors indicates that T2D patients do not inherit a particular propensity for overeating or inactivity, whereas patients...

  13. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. PMID:25308235

  14. Parental drinking as a risk factor for children's maladjustment: the mediating role of family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Goethals, Eveline

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, the relationships among parental drinking, family environment, and child adjustment is investigated in a community sample of 207 10-14-year-olds. Multiple aspects of perceived family environment (e.g., cohesion, organization, conflict) as well as multiple indicators of adjustment (e.g., negative affect, feelings of competence, self-esteem) are taken into consideration. Parental alcohol problems are found to be associated with low family cohesion, poor family organization, and low global self-worth of the child. A mediational analysis reveals that the relation between parental drinking and low global self-worth is mediated by family cohesion. PMID:16784354

  15. Parental rearing style: examining for links with personality vulnerability factors for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G

    1993-07-01

    Recent research provides evidence of links between anomalous parenting experiences in childhood and subsequent depression. A study was designed to pursue the possibility that anomalous parenting effects a diathesis to depression by inducing a vulnerable cognitive style rather than by disposing directly to depression. Possible mediating personality style variables were explored in a study of 123 depressed subjects who scored their parents on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), as well as completing a state depression and several relevant personality measures. Low self-esteem and a related dysfunction cognitive style were the personality variables most clearly linked with PBI scores, with links persisting after partialling out state levels of depression. Failure to find links between PBI scores and depression levels limited explication of the diathesis stress model. PMID:8378811

  16. The effect of psychological factors and parental education on adolescents' academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek; Gregor Sočan; Katja Bajc

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our research was to check the assumed path model of causal relationships between adolescent's psychological characteristics (language competence, intellectual ability, and personality dimensions), parental education, and adolescent's academic achievement. Adolescents (N = 427; among them 225 girls and 202 boys), who were attending the ninth grade of elementary school in the school year 2005/2006, and their parents participated in the study. Adolescent's academic ach...

  17. Relations Between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency Among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    CHUNG, HE LEN; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14–18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban communities. The results indicate that weak neighborhood social organization is indirectly related to delinquency through its associations with parenting beh...

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors in young male adults: impact of physical activity and parental education

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Çuhadar; Ayşenur Atay; Gülcan Sağlam; Mehmet Köseoğlu; Levent Çuhadar

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to assess whether choices of physical activity, smoking status, and parental education and income were correlated with the health status of young adult males which are important for preventive health policy. Methods: 491 18-29-year old males from lower socioeconomical districts in Turkey participated in this study. Information about demographic characteristics, parental education, household income, smoking status, and physical activity was obtained by mean...

  19. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Loveren, van, C.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to explore parental and family-related determinants of childhood dental caries, and their potential role in socioeconomic inequalities in children’s dental he...

  20. Factors in adult children that influence and motivate care giving for parents with dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Dodge, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review evaluated research on adult children of parents with dementia who were primary carers and the possible psychological predictors of carer burden. Searches were undertaken from January 2004 to October 2008. Research papers using a range of different methodologies were selected. Inclusion criteria incorporated a focus on psychological predictors of carer burden and the relationship between the parent with dementia and adult child carer in the community. Trial quality was a...

  1. Parental and Family Factors as Predictors of Threat Bias in Anxious Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Blossom, Jennifer B.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Birmaher, Boris; Walkup, John T.; KENDALL, Philip C.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Langley, Audra K.; Piacentini, John C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Albano, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relative predictive value of parental anxiety, parents' expectation of child threat bias, and family dysfunction on child's threat bias in a clinical sample of anxious youth. Participants (N = 488) were part of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multi-modal study (CAMS), ages 7–17 years (M = 10.69; SD = 2.80). Children met diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety and/or social phobia. Children and caregivers completed questionnaires ass...

  2. Adolescent self-reported health in the Umeå region : Associations with behavioral, parental and school factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nygren, Karina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of a quantitative and a qualitative study. The quantitative study (articles I-III) aimed to examine how self-reported health in adolescence is associated with behavioral, parental, and school factors. Through a survey directed at all adolescents in grades 7-9, data were collected in 2005 in a region in northern Sweden (n=5060). Statistical methods were used to analyze the survey data: chi2tests, multivariate logistic regressions and multilevel logistic regressions. Result...

  3. Objective and subjective factors as predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms in parents of children with cancer--a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Lindahl Norberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parents of children with cancer report post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS years after the child's successful treatment is completed. The aim of the present study was to analyze a number of objective and subjective childhood cancer-related factors as predictors of parental PTSS. METHODS: Data were collected from 224 parents during and after their child's cancer treatment. Data sources include self-report questionnaires and medical records. RESULTS: In a multivariate hierarchical model death of the child, parent's perception of child psychological distress and total symptom burden predicted higher levels of PTSS. In addition, immigrants and unemployed parents reported higher levels of PTSS. The following factors did not predict PTSS: parent gender, family income, previous trauma, child's prognosis, treatment intensity, non-fatal relapse, and parent's satisfaction with the child's care. CONCLUSIONS: Although medical complications can be temporarily stressful, a parent's perception of the child's distress is a more powerful predictor of parental PTSS. The vulnerability of unemployed parents and immigrants should be acknowledged. In addition, findings highlight that the death of a child is as traumatic as could be expected.

  4. Partnering for Learnware: Critical Success Factors in the Use of Learnware by Human Resources Sector Councils and Industry Associations in Canada = Partenariats pour les technologies d'apprentissage: Facteurs critiques de succes dans l'utilisation des technologies d'apprentissage par les conseils sectoriels des ressources humaines et les associations industrielles au Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Anna; Green, Lyndsay

    The use of learnware by human resources sector councils and industry associations in Canada was examined to identify critical success factors in the use of technology-based training. Eight case studies--four involving sector councils and four involving industry associations that either have national mandates or distribute their products across…

  5. Assessing Whether Measurement Invariance of the KIDSCREEN-27 across Child-Parent Dyad Depends on the Child Gender: A Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri, Zahra; Jafari, Peyman; Tashakor, Elahe; Kouhpayeh, Amin; Riazi, Homan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the measurement invariance (MI) of the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire across girl-parent and boy-parent dyad to clarify how child gender affects the agreement between children’s and parents’ perception of the meaning of the items in the questionnaire. The child self-reports and parent proxy-reports of the KIDSCREEN-27 were completed by 1061 child-parent dyad. Multiple group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MGCCFA) was applied to assess MI. The non-invariant item...

  6. Parental overprotection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1993-01-01

    Dimensions of parental overprotection are clarified in a critical review of the research and clinical literature. An indulgent style of parenting is distinguished from an overprotective parent-child relationship. Differential antecedents and outcomes are proposed for each of these forms of parent-child interaction. Measures of protection are reviewed. A new conceptual model of parental overprotection is presented which takes into account child, parent, family, socio-cultural, environmental and resiliency factors. Directions for future research are suggested. PMID:8287694

  7. Parent genotype and environmental factors influence introduction success of the critically endangered Savannas Mint (Dicerandra immaculata var. savannarum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Peterson

    Full Text Available Species previously unknown to science are continually discovered and some of these species already face extinction at the time of their discovery. Conserving new and rare species in these cases becomes a trial-and-error process and conservationists will attempt to manage them by using knowledge of closely related species, or those that fill the same ecological niche, and then adapting the management program as needed. Savannas Mint (Dicerandra immaculata Lakela var. savannarum Huck is a perennial plant that was discovered in Florida scrub habitat at two locations in 1995, but is nearly extinct at these locations. We tested whether shade, leaf litter, propagation method, parent genotype, parent collection site, planting date, and absorbent granules influenced survival, reproduction, and recruitment of Savannas Mint in a population of 1,614 plants that we introduced between June 2006 and July 2009 into a state protected site. Survival and reproduction of introduced plants, and recruitment of new plants, was higher in microhabitats in full sun and no leaf litter and lower in partially shaded habitats. The two sites from which parent plants were collected differentially influenced survival and reproduction of introduced plants. These differences in survival and reproduction are likely due to underlying genetic differences. Differential survival of progeny from different parent genotypes further supports the idea that underlying genetics is an important consideration when restoring plant populations. The most successful progeny of parent genotypes had survival rates nearly 12 times higher than the least successful progeny. We speculate that many of these environmental and genetic factors are likely to influence allopatric congeners and other critically endangered gap specialists that grow in Florida scrub and our results can be used to guide their conservation.

  8. Parental Factors and Early English Education as a Foreign Language: A Case Study in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2014-01-01

    As English has increasingly become associated with social and economic power in the context of globalisation, there has been a growing concern regarding achievement gaps in English that appear to be correlated to learners' socio-economic status (SES). The present study aims to examine how parents' SES and their behaviours and beliefs…

  9. Protective and Vulnerability Factors for Physically Abused Children: Effects of Ethnicity and Parenting Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Allaire, Jason C.; Kreig, Shawn; Hart, Kendrea C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although social maladjustment appears to be common among abused children, negative outcomes are not inevitable. This investigation was designed to determine whether ethnicity and features of the parenting context predicted children's social adjustment, and whether the strength and direction of these relations differed for abused and…

  10. Perinatal Factors, Parenting Behavior, and Reactive Aggression: Does Cortisol Reactivity Mediate This Developmental Risk Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stacy R.; Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms of action that link perinatal risk and the development of aggressive behavior. The aim of this study was to examine whether perinatal risk and parenting interacted to specifically predict reactive aggression, as opposed to general aggressive behavior, and to examine cortisol reactivity as a mediator of this…

  11. Factors Associated with Sex under the Influence of Alcohol among Adolescents with Divorced Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Carratala, Elena; Carballo, Jose L.; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the association of diverse individual variables, traditionally associated with sexual risk practices in the general population, with sex under the influence of alcohol in adolescents with divorced parents. A sample of 132 adolescents provided information about their knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS and sexual risk…

  12. Predicting Career Indecision in College Students: The Roles of Identity Formation and Parental Relationship Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Antonia L.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates students' identity formation and perceptions of parental acceptance and encouragement of independence as predictors of career indecision. Four measurements were administered to 169 undergraduate students for the study. Results show career indecision was predicted by higher identity moratorium, less maternal acceptance, and fewer years…

  13. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Duijster

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.

  14. Factors Affecting Parental Control over Children's Television Viewing: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Lynne Schafer; Walsh, R. Patricia

    1980-01-01

    Presents 10 questions pertaining to the amount of control over television viewing in the home to 100 families. Preliminary evidence included indications that (1) viewing habits are affected by the number of sets in the house and (2) parents who frequently watch television exert greater influence over their children's use. (MER)

  15. The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers, and Coping Style upon Adolescent Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.

    1989-01-01

    Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…

  16. The effect of psychological factors and parental education on adolescents' academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to check the assumed path model of causal relationships between adolescent's psychological characteristics (language competence, intellectual ability, and personality dimensions, parental education, and adolescent's academic achievement. Adolescents (N = 427; among them 225 girls and 202 boys, who were attending the ninth grade of elementary school in the school year 2005/2006, and their parents participated in the study. Adolescent's academic achievement was assessed by the results of national examinations in Slovene and mathematics, teachers' marks in Slovene and mathematics, and adolescent's general school success. The results of structural equation modelling showed a good fit of the assumed path model if it included the direct effect of adolescent's psychological characteristics and parental education on adolescent's academic achievement and also the indirect effect of parental education and three personality dimensions (Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness/Intellect through the adolescent's language competence and general intelligence. The fit of the adopted path model was acceptable regardless of the way in which academic achievement was assessed and regardless of the sex of the participants. The most important predictors of the academic achievement were language competence, general intelligence, and personality dimensions Conscientiousness and Openness/Intellect. With the assumed path model of casual relationships we could explain between 53% and 63% of differences in adolescents' academic achievement.

  17. Relations between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14-18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban…

  18. Predictors of Parenting among African American Single Mothers: Personal and Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchick, Beth A.; Dorsey, Shannon; Heller, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Guided by family stress theory, relations among neighborhood stress, maternal psychological functioning, and parenting were examined among 123 low-income, urban-dwelling, African American single mothers. Using a longitudinal design, structural equation modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that neighborhood stress results in poorer…

  19. The Need for an Ecological Approach to Parental Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Combined Role of Individual and Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derguy, C; M'Bailara, K; Michel, G; Roux, S; Bouvard, M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify parental stress predictors in ASD by considering individual and environmental factors in an ecological approach. Participants were 115 parents of children with ASD aged from 3 to 10 years. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the best predictors of parental stress among child-related, parent-related and environmental factors. Poor quality interactions within the extended family, high levels of expressed emotion and absence of children's schooling were associated with higher stress, regardless of the child's age and developmental quotient [F (3) = 37.051; p family variables, to understand parental stress. These key findings should be considered when designing support programs. PMID:26858031

  20. 'Mum never loved me.' How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health through parent-child connectedness: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research in high income countries shows parent-child connectedness to be protective against undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes among young people. Little has been done to understand the nature of parent-child connectedness, the structural factors that impact on connectedness and parents' understanding of how connectedness affects their children's sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. Ethnographic research involved 30 days of observation in 10 households, 9 focus group discussions and 60 in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted using NVIVO qualitative data analysis software. The structural factors with greatest influence on connectedness were economic circumstances, gender, social status, state education, and globalisation. Economic circumstances impacted on parent-child connectedness through parents' ability to provide for their children's material needs, and the time their occupation allowed for them to spend with their children and monitor their activities. Appropriate parent-child interactions were shaped by gender norms and by social status in the form of respectability, adolescents' adherence to norms of respect/obedience shaping their parents' affection. State education affected parents' preferences between children but also undermined parental authority, as did broader globalisation. Connectedness was related to SRH in a bi-directional way: lack of connectedness was linked to young people's low self-esteem and risky sexual behaviour while unplanned pregnancies seriously undermined young women's connectedness with their parents. Since material provision was perceived to be a central element of parent-child connectedness, structural factors limiting provision made transactional sex more likely both through direct material pathways and emotional ones. Motives for transactional sex were said to be material needs and to feel loved and cared for. An important pathway by which structural factors shape

  1. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Study design and methods. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Results. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. Conclusions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  2. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  3. Deep versus shallow controlling factors of the regional thermal field in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin (Arctic Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Lewerenz, B.

    2011-12-01

    important process. We discuss the predicted temperature variations with respect to the structure of the basin including stratigraphic and tectonic domains, the inferred depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and the distribution of permafrost. Chen, Z., Osadetz, K.G., Issler, D.R., Grasby, S.E., 2008. Hydrocarbon migration detected by regional temperature field variations, Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, Canada. AAPG Bulletin, 92(12): 1639-1653.

  4. Risk factors and impacts of clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial meat-producing sheep flocks in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Julie; Dubreuil, Pascal; Higgins, Robert; Bélanger, Denise

    2008-11-17

    We conducted a prospective observational study on clinical and subclinical mastitis in 30 commercial meat-producing sheep flocks from 2 regions of the province of Quebec, Canada. A total of 2,792 ewes selected in late gestation were followed from lambing to weaning of lambs. The incidence of clinical mastitis for the total lactation period (average of 58 days) ranged among flocks from 0 to 6.6%, with a median of 1.2%. The most frequently isolated bacteria from the cases of clinical mastitis, in pure or mixed culture, were Mannheimia haemolytica (26%), Staphylococcus aureus (23%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (17%). Incidence of clinical mastitis was higher in ewes that gave birth to 3 or more lambs and from the Estrie region, and was associated with an increase in ewe mortality, an increase in lamb mortality at the litter level, and a decrease in lamb's weaning weight for lambs born in multiple litter size or from ewes >or=4 years old. Among 354 selected ewes with clinically normal udder at the end of lactation, 28.8% had potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from milk. The most prevalent bacteria were S. aureus (9.3%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (9.3%). The risk of having a positive culture in at least one half was different between the two regions. Prevalence of ewes (n=261) with California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive result in at least one half was 24.1 and 14.9% using a cut-off of >or=1+ and >or=2+, respectively. Prevalence of culture-positive udder halves was 11.7% for CMT-negative compared with 53.6% for CMT 3+ halves. CMT status was positively associated with the isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci, M. haemolytica, S. aureus, and various Streptococcus species, but not with other isolated bacteria. Additionally, prevalence of CMT-positive halves was higher in ewes from the Estrie region, aged of >or=4 years versus 1 year, having clinical mastitis previously detected in the lactation and/or with low body condition score. Lamb

  5. Endogenous Growth and Parental Funding of Education in an OLG Model with a Fixed Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Artige, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the stationary state income level and income growth in an overlapping generations (OLG) model in which production uses three inputs: physical capital, human capital and land. The accumulation of human capital relies on parental funding of education and the past aggregate human capital stock. Four cases exhibiting various possible specifications of returns to scale in output and human capital technologies are studied and compared.

  6. Behavioral functioning in cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome: Risk factors and impact on parenting experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpont, Elizabeth I; Wolford, Melinda

    2016-08-01

    The present study is an investigation of behavioral functioning in children with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC). CFC is a rare single-gene disorder associated with cardiac disease, characteristic skin and facial features, intellectual disability, and neurological complications such as seizures and structural brain anomalies. Emotional and behavioral features of CFC have not been systematically investigated. We aimed to identify key variables that contribute to psychopathology during childhood and adolescence, and to examine the impact of challenging behaviors on the caregiving experience. Parents of 34 children and adolescents with CFC completed standardized broadband measures of child emotional and behavioral functioning, as well as measures of sensory modulation, functional communication, and caregiver stress. Results indicate that children with CFC syndrome are at heightened risk for psychopathology, with attention problems, social difficulties, and unusual behaviors (e.g., obsessive thoughts, strange behaviors, repetitive acts) found to be especially prevalent. Behavioral challenges in children with CFC syndrome were significantly associated with a history of obstetric complications and with problems modulating sensory information. With regard to the impact of child neurocognitive and behavioral issues on the caregiving experience, parent self-reported stress was significantly higher among parents of children who engaged in more problem behaviors, and lower among parents whose children could communicate effectively with others. Results of this study suggest avenues to help families cope with CFC-related stressors and enhance overall functioning. In particular, this study highlights the need for educational and treatment interventions aimed at addressing sensory needs, increasing functional communication, and identifying and managing challenging behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27149079

  7. Parents' experience of flooding in discipline encounters: Associations with discipline and interplay with related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Michael F; Mitnick, Danielle M; Slep, Amy M Smith

    2016-06-01

    In family psychology, the term flooding refers to the feeling of being overwhelmed by a family member's behavior in a manner that undermines an organized response. In the present investigation we first aimed to clarify the role of flooding in overreactive and lax discipline. The second study aim was to more fully establish the position of parental flooding in its nomological network given the relative paucity of research on parental flooding. Maternal discipline and physiological responses, as well as child behavior, were observed in laboratory discipline encounters with 97 mother-toddler dyads. Mothers then rated the extent to which they experienced flooding in response to their children's behavior and emotion displays during the immediately preceding discipline encounters. Mothers' experience of negative emotion was assessed via video-mediated recall. Flooding was positively associated with both overreactive and lax discipline; this association did not reflect confounding by mothers' experience of negative emotion. Flooding was further associated with mothers' experienced negative emotion and heart rate reactivity, as well as child misbehavior and negative emotion displays. The flooding-overreactive discipline association was concentrated in those mothers who exhibited greater increases in heart rate and greater vagal withdrawal, and whose children misbehaved more during the discipline encounter. The present results suggest the incremental validity of flooding in predicting discipline practices, as well as the strong fit of flooding in its nomological network. Parents' self-recognition of flooding may ultimately prove useful in parenting interventions as a signal to trigger compensatory techniques. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26690330

  8. Risk factors for Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease in farmed bison (Bison bison) herds in western Canada: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Ana L; Barkema, Herman W; Woodbury, Murray; Ribble, Carl; Perez-Casal, Jose; Windeyer, M Claire

    2016-07-01

    North American bison producers have been attempting to control and prevent Mycoplasma bovis-associated disease without the benefit of bison-specific knowledge. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical presentation of disease associated with M. bovis infection in western Canadian farmed bison, and to identify herd-level risk factors for M. bovis-associated disease. Bison producers (n=49) from western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia) were selected for a 1:2 case-control study. Data were collected by an in-person interview using a questionnaire regarding clinical presentations of outbreaks and herd-level management factors. Risk factors associated with M. bovis outbreaks were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. All 17 case herds had a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of M. bovis infection within the last 5 years. In 11 (65%) of the 17 case herds, disease associated with M. bovis infection recurred in subsequent years. Overall, 88% of case herds had recently introduced bison that later developed clinical signs associated with M. bovis infection. Within a bison operation, a median of 8% (Inter Quartile Range [IQR]: 3-11%) developed clinical signs: lameness, reluctance to move, swollen joints, difficulty breathing, coughing, sluggishness, and loss of body condition. Also, calving percentage the year after the first M. bovis outbreak was lower than calving percentage the year before the outbreak. Herd-level mortality risk during the first M. bovis outbreak in case herds ranged from 0.5 to 50% (median 5%, IQR: 3-10%) and the median case fatality risk was 100%. Case herds were more likely than control herds to have a feedlot unit (OR=7), to receive regular visits from rental trailers or trailers from other farms (OR=15), to annually vaccinate bison (OR=7), and to lose at least one bison due to fatal respiratory disease in the previous year (OR=9). These findings will aid development of evidence

  9. Social risk factors as predictors for parental report of deviant behaviour in 3-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Else; Obel, Carsten; Nedergård, Niels Jørgen; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether social risk factors adjusted for gender and some well-known perinatal risk factors were related to parental descriptions of deviant behaviour in 3(1/2)-year-old children. The study was a prospective cohort study of 1345 mothers enrolled during early pregnancy. Parents answered a questionnaire and children's behavioural difficulties were categorized into the following groups; "hyperactive-distractible", "hostile-aggressive" and "anxious-fearful" following a modified Behar scale. The male gender was found to be related to a description of all kinds of deviant behaviour. Having a family member experiencing employment difficulties was the factor most closely related to "hyperactive-distractible" behaviour. Familial stress due to lack of time, experience of divorce and mothers in excess of 35 years at childbirth were found to be related to "hostile-aggressive" behaviour, but male gender was the most closely related. Social disadvantage was not found to be related to "anxious-fearful" behaviour. PMID:14985150

  10. The Prevalence of Bruxism and Correlated Factors in Children Referred to Dental Schools of Tehran, Based on Parents Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bahman Seraj; Mehdi Shahrabi; Sara Ghadimi; Rahil Ahmadi; Jaleh Nikfarjam; Farid Zayeri; Fatemeh Pour-Taghi; Hadi Zare

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Bruxism is defined as the habitual nonfunctional forceful contact between occlusal tooth surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bruxism and correlated factors in children referred to dental schools of Tehran, based on parents' report.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 600 4-12 year-old children with a mean age of 7.4±2.4 years, who were referred to four dental schools in Tehran. After collecting information with questionnair...

