WorldWideScience

Sample records for canada parental factors

  1. Associations between socioeconomic, parental and home environment factors and fruit and vegetable consumption of children in grades five and six in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attorp, Adrienne; Scott, Jenny E; Yew, Ann C; Rhodes, Ryan E; Barr, Susan I; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2014-02-11

    Regular fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption has been associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Evidence from adults shows a social gradient in FV consumption. Evidence from pre-adolescent children varies and there is little Canadian data. This study assessed the FV intake of school children in British Columbia (BC), Canada to determine whether socio-economic status (SES), parental and the home environment factors were related to FV consumption. As part of the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutrition Program, 773 British Columbia fifth-and sixth-grade school children (Mean age 11.3 years; range 10.3-12.5) and their parents were surveyed to determine FV consumption and overall dietary intake. Students completed a web-based 24-hour dietary food recall, and a student measure of socio-economic status (The Family Affluence Scale). Parents completed a self-administered survey about their education, income, home environment and perceptions of their neighbourhood and children's eating habits. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association between SES, parental and home environment factors and FV consumption. Approximately 85.8% of children in this study failed to meet minimum Canadian guidelines for FV intake (6 servings). Parent income and education were not significantly associated with child FV consumption but were associated with each other, child-reported family affluence, neighbourhood environment, access to FV, and eating at the table or in front of the television. Significant positive associations were found between FV consumption and child-reported family affluence, meal-time habits, neighbourhood environment and parent perceptions of the healthiness of their child's diet; however, these correlations were weak (ranging from .089-.115). Multiple regression analysis showed that only child-reported family affluence significantly predicted FV consumption (std-β = 0.096 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.27). The majority of children in

  2. A Population-Based Evaluation of a Publicly Funded, School-Based HPV Vaccine Program in British Columbia, Canada: Parental Factors Associated with HPV Vaccine Receipt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gina; Anderson, Maureen; Marra, Fawziah; McNeil, Shelly; Pielak, Karen; Dawar, Meena; McIvor, Marilyn; Ehlen, Thomas; Dobson, Simon; Money, Deborah; Patrick, David M.; Naus, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Background Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. Methods and Findings All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008–June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1–67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1–89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1–87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a

  3. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ogilvie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1 of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7 consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9 consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%, advice from a physician (8.7%, and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%. The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%, preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%, and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%. In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having

  4. Immigrant to Canada, newcomer to childhood cancer: a qualitative study of challenges faced by immigrant parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F; Gulati, Sonia; Watt, Lisa; Banerjee, Ananya T; Sung, Lillian; Klaassen, Robert J; Dix, David; Poureslami, Iraj M; Shaw, Nicola

    2012-05-01

    Given the increasing numbers of immigrant families in Canada, it is imperative that healthcare providers (HCPs) understand the caregiving experiences of immigrant family caregivers. Our study aimed to explore any special challenges faced by immigrant parents of children with cancer and to identify supportive factors. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used. Participants included 50 first generation Chinese and South Asian parents of children with cancer who were at least six months post-diagnosis. Recruitment took place at six Canadian pediatric oncology centres. Interviews were conducted in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, Urdu, Punjabi or Hindi. Analysis involved coding and the use of the constant comparison method. Interviewing continued until no new themes emerged. While immigrant parents described many challenges faced by any parent of a child with cancer, the context of being an immigrant made certain experiences particularly challenging. Parents described challenges in the following areas: managing caregiving demand and financial strain, accessing support from others, and interfacing with the healthcare system. Parents described receiving a range of practical, emotional, social and informational support from extended family, their workplace, other cancer families, community organizations and HCPs. Our study addresses an important gap in the research literature by providing practical insight into the experiences of immigrant family caregivers. Our findings may help to inform the development of pediatric oncology policies and programs in ways that respond to the unique needs and challenges of culturally and linguistically diverse families. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Raising Citizens: Parenting Education Classes and Somali Mothers’ Experiences of Childrearing in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Fellin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mothers are viewed as the people who are raising future citizens of Canada; therefore, their parenting practices are being targeted for intervention by civic organizations funded by the state. In this article, I argue that modernity narratives and neoliberalism approaches to mothering inform parenting education classes for Somali refugee women to Canada. Thus, Somali women are often seen as victims. Stereotyped identities conceal their social and historical agency. This research draws on 15 individual interviews with Somali mothers and participant- observation in two parenting education classes in Canada.

  6. Parental Practices in Late Adolescence, a Comparison of Three Countries: Canada, France and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Michel; Lacourse, Eric; Bouchard, Celine; Perucchini, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Examines parental practices in late adolescence in three countries: Canada, France and Italy. Analyses of results indicated that the country of origin discriminated for most of the parental practice dimensions. Results were interpreted in the light of studies that have reported an influence of cultural background on both parental practices and…

  7. Cultural Predictors of the Parenting Cognitions of Immigrant Chinese Mothers and Fathers in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Catherine; Su, Tina F.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the predictors of parenting cognitions among 94 married immigrant Chinese couples with early-adolescent children in Canada. Mothers and fathers separately completed questionnaires assessing their culturally based parenting cognitions (interdependent childrearing goals, family obligation expectations and Chinese parent role…

  8. Raising Citizens: Parenting Education Classes and Somali Mothers' Experiences of Childrearing in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellin, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Mothers are viewed as the people who are raising future citizens of Canada; therefore, their parenting practices are being targeted for intervention by civic organizations funded by the state. In this article, I argue that modernity narratives and neoliberalism approaches to mothering inform parenting education classes for Somali refugee women to…

  9. The Development of Children's Ethnic Identity in Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada: The Role of Parenting Practices and Children's Perceptions of Parental Family Obligation Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…

  10. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Practices: A Cross-National Comparison of Canada, France, and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Michel; Perchec, Cyrille; Miranda, Dave; Benoit, Amelie; Bariaud, Francoise; Lanz, Margherita; Marta, Elena; Lacourse, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study compares two dimensions of parenting--emotional bonding and control--as perceived by adolescents living in three countries: Canada (province of Quebec), France, and Italy. A cross-sectional sample was composed of 1256 adolescents who filled out a self-report questionnaire. Multiple Correspondence Analyses provided a graphic synthesis of…

  11. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  12. Parenting practices and their relevance to child behaviors in Canada and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mowei; Guo, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed that parents in different cultures endorse different child-rearing practices. Studies in the West suggest that there is a cluster of behavioral characteristics in children that are linked with each type of parenting styles. Mixed results, however, were found in non-Western countries. This study examined (1) parenting practices in Canadian and Chinese mothers, and (2) the relevance between parenting practices and child behaviors in Canada and China. Forty Canadian children (average age = 5.40) and 39 Chinese children (average age = 4.84) and their mothers participated in the study. Information on maternal authoritative and authoritarian behaviors and children's behaviors, including coercive request, polite request, and assertiveness, was obtained from observations of mother-child interactions in a laboratory situation. The results indicated that Chinese mothers were less authoritative and more authoritarian than Canadian mothers. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were found on the associations between maternal parenting practices and child behaviors.

  13. CROSS-NATIONAL TRANSFERABILITY OF THE 2-FACTOR MODEL OF PARENTAL REARING BEHAVIOR - A CONTRAST OF DATA FROM CANADA, THE FEDERAL-REPUBLIC-OF-GERMANY, HUNGARY, JAPAN, SINGAPORE AND VENEZUELA WITH DUTCH TARGET RATINGS ON THE EMBU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARRINDELL, WA; PERRIS, C; EISEMANN, M; DEALDAZ, EG; VANDERENDE, J; GUAN, DKS; RICHTER, J; GASZNER, P; IWAWAKI, S; BARON, P; JOUBERT, N; PRUDHOMME, L

    In order to contribute to the cross-cultural study of child-rearing practices and psychopathology, this pilot study sought to examine the cross-national generalizability of parental rearing constructs by analyzing self-report data on the EMBU, an instrument designed to assess memories of parental

  14. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Pereira, Jennifer A; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L

    2014-06-05

    To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Descriptive qualitative study. Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age children, able to read/write English) on the basis of a screening questionnaire. We used stratified purposeful sampling to obtain maximum variation in two groups: parents who had ever immunised at least one child against influenza or who had never done so. We conducted focus groups (teleconference or internet forum) and individual interviews to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Ontario, Canada. Of the 55 participants, 16 took part in four teleconference focus groups, 35 in 6 internet forum focus groups and four in individual interviews conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Participants who stated that a school-based influenza immunisation programme would be worthwhile for their child valued its convenience and its potential to reduce influenza transmission without interfering with the family routine. However, most thought that for a programme to be acceptable, it would need to be well designed and voluntary, with adequate parental control and transparent communication between the key stakeholder groups of public health, schools and parents. These results will benefit decision-makers in the public health and education sectors as they consider the advantages and disadvantages of immunising children in schools as part of a system-wide influenza prevention approach. Further research is needed to assess the perceptions of school board and public health stakeholders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  15. CANADA

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hakan Mustafa

    . AAAA. Numéro du fournisseur. Protégé B*. (une fois rempli). RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX, FISCAUX ET BANCAIRES DU FOURNISSEUR – CANADA. Section 1 : RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX. Nom du particulier (nom, prénom) ou ...

  16. Thoughts of Quitting General Surgery Residency: Factors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, David Nathan; Dattani, Sheev; Miller, Sarah; Hayes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Attrition rates in general surgery training are higher than other surgical disciplines. We sought to determine the prevalence with which Canadian general surgery residents consider leaving their training and the contributing factors. An anonymous survey was administered to all general surgery residents in Canada. Responses from residents who considered leaving their training were assessed for importance of contributing factors. The study was conducted at the Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, a tertiary academic center. The response rate was approximately 34.0%. A minority (32.0%) reported very seriously or somewhat seriously considering leaving their training, whereas 35.2% casually considered doing so. Poor work-life balance in residency (38.9%) was the single-most important factor, whereas concern about future unemployment (16.7%) and poor future quality of life (15.7%) were next. Enjoyment of work (41.7%) was the most frequent mitigating factor. Harassment and intimidation were reported factors in 16.7%. On analysis, only intention to practice in a nonacademic setting approached significant association with thoughts of leaving (odds ratio = 1.92, CI = 0.99-3.74, p = 0.052). There was no association with sex, program, postgraduate year, relationship status, or subspecialty interest. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more thoughts of leaving with older age. Canadian general surgery residents appear less likely to seriously consider quitting than their American counterparts. Poor work-life balance in residency, fear of future unemployment, and anticipated poor future quality of life are significant contributors to thoughts of quitting. Efforts to educate prospective residents about the reality of the surgical lifestyle, and to assist residents in securing employment, may improve completion rates. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotional problems among recent immigrants and parenting status: Findings from a national longitudinal study of immigrants in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon T Browne

    Full Text Available The present study examined predictors of emotional problems amongst a nationally representative cohort of recent immigrants in Canada. Specifically, the effects of parenting status were examined given the association between parenting stress and mental health. Data came from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (N = 7055. Participants were recruited 6-months post landing (2001-2002 and followed up at 2 and 4 years. Self-reported emotional problems over time were considered as a function of parenting status (Two Parent, Lone Parent, Divorced Non-Parent, Non-Divorced Non-Parent and sociodemographic characteristics. Odds of emotional problems were higher among Two Parent, OR = 1.12 (1.01, 1.24, Lone Parent, OR = 2.24 (1.75, 2.88, and Divorced Non-Parent, OR = 1.30 (1.01, 1.66 immigrants compared to Non-Divorced Non-Parents. Visible minority status, female gender, low income, and refugee status were associated with elevated risk. Findings reveal that immigrant parents are at risk for emotional health problems during the post-migration period. Such challenges may be compounded by other sociodemographic risk.

  18. Parental risk factors for the development of pediatric acute and chronic postsurgical pain: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagé MG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available M Gabrielle Pagé,1 Fiona Campbell,2,3 Lisa Isaac,2,3 Jennifer Stinson,2,4 Joel Katz1,3,5 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Lawrence S Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Department of Psychology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: The goal of this longitudinal study was to examine the associations among psychological factors and pain reports of children and their parents over the 12 month period after pediatric surgery. Materials and methods: Included in the study were 83 children aged 8–18 years undergoing major surgery. In each case, the child and one of their parents completed measures of pain intensity and unpleasantness, psychological function, and functional disability at 48–72 hours, 2 weeks (child only, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery. Results: The strength of the correlation coefficients between the psychological measures of the parent and their child increased significantly over time. There was a fair level of agreement between parent ratings of child acute and chronic pain (6 months after surgery and the child's actual ratings. Parent and child pain anxiety scores 48–72 hours after surgery interacted significantly to predict pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and functional disability levels 2 weeks after discharge from hospital. Parent pain catastrophizing scores 48–72 hours after surgery predicted child pain intensity reports 12 months later. Conclusion: These results raise the possibility that as time from surgery increases, parents exert greater and greater influence over the pain response of their children, so that by 12 months postsurgery mark, parent pain catastrophizing (measured in the days after surgery is the

  19. Risk Factors for Varicella Susceptibility Among Refugees to Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Geneviève; Redditt, Vanessa; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb

    2017-02-01

    Several outbreaks of varicella have occurred among refugees. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of varicella susceptibility among refugees, and identify risk factors for varicella susceptibility. All refugees rostered at Crossroads Clinic in Toronto, Canada in 2011-2014 were included in our study. Varicella serology was assessed at the initial visit. Refugees' age, sex, education, time since arrival, and climate and population density of birth country were abstracted from the chart. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for varicella susceptibility. 1063 refugees were rostered at Crossroads Clinic during the study; 7.9 % (95 % CI 6.1, 9.7) were susceptible to varicella. Tropical climate (OR 3.20, 95 % CI 1.53, 6.69) and younger age (OR per year of age 0.92, 95 % CI 0.88-0.96) were associated with increased varicella susceptibility. These risk factors for varicella susceptibility should be taken into account to maximize the cost-effectiveness of varicella prevention strategies among refugees.

  20. Parents' Risk and Protective Factors as Predictors of Parental Well-Being and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voydanoff, Patricia; Donnelly, Brenda W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines a model in which protective factors are expected to reduce the impact of economic, family, and community risk factors on parental well-being. Marital happiness and perceived school environment are positively related to parental well-being. Parental well-being, marital happiness, and parents' community resources show modest positive…

  1. Provisions for Homeschooling in Canada: Parental Rights and the Role of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Bosetti

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this paper is to provide a descriptive account of the policy and provisions for homeschooling in Canada. Drawing upon existing research, the paper begins by situating homeschooling within the larger educational landscape of Canadian public education, and examines the evolution of homeschooling in this context. The paper highlights the shifting motivation of parents to homeschool during different periods and reviews some of the tension related to this form of schooling. The next section provides a comparative view of the regulatory framework, funding and support for homeschooling in each province, student enrolment figures, student performance outcomes and fiscal efficiencies for Canadian tax-payers. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned from the Canadian experience of homeschooling that informs implications for policy makers in other contexts.

  2. Factors affecting academic promotion in obstetrics and gynaecology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Michelle R; Shapiro, Heather; Bodley, Janet; Pittini, Richard; McKay, Darren; Willan, Andrew; Hannah, Mary E

    2004-02-01

    (1) To determine if women faculty members in departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology were less likely than men to achieve promotion; and (2) to assess gender differences in attitudes towards promotion. Department chairs at the 16 medical schools in Canada were approached to participate in this study. A questionnaire was mailed to the obstetricians/gynaecologists in faculties of medicine at the 15 Canadian medical schools that agreed to participate. Likelihood of promotion for women and men was compared using survival analysis, controlling for other factors. Survival (event) time was the time in years between completion of residency and achieving promotion. The response rate was 72% (376/522). Overall, 37% of respondents were women, and 63% were men. The women respondents were younger than the men, with a mean age of 43.4 +/- 7.9 years compared to 52.8 +/- 8.9 years. Of those in an academic stream, 39% of women (29/75) and 62% of men (90/145) had attained senior academic ranks. Completing residency more recently was associated with a higher likelihood of promotion to Assistant Professor (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; P women than for men (HR, 0.40; P = 0.05). Having a mentor was associated with a higher likelihood of promotion to Professor (HR, 2.33; P = 0.002). Women were more likely to perceive barriers to promotion, such as family care responsibilities (P Independent of the respondent's gender, recent completion of residency and having a mentor were the most significant factors increasing the likelihood of promotion in Canadian medical school departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. As women were found to be less likely than men to achieve promotion to Professor, mentoring and strategies that focus on facilitating promotion for women should be encouraged to ensure there are academic leaders in obstetrics and gynaecology in the future.

  3. Explaining use of food parenting practices: the importance of predisposing factors and parental cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus Wm; van Assema, Patricia; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2017-09-01

    The high energy intake from energy-dense foods among children in developed countries is undesirable. Improving food parenting practices has the potential to lower snack intakes among children. To inform the development of interventions, we aimed to predict food parenting practice patterns around snacking (i.e. 'high covert control and rewarding', 'low covert control and non-rewarding', 'high involvement and supportive' and 'low involvement and indulgent'). A cross-sectional survey was conducted. To predict the patterns of food parenting practices, multinomial logistic regression analyses were run with 888 parents. Predictors included predisposing factors (i.e. parents' and children's demographics and BMI, parents' personality, general parenting, and parenting practices used by their own parents) and parents' cognitions (i.e. perceived behaviour of other parents, subjective norms, attitudes, self-efficacy and outcome expectations). The Netherlands (October-November 2014). Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 years old. After backward elimination, nineteen factors had a statistically significant contribution to the model (Nagelkerke R 2=0·63). Overall, self-efficacy and outcome expectations were among the strongest explanatory factors. Considering the predisposing factors only, the general parenting factor nurturance most strongly predicted the food parenting clusters. Nurturance particularly distinguished highly involved parents from parents employing a pattern of low involvement. Parental cognitions and nurturance are important factors to explain the use of food parenting practices around snacking. The results suggest that intervention developers should attempt to increase self-efficacy and educate parents about what constitute effective and ineffective parenting practices. Promoting nurturance might be a prerequisite to achieve prolonged change.

  4. Rethinking "Harmonious Parenting" Using a Three-Factor Discipline Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Diana Baumrind's typology of parenting is based on a two-factor model of "control" and "warmth". Her recommended discipline style, labeled "authoritative parenting", was constructed by taking high scores on these two factors. A problem with authoritative parenting is that it does not allow for flexible and differentiated responses to discipline…

  5. Parental Personality Factors in Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinetta, John J.

    1978-01-01

    Demonstrated that abusing parents differ from nonabusing parents in personality variables. Mothers differed in relationship to one's parents, tendency to become upset, tendency toward loneliness, expectations of one's children, inability to separate parental and child feelings, and fear of external threat. Abusers scored at the highest risk levels…

  6. Factors Underlying the Relationship Between Parent and Child Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, David J; Cipriano, Madeline R

    2017-01-01

    The death of a parent in a child's life is a significant risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. While much has been written about the surviving parent's functioning and its effects on their bereaved children, little work has been done to look into factors underlying this effect such as how the parent copes. The present study recruited 38 parent-child dyads from a community-based grief support center. Parent and child, independently, completed various measures of emotional functioning, including grief symptoms and coping such as social support and locus of control. The results indicated that parental coping did have an impact on children's grief symptoms. This represents a unique view of adaptation in bereaved children: Parental coping strategies can have an impact on the child, independent of the child's coping strategies. By focusing on parent coping, we have highlighted another possible pathway through which parental functioning affects children's grief.

  7. Information and support needs among parents of young children in a region of Canada: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devolin, Maureen; Phelps, Dawn; Duhaney, Tara; Benzies, Karen; Hildebrandt, Clare; Rikhy, Shivani; Churchill, Jocelyn

    2013-05-01

    To determine the information and support needs among parents of young children in a region of Canada. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to a stratified random sample of 1,064 parents of children aged 6 years and under. Of the 359 respondents, the majority were Caucasian, female, married, and well educated. An investigator designed questionnaire measured preferred sources of parenting information and support, sources and modes of program delivery, and perceived barriers to accessing information and programs. Breastfeeding, car seat safety, caring for a new baby, supporting their child's development, and sleep issues were considered "somewhat" or "very" important by 95.8% of respondents. Informal sources of support were rated as more important and more valuable than formal supports. The internet, drop-in programs for parents and children, books, organized play groups, classes and information sessions were identified as the most preferred modes to access parenting information. Respondents reported a lack of knowledge and awareness of programs, lack of time, lack of child care, and inconvenient scheduling as the top barriers to accessing information and programs. Parents want information to support their parenting. These results have implications for planning and implementation of future parenting information and support programs and services. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Family factors and parenting in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, Viktor; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Delva, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the use of positive and negative parenting practices in Ukraine and explore relationships between parenting practices, intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and sociodemographics. Parents of children (N=320) ages 9-16 from three Ukrainian regions answered questions from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-R), Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES), and the Alcohol Use Section of the Drinking and Drug History and Current Use Patterns questionnaire. Ukrainian parents who reported lower use of alcohol, balanced family functioning and lower intimate partner violence were more likely to use positive parenting and less likely to use negative parenting practices. Parents with lower education were more likely to use negative parenting practices. Furthermore, alcohol use, IPV, parent education and higher family income were significantly and indirectly related with positive and negative parenting scores. The model explained 61% of variance in the positive parenting, 67% in the negative parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parents and Tots Together: Pilot randomized controlled trial of a family-based obesity prevention intervention in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kathryn; Filion, A Jordan; Gross, Deborah; Morrongiello, Barbara; Darlington, Gerarda; Randall Simpson, Janis; Hou, Sharon; Haines, Jess

    2016-03-16

    To test the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary impact of Parents and Tots Together (PTT), a family-based obesity prevention intervention, in Canada. Canadian parents of preschoolers (aged 2-5 years). Ontario Early Years centres in southwestern Ontario. A pilot randomized controlled trial involving 48 parents who received either the PTT intervention (n = 27) or an attention-matched control home safety intervention (n = 21). To evaluate the feasibility of PTT, we assessed participant retention and outcome evaluation completion rates. To evaluate acceptability, we assessed program attendance and parents' responses to program satisfaction surveys. To evaluate preliminary impact, we assessed children's body mass index (BMI) at baseline, after intervention (end of 9-week intervention) and at 9-month follow-up. As well, at each time point, parents completed surveys assessing stress and self-efficacy related to parenting, children's sleep, activity, TV viewing and diet. Retention rates were high in the intervention (93%) and control (84%) study arms, and 87% of parents reported that they would highly recommend PTT to a friend. At 9-month follow-up, intervention parents reported lower parenting stress (β^ = 15.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] -29.57, -2.07, p = 0.02) and greater self-efficacy in managing their child's behaviour (β^ = 0.16, 95% CI 0.002, 0.33, p = 0.05) than control parents. PTT had minimal influence on children's weight-related behaviours and BMI. The results suggest that PTT can feasibly be implemented and tested in the Canadian context. Preliminary impact results suggest that the program may be effective in changing general parenting; however, program content should be modified to adequately address children's weight-related behaviours.

  10. Correlates of Parental Differential Treatment: Parental and Contextual Factors during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether parental and contextual risk factors contribute to mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (MDT/FDT) when accounting for sibling dyad characteristics. Also explored was whether family type (single mothers vs. 2 parents) moderated the links between the parental and contextual correlates and MDT. One hundred…

  11. Is Nonsuicidal Self Injury Associated With Parenting and Family Factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Martin, Graham; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    The present study investigates the association of parenting and family factors with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in preadolescents. A sample of 1,439 preadolescents and their parents were assessed by means of (a) adolescent-reported parenting behaviors (support and behavioral/psychological

  12. Parental Expression of Disappointment: Should It Be a Factor in Hoffman's Model of Parental Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Renee B.; Gibbs, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The authors addressed whether parental expression of disappointment should be included as a distinct factor in M. L. Hoffman's (2000) well-established typology of parenting styles (induction, love withdrawal, power assertion). Hoffman's 3-factor model, along with a more inclusive 4-factor model (induction, love withdrawal, power assertion, and…

  13. [Factors associated with dental consultation in children in Talca (Chile) and in Chilean immigrants in Montreal (Canada)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Loreto; Icaza, Gloria; Contreras, Violeta; Correa, Gloria; Canales, Tatiana; Mejía, Gloria; Oxman-Martínez, Jacqueline; Moreau, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    To identify the factors that influence the use of dental services in 4-7-year-olds and in 10-13-year-olds resident in the cities of Talca (Chile) and Montreal (Canada). A nonprobabilistic cross-sectional study was carried out in 147 boys and girls in Talca and in 94 boys and girls in Montreal between 2009 and 2011. Sociodemographic variables were recorded in parents and children, including age and sex. Data were also gathered on parental education, family composition, and proximity to health centers within neighborhoods. The data were analyzed with Fisher's exact test and the robust Cox regression model (with constant time) with a significance level of 0,05. In Talca, parental education was significantly associated with dental care visits at least twice a year. The children of parents with university education were 2.20 times more likely to consult a dentist (95% CI: 1.30-3.73). Children whose parents perceived their children's health positively were 53% (OR = 0,47; 95% CI: 0,28-0,77) less likely to consult a dentist. In Montreal, the children of parents with university education were 2.10 times more likely to consult a dentist (95%CI: 1.17-3.76), while older children (10-13 years) were 2.11 (95% CI: 1.15-3.88) times more likely to consult a dentist. In both cities, parental education level was associated with the use of dental services. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors Associated with Stress Among Parents of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Syeda Shahida; Khurshid, Sumaira

    2015-10-01

    To determine the factors associated with stress among parents of children with autism. A cross-sectional field survey study. Department of Psychology, GC University, Lahore, from September 2012 to November 2013. The sample consisted of 100 parents (50 mothers and 50 fathers) of children with autism. Measures of childhood autism rating, sense of coherence, parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress, and demographic data sheet were completed by the parents in outdoor units of children hospital, institutes, and at their homes. Significant correlations were found between severity of impairment and parenting stress (r = .53, p stress (r = -.35, p stress (r = -.26, p stress. Results of stepwise regression partially supported our hypothesized model, as severity of child impairment, and parenting self-efficacy appeared as significant predictors of parenting stress (R(2) = .35). However, there was no evidence of role of demographic variables in the parenting stress. The severity of child's impairment emerged as the most salient risk factor for parenting stress; however, it was concluded that parents' ability and confidence in their competence of parenting a child in challenging situations may reduce their stress.

  15. Komentovaný překlad: "Les enfants et les drogues : guide de prévention pour les parents (Alberta Health Services, Canada, AHS/RCMP 2008, s. 5-27)

    OpenAIRE

    Pěchoučková, Kamila

    2017-01-01

    The bachelor thesis Commented translation: Les enfants et les drogues : guide de prévention pour les parents (Alberta Health Services, Canada, AHS/RCMP 2008) consists of two parts. First part introduces translation of a French text to Czech. Second part focuses on a commentary of this translation. Firstly, the commentary includes a translation analysis focused on extratextual and intratextual factors. Next part deals with the main translation problems and their solutions. The last part of com...

  16. Parental Involvement as a Important Factor for Successful Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Đurišić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To comply with the system of integrated support for their students’, schools need to build partnership with parents and develop mutual responsibility for childrens’ success in the educational system. In this way, parental involement are increased, parents’ effort to support schools are encouraged, and they are directly making a positive impact to a successful educational system. Considering the importance of parents’ participation and involvement in school activities, in this paper, we will analyse the positive effects of parental involvement, summarize leading principles for the successful partnership of parents and school and present six factors (Parenting, Communicating, Volunteering, Learning at home, Decision-making and Collaborating with the community and six models (Protective Model, Expert Model, Transmission Model, Curriculum-Enrichment Model, Consumer Model and Partnership Model of parental involvement. In addition, we will draw conclusions and make recommendations that are important for planning programs that are focused on the improvement of parent involvement.

  17. Parents' Perspectives About Factors Influencing Adherence to Pharmacotherapy for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rana; Borst, Jacqueline; Wei, Yong C; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore factors influencing parents' decisions to adhere and persist with ADHD pharmacotherapy in children. Focus groups ( n = 3) were conducted with 16 parents recruited from metropolitan Sydney. Group discussions explored factors impacting on treatment initiation, continuation, and cessation. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically content analyzed. Parents commenced and continued pharmacotherapy due to its positive impact on their child's behavior. Improvements in the child's academic performance and social interactions encouraged persistence with therapy. Parents elected to cease therapy after their children experienced side effects including appetite suppression, weight loss, and sleep disturbances. Concerns about long-term effects of ADHD medication use including potential for addiction and growth stunting, in addition to the stigma surrounding ADHD also contributed to parents ceasing treatment. The findings highlight a need for the provision of accurate information about ADHD and its treatments to parents to empower their treatment decisions and promote adherence.

  18. Understanding the importance of relationships: Perspective of children with intellectual disabilities, their parents, and nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Megan; Breau, Lynn; MacLeod, Emily

    2014-09-01

    Effective and therapeutic relationships between health care providers and clients are important elements for positive health outcomes. Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and their parents face unique challenges in establishing relationships with health care providers due to social and institutional stigma and stereotypes associated with children with IDs. In this article, we discuss the theme of building relationships in a hospital setting that emerged from a qualitative feminist poststructuralist study conducted in Canada with 8 children with IDs, 17 mothers, and 12 nurses who cared for them. Our research provides examples of how nurses and mothers worked in and through the system sometimes with frustration but also sometimes with positive excitement to develop supportive relationships. We can learn from these moments of tension and moments of success about how to work together to ensure positive relationships are provided to children with IDs, their parents, and health care professionals. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Risk factors for stress in children after parental stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Meijer, A.M.; Visser-Meily, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess risk factors for stress in children 3 years after parental stroke. Participants: Questionnaires were filled in by 44 children aged 7-18 years, parents who suffered a stroke and healthy spouses from 29 families recruited in 9 participating rehabilitation centers across the

  20. Assessment of Factors Determining Parents' Preference for Private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explored the underlying factors determining parents' choice of sending their children/wards to private secondary schools, using Cross River State rural ... The study found out that private secondary schools in the area were highly patronized by parents who were influenced by pride of school ownership, effective ...

  1. Factors Affecting the Age at Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, Priscilla; Dodds, Linda; MacPherson, Kathleen; Flowerdew, Gordon; Hennen, Brian; Bryson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    While early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is essential for ensuring timely access to early intervention services, there is limited existing literature investigating factors that delay this diagnosis. This population-based cohort study explored the age at which children in Nova Scotia, Canada, are diagnosed with ASDs and the factors…

  2. Parental bonding and depression: personality as a mediating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    According to Bowlby's theory of attachment, the role of early experience and parenting is of crucial importance to child development and mental health. In addition, several research findings suggest that parental bonding and different types of attachment play a crucial role in personality development. The present study examines the association between parental bonding experiences (lack of parental care, overprotection or both) and depression during adulthood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different personality dimensions as possible mediators of the relation between perceptions of parental bonding and depressive symptoms in adult life. 181 participants (15- 49-years-old) completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). The results show that lack of parental care and overprotection is linked with depressive symptoms and a number of personality characteristics, such as low self-esteem, introversion, distress and emotional instability. In contrast, high care and low protection (optimal bonding) is linked with increased self-confidence, less distress and less depressive symptoms. The results presented here are in line with Bowlby's theory of attachment and show that parental bonding is linked with problematic personality development and psychopathology. The present study provided evidence that personality factors may mediate the observed relationship between parental rearing style and depression. The potential causal mechanisms warrant longitudinal evaluation.