  11. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C, M.

    2007-01-01

    Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

  12. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Asthma in Off-Reserve Aboriginal Children and Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation.

  13. 脑性瘫痪患儿父母亲职压力及影响因素的调查%Research on parenting stress and its influencing factors of parents with cerebral palsy children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐月红; 王新

    2014-01-01

    Objective To preliminary understand the parenting stress of parents with cerebral palsy children,and analyze the source of parenting stress and its related influencing factors,in order to provide the basis for targeted and effective intervention and available social support.Methods Using the Parenting Stress Index Short Form,the Simple Coping Style Questionnaire and the Social Support Scale,80 parents of children with cerebral palsy were investigated.Results The mean score of parenting stress were (102.31 ± 18.79).Parents' parenting stress were associated with its education degree,employment status,family income,the number of children,the negative coping styles,emotional support,tools support,formal support and other related factors (P < 0.05).Conclusions The parenting stress of parents with cerebral palsy children is severe.Enhancing cerebral palsy knowledge,encouraging active treatment and rehabilitation,increasing of social concern and support are the effective measures to reduce the parenting stress of parents with cerebral palsy children.%目的 初步了解脑瘫患儿父母的亲职压力现状,分析亲职压力来源及其相关影响因素,为采取针对性的有效干预措施和提供可及的社会支持提供依据.方法 通过亲职压力简表、简易应对方式问卷和社会支持量表等工具,对80例脑瘫患儿的父母进行调查.结果 脑瘫患儿父母的亲职压力平均分为(102.31±18.79)分;患儿父母的亲职压力与其文化程度、就业状况、家庭月收入、子女数、消极应对方式、情绪支持、工具支持、正式支持等因素相关(P<0.05).结论 脑瘫患儿父母的亲职压力相对较大,加强脑瘫疾病认识、鼓励积极治疗与康复、增强社会关注与支持是减轻父母亲职压力的有效途径.

  14. The Association between Regional Environmental Factors and Road Trauma Rates: A Geospatial Analysis of 10 Years of Road Traffic Crashes in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Jeffrey R.; Chan, Herbert; Erdelyi, Shannon; Schuurman, Nadine; Amram, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Background British Columbia, Canada is a geographically large jurisdiction with varied environmental and socio-cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study examined variation in motor vehicle crash rates across 100 police patrols to investigate the association of crashes with key explanatory factors. Methods Eleven crash outcomes (total crashes, injury crashes, fatal crashes, speed related fatal crashes, total fatalities, single-vehicle night-time crashes, rear-end collisions, and collisions involving heavy vehicles, pedestrians, cyclists, or motorcyclists) were identified from police collision reports and insurance claims and mapped to police patrols. Six potential explanatory factors (intensity of traffic law enforcement, speed limits, climate, remoteness, socio-economic factors, and alcohol consumption) were also mapped to police patrols. We then studied the association between crashes and explanatory factors using negative binomial models with crash count per patrol as the response variable and explanatory factors as covariates. Results Between 2003 and 2012 there were 1,434,239 insurance claim collisions, 386,326 police reported crashes, and 3,404 fatal crashes. Across police patrols, there was marked variation in per capita crash rate and in potential explanatory factors. Several factors were associated with crash rates. Percent roads with speed limits ≤ 60 km/hr was positively associated with total crashes, injury crashes, rear end collisions, and collisions involving pedestrians, cyclists, and heavy vehicles; and negatively associated with single vehicle night-time crashes, fatal crashes, fatal speeding crashes, and total fatalities. Higher winter temperature was associated with lower rates of overall collisions, single vehicle night-time collisions, collisions involving heavy vehicles, and total fatalities. Lower socio-economic status was associated with higher rates of injury collisions, pedestrian collisions, fatal speeding collisions, and fatal

  15. Differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority preschoolers in the Netherlands and the role of family functioning and parenting factors as mediators: the Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flink Ilse JE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that, compared to native counterparts, preschoolers from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of problem behaviour. Socio-economic factors only partly explain this increased risk. This study aimed to further unravel the differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and native preschoolers by examining the mediating role of family functioning and parenting factors. Methods We included 4,282 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, an ethnically-diverse cohort study with inclusion in early pregnancy. At child age 3 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5; information on demographics, socio-economic status and measures of family functioning (maternal psychopathology; general family functioning and parenting (parenting stress; harsh parenting were retrieved from questionnaires. CBCL Total Problems scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Mediation was evaluated using multivariate regression models. Results After adjustment for confounders, preschoolers from ethnic minorities were more likely to present problem behaviour than the Dutch subgroup (e.g. CBCL Total Problems Turkish subgroup (OR 7.0 (95% CI 4.9; 10.1. When considering generational status, children of first generation immigrants were worse off than the second generation (P Conclusions This study showed that preschoolers from ethnic minorities and particularly children of first generation immigrants are at an increased risk of problem behaviour compared to children born to a Dutch mother. Although socio-economic factors were found to partly explain the association between the ethnic minority status and child problem behaviour, a similar part was explained by family functioning and parenting factors. Considering these findings, it is important for health care workers to also be attentive to symptoms of parental psychopathology (e.g. depression, poor

  16. Parental cigarette smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha gene variant and the risk of orofacial cleft in Iranian infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadifar, Asghar; Hamedi, Roya; KhorramKhorshid, Hamid Reza; Kamali, Koorosh; Moghadam, Fatemeh Aghakhani

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): We investigated the influence of genetic variation of the transforming growth-factor alpha (TGFA) locus on the relationship between smoking and oral clefts. Materials and Methods: In this study 105 Iranian infants with non-syndromic cleft lip/palate and 218 controls with non-cleft birth defects were examined to test for associations among maternal exposures, genetic markers, and oral clefts. Maternal and parental smoking histories during pregnancy were obtained through questionnaire. DNA was extracted from newborn screening blood samples, and genotyping of the BamHI polymorphism in the TGFA gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. A number of factors including gender of the newborns, type of oral cleft, consanguinity of the parents, as well as the mother’s age and education were evaluated as potential confounders and effect modifiers. Results: Maternal smoking, in the absence of paternal smoking, was associated with an increased risk for CL/P (OR = 19.2, 95% CI = [(6.2-59.5)]) and cleft palate only (OR =48.7, 95% CI = [(8-29.3)]). If both parents smoked, risks were generally greater (OR = 55.6, 95% CI = [12-20.25]). Analyses for the risk of clefting from maternal smoking, stratified by the presence or absence of the TGFA/BamH1variant, revealed that the risk of clefting among the infants with the TGFA/BamH1 variant when their mothers smoked cigarettes was much greater than the infants who had non-smoker mothers (P=0.001, OR=10.4,95% CI=[3.2,33.6]). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that first-trimester maternal smoking and infant TGFA locus mutations are both associated with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P). PMID:27279979

  17. The Prevalence of Cardiac Risk Factors in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot K. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT reduces the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality in high-risk localized prostate cancer, it adversely affects cardiovascular (CV risk factor profiles in treated men. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 100 consecutive men with intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency for ADT. Data on CV risk factors and disease were collected and Framingham risk scores were calculated. Results. The median age of the study cohort was 73 years. Established cardiovascular disease was present in 25% of patients. Among patients without established CV disease, calculated Framingham risk was high in 65%, intermediate in 33%, and low in 1%. Baseline hypertension was present in 58% of patients, dyslipidemia in 51%, and diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in 24%. Hypertension was more prevalent in the study cohort than in an age- and sex-matched population sample (OR 1.74, P=0.006; diabetes had a similar prevalence (OR 0.93, P=0.8. Conclusions. Patients receiving ADT have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors and are more likely to be hypertensive than population controls. Low rates of CV risk screening suggest opportunities for improved primary and secondary prevention of CV disease in this population.

  18. The Relation among Parental Factors and Achievement of African American Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Clancie Mavello

    2009-01-01

    Research has suggested that low socioeconomic status is a major factor in diminishing academic achievement of African American urban youth; however, there are other factors influencing students' achievement. To examine the other factors that contribute to academic achievement, this study investigated a sample of 60 low-resource middle school…

  19. Prevalence of and risk factors for asthma in off-reserve Aboriginal children and adults in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiu-Ju Chang; Jeremy Beach; Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan

    2012-01-01

    Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those wit...

  20. Factor Structure of the Parent-Report Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) in an Outpatient Mental Health Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, Megan; Rozenman, Michelle; Gonzalez, Araceli; Warnick, Erin M; Dauser, Christine; Scahill, Lawrence; Woolston, Joseph; Robin Weersing, V

    2016-08-01

    The current investigation examined the internal structure and discriminant validity of the parent-report Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ-P), a commonly used measure of depressive symptoms in youth. A total of 1493 families with youth ages 5 to 18 (61.02 % male) presenting for treatment at an outpatient mental health clinic were randomly allocated to an Exploratory Sample 1 or to a Replication Sample 2. Internal structure of the MFQ-P was examined using exploratory factor analysis in Sample 1 (N = 769) and then replicated using confirmatory factor analysis in Sample 2 (N = 724). Results of the exploratory factor analysis yielded a 5-factor structure comprised of core mood, vegetative, suicidality, cognitive, and agitated distress symptom subscales. The 5-factor solution was replicated in Sample 2 with adequate fit, (CFI = 0.908, TLI = 0.974, RMSEA =0.067). Results lend statistical support for 5 candidate subscales of the MFQ-P. These potential subscales may aid in efficient identification of critical symptoms of depression. PMID:26670323

  1. Risk Factors for Eating Disturbances in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes and Chronic Asthma: The Role of Parenting Style and Self-Esteem.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatton, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research indicates that eating disturbances are twice as prevalent among adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to their healthy peers; comparisons with other chronic illness groups are inconclusive. Adolescent self-esteem and parenting factors have been found to be associated with eating disturbances in type 1 diabetes. However, to date the literature is methodologically limited by a lack of comparison group, and has failed to consider the role of parent care and overprotect...

  2. Mapping the trajectory of socioeconomic disparity in working memory: parental and neighborhood factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Daniel A; Betancourt, Laura M; Gallop, Robert; Romer, Daniel; Brodsky, Nancy L; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is positively correlated with socioeconomic status (SES). It is not clear, however, if SES predicts the rate of WM development over time or whether SES effects are specific to family rather than neighborhood SES. A community sample of children (n = 316) enrolled between ages 10 and 13 completed four annual assessments of WM. Lower parental education, but not neighborhood disadvantage, was associated with worse WM performance. Neither measure of SES was associated with the rate of developmental change. Consequently, the SES disparity in WM is not a developmental lag that narrows or an accumulating effect that becomes more pronounced. Rather, the relation between family SES and WM originates earlier in childhood and is stable through adolescence. PMID:24779417

  3. Factors influencing early and late mortality in adults with invasive pneumococcal disease in Calgary, Canada: a prospective surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah J Ricketson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease continues to be an important cause of mortality. In Calgary, 60% of deaths occur within 5 days of presenting to hospital. This proportion has not changed since before the era of penicillin. The purpose of this study was to investigate what factors may influence death within 5 days of presentation with pneumococcal disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Demographic and clinical data from the CASPER (Calgary Area Streptococcus pneumoniae Epidemiology Research study on 1065 episodes of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults (≥18 years from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed. Adjusted multinomial regression was performed to analyze 3 outcomes: early mortality (<5 days post-presentation, late mortality (5-30 days post-presentation, and survival, generating relative risk ratios (RRR. Patients with severe disease had increased risk of early and late death. In multinomial regression with survivors as baseline, the risk of early death increased in those with a Charlson index ≥2 (RRR: 6.3, 95% CI: 1.8-21.9; the risk of late death increased in those with less severe disease and a Charlson ≥2 (RRR: 6.1, 95% CI: 1.4-27.7. Patients who never received appropriate antibiotics had 5.6X (95% CI: 2.4-13.1 the risk of early death. Risk of both early and late death increased by a RRR of 1.3 (95% CI: 1.2-1.4 per 5-year increase in age. In multinomial regression, there were no significant differences in the effects of the factors tested between early and late mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Presenting with severe invasive pneumococcal disease, multiple comorbidities, and older age increases the risk of both early and late death. Patients who died early often presented too late for effective antibiotic therapy, highlighting the need for an effective vaccine.

  4. The Prevalence of Bruxism and Correlated Factors in Children Referred to Dental Schools of Tehran, Based on Parents Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Zayeri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bruxism is defined as the habitual nonfunctional forceful contact between occlusal tooth surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bruxism and correlated factors in children referred to dental schools of Tehran, based on parents' report.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 600 4-12 year-old children with a mean age of 7.4±2.4 years, who were referred to four dental schools in Tehran. After collecting information with questionnaire filled out by parents, χ2, Fisher Test, Mann-Whitney and t-Test were used to analyze the data.Findings: The prevalence of bruxism was 26.2%. Bruxism begun in average at the age of 4.9±2 years. Also it occurred 2.6 times more in children who had a family history of bruxism (father-mother, compared to children who didn't have such a history. 87% of children with bruxism had a history of distressing events in their life, and 13% of children with bruxism did not report any history of distressing events in their life. In this study most common oral habit was nail biting. In study of parasomnias, drooling was the most, and snoring the least reported sleep disorder. Bruxism in children with drooling was twice more than in other children. The prevalence of bruxism in children with temporomandibular disorder was 63.6% and in children without TMD was 24.7%.Conclusion: Based on parents' report, 26.2% of children showed bruxism and there was a significant relation between bruxism and mother's job, family history, distressing event in life, parasomnias, especially drooling and sleep walking, TMD, hyperactivity, depression, acrophobia and lygophobia.

  5. Parental Suicidality as a Risk Factor for Delinquency among Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have examined the factors associated with juvenile delinquency, but this literature remains limited largely because it has not moved beyond traditional factors generally and because of the lack of research conducted on minority--especially Hispanic--youth. This study seeks to overcome these two limitations by using data from a…

  6. Negotiating Indigenous Language Narratives from Canada and South Africa: A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseke, Judy M.; Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous cultural and language negotiations ongoing in the contexts of South Africa and Canada are documented in two studies, one sharing narratives from Black parents in South Africa and the other sharing narratives of Métis Elders in Canada. Black parents' perspectives on Indigenous language and cultures and the role of education in…

  7. Parental Suicidality as a Risk Factor for Delinquency among Hispanic Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Canino, Glorisa

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have examined the factors associated with juvenile delinquency, but this literature remains limited largely because it has not moved beyond traditional factors generally and because of the lack of research conducted on minority—especially Hispanic—youth. This study seeks to overcome these two limitations by using data from a longitudinal study of 2,491 Hispanic (Puerto Rican) youth ages 5-13 (48.5 percent female) socialized in two different cultural contexts, Bronx, New York a...

  8. The study of lipid profile, diet and other cardiovascular risk factors in children born to parents having premature ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Savitha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is a marker for ischemic heart disease (IHD, which can be detected in early childhood and tracks to adulthood. Dyslipidemia, along with factors like diet, obesity and sedentary activity, increases the risk of a child developing IHD in adulthood. Early detection and modification of these risk factors can prevent IHD. Objectives: To study the lipid profile in children born to parents with history of premature IHD and also to study the effect of diet, lifestyle factors, and obesity in the study group. Materials and Methods: Fifty children of parents with premature IHD and 50 control children without any family history of IHD were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipid profile, body mass index (BMI and hypertension. The effects of modifiable risk factors like diet and physical activity on lipid profile were analyzed. The correlation between parent and child lipid profile was studied. Results: Mean total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher (P<0.05 in children with family history of IHD as compared to children without family history. There was a positive correlation between lipid levels of parents and their children. Children with elevated BMI, a sedentary lifestyle, and excess oily/junk diet intake showed increased incidence of dyslipidemia (P<0.05. Conclusions: Children of IHD patients have significant incidence of dyslipidemia. The risk factors like BMI, diet and physical activity increase the incidence of dyslipidemia. Therefore, all children of premature IHD patients should be screened for dyslipidemia.

  9. The Study of Lipid Profile, Diet and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children Born to Parents Having Premature Ischemic Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, MR; Sandeep, B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemia is a marker for ischemic heart disease (IHD), which can be detected in early childhood and tracks to adulthood. Dyslipidemia, along with factors like diet, obesity and sedentary activity, increases the risk of a child developing IHD in adulthood. Early detection and modification of these risk factors can prevent IHD. Objectives: To study the lipid profile in children born to parents with history of premature IHD and also to study the effect of diet, lifestyle factors, and obesity in the study group. Materials and Methods: Fifty children of parents with premature IHD and 50 control children without any family history of IHD were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipid profile, body mass index (BMI) and hypertension. The effects of modifiable risk factors like diet and physical activity on lipid profile were analyzed. The correlation between parent and child lipid profile was studied. Results: Mean total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher (P<0.05) in children with family history of IHD as compared to children without family history. There was a positive correlation between lipid levels of parents and their children. Children with elevated BMI, a sedentary lifestyle, and excess oily/junk diet intake showed increased incidence of dyslipidemia (P<0.05). Conclusions: Children of IHD patients have significant incidence of dyslipidemia. The risk factors like BMI, diet and physical activity increase the incidence of dyslipidemia. Therefore, all children of premature IHD patients should be screened for dyslipidemia. PMID:22279260

  10. Factors that Influence Participation of Students in Secondary Science and Mathematics Subjects in IB Schools Outside of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straffon, Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that affect the extent of international secondary students' participation in International Baccalaureate science and mathematics courses. The factors examined were gender, home region, size, percent host culture and age of the program, and coeducational and legal status of the school. Participation in math and science subjects was determined by analyzing the level and number of courses taken by students taking International Baccalaureate exams in 2010. Chi-Square and Cramer's V analysis were used to measure the effect of categorical variables on student participation and One-Way ANOVA and Bonferroni comparison of means were used to analyze the quantitative variables. All categorical variables were statistically significant (pscience. Students from East, Southeast and South-Central Asia; and Eastern Europe have greater participation in math. The highest science participation came from students in East, Southern and Western Africa; and Southeast Asia. Top participators in science came from Australia/New Zealand, Northern Europe, East Africa and South-Central and Western Asia. State schools showed higher math and science participation. Science and math participation was also greater in all-male schools though associations were weak. Boys participated more than girls, especially in math. All quantitative variables were statistically significant. The program size had the largest effect size for both math and science with larger programs showing more participation at the higher level. A decreasing trend for age of the program and percent host culture was found for math participation. Three years of participation data were collected from an international school in Western Europe (n = 194). Variables included the influence of parent occupation, math preparedness (PSAT-Math), student achievement (GPA), and the importance of significant others in career and academic decisions. Findings indicate that performance on the PSAT

  11. The Study of Lipid Profile, Diet and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children Born to Parents Having Premature Ischemic Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    M R Savitha; B Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemia is a marker for ischemic heart disease (IHD), which can be detected in early childhood and tracks to adulthood. Dyslipidemia, along with factors like diet, obesity and sedentary activity, increases the risk of a child developing IHD in adulthood. Early detection and modification of these risk factors can prevent IHD. Objectives: To study the lipid profile in children born to parents with history of premature IHD and also to study the effect of diet, lifestyle factors,...

  12. Income Disparities in Preschool Outcomes and the Role of Family, Child, and Parenting Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Dafna; Guèvremont, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined income disparities in a comprehensive set of preschoolers' outcomes (verbal ability, developmental skills, number knowledge, and hyperactivity) and the factors that could reduce differences in outcomes between children in the lowest and highest household income quartiles. Findings using Cycle 6 data from the…

  13. Parental, socio and cultural factors associated with adolescents' sports participation in four Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard-Støckel, J; Nielsen, G A; Ibsen, B;

    2011-01-01

    Despite the well-documented health effects of physical activity, few studies focus on the correlates of leisure-time sports and exercise participation. The present study examined correlations between adolescent sports participation and demographic factors, socioeconomic status (SES) and sociocult...

  14. Parenting style risk and protective factor of the bullying phenomenon: Three studies in Andalusian teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ortiz, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In the last forty years, research on bullying has progressed considerably, producing a large body of scientific knowledge. The development of research in this field has permitted defining the nature of this violent phenomenon, determining its prevalence in different parts of the world, the consequences which could be suffered by those directly involved, and the risk or protective factors which can protect children from engaging in bullying, or promote their active participation...

  15. Comparing ELISA test-positive prevalence, risk factors and management recommendations for Johne's disease prevention between organic and conventional dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David

    2015-11-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of

  16. Teenagers losing a parent to cancer : experiences, modifiable risk-factors and long-term outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Bylund Grenklo, Tove

    2013-01-01

    Background: We investigated the experiences of cancer-bereaved teenagers. The goal was to identify potentially modifiable risk-factors for long-term psychological consequences and thus be able to guide health-care providers in ways to support bereaved-to-be teenagers. Subjects and Methods: A study-specific questionnaire was made based on semi-structured interviews with cancer-bereaved youths and tested for face-to-face validity. Through population-based registers, we identified cancer-bere...