  3. The Changing Landscape of School Choice in Canada: From Pluralism to Parental Preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Lynn; Van Pelt, Deani; Allison, Derek J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a descriptive account of the growing landscape of school choice in Canada through a comparative analysis of funding and student enrolment in the public, independent and home-based education sectors in each province. Given that the provinces have responsibility for K-12 education, the mixture of public, independent and home…

  4. Organisational factors and occupational balance in working parents in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgh, Madeleine; Eek, Frida; Wagman, Petra; Håkansson, Carita

    2017-07-01

    Parents with small children constitute a vulnerable group as they have an increased risk of sick leave due to stress-related disorders compared to adults without children. It has been shown that mothers and fathers to small children together spend more time in paid work than any other group, which could create negative stress and an experience of low occupational balance. The aim of this study was to examine associations between organisational factors and occupational balance among parents with small children in Sweden. Data were collected by a survey including questions about occupational balance, organisational factors and age, sex, employment rate, work position, monthly household income, number of children at home, separation/divorce last five years and overtime. The total number of parents included in this study was 718 (490 mothers and 228 fathers). Logistic regression models were applied to examine the odds ratios for occupational balance in relation to organisational factors. Parents who experienced positive attitudes towards parenthood and parental leave among colleagues and managers were more likely to experience high occupational balance than parents who experienced negative or neutral attitudes. Having a clear structure for handover when absent from work was also strongly associated with high occupational balance. The result of the present study indicates that some organisational factors could be important for the occupational balance of parents with small children.

  5. Development and cognitive testing of the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory in Canada, Switzerland, and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Juvalta, Sibylle; Post, Marcel W. M.; Charlifue, Susan; Noreau, Luc; Whiteneck, Gale; Dumont, Frédéric S.; Reinhardt, Jan D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and pre-test the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory (NEFI), a questionnaire assessing the perceived impact of environmental factors on specific areas of participation (productive life, social life, and community life) experienced by people with spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS: Thirty-seven participants with spinal cord injury in Canada, Switzerland and the USA. METHODS: A first draft of the NEFI was developed based on a new theoretical model, the International...

  6. Predicting success in an online parenting intervention: the role of child, parent, and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Cassandra K; Farruggia, Susan P; Palmer, Melanie L; Sanders, Matthew R; Keown, Louise J

    2014-04-01

    The present study involved an examination of the extent to which a wide range of child, parent, family, and program-related factors predicted child behavior and parenting outcomes after participation in an 8-session online version of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Participants were mothers and fathers of 97 children aged between 3 and 8 years displaying elevated levels of disruptive behavior problems. For both mothers and fathers, poorer child behavior outcomes at postintervention were predicted by the number of sessions of the intervention completed by the family. For mothers, postintervention child behavior was also predicted by the quality of the mother-child relationship at baseline; for fathers, baseline child behavior severity was an additional predictor. Mothers' postintervention ineffective parenting was predicted by session completion and preintervention levels of ineffective parenting, whereas the only predictor of fathers' ineffective parenting at postintervention was preintervention levels of ineffective parenting. Socioeconomic risk, parental adjustment, and father participation in the intervention were not significant predictors of mother- or father-reported treatment outcomes. The implications of the findings for the provision of online parenting support are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Factors associated with parents' perceptions of parental smoking in the presence of children and its consequences on children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2013-01-01

    .... However, the factors associated with these perceptions remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with parents' perceptions about parental smoking in the presence of children and its consequences...

  8. Factors associated with parental underestimation of child's weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Sarah; Mais, Laís A; Latorre, Maria do Rosário D O; Carnell, Susan; Taddei, José Augusto A C

    2017-08-18

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of parental misperception of child weight status, and identify socioeconomic, anthropometric, behavioral and dietary factors associated with underestimation. Cross-sectional study. Data was collected in 14 Brazilian private schools. Parents of children aged 2-8 years (n=976) completed a self-reported questionnaire assessing their perception of their child's weight status, and sociodemographic, anthropometric, behavioral and dietary information. To measure the agreement between parental perception about child weight status and actual child weight status, the Kappa coefficient was estimated, and to investigate associations between parental underestimation and independent variables, chi-squared tests were performed, followed by multiple logistic regression, considering p≤0.05 for statistical significance. Overall, 48.05% of the parents incorrectly classified their child's weight. Specifically, 45.08% underestimated their child's weight status, with just 3% of parents overestimating. Children with higher body mass index (OR=2.03; p<0.001) and boys (OR=1.70; p<0.001) were more likely to have their weight status underestimated by parents. Since awareness of weight problems is essential for prevention and treatment, clinical practitioners should help parents at high risk of misperception to correctly evaluate their child's weight status. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and associated factors of COPD among Aboriginal peoples in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bird Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yelena Bird, John Moraros, Razi Mahmood, Sarvenaz Esmaeelzadeh, Nway Mon Kyaw Soe School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: COPD among Aboriginal peoples in Canada is a major public health concern. This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and association between certain risk factors and COPD among the 35-year-old or older Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It uses data from Statistics Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS, 2012. It consists of 8,117 self-identified Aboriginal peoples, aged 35 years old or older from all Canadian provinces and territories. The study outcomes centered on evaluating the prevalence and associated factors of COPD. Results: This study found that 6.80% of the participants self-reported having COPD. Results of the logistic regression analysis show that COPD was significantly higher among daily smokers (odds ratio [OR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.65–3.14, aged 55 years or older (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 2.14–4.30, who earned $5,000–$9,999 per annum (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 2.39–7.41 and needed health care over the past 12 months and did not receive it (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.27–2.65. Conclusion: The findings of our study show that COPD is strongly associated with Aboriginal peoples, who are older, smoke, have a low socioeconomic status (SES and do not have access to health care when needed. Clinicians, health care professionals, medical/public health organizations, researchers and patients will greatly benefit from additional research in this common, serious and often overlooked disease among Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Keywords: COPD, smoking, socioeconomic status, Aboriginal peoples, Canada

  10. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation: A Comparison between France and French-Speaking Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Christine Girard

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce.The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts.Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation.Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having 'some university' was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France.While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors.

  11. Non food-related risk factors of campylobacteriosis in Canada: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, André; Pintar, Katarina; Nesbitt, Andrea; Pollari, Frank

    2016-09-27

    Campylobacteriosis is a prominent bacterial gastrointestinal infection worldwide with several transmission pathways. Its non-foodborne routes have been less documented and quantified. The study aimed to quantitatively explore the role of potential risk factors not directly associated with food for sporadic cases of C. jejuni infection in Canada. This retrospective matched case-control study was built on an enhanced campylobacteriosis surveillance system and on a survey of healthy people and their behaviour with regards to potential risk factors for gastrointestinal infections that occurred in the same area in Canada. Eighty-five cases were individually matched by age and season to 170 controls. Through conditional logistic regression, risk factors were found only among water-related factors (drinking untreated water, using tap filter, drinking water from well and swimming in natural water), whereas drinking bottled water was protective. Among the 32 non-water related factors explored, 12 were surprisingly 'protective' factors without relevant explanation for that effect (for example gardening, attending a barbecue, eating food from a fast-food restaurant), suggesting that human infection by Campylobacter may be more frequently acquired at home than outside the home. This study confirms and quantifies the importance of the waterborne transmission of campylobacteriosis. People are encouraged to drink only treated water and to avoid the ingestion of natural water as much as possible while swimming or playing in water. Globally, general hygiene and proper food handling and cooking practices at home should continue to be encouraged.

  12. Factors Influencing Parents' Preferences and Parents' Perceptions of Child Preferences of Picturebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Wagner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined factors influencing parents' preferences and their perceptions of their children's preferences for picturebooks. First, a content analysis was conducted on a set of picturebooks (N = 87 drawn from the sample described in Wagner (2013; Then, parents (N = 149 rated the books and several content properties were examined for their ability to predict parents' preferences and their perception of their children's preferences. The initial content analysis found correlated clusters of disparate measures of complexity (linguistic, cognitive, narrative and identified a distinctive sub-genre of modern books featuring female protagonists. The experimental preference analysis found that parents' own preferences were most influenced by the books' age and status; parents' perceptions of their children's preferences were influenced by gender, with parents perceiving their sons (but not daughters as dis-preferring books with female protagnoists. In addition, influences of the child's reading ability and the linguistic complexity of the book on preferences suggested a sensitivity to the cultural practice of joint book-reading.

  13. Pediatric organ donation: what factors most influence parents' donation decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Cornell, Danielle L; Howard, Richard J

    2008-03-01

    To identify factors that influence parents' decisions when asked to donate a deceased child's organs. Cross-sectional design with data collection via structured telephone interviews. One organ procurement organization in the Southeastern United States. Seventy-four parents (49 donors, 25 nondonors) of donor-eligible deceased children who were previously approached by coordinators from one organ procurement organization in the southeastern United States. None. Multivariate analyses showed that organ donation was more likely when the parent was a registered organ donor (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4, confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 2.7), the parent had favorable organ donation beliefs (OR = 5.5, CI = 2.7, 12.3), the parent was exposed to organ donation information before the child's death (OR = 2.6, CI = 1.7, 10.3), a member of the child's healthcare team first mentioned organ donation (OR = 1.4, CI = 1.2, 3.7), the requestor was perceived as sensitive to the family's needs (OR = 0.4, CI = 0.2, 0.7), the family had sufficient time to discuss donation (OR = 5.2, CI = 1.4, 11.6), and family members were in agreement about donation (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.3, 5.2). This study identifies several modifiable variables that influence the donation decision-making process for parents. Strategies to facilitate targeted organ donation education and higher consent rates are discussed.

  14. assessment of factors determining parents' preference for private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UMOINYANG

    This paper explored the underlying factors determining parents' choice of sending their children/wards to private secondary schools, using Cross River State rural communities as a case study. Sixty (60) private secondary institutions in the state were selected through stratified sampling technique. A total of 720 respondents ...

  15. Predicting Parenting Stress in Families of Children with ADHD: Parent and Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theule, Jennifer; Wiener, Judith; Rogers, Maria A.; Marton, Imola

    2011-01-01

    We examined parental ADHD symptoms and contextual (parental education, social support, marital status) predictors of parent domain parenting stress (parental distress) as a function of child ADHD symptoms in a sample of 95 parents of 8 to 12 year-old children with and without ADHD. Parents' perceptions of parental distress and social support were…

  16. Factors affecting the concussion knowledge of athletes, parents, coaches, and medical professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Stanley Zhang; Jane Topolovec-Vranic; Hutchison, Michael G.; Rowan Jing

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the predictors of knowledge and awareness of concussion symptoms and outcomes through a survey of athletes, parents of players and coaches in sports settings in Canada. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of athletic communities in Canada was conducted. Respondents? concussion knowledge score consists of responses to questions about the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of a concussion and the timing of return-to-sport post-concussion. The percentage of correct respons...

  17. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  18. Causes and risk factors for infant mortality in Nunavut, Canada 1999–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Sorcha A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The northern territory Nunavut has Canada’s largest jurisdictional land mass with 33,322 inhabitants, of which 85% self-identify as Inuit. Nunavut has rates of infant mortality, postneonatal mortality and hospitalisation of infants for respiratory infections that greatly exceed those for the rest of Canada. The infant mortality rate in Nunavut is 3 times the national average, and twice that of the neighbouring territory, the Northwest Territories. Nunavut has the largest Inuit population in Canada, a population which has been identified as having high rates of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS and infant deaths due to infections. Methods To determine the causes and potential risk factors of infant mortality in Nunavut, we reviewed all infant deaths ( Results Sudden death in infancy (SIDS/SUDI; 48% and infection (21% were the leading causes of infant death, with rates significantly higher than for Canada (2003–2007. Of SIDS/SUDI cases with information on sleep position (n=42 and bed-sharing (n=47, 29 (69% were sleeping non-supine and 33 (70% were bed-sharing. Of those bed-sharing, 23 (70% had two or more additional risk factors present, usually non-supine sleep position. CPT1A P479L homozygosity, which has been previously associated with infant mortality in Alaska Native and British Columbia First Nations populations, was associated with unexpected infant death (SIDS/SUDI, infection throughout Nunavut (OR:3.43, 95% CI:1.30-11.47. Conclusion Unexpected infant deaths comprise the majority of infant deaths in Nunavut. Although the CPT1A P479L variant was associated with unexpected infant death in Nunavut as a whole, the association was less apparent when population stratification was considered. Strategies to promote safe sleep practices and further understand other potential risk factors for infant mortality (P479L variant, respiratory illness are underway with local partners.

  19. Is Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Associated with Parenting and Family Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Martin, Graham; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the association of parenting and family factors with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in preadolescents. A sample of 1,439 preadolescents and their parents were assessed by means of (a) adolescent-reported parenting behaviors (support and behavioral/psychological control), (b) parent-reported parenting behaviors…

  20. Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have higher rates of depressive symptoms than parents of typically developing (TD) children or parents of children with other developmental disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent sleep as factors associated with depressive symptoms in parents of children with…

  1. Factors Associated with Parent-Child (Dis)Agreement on Child Behavior and Parenting Problems in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined familial and cultural factors predicting parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems. Immigrant Chinese parents (89.7% mothers; M age = 44.24 years) and their children (62 boys; 57.9%) between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9) completed measures of parent punitive behavior and child…

  2. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety.

  3. Prevalence and associated factors of COPD among Aboriginal peoples in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Mahmood, Razi; Esmaeelzadeh, Sarvenaz; Kyaw Soe, Nway Mon

    2017-01-01

    Background COPD among Aboriginal peoples in Canada is a major public health concern. This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and association between certain risk factors and COPD among the 35-year-old or older Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. It uses data from Statistics Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS), 2012. It consists of 8,117 self-identified Aboriginal peoples, aged 35 years old or older from all Canadian provinces and territories. The study outcomes centered on evaluating the prevalence and associated factors of COPD. Results This study found that 6.80% of the participants self-reported having COPD. Results of the logistic regression analysis show that COPD was significantly higher among daily smokers (odds ratio [OR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.65–3.14), aged 55 years or older (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 2.14–4.30), who earned $5,000–$9,999 per annum (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 2.39–7.41) and needed health care over the past 12 months and did not receive it (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.27–2.65). Conclusion The findings of our study show that COPD is strongly associated with Aboriginal peoples, who are older, smoke, have a low socioeconomic status (SES) and do not have access to health care when needed. Clinicians, health care professionals, medical/public health organizations, researchers and patients will greatly benefit from additional research in this common, serious and often overlooked disease among Aboriginal peoples in Canada. PMID:28721036

  4. Non food-related risk factors of campylobacteriosis in Canada: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ravel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacteriosis is a prominent bacterial gastrointestinal infection worldwide with several transmission pathways. Its non-foodborne routes have been less documented and quantified. The study aimed to quantitatively explore the role of potential risk factors not directly associated with food for sporadic cases of C. jejuni infection in Canada. Methods This retrospective matched case-control study was built on an enhanced campylobacteriosis surveillance system and on a survey of healthy people and their behaviour with regards to potential risk factors for gastrointestinal infections that occurred in the same area in Canada. Eighty-five cases were individually matched by age and season to 170 controls. Results Through conditional logistic regression, risk factors were found only among water-related factors (drinking untreated water, using tap filter, drinking water from well and swimming in natural water, whereas drinking bottled water was protective. Among the 32 non-water related factors explored, 12 were surprisingly ‘protective’ factors without relevant explanation for that effect (for example gardening, attending a barbecue, eating food from a fast-food restaurant, suggesting that human infection by Campylobacter may be more frequently acquired at home than outside the home. Conclusions This study confirms and quantifies the importance of the waterborne transmission of campylobacteriosis. People are encouraged to drink only treated water and to avoid the ingestion of natural water as much as possible while swimming or playing in water. Globally, general hygiene and proper food handling and cooking practices at home should continue to be encouraged.

  5. Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Elementary School Children: Child Social-Cognitive Factors and Parenting Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Oi Poon, Scarlet Fung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined child cognitive-behavioural factors and parenting factors related to childhood depressive symptoms. Results indicate that positive and negative attributional styles were protective and vulnerable factors of depression symptoms, respectively, and the attribution-depression link was mediated by self-esteem and coping responses.…

  6. Trends of Hepatitis A hospitalization and risk factors in Quebec, Canada, between 1990 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duval Bernard

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, targeted vaccination of at risk groups for hepatitis A (HA is done since the mid 1990s resulting in declining incidence. This study estimated the year and age specific hospitalization rates and distribution of risk factors for HA in Quebec, Canada, between 1990 and 2003. Methods Records of patients hospitalized with HA-related diagnostic codes were retrieved from the provincial database. Hospital charts of all deceased cases and a random sample of all other records were reviewed. Results From 1503 hospitalization records, 573 charts were reviewed including 49 (91% of the 54 deceased patients. Confirmed acute HA was present in 79% of records where HA was the primary diagnosis, and in 3%–8% of records where HA was a secondary diagnosis. From the total estimated number of hospitalizations, 96% had HA as the primary diagnosis. The hospitalization rate decreased from 1.06 per 100 000 person-years between 1990 and 1997 to 0.36 between 1998 and 2003. During the study period, 54% HA hospitalizations were in 20–39 year-olds. The overall case fatality ratio among hospitalized patients was 1.4%, increasing from 0.4% in those Conclusion HA hospitalization rates have been low since 1998 but the cause of this is unclear given the cyclical pattern of HA. Travel to endemic countries remains the most important risk factor and improved control of HA will require better strategies to vaccinate travelers.

  7. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  8. Intervenable factors associated with suicide risk in transgender persons: a respondent driven sampling study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R; Scheim, Ayden I; Pyne, Jake; Travers, Robb; Hammond, Rebecca

    2015-06-02

    Across Europe, Canada, and the United States, 22-43 % of transgender (trans) people report a history of suicide attempts. We aimed to identify intervenable factors (related to social inclusion, transphobia, or sex/gender transition) associated with reduced risk of past-year suicide ideation or attempt, and to quantify the potential population health impact. The Trans PULSE respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey collected data from trans people age 16+ in Ontario, Canada, including 380 who reported on suicide outcomes. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were weighted using RDS II methods. Counterfactual risk ratios and population attributable risks were estimated using model-standardized risks. Among trans Ontarians, 35.1 % (95 % CI: 27.6, 42.5) seriously considered, and 11.2 % (95 % CI: 6.0, 16.4) attempted, suicide in the past year. Social support, reduced transphobia, and having any personal identification documents changed to an appropriate sex designation were associated with large relative and absolute reductions in suicide risk, as was completing a medical transition through hormones and/or surgeries (when needed). Parental support for gender identity was associated with reduced ideation. Lower self-reported transphobia (10(th) versus 90(th) percentile) was associated with a 66 % reduction in ideation (RR = 0.34, 95 % CI: 0.17, 0.67), and an additional 76 % reduction in attempts among those with ideation (RR = 0.24; 95 % CI: 0.07, 0.82). This corresponds to potential prevention of 160 ideations per 1000 trans persons, and 200 attempts per 1,000 with ideation, based on a hypothetical reduction of transphobia from current levels to the 10(th) percentile. Large effect sizes were observed for this controlled analysis of intervenable factors, suggesting that interventions to increase social inclusion and access to medical transition, and to reduce transphobia, have the potential to contribute to substantial reductions in the

  9. Parental consanguinity and associated factors in congenital talipes equinovarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, T; Nataraj, A R

    2012-03-01

    The cause of congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is multifactorial and, consanguinity could be one of the causative factors in its development. The purpose of this study was, to determine the prevalence of parental consanguinity in CTEV and other factors like associated, congenital anomalies, maternal and fetal factors and also the severity of CTEV in these patients. The above factors were studied in 54 patients of less than 1 month of age with parental, consanguinity and 91 feet were evaluated for its severity using Dimeglio classification at the time of presentation. Out of 174 children presented to our department with CTEV, 54 (31%) children were born out, of consanguineous marriage. Thirty seven (68.5%) patients had bilateral CTEV. Twenty five (46.3%), patients had associated congenital anomalies and myelomeningocele being the commonest anomaly, associated. Out of 91 feet 61 (67%) were of grade 4 severity. High grade of severity observed in both idiopathic and non idiopathic CTEV suggests the, probable role of consanguinity as an etiological factor in the development of CTEV especially in our, part of the world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. "Everyone just keeps their eyes closed and their fingers crossed": sexual health communication among black parents and children in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Antoinette N; Gahagan, Jacqueline C; George, Clemon

    2013-07-22

    Black Canadian youth remain disproportionally affected by an array of social and health issues, including sexually transmitted infections. While research exists in support of the involvement of parents as a key means to prevent or modify harmful behaviours among youth, less is known about how parent-child communication can serve as a prevention intervention strategy within Black families in Canada. This study explores sexual health communication between Black parents and youth in Nova Scotia and identifies facilitators, obstacles and issues that families face in dialoguing about sexual health. Focus groups and in-depth interview sessions were held with a diverse sample of parents of Black youth, health and education professionals, and Black youth in Nova Scotia, as part of a larger study aimed at exploring parent-child communication on sexual health and HIV. The research team worked in partnership with and received feedback from key informants and a community advisory committee throughout the various stages of this study. All sessions were audio-taped with permission and thematic analysis was carried out on the verbatim transcripts. Six key themes emerged from the data analysis in relation to parent-child communication within Black families in Nova Scotia: 1. the gendered nature of [sexual] health communication; 2. fear and uncertainty as obstacles; 3. open and honest dialogue from an early age as a facilitator; 4. media as both a catalyst and a barrier; 5. peers as a catalyst; and 6. time constraints as an obstacle. The findings of this study reveal that parent-child communication regarding sexual health promotion within Black families in Nova Scotia remains varied and is heavily affected by a myriad of intersecting determinants of health faced by Black youth and their parents. Health promotion interventions aimed at fostering and supporting parent-child communication on sexual health must simultaneously target both parents and youth and further, such efforts must

  11. Children's health status: examining the associations among income poverty, material hardship, and parental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin S Ashiabi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined a model of multiple mediating pathways of income poverty, material hardship, parenting factors, and child health status to understand how material hardship and parental factors mediate the effects of poverty on child health. We hypothesized that: (a poverty will be directly associated with material hardship, parental depression, and health status, and indirectly with parenting behaviors through its effects on parental depression and material hardship; (b material hardship will be associated with parental depression, parenting behaviors, and health status; and (c parental depression will be correlated with parenting behaviors, and that both parental depression and parenting behaviors will predict child health. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used data from the 2002 National Survey of American Families for a sample of 9,645 6-to-11 year-olds to examine a 4-step structural equation model. The baseline model included covariates and income poverty. In the hardship model, food insufficiency and medical need were added to the baseline model. The parental model included parental depression and parenting behavior and baseline model. In the full model, all the constructs were included. First, income poverty had a direct effect on health status, and an indirect effect through its association with material hardship, parental depressive affect, and parenting behaviors. Medical need and food insufficiency had negative effects on child health, and indirect effects on health through their association with parental depression and parenting behaviors. Finally, parental depression and parenting behaviors were associated with child health, and part of the effect of parental depression on health was explained by its association with parenting behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Poverty has an independent effect on health, however, its effects are partially explained by material hardship, parental depression and parental behaviors. To improve children's health

  12. Children's Health Status: Examining the Associations among Income Poverty, Material Hardship, and Parental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiabi, Godwin S.; O'Neal, Keri K.

    2007-01-01

    Background We examined a model of multiple mediating pathways of income poverty, material hardship, parenting factors, and child health status to understand how material hardship and parental factors mediate the effects of poverty on child health. We hypothesized that: (a) poverty will be directly associated with material hardship, parental depression, and health status, and indirectly with parenting behaviors through its effects on parental depression and material hardship; (b) material hardship will be associated with parental depression, parenting behaviors, and health status; and (c) parental depression will be correlated with parenting behaviors, and that both parental depression and parenting behaviors will predict child health. Methods and Results We used data from the 2002 National Survey of American Families for a sample of 9,645 6-to-11 year-olds to examine a 4-step structural equation model. The baseline model included covariates and income poverty. In the hardship model, food insufficiency and medical need were added to the baseline model. The parental model included parental depression and parenting behavior and baseline model. In the full model, all the constructs were included. First, income poverty had a direct effect on health status, and an indirect effect through its association with material hardship, parental depressive affect, and parenting behaviors. Medical need and food insufficiency had negative effects on child health, and indirect effects on health through their association with parental depression and parenting behaviors. Finally, parental depression and parenting behaviors were associated with child health, and part of the effect of parental depression on health was explained by its association with parenting behaviors. Conclusions Poverty has an independent effect on health, however, its effects are partially explained by material hardship, parental depression and parental behaviors. To improve children's health would require a multi

  13. Factor analysis of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form with parents of young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Mirenda, Pat; Zumbo, Bruno D; Georgiades, Stelios; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Smith, Isabel; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann

    2011-10-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the underlying factor structure of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) in a large cohort of parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A secondary goal was to examine relationships between PSI-SF factors and autism severity, child behavior problems, and parental mental health variables that have been shown to be related to parental stress in previous research. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the three-factor structure described in the PSI-SF manual [Abidin, 1995]: parental distress, parent-child dysfunctional interaction, and difficult child. Results of the CFA indicated that the three-factor structure was unacceptable when applied to the study sample. Thus, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted and suggested a six-factor model as the best alternative for the PSI-SF index. Spearman's correlations revealed significant positive correlations with moderate to large effect sizes between the revised PSI-SF factors and autism severity, externalizing and internalizing child behaviors, and an index of parent mental health. The revised factors represent more narrowly defined aspects of the three original subscales of the PSI-SF and might prove to be advantageous in both research and clinical applications. Autism Res 2011,4:336-346. © 2011 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2011, International Society for Autism Research, Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Development and cognitive testing of the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory in Canada, Switzerland and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvalta, Sibylle; Post, Marcel W M; Charlifue, Susan; Noreau, Luc; Whiteneck, Gale; Dumont, Frédéric S; Reinhardt, Jan D

    2015-08-18

    To develop and pre-test the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory (NEFI), a questionnaire assessing the perceived impact of environmental factors on specific areas of participation (productive life, social life, and community life) experienced by people with spinal cord injury. Thirty-seven participants with spinal cord injury in Canada, Switzerland and the USA. A first draft of the NEFI was developed based on a new theoretical model, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for spinal cord injury, and expert consultation. Three rounds of cognitive testing were conducted to examine participants’ comprehension of the conceptual framework and items, to identify challenges in cross-cultural measurement, and iteratively to refine the questionnaire. Participants were able to differentiate well between environmental factors influencing productive life and those influencing social life or community life, but not between environmental factors influencing social life and community life. Items intended to capture avoidance of participation due to barriers or overcoming of obstacles were generally well understood. For people with spinal cord injury, the NEFI may help to identify limiting and helpful environmental factors, while considering avoiding and overcoming behaviours. Quantitative validation and exploration of the possible use of the NEFI in other diagnostic groups is recommended.

  15. Influence of Risk Factors for Child Disruptive Behavior on Parent Attendance at a Preventive Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…

  16. Using Epidemiological Survey Data to Examine Factors Influencing Participation in Parent-Training Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Dyah Ramadewi, Mikha; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based parent-training programmes aim to reduce child behaviour problems; however, the effects of these programmes are often limited by poor participation rates. This study proposes a model of parent, child and family factors related to parental participation in parenting interventions. A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to…

  17. Parental factors and adolescents' smoking behavior: an extension of the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakeh, Z.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to investigate whether general parenting factors (i.e., quality parent-child relationship, psychological control, strict control, parental knowledge) and parental smoking add to The theory of planned behaviour [Organ Behav. Hum. Dec. 50 (1991) 179] in

  18. Communication and language challenges experienced by Chinese and South Asian immigrant parents of children with cancer in Canada: implications for health services delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Sonia; Watt, Lisa; Shaw, Nicola; Sung, Lillian; Poureslami, Iraj M; Klaassen, Robert; Dix, David; Klassen, Anne F

    2012-04-01

    Language is an important aspect of health literacy and plays a vital role in families' ability to access and use health information and resources. Our study explored the role of communication and language in the healthcare experiences of immigrant parents of children with cancer living in Canada. We used a grounded theory approach. Chinese and South Asian parents of children 6 months post-diagnosis were recruited from six Canadian pediatric oncology centers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Cantonese, Mandarin, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, or English. Questions relevant to communication included: how parents navigated the healthcare system; nature of interpreter services and translated materials; and suggestions about how to improve services. Analysis involved line-by-line, focused and theoretical coding, and constant comparison. Thirty-one (62%) parents reported no difficulty communicating with healthcare providers in English, while 13 (26%) parents struggled with English, and six (12%) parents could not communicate in English. Communication challenges influenced parents' role in caring for their child and made it difficult to learn complex medical terminology. Interpreting services were sometimes inadequate or not accessible. Parents occasionally missed out on services and resources, reported limited availability of linguistically and culturally appropriate information, and experienced a lack of social integration in the healthcare process. Language ability played an essential role in parents' healthcare experiences for pragmatic and social purposes. Language challenges can heighten systemic and socio-cultural barriers to accessing health information and resources. The provision of enhanced culturally and linguistically sensitive services may support immigrant families in their caregiving role. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Development of Physical Activity-Related Parenting Practices Scales for Urban Chinese Parents of Preschoolers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Huang, Wendy Y J; Mellecker, Robin R

    2017-09-01

    Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children's physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers' PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong. Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined. The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child's PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89). We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

  20. Factors associated with discharge destination from acute care after acquired brain injury in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Amy Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to examine factors associated with discharge destination after acquired brain injury in a publicly insured population using the Anderson Behavioral Model as a framework. Methods We utilized a retrospective cohort design. Inpatient data from provincial acute care records from fiscal years 2003/4 to 2006/7 with a diagnostic code of traumatic brain injury (TBI and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI in Ontario, Canada were obtained for the study. Using multinomial logistic regression models, we examined predisposing, need and enabling factors from inpatient records in relation to major discharge outcomes such as discharge to home, inpatient rehabilitation and other institutionalized care. Results Multinomial logistic regression revealed that need factors were strongly correlated with discharge destinations overall. Higher scores on the Charlson Comorbidity Index were associated with discharge to other institutionalized care in the nTBI population. Length of stay and special care days were identified as markers for severity and were both strongly positively correlated with discharge to other institutionalized care and inpatient rehabilitation, compared to discharge home, in both nTBI and TBI populations. Injury by motor vehicle collisions was found to be positively correlated with discharge to inpatient rehabilitation and other institutionalized care for patients with TBI. Controlling for need factors, rural location was associated with discharge to home versus inpatient rehabilitation. Conclusions These findings show that need factors (Charlson Comorbidity Index, length of stay, and number of special care days are most significant in terms of discharge destination. However, there is evidence that other factors such as rural location and access to supplemental insurance (e.g., through motor vehicle insurance may influence discharge destination outcomes as well. These findings should be considered in creating

  1. Second-Hand Smoke Exposure in Canada: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Association with Respiratory And Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Vozoris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure in Canada, to identify sociodemographic risk factors for second-hand smoke exposure, and to examine the relationship between second-hand smoke exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Role of parents as a protective factor against adolescent athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questionnaires were distributed to 1 818 student athletes and their parents. As well as collecting sociodemographic data, information about current sports activity levels and the former sports careers of parents, the following categories were included: (i) knowledge about effects of doping; (ii) parental behaviour; (iii) parental ...

  3. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Langlois, Kellie A; Kohen, Dafna E

    2013-01-01

    Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2-5 years (n=1,234). Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2-5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p0.05). The majority (81%) of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size), living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  4. Which Factors Contribute to Environmental Behaviour of Landowners in Southwestern Ontario, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Silke; Brick, Jeff; Lantz, Van A.; Trenholm, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    Loss of natural heritage is a problem that is particularly prevalent in areas of high population density. We used a survey to understand the factors that drive environmental behavior of landowners in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The survey, which contained questions about environmental attitude, pro-environmental behavior and demographics, was mailed to 18,090 rural route addresses, and we received 3256 completed surveys (18% response rate). Two types of environmental behavior, namely voluntarily increasing the area of land set aside for conservation, and enrollment in a conservation stewardship program, were significantly correlated with a positive attitude towards conservation. Financial considerations also played a role. We showed that the biggest motivator to enroll in a wetland enhancement program was access to `more information on how the decline in wetland area affects them personally', while `public recognition' was the least motivating factor. We suggest that enrollment in voluntary land stewardship programs might be increased by providing information about the effects of ecosystem loss, and by providing financial incentives for participation. In a larger social context, outreach programs by government agencies could focus on improving pro-environmental attitudes, which in turn is likely to result in more pro-environmental behavior of landowners.

  5. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Salivary Gland Cancer in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Yi Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effect of various lifestyle risk factors on the risk of salivary gland cancer in Canada using data from a population-based case-control study. Methods. Data from a population-based case-control study of 132 incident cases of salivary gland cancer and 3076 population controls were collected through self-administered questionnaire and analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Results. Four or more servings/week of processed meat product was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (OR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.62 (1.02–2.58. Nonsignificantly increased ORs were also related to obesity, >7 drinks/week of alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure to radiation. Furthermore, nonsignificantly decreased ORs were found to be associated with high education level (>12 years (OR=0.65, high consumption of spinach/squash (OR=0.62 and all vegetables/vegetable juices (OR=0.75, and >30 sessions/month of recreational physical activity (OR=0.78. Conclusions. This study suggests positive associations with consumption of processed meat, smoking, obesity, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposure to radiation as well as negative associations with higher education, consumption of spinach/squash, and physical activity, which suggest a role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of salivary gland cancer. However, these findings were based on small number of cases and were nonsignificant. Further larger studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  6. Risk factors associated with participation in the Ontario, Canada doctors' strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, R L; Shapiro, M F; Linn, L S; Froelicher, E S

    1989-09-01

    To identify factors associated with participation in the 1986 Ontario, Canada doctors' strike, we surveyed 1,028 physicians; 69 percent responded, of whom 42 percent participated in the strike. Risk factors for participation included income greater than $135,000, being a surgeon or gynecologist, having previously "opted out" of the Ontario Health Insurance Plan, being professionally dissatisfied, being politically conservative, favoring political activism by physicians, holding a positive view of the social consequences of extrabilling, and perceiving family, associates, patients and the public to favor the strike. Eighty percent of strikers, but 32 percent of non-strikers, met criteria we established for four strike-prone groups: the "economically rational," the "ideologically committed," the "professionally disaffected," and the "socially malleable." Respondents belonging to one or more of these groups were much more likely to have participated in the strike (64 percent vs 17 percent). Strategies to deal with physician militancy should address the multiplicity of motives that appeared to have influenced doctors in Ontario.

  7. Childhood adverse life events and parental psychopathology as risk factors for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergink, Veerle; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Hillegers, M H J

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark from 1980 to 1998 (980 554 persons). Adversities before age 15 years were: familial disruption; parental somatic illness; any parental psychopathology; parental labour market exclusion; parental imprisonment; placement in out-of-home care; and parental natural and unnatural death. We calculated......Childhood adverse events are risk factors for later bipolar disorder. We quantified the risks for a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder after exposure to adverse life events in children with and without parental psychopathology. This register-based population cohort study included all persons born...... of the investigated adversities were associated with increased risk for bipolar disorder, exceptions were parental somatic illness and parental natural death. By far the strongest risk factor for bipolar disorder in our study was any mental disorder in the parent (hazard ratio 3.53; 95% confidence interval 2...

  8. Angry responses to infant challenges: parent, marital, and child genetic factors associated with harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajal, Nastassia; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Moore, Ginger; Leve, Leslie; Shaw, Daniel; Harold, Gordon; Scaramella, Laura; Ganiban, Jody; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of adopted 9-month-olds (N = 503), with an emphasis on positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics. Evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) was examined by testing the effect of both positive and negative indices of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents' harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers' harsh parenting was inversely related to birth mother positive temperament, indicating evocative rGE, as well as to marital quality. Adoptive parents' negative temperamental characteristics were related to hostile parenting for both fathers and mothers. Findings support the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Factors associated with the subspecialty choices of internal medicine residents in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorpe Kevin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there are more residents enrolled in cardiology training programs in Canada than in immunology, pharmacology, rheumatology, infectious diseases, geriatrics and endocrinology combined. There is no published data regarding the proportion of Canadian internal medicine residents applying to the various subspecialties, or the factors that residents consider important when deciding which subspecialty to pursue. To address the concern about physician imbalances in internal medicine subspecialties, we need to examine the factors that motivate residents when making career decisions. Methods In this two-phase study, Canadian internal medicine residents participating in the post graduate year 4 (PGY4 subspecialty match were invited to participate in a web-based survey and focus group discussions. The focus group discussions were based on issues identified from the survey results. Analysis of focus group transcripts grew on grounded theory. Results 110 PGY3 residents participating in the PGY4 subspecialty match from 10 participating Canadian universities participated in the web-based survey (54% response rate. 22 residents from 3 different training programs participated in 4 focus groups held across Canada. Our study found that residents are choosing careers that provide intellectual stimulation, are consistent with their personality, and that provide a challenge in diagnosis. From our focus group discussions it appears that lifestyle, role models, mentorship and the experience of the resident with the specialty appear to be equally important in career decisions. Males are more likely to choose procedure based specialties and are more concerned with the reputation of the specialty as well as the anticipated salary. In contrast, residents choosing non-procedure based specialties are more concerned with issues related to lifestyle, including work-related stress, work hours and time for leisure as well as the patient populations

  10. Parent Involvement in School Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Gwynne O; Lengua, Liliana J; McMahon, Robert J

    2000-11-01

    Parent involvement (PI) in school is associated with more positive academic performance and social competence in children. However, there are inadequacies in current measures of PI and a need for a better understanding of predictors of PI. In this study, measures were obtained from a normative sample of 387 children in kindergarten and first grade from high-risk neighborhoods in 4 different sites. First, a confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical factor model of PI identified 6 reliable multiple-reporter PI factors: Parent-Teacher Contact, Parent Involvement at School, Quality of Parent-Teacher Relationship, Teacher's Perception of the Parent, Parent Involvement at Home, and Parent Endorsement of School. Next, the relations among 3 specific family and demographic risk factors-parental education level, maternal depression, and single-parent status-and these 6 PI factors were examined using path analyses in structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the 3 risk factors were differentially associated with the 6 PI factors: Parental education was significantly associated with 4 PI outcomes, maternal depression was significantly associated with 5 PI outcomes, and single-parent status was significantly associated with 3 PI outcomes. No significant ethnic group differences between African American and Caucasian families were found in these relations.

  11. Protective and Risk Factors Associated With Youth Attitudes Toward Violence in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Dana; Steeves, Megan; Feng, Cindy; Farag, Marwa

    2017-10-01

    Adolescents and young adults are the main perpetrators and victims of violence in almost all parts of the world. Theories of human behavior predict that the intention to behave violently is formed in part by the individual's attitude toward violent behavior. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate factors which both promote and protect against violent youth attitudes in Toronto, Canada's largest urban center. Multinomial logit models were fit separately for males and females in Grades 7 to 9 using cross-sectional data from the 2006 International Youth Survey. Odds ratios were estimated for the associations between levels of attitude toward violence and select factors in each of the biological, familial, peer-related, school and community domains. A graded effect of school attachment on violent attitude was observed for both sexes; male and female students who do not like school at all are 9.89 (3.15-31.0) and 6.49 (2.19-19.2) times as likely as those who like school a lot to have the "most" versus "least" violent attitude, respectively. For every one-unit increase in (negative) perception of neighborhood score, male and female students are 1.15 (1.07-1.23) and 1.20 (1.12-1.28) times as likely to have the "most" versus "least" violent attitude. The number of victimization events was associated with attitude toward violence in males but not females, while the reverse was true for academic performance and exposure to prejudice. Our findings highlight the important relationships between connections to social environments and youth attitudes toward violence, and identify modifiable factors which may be amenable to intervention. Sex-specific differences in the predictors of violent youth attitudes warrant additional investigation and have implications for policy design.

  12. Parental Involvement as a Important Factor for Successful Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maša Đurišić; Mila Bunijevac

    2017-01-01

    .... Considering the importance of parents’ participation and involvement in school activities, in this paper, we will analyse the positive effects of parental involvement, summarize leading principles for the successful partnership of parents...

  13. Early Head Start: Factors Associated with Caregiver Knowledge of Child Development, Parenting Behavior, and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Watkins, Katara; Johnson, Elizabeth; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the role of socioeconomic status, parental mental health, and knowledge of child development on parenting styles and perceived parenting stress in caregivers of children, ages 3 months to 3 years, enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS). Caregivers of EHS students were interviewed using the Knowledge of Infant Development…

  14. Survey of Parents in a Predominately Latino Elementary School to Determine Factors that Affect Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstab, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Present research has shown that parental involvement has a large effect on student achievement. The current study utilized both casual-comparative and correlation methodology and identified variables that influence parental involvement. A review of literature with respect to parental involvement was presented. The study utilized survey data from…

  15. Perceived Parental Disorders as Risk Factors for Child Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... self-rating questionnaire in a classroom setting. The questionnaire asked questions about perceived parental disorders, and childhood sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Logistic Regression Analysis shows that among all the participants, `parent haven gone into a psychiatric hospital for psychiatric problems', `parent ...

  16. Substance Use Attitudes among Urban Black Adolescents: The Role of Parent, Peer, and Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; Fisher, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the influence of perceived parental, peer, and cultural factors on Black American adolescent attitudes toward substance use. One-hundred-eight Black American youth (grades 9-12) from economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods of New York, completed self-report measures on: (a) parent-child involvement, parental supervision,…

  17. Gender Differences in Factors Related to Parenting Styles: A Study of High Performing Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Carol; Lewko, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Examined parenting styles within families of high performing science students and explored gender differences in the factors associated with authoritative parenting style. Found that the authoritative parenting style was predominant among study participants and that a greater number of family-related variables emerge for females, whereas more…

  18. Gender Differences in Factors Associated with How Parents Communicate with School in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Chin, Meejung

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored different factors that were associated with mothers' and fathers' choice between two forms of parent-school communication: school briefing sessions and parent-teacher conferences. A total of 585 parents--295 mothers and 290 fathers from different households--who had at least one child enrolled in middle school in Korea were…

  19. Factors Mediating Dysphoric Moods and Help Seeking Behaviour among Australian Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Matthew; Donnelly, James

    2016-01-01

    This study compared levels of state affect, dysphoric mood, and parenting sense of competence in Australian parents of children with or without autism. The effects of personality and location on the parents' experience were also examined, while controlling for current affect. Possible relationships among personality, location factors and…

  20. The Factors Predicting Stress, Anxiety and Depression in the Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nicholas Henry; Norris, Kimberley; Quinn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The factors predicting stress, anxiety and depression in the parents of children with autism remain poorly understood. In this study, a cohort of 250 mothers and 229 fathers of one or more children with autism completed a questionnaire assessing reported parental mental health problems, locus of control, social support, perceived parent-child…

  1. Parental Factors that Influence the Career Development of College-Bound African American High School Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Shenice S.

    2010-01-01

    Parents have been identified as being the most influential factor upon their children career development. There are various factors that influence the career development of individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to identify parental factors that influence the career development of college-bound African American…

  2. Risk factors for milk off-flavours in dairy herds from Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounchili, A; Wichtel, J J; Dohoo, I R; Keefe, G P; Halliday, L J

    2004-07-16

    A sudden increase in the incidence of milk off-flavours in bulk tank milk from Prince Edward Island (Canada) dairy farms in the late 1990s prompted an investigation of potential herd-level risk factors. A prospective case-control study was conducted from 2000 to 2002. Data on herd management were obtained by questionnaire and field investigation from all the 62 identified off-flavour positive farms (cases) and 62 loosely matched (for data-collection convenience) off-flavour negative farms (controls). Forty-three of the 62 cases (69%) of milk off-flavours identified during the study period were classified as "transmitted" (feed) off-flavours, and 9 (15%), 6 (10%), and 4 (6%) as "rancid", "oxidized" and "malty" off-flavours, respectively. Given this evidence and the relatively low incidence of other flavour defects in milk, only transmitted-flavour cases were considered in the analyses of risk factors. Poor air quality in the lactating cows' barn (OR = 40.8), using baled silage as the main forage (OR = 10.6), as well as feeding roughage before milking (OR = 253.3) or as a free choice (OR = 3.2) all were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with the incidence of transmitted flavours in bulk-tank milk. Clipping the hair on the cows' udder (OR = 0.07) and changing the bedding material more than once a day (OR = 0.12) were protective. The finding about feeding baled silage before milking has raised hypotheses about silage composition (in particular the off-flavour compounds or their precursors) and also about the process of silage making itself.

  3. Risk factors associated with fatal injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses competing in flat racing in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Stamatis P; Parkin, Tim D H

    2016-10-15

    OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors associated with fatal injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses in the United States and Canada. DESIGN Retrospective study. ANIMALS 1,891,483 race starts by 154,527 Thoroughbred racehorses at 89 racetracks in the United States and Canada from 2009 to 2013. PROCEDURES Data were extracted from the Equine Injury Database, which contained information for 93.9% of all official flat racing events in the United States and Canada during the 5-year observation period. Forty-four possible risk factors were evaluated by univariate then multivariable logistic regression to identify those that were significantly associated with fatal injury (death or euthanasia of a horse within 3 days after sustaining an injury during a race). RESULTS 3,572 race starts ended with a fatal injury, resulting in a period incidence rate of 1.9 fatal injuries/1,000 race starts. Twenty-two risk factors were significantly associated with fatal injury. Risk of fatal injury was greater for stallions than for mares and geldings and increased as the number of previous nonfatal injuries and race withdrawals and level of competitiveness (eg, horse's winning percentage and race purse) of the horse or race increased. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results identified several risk factors associated with fatal injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses. This information can be used as a guideline for the identification of racehorses at high risk of sustaining a fatal injury and in the design and implementation of preventative measures to minimize the number of fatal injuries sustained by horses competing in flat racing in the United States and Canada.

  4. Parenting satisfaction during the immediate postpartum period: factors contributing to mothers' and fathers' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anne H; Kaunonen, Marja; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Isoaho, Hannu; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu

    2010-06-01

    To compare mothers' and fathers' parenting satisfaction; to identify factors contributing to their parenting satisfaction; and to evaluate the effect of these factors. Parenting satisfaction is important for parents' motivation to care, nurture and interact with their child. Parenting is influenced by attributes of parent, infant and the environment. However, more research is needed to understand the contributing factors. Parenting satisfaction and several parent, infant and environment attributes were measured at hospital or in one week of discharge. A total of 2600 questionnaires were handed out to a convenience sample of Finnish speaking parents in two hospitals during the winter of 2006. Multiple-birth and early-discharge parents receiving support at home were excluded. Responses were received from 863 mothers (66%) and 525 fathers (40%). Comparisons were made by percentages and means. Significances were determined by GEE models and One Way anova tests. Pearson's and Spearman's correlations were used to determine correlations and multiple regression analysis to clarify the effect size. Mothers were more satisfied than fathers with their parenting. Self-concept, depressive symptoms, infant centrality, state of mind on discharge and perception of infant contributed most to parenting satisfaction. Family functioning, health and advice from personnel were major contributory factors as well. Hospital practices and social support from personnel did not correlate with parenting satisfaction. More research is recommended to evaluate them, since they had an effect when combined with other attributes. Our results will help professionals understand the experiences, resources and challenges faced by parents. Family-oriented care and sound advice have the potential to offer the most supportive environment for both parents. If professionals can identify mothers who are afraid, concerned or insecure during pregnancy, they can also offer them extra support before the child is

  5. Workplace System Factors of Obstetric Nurses in Northeastern Ontario, Canada: Using a Work Disability Prevention Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; Larivère, Michel; Rukholm, Ellen; Belanger-Gardner, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship nursing personal and workplace system factors (work disability) and work ability index scores in Ontario, Canada. Methods A total of 111 registered nurses were randomly selected from the total number of registered nurses on staff in the labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum areas of four northeastern Ontario hospitals. Using a stratified random design approach, 51 participants were randomly selected in four northeastern Ontario cities. Results A total of 51 (45.9% response rate) online questionnaires were returned and another 60 (54.1% response rate) were completed using the paper format. The obstetric workforce in northeastern Ontario was predominately female (94.6%) with a mean age of 41.9 (standard deviation = 10.2). In the personal systems model, three variables: marital status (p = 0.025), respondent ethnicity (p = 0.026), and mean number of patients per shift (p = 0.049) were significantly contributed to the variance in work ability scores. In the workplace system model, job and career satisfaction (p = 0.026) had a positive influence on work ability scores, while work absenteeism (p = 0.023) demonstrated an inverse relationship with work ability scores. In the combined model, all the predictors were significantly related to work ability scores. Conclusion Work ability is closely related to job and career satisfaction, and perceived control at work among obstetric nursing. In order to improve work ability, nurses need to work in environments that support them and allow them to be engaged in the decision-making processes. PMID:26929842

  6. Examining local-level factors shaping school nutrition policy implementation in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, Michelle M; Elliott, Susan J

    2014-06-01

    Increasing numbers of overweight and obese youth draw attention to the school as an important setting for targeted nutrition interventions, given that it is where they spend a majority of their waking time. The objective of the present study was to explore local-level factors shaping the implementation of a school nutrition policy. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in person or via the telephone (a maximum of 60 min). An interview guide was informed by the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework, research objectives and literature. Key themes centred on policy implementation, including facilitators and barriers (i.e. resources, capacity), user satisfaction (i.e. students) and communication strategies. Secondary schools in Ontario, Canada. Twenty-two participants from local agencies supporting school nutrition programming (n 8) and secondary-school principals, vice principals and teachers (n 14) from nine schools across three Ontario school boards. Results are organized according to environments outlined in the ANGELO framework. The cost of healthy food for sale, revenue loss (economic), proximity of schools to off-site food outlets (physical), the restrictive nature of policy, the role of key stakeholders (political), the role of stigma and school culture (sociocultural) act as local-level barriers to policy implementation. Gaps in policy implementation include the high cost of food for sale and subsequent revenue generation, the close proximity of internal and external food environments, the need for consultation and communication between stakeholders, and strategies to reduce stigma and improve the school nutrition culture.

  7. Remote population-based intervention for disruptive behavior at age four: study protocol for a randomized trial of Internet-assisted parent training (Strongest Families Finland-Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Patrick J; Sourander, Andre; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Ristkari, Terja; Cunningham, Charles; Huttunen, Jukka; Filbert, Katharine; Aromaa, Minna; Corkum, Penny; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Lampi, Katja; Penttinen, Anne; Sinokki, Atte; Unruh, Anita; Vuorio, Jenni; Watters, Carolyn

    2013-10-21

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent-child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child's sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using parental and daycare teacher measures

  8. Second-hand smoke exposure in Canada: prevalence, risk factors, and association with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozoris, Nicholas; Lougheed, M Diane

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure in Canada, to identify sociodemographic risk factors for second-hand smoke exposure, and to examine the relationship between second-hand smoke exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Data from the 2000/2001 Statistics Canada Canadian Community Health Survey (n=130,880, aged 12 years or older) were analyzed. Second-hand smoke exposure was based on self-report within the past month. The presence of chronic health conditions was also based on self-report. Because ex-smokers would be expected a priori to have poorer health than never-smokers, the analysis was stratified by previous smoking status. Approximately 25% of never-smokers and 30% of ex-smokers self-reported recent second-hand smoke exposure. The following factors were identified as risk factors for second-hand smoke exposure: men; residences in Quebec, Atlantic Canada and the Territories; younger ages; nonimmigrant status; low education and income levels; social assistance receipt; and households without children younger than 12 years of age. After controlling for potential confounders, both never- and ex-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke had significantly higher odds of self-reporting asthma (20% to 30%) and chronic bronchitis (50%) than those not exposed to second-hand smoke. Among ex-smokers, those exposed to second-hand smoke also had significantly higher odds of self-reporting hypertension (20%) than those not exposed to second-hand smoke. No associations were observed between second-hand smoke exposure and emphysema or heart disease. Self-reported recent second-hand smoke exposure in Canada in 2000/2001 was high, and was associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis and hypertension in never- and ex-smokers. Potential causal associations and public health implications warrant additional research.

  9. Childhood adverse life events and parental psychopathology as risk factors for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergink, Veerle; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Hillegers, M H J

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adverse events are risk factors for later bipolar disorder. We quantified the risks for a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder after exposure to adverse life events in children with and without parental psychopathology. This register-based population cohort study included all persons born...... in Denmark from 1980 to 1998 (980 554 persons). Adversities before age 15 years were: familial disruption; parental somatic illness; any parental psychopathology; parental labour market exclusion; parental imprisonment; placement in out-of-home care; and parental natural and unnatural death. We calculated.......73-4.53) and the additional effects of life events on bipolar risk were limited. An effect of early adverse life events on bipolar risk later in life was mainly observed in children without parental psychopathology. Our findings do not exclude early-life events as possible risk factors, but challenge the concept...

  10. Familial Risk Factors to Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Parental Psychopathology and Maternal Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In sample of 177 clinic-referred children aged 7-13, association was found between diagnosis of conduct disorder and several aspects of family functioning: maternal parenting (supervision and persistence in discipline) and parent adjustment (paternal antisocial personality disorder and paternal substance abuse). Children with oppositional defiant…

  11. Parents Role and Home Environment as Factors of Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study surveyed parental and environmental contributions to the development of reading skills of Junior Secondary School Students in Gwagwalada Area Council of Abuja, Nigeria. The sample for the study involved 200 respondents, consisting of 50 Parents and 150 Junior Secondary School Students. Data collected ...

  12. Parental Consent: Factors Influencing Adolescent Disclosure Regarding Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin-Carlson, Mary S.; Mackin, Kathleen J.

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed 439 women (ages 12-21) seeking abortions concerning support networks they used during their pregnancy. Fifty-one percent reported having confided in their parents. Results revealed that degree of financial and emotional dependence and quality and nature of family communication were closely related to decisions to confide in parents about…

  13. Role of parents as a protective factor against adolescent athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information about current sports activity levels and the former sports careers of parents, the following categories were included: (i) knowledge about effects ... several researchers have identified parents as 'sport socialisation agents',[8 ..... West-Austrian sport teachers' and coaches' knowledge, attitude and behavior. Dtsch Z.

  14. Factors that Hinder Parents from the Communicating of Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parent-adolescent communication about sexual matters is one of the means that encourages adolescents to adopt responsible sexual behaviour. However, parents do not discuss sexual matters with adolescents and those who discuss to some extent; little information about sexuality is provided. This study, was, therefore ...

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analyses Comparing Parental Involvement Frameworks with Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Lambert, Matthew C.; January, Stacy-Ann A.; Huscroft D'Angelo, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Given the lack of research on measurement models used to operationalize parental involvement with secondary students, the goal of this research is to examine the measurement properties of the three-domain conceptualization of parental involvement including school-based involvement, home-based involvement, and academic socialization, compared to a…

  16. Socio-Demographic Factors As Predictor Of Parents' Perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 38-item self-report Parents-of-Adolescents HIV and AIDS/Sexuality Education Attitudinal questionnaire (r = 0.71) was adopted for data collection. Descriptive statistics and Multiple Regression analysis were used for data processing. Results revealed that the eight independent variables jointly predicted parents' ...

  17. What Matters Most: Factors Influencing the University Application Choice Decisions of Korean International Students and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Breanna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors influencing Korean parents' and students' university application choice decisions in three international schools in the Republic of Korea (South). Institutional and individual factors that influenced Korean students' university application choice decisions and their parents' university application…

  18. Parent Involvement in School: Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Gwynne O.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the association between parental involvement (PI) and children's positive academic performance and social competence. Study examines the relations between a set of family and demographic risk factors and PI. Results reveal different patterns of relations between the risk factors studied-parental education, maternal depression, and…

  19. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN...... Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2...... years after death of the offspring. Adjusted relative rates (ARRs) were generated by generalized estimating equation models and adjusted for confounding factors. SETTING Manitoba, Canada. PARTICIPANTS All identifiable parents who had an offspring die by suicide between 1996 and 2007 (n = 1415). MAIN...

  20. Childhood adverse life events and parental psychopathology as risk factors for bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergink, V; Larsen, J T; Hillegers, M H J; Dahl, S K; Stevens, H; Mortensen, P B; Petersen, L; Munk-Olsen, T

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adverse events are risk factors for later bipolar disorder. We quantified the risks for a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder after exposure to adverse life events in children with and without parental psychopathology. This register-based population cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1980 to 1998 (980 554 persons). Adversities before age 15 years were: familial disruption; parental somatic illness; any parental psychopathology; parental labour market exclusion; parental imprisonment; placement in out-of-home care; and parental natural and unnatural death. We calculated risk estimates of each of these eight life events as single exposure and risk estimates for exposure to multiple life events. Main outcome variable was a diagnosis of bipolar disorder after the age of 15 years, analysed with Cox proportional hazard regression. Single exposure to most of the investigated adversities were associated with increased risk for bipolar disorder, exceptions were parental somatic illness and parental natural death. By far the strongest risk factor for bipolar disorder in our study was any mental disorder in the parent (hazard ratio 3.53; 95% confidence interval 2.73–4.53) and the additional effects of life events on bipolar risk were limited. An effect of early adverse life events on bipolar risk later in life was mainly observed in children without parental psychopathology. Our findings do not exclude early-life events as possible risk factors, but challenge the concept of adversities as important independent determinants of bipolar disorder in genetically vulnerable individuals. PMID:27779625

  1. Factors Associated With Whether Pediatricians Inquire About Parents' Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Moira; Kerker, Bonnie D; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Stein, Ruth E K; Garner, Andrew; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; McCue Horwitz, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Cumulative adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can have profound and lasting effects on parenting. Parents with a history of multiple ACE have greater challenges modulating their own stress responses and helping their children adapt to life stressors. We examined pediatric practice in inquiring about parents' childhood adversities as of 2013. Using data from the 85th Periodic Survey of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), we restricted analyses to the 302 pediatricians exclusively practicing general pediatrics who answered questions regarding their beliefs about childhood stressors, their role in advising parents, and whether they asked about parents' ACEs. Weighted descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Despite endorsing the influence of positive parenting on a child's life-course trajectory (96%), that their advice can impact parenting skills (79%), and that screening for social-emotional risks is within their scope of practice (81%), most pediatricians (61%) did not inquire about parents' ACE. Pediatricians who believed that their advice influences positive parenting skills inquired about more parents' ACE. As of 2013, few pediatricians inquired about parents' ACEs despite recognizing their negative impact on parenting behaviors and child development. Research is needed regarding the best approaches to the prevention and amelioration of ACEs and the promotion of family and child resilience. Pediatricians need resources and education about the AAP's proposed dyadic approach to assessing family and child risk factors and strengths and to providing guidance and management. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. La agresividad en la infancia: el estilo de crianza parental como factor relacionado Aggression in childhood: Parenting style as related factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Raya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente estudio se propone analizar la posible relación existente entre la agresividad en los niños medida por sus padres a través del BASC (Sistema de Evaluación de la Conducta de Niños y Adolescentes y el estilo de crianza según el PCRI (Cuestionario de Crianza Parental compuesto por siete factores: apoyo, satisfacción con la crianza, compromiso, comunicación, disciplina, autonomía y distribución de rol, en una muestra de 338 niños (182 niños y 156 niñas entre 3 y 14 años. Los resultados muestran la existencia de una relación significativa entre la agresividad en los niños y la mayoría de los factores del estilo de crianza parental. Además se establece un modelo capaz de predecir el 27% de la varianza con respecto a la agresividad en los niños, compuesto por la disciplina de ambos progenitores, el compromiso y la satisfacción con la crianza de los padres y la autonomía de las madres. Finalmente se discute la utilidad de estos resultados para el planteamiento de estrategias de intervención en el ámbito familiar basadas en el estilo disciplinario.


    Palabras clave: Agresividad, padres, estilo parental, disciplina.
    Aggression

    This current study proposes to analyse the possible relationship which exists between aggression in children reported by parents through the BASC (Behaviour Assessment System for Children, and the parenting style according to the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory composed of seven factors such as support, satisfaction with parenting, involvement, communication, limit setting, autonomy granting, and role orientation, in a sample of 338 children (182 male & 156 female between 3 and 14 years old. The results show the existence of a significant relationship between aggression in children and the majority of the parenting factors. Furthermore, a model is established which is able to predict 27% of the variance with respect to aggression in children, made

  3. Associations of contextual risk and protective factors with fathers' parenting practices in the postdeployment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S

    2015-08-01

    Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of postdeployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 postdeployed fathers who served in the National Guard/Reserves. Preintervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools randomized control trial. Parenting practices were obtained from direct observation of father-child interaction and included measures of problem solving, harsh discipline, positive involvement, encouragement, and monitoring. Risk factors included combat exposure, negative life events, months deployed, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Protective factors included education, income, dyadic adjustment, and social support. Results of a structural equation model assessing risk and protective factors for an effective parenting construct indicated that months deployed, income, and father age were most related to observed parenting, explaining 16% of the variance. We are aware of no other study using direct parent-child observations of fathers' parenting skills following overseas deployment. Implications for practice and preventive intervention are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Exploring parental factors related to weight management in survivors of childhood central nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Diane; Swartz, Maria C; Markham, Christine; Chandra, Joya; McCurdy, Sheryl; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Childhood central nervous system tumor survivors (CCNSTS) are at risk for adverse health issues. Little research has been conducted to explore the role of parental factors in weight management to mitigate adverse health outcomes. We conducted 9 group interviews (n=20) with CCNSTS, their parents, and health care providers to ascertain parental factors that may influence weight management practices in CCNSTS. Three main themes were identified: parenting style, parent-child connectedness, and food and physical activity (PA) environment. Although most parents adopted an authoritative parenting style related to diet and PA practices, some adopted a permissive parenting style. Participants expressed high levels of connection that may hinder the development of peer relationships and described the food and PA environments that promote or hinder weight management through parental modeling of healthy eating and PA and access to healthy food and activities. Weight management interventions for CCNSTS may experience greater benefit from using a family-focused approach, promoting positive food and PA environments, parental modeling of healthy eating and exercise, and partnering with youth to adopt weight management behaviors.

  5. Understanding the Importance of Relationships: Perspective of Children with Intellectual Disabilities, Their Parents, and Nurses in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Megan; Breau, Lynn; MacLeod, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Effective and therapeutic relationships between health care providers and clients are important elements for positive health outcomes. Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and their parents face unique challenges in establishing relationships with health care providers due to social and institutional stigma and stereotypes associated with…

  6. Cultural beliefs and coping strategies related to childhood cancer: the perceptions of South Asian immigrant parents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananya Tina; Watt, Lisa; Gulati, Sonia; Sung, Lillian; Dix, David; Klassen, Robert; Klassen, Anne F

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe cultural beliefs and coping strategies related to dealing with childhood cancer identified through a qualitative study of the caregiving experiences of first-generation South Asian immigrant parents of children with cancer. A constructivist grounded theory approach was employed. Families with a child at least 6 months postdiagnosis were recruited from 5 Canadian pediatric oncology centers. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted in English, Hindi, Punjabi, or Urdu with a sample of 25 South Asian parents. Analysis of interviews involved line-by-line coding and using the constant comparison method. The following 2 central themes related to culture and coping emerged: (a) cultural beliefs about childhood cancer being incurable, rare, unspeakable, and understood through religion and (b) parental coping strategies included gaining information about the child's cancer, practicing religious rituals and prayers, trusting the health care professionals, and obtaining mutual support from other South Asian parents. These cultural beliefs and coping strategies have important implications for health care providers to understand the variations in the perceptions of childhood cancer and coping in order to implement culturally sensitive health care services.