  17. 孤独症儿童父母子女教育心理控制源的相关研究%Study on status of parenting locus of control in the autistic children's parents and its influential factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章丽丽; 张枫; 王洁; 刘毅梅

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To study the status of parenting locus of control in the autistic children's parents and its influential factors.[Methods] A total of 96 parents of children with autism and 90 healthy children's parents were tested with parenting locus of control scale.Data were analyzed by t-test and multivariate regression analysis with SPSS.[Results] There were differences at total PLOC and five factors between two groups(P<0.05),and scores of case group were higher than those in control group.With stepwise regression analysis the parental depression and children's social relatedness were included in the equation for total PLOC score.The depression of parents,communication,self-care and body movement were associated with factor 1.The autism severity,sensation,language and sex were associated with factor 2.[Conclusions] Many problems in child education are found in the parents of autistic children.Parental depression,childhood autistic behavior and sex are associated with PLOC.Intervention measures improving parenting control locus should be considered.%[目的]探讨孤独症儿童父母的子女教育心理控制源现况及相关影响因素,为心理干预提供理论依据.[方法]使用子女教育心理控制源量表,对96例孤独症儿童父母和90例健康儿童父母进行对照研究.通过t检验和多元回归对数据进行分析. [结果]研究组的子女教育心理控制源总分,因子1、2、3、4、5分值均高于正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).多因素回归分析结果显示子女教育心理控制源总分受家长抑郁情绪及儿童社会交往因子的影响;因子1受家长抑郁情绪、儿童社会交往、生活自理及躯体运动因子的影响;因子2受孤独症的严重程度、儿童感觉、语言障碍及儿童性别的影响. [结论]孤独症儿童父母在子女教育方面存在显著问题.家长抑郁情绪、儿童的社交、行为、感觉、语言障碍及儿童的性别对子女教育

  18. The Influence of Gender, Parents and Background Factors on Grade 7 Students' Beliefs and Attitudes towards Mathematics in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimo, Adelino Evaristo

    2013-01-01

    The third study by the "Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Education Quality" (SACMEQ) revealed that achievement in mathematics among Grade 6 children in Mozambique is declining, and gender differences favouring boys persist. This study examined the contribution of parents, economic resources and cultural factors on…

  19. Factors Influencing Time Lag between First Parental Concern and First Visit to Child Psychiatric Services in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Funahashi, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    The early assessment of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is important to improving patient outcomes, allowing family members to prepare for and cope with symptoms, and assisting in plans for appropriate educational opportunities. However, little is known about factors that influence the time lag between the parents' first concerns and the first…

  20. Gender and School Choice: Factors Influencing Parents When Choosing Single-Sex or Co-Educational Independent Schools for Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carolyn; Bisset, Moray

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores factors influencing parents' choices of single-sex or co-educational schools in the independent sector. In doing so, it explores two relatively under-researched aspects of school choice by focusing upon gender and upon the middle classes. The paper draws upon research conducted in three independent schools--a boys' school, a…

  1. Factors mediating the association of the recency of parent's marijuana use and their adolescent children's subsequent initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen M; Siegel, Jason T; Hohman, Zachary; Crano, William D

    2013-09-01

    This study was designed to determine whether the relation between parents' recency of (lifetime) marijuana use (RMU) and their adolescent children's subsequent marijuana initiation was mediated by the adolescents' expectancies regarding the consequences of usage, their anticipated severity of punishment for use, and their evaluative attitudes toward marijuana. Parents and their initially marijuana-abstinent adolescent children drawn from the National Survey of Parents and Youth were studied (N = 1,399). A bootstrapped multiple mediation analysis tested whether adolescents' expectations, anticipated punishment, and attitudes toward marijuana collected in the first year of the longitudinal study mediated the relationship between parents' RMU and their adolescent children's marijuana initiation 1 year later. Analysis revealed a statistically significant association between the parental measure and youths' subsequent initiation (p positive association of parents' RMU with their child's marijuana use and provide insights that may be useful in future prevention efforts. PMID:23586448

  2. Parental Attitudes and Motivational Factors in Enrollment of Children in Early Foreign Language Learning in the Notranjska Region

    OpenAIRE

    Darja Premrl

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present the parents‘ opinions about the contemporary sources in the field of early foreign language teaching and learning and their influence on the decisions parents make about including/excluding their child into the program of early foreign language learning. We found out, on the one hand, that parents are poorly informed about the current state of early foreign language learning both in Slovenia and abroad. On the other hand, parents reported positive attitudes about ea...

  3. The role of parental, school, and peer factors in adolescent bullying involvement: results from the Turkish HBSC 2005/2006 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginoz, Ethem; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Ercan, Oya; Uysal, Omer; Alp, Zeynep; Ocak, Suheyla; Oktay Tanyildiz, Gulsah; Ekici, Baris; Yucel, Ilker Kemal; Albayrak Kaymak, Deniz

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between involvement in bullying behaviors and school, family, and peer factors. Health Behavior in School Age Children survey questionnaire was used. Of the students surveyed, 20% were both bully and victim, 11% were bully, and 21% were victim. Being male, poor parental support, and poor monitoring by the father were found to be risk factors for being both bully and victim. Poor academic achievement, having peers at different ages, poor quality of friendship, poor communication with parents, and not being isolated by peers were found to be risk factors for being bully. Not liking school, feeling pressured by school work, poor quality of friendship, poor monitoring by the father, close bonding with mother, and poor status of the peer group were found to be risk factors for being victim. These findings highlight the importance that bullying intervention programs should include country-specific and culture-specific influences for success. PMID:23359869

  4. Association of Parental History of Diabetes with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Children with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Jennifer R; Stafford, Jeanette M.; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Badaru, Angela; Crume, Tessa L.; Dabelea, Dana; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Pettitt, David J.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Determine if parental diabetes(DM) is associated with unhealthier cardiovascular disease(CVD) risk profiles in youth with type 2 diabetes(T2D), and whether associations differed by race/ethnicity. Methods Family history was available for 382 youth with T2D from 2001 prevalent and 2002–2005 incident SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth cohorts. Parental DM was evaluated two ways two-category— any parent vs. no parent DM (evaluated overall and stratified by race/ethnicity); four-category— both par...

  5. Usefulness of desirable lifestyle factors to attenuate the risk of heart failure among offspring whose parents had myocardial infarction before age 55 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Owais; Kotler, Gregory; Gaziano, John Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of hospitalization and death in the United States and throughout Europe. Although a higher risk for HF with antecedent myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported in offspring whose parents had MIs before age 55 years, it is unclear whether adherence to healthful behaviors can mitigate that risk. The aim of the present study was therefore to prospectively examine if adherence to healthy weight, regular exercise, moderate alcohol consumption, and abstinence from smoking can attenuate such increased HF risk. Information on parental history of MI and lifestyle factors was collected using questionnaires. Subjects adhering to ≥3 healthy lifestyle factors were classified as having good versus poor lifestyle scores. Incident HF was assessed via yearly follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample. During an average follow up of 21.7 ± 6.5 years, 1,323 new HF cases (6.6%), of which 190 (14.4%) were preceded by MI, occurred. Compared to subjects with good lifestyle scores and no parental histories of premature MI, multivariate adjusted hazard ratios for incident HF with antecedent MI were 3.21 (95% confidence interval 1.74 to 5.91) for subjects with good lifestyle score and parental histories of premature MI, 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.12 to 2.07) for those with poor lifestyle score and no parental histories of premature MI, and 4.60 (95% confidence interval 2.55 to 8.30) for those with poor lifestyle scores and parental histories of premature MI. In conclusion, our data suggest that even in subjects at higher risk for HF because of genetic predisposition, adherence to healthful lifestyle factors may attenuate such an elevated HF risk. PMID:22516528

  6. Ethnic differences in neonatal body composition in a multi-ethnic population and the impact of parental factors: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Sletner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonates from low and middle income countries (LAMIC tend to have lower birth weight compared with Western European (WE neonates. Parental height, BMI and maternal parity, age and educational level often differ according to ethnic background, and are associated with offspring birth weight. Less is known about how these factors affect ethnic differences in neonatal body composition. OBJECTIVES: To explore differences in neonatal body composition in a multi-ethnic population, and the impact of key parental factors on these differences. METHODS: A population-based cohort study of pregnant mothers, fathers and their offspring, living in Oslo, Norway. Gender- and gestational-specific z-scores were calculated for several anthropometric measurements, with the neonates of WE ethnic origin as reference. Mean z-scores for neonates with LAMIC origin, and their parents, are presented as outcome variables. RESULTS: 537 singleton, term neonates and their parents were included. All anthropometric measurements were smaller in neonates with LAMIC origin. Abdominal circumference and ponderal index differed the most from WE (mean z-score: -0.57 (95% CI:-0.69 to -0.44 and -0.54 (-0.66 to -0.44, and remained so after adjusting for parental size. Head circumference and skin folds differed less, and length the least (-0.21 (-0.35 to -0.07. These measures became comparable to WEs when adjusted for parental factors. CONCLUSIONS: LAMIC origin neonates were relatively "thin-fat", as indicated by reduced AC and ponderal index and relatively preserved length and skin folds, compared with neonates with WE origin. This phenotype may predispose to type 2 diabetes.

  7. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis in School aged Children of Iran : Role of Personal and Parents Related Socio- Economic and Educational Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Mahmoodzadeh; Morteza Amestejani; Mohammad Karamyar; Ahmad-Ali Nikibakhsh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Iranian children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem.Methods: A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children [7-11 years old] from Urmia were investigated. The su...

  8. Parenting Stress and Related Factors in Parents of Adolescence with Depression%抑郁青少年父母亲职压力及其相关因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆春霞; 何庆欢; 麦锦城; 彭子文; 金科

    2011-01-01

    Objective To comprehend the parental pressure of adolescent with depression in school in Guangzhou and explore the related factors of parental stress. Methods A total of 220 adolescent with depression and their parents were investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory,Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (including three domains of parental distress,difficult child and parent-child dysfunctional interaction) and family function assessment questionnaire (FAD). Results ①The parents of depression group scored higher than the normal control group significantly in the total score of parenting stress(F = 5. 63,P = 0. 004)and the domains in parent-child dysfunctional interaction(F = 4. 71,P=0.01)and difficult child(F=7. 24,P = 0. 001). ②Univariate analysis showed that the parenting stress scores of depression group were significantly higher in the parents of less average monthly household income and lower parental level of education(P<0. 01).③The total scores of parenting stress and the role (r=-0. 57), affective response (r = -0. 36), affective involvement (r = -0. 55),behavioral control (r = -0. 39)and the general function (r = -0. 29) of family function were significantly negative correlation (P<0. 01) in parents of adolescent with depression. ④Multiple regression analysis showed that the role, affective involvement, affective response of family function and the average monthly household income of parenting stress entered into the regression equation and explained 49. 6% of the total variance. Conclusion High levels of parenting stress are commonly presented in parents of adolescent with depression and affected by many factors.%目的 了解广州市在校抑郁青少年父母亲职压力情况,并探讨其亲职压力的影响因素.方法 以贝克抑郁自评问卷(BDI)、亲职压力36项简表PSI-SF和家庭功能评定量表(FAD)为工具对220名中小学生及其父母进行调查.结果 ①抑郁情绪组在亲职压力总分(F=5.63,P=0.004)

  9. Confirmatory factor analyses of the Feeding Emotion Scale: A measure of parent emotions in the context of feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing parent affect is important because studies examining the parent–child dyad have shown that parent affect has a profound impact on parent–child interactions and related outcomes. Although some measures that assess general affect during daily lives exist, to date there are only few tools tha...

  10. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  11. Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

  12. Confirmatory factor analysis of a questionnaire measuring control in parental feeding practices in mothers of Head Start children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parental control in child feeding has focused primarily on directive types of control, such as pressure to eat and food restriction. This study aimed to develop an instrument to assess other types of directive control and two additional aspects of parental child feeding, non-directive and food envir...

  13. Family Structure, Parental Perceptions, and Child Labor in Kenya: What Factors Determine Who Is Enrolled in School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Claudia

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of household survey data in Kenya revealed that children's enrollment in school was affected by parents' expectations for future financial help from children and (for girls) by parents' perceptions of labor market discrimination against women, but not by patriarchal norms or child labor. The results challenge traditional explanations of…

  14. A Population-Based Evaluation of a Publicly Funded, School-Based HPV Vaccine Program in British Columbia, Canada: Parental Factors Associated with HPV Vaccine Receipt

    OpenAIRE

    Gina Ogilvie; Maureen Anderson; Fawziah Marra; Shelly McNeil; Karen Pielak; Meena Dawar; Marilyn McIvor; Thomas Ehlen; Simon Dobson; Deborah Money; Patrick, David M; Monika Naus

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background About 10% of cancers in women occur in the cervix, the structure that connects the womb to the vagina. Every year, globally, more than a quarter of a million women die because of cervical cancer, which only occurs after the cervix has been infected with a human papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual intercourse. There are many types of HPV, a virus that infects the skin and the mucosa (the moist membranes that line various parts of the body, including the cervix). Alt...

  15. Mediating Effects of Self-Efficacy, Benefits and Barriers on the Association between Peer and Parental Factors and Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls with a Lower Educational Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Verloigne

    Full Text Available The prevalence of physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls is low, suggesting it is important to have insights into the complex processes that may underlie their physical activity levels. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the mediating effects of self-efficacy, perceived benefits and barriers on the associations between peer and parental variables and physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls.In total, 226 girls (mean age 16.0±1.0 years; 53% technical education; 47% vocational education from a convenience sample of 6 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium, completed a questionnaire on their total physical activity level and related peer and parental variables (i.e. modeling of physical activity, co-participation in physical activities and encouragement to be active and personal variables (i.e. self-efficacy to be active, and specific perceived benefits of physical activity and specific barriers to be active. Mediating effects were tested using MacKinnon's product-of-coefficients test based on multilevel linear regression analyses.Higher peer and parental modeling, co-participation and encouragement were significantly related to a higher physical activity level among adolescent girls (p<0.05. Self-efficacy, the perceived benefits of having fun, being around friends or meeting new people, and not being bored and the perceived barrier of not liking physical activity mediated several associations between peer and parental variables and girls' physical activity, with some of the mediated proportions exceeding 60%.This study contributed to a better understanding of the complexity of how parental and peer factors work together with personal factors to influence the physical activity levels of adolescent girls with a lower educational level. Interventions should involve both peers and parents, as they may influence girls' physical activity both directly and indirectly through the internalisation of several personal

  16. Air Canada Selects Boeing 777s and 787 Dreamliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.,the parent company of Air Canada, and Boeing today announced a wide-body fleet renewal plan for the airline that includes up to 36 Boeing 777s and up to 60 Boeing 787Dreamliners. Air Canada will use the airplanes to modernize its existing fleet and improve operating efficiencies, creating one of the world's youngest and most simplified airline fleets.

  17. Air Canada Selects Boeing 777s and 787 Dreamliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.,the parent company of Air Canada, and Boeing today announced a wide-body fleet renewal plan for the airline that includes up to 36 Boeing 777s and up to 60 Boeing 787Dreamliners. Air Canada will use the airplanes to modernize its existing fleet and improve operating efficiencies, creating one of the world's youngest and most simplified airline fleets.……

  18. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  19. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Related Factors in Parents of Children With Cancer in South-East of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Naderi, Majid; Firouzkoohi Moghadam, Mahboubeh; Hamzenejad, Mahdiyeh; Emamdadi, Abolfazl; Karami, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) comprises a collection of symptoms following exposure to injury-causing accidents of life. It is estimated that the prevalence of PTSD in children with malignancy and their parents is between 10-30% and even several years after treatment of malignancy this disorderremain in 20-20% of these patients. Objectives This study investigated the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in parents of children with cancer. Materials and Methods In th...

  20. Externalizing Behaviors among Children of HIV Seropositive Former and Current Drug Users: Parent Support Network Factors as Social Ecological Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Knowlton, Amy; Buchanan, Amy; Wissow, Lawrence; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Latkin, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Children affected by their parents’ dual drug use and HIV/AIDS face considerable challenges to their psychosocial development, including parent dysfunction and foster care placement. While HIV/AIDS may increase parents’ mobilization of social support, their drug use may restrict who is available to help them, with potential implications to the adjustment of their children with whom they remain in contact. This study sought to identify dually affected children’s living situations, and parent a...

  1. FACTORS DETERMINING DISCLOSURE BY PARENTS AMONG CHILDREN LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS ATTENDING THE CENTER OF EXCELLENCE IN KIGALI UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP. Ingabire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART and survival of HIV-infected children has raised challenges on disclosing HIV diagnosis to children. Many parents and guardians are reluctant to allow children living with HIV to know their status, arguing that they are too young and will not understand fully their circumstances causing emotional disturbances as a result. There are further concerns that children may blame their parents and ask questions on how they got the disease, even inadvertently “blurting out the secret” and thus exposing the family to stigma and discrimination. In this cross-sectional study, eligible children were recruited to participate. Data on these children was obtained from the electronic databases and completed with data extraction from the individual patient fie. A sample of both parents and guardians who disclosed and those who did not disclose have been interviewed to identify the factors and reasons behind their decision-making process in addition to what they believe would improve their disclosure. A total of 64% of HIV positive (HIV+ children had their status disclosed to them by parents while 35.8% did not. The majority of parents or guardians (80% found that disclosing status improved adherence. A large number of parents or guardians (67% attended psychosocial support groups and accordingly disclosure status was highly associated with psychosocial support group attendance (p<0.05. Disclosure and statistical tests showed that disclosure status was highly associated with CD4 outcomes (p<0.05. In addition, disclosure status was highly associated with viral load outcome (p<0.05. Moreover, 64.4% of children living with HIV underwent an increase of weight greater or equal 4 kg after disclosure and statistically disclosure status was highly associated with weight outcomes (p<0.05.

  2. The Study on the Influential Factors of Parental Rearing Styles%父母教养方式影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦章

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the influential factors of parenta l rearing styl es.Method The self-made parental rearing styles questionnaire and general infor mation were filled out by 547 parents whose children came from middle school in Chongqing city.All data were analyzed by t test and F[ WTBZ test.Results Parental rearing styles were affected by pare ntal sex,educa tion,children's different grades and schools.Conclusion Parents,c hildren and social environment(such as school)all affect parental rearing styles .To improve pa rental rearing styles,parents-children-society intervention system must be estab lished.%目的 对父母教养方式的影响因素进行调查。方法  对重庆市3所中学生的父母共5 47名进行自编父母教养方式问卷的测试和一般资料的收集,并用t检验和 F检验进行分析。结果 父母性别、受教育水平,子女所 在年级和学校类型不同影响父母教养 方式。结论 父母教养方式受父母、子女及所在学校多方面的影响。因此要 改进父母教养方式,必须建立父母-子女-社会干预系统,多方面努力才有更好效果。

  3. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuro...

  4. Factors associated with nursing diagnosis parental deterioration in mothers up to 24 years of age during the first year of rearing.

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carlos Orozco; Elvinia Pinilla; Carolina Vargas; Danuby Adriana Buitrago; Diana Beatriz Domínguez; Liana Magreth Peñaranda; Diana María Reyes; Juliana Rueda

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: At the present time the pregnancy in the young women is profiled as a problem in Latin America. There are many studies about gestation and the upbringing of the children of young mothers, but in Colombia there has not been yet one infirmary frame that specifically diagnoses the parental deterioration, the true relationship between mother-son and their influence in the presence of this diagnosis. Objective: To establish associated factors to the nursing infirmary diagnosis altere...

  5. Factors associated with nursing diagnosis parental deterioration in mothers up to 24 years of age during the first year of rearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Orozco

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At the present time the pregnancy in the young women is profiled as a problem in Latin America. There are many studies about gestation and the upbringing of the children of young mothers, but in Colombia there has not been yet one infirmary frame that specifically diagnoses the parental deterioration, the true relationship between mother-son and their influence in the presence of this diagnosis. Objective: To establish associated factors to the nursing infirmary diagnosis altered parenting (NANDA 3.2.1.1.1 in mothers until 24 years old, during the first year of upbringing. Materials and methods: It was a cross-sectional study in a sample of 240 women >24 years old that were in their first year of her last son’s upbringing. An instrument of 88 questions, as well as IPAA formats, self-esteem, social desires, and social support were applied; for the analysis of the information association measures OR and RR were also made through a bivaried analysis due to prevailing reasons and log binomial regression. The multivariable analysis was modelled with the logistical regression and RR was calculated according to Jun Zhang formula. Results: A prevalence of 24.3% to the diagnosis was found and in the final model 6 protective factors and 7 of risk were identified. Discussion: The main protective factor is the attendance to the prenatal controls and it became a fundamental tool, to decrease the parental deterioration diagnosis.

  6. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  7. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  8. Family function, Parenting Style and Broader Autism Phenotype as Predicting Factors of Psychological Adjustment in Typically Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Mohammadi

    2014-06-01

    significantly correlated with behavioral problems and prosocial behaviors in typically developing (TD siblings of children with ASDs.Siblings of children with ASDs, due to genetic liability, are at a greater risk of psychological maladjustment. Furthermore, environmental factors like parenting styles and family function also have a significant effect on psychological maladjustment.

  9. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  10. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  11. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis in School aged Children of Iran : Role of Personal and Parents Related Socio- Economic and Educational Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Mahmoodzadeh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Iranian children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem.Methods: A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children [7-11 years old] from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method.chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. Findings: Of the 1600 questionnaires were distributed, 918 [57%] were completed and included in the final analysis and rest of them were excluded which weren’t filled by parents and also out of our study age period range. The gender of the subjects was equally distributed [48.6% males and 51.4% females] approximately. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% [n=172] and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% [n=51]. There was not significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, not working of father, working of mother, single parent, fail school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection[UTI], not breast feeding, low birth weight to compare of non-enuretics. But unwilling pregnancy, neonatal icter, febrile convulsion, and mother smoking didn’t increase prevalence of this problem. 19.8% [n=31] of children with this problem had been seen by physician. Medication was the most preferred treatment option for enuresis [64.5%].Conclusion: Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found out Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children.

  12. A Review of the Literature on the Social and Environmental Factors Which Influence Children (Aged 3-5 Years) to Be Obese/Overweight and the Accuracy of Parental Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Julie; Keeney, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to review the previously published literature on the social and environmental factors which influence children (aged 3-5 years) to be obese/overweight and the accuracy of parental perceptions. Obesity levels are on the increase in today's society and habits are being passed from parents to children, with family…

  13. Factors determining whether the parents accept BCG immunization of the new-born child in a high-income country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo Pihl, Gitte; Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    . My focus for this project is decision making. Method: During the next year all parents planning to give birth at Kolding Hospital will be offered inclusion in the study . In the 2nd/3rd trimester they will receive a letter with information on the study and afterward the local PhD-students or a...... research assistant will call the families and ask them whether they are willing to participate in the study. After the family have made their choice a structured interview with the families will be conducted. Here we ask about the parents’ age, job and dwelling. As a part of the interview, I will use AM O......' Connors 'Decisional Conflict scale' to compare decisional conflicts for the parents that accept BCG vaccination and parents who do not accept the BCG vaccination of their newborn child....

  14. Parental efficacy, parental monitoring efficacy, and monitoring among Asian-Indian parents of adolescents living in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Chitra; Montemayor, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental efficacy and a new concept entitled parental monitoring efficacy, and to examine the association between parental monitoring efficacy and monitoring. We conducted two studies on two samples of Asian-Indian parents and adolescents living in Chennai, India. In the first study of 241 parents of adolescents in grades, 9-12, we constructed a new measure of parental efficacy that included two factors. The first factor, responding competently to negative adolescent behavior was more strongly predictive of parental monitoring efficacy than the second factor, instilling positive behavior. In the second study of 215 parents and adolescents in grades 10 and 12, parental monitoring efficacy predicted monitoring, especially adolescent disclosure and parental control. The importance of parental control as a monitoring technique among traditional Indian parents was discussed. PMID:25448831

  15. Factors Associated with Parental Stress and Satisfaction during the Process of Diagnosis of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moh, Teresa Ailing; Magiati, Iliana

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is complex and parents worldwide often experience difficulties and frustration during the diagnostic process. This study examined the duration of the diagnostic period, the number of professionals consulted, the relationship with the professional(s) and the perceived helpfulness of information provided…

  16. Experience of parental cancer in childhood is a risk factor for psychological distress during genetic cancer susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study explores the effect of age at the time of parental cancer diagnosis or death on psychological distress and cancer risk perception in individuals undergoing genetic testing for a specific cancer susceptibility. Patients and methods: Cancer-related distress, worry and risk perce

  17. Anxiety in Children/Youth with Bowel and Bladder Dysfunction and Their Parents: Impact of Medical, Educational, and Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVergne, Leslie Cristen

    2012-01-01

    Children and youth with special health care needs are impacted both physically and psychologically by their medical condition. Furthermore, parents of children with special health care needs experience increased symptoms of anxiety related to their child's condition. Literature suggests the negative impact may be lessened by providing…

  18. Impact of a Kentucky Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home-Visitation Program on Parental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jonnisa M.; Vanderpool, Robin C.

    2013-01-01

    As public health organizations continue to implement maternal and child health home-visitation programs, more evaluation of these efforts is needed, particularly as it relates to improving parental behaviors. The purpose of our study was to assess the impact of families' participation in a home-visitation program offered by a central Kentucky…

  19. The impact of healthy parenting as a protective factor for posttraumatic stress disorder in adulthood: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano R Lima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early life social adversity can influence stress response mechanisms and is associated with anxious behaviour and reductions in callosal area later in life. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between perceptions of parental bonding in childhood/adolescence, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response, and callosal structural integrity in adult victims of severe urban violence with and without PTSD. METHODS: Seventy-one individuals with PTSD and 62 without the disorder were assessed with the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI. The prednisolone suppression test was administered to assess cortisol levels, and magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the total area of the corpus callosum (CC, as well as the areas of callosal subregions. RESULTS: The PBI items related to the perception of 'not having a controlling mother' (OR 4.84; 95%CI [2.26-10.3]; p=0.01, 'having a caring father' (OR 2.46; 95'%CI [1.18-5.12]; p=0.02, and 'not having controlling parents' (OR 2.70; 95%CI [1.10-6.63]; p=0.04 were associated with a lower risk of PTSD. The PTSD group showed a blunted response to the prednisolone suppression test, with lower salivary cortisol levels upon waking up (p=0.03. Individuals with PTSD had smaller total CC area than those without the disorder, but these differences were not statistically significant (e-value =0.34. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy parental bonding, characterized by the perception of low parental control and high affection, were associated with a lower risk of PTSD in adulthood, suggesting that emotional enrichment and the encouragement of autonomy are protective against PTSD in adulthood.

  20. Canada's Neutron Beam Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the current and planned activities of Canada's Neutron Beam Laboratory which is managed by the National Research Council of Canada. In 1994, Professor Bertram Brockhouse shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for his pioneering work carried out in this laboratory. He developed neutron scattering as a powerful and versatile tool for investigating materials at the level of molecules and nano structures. The neutron source for this work is Canada's NRU reactor located at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. This neutron source is also used for the production of medical isotopes, testing of components for the nuclear power stations and neutron scattering experiments on materials

  1. Physics Teaching in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Ernie; Hirsch, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of physics teaching in Canada. Responds to questions involving the curriculum, efforts to promote gender equity, teaching methods, high school physics teachers, physics teaching organizations, and educational trends. (27 references) (MDH)

  2. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  3. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  4. Child Poverty in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Crossley; Lori Curtis

    2003-01-01

    A 1989 all-party motion of parliament called for the elimination of child poverty in Canada by the year 2000. Despite a series of policy initiatives, recent reports suggest that the child poverty rate may now be comparable to that in 1989. The apparent persistence of child poverty in Canada might reflect socioeconomic developments, or something about the way that child poverty is measured. Using micro data covering the period 1986 to 2000 we find little support for these explanations.

  5. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  6. Is Insecure Parent-Child Attachment a Risk Factor for the Development of Anxiety in Childhood or Adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Kerns, Kathryn A.; Brumariu, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we address how and why parent-child attachment is related to anxiety in children. Children who do not form secure attachments to caregivers risk developing anxiety or other internalizing problems. While meta-analyses yield different findings regarding which insecurely attached children are at greatest risk, our recent studies suggest that disorganized children may be most at risk. Insecure attachment itself may contribute to anxiety, but insecurely attached children also are ...

  7. Black and Latino adolescents' perceptions of racial discrimination and school adjustment: Parent educational advocacy and friendship support as protective factors

    OpenAIRE

    Harven, Aletha Marie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore Black and Latino adolescents' experiences with racial discrimination in school. First, a mediation model was utilized to examine the hypothesized path between teacher racial discrimination, academic goals, and school achievement - and the hypothesized path between peer racial discrimination, mental health, and school achievement. Second, moderated mediation was employed to examine the influence of parent educational advocacy on the hypothesized path...

  8. Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kalebić Jakupčević, Katija; Ajduković, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. Method The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis o...

  9. Backpack Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Backpack Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Backpack Safety Print A ... to help kids find the right backpack. Problems Backpacks Can Pose Although many factors can lead to ...

  10. Parent material, vegetation or slope position - which soil-forming factor controls the intensity of podzolization process in the soils of the Sudety Mountains montane zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielok, Łukasz

    2016-04-01

    Climatic conditions, parent material and vegetation type are considered to be the main soil-forming factors controlling podzolization process advancement. Moreover, in hilly and mountainous areas properties of soils that are undergoing podzolization process are influenced significantly by its location on a slope, due to lateral translocation of soil solutions. The Sudety Mts. are a medium-high mountain range characterized by geological mosaic with many different sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks, mostly poor in alkali elements. Most of the Sudety Mts. area lies in a lower montane zone, where the dominant natural vegetation were temperate mixed and deciduous forests. However, since 18th century natural vegetation was significantly transformed by widespread introduction of spruce monocultures. These distinguishing features of the Sudety Mts. natural environment are considered to be responsible for prevalence of podzolized soil in this area, however the intensity of podzolization process is very differentiated. The aim of presented research was to determine the influence of varying parent material, different vegetation types and different slope positions the on the soil properties variability, and thus, to answer the question which of the analyzed soil-forming factors is controlling the podzolization process advancement in the Sudety Mountains montane zone? Data from A, E, Bs and C horizons of 16 soil profiles developed from different parent materials (granite, sandstone, andesites and mica schists), located under various types of vegetation (spruce and beech forests) and in different slope positions (upper, middle and lower parts of the slopes) were taken into the analysis. All analyzed soil profiles were located in lower montane zone between 550 and 950 m a. s. l. to avoid the influence of varying climatic conditions. One-way ANOVA and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were used to analyze differentiation of soil texture, pH, organic carbon and nitrogen

  11. Parental factors associated with walking to school and participation in organised activities at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Sarah E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is associated with better health. Two sources of activity for children are walking to school and taking part in organised sports and activities. This study uses a large national cohort to examine factors associated with participation in these activities. Methods The Millennium Cohort study contains 5 year follow-up of 17,561 singleton children recruited between 2000-2002 in the UK. All participants were interviewed in their own homes at 9 months, 3 years and 5 years follow-up and all measures were self reports. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used. Results Children are less likely to walk to school as income and parental education increase [Adjusted odds: 0.7 (95%CI: 0.6-0.8 for higher income/education compared to low income/no qualifications]. However, if the parent plays with the child in high income families the child is more likely to walk to school [Adjusted odds: 1.67 (95%CI: 1.3-2.1]. Children taking part in organised activities are from higher income, higher education families, with a car, in a "good" area with non-working mothers. However, in low socio-economic families where the parent plays with the child the child is more likely to take part in organised activities [Adjusted odds: 2.0 (95% CI: 1.5-2.7]. Conclusions Income is an important determinant of the type of activity available to children. Families that report good health behaviours (non-smoking, low TV viewing and play with their children show higher levels of physical activity. Thus, parenting practice appears to have a strong impact on their child's physical activity.

  12. Occupational risk factors for prostate cancer: results from a case-control study in Montréal, Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K J; Siemiatycki, J; Dewar, R; Gérin, M

    1996-02-15

    A population-based case-control study of cancer and occupation was carried out in Montréal, Canada. Between 1979 and 1986, 449 pathologically confirmed cases of prostate cancer were interviewed, as well as 1,550 cancer controls and 533 population controls. Job histories were evaluated by a team of chemist/hygienists using a checklist of 294 workplace chemicals. After preliminary evaluation, 17 occupations, 11 industries, and 27 substances were selected for multivariate logistic regression analyses to estimate the odds ratio between each occupational circumstance and prostate cancer with control for potential confounders. There was moderate support for risk due to the following occupations: electrical power workers, water transport workers, aircraft fabricators, metal product fabricators, structural metal erectors, and railway transport workers. The following substances exhibited moderately strong associations: metallic dust, liquid fuel combustion products, lubricating oils and greases, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal. While the population attributable risk, estimated at between 12% and 21% for these occupational exposures, may be an overestimate due to our method of analysis, even if the true attributable fraction were in the range of 5-10%, this represents an important public health issue. PMID:8633620

  13. Expression of chromosome instability in children with thyroid pathology born to parents suffered from Chernobyl accident factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the usage of long-term human peripheral blood lymphocytes' cultures, the association between thyroid pathology in the children born to irradiated parents and the expression of the hidden cytogenetic effect in delayed cells' generations had been determined. The interindividual variability in the observed children as regard as the response of somatic cells' chromosomes to different terms of the lymphocytes cultivation had been revealed. The possible promotion of delayed chromosome instability on the realization of thyroid pathology in children with a hidden functional failure of the endocrine system has been assumed

  14. Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kalebić Jakupčević, Katija; Ajduković, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. Method The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 30), and a c...

  15. Parental Decision Making in Male Circumcision

    OpenAIRE

    Sardi, Lauren; Livingston, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To study which healthcare professionals (HCPs) firstasked parents about their decision regarding circumcision; whether parents felt they were given enough information by their HCP; and what reasons parents cited for their decision. Study Design and Methods: Bilingual questionnaires were administered to parents and expecting parents of boys (N = 60). Close-ended survey responses were analyzed through factor analysis to ascertain what types of beliefs parents used in their dec...

  16. Parenting Effects on Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Late Adolescence and How Those Factors Impact Adjustment to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Approximately three months before starting college, 203 high school seniors completed a questionnaire consisting of the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) assessing their parents' parenting styles. The PAQ yielded scores on three parenting styles originally proposed by…

  17. Family-based risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury: Considering influences of maltreatment, adverse family-life experiences, and parent-child relational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Fournier, Tania Renaud; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2016-06-01

    The current investigation addressed the potential for unique influences of perceived childhood maltreatment, adverse family-life events, and parent-child relational trauma on the lifetime occurrence and addictive features of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included 957 undergraduate students (747 females; M = 20.14 years, SD = 3.88) who completed online questionnaires regarding the key variables under study. Although self-injuring youth reported more experiences with each family-based risk factor, different patterns of association were found when lifetime engagement in NSSI or its addictive features were under study. Perceived parent-child relational trauma was uniquely linked with NSSI behavior after accounting for perceived childhood maltreatment; adverse family-life events had an additional unique association. In contrast, perceived paternal maltreatment was uniquely related with NSSI's addictive features. Findings underline the importance of studying inter-related family-based risk factors of NSSI simultaneously for a comprehensive understanding of familial correlates of NSSI behavior and its underlying features. PMID:27086083

  18. Energy in Canada: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent changes in the North American natural gas industry are discussed, with a focus on how these changes will affect the ability of Alberta and Canadian natural gas supply to meet market growth. These changes include a decline in the merchant role of many of the major interstate pipelines, resulting in a larger number of smaller-sized purchasers for natural gas marketers to deal with; a greater extent of direct purchasing by local distribution companies and large industrial users, combined with a preference for spot sales rather than long-term commitments; direct marketing of uncontracted gas by many producers and brokers; a bidding type of sales process rather than a negotiated process; and price deregulation. It is foreseen that long term security of supply will again become an important factor to North American buyers, and Canada can offer substantial supplies under secure long term contracts. Marketers will have to seek new market targets such as cogeneration plants and the transportation sector. Access to pipeline transport will be one of the major factors in obtaining new markets. The Canada-USA free trade agreement is viewed as a positive development which should help Canadian gas marketers to gain and retain U.S. customers

  19. Factors Associated with the Anxiety, Subjective Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem of Parents of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child's visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child's disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact. PMID:27603670

  20. Is Canada's sex ratio in decline?

    OpenAIRE

    Dodds, L; Armson, B A

    1997-01-01

    In this issue (see pages 37 to 41) Dr. Bruce B. Allan and associates report a small but statistically significant decrease--of about 0.2%--in the proportion of male live births in Canada over the period 1970-90. In this editorial, factors that have been reported in the literature to influence sex ratio are examined within a Canadian context. The authors suggest that although the reasons for the apparent decline in the sex ratio in Canada are unclear, the increasing use of ovulation induction ...

  1. Constraining the factor analytical solutions obtained from multiple-year receptor modeling of ambient PM2.5 data from five speciation sites in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M.; Su, Yushan; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Rastogi, Ankit K.; Brook, Jeff; Hopke, Philip K.

    2015-05-01

    Rotational ambiguity in factor analyses leads to solutions that are not always consistent with reality. The inherent non-negativity constraints in positive matrix factorization (PMF) help to prevent factor solutions from becoming overly unrealistic, but they are not sufficient to prevent unwanted rotations that could manifest in factors that should have similar compositions varying across multiple sites. The Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network operates five fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation sites in Ontario. Data from these sites from 2005 to 2010 were subjected to PMF to obtain factors representing sources of particulate matter. Eight factors were found to be common across these sites. These factors had profiles that varied greatly from one site to the other, suggesting that the PMF solutions were impacted by some rotational ambiguity. New features in the EPA PMF V5 program allow the use of a priori information to impose mathematical constraints that guide the evolution of the factor solutions. These constraints reduce the rotational space. In situations where major emissions sources are known and located in the neighborhood of receptors, or emissions inventories and literature source profiles exist, it is easy to use these profiles to force the factor solutions to conform to the expected signatures. In our case, reported source profiles were neither available nor applicable due to the large spatial span of potential sources and receptor sites. This work describes how such constraints can be generated and used in these complex situations. The fundamental principle explored in this work is the concept of 'stiffness' of PMF solutions to identify the desirable non-rotating factors.

  2. The Impact of Organizational Factors and Government Policy on Psychiatric Nurses' Family-Focused Practice With Parents Who Have Mental Illness, Their Dependent Children, and Families in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Anne; Reupert, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Government policy and organizational factors influence family-focused practice (FFP) in adult mental health services. However, how these aspects shape psychiatric nurses' practice with parents who have mental illness, their dependent children, and families is less well understood. Drawing on the findings of a qualitative study, this article explores the way in which Irish policy and organizational factors might influence psychiatric nurses' FFP, and whether (and how) FFP might be further promoted. A purposive sample of 14 psychiatric nurses from eight mental health services completed semi-structured interviews. The analysis was inductive and presented as thematic networks. Both groups described how policies and organizational culture enabled and/or hindered FFP, with differences between community and acute participants seen. This study indicates a need for policies and organizational supports, including child and family skills training, to promote a whole family approach in adult mental health services. PMID:27090512

  3. A pilot study on peritraumatic dissociation and coping styles as risk factors for posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression in parents after their child's unexpected admission to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Last Bob F

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To study the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety and depression in parents three months after pediatric intensive care treatment of their child and examine if peritraumatic dissocation and coping styles are related to these mental health problems. Methods This is a prospective cohort study and included parents of children unexpectedly admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU from January 2006 to March 2007. At three months follow-up parents completed PTSD (n = 115, anxiety and depression (n = 128 questionnaires. Immediately after discharge, parents completed peritraumatic dissocation and coping questionnaires. Linear regression models with generalized estimating equations examined risk factors for mental health problems. Results Over 10% of the parents were likely to meet criteria for PTSD and almost one quarter for subclinical PTSD. Respectively 15% to 23% of the parents reported clinically significant levels of depression and anxiety. Peritraumatic dissocation was most strongly associated with PTSD, anxiety as well as depression. Avoidance coping was primarily associated with PTSD. Conclusion A significant number of parents have mental health problems three months after unexpected PICU treatment of their child. Improving detection and raise awareness of mental health problems is important to minimize the negative effect of these problems on parents' well-being.

  4. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan;

    2009-01-01

    between properties of the indoor environment and asthma and allergy in young Swedish children. The larger project, The Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) Study, began in the year 2000 with a questionnaire distributed to parents of all children 1-6 years of age in one Swedish county (DBH-I). A second......, follow-up questionnaire (DBH-III) was distributed in 2005. The original survey collected information about the child, the family situation, practices such as smoking, allergic symptoms, type of residence, moisture-related problems, and type of flooring material, which included polyvinyl chloride (PVC......, airway symptoms of wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in the baseline investigation (2000) were associated with ASD 5 years later. Results from the second phase of the DBH-study (DBH-II) indicate PVC flooring to be one important source of airborne phthalates indoors, and that asthma and allergy...

  5. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

    1988-01-01

    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  6. Update on Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, John Webster

    1994-01-01

    Gift planning is increasing in Canada's colleges and universities to offset effects of retrenchment. New annuity vehicles and the emergence of university Crown Foundations offer tax breaks that support private giving to institutions. In addition, a simplified process for gifts is anticipated. (MSE)

  7. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  8. Nuclear technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed

  9. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  10. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  11. The Ecology of Young Children's Behaviour and Social Competence: Child Characteristics, Socio-Economic Factors and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Using a longitudinal, UK representative sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, the present study examined the effects of socio-economic factors on mother- and teacher-rated behaviour, and the unique and cumulative contribution of both risk and protective factors inherent in children's proximal and distal influences to behaviour during the…

  12. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Siamaga; Anastasia Lianou; Dimitrios Priftis; Eirini Lianou; Chrisanthi Avgerinou; Savvas Karasavvidis

    2011-01-01

    Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a) to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b) to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence ...

  13. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  14. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  15. Developing Relationships between Parents and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnie, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    It is well documented that parental involvement in their children's education is a key factor in improving outcomes for young people, and yet many schools struggle to engage parents. This article discusses the rationale for working in partnership with parents and makes the case for building parental participation in school life so that…

  16. A Comparison of the Effects of Three Intervention Approaches on Parental Self-Efficacy, Parenting Skills, and Parental Stress Levels of Impoverished Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, MaryEllen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare three intervention approaches that focused on alleviating some of the deleterious effects of poverty by building parental self-efficacy, increasing parenting skills, and decreasing parental stress levels in parents at-risk for negative child outcomes due to factors associated with adverse socioeconomic…

  17. Exploring determinants of vegetable parenting practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to find out if food parenting practices show promise for positively influencing child dietary intake. However, it is unclear what factors motivate parents to engage in vegetable parenting practices. We developed a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MG...