  7. Parental stress, harsh treatment and parental monitoring as factors associated with aggressive behaviour[Estrés parental, trato rudo y monitoreo como factores asociados a la conducta agresiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivón Paola Guevara Marín

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the joint contribution of three parenting practices in the explanation of aggressive behavior. The main interest was to investigate the associations between these factors, the socioeconomic status, and the differences between the reports provided by parents in regards to the aggressive behavior of their children. The sample included 256 couples whose children were teenagers with an age range between 12 and 18 years old. The results show that parental stress, the harsh treatment, and monitoring are significantly associated with aggressive behavior of children. Parental stress was the factor with the highest degree of prediction. Significant differences were found for the three factors in high and low socioeconomic levels, but in medium and high were not. As for the versions of the parents, there were no significant differences in stress and rough management, but monitoring.

  8. The alienation of affection toward parents and influential factors in Chinese left-behind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Q; Yang, G; Hu, C; Wang, L; Liu, K; Guang, Y; Zhang, R; Xu, S; Liu, B; Yang, Y; Feng, Z

    2017-01-01

    Although alienation toward parents is important for children (for current mental health status or later interpersonal relationships in adulthood), it is undervalued and even lacks a standardized tool of assessment. Moreover, the large number of left-behind children in China is a cause of public concern. However, their experienced alienation toward their parents remains unclear, which may be important for early detection or intervention for behavioral problems in this population. Hence, the current study aimed to develop an alienation inventory for children and then use it to investigate the experienced alienation toward parents in Chinese left-behind children. Two studies were carried out. Study 1 was designed to develop a standard inventory of alienation toward parents (IAP). In study 2, 8361 children and adolescents (6704 of them were left-behind status) of the Chongqing area, aged between 8 and 19 years old, were recruited for investigation. All participants were surveyed with a standard sociodemographic questionnaire, children's cognitive style questionnaire, children's depression inventory, adolescent self-rating life events checklist, and newly built IAP in study 1. In study 1, we developed a two-component (communication and emotional distance) and 18-item (9 items for maternal or paternal form, respectively) IAP questionnaire. In study 2, exploratory factor analysis indicated an expected two-factor structure of IAP, which was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients showed a good reliability (0.887 and 0.821 for maternal and paternal form, respectively). Children with absent mother experienced the highest alienation toward parents. Boys as well as children aged 8-10 years old experienced higher alienation toward parents. Poor communication with parents (sparse or no connection), level of left-behind condition (parents divorced, been far away from parents), and psychosocial vulnerability (stressful life events, negative

  9. The influence of gender, parents and background factors on Grade 7 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the contribution of parents, economic resources and cultural factors on Grade 7 students' beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics. No gender differences were found, but age, geolocation, number of siblings, education of parent, and possession of economic resources were statistically significant ...

  10. Parents of children with cerebral palsy : a review of factors related to the process of adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentinck, I. C. M.; Ketelaar, M.; Jongmans, M. J.; Gorter, J. W.

    Background Little is known about the way parents adapt to the situation when their child is diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Methods A literature search was performed to gain a deeper insight in the process of adaptation of parents with a child with cerebral palsy and on factors related to this

  11. The relations between parents’ big five personality factors and parenting: a meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Dekovic, M.; Reijntjes, A.H.A.; Belsky, J.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the association between Big Five personality factors and three dimensions of parenting-warmth, behavioral control, and autonomy support- the authors conducted meta-analyses using 5,853 parent-child dyads that were included in 30 studies. Effect sizes were significant and robust across

  12. Anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors in parents and child obesity in Segamat, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partap, Uttara; Young, Elizabeth H; Allotey, Pascale; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2017-10-01

    There is little evidence regarding risk factors for child obesity in Asian populations, including the role of parental anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors. We examined the relation between parental risk factors and child obesity in a Malaysian population. We used data from health and demographic surveillance conducted by the South East Asia Community Observatory in Segamat, Malaysia. Analyses included 9207 individuals (4806 children, 2570 mothers and 1831 fathers). Child obesity was defined based on the World Health Organization 2007 reference. We assessed the relation between parental anthropometric (overweight, obesity and central obesity) and cardiometabolic (systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension and hyperglycaemia) risk factors and child obesity, using mixed effects Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. We found a high burden of overweight and obesity among children in this population (30% overweight or obese). Children of one or more obese parents had a 2-fold greater risk of being obese compared with children of non-obese parents. Sequential adjustment for parental and child characteristics did not materially affect estimates (fully adjusted relative risk for obesity in both parents: 2.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.82, 3.10, P obesity. Parental obesity was strongly associated with child obesity in this population. Further exploration of the behavioural and environmental drivers of these associations may help inform strategies addressing child obesity in Asia.

  13. Parent/Student Risk and Protective Factors in Understanding Early Adolescent's Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Willis, Don

    2016-01-01

    This article's aim is to examine correlates of middle school students' body mass index (BMI). Little research simultaneously has considered both child and parent correlates in predicting child's BMI; we examine the interrelationships between middle school students and their parent's risks and protective factors and their impact on the child's BMI.…

  14. Parental Characteristics, Ecological Factors, and the Academic Achievement of African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…

  15. Clinician and Parent Perspectives on Parent and Family Contextual Factors that Impact Community Mental Health Services for Children with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The present study employed qualitative methods to examine multiple stakeholder perspectives regarding the role of parent and family contextual factors on community child mental health treatment for children with behavior problems. Findings suggest agreement between clinicians and parents on the number, types and importance of parent and family…

  16. Factors that Hinder Parents from the Communicating of Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parent-adolescent communication about sexual matters is one of the means that encourages adolescents to adopt responsible sexual behaviour ... in communication including reproductive health matters. Despite the efforts by these .... Then, knowledge variables were dichotomized into right or wrong responses and overall ...

  17. Parenting and demographic factors as predictors of adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies associated conduct disorder among adolescents with great societal damage. It has been shown by researchers to have multifactorial causation which includes numerous facets of family unit. This study examined mother and fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and demographic ...

  18. assessment of factors determining parents' preference for private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UMOINYANG

    highly patronized by parents who were influenced by pride of school ownership, effective monitoring of school activities by proprietors, high level of students achievement among other .... accredited private secondary schools (both urban and rural) in the state who have written the. Senior School Certificate Examinations ...

  19. [Prevalence and influencing factors on psychological violence from parents to child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Q; Jin, Y C; Li, J Y; Feng, Y N; Zhao, X X; Yu, B Y; Zhang, W J

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of psychological violence against children by parents and to explore possible influencing factors. In two primary schools from a city, located in the northeast part of China, 1 164 parents of the pupils from grade 1 to 6, were anonymously surveyed by a self-administered questionnaire, to analyze the situation of psychological violence and influencing factors. Of the 1 164 parents, 78.1% reported that they practised psychological violence towards their children. Compared with girls, boys were more psychologically maltreated by their parents (81.3% vs. 74.7%,Ppsychological violence against children: child being male (OR=1.684); initiated by the mother (OR=1.640), parents experiences of psychologically violent victimization (OR=2.064) during their childhood, supportive or tolerant attitudes towards corporal punishment (OR=2.618) from the parents, low awareness of the harmfulness of psychological violence against children (OR=1.666) of the parents, and lower social economic status (OR=1.745) of the family, etc. Psychological violence experienced by the parents appeared very common. Prevention programs on psychological violence should be strengthened to increase the awareness of parents on this serious problem.

  20. Parental factors and adolescents' smoking behavior: an extension of The theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; Vermulst, Ad A; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2004-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether general parenting factors (i.e., quality parent-child relationship, psychological control, strict control, parental knowledge) and parental smoking add to The theory of planned behaviour [Organ Behav. Hum. Dec. 50 (1991) 179] in predicting the onset of smoking. A mediation model is applied in which parental factors affect smoking behavior indirectly by affecting smoking cognitions (i.e., attitude, self-efficacy, and social norm). The model was tested in a longitudinal study on 1,070 adolescents, aged 10-14 years old. Structural equation models (SEM) on current and on future smoking behavior were tested. The findings showed that the quality of the parent-child relationship and parental knowledge affected adolescents' smoking behavior indirectly, while parental smoking behavior had a direct effect. Strict control and psychological control were found to be unrelated to adolescents' smoking onset. In prevention campaigns, parents should be informed of the extent to which they exert influence on their child's smoking behavior and should be given advice and information on how they can prevent their children from starting to smoke.

  1. Factors influencing parental decision making about stimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rana; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Aslani, Parisa

    2013-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pediatric psychological condition commonly treated with stimulant medications. Negative media reports and stigmatizing societal attitudes surrounding the use of these medications make it difficult for parents of affected children to accept stimulant treatment, despite it being first line therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence parental decision making regarding stimulant treatment for ADHD. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies: 1) that employed qualitative methodology, 2) that highlighted treatment decision(s) about stimulant medication, 3) in which the decision(s) were made by the parent of a child with an official ADHD diagnosis, and 4) that examined the factors affecting the decision(s) made. Individual factors influencing parental treatment decision making, and the major themes encompassing these factors, were identified and followed by a thematic analysis. Eleven studies reporting on the experiences of 335 parents of children with ADHD were included. Four major themes encompassing influences on parents' decisions were derived from the thematic analysis performed: confronting the diagnosis, external influences, apprehension regarding therapy, and experience with the healthcare system. The findings of this systematic review reveal that there are multiple factors that influence parents' decisions about stimulant therapy. This information can assist clinicians in enhancing information delivery to parents of children with ADHD, and help reduce parental ambivalence surrounding stimulant medication use. Future work needs to address parental concerns about stimulants, and increase their involvement in shared decision making with clinicians to empower them to make the most appropriate treatment decision for their child.

  2. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Investigation of the Factors Related to Low Parent-Adolescent Attachment Security in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Jung; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chen, Yi-Chang; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2017-09-01

    Adolescence may involve increases in many behavioral problems and psychosocial maladaptation. Adolescents must successfully cope with these challenges to achieve positive developmental milestones. To investigate whether low parental attachment security among adolescents in Taiwan is associated with their demographic characteristics, psychosocial maladaptation, and depression. A cross-sectional survey. A total of 335 adolescents completed the questionnaires. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Chinese version of the Youth Self-Report, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II were used to survey the participants. Correlation and multiple linear regressions, using low attachment security as the response variable, were used in the statistical analysis. The prevalence of Taiwanese adolescents with low parental attachment security was 38.5%. Low parental attachment security in adolescents was significantly associated with parental remarriage status and psychosocial maladaptation. By considering these risk factors, nursing educators and nurses could develop effective interventions to strengthen parent-adolescent attachment security.

  4. Risk factors for bulimia nervosa: a controlled study of parental psychiatric illness and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumann, C E; Yates, W R

    1994-01-01

    Twenty five women with normal-weight bulimia nervosa were compared with 25 age- and weight-matched women without bulimia nervosa on measures of parental psychiatric illness. Case and control probands, as well as their parents, completed the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria (FH-RDC) interview and a battery of self-report instruments. Case probands and controls were divided into two groups based on evidence for parental psychiatric illness. The assignment of parental psychiatric illness was made by (a) a positive parental history of alcoholism or depression from the FH-RDC; or (b) evidence of parental major depression, alcoholism, or personality disorder from the self-report measures. Parental psychiatric illness occurred significantly more frequently for case probands compared to the control probands (64% vs. 24%, odds ratio = 5.6, 95% Cl = 1.7-19.2). Parental psychiatric illness was also associated with parental divorce (Fisher's exact p = .023) and a trend toward lower ratings of paternal but not maternal relationship by case probands. This study suggests parental psychiatric illness may be a risk factor for bulimia nervosa and may contribute to environmental effects through increased rates of divorce and impaired paternal relationships.

  5. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  6. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Langlois, Kellie A.; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234). Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (psweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05). The majority (81%) of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size), living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada. PMID:23620871

  7. Academic failure and child-to-parent violence: Family protective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun Ibabe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioural problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision and penalty show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  8. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  9. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  10. Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, SL; Wentzel, K; Elliott, MN; Dittus, PJ; Kanouse, DE; Wallander, JL; Pasch, KE; Franzini, L.; Taylor, WC; Qureshi, T; Franklin, FA; Schuster, MA

    2013-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders' body image discrepancy, phy sical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child's sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as t...

  11. [Being raised by lesbian parents or in a single-parent family is no risk factor for problem behavior, however being raised as an adopted child is].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, F C; Versluis-den Bieman, H O; Balmus, N C

    1997-03-01

    Modern reproductive techniques and alternative family structures (with single or homosexual parents and adoption situations) raise questions about the consequences for the growing children involved. Genetic links appear to be less important for the functioning of a family than a strong wish for parenthood; parents who have become parents only through great efforts display a better quality of parenthood than average natural parents. Characteristics of the parent/parents, such as paedagogic qualities, and the quality of the parent-child relationship appear more important than the type of family. Published results of research reveal no reason why lesbian families should be judged differently from heterosexual ones as family types for the raising of children. The main negative factor for the functioning of the child growing up in a single-parent family is the marriage conflicts that have led to the single-parent situation; being raised by a single parent in itself has no adverse effect. Raising adopted children from other countries makes far greater demands on the adoptive parents than parents of biological children have to meet. The raising of a foreign adopted child by a single parent entails additional risks for the child's development. Data on the development of children in alternative family structures frequently concern exceptionally competent parents, which may have biased the findings.

  12. Maternal Employment and Parenting Through Middle Childhood: Contextualizing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion; Swartout, Kevin M.; Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01

    The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) to examine maternal work hour status and parenting (sensitivity and learning opportunities) from infancy through middle childhood. Work hour status was conceptualized as nonemployment, part time, and full time. Adjusting for covariates, mothers employed part time had higher sensitivity scores and higher provision of child learning opportunity scores than did mothers who were not employed, and these differences characterized families during early childhood rather than middle childhood. Mothers’ provision of child learning opportunities was greater when employed full time (vs. part time) during early childhood. In addition to child age, mothers’ ethnic minority status and partner status moderated the association between maternal work hour status and mothers’ parenting. In general, the findings supported ideas forwarded by role expansionist theory. PMID:25530631

  13. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Oort, Frans Jeroen; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2012-08-01

    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (102 chronically ill parents and 83 healthy spouses). Linear mixed model analyses were used, enabling separation of variance attributable to individual factors and variance attributable to family membership (i.e., family cluster effect). Predictors were child, parent, illness-related and family characteristics. The results showed that almost half of the variance in internalizing problem scores was explained by family membership, while externalizing problems were mainly explained by individual factors. Roughly 60 % of the variance in internalizing problems was predicted by illness duration, adolescents' feeling of isolation, daily hassles affecting personal life and alienation from the mother. Approximately a third of the variance in externalizing problems was predicted by adolescents' male gender, daily hassles concerning ill parents and alienation from both parents. In conclusion, the variance in adolescent problem behavior is largely accounted for by family membership, children's daily hassles and parent-child attachment. To prevent marginalization of adolescents with a chronically ill parent, it is important to be alert for signs of problem behavior and foster the peer and family support system.

  14. Factors affecting fall down rates of dead aspen (Populus tremuloides) biomass following severe drought in west-central Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted Hogg, Edward H; Michaelian, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Increases in mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) have been recorded across large areas of western North America following recent periods of exceptionally severe drought. The resultant increase in standing, dead tree biomass represents a significant potential source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, but the timing of emissions is partially driven by dead-wood dynamics which include the fall down and breakage of dead aspen stems. The rate at which dead trees fall to the ground also strongly influences the period over which forest dieback episodes can be detected by aerial surveys or satellite remote sensing observations. Over a 12-year period (2000-2012), we monitored the annual status of 1010 aspen trees that died during and following a severe regional drought within 25 study areas across west-central Canada. Observations of stem fall down and breakage (snapping) were used to estimate woody biomass transfer from standing to downed dead wood as a function of years since tree death. For the region as a whole, we estimated that >80% of standing dead aspen biomass had fallen after 10 years. Overall, the rate of fall down was minimal during the year following stem death, but thereafter fall rates followed a negative exponential equation with k = 0.20 per year. However, there was high between-site variation in the rate of fall down (k = 0.08-0.37 per year). The analysis showed that fall down rates were positively correlated with stand age, site windiness, and the incidence of decay fungi (Phellinus tremulae (Bond.) Bond. and Boris.) and wood-boring insects. These factors are thus likely to influence the rate of carbon emissions from dead trees following periods of climate-related forest die-off episodes. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Global Change Biology © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Natural Resources Canada.

  15. Impact of caring for a child with cancer on single parents compared with parents from two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F; Dix, David; Papsdorf, Michael; Klaassen, Robert J; Yanofsky, Rochelle; Sung, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    It is currently unknown how the intensive and often prolonged treatment of childhood cancer impacts on the lives of single parents. Our aims were to determine whether single parents differ from parents from two-parent families in terms of caregiver demand (the time and effort involved in caregiving), and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Forty single parents and 275 parents from two-parent families were recruited between November 2004 and February 2007 from five pediatric oncology centers in Canada. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire booklet composed of items and scales to measure caregiver demand and HRQL (SF-36). The booklet also measured the following constructs: background and context factors, child factors, caregiving strain, intrapsychic factors, and coping factors. Single parents did not differ from parents from two-parent families in caregiving demand and physical and psychosocial HRQL. Compared with Canadian population norms for the SF-36, both groups reported clinically important differences (i.e., worse health) in psychosocial HRQL (effect size ≥ -2.00), while scores for physical HRQL were within one standard deviation of population norms. Our findings suggest that the impact of caregiving on single parents, in terms of caregiving demand and HRQL is similar to that of parents from two-parent families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes.

  17. Factors influencing parental involvement among minors seeking an abortion: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbacher, Lee A; Dekleva, Anna; Tristan, Sigrid; Gilliam, Melissa L

    2014-11-01

    We explored factors that influenced whether minors involved or excluded a parent when seeking an abortion. In the summer of 2010, we conducted interviews with 30 minors who sought an abortion in a state that did not require parental involvement at the time. Interviews were coded and analyzed following the principles of the grounded theory method. The majority of minors involved a parent. Commonly cited factors were close or supportive parental relationships, a sense that disclosure was inevitable, a need for practical assistance, and compelled disclosure. Motivations for not wanting to involve a parent, although some minors ultimately did, included preservation of the parent-daughter relationship, fear or detachment, and preservation of autonomy. Minors were motivated to involve parents and other adults who were engaged in their lives at the time of the pregnancy, particularly those who supported them in obtaining an abortion. Motivations to exclude a parent were often based on particular family circumstances or experiences that suggested that involvement would not be helpful, might be harmful, or might restrict a minor's ability to obtain an abortion.

  18. The influence of parental education and other socio-economic factors on child car seat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rok Simon, Mateja; Korošec, Aleš; Bilban, Marjan

    2017-03-01

    The behaviour of parents in ensuring car passenger safety for their children is associated with socio-economic (SE) status of the family; however, the influence of parental education has rarely been researched and the findings are contradictory. The aim of the study was to clarify whether parental education influences the use of a child car seat during short rides. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in outpatient clinics for children's healthcare across Slovenia. 904 parents of 3-year-old children participated in the study; the response rate was 95.9%. A self-administered questionnaire was used. A binary multiple logistic regression was applied to assess the association between parental unsafe behaviour as dependent variable, and education and other SE factors as independent variables. 14.6% of parents did not use a child car seat during short rides. Families where mother had low or college education had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat than families where mother had a university education. Single-parent families and those who lived in areas with low or medium SE status also had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat. Low educational attainment influences parents' behaviour regarding the non-use of a child car seat. Low parental education is not the only risk factor since some highly educated parents also have high odds of unsafe behaviour. All parents should therefore be included in individually tailored safety counselling programmes. SE inequalities could be further reduced with provision of free child car seats for eligible families.

  19. Direct and indirect effects of contextual factors, caregiver depression, and parenting on attachment security in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R; Lavigne, John V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a multiple-level-of-analysis model of preschool attachment security and to determine the processes (direct and indirect) whereby factors from different domains (e.g., stress and parenting) are related to attachment during this period. This study examined the direct and indirect effects of stress, family conflict, caregiver depression symptoms, and parenting on attachment security in a large (N = 796) and diverse sample of 4-year-olds. This study used the 3-Boxes Task to assess aspects of parenting critical to sensitivity in the preschool period, labeling this construct sensitivity/scaffolding. Parent-report questionnaires were used to assess stress, conflict, caregiver depressive symptoms, parent support/engagement, and parent hostility/coercion. Direct observation (3-Boxes Task) was used to assess sensitivity/scaffolding and attachment (Attachment Q-Sort) based on a 2½-3 hour home visit. Results of structural equation modeling indicated a good overall fit for the model. Among the parenting variables, sensitivity/scaffolding had the strongest effect on attachment. Depressive symptoms had both direct and indirect effects (mediated by parenting). The effects of stress and family conflict were mediated by caregiver depression symptoms and parenting. These data show that a developmentally appropriate measure of sensitivity plays a significant role in attachment security in preschoolers. Thus, strategies designed to enhance sensitivity/scaffolding may increase child resilience by enhancing attachment security.

  20. An examination of retention factors among registered nurses in Northeastern Ontario, Canada: Nurses intent to stay in their current position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Rukholm, Ellen; Lariviere, Michel; Carter, Lorraine; Koren, Irene; Mian, Oxana; Giddens, Emilia

    2016-03-10

    The purpose of the study was to examine factors related to the retention of registered nurses in northeastern Ontario, Canada. A cross-sectional survey of registered nurses working in northeastern Ontario, Canada was conducted. Logistic regression analyses were used to consider intent to stay in current employment in relation to the following: 1) demographic factors, and 2) occupation and career satisfaction factors. A total of 459 (29.8% response rate) questionnaires were completed. The adjusted odds logistic regression analysis of RNs who intended to remain in their current position for the next five years, demonstrated that respondents in the 46 to 56 age group (OR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.50 to 4.69), the importance of staff development in the organization (OR: 3.04; 95% CI: 1.13 to 8.13) northeastern Ontario lifestyle (OR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.55 to 4.40), working in nursing for 14 to 22.5 years (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.10 to 5.93), and working between 0 to 1 hour of overtime per week (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.20 to 4.64) were significant factors in staying in their current position for the next five years. This study shows that a further understanding of the work environment could assist with developing retention for rural nurses. Furthermore, employers may use such information to ameliorate the working conditions of nurses, while researchers may use such evidence to develop interventions that are applicable to improving the working conditions of nurses.

  1. Factors that influence quality of life in rural children with asthma and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer; Winkelstein, Marilyn; Land, Cassia; Lewis-Boyer, Lapricia; Quartey, Ruth; Pham, Luu; Butz, Arlene

    2008-01-01

    Among rural children with asthma and their parents, this study examined the relationship between parental and child reports of quality of life and described the relationship of several factors such as asthma severity, missed days of work, and asthma education on their quality of life. Two hundred one rural families with asthma were enrolled in a school-based educational program. Intervention parents and children participated in interactive asthma workshop(s) and received asthma devices and literature. Parent and child quality of life measurements were obtained before and after the intervention using Juniper's Paediatric Caregivers Quality of Life and Juniper's Paediatric Quality of Life Questionnaires. Asthma severity was measured using criteria from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines. There was no association between parent and child total quality of life scores, and mean parental total quality of life scores were higher at baseline and follow-up than those of the children. All the parents' quality of life scores were correlated with parental reports of missed days of work. For all children, emotional quality of life (EQOL) was significantly associated with parental reports of school days missed (P = .03) and marginally associated with parental reports of hospitalizations due to asthma (P = .08). Parent's EQOL and activity quality of life (AQOL) were significantly associated with children's asthma severity (EQOL, P = .009; AQOL, P = .03), but not the asthma educational intervention. None of the child quality of life measurements was associated with asthma severity. Asthma interventions for rural families should help families focus on gaining and maintaining low asthma severity levels to enjoy an optimal quality of life. Health care providers should try to assess the child's quality of life at each asthma care visit independently of the parents.

  2. Factors that influence parental attitudes toward enrollment in type 1 diabetes trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela L Buscariollo

    Full Text Available To assess parental attitudes towards type 1 diabetes clinical trials (T1DCTs and factors that impact willingness to enroll their children with and without diabetes.A cross-sectional survey of parents of children with type 1 diabetes was administered at an academic clinic and a diabetes educational event.Survey response rate was 36%. Of 166 participating parents, 76% were aware of T1DCTs. More parents reported willingness to enroll children with diabetes (47% than unaffected children (36%. Only 18% recalled being asked to enroll their children, and of these, 60% agreed to enroll at least some of those times. Less than 30% were comfortable with placebos. Factors predicting willingness to enroll children with diabetes included healthcare provider trust, comfort with consent by proxy, low fear of child being a "guinea pig," and comfort with placebo. Factors predicting willingness to enroll unaffected children were provider trust, comfort with consent by proxy, comfort with placebo, and perceived ease of understanding T1DCT information.Parents report moderate willingness to enroll children in T1DCTs. Willingness is diminished by common trial methodologies. Although most parents recalled receiving trial-related information, significantly fewer recalled being asked to participate. Efforts to optimize effective communication around identified areas of parental concern may increase T1DCT participation.

  3. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazwani, Jaafar Y; Khalil, Shamsun N; Ahmed, Razia A

    2016-01-01

    Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS), for the evaluation of SAD, were used. A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90-8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17-5.19, respectively). The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial.

  4. Prioritizing the risk factors influencing the success of clinical information system projects. A Delphi study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, G; Sicotte, C; Jaana, M; Girouard, D

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the risk factors influencing the success of clinical information system projects. This study addresses this issue by first reviewing the extant literature on information technology project risks, and second conducting a Delphi survey among 21 experts highly involved in clinical information system projects in Québec, Canada, a region where government have invested heavily in health information technologies in recent years. Twenty-three risk factors were identified. The absence of a project champion was the factor that experts felt most deserves their attention. Lack of commitment from upper management was ranked second. Our panel of experts also confirmed the importance of a variable that has been extensively studied in information systems, namely, perceived usefulness that ranked third. Respondents ranked project ambiguity fourth. The fifth-ranked risk was associated with poor alignment between the clinical information systems' characteristics and the organization of clinical work. The large majority of risk factors associated with the technology itself were considered less important. This finding supports the idea that technology-associated factors rarely figure among the main reasons for a project failure. In addition to providing a comprehensive list of risk factors and their relative importance, the study presents a major contribution by unifying the literature on information systems and medical informatics. Our checklist provides a basis for further research that may help practitioners identify the effective countermeasures for mitigating risks associated with the implementation of clinical information systems.

  5. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior.

  6. Factors associated with parental recognition of a child's overweight status - a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaikkonen Kaisu M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the association between a child's lifestyle factors and their parent's ability to recognise the overweight status of their offspring. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with a parent's ability to recognise their own offspring's overweight status. Methods 125 overweight children out of all 1,278 school beginners in Northern Finland were enrolled. Weight and height were measured in health care clinics. Overweight status was defined by BMI according to internationally accepted criteria. A questionnaire to be filled in by parents was delivered by the school nurses. The parents were asked to evaluate their offspring's weight status. The child's eating habits and physical activity patterns were also enquired about. Factor groups of food and physical activity habits were formed by factor analysis. Binary logistic regression was performed using all variables associated with recognition of overweight status in univariate analyses. The significant risk factors in the final model are reported using odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Fifty-seven percent (69/120 of the parents of the overweight children considered their child as normal weight. Child's BMI was positively associated with parental recognition of overweight (OR 3.59, CI 1.8 to 7.0. Overweight boys were less likely to be recognised than overweight girls (OR 0.14, CI 0.033 to 0.58. Child's healthy diet (OR 0.22, CI 0.091 to 0.54 and high physical activity (OR 0.29, CI 0.11 to 0.79 were inversely related to parental recognition of overweight status. Conclusions Child's healthy eating habits and physical activity are inversely related to parental recognition of their offspring's overweight. These should be taken into account when planning prevention and treatment strategies for childhood obesity.

  7. Filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parental, socio and cultural factors associated with adolescents' sports participation in four Danish municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toftegaard-Støckel, J; Nielsen, G A; Ibsen, B; Andersen, L B

    2011-08-01

    Despite the well-documented health effects of physical activity, few studies focus on the correlates of leisure-time sports and exercise participation. The present study examined correlations between adolescent sports participation and demographic factors, socioeconomic status (SES) and sociocultural factors. A school-based cross-sectional cluster sample including 6356 Danish fifth- and ninth-grade adolescents from four municipalities were included. Age (younger) and gender (boy) were associated with adolescents' sports participation. Girls were half as likely [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.55] to participate in sports than boys. Adolescents were more likely to participate in sports if they perceived their parents as active in exercise or sports. Adolescents with one or two unemployed parents were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.62-0.89) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.56-1.00), respectively, less likely to participate in sports than adolescents with two employed parents. In a gender-stratified analysis, parents' occupational status was only a predictor of sports participation in girls. Differences between municipalities in adolescents' sports participation remained significant when controlled for individual factors such as gender, age, parents' background or parents' physical activity. The association between sociocultural and SES was stronger for girls than boys. In conclusion, demographics, SES and sociocultural factors were the best determinants of adolescent sport participation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. The influence of parental education and other socio-economic factors on child car seat use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korošec, Aleš; Bilban, Marjan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The behaviour of parents in ensuring car passenger safety for their children is associated with socio-economic (SE) status of the family; however, the influence of parental education has rarely been researched and the findings are contradictory. The aim of the study was to clarify whether parental education influences the use of a child car seat during short rides. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in outpatient clinics for children’s healthcare across Slovenia. 904 parents of 3-year-old children participated in the study; the response rate was 95.9%. A self-administered questionnaire was used. A binary multiple logistic regression was applied to assess the association between parental unsafe behaviour as dependent variable, and education and other SE factors as independent variables. Results 14.6% of parents did not use a child car seat during short rides. Families where mother had low or college education had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat than families where mother had a university education. Single-parent families and those who lived in areas with low or medium SE status also had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat. Conclusions Low educational attainment influences parents’ behaviour regarding the non-use of a child car seat. Low parental education is not the only risk factor since some highly educated parents also have high odds of unsafe behaviour. All parents should therefore be included in individually tailored safety counselling programmes. SE inequalities could be further reduced with provision of free child car seats for eligible families. PMID:28289464

  10. Multi-level influences on childhood obesity in Sweden: societal factors, parental determinants and child's lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraeus, L; Lissner, L; Yngve, A; Poortvliet, E; Al-Ansari, U; Sjöberg, A

    2012-07-01

    Swedish school children living in rural areas and in areas with low education are at excess risk of becoming overweight. This study examines influences of societal and individual characteristics (children and their parents) on prevalence of overweight and obesity, in a national sample of 7-9-year-old children. Anthropometric and lifestyle data were collected in a nationally representative sample of 3636 Swedish children. Overweight and obesity (International Obesity Task Force (IOTF)) data were analyzed in relation to lifestyle factors, parental weight, education and breast-feeding. The prevalence of overweight was 15.6% including 2.6% obese. Urbanization level and parental characteristics (weight status and education) were related to risk of overweight. Overall less favorable lifestyle characteristics were observed in rural areas and for children of low/medium educated mothers. Boys had greater risk of obesity in semi-urban and rural areas but this was not true for girls. For children's overweight, the living area effect was attenuated in multivariate analysis, while there was an association with origin of parents, high parental weight and medium maternal education. For obesity, the living area effect remained in boys while having two non-Nordic parents predicted obesity in girls. Parental weight status was associated with obesity in both girls and boys. Individual and societal factors influence children's weight status, and parental weight status is a strong determinant. Including overweight and obese parents in future health promoting interventions could be a strategy to prevent children from becoming overweight, but identifying those parents may prove difficult. To ensure reaching children with the greatest needs, targeting high risk areas might be a more effective approach.

  11. The connection of socio-demographic factors and child-parent relationships to the psychological aspects of children's development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobkin, Vladimir S; Veraksa, Aleksandr N; Yakupova, Vera A; Bukhalenkova, Darya A; Fedotova, Aleksandra V; Khalutina, Ulia A

    2016-01-01

    ...). The common assumption is that to determine a parent's position, it is important to acknowledge both socio-demographic factors and the parameters which define the socio-psychological aspects of parent-child relationship...