  18. Canada country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrill, Cheryl [Bruce Power, 3394 County Road 20 - RRH2, N0G 2T0 Tiverton ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility

  19. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  20. Natural background radiation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published airborne gamma ray survey data from 33 areas of Canada were used to compile information on the average ground level exposure from natural radiation. The exposures at ground level were calculated from the surface concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. The highest levels of radioactivity were found in northern Canada and were generally related to granitic rocks; the lowest levels with the Athabasca sandstone. Summer outdoor exposure rates have a population-weighted average of 3.7 +- 2.3 μR.h-1, of which 48 percent orginated from potassium, 43 percent from the thorium series and 9 percent from the uranium series. This low level of radioactivity, compared to worldwide data, has resulted from erosion of a geologically old continental crust in which radioactivity decreases with depth. When seasonal variations of soil moisture and snow cover are considered, the annual population-weighted average outdoor exposure rate decreases to 2.8 +- 1.7 μR.h-1 corresponding to an annual outdoor dose-equivalent of 150 +- 90 μSV. Factors increasing the annual outdoor dose-equivalent are cosmic radiation (320 +- 30 μSV) and the internal radioactivity of the body (190 μSV). Using the ratio between indoor and outdoor values for worldwide published data, the average annual Canadian whole-body dose-equivalent from all sources of natural radiation is estimated to be 690 +-130 μSV

  1. Buried above Ground: A University-Based Study of Risk/Protective Factors for Suicidality among Sexual Minority Youth in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tracey; Taylor, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study examined differences in suicidal behavior between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ university students as well as investigated the importance of risk and protective factors in the prediction of suicidality between these two groups. A total of 1,205 university students participated in the…

  2. Canada's forest biomass resources: deriving estimates from Canada's forest inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biomass inventory for Canada was undertaken to address the data needs of carbon budget modelers, specifically to provide estimates of above-ground tree components and of non-merchantable trees in Canadian forests. The objective was to produce a national method for converting volume estimates to biomass that was standardized, repeatable across the country, efficient and well documented. Different conversion methods were used for low productivity forests (productivity class 1) and higher productivity forests (productivity class 2). The conversion factors were computed by constructing hypothetical stands for each site, age, species and province combination, and estimating the merchantable volume and all the above-ground biomass components from suitable published equations. This report documents the procedures for deriving the national biomass inventory, and provides illustrative examples of the results. 46 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Autonomous and Controlled Motivation for Parenting: Associations with Parent and Child Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jungert, Tomas; Landry, Renee; Joussemet, Mireille; Mageau, Genevieve; Gingras, Isabelle; Koestner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation examined motivation for parenting and some of its correlates in parents and children. The data came from samples of 151 first-time mothers of infants, 153 mothers of middle school children, and 260 mothers and fathers of high school children. Parents provided self-report data about their motivation in their parenting role as well as reports of role satisfaction, parental competence, child temperament, and parenting styles. Using three samples, factor analyses confirm...

  4. Cultural Values, U.S. Neighborhood Danger, and Mexican American Parents' Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced patterns of parenting behavior in two-parent Mexican-origin families living in the U.S. To avoid forcing Mexican American parents into a predefined model of parenting styles, we used latent profile analysis to identify unique patterns of responsiveness and demandingness am...

  5. Energy efficiency trends in Canada -- An industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to explain the contribution of energy efficiency to the evolution of secondary energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Canada. Promoting greater energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy is an important element of Canada's National Action Program on Climate Change--the federal-provincial strategy to achieve Canada's commitment to work toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. In this regard, an improved understanding of the relationship between energy efficiency, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions will assist policy makers in assessing the progress being made in addressing the issues of global climate change and sustainable development. Natural Resources Canada has developed indicators of changes in the principal factors which influence secondary energy use and emissions over time. This paper utilizes these indicators to review energy use trends in the four secondary energy use sectors (residential, commercial, industrial and transportation), with particular emphasis on the industrial sector., This review covers the period from 1990 to 1995. The year 1995 was chosen because it is the most recent year for which actual energy use data are available. The year 1990 is the base year of Canada's environmental goal, in accordance with the Framework Convention on Climate Change. A more comprehensive and detailed presentation of these indicators can be found in ''Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada'' 1990 to 1995. This report is an update of ''Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada'' which was published by Natural Resources Canada in April 1996

  6. Looking beyond prevention of parent to child transmission: Impact of maternal factors on growth of HIV-exposed uninfected infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Trivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared to HIV-infected children, relatively little has been described regarding the health status, particularly growth of HIV-exposed but uninfected children in resource-limited settings. This is particularly relevant with widespread implementation of the prevention of parent to child transmission program. Methods: At a tertiary care health institute in India, a cohort of 44 HIV-exposed but uninfected children were followed through 6 months of age. The anthropometric parameters weight, length, and head circumference were investigated at birth, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months point of time. The information on maternal characteristics such as HIV clinical staging, CD4 count, and maternal weight were recorded. The linear regression analysis was applied to estimate the influence of maternal characteristics on infant anthropometric parameters. Results: Anthropometric parameters (weight, length and head circumference were significantly reduced in uninfected new-borns of mothers in HIV Clinical stage III and IV and weight 50 kg. Analysis conducted to find the effect of maternal immunosuppression on infant growth reveals a significant difference at CD4 300 cells/mm 3 and not at established cut-off of CD4 350 cells/mm 3 . This trend of difference continued at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. The multiple linear regression analysis model demonstrated maternal HIV clinical stage and weight as predictors for birth weight and length, respectively. Conclusions: Advanced HIV disease in the mother is associated with poor infant growth in HIV-exposed, but uninfected children at a critical growth phase in life. These results underscore the importance, especially in resource-constrained settings, of early HIV diagnosis and interventions to halt disease progression in all pregnant women.

  7. Microphysiometry Studies of Rapid Binding of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I by Parental and Transfected Mammary Epithelial Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Rose Marie

    1998-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death of women in the U.S. today. Members of the family of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proposed to play a major role in the development and subsequent uncontrolled proliferation of breast cancer cells. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is known to be a potent mitogen for mammary epithelial cells. IGF-I acts by binding to cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating a cascade of events leading to cell division. In the interest of inte...

  8. Lack of association of interferon regulatory factor 1 with severe malaria in affected child-parental trio studies across three African populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina D Mangano

    Full Text Available Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF-1 is a member of the IRF family of transcription factors, which have key and diverse roles in the gene-regulatory networks of the immune system. IRF-1 has been described as a critical mediator of IFN-gamma signalling and as the major player in driving TH1 type responses. It is therefore likely to be crucial in both innate and adaptive responses against intracellular pathogens such as Plasmodium falciparum. Polymorphisms at the human IRF1 locus have been previously found to be associated with the ability to control P. falciparum infection in populations naturally exposed to malaria. In order to test whether genetic variation at the IRF1 locus also affects the risk of developing severe malaria, we performed a family-based test of association for 18 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs across the gene in three African populations, using genotype data from 961 trios consisting of one affected child and his/her two parents (555 from The Gambia, 204 from Kenya and 202 from Malawi. No significant association with severe malaria or severe malaria subphenotypes (cerebral malaria and severe malaria anaemia was observed for any of the SNPs/haplotypes tested in any of the study populations. Our results offer no evidence that the molecular pathways regulated by the transcription factor IRF-1 are involved in the immune-based pathogenesis of severe malaria.

  9. Nuclear insurance in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many years ago, a group of insurance companies founded an organization offering nuclear insurance, called Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada. The passage of Order-in-Council P.C. 1960-555 gave Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. the power to indemnify suppliers, contractors, etc. against liability claims. The situation has remained essentially unchanged. In 1970 Parliament passed the Nuclear Liability Act, but it has never been proclaimed. The act sets mandatory levels of nuclear insurance as high as $75 million for firms involved in nuclear activity. It is expected that agreement between the insurers and government will be reached later this year (1976), so that the act can be proclaimed. (N.D.H.)

  10. Factors Influencing the Intention of Perinatal Nurses to Adopt the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in Southeastern Quebec, Canada: Implications for Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guylaine Chabot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nurses play a major role in promoting the baby-friendly hospital initiative (BFHI, yet the adoption of this initiative by nurses remains a challenge in many countries, despite evidences of its positive impacts on breastfeeding outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing perinatal nurses to adopt the BFHI in their practice. Methods. A sample of 159 perinatal nurses from six hospital-based maternity centers completed a survey based on the theory of planned behavior. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between key independent variables and nurses’ intention to adopt the BFHI in their practice. A discriminant analysis of nurses’ beliefs helped identify the targets of actions to foster the adoption the BFHI among nurses. Results. The participants are mainly influenced by factors pertaining to their perceived capacity to overcome the strict criteria of the BFHI, the mothers’ approval of a nursing practice based on the BFHI, and the antenatal preparation of the mothers. Conclusions. This study provides theory-based evidence for the development of effective interventions aimed at promoting the adoption of the BFHI in nurses’ practice.

  11. The Influence of Classroom Management, Administrative Support, Parental Involvement, and Economic Factors on the Retention of Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Katrina Moody

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of selected factors upon the intent of novice teachers to remain in the classroom. Teachers are leaving the profession in numbers that have prompted significant concern among policymakers and administrators. Many qualified college students are not considering the field of education as a potential…

  12. Psychological Factors Associated with Genetic Test Decision-Making among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Richman, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    Making decisions to undergo Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) genetic testing can be challenging. It is important to understand how the perceptions of affected individuals might influence testing decision-making. Although evidence has shown that psychological factors are important in predicting testing decisions, affect-type variables have been…

  13. The Domestication of Health Care: Health Advice to Canadian Mothers 1993-2008 in "Today's Parent"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe and analyze the ways that parents' and children's health are portrayed in health advice to parents in Canada's major mass print media magazine entitled "Today's Parent", from 1993 to 2008. The qualitative content analysis noted three significant themes, including: most health issues are easily managed by…

  14. The Effects of the "Nobody's Perfect" Program on Parenting Resourcefulness and Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chislett, Gail; Kennett, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted an evaluation of "Nobody's Perfect" Program involving 71 participants from Peterborough County, Canada. Prior to the program, parents completed demographic information, along with self-report measures assessing the types of interactions with their children, parent resourcefulness, knowledge and use of resources, parent competency and…

  15. Parent and Family Perception of Engagement: Lessons from Early Years Programs and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Kathryn; Killoran, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how parents and families perceive their own engagement in early years services in three communities in Ontario, Canada. Using an Appreciative Inquiry approach, focus groups, and questionnaires with parents, we investigated parent views of the strengths of early years supports and perceived outcomes of early years services in…

  16. Canada's medical isotope strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper details Canada's medical isotope strategy and the role of the Canadian Government in the security of the isotope supply chain. The government's role is to promote health and safety of Canadians, establish appropriate regulatory framework, allow the markets to work, facilitate international collaboration, fund high-risk early stage research and development, encourage private sector investment in innovation and support and respect environmental and non-proliferation goals.

  17. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  18. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Increased rodenticide exposure rate and risk of toxicosis in barn owls (Tyto alba) from southwestern Canada and linkage with demographic but not genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Andrew C; Elliott, John E; Hindmarch, Sofi; Lee, Sandi L; Maisonneuve, France; Bowes, Victoria; Cheng, Kimberly M; Martin, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Among many anthropogenic drivers of population decline, continual rapid urbanization and industrialization pose major challenges for the survival of wildlife species. Barn owls (Tyto alba) in southwestern British Columbia (BC) face a multitude of threats ranging from habitat fragmentation to vehicle strikes. They are also at risk from secondary poisoning of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), a suite of toxic compounds which at high doses results in a depletion of blood clotting factors leading to internal bleeding and death. Here, using long-term data (N = 119) for the hepatic residue levels of SGAR, we assessed the risk of toxicosis from SGAR for the BC barn owl population over the past two decades. We also investigated whether sensitivity to SGAR is associated with genetic factors, namely Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the CYP2C45 gene of barn owls. We found that residue concentration for total SGAR was significantly higher in 2006-2013 (141 ng/g) relative to 1992-2003 (57 ng/g). The proportion of owls exposed to multiple SGAR types was also significantly higher in 2006-2013. Those measures accordingly translate directly into an increase in toxicosis risk level. We also detected demographic differences, where adult females showed on average lower concentration of total SGAR (64 ng/g) when compared to adult males (106 ng/g). Juveniles were overall more likely to show signs of toxicosis than adults (33.3 and 6.9 %, respectively), and those symptoms were positively predicted by SGAR concentrations. We found no evidence that SNPs in the CYP2C45 gene of barn owls were associated with intraspecific variation in SGAR sensitivity. We recommend several preventative measures be taken to minimize wildlife exposure to SGAR. PMID:27151403

  20. Condom vending machines in Canada's secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D L

    1990-03-01

    A case study of 1 of the 3 school boards approving in 1989 installation of condom machines is presented: The Lisgar Collegiate Institute, Ottawa, Canada. The school is characterized as having 1000 college preparatory students from middle and upper middle class homes and university educated parents. The project was student initiated and involved 1) meeting with communication consultants to determine feasibility, 2) conducting an informal peer consultation to seek out interest and support, 3) meeting with public health officials to gain support and ideas, and 4) conducting research. Condom machine installation (2) was only 1 component; a pilot sexuality education program was included as well. The student proposal was presented and rejected by the principal and the Superintendent of Student Services. Students then lobbied the school board trustees. 2 students lobbies each school board member. Letters of support were obtained from parents' advisory groups, parents, the student council, and other influential people. The media provided coverage in a popular morning television show. The student proposal was submitted to the Board of Education's Education Committee in June 1989; students were assisted by teachers and the Parents Advisory Committee. The school board approved. In the fall of 1989, sexuality awareness week was designated as October 30-November 3. Parents were asked for comments on the designated program, but only 50 contributed in a supportive way. During this week lunch-hour displays and videos, peer-facilitated discussion groups, informal talks by experts, and student theater presentations were sponsored activities. Following this event, the school board arranged for the installment of machines in the men's and women's washrooms near where social events were held and in toilet cubicles in order to provide privacy, as requested by students. The individual cost is US$1/condom. Evaluation is planned. Students have been amused by the amount of public response

  1. Valuing Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a young faculty member commented that e-mail and inexpensive long distance rates were hampering her first-year students' development by making it too easy for them to stay in touch with their parents. Similarly, Judith Shapiro, president of Barnard College, argued in her August 22, 2002, New York Times op-ed piece, "Keeping Parents Off…

  2. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...

  3. Parental Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain, Katrin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parental responsibility can be broadly defined as a legal term that specifies rights and responsibilities of parents towards their children. It is usually given initially to the birth mother and the married father, though unmarried fathers can obtain it either with the agreement of the mother or through a court order. In accordance with the provisions in law the court can also transfer parental responsibility to other persons (e.g. adoptive parents or in cases of child abuse or neglect to the state, represented by local authority social services. While the concept of parental responsibility can be found in most countries, the exact terminology varies from one country to another, as well as over time.

  4. The next generation: poor compliance with risk factor guidelines in the children of parents with premature coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, N R; Rowe, P C; Davies, R

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The offspring of individuals with premature coronary heart disease are themselves at increased risk for myocardial infarction before the age of 55. Consensus panels have recommended that all such offspring undergo an evaluation of cardiovascular risk, including cholesterol testing. METHODS. To examine self-reported rates of cardiovascular risk factor assessment in this population, we conducted a telephone survey of 318 Canadian adults with premature coronary heart disease and of one offspring from 298 (94%) of the 318 families. RESULTS. The median age of the offspring was 20 years (range 2 to 39 y). Among the 219 late adolescent and young adult offspring, only 97 (44%) reported having had a blood cholesterol measurement during the preceding 3 years. Thirty-seven percent reported being current smokers, 31% were overweight, and 30% exercised fewer than three times per week. Men were less likely than women to report having had their blood pressure measured in the preceding year (57% vs 80%). CONCLUSION. These low rates of cardiac risk factor assessment families of patients with premature coronary heart disease represent missed opportunities for primary prevention. More effective strategies to prevent atherosclerosis in this population are needed. PMID:8279614

  5. Declining sex ratios in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, B. B.; Brant, R; Seidel, J E; Jarrell, J F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends in the proportion of annual live births that were male in Canada and to compare the trends with those in the United States. DESIGN: Analysis of census data. SETTING: Canada as a whole and 4 main regions (West, Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic). SUBJECTS: All live births from 1930 to 1990. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sex ratio (expressed as the proportion of total live births that were male [male proportion]) overall and by region. RESULTS: The male proportion in Canada decr...

  6. The Evolution of Integrated Chronic Disease Prevention in Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Raine, Kim; Wolbeck Minke, Sharlene; Khalema, Ernest; Smith, Cynthia; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.

    2006-01-01

    Background Recognition of the common risk factors for leading chronic diseases in Canada has contributed to the development of integrated chronic disease prevention and health promotion approaches. The Alberta Heart Health Project studied the capacity of health organizations in Alberta, Canada, to engage in heart health promotion. This article describes how the Alberta Heart Health Project acted on emerging research findings describing the preliminary stages of integrated chronic disease prev...

  7. Acculturation and Adjustment among Immigrant Chinese Parents: Mediating Role of Parenting Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Catherine L.; Koryzma, Celine M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parenting efficacy beliefs as a mediator of the association between acculturation and adjustment. The sample consisted of 177 immigrant Chinese mothers and fathers with early adolescent children in Canada. Acculturation was assessed bidimensionally as Canadian and Chinese orientations. A latent psychological adjustment variable…

  8. Access to French as Second Official Language Programs in English-Dominant Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie; Black, Glenda

    2012-01-01

    Language policies in any country exist within socio-historical contexts--embedded in history and influenced by socio-political factors. In Canada, such factors were the impetus to the formation of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, which was grounded in an English/French partnership and recommended that Canada become an…

  9. Canada's disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept for the safe and permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes from Canada's CANDU reactors has been developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). The waste would be placed in an engineered disposal vault 500 to 1000 m below the surface in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The multiple barriers to retain the waste and retard the release of radioactivity would be the waste form, the containers, buffer and backfill, and the rock overlying the vault. Numerous research programmes have been carried out to develop the technology for the concept. These include work on materials corrosion and failure mechanisms to assess the performance of the used fuel containers. Predictive modelling has shown that more than 97% of ASTM Grade 2 titanium containers will retain their integrity, even under pessimistic assumptions, for 1200-6000 years after emplacement, and even longer times may be achieved with other grades of titanium or copper. Other research has been aimed at vault sealing, at site characterization for an underground research laboratory and at the development of a methodology for assessing radiological and environmental effects after closure of the facility. A review of the safety and environmental impacts of the concept is now being carried out by an independent panel appointed by the government. (2 figures, 3 references) (UK)

  10. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  11. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  12. Effective Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... come, like your child's school play and his soccer games. Your Current Parenting Experiences Spend some time ... and be unable to handle the tasks of running a family as effectively. Take a moment to ...

  13. Own and parental war experience as a risk factor for mental health problems among adolescents with an immigrant background: results from a cross sectional study in Oslo, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hauff Edvard; Haavet Ole; Oppedal Brit; Lien Lars; Thoresen Magne; Bjertness Espen

    2006-01-01

    Background An increasing proportion of immigrants to Western countries in the past decade are from war affected countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of war experience among adolescents and their parents and to investigate possible differences in internalizing and externalizing mental health problems between adolescents exposed and unexposed to own and parental war experience. Method ...

  14. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs

  15. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  16. A phenomenologic investigation of pediatric residents' experiences being parented and giving parenting advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, A C; Shawler, P M; Blackmon, D L; DeGrace, E W; Wolraich, M L

    2016-09-01

    Factors surrounding pediatricians' parenting advice and training on parenting during residency have not been well studied. The primary purpose of this study was to examine pediatric residents' self-reported experiences giving parenting advice and explore the relationship between parenting advice given and types of parenting residents received as children. Thirteen OUHSC pediatric residents were individually interviewed to examine experiences being parented and giving parenting advice. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate themes and secondary analyses explored relationships of findings based upon Baumrind's parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive). While childhood experiences were not specifically correlated to the parenting advice style of pediatric residents interviewed, virtually all reported relying upon childhood experiences to generate their advice. Those describing authoritative parents reported giving more authoritative advice while others reported more variable advice. Core interview themes related to residents' parenting advice included anxiety about not being a parent, varying advice based on families' needs, and emphasis of positive interactions and consistency. Themes related to how residents were parented included discipline being a learning process for their parents and recalling that their parents always had expectations, yet always loved them. Pediatric residents interviewed reported giving family centered parenting advice with elements of positive interactions and consistency, but interviews highlighted many areas of apprehension residents have around giving parenting advice. Our study suggests that pediatric residents may benefit from more general educational opportunities to develop the content of their parenting advice, including reflecting on any impact from their own upbringing. PMID:27367930

  17. Informed consent for videoconsultations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Isabelle; Scott, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    We performed a qualitative study of the practice of informed consent for videoconsultation in Canada. Fourteen cases were examined: the 13 provinces and territories, and the Federal jurisdiction representing aboriginal groups. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted with key informants (14 telehealth experts, 13 legal experts). The telehealth experts were people with direct experience of telehealth practice. The majority of the telehealth experts agreed that videoconsultations had not been integrated into the health-care system. An interesting finding of the study was that the integration status of videoconsultations was not indicative of informed consent practices. Telehealth providers favoured express written consent, or risk management practices, although there was a desire to move towards implied consent models for videoconsultations. The study also showed that the legal ramifications of the electronic transmission of non-recorded, real-time, personal health information had not been explored. This represents an important factor in guiding future consent for videoconsultations in Canada. PMID:19471027

  18. Own and parental war experience as a risk factor for mental health problems among adolescents with an immigrant background: results from a cross sectional study in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauff Edvard

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing proportion of immigrants to Western countries in the past decade are from war affected countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of war experience among adolescents and their parents and to investigate possible differences in internalizing and externalizing mental health problems between adolescents exposed and unexposed to own and parental war experience. Method The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey of all 10th grade pupils in Oslo for two consecutive years. A total of 1,758 aadolescents were included, all with both parents born outside of Norway. Internalizing and externalizing mental health problems were measured by Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 and subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. Own and parental war experience is based on adolescent self-report. Results The proportion of adolescents with own war experience was 14% with the highest prevalence in immigrants from Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa. The proportion of parental war experience was 33% with Sub-Saharan Africa being highest. Adolescents reporting own war experience had higher scores for both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems compared to immigrants without war experience, but only externalizing problems reached statistically significant differences. For parental war experience there was a statistically significant relationship between parental war experience and internalizing mental health problems. The association remained significant after adjustment for parental educational level and adolescents' own war experience. Conclusion War exposure is highly prevalent among immigrants living in Oslo, Norway, both among adolescents themselves and their parents. Among immigrants to Norway, parental war experience appears to be stronger associated with mental health problems than adolescents own exposure to war experience.

  19. The Inlfuential Factors on the Parenting Styles for Younger Hearing-impaired Children%2~5岁听障儿童家长教养方式及影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳芳; 王娜; 刘舵; 卢晓月

    2013-01-01

    目的考察全面康复模式下2~5岁听障儿童家长教养方式的特点及其影响因素,为家长指导工作提供参考依据。方法选取133名2~5岁听障儿童家长作为被试,采用家长教养方式问卷施测。结果2~5岁听障儿童家长在教养方式各维度上的表现倾向存在显著差异(P0.05)。结论2~5岁听障儿童家长的教养方式具有明显特点,且受家庭、社会环境、康复等多方面因素的影响。%Objective To explore the influential factors on the parenting styles for 2-5-year-old children with hearing impairment under the comprehensive rehabilitation mode, so as to provide references for teachers to instruct the parents in the rehabilitation training. Methods A total of 133 parents of 2-5-year-old children with hearing impairment were investigated with the parenting style questionnaire. Results The parents had different performance in different dimensions (P0.05). Conclusion The parenting styles for 2-5-year-old children with hearing impairment have distinct characteristics, and can be influenced by many factors such as family, social environment and rehabilitation.

  20. Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The role of parent depression and parenting stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of you...

  1. Parental Acceptance-Rejection: A Fourth Cross-Cultural Research on Parenting and Psychological Adjustment of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2010-01-01

    The parental acceptance-rejection factor was considered by Rohner as one of the major parental factors influencing children's mental health. The "Parental Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire PARQ" was administered to adolescents in nine countries. The results show that parental acceptance-rejection differs across countries. Fathers were more…

  2. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U3O8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  3. Gambling households in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  4. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Indutores do stress parental

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Catarina Andreia Campos

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia, especialização em Clínica e da Saúde. A presente investigação tem como objectivo aprofundar o tema do stress parental, averiguando quais são os indutores do mesmo. Segundo Abdin (1992) o stress parental depende de um conjunto de factores, que funcionam como indutores de stress. Este autor considera que estes são compostos pelas característi...

  6. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. PMID:23628429

  7. 加拿大亚洲移民健康状况及影响因素研究%The health status of Asian immigrants and the associated factors in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琢玉; 熊辉; 张绪梅; 黄国伟; 王培忠

    2009-01-01

    目的 评估加拿大亚洲移民的健康状况及相关影响因素.方法 采用横断面研究,利用加拿大统计局提供的2003年加拿大人群健康状况调查数据进行分析.采用描述性分析比较不同人群中健康影响因素分布差异.通过对患病率进行年龄标化,比较亚洲移民、非移民及其他移民的慢性病患病情况差异.利用多因素logistic回归分析控制可能影响因素,比较不同人群中选定的6种慢性病指标的0R值及95%CI.结果 经年龄标化后,亚洲移民患有1~5种慢性病患病率与非移民无明显差异,患有5种以上慢性病的患病率为3.56%,明显低于非移民慢性病患病率5.31%.亚洲移民患有至少一种慢性病的风险(0R=0.49,95%CI:0.46-0.51)明显低于非移民患病风险(0R=1.00).新移民患病风险(0R=0.34,95%CI:0.31~0.37)低于老移民的患病风险(0R=0.62,95%CI:0.58~0.66).调整社会经济特征和生活方式等冈素后,亚洲移民4种常见病的患病风险仅有微小改变,除心脏病的患病风险变化明显.结论 亚洲移民总体慢性病的患病率及患病风险低于非移民,但这种健康优势随着在加拿大的居住年限的推移逐渐消失.社会经济特征和生活方式的不同不能完全解释亚洲移民和非移民的健康状况差异.%Objective The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the health status of Asian immigrants in Canada and the associated factors. Methods Using data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey, a descriptive analysis was performed to estimate the frequency of health associated factors among different populations. Age-standardization rates was also used to compare the prevalence of chronic conditions among Asian immigrants, other immigrants and native residents. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted Odds ratio (0R) associated with each health outcome and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) after controlling for potential confounding

  8. Prevalence and factors of addictive Internet use among adolescents in Wuhan, China: interactions of parental relationship with age and hyperactivity-impulsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhua Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: This study examined the prevalence of addictive Internet use and analyzed the role of parental relationship in affecting this behavior among a random sample of adolescents in Wuhan, China. METHODS: Students (n = 1,101 were randomly selected from four schools, including 638 boys and 463 girls with a mean age of 13.8 (standard deviation = 1.2 years. Addictive Internet use, parental relationship, hyperactivity-impulsivity were measured by validated instruments. Prevalence rate, ANOVA and multiple linear regression method were used to analyze the level of Internet addiction and its association with parental relationship, hyperactivity-impulsivity, as well as the interaction of parental relationship with chronological age and hyperactivity-impulsivity. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of Internet addiction was 13.5% (16.5% for boys and 9.5% for girls, p<0.01. Compared to non-addictive users, addictive Internet users were scored significantly lower on parental relationships and significantly higher on hyperactivity-impulsivity. Interaction analysis indicated that better parental relationship was associated with more reductions in risk of addictive Internet use for younger students than for older students, and with more risk of Internet addiction among higher than among lower hyperactivity-impulsivity students. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study indicate that adolescent addictive Internet use is a significant public health threat in China. Prevention interventions targeting parental relationship must consider adolescent's age and hyperactivity-impulsivity tendency.

  9. Association of family factors and parent-child attachment with aggressive behaviors in middle school students%家庭因素及亲子依恋与中学生攻击行为的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾璇; 姚荣英; 袁长江; 李克勤

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between family factors together with parent-child attachment and the aggressive behaviors in middle school students so as to provide basis for prevention of the behavior. Methods: Two thousand six hundred and twenty-six students from 4 middle schools in Bengbu were investigated with stratified and random cluster sampling method. All the students were surveyed by a self-designed questionnaire, Aggressive Questionnaire and Inventory of Parents. Results: The students' grade, gender, parental occupation, rearing pattern, attitude and parent-child attachment all affected the aggressive behavior of the middle school students to some extent(P <0. 05 to P <0. 01) . Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the main influential factors for middle school students' aggressive behaviors were parental alienation(P <0. 01). Conclusions:The middle school students' aggressive behaviors are related with family factors, and the degree of parent-child attachment and parental alienation are risk factors for the aggressive behaviors of middle school students.%目的:探讨家庭因素及亲子依恋与中学生攻击行为的相关性,为预防和减少中学生攻击行为的发生提供参考依据.方法:采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法抽取蚌埠市4所中学在校学生2 626名,进行问卷调查,调查内容包括自编一般情况调查表、攻击问卷和父母依恋量表.结果:年级、性别、父母的职业、管教方式、教育态度及亲子依恋对中学生攻击行为的发生均有一定影响(P<0.05~P<0.01).多元线性回归分析显示:中学生攻击行为的主要影响因素为母子疏离和父子疏离(P<0.01).结论:中学生攻击性行为与家庭因素及亲子依恋程度均具有一定关系,其中母子疏离和父子疏离为中学生攻击行为的危险因素.

  10. Can We Teach Parenting in Our Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2014-01-01

    The quality of parenting is a crucial factor in children's school success, and yet the schools teach almost nothing about parenting. This essay suggests ways in which we can teach about parenting without risking indoctrination or adding special courses.

  11. Intention in School Choice among Finnish Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raty, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    The study explored Finnish parents' intention in making school choices and the relationship of those intentions to demographic and attitudinal factors. It was found that the great majority of parents had not seriously considered choosing a school other than the neighbouring one. Parents living in urban areas, or those supporting a selective…

  12. Parental Practices Scale for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Hernández-Guzmán; Manuel González Montesinos; Graciela Bermúdez-Ornelas; Miguel-Ángel Freyre; Alcázar-Olán, Raúl J.

    2013-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis conducted in a sample of 706 children 7 to 16 years of age, 354 girls and 352 boys, revealed a 5-factor solution (Rejection, Corporal Punishment, Support, Responsiveness, Warmth). Results supported the measurement model of the Parental Practices Scale for Children, which evaluates childrens perception of parental practices associated to offspring emotional adjustment. This finding was replicated in a second study (N=233, 126 girls and 107 boys). The measure demons...

  13. Canada No. 1 in business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has for the fifth time in a row been chosen the best industrialized country in the world in which to initiate and run a business. The Norwegian interest in Canada has grown strongly the last years and Norwegian companies have invested over 20 billion NOK there. Canada is the perfect gateway to the large markets in the USA. Norway is currently Canada's 15th largest trading partner. In addition to low costs and strategic location, Canada has the most highly educated workforce in the world. A company on the Canadian side of the US border has the same access to the American market as a US-based company. There is even a Norwegian company in Canada that exports 100 per cent of its products across the border to the USA. The trade between the USA and Canada is more extensive than between the USA and all the EU countries together. Furthermore, Canadian companies concentrating on research and education are given a generous tax credit

  14. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A.; Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2014-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, posi...

  15. Active Canada 20/20: A physical activity plan for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John C; Faulkner, Guy; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a pressing public health concern. In this commentary we argue that Canada's approach to increasing physical activity (PA) has been fragmented and has lacked coordination, funding and a strategic approach. We then describe a potential solution in Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20), which provides both a national plan and a commitment to action from non-government and public sectors with a view to engaging corporate Canada and the general public. It outlines a road map for initiating, coordinating and implementing proactive initiatives to address this prominent health risk factor. The identified actions are based on the best available evidence and have been endorsed by the majority of representatives in the relevant sectors. The next crucial steps are to engage all those involved in public health promotion, service provision and advocacy at the municipal, provincial and national levels in order to incorporate AC 20/20 principles into practice and planning and thus increase the PA level of every person in Canada. Further, governments, as well as the private, not-for-profit and philanthropic sectors, should demonstrate leadership and continue their efforts toward providing the substantial and sustained resources needed to recalibrate Canadians' habitual PA patterns; this will ultimately improve the overall health of our citizens. PMID:26986905

  16. Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Eberl, D.D.; Smith, D.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Horton, J.D.; Garrett, R.G.; Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on

  17. Parental mediation of adolescent media use and demographic factors as predictors of Kenyan high school students' exposure to sexual content in television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngula, Kyalo Wa; Mberia, Hellen K; Miller, Ann Neville

    2016-03-01

    Research in Western nations suggests that parents' involvement in their children's media use can make a difference in how adolescents select, process and respond to sexual television messages. Little or no published research has investigated this issue in sub-Saharan Africa, even though adolescents and young adults remain among the groups at highest risk for HIV transmission. This study investigated the relationship between Kenyan adolescents' level of exposure to sexual television content and their parents' mediation of their television use. A cluster sample of 427 Nairobi public high school students was surveyed regarding parental mediation of their media use and their intake of sexual television content. Co-viewing with opposite sex friends was associated with higher intake of sexual TV content. This relationship was stronger among boarding school students than among day school students. Parental mediation and co-viewing variables predicted three times as much variance among boarding than among day school students. PMID:27002353

  18. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  19. Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

  20. Family function, Parenting Style and Broader Autism Phenotype as Predicting Factors of Psychological Adjustment in Typically Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Mohammadi; Hadi Zarafshan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and “broader autism phenotype” (BAP), while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children’s behavioral and psychosocial adju...

  1. 脑瘫患儿父母希望水平现状调查及影响因素%Survey of status quo of hope level of cerebral palsy children’s parents and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖杰; 杨卫联; 郭冀丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the status quo of hope level of parents of children with cerebral palsy,and analyze its influencing factors.Methods:A total of 100 parents of children with cerebral palsy were investigated by using basic information questionnaire and Herth hope scale.Results:The hope level score of parents of cere-bral palsy children was 32.78 ± 6.01.Education,working status,marital status,monthly family income and place of residence were the correlation factors of influencing the hope levels of parents of cerebral palsy chil-dren.Conclusion:The hope level of cerebral palsy children’s parents is affected by many factors.Nursing per-sonnes should provide targeted nursing support according to the specific circumstances of the parents of chil-dren,so as to improve the hope level of parents of children with cerebral palsy.%[目的]调查脑瘫患儿父母的希望水平现状,分析其影响因素。[方法]采用基本资料调查表及 Herth希望量表对100名脑瘫患儿父母进行问卷调查。[结果]脑瘫患儿父母的希望水平得分为32.78分±6.01分,学历、工作状况、婚姻状况、家庭月收入及居住地是影响脑瘫患儿父母希望水平的相关因素。[结论]脑瘫患儿父母的希望水平受诸多因素的影响,护理人员应根据患儿父母的具体情况,提供针对性护理支持,提高脑瘫患儿父母的希望水平。

  2. Survey of status quo of hope level of cerebral palsy children’s parents and its influencing factors%脑瘫患儿父母希望水平现状调查及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖杰; 杨卫联; 郭冀丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the status quo of hope level of parents of children with cerebral palsy,and analyze its influencing factors.Methods:A total of 100 parents of children with cerebral palsy were investigated by using basic information questionnaire and Herth hope scale.Results:The hope level score of parents of cere-bral palsy children was 32.78 ± 6.01.Education,working status,marital status,monthly family income and place of residence were the correlation factors of influencing the hope levels of parents of cerebral palsy chil-dren.Conclusion:The hope level of cerebral palsy children’s parents is affected by many factors.Nursing per-sonnes should provide targeted nursing support according to the specific circumstances of the parents of chil-dren,so as to improve the hope level of parents of children with cerebral palsy.%[目的]调查脑瘫患儿父母的希望水平现状,分析其影响因素。[方法]采用基本资料调查表及 Herth希望量表对100名脑瘫患儿父母进行问卷调查。[结果]脑瘫患儿父母的希望水平得分为32.78分±6.01分,学历、工作状况、婚姻状况、家庭月收入及居住地是影响脑瘫患儿父母希望水平的相关因素。[结论]脑瘫患儿父母的希望水平受诸多因素的影响,护理人员应根据患儿父母的具体情况,提供针对性护理支持,提高脑瘫患儿父母的希望水平。

  3. Longitudinal Linkages among Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Parenting, Parent-Child Sense of Alienation, and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the authors of the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation…

  4. Parent education after separation: results from a multi-site study on best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Brad; Bacon, Brenda

    2002-01-01

    Although parent education after separation in Canada is relatively new, most provinces and territories now have some type of program that provides separating parents with information on their children's needs, co-parenting options, and strategies for improving communication. A 1999-2000 survey of parents in 10 such program sites throughout Canada: (a) demonstrates a high level of parent satisfaction with the programs, (b) chronicles benefits related to reduced conflict and improved child well-being 3 to 4 months following program attendance, and (c) identifies several implications for best practices. Results of this study suggest that parent education is but one program within a network of services needed to support both parents and children after separation. PMID:14664107

  5. The combined effects of parental divorce and parental history of depression on cannabis use in young adults in France.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakyi, Kwame; Melchior, Maria; Chollet, Aude; Surkan, Pamela,

    2012-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: The joint effects of multiple social risk factors on substance use, such as parental divorce and parental history of depression, have rarely been studied in young adult offspring. METHODS: We examined the combined effects of parental divorce and parental history of depression on current cannabis use among a community sample of young adults in France. Parental divorce was ascertained as divorce or separation before 2009. Parental history of depression base...

  6. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-12

    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  7. Nuclear fuel activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel activities in Canada are considered in the presentation on the following directions: Canadian utility fuel performance; CANDU owner's group fuel programs; AECL advanced fuel program (high burnup fuel behaviour and development); Pu dispositioning (MOX) activities. 1 tab

  8. Canada goose behavior: Fall 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese use four divisions of the Mark Twin NWR: Louisa, Delair, Cannon, and Calhoun. There was a shortage of cultivated crops, corn and soybeans, on all...

  9. Total Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins…

  10. Cultural values, U.S. neighborhood danger, and Mexican American parents' parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Zeiders, Katharine H; Gonzales, Nancy A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Roosa, Mark W

    2013-06-01

    To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced patterns of parenting behavior in two-parent Mexican-origin families living in the U.S. To avoid forcing Mexican American parents into a predefined model of parenting styles, we used latent profile analysis to identify unique patterns of responsiveness and demandingness among mothers and fathers. Analyses were conducted using parent self-reports on parenting and replicated with youth reports on mothers' and fathers' parenting. Across reporters, most mothers and fathers exhibited a pattern of responsiveness and demandingness consistent with authoritative parenting. A small portion of parents exhibited a pattern of less-involved parenting. None of the patterns were indicative of authoritarianism. There was a modicum of evidence for no nonsense parenting among fathers. Both neighborhood danger and parents' cultural values were associated with the likelihood of employing one style of parenting over another. The value of using person-centered analytical techniques to examine parenting among Mexican Americans is discussed. PMID:23750519

  11. Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (VASCAN): a community contributed taxonomic checklist of all vascular plants of Canada, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Peter; Brouillet, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The Database of Vascular Plants of Canada or VASCAN (http://data.canadensys.net/vascan) is a comprehensive and curated checklist of all vascular plants reported in Canada, Greenland (Denmark), and Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France). VASCAN was developed at the Université de Montréal Biodiversity Centre and is maintained by a group of editors and contributors. For every core taxon in the checklist (species, subspecies, or variety), VASCAN provides the accepted scientific name, the accepted French and English vernacular names, and their synonyms/alternatives in Canada, as well as the distribution status (native, introduced, ephemeral, excluded, extirpated, doubtful or absent) of the plant for each province or territory, and the habit (tree, shrub, herb and/or vine) of the plant in Canada. For reported hybrids (nothotaxa or hybrid formulas) VASCAN also provides the hybrid parents, except if the parents of the hybrid do not occur in Canada. All taxa are linked to a classification. VASCAN refers to a source for all name, classification and distribution information. All data have been released to the public domain under a CC0 waiver and are available through Canadensys and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). VASCAN is a service to the scientific community and the general public, including administrations, companies, and non-governmental organizations. PMID:24198712

  12. Adolescents' and Parents' Conceptions of Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1988-01-01

    Children ranging from fifth to twelfth grade, and their parents, were presented with items pertaining to family transgressions and asked to judge the legitimacy of parental jurisdiction, justify its wrongness or permissibility, and assess its contingency on parental authority. (PCB)

  13. Difficulties Assessing Multifactor Productivity for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Harper; Nakamura, Alice O.; Lu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, Canada's business sector multifactor productivity (MFP) index, as estimated by Statistics Canada, was below that for 1977, a third of a century earlier. Over these years, public policies were enacted to try to improve Canada's productivity. Yet the nation's MFP continued to fall, relative to both the past and Canada's main trading partners. Policymakers and business decision makers need to know whether Canada's MFP statistics accurately reflect the nation's productivity. We argue tha...

  14. Closed windows, open doors: geopolitics and post-1949 Mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu X-f; Norcliffe, G

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1949 there have been dramatic changes in the flow of migrants from Mainland China to Canada, which existing structural models of migration, emphasizing factors in the destination country, do not fully capture. Conditions in the country of origin, and geopolitical relationships between China and Canada, played a decisive role in this migration.... Changing geopolitical circumstances led China to develop an open-door policy between 1973 and 1989, leading to increasing flows of migrants to Canada. The political response in Canada to the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 was to allow all Chinese students and workers in Canada to stay, if they so wished.... The result was a large inflow making MCIS the third-largest group of immigrants to Canada in the early 1990s." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292966

  15. Critical Analysis of Influential Factors on the Academic Achievement of Single-parent Teenagers%单亲青少年学业成就影响因素辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包华

    2012-01-01

    通过对单亲子女学业研究成果的梳理,辨析了家庭结构、经济压力、家庭冲突和社会环境等因素对单亲子女学业的影响,指出贫困、家庭结构缺陷、家庭冲突和情绪并不直接导致单亲教养失败。家庭情绪、父母对子女的学业期待与参与程度、提供资源和支持是影响学业成就的间接变量,学业自我概念是直接变量。通过分析可以看出,同伴交往、单亲家庭的社会支持、文化环境对单亲子女的成长影响更多;对单亲子女人格和社会情感的教育更重要。%Based on an analysis of the academic performance of single-pLent teenagers, this paper discusses the influence of such factors as family structure, economic pressure, family conflict, and social environment on the academic achievement of single-parent teenagers. It is found that such factors as poverty, defects in family structure, family conflict, and emotional undulation will not necessarily lead to failure in single-parent kids' education. It is also found that family emotions, parental expectations and involvement in kids' academic work, as well as resource provision and support on the part of parents are the indirect variables affecting the academic achievement of teenagers while academic self-concept on the part of kids themselves is the direct variable. As a result of these analyses, it can be concluded that peer interaction, social support for single-parent families, and cultural environment have far more influence on the growth of single-parent kids and thus for single parents, personality and social-emotional education are more important.

  16. Catching Up with the Swedes: Probing the Canada-Sweden Literacy Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsalis, Constantine

    A study was conducted to determine what factors account for the wide Canada-Sweden literacy gap, and what lessons can be learned from such a comparison that may help reduce the incidence of low literacy skills in Canada. The study found that the incidence of low literacy skills (failing to exceed level 2 in all three literacy domains--prose,…

  17. Parent-Reported Predictors of Adolescent Panic Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A.; Lagle, Kristy; Killen, Joel D.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify parent-reported risk factors for adolescent panic attacks. Method: Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from 770 parents of participants in a school-based risk factor study for adolescent panic. Parent-reported risk factors assessed included characteristics of the child (negative affect, separation anxiety disorder…

  18. For Parents and Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español For Parents & Kids Diabetes is a disease that affects the ... right balance between caring and hovering. Explore: For Parents & Kids Parent's Perspective Parents of children with diabetes ...