  12. Perceptions of parental smoking and sociodemographic factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans among parents of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2014-08-01

    Although public smoking restrictions have been implemented, children are still exposed to household smoking. Parental smoking is the main source of children's exposure to secondhand smoke. This study was conducted to examine the factors associated with parents' adoption of home smoking bans. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 768 parents of school-aged children in Taiwan. The home smoking restriction status, parents' perceptions of smoking in the presence of children and its influences, and parents' sociodemographic characteristics were assessed. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used to determine the best-fit model. More than 80% of the parents agreed with home smoking bans, whereas only approximately 26% of the parents actually restricted smoking at home completely. The crude odds ratios showed that parents who perceived the influence of parental smoking on children to be negative were more likely to adopt home smoking bans. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans, including a higher education level and older age of parents, a family composed of nonparent adults, and opposition to parental smoking in the presence of children. Children's health is a major concern for parents considering home smoking bans. Helping parents clarify misunderstandings regarding parental smoking, emphasizing the adverse effects of children's exposure to parental smoking, suggesting healthy substitutes for smoking, and providing effective strategies for maintaining a smoke-free home can motivate families to adopt home smoking bans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Associations of Parenting Factors with Adolescent Body Mass Index in an Underserved Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The current study examined parental factors related to risk of adolescent obesity within the context of a family systems framework. Methods. Seventy predominantly African American, low-income caregiver-adolescent dyads participated in the study. Validated measures of parental perceived child risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, parental limit setting for sedentary behavior, and parental nurturance were evaluated as predictors of adolescent body mass index. Results. In this cross-sectional study, multiple linear regression demonstrated that parents of adolescents with higher zBMI reported worrying more about their child's risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Parent limit setting was also a significant predictor of adolescent zBMI. Contrary to expectations, higher levels of nurturance were associated with higher adolescent zBMI. Post hoc analyses revealed a trend towards a significant interaction between nurturance and limit setting, such that high levels of both parental nurturance and limit setting were associated with lower adolescent zBMI. Conclusions. Current findings suggest the importance of authoritative parenting and monitoring of adolescent health behaviors in the treatment of obesity.

  14. Predicting the change of child’s behavior problems: sociodemographic and maternal parenting stress factors

    OpenAIRE

    Viduolienė, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: evaluate 1) whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2) the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3) which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months) with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990) and ...

  15. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and

  16. Effect of Demographic Factors on Empowerment Attributions of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ashley H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of demographic factors on empowerment attributions of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Data were collected to determine differences between demographic factors of participants and self-reported empowerment attributions. A quantitative research design was employed in…

  17. Breaking Down the Coercive Cycle: How Parent and Child Risk Factors Influence Real-Time Variability in Parental Responses to Child Misbehavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Hollenstein, Tom; Kemp, Christine J.; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Objective Parent-child coercive cycles have been associated with both rigidity and inconsistency in parenting behavior. To explain these mixed findings, we examined real-time variability in maternal responses to children's off-task behavior to determine whether this common trigger of the coercive cycle (responding to child misbehavior) is associated with rigidity or inconsistency in parenting. We also examined the effects of risk factors for coercion (maternal hostility, maternal depressive symptoms, child externalizing problems, and dyadic negativity) on patterns of parenting. Design Mother-child dyads (N = 96; M child age = 41 months) completed a difficult puzzle task, and observations were coded continuously for parent (e.g., directive, teaching) and child behavior (e.g., on-task, off-task). Results Multilevel continuous-time survival analyses revealed that parenting behavior is less variable when children are off-task. However, when risk factors are higher, a different profile emerges. Combined maternal and child risk is associated with markedly lower variability in parenting behavior overall (i.e., rigidity) paired with shifts towards higher variability specifically when children are off-task (i.e., inconsistency). Dyadic negativity (i.e., episodes when children are off-task and parents engage in negative behavior) are also associated with higher parenting variability. Conclusions Risk factors confer rigidity in parenting overall, but in moments when higher-risk parents must respond to child misbehavior, their parenting becomes more variable, suggesting inconsistency and ineffectiveness. This context-dependent shift in parenting behavior may help explain prior mixed findings and offer new directions for family interventions designed to reduce coercive processes. PMID:28190978

  18. Factors associated with discipline counseling for parents of infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Michael; Larson, Kandyce; Wissow, Lawrence S; Halfon, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and better understand the factors associated with discipline counseling at health visits and how parents' needs for discipline counseling are being met. Cross-sectional data analyses from the 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Participants were 1216 parents of children aged between 10 and 35 months. Main outcome measures were parents' reports that their health care provider discussed discipline practices with them in the previous year, and if not, whether this would have been helpful (an unmet need). Discipline counseling was more common when the health care provider discussed other developmental and psychosocial topics, did a developmental assessment, received higher ratings of family centered care and provided longer visits, and when parents indicated having the opportunity to ask all their questions. However, parents who reported less support for child rearing and parents who reported greater use of spanking were less likely to receive discipline counseling. Spanish-speaking Hispanic parents and parents who reported less support were more likely to report an unmet need for discipline counseling. Higher income respondents were less likely to report an unmet need for discipline counseling. Discipline counseling at health visits is associated with a family-centered orientation and the delivery of other developmental and psychosocial services. However, many parents who might have benefited from discipline counseling were less likely to receive it and more likely to report this as an unmet need. These data suggest that discipline counseling may be more accurately tailored to parents most likely to benefit. Copyright 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors Associated with Parental Adaptation to Children with an Undiagnosed Medical Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Tatiane; Humphreys, Linda; McInerney-Leo, Aideen; Biesecker, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the adaptive process and experiences of parents raising a child with an undiagnosed medical condition. The present study aims to assess how uncertainty, hope, social support, and coping efficacy contributes to adaptation among parents of children with an undiagnosed medical condition. Sixty-two parents of child affected by an undiagnosed medical condition for at least two years completed an electronically self-administered survey. Descriptive analysis suggested parents in this population had significantly lower adaptation scores when compared to other parents of children with undiagnosed medical conditions, and parents of children with a diagnosed intellectual and/or physical disability. Similarly, parents in this population had significantly lower hope, perceived social support and coping efficacy when compared to parents of children with a diagnosed medical condition. Multiple linear regression was used to identify relationships between independent variables and domains of adaptation. Positive stress response was negatively associated with emotional support (B = −0.045, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with coping efficacy (B = 0.009, p ≤ 0.05). Adaptive self-esteem was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's social support (B = −0.248, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with coping efficacy (B = 0.007, p ≤ 0.05). Adaptive social integration was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's social support (B-0.273, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with uncertainty towards child's health (B = 0.323, p ≤ 0.001), and affectionate support (B = 0.110, p ≤ 0.001). Finally, adaptive spiritual wellbeing was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's family (B = −0.221, p ≤ 0.05). Findings from this study have highlighted the areas where parents believed additional support was required, and provided insight into factors that contribute to parental adaptation. PMID:28039658

  20. Quality of life among parents of children with cancer or brain tumors: the impact of child characteristics and parental psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzelman, Kristin; Catrine, Kris; Gangnon, Ronald; Witt, Whitney P

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the impact of childhood cancer on the family is increasingly important. This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between child clinical characteristics and health-related quality of life (QOL) among parents of children with cancer or brain tumors, and (2) determine how parental psychosocial factors impact this relationship. Using a within-group approach, this study examined 75 children with cancer or brain tumors and their parent. In-person interviewer-assisted surveys assessed sociodemographics, psychosocial factors, and QOL. Child clinical characteristics were obtained through medical record abstraction. Regressions were performed to determine factors related to parental QOL. Children's activity limitation and active treatment status were associated with worse parental mental QOL (5.4 and 4.4 points lower, respectively; P child clinical characteristics and parental mental QOL (P > 0.05 for all child characteristics). While child clinical characteristics appear to be related to poor parental QOL, this relationship was mediated by caregiver burden and stress. Interventions to reduce burden and stress may mitigate the deleterious effects of caregiving. Systematic screening of parents' mental and physical health may facilitate interventions and improve the health and well-being of parents and children.

  1. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12-14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children's externalizing symptoms. Fathers' parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children's mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  2. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Slone

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children’s externalizing symptoms. Fathers’ parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children’s mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  3. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children’s externalizing symptoms. Fathers’ parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children’s mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict. PMID:28878705

  4. Parental and Family Factors as Predictors of Threat Bias in Anxious Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossom, Jennifer B; Ginsburg, Golda S; Birmaher, Boris; Walkup, John T; Kendall, Philip C; Keeton, Courtney P; Langley, Audra K; Piacentini, John C; Sakolsky, Dara; Albano, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relative predictive value of parental anxiety, parents' expectation of child threat bias, and family dysfunction on child's threat bias in a clinical sample of anxious youth. Participants (N = 488) were part of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multi-modal study (CAMS), ages 7-17 years (M = 10.69; SD = 2.80). Children met diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety and/or social phobia. Children and caregivers completed questionnaires assessing child threat bias, child anxiety, parent anxiety and family functioning. Child age, child anxiety, parental anxiety, parents' expectation of child's threat bias and child-reported family dysfunction were significantly associated with child threat bias. Controlling for child's age and anxiety, regression analyses indicated that parents' expectation of child's threat bias and child-reported family dysfunction were significant positive predictors of child's self-reported threat bias. Findings build on previous literature by clarifying parent and family factors that appear to play a role in the development or maintenance of threat bias and may inform etiological models of child anxiety.

  5. Health-related quality of life in pediatric cancer survivors: a multifactorial assessment including parental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yağci-Küpeli, Begül; Akyüz, Canan; Küpeli, Serhan; Büyükpamukçu, Münevver

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the effect of associated factors such as cancer type, treatment strategies, sex, age, and parental factors like education and psychopathology in pediatric cancer survivors and make a comparison with healthy children. "Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 TM, Generic Core Scale" for children and parents, and "Brief Symptom Inventory" for parents were used. Three hundred and two survivors without major mental or motor deficit and 272 healthy controls of 8 to 18 years of age were enrolled to study. Comparison of scores according to child self-report between survivor and control groups revealed lower points in physical and school subscale of survivor group (Psurvivors had reported significantly worse HRQOL in physical and emotional subscales of PedsQL than male survivors (Psurvivors of ≥16 years of age had reported worse scores in school subscale than females of younger age groups and male survivors of same age group. Parents of control group reported better results in school subscales (Psurvivor group. Brief Symptom Inventory score had significant effect on child self-report and parent proxy-report of physical functioning (Psurvivors whose parents are university graduate than the survivors whose parents are primary school graduate were detected (Psurvivors with central nervous system tumors had reported lower scores in the social, emotional, physical, and school functioning subscales of PedsQL than patients with non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma (Psurvivors treated with radiotherapy in combination or as sole therapy than survivors in whom radiotherapy was not given (Pcancer survivors. Future research can build on this evidence to obtain additional factors other than well-known medical and treatment-related factors.

  6. Development and cognitive testing of the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory in Canada, Switzerland, and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juvalta, Sibylle; Post, Marcel W M; Charlifue, Susan; Noreau, Luc; Whiteneck, Gale; Dumont, Frédéric S; Reinhardt, Jan D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and pre-test the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory (NEFI), a questionnaire assessing the perceived impact of environmental factors on specific areas of participation (productive life, social life, and community life) experienced by people with spinal cord injury.

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND COGNITIVE TESTING OF THE NOTTWIL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INVENTORY IN CANADA, SWITZERLAND AND THE USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juvalta, Sibylle; Post, Marcel W. M.; Charlifue, Susan; Noreau, Luc; Whiteneck, Gale; Dumont, Frederic S.; Reinhardt, Jan D.

    Objective: To develop and pre-test the Nottwil Environmental Factors Inventory (NEFI), a questionnaire assessing the perceived impact of environmental factors on specific areas of participation (productive life, social life, and community life) experienced by people with spinal cord injury.

  8. Parental Factors Associated with Child Post-traumatic Stress Following Injury: A Consideration of Intervention Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Anna E.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

    2017-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are relatively common following pediatric traumatic injury and are related to poor long-term child outcomes. However, due to concerns regarding the efficacy of early child preventive interventions, and difficulty intervening with injured and medicated children soon after the event, it is not feasible to provide early psychological interventions to children exposed to traumatic injury. Parental PTSD symptoms and reactions to the child’s traumatic injury impact child outcomes and provide potential targets for early intervention to reduce child symptom development without involving the child. The authors conducted a review of the literature using Psycinfo and Pubmed research databases (publication years = 1990–2017) and identified 65 published studies relevant to the topic of the review. The present review considers parent factors [parenting styles, parental post-traumatic pathology (PTS), adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, and communication regarding the traumatic injury] and their impact on child PTS. We focus specifically on factors amenable to intervention. We further review moderators of these relationships (e.g., child age and gender, parent gender) and conclude that it is unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment will be successful. Rather, it is necessary to consider the age and gender of parent child dyads in designing and providing targeted interventions to families following the traumatic injury of a child. PMID:28878711

  9. Factors associated with perceived uncertainty among parents of children with undiagnosed medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, Anne C; O'Brien, Kathleen E; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2012-08-01

    Uncertainty is a pervasive characteristic of illness. Yet little is known about the individual or situational factors that contribute to perceptions of uncertainty. The present study aims to examine the factors that contribute to perceived uncertainty among parents of a child with an undiagnosed condition. Two hundred sixty-six parents of a child, or children, affected by an undiagnosed medical condition for at least 2 years completed an electronically administered mixed-methods survey assessing theoretical predictors of perceived uncertainty. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify the relationship of key variables to perceived uncertainty. Parents' perceived control and optimism were negatively associated with uncertainty (B=-4.044, P≤0.001, B=-0.477, P≤0.05). Subjective disease severity was positively associated with perceived uncertainty (B=1.797, P≤0.05). Our findings suggest that parents who experience greater uncertainty feel less control over their child's medical condition, which may lead to less effective coping and poorer adaptation. Parents who are less optimistic or who perceive their child's disease as more severe may benefit most from interventions that target situations where parents perceive the least control, thereby enhancing coping and ultimately, adaptation. Published 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Parental Factors Associated with Child Post-traumatic Stress Following Injury: A Consideration of Intervention Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Wise

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms are relatively common following pediatric traumatic injury and are related to poor long-term child outcomes. However, due to concerns regarding the efficacy of early child preventive interventions, and difficulty intervening with injured and medicated children soon after the event, it is not feasible to provide early psychological interventions to children exposed to traumatic injury. Parental PTSD symptoms and reactions to the child’s traumatic injury impact child outcomes and provide potential targets for early intervention to reduce child symptom development without involving the child. The authors conducted a review of the literature using Psycinfo and Pubmed research databases (publication years = 1990–2017 and identified 65 published studies relevant to the topic of the review. The present review considers parent factors [parenting styles, parental post-traumatic pathology (PTS, adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, and communication regarding the traumatic injury] and their impact on child PTS. We focus specifically on factors amenable to intervention. We further review moderators of these relationships (e.g., child age and gender, parent gender and conclude that it is unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment will be successful. Rather, it is necessary to consider the age and gender of parent child dyads in designing and providing targeted interventions to families following the traumatic injury of a child.

  11. The Beliefs of Students, Parents and Teachers about Internal Factors of Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Smrtnik Vitulić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to determine the beliefs of students, teachers and parents about the internal factors of academic achievement and to verify whether their beliefs vary. In this paper the beliefs about the internal factors of academic achievement: personality traits, intellectual ability, language competence, interest in the subject and locus of control are thematised. The sample included 516 students from grades 5, 7 and 9 of 12 different basic schools in central Slovenia, 408 of their parents and 195 teachers. Amongst the broad range of personality traits in the survey questionnaire, parents selected openness and conscientiousness as the most important traits for academic success, while students selected openness and extroversion, and teachers selected agreeableness and emotional stability. In the opinion of the participants in the research, amongst other internal factors of academic success emphasised, those that have the greatest influence on academic achievement are interest in the subject and internal locus of control, while students’ intellectual ability and language competence are attributed slightly less importance. Beliefs regarding the individual factors of academic achievement vary between the groups of participants. In the future, it would be sensible to encourage students, teachers and parents to reflect on the meaning of the individual factors of academic achievement, and especially to speak with them about the factors on which each respective group can exert an influence in order to improve students’ academic achievement.

  12. School and Parent Factors Associated with Steroid Use among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Rebecca L.; King, Keith; Nabors, Laura; Vidourek, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Steroid use among adolescents is an increasing health concern. Literature examining factors related to steroid use is limited. Methods: We investigated steroid use among 9th through 12th grade adolescents in the Greater Cincinnati area. A total of 38,414 adolescents completed the PRIDE Questionnaire. Associations between demographics,…

  13. Link Between Deployment Factors and Parenting Stress in Navy Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    advance the importance of the Chaplain Corps as an invaluable asset for military personnel and their families . The Chaplain Corps serve the spiritual...psychologists, social workers, physicians, and others who could develop multi- dimensional programs to provide support to military families ...but for children as well. Flake and colleagues (2009) found that one important factor in predicting child psychosocial morbidity was the perception

  14. Psychosocial Factors Predicting Parent Reported Symptomatology in Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblinger, Esther; Taub, Brandi; Maedel, Allyson B.; Lippmann, Julie; Stauffer, Lori B.

    1997-01-01

    Examines factors influencing nonoffending mothers' reports of their sexually abused children's symptomatology (N=96). Results indicate that maternal belief in the allegations, combined with physical abuse perpetrated by the sexual offender, contributed unique variance to the number of post-traumatic stress symptoms reported. Physical abuse,…

  15. AAC and Early Intervention for Children with Cerebral Palsy: Parent Perceptions and Child Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Hustad, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined parent perceptions of communication, the focus of early intervention goals and strategies, and factors predicting the implementation of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for 26, 2-year-old children with cerebral palsy. Parents completed a communication questionnaire and provided early intervention plans detailing child speech and language goals. Results indicated that receptive language had the strongest association with parent perceptions of communication. Children who were not talking received a greater number of intervention goals, had a greater variety of goals, and had more AAC goals than children who were emerging and established talkers. Finally, expressive language had the strongest influence on AAC decisions. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between parent perceptions and language skills, communication as an emphasis in early intervention, AAC intervention decisions, and the importance of receptive language. PMID:26401966

  16. Factors in Educational Aspirations. A Study of Educational Aspiration of High School Seniors in Prince Edward Island, Canada. P.E.I. Community Studies Report No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Satadal; Nagarajan, P.

    To identify personal, economic, educational, and social factors influencing students' educational aspirations, data were collected from 1,004 seniors in Prince Edward Island, Canada, in 1971; analysis included male-female and urban-rural differences. From 960 usable questionnaires, level of educational aspiration was determined by respondents'…

  17. Immigrant Parents' Choice of a Bilingual versus Monolingual Kindergarten for Second-Generation Children: Motives, Attitudes, and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark; Breitkopf, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrant parents describe and explain their family language policy concerning their child's preschool bilingual development, and also explored the factors linked to the parents' choice of bilingual or monolingual kindergarten for their child. The study design was based on a comparison of 2 groups of parents: those who…

  18. Hindering and buffering factors for parental sleep in neonatal care. A phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla; Angelhoff, Charlotte; Johnsson, Ewa; Karlsson, Jenny; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2015-03-01

    To explore and describe how parents of preterm and/or sick infants in neonatal care perceive their sleep. Parents experience many stressful situations when their newborn infant is preterm and/or sick. This affects bonding. By developing more family-centred care units with single-family rooms, parents are given the opportunity to stay and care for their newborn infant(s) 24 hours a day. Lack of sleep may affect new parents' ability to cope with the many challenges they face on a daily basis. A phenomenographic study with an inductive and exploratory design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve parents of infants in neonatal care between January-March 2012. To describe variations in perception of the phenomenon, data were analysed using phenomenography. Four descriptive categories were identified within the phenomenon sleep in parents of preterm and/or sick infants in neonatal care: impact of stress on sleep; how the environment affects sleep; keeping the family together improves sleep; and, how parents manage and prevent tiredness. Anxiety, uncertainty and powerlessness have a negative influence on sleep. This can be decreased by continuous information, guidance and practical support. Skin-to-skin care was perceived as a stress-reducing factor that improved relaxation and sleep and should be encouraged by the nurse. The parents also mentioned the importance of being together. Having a private place where they could relax and take care of themselves and their newborn infant improved sleep. It was also desirable to involve older siblings in order to decrease feelings of loneliness, sadness and isolation. Improved parental sleep in neonatal care may help the families cope with the situation and facilitate problem-solving, emotional regulation and the transition to parenthood. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Factors Associated With Parents' Perceptions of Their Infants' Oral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M; Levy, Steven M; Xu, Yinghui; Jackson, Richard D; Eckert, George J; Levy, Barcey T; Fontana, Margherita

    2016-07-01

    Parents have an important role ensuring their infants receive oral and medical health care. Their decisions affect the well-being of their children. This study used data collected from a longitudinal, prospective study with the aim of developing and validating a caries risk assessment tool. The objectives of this study are to (a) compare parents' perceptions of how well they do in taking care of the infants' teeth and/or gums versus how well they do in taking care of the infants' medical health and (b) determine factors associated with parental perceptions of how well they do in taking care of the infants' teeth and/or gums. A total of 1323 parent/infant pairs were enrolled in the study at Duke University, Indiana University, and the University of Iowa. Through a survey, 283 (21%) of the parents perceived they did an excellent job of both taking care of both the infant's oral and medical health, while 861 (65%) perceived the care of their infant's medical health was better than their care of the teeth and/or gums. In the multivariable model, parents who perceived they provided excellent/very good/good care for the infants' teeth and/or gums were more likely to brush the infant's teeth daily, use toothpaste daily, clean inside the infant's mouth and/or gums daily, and not let the infant have something other than water after brushing and prior to bedtime. Also, those with infants having Medicaid or State Insurance, parents not eating sugary snacks frequently, and parents getting dental checkups at least annually were likely to perceive that they provided excellent/very good/good care for their infant's teeth and/or gums. Parents who provide good infant oral health care are more likely to perceive they provide good care and more likely to have better personal dental health behaviors. This agrees with previous studies concerning older children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Suicide and violence in parents : risk factors and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lysell, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Suicide and deadly violence directed towards other people are two different expressions of aggression. In family life, lethal violent behaviour may have devastating consequences, obviously for the victims but also for the surviving and bereaved children. In this thesis, focus is on violent behaviour related to parenthood; violence in the form of suicide as well as violent behaviour directed towards others. The aim has been to identify risk factors of violent expression, for...

  1. [Dental decay in 5-year-old children: sociodemographic factors, monitoring points and parental attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Vinícius Humberto; Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen

    2017-01-01

    Dental decay affects many children, especially those from the lower socioeconomic classes. In this cross-sectional study designed to investigate the role played by sociodemographic factors, parental attitudes, and monitoring points, which are an indicator of personal perception of what controls individual health, on the prevalence of tooth decay among 5-year-old pre-school children living in a midsized city in São Paulo, Brazil. The ceo-d index of 426 children was assessed; the parents reported sociodemographic characteristics and completed two questionnaires concerning monitoring points and parental attitudes. The results show that 52.35% of the children had decay; higher levels of severe decay were observed among lower E-F socioeconomic classes. Higher socioeconomic status and low externality appear to be protective factors. Low parental internality emerged as a risk factor for decay in primary teeth, possibly because the mother expects or delegates the action to others, delaying care. Parental perceptions of control over a child's health seem to impact preventive care and, consequently, the level of tooth decay among children.

  2. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Y Ghazwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS, for the evaluation of SAD, were used. Results: A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90-8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17-5.19, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial.

  3. Confirmatory factor analysis and invariance testing of the Young Carer of Parents Inventory (YCOPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen D; Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2014-11-01

    Research into youth caregiving in families where a parent experiences a significant medical condition has been hampered by a lack of contextually sensitive measures of the nature and breadth of young caregiving experiences. This study examined the factor structure and measurement invariance of such a measure called the Young Carer of Parents Inventory (YCOPI; Pakenham et al., 2006) using confirmatory factor analysis across 3 groups of youth. The YCOPI has 2 parts: YCOPI-A with 5 factors assessing caregiving experiences that are applicable to all caregiving contexts; YCOPI-B with 4 factors that tap dimensions related to youth caregiving in the context of parent illness. Two samples (ages 9-20 years) were recruited: a community sample of 2,429 youth from which 2 groups were derived ("healthy" family [HF], n = 1760; parental illness [PI], n = 446), and a sample of 130 youth of a parent with multiple sclerosis). With some modification, the YCOPI-A demonstrated a replicable factor structure across 3 groups, and exhibited only partial measurement invariance across the HF and PI groups. The impact of assuming full measurement invariance on latent mean differences appeared small, supporting use of the measure in research and applied settings when estimated using latent factors and controlling for measurement invariance. PI youth reported significantly higher scores than did HF youth on all YCOPI-A subscales. The YCOPI-B requires some modifications, and further development work is recommended. The factor structure that emerged and the addition of new items constitutes the YCOPI-Revised. Findings support the use of the YCOPI-Revised in research and applied settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Exploring Individual and School-Related Factors and Environmental Literacy: Comparing U.S. and Canada Using PISA 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Emily; Shi, Qingmin

    2014-01-01

    Questions remain about how to best prepare students to be environmentally literate. Although Canada and U.S. share similarities in education systems, diversity in student population, and historical roots in formalizing environmental education, Canada is one of the top performing countries in international science assessments while U.S. matches…

  5. Risk Factors for Adolescent Smoking: Parental Smoking and the Mediating Role of Nicotine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selya, Arielle S.; Dierker, Lisa C.; Rose, Jennifer S.; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Parental smoking and early-emerging nicotine dependence symptoms are well-documented risk factors for adolescent smoking. However, very little is known about the mediating pathways through which these risk factors may act, or whether parental smoking may cause or signal early-emerging nicotine dependence symptoms. Methods Data were drawn from the longitudinal Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study. Adolescents who had smoked under 100 cigarettes in their lifetime (n=594; low-exposure group) and adolescents who had smoked over 100 cigarettes, but fewer than 5 cigarettes per day (n=152) were included in the analyses. Path analysis was performed on longitudinal data to investigate the association between parental smoking and smoking frequency at the 48 month follow-up, both directly and through mediating variables of smoking frequency, smoking quantity, and nicotine dependence. Results Father’s smoking was associated with higher adolescent nicotine dependence scores at the baseline assessment wave. Structural equation modeling revealed that mother’s smoking at baseline was associated with adolescent’s smoking frequency at the 48 month follow-up, and its effect was partially mediated by both smoking frequency and nicotine dependence among low-exposure adolescent smokers. Conclusions Parental smoking is a risk factor for future smoking in low-exposure adolescent smokers, above and beyond the risks posed by smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. Moreover, parental smoking is associated with early-onset nicotine dependence in low-exposure adolescent smokers. As an easily measureable risk factor, parent smoking status can be used to identify and intervene with novice adolescent smokers who are at high risk for chronic smoking behavior. PMID:22365898

  6. Protective and risk factors associated with adolescent sleep : Findings from Australia, Canada, and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartel, K.; Williamson, P.; van Maanen, A.; Cassoff, J.; Meijer, A.M.; Oort, F.; Knäuper, B.; Gruber, R.; Gradisar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep is vital for adolescent functioning. Those with optimal sleep duration have shown improved capacity to learn and decreased rate of motor vehicle accidents. This study explored the influence of numerous protective and risk factors on adolescents' school night sleep (bedtime, sleep

  7. Coming to Canada to Study: Factors that Influence Student's Decisions to Participate in International Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jennifer; Burrow, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students are participating in study abroad programs. Outcomes associated with these programs have been studied extensively, but relatively little is known about what motivates and influences students to participate. This study investigated factors that motivate and influence students to study on exchange and explored how…

  8. Parental awareness, habits, and social factors and their relationship to baby bottle tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres, C; Echeverri, E A; Keene, H J

    1997-01-01

    The general objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental awareness, habits, and social factors in a particular parent population and the occurrence of baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) in their children. The sample consisted of Hispanic, Black, and White families and included 100 parents with 100 children from the Pediatric Clinic and the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at Houston Medical Center, University of Texas, Houston. Questionnaires including information related to demographic data, educational level, marital status, baby care, and knowledge and beliefs about BBTD were completed by the parents. Each child was examined with mouth mirror and tongue blade to determine the presence of BBTD. Overall, 19 of the children were found to have BBTD. The racial distribution of the children with and without BBTD was statistically significant (P = 0.03) with the Hispanic population being over-represented in the BBTD group (72.2% versus 37.0%) and Blacks under-represented (16.2% versus 50.6%). The ages at which babies with BBTD were weaned from the bottle were significantly (P bottle after 14 months old was higher (36.8%) than babies without the condition (26.5%). Awareness of BBTD was generally lower among parents of the BBTD children than parents of children without BBTD, as reflected by the feeding patterns of their children and their responses to questions dealing with their knowledge of BBTD.

  9. Predictors of changes in child behaviour following parent management training: Child, context, and therapy factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Kristine Amlund; Ogden, Terje

    2017-04-01

    This non-randomised study examined a set of predictive factors of changes in child behaviour following parent management training (PMTO). Families of 331 Norwegian girls (26%) and boys with clinic-level conduct problems participated. The children ranged in age from 3 to 12 years (Mage = 8.69). Retention rate was 72.2% at post-assessment. Child-, parent- and therapy-level variables were entered as predictors of multi-informant reported change in externalising behaviour and social skills. Behavioural improvements following PMTO amounted to 1 standard deviation on parent rated and ½ standard deviation on teacher rated externalising behaviour, while social skills improvements were more modest. Results suggested that children with higher symptom scores and lower social skills score at pre-treatment were more likely to show improvements in these areas. According to both parent- and teacher-ratings, girls tended to show greater improvements in externalising behaviour and social skills following treatment and, according to parents, ADHD symptomology appeared to inhibit improvements in social skills. Finally, observed increases in parental skill encouragement, therapists' satisfaction with treatment and the number of hours spent in therapy by children were also positive and significant predictors of child outcomes. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. The prevalence of sleep bruxism and associated factors in children: a report by parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementino, M A; Siqueira, M B; Serra-Negra, J M; Paiva, S M; Granville-Garcia, A F

    2017-10-26

    To evaluate the prevalence of sleep bruxism and associated factors among children aged 3-12 years as reported by parents via a questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 148 parents/caregivers of children aged 3-12 years treated at paediatric dentistry clinics. Parents/caregivers answered a questionnaire in the waiting room. Information on the gender and age of the child, age of parent/caregiver, meaning of bruxism and child's sleep (type of sleep, if he/she slept alone, hours of sleep per night and if nocturnal bruxism could affect his/her health) were collected. Descriptive statistics were performed and Poisson regression with robust variance was employed (p prevalence of sleep bruxism was 32.4%. Most parents (64.2%) did not know the meaning of bruxism. In the final Poisson regression model, child's gender (PR 1.32; 95% CI 1.06-1.66) and restless sleep (PR 1.39; 95% CI 1.12-1.72) were significantly associated with sleep bruxism. The prevalence of sleep bruxism was high and was associated with gender and having restless sleep. Most parents/guardians did not know the meaning of bruxism.

  11. Parent-teacher disagreement regarding psychopathology in children: a risk factor for adverse outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, R F; van der Ende, J; Verhulst, F C

    2007-01-01

    To investigate if parent-teacher discrepancies in reports of behavioral/emotional problems in children predict poor outcome. A total of 1154 4- to 12-year-old children from the general population were followed up. At the first assessment, parent and teacher ratings were obtained with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF). Fourteen years later, DSM-IV diagnoses were assessed, and ratings of self-reported and parent-rated behavioral and emotional problems were obtained. CBCL and TRF scores predicted most of the outcomes, but in general, discrepancies between CBCL and TRF scores did not. There were some exceptions. For instance, higher parental vs. teacher ratings of aggressive behaviors increased the risk of suicide attempts/self-mutilation. Risk factors for self-mutilating behaviors may be supplemented with parent-reported aggressive behaviors that are not observed by the teachers. In general, whereas CBCL and TRF scale scores were useful predictors of outcome, parent-teacher discrepancies were not.