  19. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia. PMID:26077339

  20. The anxiety, depression and their influencing factors among the parents of epilepsy children%癫痫患儿家长焦虑、抑郁现状调查及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑霞; 郭柳; 欧阳胜荣; 宋文红; 王秋月; 王洪柳; 杨健

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the current status of anxiety and depression among the parents of epilepsy children and to analyze the influencing factors of the two variables. Methods: We investigated 104 hospitalized epilepsy children's fathers or mothers from May to October in 2011 in a children's hospital by self-designed demographic questionnair, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). Results: The mean scores of SAS and SDS were 49.41±6.99 and 59.68±8.47, respectively. The multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that educational background of parent was the influencing factor of anxiety and depression and the knowledge of drug treatment course was the influencing factor of anxiety. Conclusions: Childhood epilepsy has a severe impact on parental psychological health and the parents have the common problems of anxiety and depression which are influenced by their educational backgrounds and the knowledge of drug treatment courses. We could strengthen the health education of parents to improve the children's treatment effects which will be helpful to improve the parental psychological health.%目的:了解癫痫患儿家长的焦虑、抑郁现状并分析其影响因素.方法:采用一般情况问卷、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)对2011年5-10月在某儿童医院神经内科就诊或住院的癫痫患儿父亲或母亲共104名进行问卷调查.结果:癫痫患儿家长SAS总得分为(49.41±6.99)分;SDS总得分为(59.68±8.47)分;家长学历和服药疗程知识是家长焦虑的影响因素,家长学历是家长抑郁的影响因素.结论:癫痫患儿家长存在焦虑和抑郁的心理问题,家长学历和服药疗程知识是其焦虑或抑郁的影响因素,可以通过加强对家长进行健康教育、改善患儿治疗效果来改善癫痫患儿家长的心理状况.

  1. Parent Relationships, Emotion Regulation, Psychosocial Maturity and College Student Alcohol Use Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Forthun, Larry F.; Pidcock, Boyd W.; Dowd, Duane A.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested associations between problems in parent-youth relationships and problems with alcohol use among college students (N = 1592) using structural equation modeling. Hypotheses were that relationships between both substance-specific parenting factors (parental drinking) and non-substance-specific parenting factors (parental intrusive…

  2. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  3. Eastern Canada hydrocarbon development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current petroleum industry activities on Canada's east coast, and future potential were discussed. Offshore drilling activity is proceeding in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin, in addition to the Sable and Terra Nova Offshore Energy Projects. Future potential for Newfoundland and Nova Scotia has been estimated at 30 billion BOE and 13 billion BOE respectively. Natural gas potential off Labrador was estimated at 37 Tcf, offshore Newfoundland at 41 Tcf, and offshore Sable Island at 49 Tcf with varying amounts of oil associated with each field. Cumulative industry spending is expected to reach $ 10 billion by the year 2000, and could reach $20 billion by 2005. Prospects for Mobil Oil, number One in discoveries and industry influence, and number Two in acreage among the partners, were reviewed. Some details of the Sable Offshore Energy Project were outlined. The estimated cost of the project is $2 billion. It is expected to be on stream in late 1999 with a total of 27 wells (11 in phase 1). Reserves are estimated at 3.5 TCF or more. Hibernia was on stream in November 1997. Total recoverable reserves at Hibernia are estimated at 750 MMBls. Peak production of 180,000 b/d is expected by 2000-2001. Life expectancy of 20 years is predicted. The Terra Nova project, located 25 miles southeast of Hibernia, was also reviewed. It will be on stream in late 2000 with total reserves of 350-450 MMBls of oil, peak production at 115,000 to 135,000 b/d with a life expectancy of 15 years. 21 figs

  4. SCWR Concept in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL is designing the Canadian SCWR concept, which has evolved from the well-established pressuretube type CANDU® reactor. The Canadian SCWR is designed to produce electrical energy as the main product, plus process heat, hydrogen, industrial isotopes, and drinking water (through the desalination process) as supplementary products, all within a more compact reactor building. Another potential application of the available co-generated process heat is the extraction and refining of oil sands, which is presently achieved using co-generation with natural gas turbines and process heat. The extraction and upgrading process requires: thermal power to lower the viscosity and extract the oil; electric power for separation and refining equipment; and hydrogen gas for upgrading the oil product prior to transport. A National Program has been established in Canada to support R&D studies for the Canadian SCWR design. It covers key areas of interest (such as thermal hydraulics, safety, materials, and chemistry) to participants in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) SCWR designs. Results generated from the program are contributed to the GIF SCWR project management boards (PMBs). For example, heat transfer correlations have been derived using experimental data primarily obtained from fossil-plant related studies (which were started as early as 1930s. Materials and chemistry studies have evolved from operating experience of fossil-fired power plants to a) develop, and perform targeted testing of, materials for key components, in particular in-core reactor components that will be exposed to conditions not encountered in a fossil-fired boiler (such as irradiation and water radiolysis), and b) develop a suitable water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport

  5. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A; Li, James J; Lee, Steve S

    2015-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, positive parenting behavior, observed negative talk, and observed praise) mediated the association between parental and offspring ADHD. We used a prospective design that featured predictors (i.e., parent ADHD symptoms) and mediators (i.e., parenting behavior) that temporally preceded the outcome (i.e., offspring ADHD symptoms). Using a well-characterized sample of 120 children with and without ADHD (ages 5-10 at Wave 1, 7-12 at Wave 2) and their biological parents, we examined multimethod (i.e., observed, self-report) measures of positive and negative parenting behavior as simultaneous mediators of the association of Wave 1 parent and Wave 2 offspring ADHD symptoms. Using a multiple mediation framework, consisting of rigorous bootstrapping procedures and controlling for parent depression, child's baseline ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and child's age, corporal punishment significantly and uniquely mediated the association of Wave 1 parent ADHD symptoms and Wave 2 offspring ADHD. We consider the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of ADHD as well as implications of these findings for the intervention and prevention of childhood ADHD. PMID:24926775

  6. Conceptions of parental learning

    OpenAIRE

    Go, Luis Jr. Tio; 吳煌元

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the learning of parents in parent education. It aims to find the parent learners’ conceptions of learning and to obtain an understanding of parents as learners. Phenomenography was employed as the research method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents who participated in an in-school parent education course targeted at parents of students in the first year of secondary school. The study found six conceptions of parental learning: Learning as A. rec...

  7. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  8. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  9. Co-Parenting: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendell, Terry

    This review examines co-parenting, the more or less equal sharing of parenting responsibilities by mothers and fathers. Because co-parenting remains an anomaly, much of the review addresses men's levels and forms of parenting involvement. Also investigated are the factors contributing to their participation and nonparticipation. Noting that…

  10. Coping Behaviors of Parents with Children with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobino, Jane

    The study addresses parental coping patterns of children with congenital heart disease in the state of Hawaii. Attention was given to geography and ethnicity as well as parental and child characteristics as factors impacting on the coping pattern. Telephone interviews with parents (N=32) obtained data concerning parent characteristics, their…

  11. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP10) scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Smolderen, Kim G E; van den Broek, Krista C;

    2007-01-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with poor mental and physical health. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale retrospectively assesses Alienation (dysfunctional communication and intimacy) and Control (overprotection by parents), with an emphasis...... on deficiencies in empathic parenting. We examined the 2-factor structure of the RRP(10) and its relationship with adult depression....

  12. Parental Control: A Second Cross-Cultural Research on Parenting and Psychological Adjustment of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Achoui, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Parental control is among the important factors influencing the psychological development of children. In addition to other questionnaires, a questionnaire of father and mother control was administered to adolescents in nine countries. The results showed that parental control differs across cultures. Parental control was higher in the eastern than…

  13. Prevalence and influencing factors on psychological violence from parents to child%小学生家长对子女的精神暴力及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶琦; 金怡晨; 李景壹; 冯亚男; 赵晓侠; 于卜一; 张文静

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解小学生家长对其子女精神暴力行为的发生情况,并探讨精神暴力行为的影响因素.方法 对中国东北地区某城市2所小学1 164名1~6年级小学生家长采用自填式不记名问卷调查,了解其在最近3个月内对子女施加精神暴力状况,利用logistic回归方法分析相关影响因素.结果 1 164名小学生家长中有78.1%报告在最近3个月内曾对子女施加过精神暴力.父母对男童施加精神暴力的比例明显高于对女童(81.3%vs.74.7%,P<0.01).多变量logistic回归分析显示,男童(OR=1.684)、母亲(OR=1.640)、家长童年期有被父母精神暴力伤害经历(OR=2.064)、家长对体罚儿童持容忍或赞成态度(OR=2.618)、对儿童精神暴力伤害认识不足(OR=1.666)、家庭经济状况差(OR=1.745)是小学生父母对子女施加精神暴力的危险因素.结论 调查对象中父母对子女施加精神暴力的现象非常普遍.社会应重视家长对儿童的精神暴力问题,提高对其危害的认识.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of psychological violence against children by parents and to explore possible influencing factors.Methods In two primary schools from a city,located in the northeast part of China,1 164 parents of the pupils from grade 1 to 6,were anonymously surveyed by a self-administered questionnaire,to analyze the situation of psychological violence and influencing factors.Results Of the 1 164 parents,78.1% reported that they practised psychological violence towards their children.Compared with girls,boys were more psychologically maltreated by their parents (81.3% vs.74.7%,P<0.01).Data from the multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that following factors increased the risk of psychological violence against children:child being male (OR=1.684);initiated by the mother (OR=1.640),parents experiences of psychologically violent victimization (OR=2.064) during their childhood,supportive or tolerant

  14. 父母教养方式对高中生学习主体性因素的影响%Influence of Parental Rearing Styles on the Subjective Factors for High School Students'Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德强; 王珍珍

    2012-01-01

    Parental rearing patterns are the greatest and the most immediate external factors on the development of children. With a random sample of 300 high school students as the research object, the study aims to discover the influence of parenting styles on senior high school students'achievement motivation, selfefficacy, and learning orientation. Study shows that parental warm understanding has a good prediction effect on senior high school students" motivation to pursue success, confidence, and setting up goals. Parental negative parenting style will improve senior students'motivation of avoiding failure, increase difficulties in learning, and will stimulate a rather high performance goal.%父母教养方式是对儿童的发展影响最大,也最直接的外在因素。随机抽取300名高中学生为调查对象,探讨其父母教养方式对高中生成就动机、学业自我效能感、学习定向的影响。结果发现:父母的温暖理解对高中生追求成功动机、学习自信感、掌握目标有很好的正向预测作用;父母的消极教养方式会提高高中生的避免失败的动机,增加学习困难感,促使其拥有过高的成绩目标。

  15. Dimensions of vegetable parenting practices among preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the factor structure of 31 effective and ineffective vegetable parenting practices used by parents of preschool children based on three theoretically proposed factors: responsiveness, control, and structure. The methods employed included both corrected it...

  16. Immigrant Parents' Investments in Their Children's Post-Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Robert; Anisef, Paul; Walters, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines relationships between the resources available to immigrant families and the amount parents are willing and able to save for their children's post-secondary education (PSE). We use data from Statistics Canada's 2002 Survey of Approaches to Educational Planning to compare immigrant and native-born PSE saving. The results indicate…

  17. Estimates and determinants of HPV non-vaccination and vaccine refusal in girls 12 to 14 y of age in Canada: Results from the Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Nicolas L; Gilmour, Heather; Dubé, Ève; Wilson, Sarah E; Laroche, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Since the introduction of HPV vaccination programs in Canada in 2007, coverage has been below public health goals in many provinces and territories. This analysis investigated the determinants of HPV non-vaccination and vaccine refusal. Data from the Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (CNICS) 2013 were used to estimate the prevalence of HPV non-vaccination and parental vaccine refusal in girls aged 12-14 years, for Canada and the provinces and territories. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with non-vaccination and vaccine refusal, after adjusting for potential confounders. An estimated 27.7% of 12-14 y old girls had not been vaccinated against HPV, and 14.4% of parents reported refusing the vaccine. The magnitude of non-vaccination and vaccine refusal varied by province or territory and also by responding parent's country of birth. In addition, higher education was associated with a higher risk of refusal of the HPV vaccine. Rates of HPV non-vaccination and of refusal of the HPV vaccine differ and are influenced by different variables. These findings warrant further investigation. PMID:26942572

  18. The parents' ability to take care of their baby as a factor in decisions to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatment in two Dutch NICUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moratti, Sofia

    2010-01-01

    In The Netherlands, it is openly acknowledged that the parents' ability to take care of their child plays a role in the decision-making process over administration of life-prolonging treatment to severely defective newborn babies. Unlike other aspects of such decision-making process up until the pre

  19. Parenting stress in mothers and fathers of a child with a hemiparesis : sources of stress, intervening factors and long-term expressions of stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butcher, P. R.; Wind, T.; Bouma, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background In a substantial minority of children with a hemiparesis, motor impairments are accompanied by behavioural problems. This combination confronts parents with several persistent, frequently intense, sources of stress. At the same time, it is likely to reduce the effectiveness of psychosocia

  20. Study on coping styles of parents of mentally retarded children and its influencing factors%智障儿童父母应对方式及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关珊珊; 赵雅宁; 郝正玮; 孙亮; 丁玲利; 于海霞; 王雪; 乔娅兰

    2015-01-01

    [目的]了解智障儿童父母应对方式,分析其影响因素,旨在提高智障儿童父母应对能力。[方法]采用父母用应对方式量表(CHIP)中文版对唐山市119例智障儿童家长的应对方式进行问卷调查,结合患儿及家长的一般资料进行调查,分析其影响因素。[结果]患儿家长CHIP得分为(76.87±4.20)分,与常模比较差异有统计学意义。单因素分析显示:不同水平应对组患儿年龄、智障水平、与患儿关系、父母文化程度、家庭功能、社会支持水平及父母自我效能水平比较,差异具有统计学意义。Logistic回归分析结果显示:患儿年龄、智障水平、与患儿的关系、家庭功能、父母文化程度、父母自我效能水平、社会支持水平对智障儿童父母的应对方式有影响。[结论]家庭功能良好、父母文化程度高、父母自我效能水平高、社会支持水平高及轻中度智障水平是智障儿童父母应对方式的保护性因素,年龄小是智障儿童父母应对方式的危险性因素,医务人员应指导智障儿童父母寻求积极有效的应对方式。%Objective:To know about the coping styles of parents of children with mentally retarded ,and to ana‐lyze its influencing factors ,aiming to improve the coping ability of their parents .Methods:The parents coping style scale (CHIP) Chinese version was used to conduct a questionnaire interview for the coping styles of 119 cases of mentally retarded children’s parents in Tangshan city ,then combined with the general information of children and parents to analyze its influencing factors .Results:The CHIP score of parents of mentally retarded children was (76 .87 ± 4 .20) ,and the difference was statistically significant compared with the norm .Univariate analysis showed that :there was statistically significant difference in the age ,retarded level ,relationship between parents and children ,the parents

  1. Organized Crime Offenders in Canada: Risk, Reform, and Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stys, Yvonne; Ruddell, Rick

    2013-01-01

    This study extends our knowledge about the rehabilitation of criminal organization offenders by focusing on their community outcomes upon release, and identifying the risk factors related to reoffending for 332 organized crime offenders released from federal penitentiaries in Canada prior to March 31, 2009. Of that group, 12.7% were readmitted to…

  2. 教养方式与社交焦虑的关系:自我接纳的中介作用%Parenting Factors and Social Anxiety:MediatingRole of Self-acceptance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马素红; 王娟

    2015-01-01

    Objectiv e:To investigate the relationship between social anxiety and parental factors ,and the mediating role of self-acceptance .Methods:A total of 288 college students were interviewed with s-EMBU for Chinese(s-EMBU-C),Self-Acceptance Questionnaire(SAQ)and Interaction Anxious-ness Scale(IAS).Results:①The correlations between parental warmth (r=-0.18,-0.12; P<0.05), maternal overprotection ( r=0 .16 ,P<0 .01 ) , self-acceptance ( r=0 .47 , P<0 .001 ) and social anxiety were significant;②Maternal overprotection could predict positively social anxiety .③ Self-acceptance was a mediator between parental factors ( parental warmth , maternal overprotection ) and social anxiety . Conclusion:Parental warmth ,maternal overprotection and self -acceptance can predict social anxiety ,pa-rental warmth and maternal overprotection affect social anxiety through self -acceptance .%目的:考察教养方式和社交焦虑的关系及自我接纳的中介作用。方法:采用自我接纳( SAQ)教养方式问卷(s-EMBU-C)和社交焦虑问卷(IAS)对288名大学生进行施测。结果:①父母情感温暖(r 父=-0.18,P<0.01;r母=-0.12,P<0.05)、母亲过度保护(r=0.16,P<0.01)及自我接纳(r=0.47,P<0.001)与社交焦虑显著相关;②父母情感温暖对社交焦虑有负向预测作用,母亲过度保护对社交焦虑有正向预测作用;③自我接纳在3种教养方式和社交焦虑之间起着完全中介作用。结论:父母情感温暖、母亲过度保护及自我接纳能够预测社交焦虑,但前两者是通过后者自我接纳影响社交焦虑。

  3. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  4. Canada's uranium industry - the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a unique commodity. It is both a metal and a fuel. It has both commercial and military uses. It yields 'clean energy' but presents environmental concerns. All of these factors have an impact on the commerce of uranium. Being a metal, uranium is extracted from ore like many other metallic minerals. As a fuel, it is subject to the vagaries of energy commodity market forces. The history of uranium in the first nuclear weapons has led to national governments carefully controlling production and sale of uranium. The spectre of radioactive contamination of the environment adds further to the public concern over the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from uranium processing and use. There have been a number of excellent reviews on the commercial aspects of the uranium industry. In this discussion, these aspects will be briefly summarized to provide a general picture of the strengths of the Canadian uranium industry and the pressures to which it is being subjected currently. The principal thrust of this paper will be to outline Canada's resource strength and to identify some factors which will affect Canada's ability to continue holding a sizeable share of the world uranium market

  5. Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Brook

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina A Brook, Louis A SchmidtDepartment of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Social anxiety disorder (SAD is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions.

  6. Explaining Canada-U.S. Differences in Annual Hours Worked

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Isgut; Lance Bialas; James Milway

    2006-01-01

    Employed Canadians worked an average of 157 hours less per year than employed Americans during 1997-2004. This one month less per year spent on the job is a significant contributor to the difference in GDP per capita between Canada and the United States. This article provides a detailed examination of the factors underlying the Canada-United States gap in annual hours worked. We find that over 40 per cent of the gap can be explained by a higher propensity of Canadians to take full-weeks off, ...

  7. Awareness rate and influencing factors of rickets prevention and treatment knowledge of community infants' parents%社区婴儿家长佝偻病防治知识的知晓率及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈华; 吴小勇

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解社区婴儿家长对佝偻病防治知识的掌握情况,为防止和减少小儿佝偻病的发生提供科学依据. 方法对2014年10月至2015年4月来西电集团医院社区儿保门诊及石泉县医院小儿科查体的543例6~12月龄婴儿家长作为研究对象,采用问卷调查表进行维生素D缺乏性佝偻病防治知识的调查,并从家庭经济状况,主要喂养人文化水平等方面分析影响佝偻病防治知识的因素. 结果 家长对15项佝偻病防治知识的了解率为:90%及以上仅有2项,80%~90%为2项,60%~80%为3项,40%~60%为5项,40%及以下有3项. 对其影响因素的分析发现主要喂养人文化程度(F=5.43,P0.05)和子代的性别(t=0.56,P>0.05)不是影响其对相关知识了解的主要因素. 结论 婴儿家长对佝偻病防治知识的知晓率较低,加强儿童家长相关知识的宣教是降低社区儿童维生素D缺乏性佝偻病的有效措施.%Objective To understand the knowledge of infants' parents on rickets prevention and treatment, so as to provide scientific evidence for preventing and reducing the occurrence of rickets in children.Methods From October 2014 to April 2015, parents of 543 community infants were selected from Hospital of Xidianjituan and the Hospital of Shiquan Country, and questionnaire survey was carried out on knowledge on vitamin D deficiency rickets prevention and treatment.The influencing factors of rickets prevention and treatment were further explored by investigating family economic situation and cultural levels of main caregivers.Results There were 2 of 15 items on rickets prevention and treatment known by more than 90%parents, 2 items by 80%-90% parents, 3 items by 60%-80% parents, 5 items by 40%-60%parents, and the rest 3 items were understood by less than 40% parents.Analysis showed that the culture level of main caregivers ( F=5.43, P0.05) and gender of next generation ( t=0.56, P>0.05) were not the major influencing factors.Conclusion The

  8. Factoring

    OpenAIRE

    Lenstra, Arjen K.

    1994-01-01

    Factoring, finding a non-trivial factorization of a composite positive integer, is believed to be a hard problem. How hard we think it is, however, changes almost on a daily basis. Predicting how hard factoring will be in the future, an important issue for cryptographic applications of composite numbers, is therefore a challenging task. The author presents a brief survey of general purpose integer factoring algorithms and their implementations

  9. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  10. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ..., NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining Company, LLC, Pennzoil-Quaker... Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining... party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate. The Respondent's...

  11. Effects of a Military Parenting Program on Parental Distress and Suicidal Ideation: After Deployment Adaptive Parenting Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S; Zamir, Osnat

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have examined whether parenting prevention programs might mitigate risk for suicidality in parents, yet parent suicidality is a strong risk factor for offspring suicidality. We report results from a randomized controlled trial of a parenting program for deployed National Guard and Reserve families with a school-aged child. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that random assignment to the parenting program (ADAPT) was associated with improved parenting locus of control (LOC). Improved parenting LOC was concurrently associated with strengthened emotion regulation which predicted reductions in psychological distress and suicidal ideation at 12 months postbaseline. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing efforts to reduce suicide rates in military populations. PMID:27094107

  12. Operating experience and lessons learned in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision to continue operation in Canada depends ultimately on economic factors. This decision is made for each unit independently, even if the unit is part of a multiunit station. An effective PLiM implementation programme plays a pivotal role in LTO decisions because it is capable of integrating ageing management and economic planning. The use of an economic model allows PLiM to evaluate implementation alternatives, such as optimizing the staffing curve to shorten the LTO outage, helping to decide on capital upgrades if it can be shown they can increase capacity factors or the maximum continuous rating. Plant life management can also help select the optimum conditions and the best time for an extended LTO outage

  13. Parents'anxiety and influencing factors in children with hirschsprung disease%先天性巨结肠患儿父母焦虑情绪及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉莉; 董丽丽; 邓钰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the state of parental anxiety of children with hirschsprung disease and its influencing factors , so as to provide the scientific basis for relieving anxiety .Methods Using the Self-rating Anxiety Scale ( SAS ) , the Social Support Rating Scale ( SSRS ) and the Family Status Questionnaire surveyed 65 parents of children with hirschsprung disease .Results The score of SAS of the parents of children with hirschsprung disease were (52.80 ±13.68), which were significantly higher than the norm of (37.23 ± 12.59),the difference was statistically significant (t=8.70,P<0.01).The multifactor analysis showed that the influencing factors were the state of children's illness, family income, the parents'education level and objective support factor .Conclusions The parents'anxiety of children with hirschsprung disease is escalated significantly and is influenced by multiple factors .In the course of the treatment for children , we should pay attention to dredge parents'psychology , enhance the parents'mental health , so as to promote the children'rehabilitation .%目的:了解先天性巨结肠( HD)患儿父母焦虑状况及其影响因素,为制定减轻焦虑情绪的对策提供科学依据。方法采用焦虑自评量表( SAS)、社会支持量表( SSRS)和家庭状况问卷对65例HD患儿的家长进行调查,并对调查结果进行统计分析。结果 HD患儿父母的焦虑评分为(52.80±13.68)分,高于国内常模标准分(37.23±12.59)分,差异有统计学意义(t=8.70,P<0.01)。多因素分析结果显示患儿病情、家庭收入、父母的文化程度和客观支持因子是影响HD患儿父母焦虑情绪的主要因素。结论 HD患儿父母焦虑情绪明显升高,且影响因素较为复杂,因此,在对患儿进行治疗时,还应注意对家长的心理疏导,增进家长心理健康,促进患儿的康复与健康成长。

  14. Mental Health of Parents Having Children with Physical Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chien Chiang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with disabilities play an essential role in the successfulrehabilitation of their children. However, the high level of care required mayaffect the mental health of the parents and consequently contribute to anunfavorable rehabilitation outcome in their children. The aims of this studyare to investigate the mental health of parents of children with physical disabilitiesand to elucidate the factors affecting parental mental health.Method: This was a cross-sectional study. Ninety-one parents of children with physicaldisabilities who visited the outpatient rehabilitation clinics of a tertiaryhospital were invited to join the study. Data from the parents and childrenwere recorded during face-to-face interviews. Parental- perceived stress wasassessed using the simplified Parenting Stress Index (PSI/SF. Parental mentalhealth was evaluated as the main outcome measure using the 12-item versionof the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12.Results: Forty parents (44% were categorized as psychiatric cases on the CHQ.Child-related factors that negatively affected parental mental health werepoor walking ability (p < 0.05, dependency on others to perform activities ofdaily life (ADL (p < 0.01, and younger age (p < 0.05. Parent-related factorsthat negatively affected parental mental health were low income (p <0.05, no religious beliefs (p < 0.01, high level of parental distress (p <0.01, parent-child dysfunctional interaction (p < 0.01, and having difficultchild (p < 0.05. The most significant predictor of overall parental mentalhealth in multivariate analysis was found to be parental distress.Conclusions: Parents of children with physical disabilities were at risk of poor mentalhealth. Perceived parental distress is the most important factor affectingparental mental health. Strategies to reduce parental stress should be developedto prevent deterioration of parental mental health.

  15. Tourette综合征患儿家长知识、信念、行为现状及影响因素%Survey on Knowledge - Attitude - Practice in Parents of Children with Tourette Syndrome and Related Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙中运; 衣明纪; 冉霓; 傅芃; 冯雪英; 杨暖

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the knowledge - attitude - practice ( KAP) concerning Tourette syndrome ( TS) in parents of children with TS and the related factors for the corresponding health education strategy. Method A total of 207 parents of children with TS were surveyed by a self - designed KAP questionnaire during Nov. 2008 to Oct. 2010. Results In the survey of parents,70. 5% ( 146/207 cases) of them thought TS was a bad habit,while only 12. 6% (17/207 cases) of them thought TS was a neuropsychiatric disease. Seventy - three point nine percent (153/207 cases) of parents took blame and scold to prevent abnormal involuntary movement; 92. 8% (192/207 cases) of parents thought the influence of TS on children was mainly appearance problems caused by twitch or vocal tics. Fifty - five point one percent (114/207) of children with TS visited three levels of hospitals all the time;53.6% (111/207 cases) of children visited hospital at least once 3 months. Forty - eight point eight percent (101/207 cases) of parents regularly visited doctors follow their advice; 46.4% (96/207 cases) of parents made adjust living habits of children follow doctors' advice. The multi - factors Logistic regression suggested that the parents' education background,severity of the symptoms,revisit frequency and the level of hospital visited had influence on the parents' KAP. Parents' education background and the level of hospital visited were related to punishment of children(β' =2. 056, - 1. 152,Pa <0. 05) ,standarding life style of them(β' =0.736,1.518,P. <0.05 ) and the ratio of knowing risk factors(β' = -0.044,0. 639,P. <0.05 ) ; the frequency of visi-ting hospital had an impact on the ratio of knowing risk factors(β' =2.217 ,P <0. 05 ) ; the severity of symptoms had an impact on whether keeping on taking medicine when symptoms disappeared(β' = -0.249,P <0. 05 ). Conclusions Parental knowledge of TS is not unsatisfactory in proper attitude and effective managements; Improving cognitive behavior

  16. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  17. Relação da doença respiratória declarada pelos pais e fatores socioeconômicos e culturais Relationship between respiratory tract diseases declared by parents and socioeconomic and cultural factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida F Aranha

    2011-09-01

    per capita income; household socioeconomic class, and family ethnicity. METHODS: This retrospective descriptive study analyzed data collected from questionnaires responded by the parents of 959 schoolchildren between five to nine years old, living in the district selected for the study, in São Paulo, Brazil, over 2004. Respiratory diseases reported by parents were rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, ear infections, laryngitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia, asthma and asthma-like diseases. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between respiratory diseases reported by parents and family socioeconomic factors. RESULTS: Parents of children in private schools reported significantly more respiratory diseases in their children than those whose children attended public schools. More respiratory diseases were reported for children whose parents finished high school or college. There were no significant differences between respiratory diseases and per capita income, socioeconomic class or ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: A more accurate perception about the health of children is generally associated with parents' higher education, which is also expected to ensure better living conditions. This may explain why parents with a higher level of education and whose children attended private schools reported more respiratory diseases in their children. Our findings suggest that improvement of educational level is associated with more accurate health perceptions and, consequently, better health conditions.

  18. Canada's commitment to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a broad update on all facets of the Canadian nuclear industry and demonstrates Canada's continuing commitment to nuclear technology. Canada has developed a global leadership position in nuclear technology for power generation, uranium production and isotope supply. This commitment is being further enhanced by successes in international markets with Candu technology, new uranium mine developments in our province of Saskatchewan, and expanding isotope capabilities including the construction of two new production reactors. Korea's economy is benefiting through collaboration with Canada's leading nuclear companies, both in Korea and Canada. These collaborations have the potential to expand considerably with the implementation of the Kyoto Framework Convention on Climate Change and the anticipated increased demand for new nuclear power generation installations in all major global markets. Much has been publicized about the situation surrounding Ontario Hydro Nuclear and its nuclear recovery program. This paper gives the background and highlights the actions within Ontario and Ontario Hydro designed to ensure the long term recovery of all twenty nuclear units in Ontario. The presentation at the conference will bring the audience completely up-to-date on recent events. (author)

  19. Financing Higher Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    It is the purpose of the committee responsible for this document to study, report, and make recommendations on the financing of universities and colleges of Canada, with particular reference to the decade ending 1975, including: (1) prospective financial requirements of universities and colleges, for operation, research, physical facilities and…

  20. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  1. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  2. Canada report on bioenergy 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is a nation rich in fossil fuel resources. Canada has a large, well-developed forest sector and is one of the world's largest exporters of wood products. Although national bioenergy policies exist, provincial policies regarding forest resources are necessary because 77 per cent of Canada's forests are under provincial jurisdiction. This report presented an update on Canada's bioenergy policy and resources. The report discussed biomass resources such as woody biomass; agricultural residues; and municipal waste. The use of biomass was presented with particular reference to heat and power; biofuels production; pyrolysis oil; wood pellets; and trends in biomass production and consumption. Current biomass users and biomass prices were also examined. Last, the report addressed imports and exports of ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets as well as barriers and opportunities to trade. A list of Canadian bioenergy initiatives and programs was also provided. It was concluded that the greatest opportunities for trade are to succeed in research on super-densified pellets; raise ocean shipping capacity to bring down rates; and to establish and entire biomass industry in Newfoundland Labrador. 20 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  3. Compute Canada: Advancing Computational Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Performance Computing (HPC) is redefining the way that research is done. Compute Canada's HPC infrastructure provides a national platform that enables Canadian researchers to compete on an international scale, attracts top talent to Canadian universities and broadens the scope of research.

  4. Parenting and Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkuehler, Constance

    2016-01-01

    There is a terrific disconnect between parenting advice related to media and the realities of contemporary parenting. We condone enrichment parenting and condemn the use of "digital babysitters," admonishing parents who exceed the two-hour screen time limitation even when, all the while, no one is listening. Parents are not merely blasé…

  5. "I Am the Only Child of my Parents:" Perspectives on Future Elder Care for Parents among Chinese only-Children Living overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Tianhan; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2016-09-01

    The 1979 One-Child Policy in China created a generation of only children, leading to increased elder care dilemmas for this generation and its aging parents, particularly for young adults studying or working abroad. The current study used in-depth, semi-structured interviews with Chinese young adults who were currently studying or working in Montreal, Canada (N = 20), whose parents still lived in China. The interviews focused on the following topics: elder care patterns of respondents' grandparents; family values and expectations; perceptions of professional long-term care institutions (in China and Canada); and future plans for taking care of aging parents. Respondents described their grandparents' care as following traditional elder care patterns with multiple familial caregivers, which they appreciated as a positive model that defined their own obligations towards parents. Respondents reported being very close to their parents. Some planned to settle down in Canada and bring their parents, others planned to go back to China. Citing the tradition of filial piety, they expected to take care of their parents in the future, but they also considered the dilemmas involved in caring for aging parents without siblings to share the task, potentially requiring them to find compromises between their personal lives and caring for older parents. Those who planned to settle in Canada raised additional concerns about the challenges of bringing over their parents, including acculturation and access to and communication with health and long-term care providers. The results are discussed in the context of contemporary demographic, economic, and policy concerns about aging, family care, and immigration. PMID:27236539

  6. Is religiosity positively associated with school connectedness: evidence from high school students in Atlantic Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark; Langille, Donald B

    2014-12-01

    School connectedness (SC) is associated with decreased student risk behavior and better health and social outcomes. While a considerable body of research has examined the factors associated with SC, there is limited evidence about the particular role of religiosity in shaping levels of SC. Employing data reported by junior and senior high school students from Atlantic Canada, this study examines whether religiosity is positively associated with SC and whether such associations differ by gender. We tested the association between SC and religiosity using a random intercept multilevel logistic regression. The between-school variability in SC was first determined by our estimating a null or empty model; three different model specifications that included covariates were estimated: in Model 1 we adjusted for gender, age, academic performance, parental education, and living arrangement; in Model 2 for sensation seeking and subjective social status in addition to Model 1 variables; and in Model 3 we added substance use to the analysis. Our multilevel regression analyses showed that religiosity was protectively associated with lower SC across the three model specifications when both genders were examined together. In gender-stratified analyses we found similar protective associations of religiosity, with lower SC for both males and females in all three models. Given the overwhelming positive impact of SC on a range of health, social and school outcomes, it is important to understand the role of religiosity, among other factors, that may be modified to enhance student's connectedness to school. PMID:25238999

  7. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  8. Fusion Canada issue 32. Final edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion Canada is a bulletin of the National Fusion Program, this is the last edition. Included in this July edition are articles on Funding for Canada's fusion program, Research and Development on TdeV-96 , Divertor Maintenance Robotics and reference listing for Canada's Fusion research and development sites

  9. The state of thyroid system in children born form the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident as a factor of dysmetabolic changes in the period of sexual development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work was to reveal functional and structural changes in the thyroid gland in children of puberty age with clinical manifestations of metabolic syndrome born from the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident. The study involved 108 patients aged 12-17. The investigated parameters characterizing TG function and the state and the of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism became the diagnostic criteria of dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dispituitarism. The pathological changes in the TG can be a risk factor of metabolic syndrome development.

  10. 中国家庭养育目标的影响因素及其差异分析%Influencing Factors and Differential Analysis of Parenting Goals in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉环; 尚继霞

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzes differences of parenting goals between urban and rural and between different children's age groups ,and then explores factors affecting parenting goals using Logistic regression models based on CFPS database . The results show that parenting goals significantly differ between urban and rural but have no significant differences between different age groups .Paternal duty , parental education degree and maternal registration place significantly affects goals of to get help in their old age ,to carry on the family name ,to get economic help ,to make family more important in their life and to increase relationship with relatives to varying degrees .%基于2010年中国家庭动态跟踪调查(CFPS)数据库,分析养育目标在城乡之间以及不同少儿年龄组之间的差异,并利用Logistic回归模型探讨家庭养育目标的影响因素。结果表明:养育目标在城乡之间有显著差异,但在不同的少儿年龄组之间无显著差异;父亲职务、父母受教育程度及母亲户口状况不同程度地影响着“在自己年老时得到帮助”、“延续家族香火”、“从经济上帮助家庭”、“使家庭在自己的生活中更重要”和“增加亲属联系”这五个养育目标。

  11. Predictors of Parental Mediation Regarding Children's Smartphone Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yoori; Jeong, Se-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Children's addiction to smartphones has become a serious issue, and parental mediation could help prevent children's problematic use of smartphones. This research examined the factors that predict and explain parents' intention to mediate children's behavior over smartphone use. Based on a survey of 460 parents of elementary school students, we found that parental mediation was predicted by (a) parent's own addiction to smartphones, (b) perceived severity of smartphone addiction, and (c) personality traits such as neuroticism, openness, and agreeableness. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the predictors of parental mediation regarding children's smartphone addiction, and the findings suggest some strategies to increase parental mediation. PMID:26544162

  12. Positive parenting for positive parents: HIV/AIDS, poverty, caregiver depression, child behavior and parenting in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lachman, J.; Cluver, L; Boyes, M.; Kuo, C.; Casale, M.

    2013-01-01

    Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than non-affected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child wellbeing. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries...

  13. Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Perceived Parental Knowledge, Peer Deviance, and Adolescent Delinquency in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Kim, Su Yeong; Anderson, Edward R.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Yan, Ni

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy has been considered a risk factor for child maladjustment. The current study examined parent-child acculturation discrepancy as an ongoing risk factor for delinquency, through the mediating pathway of parental knowledge of the child's daily experiences relating to contact with deviant peers. Participants were…

  14. Parental representations of neurotic and endogenous depressives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Kiloh, L; Hayward, L

    1987-01-01

    Low parental care and parental overprotection have been incriminated as risk factors to depression in adult life. The relevance of these parental characteristics to broad depressive 'types' with their varying imputed aetiologies was assessed by having 26 patients with endogenous depression (ED) and 40 with neurotic depression (ND) complete the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) self-report measure. In comparison to their controls, the EDs did not differ on the parental care and overprotection scales. The NDs, by contrast, were more likely than their controls to report their parents as uncaring and overprotective. A PBI care scale score of less than 10 was particularly discriminating, being reported by 3.8% of the EDs and 37.5% of the NDs. While findings support the binary view of depression in terms of broad imputed aetiological factors, several response biases which might influence the findings are considered. PMID:2959703

  15. [Parenting styles and their relationship with hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya Trenas, Antonio Félix; Herreruzo Cabrera, Javier; Pino Osuna, María José

    2008-11-01

    The present study aims to determine the relationship among factors that make up the parenting styles according to the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory) and hyperactivity reported by parents through the BASC (Behaviour Assessment System for Children). We selected a sample of 32 children between 3 and 14 years old (23 male and 9 female) with risk scores in hyperactivity and another similar group with low scores in hyperactivity. After administering both instruments to the parents, we carried out a binomial logistic regression analysis which resulted in a prediction model for 84.4% of the sample, made up of the PCRI factors: fathers' involvement, communication and role orientation, mothers' parental support, and both parents' limit-setting and autonomy. Moreover, our analysis of the variance produced significant differences in the support perceived by the fathers and mothers of both groups. Lastly, the utility of results to propose intervention strategies within the family based on an authoritative style is discussed. PMID:18940070

  16. Overview on recent developments: alternative isotope production methods in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Government of Canada's programs in alternative isotope production methods for securing supply of technetium 99m for Canadians. The supply disruptions of isotopes in 2007 and 2009/2010 caused by unplanned outages at AECL's National Research Universal (NRU) reactor highlighted the fragility of the supply chain that delivers medical isotopes, specifically Technetium 99m (Tc99m) to patients in Canada and globally. Tc99m, which is derived from its parent, molybdenum99 (Mo99) is the most widely used medical isotope for imaging, and accounts for 80 percent of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. Prior to the outage, nearly all the Mo99 produced for the world market came from five aging government owned research reactors in Canada, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and South Africa. The NRU, the largest of these, produced about 30 to 40 percent of the world supply of isotopes prior to 2009 - since its return to service in 2010, its world market share is estimated at 15 to 20%.

  17. Overview on recent developments: alternative isotope production methods in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, K. [Natural Resouces Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Government of Canada's programs in alternative isotope production methods for securing supply of technetium 99m for Canadians. The supply disruptions of isotopes in 2007 and 2009/2010 caused by unplanned outages at AECL's National Research Universal (NRU) reactor highlighted the fragility of the supply chain that delivers medical isotopes, specifically Technetium 99m (Tc99m) to patients in Canada and globally. Tc99m, which is derived from its parent, molybdenum99 (Mo99) is the most widely used medical isotope for imaging, and accounts for 80 percent of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. Prior to the outage, nearly all the Mo99 produced for the world market came from five aging government owned research reactors in Canada, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and South Africa. The NRU, the largest of these, produced about 30 to 40 percent of the world supply of isotopes prior to 2009 - since its return to service in 2010, its world market share is estimated at 15 to 20%.

  18. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the recent increase in obstetric acute renal failure in Canada: population based retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabadi, Azar; Liu, Shiliang; Bartholomew, Sharon; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Magee, Laura A.; Kramer, Michael S; Liston, Robert M; Joseph, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether changes in postpartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, or other risk factors explain the increase in obstetric acute renal failure in Canada. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Canada (excluding the province of Quebec). Participants All hospital deliveries from 2003 to 2010 (n=2 193 425). Main outcome measures Obstetric acute renal failure identified by ICD-10 diagnostic codes. Methods Information on all hospital deliveries in Canada (excl...

  19. The Role of Parents, Parenting and the Family Environment in Children's Post-Disaster Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobham, Vanessa E; McDermott, Brett; Haslam, Divna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    There is widespread support for the hypothesis that, post-disaster, children's mental health is impacted-at least in part-via the impact on parents, parenting, parent-child interactions, and the family environment. To some degree, the enthusiasm with which this hypothesis is held outstrips the evidence examining it. The current paper critically evaluates the empirical evidence for this hypothesis and concludes that although limited (both in terms of number of existing studies and methodological flaws), the extant literature indicates some parent-related variables, as well as some aspects of the family environment are likely to constitute risk or protective factors for children. Given that parenting is modifiable, it is proposed that the identified parent- and family-related factors represent important therapeutic targets, and a universal post-disaster parenting intervention (Disaster Recovery Triple P) is described. PMID:27086314

  20. 加拿大亚洲移民生活方式及其影响因素的分析%The Analysis of the Lifestyle and Its Impact Factors among Asian Immigrants in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 刘方; 王培忠

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究在加拿大生活的亚洲移民的生活方式.方法 采用2005年加拿大人群健康调查3.1,利用描述性研究来分析非移民(n=91 339)、亚洲移民(n=9 708)和其他移民(n=16 193)的生活方式,其中亚洲移民还分成新移民(n=3 734)和长期移民(n=5 866)两个亚组.使用Logistic回归分析生活方式和移民状态之间的关系.结果 未调整及调整Logistic回归结果均显示亚洲移民不易成为吸烟者(未调整OR为0.416,95%CI:0.391~0.443;调整OR为0.386,95%CI:0.360~0.413),饮酒者(未调整OR为0.232,95%CI:0.222~0.242;调整OR为0.197,95%CI:0.188~0.208)但是缺乏体育锻炼(未调整OR为0.616,95%CI:0.590~0.644;调整OR为0.590,95%CI:0.562~0.619).老移民比新移民容易成为吸烟者(未调整OR分别为0.433和0.393,95%CI分别为0.400~0.468和0.355~0.434)和饮酒者(未调整OR分别为0.273和0.183,95%CI分别为0.258~0.289和0.171~0.195),但更多参加体育锻炼,未调整OR分别为0.665和0.543,95%CI分别为0.630~0.703和0.506~0.581.调整OR显示老移民和新移民生活方式的差异与调整前相同.结论 随着适应加拿大式生活,亚洲移民的生活方式向本土转化.%Objective To describe lifestyle and its impact factors among Asian immigrants in Canada. Methods Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey 3.1, a descriptive analysis was performed to estimate the frequency of lifestyle among non-immigrants (n=91 339), other immigrants (n=16 193), and Asian immigrants (n=9 708) including new Asian immigrants (N=3 734) and long-term Asian immigrants (n=5 866). Logistic Regression was used to analyze the association between immigrant status and their lifestyle. Results Both unadjusted and adjusted Logistic regression results showed that Asian immigrants were less likely to become current smokers (unadjusted OR is 0.416,95%CI:0.391-0.443; adjusted OR is 0.386, 95%CI:0.360-0.413), and current drinkers