  12. Individual and jurisdictional factors associated with voluntary HIV testing in Canada: Results of a national survey, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Catherine A; Calzavara, Liviana M; White, Samantha J; Allman, Dan; Tyndall, Mark W

    2014-11-06

    HIV testing remains a central strategy for HIV prevention for its ability to link those who test positive to treatment and support. In Canada, national guidelines have recently changed as part of standard primary care to recommend voluntary HIV testing for those aged 16-64 years. Using results from a nationally representative survey, we examined individual and jurisdictional factors associated with voluntary testing. A total of 2,139 participants were sampled using a regionally stratified, two-stage recruitment process. English or French interviews (by phone or online) were conducted during May 2011. Voluntary testing was defined as testing at least once for reasons other than blood donation, insurance purposes, immigration screening or research participation. Weighted logistic regression analysis (including socio-demographic, sexual activity, HIV/AIDS knowledge and jurisdictional factors of HIV prevalence and anonymous testing availability) were conducted for the overall sample, and stratified by sex. Twenty-nine percent (29%) of survey participants reported at least one lifetime voluntary HIV test. For the full-sample model, the following were associated with increased odds of testing: age <60 years, female sex, sexual minority status, perceived HIV knowledge, casual sex partner in previous year, and living in a higher-prevalence jurisdiction. For men, the strongest factor related to testing was sexual minority status (OR = 5.15, p < 0.001); for women, it was having a casual sex partner in the previous year (OR = 2.57, p = 0.001). For both men and women, residing in a jurisdiction with lower HIV prevalence decreased odds of testing. Sex differences should be considered when designing interventions to increase testing uptake. Jurisdictional factors, including HIV prevalence and testing modality, should be investigated further.

  13. Beverage Intake among Children: Associations with Parent and Home-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Arwa; Davey, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Beverage intake can influence child diet quality in a positive or negative manner depending on the beverage type and amounts consumed. Parenting practices such as role modeling and control of home beverage availability have been associated with child beverage intake, whereas examination of the influence of parental beverage nutrition knowledge has been more limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sugar-sweetened and dairy beverage intake among children (9–12 years) and home and parental factors. A questionnaire was administered among a convenience sample of parents (n = 194) to assess beverage nutrition knowledge, beverage intake and home availability of beverages. Children completed a questionnaire to estimate usual beverage intake. Daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake by children ranged from 0.4 to 48 oz. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine relationships. Parents were mostly female, white, well educated, and employed. Home availability of sugar-sweetened and dairy beverages was positively associated with child sugar-sweetened (OR = 1.48, p = 0.03) and dairy beverage intake (OR = 1.34, p = 0.03), respectively. Parent dairy beverage intake was associated with child dairy beverage intake (OR = 1.06, p = 0.01). Parent knowledge about sugar in beverages was related to child dairy beverage intake (OR = 1.46, p = 0.02), whereas calcium/dairy knowledge and general beverage nutrition knowledge were not related to child beverage intake. Parenting practices and knowledge may play a role in determining child beverage intake. PMID:28820455

  14. Bullying and Victimization: Predictive Role of Individual, Parental, and Academic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Gökhan; Güneri, Oya Yerin

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the roles of individual factors (age, gender, locus of control, self-esteem, and loneliness), parenting style, and academic achievement in discriminating students involved in bullying (as bullies, victims, and bully/victims) from those not involved. Participants comprised 742 middle school students (393 females, 349 males). The…

  15. Mexican American Parents' Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Barbara J.; Barr, Kathleen L.; Baker, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the norms, values, and perceptions of urban immigrant Mexican American (MA) parents of school children relative to physical activity, healthy eating, and child risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Investigators facilitated five focus groups in an urban elementary school setting and analyzed data using qualitative…

  16. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  17. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  18. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  19. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  20. Parental factors affecting the weights of the placenta and the offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Vrieze, Ingrid; Kluck, Tom; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    Aim: To determine parental, especially paternal factors associated with the weight of the placenta and offspring. Methods: This population-based birth-cohort study includes 2947 singleton children born from April 2006 to 2007 and living in Drenthe, The Netherlands. Placental weight and birth weight

  1. The Association between Family and Parental Factors and Obesity among Children in Nanchang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Hongjiao; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yuanan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Moore, Justin B; Maddock, Jay E

    2016-01-01

    With rapid economic development in China, traditional patterns of health behaviors are changing, concurrent with a rise in childhood obesity. While the home environment and parenting behaviors are modifiable factors that could be targeted for intervention, little is known about their relationship with children's health behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and home and parenting factors in Chinese children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Nanchang, China in 2013 with caregivers (N = 470) of a child between the ages of 2 and 10 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine risk factors for childhood obesity. Obesity prevalence (21.7%) did not differ by demographic variables. Eight physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary variables had significant relationships to obesity status. Logistic regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of obesity: the number of days the family eats meals together (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96) and parental home computer use time (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.96) were related to lower levels of obesity, while parental television time (odds ratio = 1.25 95% CI 1.07-1.47) was related to higher levels of obesity. The prevalence of obesity among children is high in Nanchang. Family and environmental risk factors are significantly related to obesity.

  2. The Association between Family and Parental Factors and Obesity among Children in Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With rapid economic development in China, traditional patterns of health behaviors are changing, concurrent with a rise in childhood obesity. While the home environment and parenting behaviors are modifiable factors that could be targeted for intervention, little is known about their relationship with children’s health behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and home and parenting factors in Chinese children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Nanchang, China in 2013 with caregivers (N = 470 of a child between the ages of 2-10 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine risk factors for childhood obesity. Results: Obesity prevalence (21.7% did not differ by demographic variables. Eight physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary variables had significant relationships to obesity status. Logistic regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of obesity: the number of days the family eats meals together (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 and parental home computer use time (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.96 were related to lower levels of obesity, while parental television time (odds ratio = 1.25 95% CI 1.07-1.47 was related to higher levels of obesity. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity among children is high in Nanchang. Family and environmental risk factors are significantly related to obesity.

  3. Associations of Eating Two Breakfasts with Childhood Overweight Status, Sociodemographics, and Parental Factors among Preschool Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Afuso, Kevin; Mason, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background: School breakfast may contribute to increased risk for obesity because children may be consuming two breakfasts: at home and at school. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of preschoolers consuming two breakfasts and to assess relationships with overweight/obesity and other factors. Method: Head Start parents (n =…

  4. Smoking stage relations to peer, school and parental factors among secondary school students in Kinta, Perak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Premila Devi; Hairi, Noran N; Al Sadat, Nabilla; Chinna, Karuthan

    2013-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of different stages of smoking and differences in associated risk factors. Thos longitudinal study started in February 2011 and the subjects were 2552 form one students aged between twelve to thirteen years of from 15 government secondary schools of Kinta, Perak. Data on demographic, parental, school and peer factors were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. We examined the effects of peer, school and parental factors on the five stages of smoking; never smokers, susceptible never smokers, experimenters, current smokers and ex-smokers, at baseline. In the sample, 19.3% were susceptible never smokers, 5.5% were current smokers 6% were experimenters and 3.1% were ex-smokers. Gender, ethnicity, best friends' smoking status, high peer pressure, higher number of relatives who smoked and parental monitoring were found to be associated with smoking stages. Presence of parent-teen conflict was only associated with susceptible never smokers and experimenters whereas absence of home discussion on smoking hazards was associated with susceptible never smokers and current smokers. We identified variations in the factors associated with the different stages of smoking. Our results highlight that anti-smoking strategies should be tailored according to the different smoking stages.

  5. Filicide-suicide: common factors in parents who kill their children and themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatters Friedman, Susan; Hrouda, Debra R; Holden, Carol E; Noffsinger, Stephen G; Resnick, Phillip J

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify commonly occurring factors in filicide-suicide offenders, to describe this phenomenon better, and ultimately to enhance prevention of child murder. Thirty families' files from a county coroner's office were reviewed for commonly occurring factors in cases of filicide-suicide. Parental motives for filicide-suicide included altruistic and acutely psychotic motives. Twice as many fathers as mothers committed filicide-suicide during the study period, and older children were more often victims than infants. Records indicated that parents frequently showed evidence of depression or psychosis and had prior mental health care. The data support the hypothesis that traditional risk factors for violence appear different from commonly occurring factors in filicide-suicide. This descriptive study represents a step toward understanding filicide-suicide risk.

  6. Factor structure of parent and teacher ratings of the ODD symptoms for Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2017-02-01

    This present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the applicability of one-, two- three- and second order Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) factor models, proposed in previous studies, in a group of Malaysian primary school children. These models were primarily based on parent reports. In the current study, parent and teacher ratings of the ODD symptoms were obtained for 934 children. For both groups of respondents, the findings showing some support for all models examined, with most support for a second order model with Burke et al. (2010) three factors (oppositional, antagonistic, and negative affect) as the primary factors. The diagnostic implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors at ages 17 and 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dior, Uri P; Lawrence, Gabriella M; Sitlani, Colleen; Enquobahrie, Daniel; Manor, Orly; Siscovick, David S; Friedlander, Yechiel; Hochner, Hagit

    2014-08-01

    To examine the association of maternal and/or paternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring cardio-metabolic risk (CMR) factors at adolescence and early adulthood, taking into account socio-demographic, medical and lifestyle characteristics of parents and offspring, as well as offspring common genetic variation. We used a population-based cohort of all 17 003 births in Jerusalem during 1974-76, with available archival data on parental and birth characteristics. Measurements at age 17 were assessed at military induction examinations for 11 530 offspring. 1440 offspring from the original 1974-1976 birth cohort were sampled using a stratified sampling approach, and were interviewed and examined at age 32. Parental smoking during pregnancy (i.e. maternal, paternal and any parent) was primarily defined dichotomously (any number of cigarettes smoked daily by mother or father during pregnancy vs. non-smokers). Additionally, smoking was assessed by quantity of cigarettes smoked daily. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with various offspring CMR factors, after controlling for potential confounders and for genetic variation in candidate genes. Prevalence of exposure to parental smoking in-utero (i.e. smoking of any parent) was 53.2% and 48.4% among the 17 years old and 32 years old samples, respectively. At age 17, smoking of at least one parent during pregnancy was significantly associated with weight (B = 1.39), height (B = 0.59), BMI (B = 0.32) and pulse rate (B = -0.78) (p-values smoking, adjusted for covariates, was associated with 2.22 kg higher mean offspring weight, 0.95 cm higher mean offspring height, 0.57 kg/m(2) higher BMI, and 1.46 cm higher waist-circumference (p-values ≤ 0.02). Similar results, reflecting a dose response, were observed when maternal and paternal smokings were assessed by number of cigarettes smoked daily. This prospective study demonstrates a potential long

  8. Lifestyle, dietary, and medical history factors associated with pancreatic cancer risk in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laura N; Cotterchio, Michelle; Gallinger, Steven

    2009-08-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma has one of the worst survival rates of all the cancers. Established risk factors for this malignancy are smoking, body mass index (BMI) and family history of pancreatic cancer. Findings are inconsistent regarding pancreatitis, diabetes, allergies, intake of fruit, vegetables, red meat, alcohol, caffeine, vitamin C, calcium, and folate supplements. Possible pancreatic cancer risk factors were evaluated within the population-based Ontario Pancreas Cancer Study. Pathologically confirmed pancreatic cancer cases (n = 422) were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry between 2003 and 2007. Controls (n = 312) were recruited through random digit dialing. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios. Smoking, BMI, family history of pancreatic cancer, and caffeine were significantly associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk, while fruit intake and allergies significantly decreased risk. No other significant associations were observed in the multivariate model. Effect modification by smoking status was suggested for caffeine, family history of pancreatic cancer, BMI, and fruit. This study further clarifies the association between several lifestyle, dietary and medical history factors, and pancreatic cancer risk, many of which are potentially modifiable. Possible effect modification by smoking status should be further explored in future etiologic studies.

  9. Financial Factors and Labour Market Transitions of Older Workers in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the influence of financial factors on the labour market transitions of Canadian older workers. Also, in contrast to previous studies, the analysis focuses on transitions between full-time work, part-time work, and retirement. Sequential annual observations of employment and retirement choices are examined for samples of full-time and part-time workers, drawn from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID, 2001–2006. Measures of potential pension wealth and one-year and peak pension accruals are imputed using data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, 1973–1997, and the SLID, 1997–2006. Regression results indicate that financial factors influence workers to move from full-time to part-time jobs and support the evidence found in previous studies that retirement is usually a process, not a single event. Also, an increase in pension accruals increases the probability of working full-time for lower-income earners only. Among nonfinancial factors, a negative health shock increases the probability of working part-time or retiring for full-time workers but has little effect on the labour market transitions of part-time workers. Finally, these results suggest that policies to encourage phased retirement are unlikely to have a significant labour market effect since bridge employment is already a common transition process among older workers.

  10. Parent Involvement in School Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Gwynne O.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Parent involvement (PI) in school is associated with more positive academic performance and social competence in children. However, there are inadequacies in current measures of PI and a need for a better understanding of predictors of PI. In this study, measures were obtained from a normative sample of 387 children in kindergarten and first grade from high-risk neighborhoods in 4 different sites. First, a confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical factor model of PI identified 6 reliable ...

  11. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Case Studies: Factors Influencing Divergent HTA Reimbursement Recommendations in Australia, Canada, England, and Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nicola; Walker, Stuart R; Liberti, Lawrence; Salek, Sam

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the national regulatory, health technology assessment (HTA), and reimbursement pathways for public health care in Australia, Canada, England, and Scotland, to compare initial Canadian national HTA recommendations with the initial decisions of the other HTA agencies, and to identify factors for differing national HTA recommendations between the four HTA agencies. Information from the public domain was used to develop a regulatory process map for each jurisdiction and to compare the HTA agencies' reimbursement recommendations. Medicines that were reviewed by all four agencies and received a negative recommendation from only one agency were selected as case studies. All four countries have a national HTA agency. Their reimbursement recommendations are guided by both clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness, and the necessity for patient input. Their activities, however, vary because of different mandates and their unique political, social, and population needs. All have an implicit or explicit quality-adjusted life-year threshold. The seven divergent case studies demonstrate examples in which new medicine-indication pairs have been rejected because of uncertainties surrounding a range of factors including cost-effectiveness, comparator choice, clinical benefit, safety, trial design, and submission timing. The four HTA agencies selected for inclusion in this study share common factors, including a focus on clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness in their decision-making processes. The differences in recommendations could be considered to be due to an individual agency's approach to risk perception, and the comparator choice used in clinical and cost-effectiveness studies. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prospective evaluation of parent distress following pediatric burns and identification of risk factors for young child and parent posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Alexandra C; Hendrikz, Joan; Kenardy, Justin A; Cobham, Vanessa E; Kimble, Roy M

    2014-02-01

    Early childhood is a high-risk time for exposure to potentially traumatic medical events. We have previously reported that 10% of young children continue to have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months after burn injury. This study aimed to 1) document the prevalence and prospective change in parental psychological distress over 6 months following their child's burn injury and 2) identify risk factors for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in young children and their parents. Participants were 120 parents of 1-6-year-old children with unintentional burn injuries. Data were collected within 2 weeks, 1 month, and 6 months of burn injury using developmentally sensitive diagnostic interviews and questionnaires. Within the first month, ∼ 25% of parents had a probable PTSD diagnosis, and moderate to extremely severe levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Distress levels decreased significantly over time; however, 5% of parents still had probable PTSD at 6 months. Hierarchical multiple regression and path analyses indicated that parent posttraumatic stress reactions contributed significantly to the development and maintenance of child PTSS. Other risk factors for child PTSS included premorbid emotional and behavioral difficulties and larger burn size. Risk factors identified for parent PTSS included prior trauma history, acute distress, greater number of child invasive procedures, guilt, and child PTSS. The findings from this study suggest that parents' responses to a traumatic event may play a particularly important role in a young child's psychological recovery. However, further research is needed to confirm the direction of the relationship between child and parent distress. This study identified variables that could be incorporated into screening tools or targeted by early intervention protocols to prevent the development of persistent child and parent PTSS following medical trauma.

  13. A qualitative study exploring factors associated with mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has numerous health benefits. In 2010, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador had the lowest breastfeeding initiation rate (64.0%) in Canada. Formula feeding is associated with well-known health risks. Exclusive formula feeding is the “cultural norm” in some regions of the province. Women appear resistant to changing their infant feeding behaviors and remain committed to their decision to formula-feed. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to examine individual factors that shaped mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Nineteen mothers who were currently formula feeding their children participated in the study. Methods Qualitative research in the form of focus groups was conducted in three communities in the province in 2010. A thematic content analysis identified the main themes that influenced mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Results The main themes included issues concerning the support needed to breastfeed, the convenience associated with formula feeding, and the embarrassment surrounding breastfeeding in public. Conclusions These findings help to better understand why mothers choose formula feeding over breastfeeding and may help to inform the development of public health interventions targeted at this population of mothers. PMID:23844590

  14. A qualitative study exploring factors associated with mothers' decisions to formula-feed their infants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonia, Kimberly; Twells, Laurie; Halfyard, Beth; Ludlow, Valerie; Newhook, Leigh Anne; Murphy-Goodridge, Janet

    2013-07-12

    Breastfeeding has numerous health benefits. In 2010, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador had the lowest breastfeeding initiation rate (64.0%) in Canada. Formula feeding is associated with well-known health risks. Exclusive formula feeding is the "cultural norm" in some regions of the province. Women appear resistant to changing their infant feeding behaviors and remain committed to their decision to formula-feed. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to examine individual factors that shaped mothers' decisions to formula-feed their infants. Nineteen mothers who were currently formula feeding their children participated in the study. Qualitative research in the form of focus groups was conducted in three communities in the province in 2010. A thematic content analysis identified the main themes that influenced mothers' decisions to formula-feed their infants. The main themes included issues concerning the support needed to breastfeed, the convenience associated with formula feeding, and the embarrassment surrounding breastfeeding in public. These findings help to better understand why mothers choose formula feeding over breastfeeding and may help to inform the development of public health interventions targeted at this population of mothers.

  15. Frozen chicken nuggets and strips and eggs are leading risk factors for Salmonella Heidelberg infections in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, A; MacDougall, L; Aramini, J; Gaulin, C; Ahmed, R; Isaacs, S

    2005-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted from 1 January to 31 May 2003 to identify risk factors for S . Heidelberg infection in Canada. Controls were pair-matched by age group and telephone exchange to 95 cases. Exposures in the 7 days before illness/interview were assessed using multivariate conditional logistic regression. Consumption of home-prepared chicken nuggets and/or strips [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-13.8], and undercooked eggs (mOR 7.5, 95% CI 1.5-75.5) increased the risk of illness. Exposure to a farm setting lowered the risk (mOR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03-1.00). The population-attributable fraction associated with chicken nuggets/strips was 34% and with undercooked eggs was 16%. One-third of study participants did not perceive, handle or prepare chicken nuggets and strips as high-risk products, although the majority of the products on the Canadian market are raw. These findings have prompted changes in product-labelling policy and consumer education.

  16. Perceptions of predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in same-sex parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lori E; Steele, Leah; Sapiro, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women are choosing to have children in the context of same-sex relationships or as "out" lesbian or bisexual individuals. This study used qualitative methods to assess perceived predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) women. Two focus groups with LGBQ women were conducted: 1) biological parents of young children and 2) nonbiological parents of young children or whose partners were currently pregnant. Three major themes emerged. Issues related to social support were primary, particularly related to disappointment with the lack of support provided by members of the family of origin. Participants also described issues related to the couple relationship, such as challenges in negotiating parenting roles. Finally, legal and policy barriers (e.g., second parent adoption) were identified as a significant source of stress during the transition to parenthood. Both lack of social support and relationship problems have previously been identified as risk factors for perinatal depression in heterosexual women, and legal and policy barriers may represent a unique risk factor for this population. Therefore, additional study of perinatal mental health among LGBQ women is warranted.

  17. Multiple carbon and nitrogen sources associated with the parental mantle fluids of fibrous diamonds from Diavik, Canada, revealed by SIMS microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, D. C.; Stachel, T.; Stern, R. A.; Hunt, L.; Fomradas, G.

    2016-02-01

    Fibrous diamonds are often interpreted as direct precipitates of primary carbonate-bearing fluids in the lithospheric mantle, sourced directly from common reservoirs of "mantle" carbon and nitrogen. Here we have examined fibrous growth layers in five diamonds (as three rims or "coats" and two whole-crystal cuboids) from the Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, using in situ C- and N-isotope and N-abundance measurements to investigate the origin and evolution of their parental fluids, and in particular, to test for isotopic variability within a suite of fibrous diamonds. High-resolution growth structure information was gleaned from cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and, in combination with the isotopic data, was used to assess the nature of the transition from gem to fibrous growth in the coated diamonds. The two cuboids are characterized by fine concentric bands of fibrous and/or milky opaque diamond, with one sample (S1719) having intermittent gem-like growth layers that are transparent and colourless. The three coated diamonds comprise octahedral gem cores mantled by massive or weakly zoned fibrous rims, with sharp and well-defined gem-fibrous boundaries. For the two cuboid samples, δ 13C and δ 15N values were -7.7 to -3.2 ‰ (mean -6.3 ± 1.3 ‰; 1 SD; n = 84) and -5.6 to -2.1 ‰ (mean -4.0 ± 0.8 ‰; 1 SD; n = 48), respectively. The three fibrous rims have combined δ 13C values of -8.3 to -4.8 ‰ (mean -6.9 ± 0.7 ‰; 1 SD; n = 113) and δ 15N values of -3.8 to -1.9 ‰ (mean -2.7 ± 0.4 ‰; 1 SD; n = 43). N-abundances of the combined cuboid-fibrous rim dataset range from 339 to 1714 at. ppm. The gem cores have δ 13C and δ 15N values of -5.4 to -3.5 ‰ and -17.7 to +4.5 ‰, respectively, and N-abundances of 480 to 1699 at. ppm. Broadly uniform C- and N-isotope compositions were observed in each of the gem cores (variations of ~<1 ‰ for carbon and ~<3 ‰ for nitrogen). This limited C- and N- isotope variability implies that the gem cores formed from

  18. The Effect of Parents' Attitudes toward Divorce on Offspring's Attitudes: Gender and Parental Divorce as Mediating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinus, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses three questions: (a) What influence do parents' attitudes toward divorce have on offspring's attitudes? (b) How are offspring's attitudes toward divorce influenced by parental divorce, and do the effects vary depending on the gender of the child? and (c) How do conditions surrounding parental divorce influence young adults'…

  19. Obese parents--obese children? Psychological-psychiatric risk factors of parental behavior and experience for the development of obesity in children aged 0-3: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Matthias; Bergmann, Sarah; Keitel, Anja; Herfurth-Majstorovic, Katharina; Wendt, Verena; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2013-12-17

    The incidences of childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially and with them the prevalence of associated somatic and psychiatric health problems. Therefore, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors for early childhood overweight in order to develop effective prevention or intervention programs. Besides biological factors, familial interactions and parental behavioral patterns may influence children's weight development. Longitudinal investigation of children at overweight risk could help to detect significant risk and protective factors. We aim to describe infants' weight development over time and identify risk and protective factors for the incidence of childhood obesity. Based on our findings we will draw up a risk model that will lay the foundation for an intervention/prevention program. We present the protocol of a prospective longitudinal study in which we investigate families with children aged from 6 months to 47 months. In half of the families at least one parent is obese (risk group), in the other half both parents are normal weight (control group). Based on developmental and health-psychological models, we consider measurements at three levels: the child, the parents and parent-child-relationship. Three assessment points are approximately one year apart. At each assessment point we evaluate the psychological, social, and behavioral situation of the parents as well as the physical and psychosocial development of the child. Parents are interviewed, fill in questionnaires, and take part in standardized interaction tasks with their child in a feeding and in a playing context in our research laboratory. The quality of these video-taped parent-child interactions is assessed by analyzing them with standardized, validated instruments according to scientific standards. Strengths of the presented study are the prospective longitudinal design, the multi-informant approach, including the fathers, and the observation of parent

  20. Loneliness of homosexual male students: parental bonding attitude as a moderating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationships of homosexual male students at the senior high school level and their loneliness using parental bonding attitude as a moderating factor. An amount of 127 homosexual male senior high school students in Taiwan is studied. The Pearson correlation analysis and the hierarchical regression analysis are adapted to examine two proposed hypotheses. Based on the results, homosexual male senior high school students in both hyper-masculine and feminine gender roles are found to feel loneliness, but levels of loneliness of those who possess hyper-masculine gender role are relatively lower than those in a feminine role. In addition, the levels of loneliness of homosexual male senior high school students could be negatively affected by parental bonding attitudes (Care). Recommendations and suggestions for parents as well as teachers of homosexual senior high school male students and future studies are underscored at the end of this article.

  1. Factor analysis of the continuous performance test and parent-teacher reports of attention deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggio, D J; Rhodes, R L; Whitten, J D

    1999-12-01

    The relationships between a computerized measure of attention deficit disorder and scores from two commonly used parent-teacher reports were investigated. A factor analysis of the raw omission and commission scores provided by the Continuous Performance Test and Conners' Parent Rating Scale and the ADD-H Comprehensive Teacher Rating Scale indicated that for a sample of 54 children the Continuous Performance Test was most closely associated with measures of impulsivity and hyperactivity provided by the Conners' rating. This finding was congruent with the use of the Continuous Performance Test in the evaluation as a measure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and suggestive of a positive and significant relation between this computerized measure of behavior and parents' perception of behavior. Little association was detected between scores on the teachers' scale and omission and commission scores.

  2. The role of parents and related factors on adolescent computer use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Epstein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research suggested the importance of parents on their adolescents’ computer activity. Spending too much time on the computer for recreational purposes in particular has been found to be related to areas of public health concern in children/adolescents, including obesity and substance use. Design and Methods. The goal of the research was to determine the association between recreational computer use and potentially linked factors (parental monitoring, social influences to use computers including parents, age of first computer use, self-control, and particular internet activities. Participants (aged 13-17 years and residing in the United States were recruited via the Internet to complete an anonymous survey online using a survey tool. The target sample of 200 participants who completed the survey was achieved. The sample’s average age was 16 and was 63% girls. Results. A set of regressions with recreational computer use as dependent variables were run. Conclusions. Less parental monitoring, younger age at first computer use, listening or downloading music from the internet more frequently, using the internet for educational purposes less frequently, and parent’s use of the computer for pleasure was related to spending a greater percentage of time on non-school computer use. These findings suggest the importance of parental monitoring and parental computer use on their children’s own computer use, and the influence of some internet activities on adolescent computer use. Finally, programs aimed at parents to help them increase the age when their children start using computers and learn how to place limits on recreational computer use are needed.

  3. Associated Demographic Factors of Instrumental and Emotional Feeding in Parents of Hong Kong Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin; Lee, Albert; Keung, Vera; Tam, Wilson

    2016-12-01

    Instrumental and emotional feeding have been associated with obesogenic dietary behaviors and obesity in children. Therefore, identifying parents who are more likely to use detrimental feeding styles may be helpful for tailoring interventions. This study examines the demographic variation of instrumental and emotional feeding by using a sample of the Hong Kong population. A cross-sectional research is presented. Instrumental and emotional feeding styles were assessed. A total of 3,742 Hong Kong parents from 27 kindergartens, with children aged 2 to 7 years old, were enrolled in this study. Instrumental and emotional feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire. Differences among the demographic characteristics in parental feeding styles were compared by independent t test or analysis of variance. Multiple linear regressions were performed to determine the associated demographic factors. A greater tendency to adopt instrumental feeding was associated with younger children (β=-.07), feeding a daughter (β=.05), and a mother having a full-time job (β=.10). By contrast, a greater tendency to adopt emotional feeding was associated with younger children (β=-.07), feeding a daughter (β=.06), a mother having a full-time job (β=.16), or a lower parental education level (β=-.11). Parents with full-time jobs, lower education levels, or who were nurturing a younger child may be more likely to use unhealthy feeding styles. Researchers should consider developing intervention strategies that focus on decreasing emotional and instrumental feeding styles for full-time employed or less-educated parents of younger children, particularly daughters. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  5. Transformative Learning as a Factor of Lifelong Learning by the Example of Vocational Education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrysh Yuliana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of transformative learning as a factor of life-long learning have been presented in the article. The paper offers analysis of foreign theorists and practitioners’ views on transformative learning at Canadian universities. A special attention has been paid to the exploration of transformative learning methods and techniques implemented during vocational training at universities. The analysis of theoretical background evidences that the transformative learning concept is based on the theory of person’s transformations depending on the life experience, cognitive development and critical reflection skills. The significance of transformative learning concepts implementation into Ukrainian educational process has been substantiated. The main principles of transformative learning have been described (education, science and manufacture integration, selfrealization through values and assumption transformation, focus on dialogue and critical self-reflection. The key elements of transformative learning have been determined, namely, disoriented dilemma, critical reflection and rational discourse. The importance of nonformal and non-linear educational techniques implementation has been proved.

  6. Associations Between Parenting Factors, Motivation, and Physical Activity in Overweight African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lauren E; Wilson, Dawn K; Van Horn, M Lee; Pate, Russell R

    2017-05-22

    Positive parenting practices and environmental supports have been linked to physical activity (PA) levels in youth, yet factors associated with positive parenting styles have been understudied in African American adolescents. This study expands on previous literature by examining associations between motivation, parenting factors associated with Self-Determination Theory's psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) including authoritative parenting, autonomy support and emotional and tangible support, and adolescent moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and light PA (LPA). Participants were African American adolescents (N = 148; M age = 13.6 years; M BMI% = 96.6) and their caregivers (M age = 43.4 years; M BMI = 37.4) enrolled in the Families Improving Together for Weight Loss trial. Parenting factors were measured using self-report surveys, and PA minutes were measured using 7-day accelerometry estimates. Regression analyses indicated that overall models for MVPA (F(11,134) = 4.35; R 2 = 0.26) and LPA (F(11,134) = 5.84, R 2 = 0.32) were significant. Adolescent motivation for PA (B = 0.58, SE = 0.16) was positively associated with MVPA minutes. Authoritative parenting (B = 15.71, SE = 4.38) and tangible support (B = 8.53, SE = 4.02) were positively associated with adolescent LPA minutes. Unexpectedly, emotional support was negatively associated with both MVPA (B = -0.47, SE = 0.17) and LPA (B = -11.22, SE = 4.79), with follow-up analyses showing this relationship stronger in males. Findings highlight the importance of adolescent motivation for PA on MVPA and positive parenting styles and tangible supports on adolescent LPA in overweight African American youth. Recommendations for integrating these factors within the context of intervention studies are discussed.

  7. Understanding Early Contextual and Parental Risk Factors for the Development of Limited Prosocial Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that parenting influences the development of youth callous unemotional (CU) behavior. However, less is known about the effects of parenting or contextual risk factors on 'limited prosocial emotions' (LPE), a recent conceptualization of CU behavior added to the DSM-5. We focused on LPE at ages 10-12 and age 20 among low income, urban males (N = 310), and examined potential developmental precursors, including contextual risk factors assessed during infancy and observed maternal warmth during the toddler period. We found unique direct associations between maternal warmth, maternal aggression, and low empathetic awareness on LPE at ages 10-12, controlling for concurrent self-reported antisocial behavior. Further, there were indirect effects of maternal aggression, low empathetic awareness, and difficult infant temperament assessed in infancy on LPE at ages 10-12 via their influence on maternal warmth at age 2. Finally, there were lasting indirect effects of parental warmth on LPE at age 20, via LPE at ages 10-12. We discuss the implications of these findings for ecological models of antisocial behavior and LPE development, and preventative interventions that target the broader early parenting environment.

  8. Relative contributions of acculturation and psychopathological factors to cannabis use among adolescents from migrant parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chédebois, Lucie; Régner, Isabelle; van Leeuwen, Nikki; Chauchard, Emeline; Séjourné, Natalène; Rodgers, Rachel; Chabrol, Henri

    2009-12-01

    Immigrant adolescents and adolescents born of immigrant parents are at increased risk of substance use which has been linked to difficulties in acculturation processes. However very few studies have examined the role of the different acculturation strategies and none of them have controlled for relevant psychopathological and socio-familial factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of acculturation in cannabis use in a sample of adolescents born of immigrant parents taking into account potential confounding variables. A sample of 292 high school students born in France from at least one foreign parent completed a questionnaire assessing cannabis use, acculturation orientations, ethnic identity and the most relevant potential confounders (depressive symptoms, sensation seeking, borderline and psychopathic traits, alcohol and tobacco use, parental attachment, life events, socioeconomic status and academic achievement). A regression analysis showed that acculturation orientations and ethnic identity explained a significant part of the variance in the frequency of cannabis use. Individualism, integration and assimilation were negatively associated with the frequency of cannabis use suggesting they might serve as protective factors.

  9. Youth suicide attempts and the dose-response relationship to parental risk factors: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, E; Goldney, R D; Beautrai, A L

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of specific knowledge about the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors for suicide attempts among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors on an offspring's risk...... illness and low level of income were all significant independent risk factors for offspring's suicide attempts. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the effect of multiple risk factors on the likelihood of suicide attempts in children and adolescents is important for risk assessment. Dose-response effects...... of multiple parental risk factors are multiplicative, but it is rare for children and adolescents to be exposed to multiple parental risk factors simultaneously. Nevertheless, they should be considered along with the offspring's own multiple risk factors in determining the overall risk of a suicide attempt...

  10. Community-level risk factors for notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardhan-Ali Aliya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric pathogens are an important cause of illness, however, little is known about their community-level risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural and physical environmental conditions in the Northwest Territories (NWT of Canada. The objective of this study was to undertake ecological (group-level analyses by combining two existing data sources to examine potential community-level risk factors for campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis, which are three notifiable (mandatory reporting to public health authorities at the time of diagnosis enteric infections. Methods The rate of campylobacteriosis was modeled using a Poisson distribution while rates of giardiasis and salmonellosis were modeled using a Negative Binomial distribution. Rate ratios (the ratio of the incidence of disease in the exposed group to the incidence of disease in the non-exposed group were estimated for infections by the three major pathogens with potential community-level risk factors. Results Significant (p≤0.05 associations varied by etiology. There was increased risk of infection with Salmonella for communities with higher proportions of ‘households in core need’ (unsuitable, inadequate, and/or unaffordable housing up to 42% after which the rate started to decrease with increasing core need. The risk of giardiasis was significantly higher both with increased ‘internal mobility’ (population moving between communities, and also where the community’s primary health facility was a health center rather than a full-service hospital. Communities with higher health expenditures had a significantly decreased risk of giardiasis. Results of modeling that focused on each of Giardia and Salmonella infections separately supported and expanded upon previous research outcomes that suggested health disparities are often associated with socioeconomic status, geographical and social mobility, as well as access to health care (e.g. facilities

  11. Adolescent Alcohol Use: Protective and Predictive Parent, Peer, and Self-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handren, Lindsay M; Donaldson, Candice D; Crano, William D

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent alcohol use has been linked with a multitude of problems and a trajectory predictive of problematic use in adulthood. Thus, targeting factors that enhance early prevention efforts is vital. The current study highlights variables that mitigate or predict alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Using Monitoring the Future (MTF) data, multiple path analytic models revealed links between parental involvement and alcohol abstinence and initiation. Parental involvement predicted enhanced self-esteem and less self-derogation and was negatively associated with peer alcohol norms for each MTF grade sampled, with stronger associations for 8th and 10th graders than 12th graders. For younger groups, self-esteem predicted increased perceptions of alcohol risk and reduced drinking. Self-derogation was associated with peers' pro-alcohol norms, which was linked to lower risk perceptions, lower personal disapproval of use, and increased drinking. Peer influence had a stronger association with consumption for 8th and 10th graders, whereas 12th graders' drinking was related to personal factors of alcohol risk perception and disapproval. In all grades, general alcohol use had a strong connection to heavy episodic drinking within the past 2 weeks. Across-grade variations in association of parent, peer, and personal factors suggest the desirability of tailored interventions focused on specific factors for each grade level, with the overall goal of attenuating adolescent alcohol use.

  12. Psychosocial factors influencing parental decision to allow or refuse potentially lifesaving enucleation in children with retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Enrique D. Domingo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retinoblastoma is the most common malignancy of the eye and ocular adnexa in the Philippines. It is curable when treated early, but delay in enucleation is common due to the parental refusal of surgery for varied reasons. The aim of this study is to identify the psychosocial barriers and facilitating factors for accepting versus refusing enucleation as treatment for retinoblastoma. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing structured interviews and a questionnaire. It was conducted at the Retinoblastoma Clinic of the Philippine General Hospital. A questionnaire using the Likert scale was constructed after performing key informant interviews and focus group discussions. It was pretested and revised before parents of patients with retinoblastoma were invited to participate in the study. Descriptive statistics, quantitative item analyses using inter-item correlations and item-total correlations was performed. Results: Factors that correlate with refusal to enucleate are the beliefs that cancer is a fatal illness, the fear of unacceptable esthetic outcome of the surgery, and the cost of treatment. Favorable factors include value of life, high regard for the opinion of medical practitioners, and appreciation of the efficacy of treatment. Conclusions: There are several favorable factors and barriers that health practitioners must consider in facilitating parental decision-making toward enucleation for retinoblastoma.

  13. Association of Parental Overweight and Cardiometabolic Diseases and Pediatric Adiposity and Lifestyle Factors with Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ying Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12–16 years were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1–2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5–1.6 and 1.9–4.2-fold, respectively. Low physical activity (<952.4 MET·min/week, long screen time (≥3 h/day and high sugar-sweetened beverage intake (>500 mL/day were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.5–7.3, 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1–4.4, and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2–229.0 odds ratio (OR of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI accounted for 18.8%–95.6% and 16.9%–60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3–17.3; p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009. The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI

  14. Parental Mediation of Television: Test of a German-speaking scale and findings on the Impact of parental attitudes, sociodemographic and Family factors in German-speaking Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Böcking, Saskia; Böcking, Tabea

    2009-01-01

    In the present study a German-speaking scale for measuring parental mediation of television is tested and various factors influencing television mediation are investigated. 252 German-speaking Swiss parents of children aged 3 to 14 answered questions about their mediation behavior and possible determinants. The results confirm international research findings. Active and restrictive mediation as well as coviewing are identified as important mediation styles in German-speaking Switzerland. Thou...

  15. Parental factors associated with childhood anxiety, depression, and internalizing problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2015-04-01

    There is a burgeoning and varied literature examining the associations between parental factors and depression or anxiety disorders in children. However, there is hitherto no systematic review of this complex literature with a focus on the 5-11 years age range, when there is a steep increase in onset of these disorders. Furthermore, to facilitate the application of the evidence in prevention, a focus on modifiable factors is required. Employing the PRISMA method, we conducted a systematic review of parental factors associated with anxiety, depression, and internalizing problems in children which parents can potentially modify. We identified 141 articles altogether, with 53 examining anxiety, 50 examining depression, and 70 examining internalizing outcomes. Stouffer׳s method of combining p-values was used to determine whether associations between variables were reliable, and meta-analyses were conducted with a subset of eligible studies to estimate the mean effect sizes of associations between each parental factor and outcome. Limitations include sacrificing micro-level detail for a macro-level synthesis of the literature, the lack of generalizability across cultures, and the inability to conduct a meta-analysis on all included studies. Parental factors with a sound evidence base indicating increased risk for both depression and internalizing problems include more inter-parental conflict and aversiveness; and for internalizing outcomes additionally, they include less warmth and more abusive parenting and over-involvement. No sound evidence linking any parental factor with anxiety outcomes was found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Policy Environments and Institutional Factors that Shape the Role of Technology in Entrepreneurial Culture: An Exploratory Study in Mexico and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Arechavala Vargas, A.; Holbrook, J A; Díaz Pérez, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparative study of entrepreneurship in Mexico and Canada, based on the study of the role of technology and innovation in entrepreneurial activity. The aim of the paper is to highlight similarities and differences in the perceptions of entrepreneurs about environmental and policy factors that affect their business opportunities, in order to better understand their role, and to derive policy implications that may be useful in advancing technological innovation in Me...

  17. CHILD-PARENT VIOLENCE: MAIN CHARACTERISTICS, RISK FACTORS AND KEYS TO INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luisa Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Child-parent Violence (hereinafter CPV is an increasingly evident problem in the social, health, and judicial protection systems which, however, continue to show a number of major deficiencies with respect to the main characteristics of CPV, the people involved, the underlying factors, and efficacious interventions. Nevertheless, there is a consensus regarding its devastating consequences. The present bibliographical review is focused on analysing the problem of CPV with the aim of offering useful data for future research and intervention proposals. Specifically, this paper provides a definition of CPV and its types, some data on prevalence, the main characteristics of aggressive children and abused parents, and the most important individual, family, school and community risk factors highlighted in the current scientific literature. The keys areas of intervention with this group are also presented.

  18. Parental, socio and cultural factors associated with adolescents' sports participation in four Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard-Støckel, J; Nielsen, G A; Ibsen, B

    2011-01-01

    Despite the well-documented health effects of physical activity, few studies focus on the correlates of leisure-time sports and exercise participation. The present study examined correlations between adolescent sports participation and demographic factors, socioeconomic status (SES......) and sociocultural factors. A school-based cross-sectional cluster sample including 6356 Danish fifth- and ninth-grade adolescents from four municipalities were included. Age (younger) and gender (boy) were associated with adolescents' sports participation. Girls were half as likely [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 95......% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.55] to participate in sports than boys. Adolescents were more likely to participate in sports if they perceived their parents as active in exercise or sports. Adolescents with one or two unemployed parents were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.62-0.89) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0...

  19. Earlier Parental Set Bedtimes as a Protective Factor Against Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwisch, James E.; Babiss, Lindsay A.; Malaspina, Dolores; Turner, J. Blake; Zammit, Gary K.; Posner, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the relationships between parental set bedtimes, sleep duration, and depression as a quasi-experiment to explore the potentially bidirectional relationship between short sleep duration and depression. Short sleep duration has been shown to precede depression, but this could be explained as a prodromal symptom of depression. Depression in an adolescent can affect his/her chosen bedtime, but it is less likely to affect a parent's chosen set bedtime which can establish a relatively stable upper limit that can directly affect sleep duration. Design: Multivariate cross-sectional analyses of the ADD Health using logistic regression. Setting: United States nationally representative, school-based, probability-based sample in 1994-96. Participants: Adolescents (n = 15,659) in grades 7 to 12. Measurements and Results: Adolescents with parental set bedtimes of midnight or later were 24% more likely to suffer from depression (OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.49) and 20% more likely to have suicidal ideation (1.20, 1.01-1.41) than adolescents with parental set bedtimes of 10:00 PM or earlier, after controlling for covariates. Consistent with sleep duration and perception of getting enough sleep acting as mediators, the inclusion of these variables in the multivariate models appreciably attenuated the associations for depression (1.07, 0.88-1.30) and suicidal ideation (1.09, 0.92-1.29). Conclusions: The results from this study provide new evidence to strengthen the argument that short sleep duration could play a role in the etiology of depression. Earlier parental set bedtimes could therefore be protective against adolescent depression and suicidal ideation by lengthening sleep duration. Citation: Gangwisch JE; Babiss LA; Malaspina D; Turner JB; Zammit GK; Posner K. Earlier parental set bedtimes as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation. SLEEP 2010;33(1):97-106. PMID:20120626

  20. Sexual intercourse among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: a study of individual and parenting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ninive; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela; Delva, Jorge

    2010-10-01

    to examine a range of individual, parenting, and family factors associated with sexual intercourse among a community sample of youth and their families in Santiago, Chile. Data were taken from the Santiago Longitudinal Study conducted in January 2008-November 2009. Participants were 766 youth (mean age = 14.03 years, 51% male) from municipalities of low- to mid-socioeconomic status. Variables included emotional and behavioral subscales from the Child Behavior Checklist's Youth Self Report, parental monitoring, family involvement, parental control and autonomy, relationship with each parent, and sexual activity. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the odds of sexual intercourse initiation. seventy (9.14%) youth reported having had sex in their lifetime; the average age of first sexual intercourse among this group was 13.5 years (Standard Deviation [SD] = 1.74) for males and 14.08 (SD = 1.40) for females. Having sex was inversely associated with withdrawn-depressed symptoms (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.84, Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-0.97), but positively associated with somatic complaints (OR = 1.20, CI = 1.04-1.38) and rule breaking behavior (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.08-1.36), after adjusting for demographic and other individual and parenting variables. The majority (80%) of the youth who had had sex reported using protection at the time of last intercourse. findings highlight the role that mental health problems-some of them not commonly associated with onset of sexual activity-may play in a youth's decision to have sex. The potential protective effects of several parenting and family characteristics disappeared with youth age and youth behavioral problems.

  1. Community- and individual-level factors associated with smoking and heavy drinking among Aboriginal people in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Georgiades, Katholiki; MacMillan, Harriet L; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-02-03

    1) To examine the association between place of residence (i.e., on- versus off-communities and between provinces) and daily smoking and heavy drinking among Aboriginal people in Canada; and 2) to identify community- and individual-level factors that may account for these associations. Data were from the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2001). The sample included 52,110 Aboriginal people (≥ 15 years of age). Community-level variables included: place of residence, community socio-economic status (SES) and perceived community social problems. Individual-level variables included: age, sex, education, income, employment status, marital status, Aboriginal heritage and social support. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted to analyze the data. Living in First Nations communities (compared with living off-communities) was associated with daily smoking, and this association was accounted for by perceived community social problems. However, the association between Inuit communities and daily smoking remained after controlling for all covariates (odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.44-2.70). Residence in First Nations communities was associated with heavy drinking (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.17-2.04), however this risk became evident only after controlling for community SES, which was also positively associated with heavy drinking (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.26-1.69). Compared with Saskatchewan, Aboriginal people in Atlantic Provinces (OR = 2.80, 95% CI = 2.08-3.78) or Territories (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.01-1.92) were more likely to engage in heavy drinking. Studies are needed to better understand the increased risk for smoking in Inuit communities and heavy drinking in First Nations communities, Atlantic Provinces and Territories, and to identify possible reasons for the positive association between community SES and heavy drinking among Aboriginal people.

  2. Firearm Ownership and Acquisition Among Parents With Risk Factors for Self-Harm or Other Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladapo, Joseph A; Elliott, Marc N; Kanouse, David E; Schwebel, David C; Toomey, Sara L; Mrug, Sylvie; Cuccaro, Paula M; Tortolero, Susan R; Schuster, Mark A

    Recent policy initiatives aiming to reduce firearm morbidity focus on mental health and illness. However, few studies have simultaneously examined mental health and behavioral predictors within families, or their longitudinal association with newly acquiring a firearm. Population-based, longitudinal survey of 4251 parents of fifth-grade students in 3 US metropolitan areas; 2004 to 2011. Multivariate logistic models were used to assess associations between owning or acquiring a firearm and parent mental illness and substance use. Ninety-three percent of parents interviewed were women. Overall, 19.6% of families reported keeping a firearm in the home. After adjustment for confounders, history of depression (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.77), binge drinking (aOR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.14-2.68), and illicit drug use (aOR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.12-2.76) were associated with a higher likelihood of keeping a firearm in the home. After a mean of 3.1 years, 6.1% of parents who did not keep a firearm in the home at baseline acquired one by follow-up and kept it in the home (average annual likelihood = 2.1%). No risk factors for self-harm or other violence were associated with newly acquiring a gun in the home. Families with risk factors for self-harm or other violence have a modestly greater probability of having a firearm in the home compared with families without risk factors, and similar probability of newly acquiring a firearm. Treatment interventions for many of these risk factors might reduce firearm-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors and Interventions Associated with Parental Attachment during Pregnancy in Iran: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Salehi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents' attachment to the child is an intimate,warm and continuous relationship which is the basis of the natural development of the child. Attachment starts long before birth, and is affected by a variety of factors that are not definitively recognized. Also, several interventions have been proposed for improving it that their effectiveness has not yet been determined. Given the evidence about the role of cultural and national differences, it is necessary to review existing studies in order to identify these factors and interventions in Iran.Methods and Materials: In this review, Web of Science, Scopous, Proquest,Psycinfo, CINAHL and Pubmed databases and SID, Magiran, Irondoc, Barakat Knowledge Network System as Iranian databases were searched using English and Persian keywords such as prenatal attachment, relationship, maternal attachment between 2000 and 2017, to find articles related to prenatal attachment. The full text of the articles was studied by two reviewer and their main findings were extracted and categorized.Results: Factors and interventions associated with parental attachment summarized into 12 themes: parent education, culture, anxiety, family, planning for pregnancy, history of fetal loss, substance abuse, postpartum attachment, fetal anomaly, paternal attachment, attachment measurement tools, and effectiveness of education on prenatal attachment .Conclusion: the effect of education and counseling on prenatal attachment in Iranian parents suggests the use of these methods in prenatal care. Parent’s education, social support and marital satisfaction were significant associated factors with increasing maternal attachment. History of fetal loss, anxiety and smoking was associated with the poor prenatal attachment

  4. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazwani, Jaafar Y.; Khalil, Shamsun N.; Ahmed, Razia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background c...

  5. Associations of contextual risk and protective factors with fathers’ parenting practices in the post-deployment environment

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K.; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of post-deployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 post-deployed fathers who served in the Army National Guard/Reserves. Pre-intervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After ...

  6. Exploring the factor structure of the Parent Reading Belief Inventory (PRBI: Example of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radišić Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we explored the core factor structure originally proposed by the developer of the Parent Reading Belief Inventory (PRBI DeBaryshe (DeBaryshe & Binder, 1994; DeBaryshe, 1995. The PRBI was developed to assess and explore parents’ beliefs about reading aloud to their children, measuring parents’ attitudes and perceptions about how children learn, the content of their learning and parental efficacy in the process. The PRBI is supposed to have 7 underlying subscales and a total score. Using a sample of 227 parents in Serbia our analyses showed internal consistency estimates were not in line with those reported by the authors of the PRBI. Using confirmatory factor analysis the subscale models showed substantial variance in how well they fit. Better fit was found for the overall models for the entire PRBI scale. Among them, the correlated factors model exhibited the best fit indices. Limitations and future research are discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: From encouraging initiative, cooperation and creativity in education to new roles and identities in society i br. 47008: Improving the quality and accessibility of education in modernization processes in Serbia

  7. Knowledge of human papillomavirus vaccination and related factors among parents of young adolescents: a nationwide survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Kai; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wang, Shao-Ming; Yang, Chun-Xia; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Li, Man; Ren, Ze-Fang; Zheng, Quan-Qing; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Qiao, You-Lin

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-related knowledge and factors associated with the knowledge among parents of young adolescents in China. The study was based on data of a survey carried out in seven geographic regions of China. Parents of students in junior middle school were surveyed during parents' meetings. A total of 2895 parents were included in the analyses. Of parents, 38.3% responded with "yes" to more than three of the six knowledge questions, among whom only 4.5% of them correctly answered all six questions. Social benefit programs (41.3%), doctors and/or nurses (39.7%), and newspapers and/or magazines (36.5%) were selected as the top three sources of HPV-related knowledge. Mothers, parents who work in the health care sector, and parents with a higher annual income or with vaccination experience outside the expanded program on immunization showed a better knowledge base. Parents who consented to sex education for children or showed fear of cervical cancer were likely to have more HPV-related knowledge. In particular, the knowledge level of parents with prior consultation regarding HPV vaccines was higher. Parents of young adolescents in China possessed a low level of HPV vaccine-related knowledge. Findings highlight the need for tailored health education through different channels to improve HPV-related knowledge among parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliability and factor structure of the Chinese GHQ-30 for parents with preschool mentally handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T; Tsang, S K

    1995-03-01

    The Chinese version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) was administered to 381 parents of preschool mentally handicapped children, along with other instruments that assessed their stress, mental health, coping styles, and care-giving patterns. The GHQ-30 was found to have high internal consistency as a scale and high item-total correlations for most of the items. Factor analysis with a four-factor solution showed that four factors were abstracted from the scale, namely, anxiety, depression, interpersonal dysfunctioning, and inadequate coping. It also was found that the factors extracted could be reproduced reliably in two random subsamples and that the factor structure derived from the present sample corresponds to the previously reported data on the dimensionality of the Chinese GHQ-30.

  9. Associations of contextual risk and protective factors with fathers’ parenting practices in the post-deployment environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K.; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of post-deployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 post-deployed fathers who served in the Army National Guard/Reserves. Pre-intervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT) randomized control trial. Parenting practices were obtained from direct observation of father-child interaction and included measures of problem solving, harsh discipline, positive involvement, encouragement, and monitoring. Risk factors included combat exposure, negative life events, months deployed, and PTSD symptoms. Protective factors included education, income, dyadic adjustment, and social support. Results of a structural equation model predicting an effective parenting construct indicated that months deployed, income, and father age were most related to observed parenting, explaining 16% of the variance. We are aware of no other study utilizing direct parent-child observations of father’s parenting skills following overseas deployment. Implications for practice and preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:26213794

  10. Parent and family factors associated with service use by young people with mental health problems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Siobhan M; Jorm, Anthony F; Toumbourou, John W; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-12-01

    To conduct a systematic review of parent and family factors associated with service use for young people with mental health problems, to inform early intervention efforts aimed at increasing service use by young people. A systematic search of academic databases was performed. Articles were included in the review if they had: a sample of young people aged between 5 and 18 years; service use as the outcome measure; one or more parental or family variables as a predictor; and a comparison group of non-service using young people with mental health problems. In order to focus on factors additional to need, the mental health symptoms of the young person also had to be controlled for. Stouffer's method of combining P-values was used to draw conclusions as to whether or not associations between variables were reliable. Twenty-eight articles were identified investigating 15 parental or family factors, 7 of which were found to be associated with service use for a young person with mental health needs: parental burden, parent problem perception, parent perception of need, parent psychopathology, single-parent household, change in family structure and being from the dominant ethnic group for the United States specifically. Factors not found to be related to service use were: family history of service use, parent-child relationship quality, family functioning, number of children, parent education level, parent employment status, household income and non-urban location of residence. A number of family-related factors were identified that can inform effective interventions aimed at early intervention for mental health problems. Areas requiring further research were also identified. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Individual and parental factors related to meaning in life among Hungarian minority adolescents from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassai, László; Piko, Bettina F; Steger, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how adolescents achieve meaning in life has important implications for their psychological development. A social cognitive model of meaning development was tested by assessing psychological (self-efficacy, self-regulation and social comparison) and parental (parental responsiveness, demandingness, and social support) variables in a sample of 1944 adolescents (aged 15-19 years; 47.8% males) from secondary schools of the Middle Transylvanian Region, Romania. Both psychological and parental factors were significantly related to meaning in life. For both boys and girls, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and maternal responsiveness related positively with meaning in life, and paternal demandingness related inversely to meaning in life. However, social comparison related positively to meaning only among boys, and paternal responsiveness related positively to meaning only among girls. Results point to a possible meaning-supporting role played by social cognitive variables, as well as parental autonomy support. The gender differences observed here suggest that existing theories of meaning development may need to be elaborated to include family of origin and gender.

  12. Factors influencing parental decision to consult for children with upper respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chirk-Jenn; Chia, Yook-Chin; Teng, Cheong-Lieng; Nik-Sherina, Hanafi

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to determine which factors could influence (i) parents' decision to seek medical consultatin and (ii) their preference for either public or private medical service in children with upper respiratory tract infection. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Gombak district, which is an urban area in Malaysia. We randomly selected parents of kindergarten children aged 4-5 years to participate in this questionnaire survey. The main outcome measures were predictors of early medical consultation and type of service utilisation (public versus private). We achieved a response rate of 84.5% (n = 1033/1223). 64.1% sought early medical consultation and 70.9% preferred to consult a private doctor. Early consultation was predicated by the parent gender being male (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.09, 2.05), non-Chinese (OR 1.75%; 95% CI 1.10, 2.79), and those who preferred child specialists (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.27, 3.23). Lower income group (OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.30, 7.95) and not having a regular doctor (OR 4.99%; 95% CI 3.19, 7.80) were predictors of using the public health services. Parent's gender, ethnicity and income influenced their decision to seek early medical consultation for their children's respiratory illness while income and having a regular doctor could predict their choice of healthcare services.

  13. Early predictors of separation anxiety disorder: early stranger anxiety, parental pathology and prenatal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Kristen; Herren, Chantal; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Adornetto, Carmen; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The present study seeks to extend research on the etiology of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in a German-speaking sample by examining differences between children with SAD and healthy comparisons, using a retrospective-reporting paradigm. The sample included 106 children with SAD and 44 healthy children between the ages of 4 and 14 years. Parents completed questionnaires and structured clinical interviews to assess parental pathology, pregnancy variables and strong early stranger anxiety. Children with SAD were more likely than healthy children to have had a phase of stronger stranger anxiety in infancy. Further, early stranger anxiety remained a significant predictor of SAD after controlling for maternal depression. Meaningful effects were not found for the influence of parental age at birth or other pregnancy factors. This study provides beginning evidence of the potential predictive value of strong stranger anxiety in distinguishing children with SAD from those with no disorder, above and beyond the influence of parental pathology. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Parenting and youth sexual risk in context: The role of community factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Nada M; Armistead, Lisa P; Tully, Erin C; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

    2017-06-01

    Black South African youth are disproportionately affected by HIV, and risky sexual behaviors increase youths' vulnerability to infection. U.S.-based research has highlighted several contextual influences on sexual risk, but these processes have not been examined in a South African context. In a convenience sample of Black South African caregivers and their 10-14-year-old youth (Mage = 11.7, SD = 1.4; 52.5% female), we examined the relation between parenting and youth sexual risk within the context of community-level processes, including neighborhood quality and maternal social support. Hypotheses were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that better neighborhood quality and more social support predicted positive parenting, which in turn predicted less youth sexual risk. There was a significant indirect effect from neighborhood quality to youth sexual risk via parenting. Results highlight the importance of the community context in parenting and youth sexual risk in this understudied sample. HIV prevention-interventions should be informed by these contextual factors. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenting style in relation to pathogenic and protective factors of Type A behaviour pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J; de Pablo, J; Toro, J; Valdés, M

    1999-07-01

    Studies of type A behaviour pattern suggest that it can be promoted as a whole by certain parental rearing styles. However, the association of the different components of the type A behaviour with specific rearing practices has not been clarified. The relationship between parents' rearing style and the different type A behaviour components of their children was analysed in a sample of 312 university students. Parental rearing style was assessed with the EMBU, a Swedish measure originally designed to assess one's recollections concerning one's parents rearing behaviour. Type A pattern was measured by the JAS, a self-administered questionnaire that gives the global type A score and three of its components. Hard Driving was related to Rejection and Favouring Subject in males. Speed-Impatience was related to Rejection and Control in both sexes, and Job Involvement was related to Control and Favouring Subject in females. In a discriminant factor analysis in males, Rejection, Control and Favouring Subject on the part of fathers classified correctly 80% of the subjects identified as having high or low Speed-Impatience and the variables of Rejection and Favouring Subject (also by fathers) classified correctly 69.23% of the subjects identified as high or low Hard Driving. In females, Control and Favouring Subject on the part of mothers and low Rejection by fathers classified correctly 70.37% of the subjects with high or low Job Involvement. These results suggest that different rearing characteristics are related to the various components of the type A behaviour pattern.

  16. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  17. Behavioral and Pharmacological Adherence in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease: Parent-Child Agreement and Family Factors Associated With Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Page H; Carmody, Julia K; Belkin, Mary H; Janicke, David M

    2017-04-21

    This study aimed to evaluate agreement between children and parents on a measure of behavioral and pharmacological adherence in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), and the associations among family factors (i.e., problem-solving skills, routines, communication) and adherence behaviors. In all, 85 children (aged 8-18 years) with SCD and their parents completed questionnaires assessing individual and family factors. Overall parent-child agreement on an adherence measure was poor, particularly for boys and older children. Greater use of child routines was associated with better overall child-reported adherence. Open family communication was associated with higher overall parent-reported adherence. While further research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn, results suggest the need to assess child adherence behaviors via both child and parent reports. Findings also suggest that more daily family routines and open family communication may be protective factors for better disease management.

  18. The Contribution of Parenting Practices and Parent Emotion Factors in Children at Risk for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Holland, Kerry A.; Frankling, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of different parenting characteristics on child disruptive behavior and emotional regulation among a sample of at-risk children. The sample consisted of 373 Australian 5- to 9-year-old children who were screened for serious behavior problems. Seven parenting variables based on self-report were…

  19. Obesity in adolescence is associated with perinatal risk factors, parental BMI and sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbilis, M; Moschonis, G; Mougios, V; Manios, Y

    2013-01-01

    To record the prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in relation to perinatal risk factors, parental body mass index and sociodemographics. A sample of 2294 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years was examined in municipalities from four Greek counties. Weight and height were measured using standard procedures, whereas international thresholds were used for the definition of overweight and obesity. Perinatal and parental data were also recorded via standardized questionnaires. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 30.5% and 11.6%, respectively, with a higher prevalence of obesity in boys compared with girls (13.7% vs 9.5%, Pobesity (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.45-3.48 and OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.28-3.60) were found to significantly increase the odds of children's obesity (apart from overweight), whereas Greek nationality (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.39) was found to significantly increase only the odds of children's overweight. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.27-3.70) and introduction of solid foods at weaning later than 5 months of life (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.02-2.51) were also found to increase the likelihood of childhood obesity. On the contrary, children having older fathers (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.37-0.80) or more educated mothers (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.36-0.90) were less likely to be obese. The current study identified certain perinatal factors (that is, maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, maternal smoking at pregnancy, rapid infant weight gain and late introduction of solid foods at weaning) and parental characteristics (that is, younger fathers, Greek nationality, less educated and overweight parents) as important risk factors for children's overweight and obesity, indicating the multifactorial nature of their etiology and the need to extend our understanding beyond positive energy equilibrium.

  20. Identification of cardiovascular risk factors in parents/caregivers of children with heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Camila Feijó; Busnello, Fernanda Michielin; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Brazil, they are the major cause of death. To identify cardiovascular risk factors in parents/caregivers of children with heart diseases by assessing their nutritional status, health conditions, and life style. Cross-sectional study of 150 parents or caregivers of children with heart diseases who attended a cardiology outpatient clinic. Data on identification, lifestyle and health conditions were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. For the assessment of the eating habits, a questionnaire on eating frequency was used; for the assessment of the nutritional status, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured, and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated and classified. A total of 155 parents of children with heart diseases, predominantly of the female gender (91.6%), were evaluated; their mean age was 35.0 ± 10.6 years. The most prevalent risk factors were sedentary lifestyle (85.2%), obesity (28%) and hypertension (22.6%). As regards the eating habits, a high frequency of intake of red meat, margarine, vegetable oil, and sugar and low intake of fish were observed. Comparison between genders showed a significant difference in relation to obesity, as detected by BMI, and hypertension, both more frequent among women. Waist circumference measurement also showed a higher cardiovascular risk in women. Cardiovascular risk factors such as excess weight, sedentary lifestyle, and hypertension as well as inadequate eating habits such as a high frequency of intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and low intake of unsaturated fat were identified in the parents/caregivers assessed.

  1. Factors That Contribute to the Improvement in Maternal Parenting after Separation from a Violent Husband or Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

    2012-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A…

  2. A Review of Declared Factors Identified by Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Making Intervention Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlon, Sarah; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The range of interventions available for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has increased in recent years. This has led to an interest in the decision-making process related to intervention choices for parents of children with ASD. The present paper reviewed 16 studies examining the factors declared by parents as affecting their…

  3. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  4. Influence of early-life and parental factors on childhood overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, C; Vinciguerra, F; La Spina, N; Romeo, L; Tumminia, A; Baratta, R; Squatrito, S; Vigneri, R; Frittitta, L

    2016-11-01

    We recently reported that a high BMI and high waist circumference prevalence is present in Sicilian children and that the male gender is associated with a significant risk of obesity. Early-life and parent-related risk factors were investigated 1521 Sicilian children (752 females and 769 males, aged 9.0-14.0 years) to identify biological and environmental factors that can contribute to obesity onset. Anthropometric measurements of children, their urban vs rural area provenience, birth weight and neonatal feeding were collected. In addition, the BMI and educational level of their parents and the perception of their child weight status were investigated. In the study cohort, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 27.2 and 14.1 %, respectively, significantly (p factor (OR 0.64; p risk factors for developing childhood obesity were a birth weight ≥4.0 kg (OR 1.83; p overweight or obese mother (OR 2.33; p risk factors for pediatric obesity is a prerequisite to identify children at highly risk of being obese and to predispose early intervention strategies.

  5. Factors that determine parents' perception of their child's risk of life-threatening food-induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, Jennifer; Wong, Jayne; Wan, Ming Wai; Davis, Naomi; Arkwright, Peter D

    2017-01-01

    Although food allergy is known to be associated with increased disease burden, factors that shape parents' perception of their child's risk of future severe or fatal anaphylaxis are poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with parents' perceived risk of food-induced anaphylaxis. A questionnaire-based survey of 202 parents was conducted in a single specialist center outpatient clinic that treats children with food allergies. Parents' perceived risk of their child experiencing further food-induced anaphylaxis was assessed by using a validated food allergy independent measure. Demographic data as well as parents' anxiety and depression scores were assessed by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score. Nineteen percent of parents believed that their child had a moderate-to-high chance of dying from food-induced anaphylaxis. A lack of a university education, higher anxiety score, and, particularly, possession of an epinephrine autoinjector (relative risk 9.9 [95% confidence interval, 3.3-30]) were key factors associated with heightened risk perception. Caring for a child with multiple food allergies was the main factor associated with parents feeling less able to manage future reactions (relative risk 9.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.7-53]). Parents' risk perception of fatal anaphylaxis correlated with anxiety and mood scores. Parents' education, affect, and possession of an epinephrine autoinjector were associated with a heightened perceived risk of future anaphylaxis. Clinicians should consider not only the child's needs but should also provide counseling for parents, particularly those who possess autoinjectors. Parents of children with multiple food allergies may need additional education and training to help them cope with future reactions.

  6. Geospatial Ecology of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Contributions of Community Factors and Parental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartstein, Maria; Seamon, Erich; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Addressed the ecology of deviant peer involvement, antisocial behavior and alcohol use, utilizing publically available information for indices of community risk/protective factors. A geospatial model was developed, combining geographic data (census, crime proximity, race/ethnicity, transportation accessibility) with information gathered for individual adolescents/household, geo-coded by home address. Adolescent-report of delinquency, association with deviant peers, substance use, and parental monitoring was obtained, along with parent-report of demographic characteristics. Deviant peer involvement was predicted by the Crime Proximity Index, with closeness of crime being associated with more deviant peer affiliation, as well as the Transportation Index, with greater accessibility leading to more involvement with troubled peers. Antisocial behaviors also increased with greater access to transportation. Adolescent alcohol use was lower in communities with a higher proportion of a non-Caucasian population, and increased with greater transportation access. Adolescent outcomes were associated with different prediction models, yet parental monitoring emerged as a consistent contributing factor. PMID:25825548

  7. THE SEXUAL ORIENTATION OF A PARENT AS A FACTOR WHEN CONSIDERING CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle Feldhaus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Section 28(2 of the Constitution states that a child's best interest is of paramount importance in every matter concerning the child. Section 9 further provides that every person is considered equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law. Several grounds are listed relating to the unfair discrimination of persons, including their sexual orientation. The concept of care is incorporated in the Children's Act, and it entails a comprehensive description of parents' daily life regarding children and the powers and duties expected to ensure the general protection, well-being and best interests of the child.The aim of this contribution is to discuss the sexual orientation of a parent as a factor when considering care and the extent to which courts may give consideration to such a factor. The article will also address the question of whether or not the role of a parent's sexual orientation in determining the best interests of the child has changed since the common law concept of custody was replaced by the concept of care in the Children's Act. In this article, care and the best interests of the child will be discussed first. International law will be considered thereafter, followed by a discussion on the approach of our courts, pre- and post-1994, in order to come to a conclusion and make recommendations.

  8. Knowledge and factors associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance among students’ parents in two Parisian high-schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ecollan, Marie

    2016-01-01

    With a vaccination rate of only 18% among 15 year-old girls, HPV prophylactic coverage remains insufficient in France. We lack data on barriers to HPV vaccination among parents, especially outside a medical context. The goal of this work was to study parental knowledge and factors associated with HPV vaccine adhesion. We performed a cross-sectional study among the parents in two Parisian high-schools (Henri IV and Varèse). A self-report questionnaire was distributed to the parents at the pare...

  9. Effect of some parental and environmental factors on some reproductive traits of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Sabuncuoglu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the influence of parental and environmental factors (body weight, laying period, egg weight and light on some reproductive characteristics of the Japanese quail. Data pertaining to 2413 eggs obtained from 40 male and 40 female Japanese quails were studied using a logistic regression model. Hatchability was determined to decrease with parent body weights falling below the population mean. Fertility and hatchability were determined to decrease with the ageing of breeder pairs. The relationship between egg weight and fertility was demonstrated to be insignificant, yet the best hatchability was determined in eggs weighing 11-12 grams (P<0.01. Both fertility and hatchability were determined to decrease with increasing light intensity (P<0.01.

  10. Factors Associated with Parents’ Perceptions of Parental Smoking in the Presence of Children and Its Consequences on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Parental smoking is the major source of children’s secondhand smoke exposure and is influenced by parents’ perception of children’s exposure. However, the factors associated with these perceptions remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with parents’ perceptions about parental smoking in the presence of children and its consequences. We conducted a cross-sectional study on parents’ perceptions of parental smoking and measured their evaluations of its consequences using a self-report questionnaire. Other variables include socio-demographic characteristics and smoking-related experience. Results show that parents’ gender, education level, occupational type, smoking status, and agreement on a home smoking ban independently predict parents’ evaluation of the consequences of parental smoking in the presence of children. Parents’ gender, education level, annual family income, smoking status, agreement on a home smoking ban, and evaluation of the consequences of parental smoking independently predicted parents’ perceptions. Findings indicated that a specific group expressed greater acceptance of parental smoking and was less aware of its risks. Motivating parents to create a smoke-free home and increasing awareness of the adverse consequences of parental smoking is beneficial in reinforcing attitudes opposed to parental smoking. PMID:23296207

  11. Parental overweight/obesity, social factors, and child overweight/obesity at 7 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Dubois, Lise; Burnier, Daniel; Girard, Manon; Prud'homme, Denis

    2011-12-01

    This study used gender-based analyses to examine whether child overweight/obesity is related to parental overweight/obesity and sociodemographic factors, in a representative population-based cohort of 7-year-old children. Data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 was used. Children (n= 1336) were randomly selected from each public health region of Québec. The study was based on face-to-face interviews and a set of questionnaires addressed to mothers and fathers. Compared to children with no overweight/obese parent, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of being overweight/obese with two overweight/obese parents was 5 for boys (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.31-10.85) and 5.87 for girls (95%CI: 2.63-13.12). Gender differences appeared when one parent was overweight/obese. For girls, having either an overweight/obese mother (OR, 3.10; 95%CI: 1.14-8.38) or father (OR, 3.64; 95%CI: 1.68-7.91) significantly increased the odds of being overweight/obese at 7 years. For boys, however, having only an overweight/obese father (OR, 2.05; 95%CI: 1.01-4.16) was related to overweight/obesity, but having only an overweight/obese mother was not related to overweight/obesity at 7 years for boys. In girls, but not in boys, having an immigrant mother also significantly related to overweight/obesity (OR, 2.71; 95%CI: 1.28-5.75) at 7 years, after controlling for other social factors. Gender differences in socialization may explain why at 7 years of age, girls' bodyweight is influenced by having even one overweight/obese parent (mother or father), while boys' bodyweight appears to be influenced only by father's overweight/obesity when only one parent is overweight/obese. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Health Characteristics of Solo Grandparent Caregivers and Single Parents: A Comparative Profile Using the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Whitley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis. Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents’ physical and emotional capacities.

  13. Risk factors for carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in pet dogs from volunteer households in Ontario, Canada, in 2005 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Erin K; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Finley, Rita L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Weese, J Scott; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine pet-related management factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in a population of pet dogs. SAMPLE 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario, Canada. PROCEDURES From October 2005 through May 2006, dogs and households in Ontario, Canada, were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Fecal samples were submitted for culture of Salmonella spp and E coli, which provided 515 bacterial isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for household and dog were created to identify pet-related management factors associated with antimicrobial resistance. RESULTS Bacterial species, feeding a homemade diet or adding homemade food to the diet, feeding a raw diet or adding anything raw to the diet, feeding a homemade raw food diet, and feeding raw chicken in the past week were significant risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in this population of dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, several potentially important pet-related risk factors for the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and E coli in pet dogs were identified. Further evaluation of risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in dogs may lead to development of evidence-based guidelines for safe and responsible dog ownership and management to protect the public, especially pet owners who are immunocompromised.

  14. He Said, She Said: Examining Parental Concordance on Home Environment Factors and Adolescent Health Behaviors and Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F; Meyer, Craig; Didericksen, Katharine; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined concordance/discordance between caregivers to identify whether caregivers see familial and parental factors in the home environment similarly or differently and whether the agreement or disagreement is related to adolescent obesity risk. Answers to these questions are important and may inform whether family-based childhood obesity interventions need to target both parents. Objective The main objective of the study is to examine whether and how parental concordance/discordance on factors in the home environment (e.g., importance of family meals, parent feeding practices, encouraging child physical activity, limit setting on child screen time) are associated with adolescent health behaviors and weight status. Design Data from two linked population-based studies were used in cross-sectional analyses. Linear regression models examined associations between parental concordance/discordance on home environment factors and adolescents’ health behaviors and weight status. Participant/Settings Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n=1,052; 54% girls; mean age = 14.3 years) and their parents (n=2,104; 52% female; mean age = 41.0 years) from Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota participated in the study. Anthropometric assessments and surveys were completed at school by adolescents and surveys were completed at home by parents. Results Parental concordance on home environment factors was high for some factors (e.g., 68% concordance on not pressuring adolescent to eat) and low for other factors (e.g., 2% concordance on parent engaging in physically activity with child 4+ hours/week). Parental concordance on positive home environment factors (e.g., frequency of family meals) was associated with more adolescent healthful eating patterns and hours of physical activity (p food and more unhealthy weight control behaviors (p environment factors, however the results were inconsistent and approximately one third of

  15. He Said, She Said: Examining Parental Concordance on Home Environment Factors and Adolescent Health Behaviors and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Meyer, Craig; Didericksen, Katharine; Loth, Katie A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined concordance/discordance between caregivers to identify whether caregivers see familial and parental factors in the home environment similarly or differently and whether the agreement or disagreement is related to adolescent obesity risk. Answers to these questions are important and may inform whether family-based childhood obesity interventions need to target both parents. The main objective of the study was to examine whether and how parental concordance/discordance on factors in the home environment (eg, importance of family meals, parent feeding practices, encouraging child physical activity, and limit setting on child screen time) are associated with adolescent health behaviors and weight status. Data from two linked population-based studies were used in cross-sectional analyses. Linear regression models examined associations between parental concordance/discordance on home environment factors and adolescents' health behaviors and weight status. Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n=1,052; 54% girls; mean age=14.3 years) and their parents (n=2,104; 52% women; mean age=41.0 years) from Minneapolis and St Paul, MN, participated in the study. Anthropometric assessments and surveys were completed at school by adolescents and surveys were completed at home by parents. Parental concordance on home environment factors was high for some factors (eg, 68% concordance on not pressuring adolescent to eat) and low for other factors (eg, 2% concordance on parent engaging in physically activity with child 4+ hours per week). Parental concordance on positive home environment factors (eg, frequency of family meals) was associated with more adolescent healthful eating patterns and hours of physical activity (Pparents were discordant, adolescents had higher consumption of fast food and more unhealthy weight control behaviors (Pparental concordance on home environment factors; however, the results were inconsistent and

  16. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  17. Factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act (Taiwan) was amended to more effectively restrict smoking in indoor public places and workplaces in Taiwan. However, the lack of prohibitions for smoking in private homes may place family members at increased risk for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The aim of our study was to determine the factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of children at home. Methods In 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study of factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of children at home in Taiwan using self-administered questionnaires. Quota sampling was used to select five primary schools from four different regions of Taiwan. Parents were surveyed to identify parental smokers and 307 parental smokers were selected for participation in our study. Questionnaire data regarding parental smoking in the presence of children at home and related interactions among family members were analyzed. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to determine the best-fit model for examining the relationships among the variables related to parental smoking in the presence of children at home. Results Two-thirds of parents who smoked reported smoking in the presence of their children. The results of the hierarchical logistic regression analysis identified the smokers’ compliance with their family’s antismoking responses, mutual agreement with smoking bans, daily smoking, smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day, the education level of the parental smoker, and the annual family income as determinants of smoking in the presence of children at home. Conclusions Households with smoking parents should be targeted for interventions to encourage the adoption and enforcement of home smoking bans. Educational interventions that promote smoke-free homes for children and provide support to help parents stop smoking are critical factors in reducing the frequency of children’s ETS exposure in the home. PMID

  18. Factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of school-aged children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Yu-Ting; Kuo, Liang-Chun; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2013-09-10

    In 2009, the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act (Taiwan) was amended to more effectively restrict smoking in indoor public places and workplaces in Taiwan. However, the lack of prohibitions for smoking in private homes may place family members at increased risk for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The aim of our study was to determine the factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of children at home. In 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study of factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of children at home in Taiwan using self-administered questionnaires. Quota sampling was used to select five primary schools from four different regions of Taiwan. Parents were surveyed to identify parental smokers and 307 parental smokers were selected for participation in our study. Questionnaire data regarding parental smoking in the presence of children at home and related interactions among family members were analyzed. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to determine the best-fit model for examining the relationships among the variables related to parental smoking in the presence of children at home. Two-thirds of parents who smoked reported smoking in the presence of their children. The results of the hierarchical logistic regression analysis identified the smokers' compliance with their family's antismoking responses, mutual agreement with smoking bans, daily smoking, smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day, the education level of the parental smoker, and the annual family income as determinants of smoking in the presence of children at home. Households with smoking parents should be targeted for interventions to encourage the adoption and enforcement of home smoking bans. Educational interventions that promote smoke-free homes for children and provide support to help parents stop smoking are critical factors in reducing the frequency of children's ETS exposure in the home.

  19. The Need for an Ecological Approach to Parental Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Combined Role of Individual and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derguy, C.; M'Bailara, K.; Michel, G.; Roux, S.; Bouvard, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify parental stress predictors in ASD by considering individual and environmental factors in an ecological approach. Participants were 115 parents of children with ASD aged from 3 to 10 years. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the best predictors of parental stress among child-related, parent-related…

  20. Obese parents – obese children? Psychological-psychiatric risk factors of parental behavior and experience for the development of obesity in children aged 0–3: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidences of childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially and with them the prevalence of associated somatic and psychiatric health problems. Therefore, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors for early childhood overweight in order to develop effective prevention or intervention programs. Besides biological factors, familial interactions and parental behavioral patterns may influence children’s weight development. Longitudinal investigation of children at overweight risk could help to detect significant risk and protective factors. We aim to describe infants’ weight development over time and identify risk and protective factors for the incidence of childhood obesity. Based on our findings we will draw up a risk model that will lay the foundation for an intervention/prevention program. Methods/Design We present the protocol of a prospective longitudinal study in which we investigate families with children aged from 6 months to 47 months. In half of the families at least one parent is obese (risk group), in the other half both parents are normal weight (control group). Based on developmental and health-psychological models, we consider measurements at three levels: the child, the parents and parent–child-relationship. Three assessment points are approximately one year apart. At each assessment point we evaluate the psychological, social, and behavioral situation of the parents as well as the physical and psychosocial development of the child. Parents are interviewed, fill in questionnaires, and take part in standardized interaction tasks with their child in a feeding and in a playing context in our research laboratory. The quality of these video-taped parent–child interactions is assessed by analyzing them with standardized, validated instruments according to scientific standards. Discussion Strengths of the presented study are the prospective longitudinal design, the multi-informant approach, including the

  1. Expectant parents' views of factors influencing infant feeding decisions in the antenatal period: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Coralie L; Cheater, Francine

    2016-08-01

    To explore the factors that influence expectant parents' infant feeding decisions in the antenatal period. Mixed method systematic review focussing on participant views data. CINAHL, Medline, Embase and PsychInfo databases were interrogated using initial keywords and then refined terms to elicit relevant studies. Reference lists were checked and hand-searching was undertaken for 2 journals ('Midwifery' and 'Social Science and Medicine') covering a 3 year time period (January 2011-March 2014). Key inclusion criteria: studies reflecting expectant parents' views of the factors influencing their infant feeding decisions in the antenatal period; Studies in the English language published after 1990, from developed countries and of qualitative, quantitative or mixed method design. A narrative interpretive synthesis of the views data from studies of qualitative, quantitative and mixed method design. Data were extracted on study characteristics and parents' views, using the Social Ecological Model to support data extraction and thematic synthesis. Synthesis was influenced by the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-Ordinating Centre approach to mixed method reviews. Of the 409 studies identified through search methods, 17 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Thematic synthesis identified 9 themes: Bonding/Attachment; Body Image; Self Esteem/Confidence; Female Role Models; Family and Support Network; Lifestyle; Formal Information Sources; Knowledge; and Feeding in front of others/Public. The review identified a significant bias in the data towards negative factors relating to the breastfeeding decision, suggesting that infant feeding was not a choice between two feeding options, but rather a process of weighing reasons for and against breastfeeding. Findings reflected the perception of the maternal role as intrinsic to the expectant mothers' infant feeding decisions. Cultural perceptions permeated personal, familial and social influences on the

  2. Enuresis in South African children: prevalence, associated factors and parental perception of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fockema, Margaret W; Candy, Geoffrey P; Kruger, Deirdré; Haffejee, Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Symptom Prevalence (prospective cohort) Level of Evidence 2a. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Nocturnal enuresis is a common childhood problem. Although its prevalence is known in many countries, no data are available from South Africa and it is difficult to extrapolate data from developed countries to a population with such diverse conditions and resource-poor settings. This study is the first to report on the 16% prevalence rate and the low level of parental knowledge of enuresis in South African children aged between 5 and 10 years. • To establish the prevalence of NE in 5-10 year old South African children in a cross-sectional study using a parent-completed questionnaire. • To establish the parental perception and associated factors of mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) treatment and treatment success rates in 5-10 year old children from South Africa. • A total of 4700 questionnaires were distributed to children at 37 selected schools willing to participate from South Africa. Parents anonymously filled out the questionnaire. • Data were reported as frequencies and percentages of NE in tables according to different gender and age groups. • The Chi-square test compared proportions between groups and Fisher's Exact test corrected for small numbers of observations (n ≤ 5). Age differences were determined using Student's t-test. A P-value ≤ 0.5 was considered to be statistically significant. • The questionnaire's response rate was 72.1%, with 3389 children included in the study. • The overall prevalence of NE was 16.0%-14.4% of children suffered from mono-symptomatic NE (MNE). The prevalence of NE in boys was double that in that in girls. • Only 28.3% had received some form of treatment, whereas 13.5% had been medically treated by a doctor. Parents' awareness of treatment modalities available is outdated and most of the management of MNE was done by parents themselves, albeit with low success rates.

  3. Risk and Protective Factors of Child-to-Parent Violence: A Comparison Between Physical and Verbal Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Laura; Bergmann, Marie Christine; Fischer, Franziska; Mößle, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Child-to-parent violence (CPV) is a social problem that remains vastly understudied compared with other forms of family violence. The aim of this study is to identify family and child risk and protective factors of CPV, and to investigate whether they differentially predict physical and verbal parent-directed violence among boys and girls. Predictors include parenting behavior during childhood (physical and verbal violence, warmth, monitoring) and respondents' individual characteristics (suicidal ideation, self-control, problematic substance use). Data were examined from a large representative sample of ninth graders ( N = 6,444) in Lower Saxony, Germany. Bivariate analyses showed that female adolescents were more likely to aggress verbally, while no gender differences were found for physical CPV. Multilevel logistic regression models revealed that direct experiences of parental physical and verbal violence during childhood were among the strongest predictors of physical and verbal CPV, both among males and females. While parental monitoring was not significantly associated with CPV, parental warmth protected girls from physical parent-directed aggression. Furthermore, high self-control was protective against verbal CPV as well as boys' physical CPV, while problematic substance use predicted physical violence toward parents in both sexes but only boys' verbal CPV. Suicidal ideation was a risk factor of aggression in males only. Except for parental warmth, the importance of risk and protective factors did not substantially vary across child gender. These findings broaden our understanding of different family and child-related factors that either promote or prevent CPV. Specifically, they point to the importance of the parenting context and especially harsh discipline practices for the occurrence of both physical and verbal CPV.

  4. Abstracts presented at the 7th World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS) Global Conference. October 16-19, 2011. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The 7th World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS) Global Conference, hosted by the Public Health Agency of Canada, was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, from October 16 to 19, 2011. Previous WARFS conferences were held in USA (1999), Finland (2001), Australia (2003), Uruguay (2005) and Italy (2007, 2009). WARFS is a global working group on surveillance under the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) It supports the development of risk factor surveillance as a tool for evidence-based public health, acknowledging the importance of this source of information to inform, monitor and evaluate disease prevention and health promotion policies and programs. The theme of the 2011 Global Conference was the role of surveillance in the promotion of health. The Global Conference had 146 registered participants, making it the second most attended WARFS conference in its history. Over the three days, participants attended oral and poster presentations from 30 countries. The conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the International Scientific Committee and the Local Organizing Committee. To highlight the importance and the significance of this conference at an international level, Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada (CDIC) is pleased to publish this supplementary issue, which contains 70 abstracts presented at the 7th WARFS Global Conference. In the spirit the Global Conference, this collection of abstracts brings together surveillance material on risk factors, chronic diseases, infectious diseases and injuries from around the world. By making these abstracts widely available, CDIC hopes to further the conference objectives through a continued dialogue between those interested in linking risk factor surveillance to health promotion.

  5. The moderating effect of sociodemographic factors on the predictive power of self-rated health for mortality in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Falconer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health is a reliable predictor for mortality, but its predictive power varies depending on social characteristics. This study tests the moderating effect of age, sex, education, and income on the power of self-rated health to predict mortality in Canada using data from the National Population Health Survey. Predictive power trajectories are modelled using time-series generalized estimating equation logistic regression. Findings show that self-rated health is a predictor for mortality up to 14 years prior to death in Canada, and is weakly moderated by income and education, and age/sex interactions. Self-rated health remains reliable across population sub-groups in Canada. La santé auto-évaluée est un prédicteur fiable de la mortalité, mais son pouvoir prédictif varie en fonction des caractéristiques sociales. Cette étude examine l'effet modérateur de l'âge, du sexe, de l'éducation, et du revenu sur le pouvoir de la santé auto-évaluée pour prédire la mortalité au Canada utilisant des données de l'Enquête nationale sur la santé de la population. Les trajectoires de puissance prédictive sont modélisées avec une régression logistique de l'équation d'estimation généralisée. Les résultats montrent que la santé auto-évaluée est un prédicteur de la mortalité jusqu'à 14 ans avant le décès au Canada, et est faiblement modérée par le revenu, l'éducation, et les interactions entre l'âge et le sexe. La santé auto-évaluée demeure valide parmi les sous-groupes de la population du Canada.

  6. Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Kanouse, David E.; Wallander, Jan L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C.; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders’ body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child’s sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents’ self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders’ body image discrepancy. PMID:23334988

  7. Factors associated with the desire for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filogônio Cintia B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the period of adolescence physical appearance takes on significant importance in the construction of personal identity, including one's relationship with one's own body. A variety of social, cultural, psychological and personal factors influences the self-perception of dental appearance and the decision to undergo orthodontic treatment. Adolescents who seek orthodontic treatment are concerned with improving their appearance and social acceptance. The aim of the present study was to determine factors associated to the desire for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents and their parents. Methods The sample consisted of 403 subjects aged 14 to 18 years, selected randomly from a population of 182,291 schoolchildren in the same age group. The outcome variable "desire for orthodontic treatment" was assessed through a questionnaire. Self-perception of dental aesthetics was assessed using the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI was used for clinical assessment. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test as well as both simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results The majority (78% of the Brazilian adolescents desired orthodontic treatment and 69% of the parents reported that their children were not in orthodontic treatment due to the high costs involved. There was significant association (p ≤ 0.05 between the desire for orthodontic treatment and most types of malocclusion. However, there was no significant association between the desire for orthodontic treatment and the variables gender and age. Conclusions The following were considered factors associated to the desire for treatment: upper anterior crowding ≥ 2 mm and parents' perception of their child's need for treatment.

  8. Parental and peer factors associated with body image discrepancy among fifth-grade boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Shannon L; Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N; Dittus, Patricia J; Kanouse, David E; Wallander, Jan L; Pasch, Keryn E; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A; Schuster, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders' body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child's sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents' self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders' body image discrepancy.

  9. Suboptimal parenting practices as a risk factor for adolescent alcohol consumption in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol use by adolescents and relationships with parents and parenting practices in Ukraine. For this analysis, the nested case-control study design was used with pooled data from 1999, 2003, and 2007 surveys of repeated cross-sectional study “European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs”.METHODS: A nationally representative sample of classes in Ukrainian secondary schools was used. The target population consisted of all 15-16-year-old students in Ukraine. Complete data were available for 10,494 participants. Main exposures were perceptions of the relationships with one’s mother and father, rule-setting, control, and support provided by parents. Outcome measures were: regular use of alcohol, drinking to the point of intoxication, and age when students start consuming alcohol. Associations between the determinants and outcome measures were analyzed using multivariate binary logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Adolescents who were not so satisfied with the relationships with their mothers were nearly twice as likely (OR=1.7; 95%CI=1.2-2.5 to have used alcohol 10 or more times during the last 30 days. Adolescents who were not at all satisfied with their relationships with father were at risk of drinking to the point of intoxication at least once during last year (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.2-1.8.Adolescents whose parents never know whom he/she spends evenings with were nearly twice as likely (OR=1.8, 95%CI =1.3-2.4 to have used alcohol 10 or more times during the last 30 days. However, the relationships between rule-setting by parents, perceived support and alcohol use were not consistent.CONCLUSION(s: This study supports the hypothesis that the dissatisfaction with the relationships with one’s mother, unlike the dissatisfaction with the relations with one’s father, may be a risk factor for regular alcohol use among adolescents. Besides, our results

  10. Factors associated with patient and parent satisfaction after orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachêco-Pereira, Camila; Pereira, José Roberto; Dick, Bruce D; Perez, Arnaldo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Our objective was to identify factors associated with orthodontic treatment satisfaction of patients and their caregivers, when applicable. MEDLINE via Ovid, PubMed, EBM Reviews and EMBASE via OVIDSP, LILACS, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched electronically. Reference lists of included articles were also screened for potential relevant studies missed during the electronic searches. Studies evaluating the satisfaction levels of patients or caregivers after orthodontic treatment were considered. Methodologic quality of the included studies was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Eighteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, representing 2891 patients and 464 parents. The risk of bias was moderate in 13 and low in 4 of the included articles. The studies used different questionnaires and timings to assess postorthodontic treatment satisfaction. Based on the available limited evidence, satisfaction was associated with perceived esthetic outcomes, psychological benefits, and quality of care. The latter was specifically linked to dentist-staff-patient interactions. Dissatisfaction was associated with treatment duration, pain levels and discomfort, and the use of retention appliances. When both assessments were available, the patient's and the parent's satisfaction levels were strongly correlated. Based on the limited available evidence with moderate risk of bias, we identified factors that appear to be more commonly associated with a high or low level of satisfaction. Consideration of these factors could be important for practitioners attempting to set realistic expectations of their patients and caregivers regarding orthodontic treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. What factors influence parents' perception of the quality of life of children and adolescents with neurocardiogenic syncope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi Capitello, Teresa; Fiorilli, Caterina; Placidi, Silvia; Vallone, Roberta; Drago, Fabrizio; Gentile, Simonetta

    2016-05-17

    Health-related quality of life, which can be investigated using self-reports or parental reports, could help healthcare providers understand the subjective perception of well-being of children suffering from recurrent syncopal episodes. Quality of life is not only a measure of health but is also a reflection of patients' and parents' perceptions and expectations of health. This study assessed: 1) the consistency and agreement between pediatric patients' self-reports and parents' proxy-reports of their child's quality of life; 2) whether this patient-parent agreement is dependent on additional demographic and clinical or distress factors; 3) whether the parents' psychological distress influences children's and parents' responses to questionnaires on quality of life. One hundred and twenty-five Italian children aged 6-18 years old (Mean age 12.75, SD 2.73, 48 % female) and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory with self-reports and parent-proxy reports, the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6-18. Patients' and parents' scores on quality of life were analyzed via an intra-class correlation coefficient, Spearman's correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Bland-Altman plot. Child-rated quality of life was lower than parent-rated quality of life. However, there were no statistically significant differences between pediatric patients' self-reports and their parents' proxy-reports of on quality of life. Clinically significant patient-parent variation in pediatric health-related quality of life was observed. Differences in patient-parent proxy Pediatric Quality of Life inventory Total Scale Score scores were significantly associated with patient age. Concerning parents' proxy-ratings of their children's quality of life on the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory, parental stress was found to be negatively associated with their perceptions of their child's psychological quality

  12. Conocimientos sobre riesgo de embarazo y autoeficacia en hombres adolescentes:apoyo parental y factores escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Fátima Estrada; Lourdes Campero; Leticia Suárez-López; Elvia de la Vara-Salazar; Guillermo González-Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo. Identificar la asociación entre conocimiento sobre riesgo de embarazo y autoeficacia en el uso del condón, con el apoyo parental y factores escolares, en hom­bres. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal con 448 estudiantes en Puebla y Morelos. Se ajustaron dos modelos logísticos. Resultados. Los conocimientos sobre riesgo de embarazo se asocian con el que los padres hablen sobre sexualidad (RM=2.45, IC95% 1.35-4.47), con el agrado por asistir a la escuela (RM=2.18, IC95% 1.15-4.13)...

  13. Spatial Analysis of Factors Influencing Long-Term Stress in the Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos) Population of Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L.; Trisalyn A. Nelson; Cattet, Marc R. L.; Darimont, Chris T.; Stenhouse, Gordon B.

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We cha...

  14. Prevalence and Predictors of Sperm Banking in Adolescents Newly Diagnosed With Cancer: Examination of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Factors Influencing Fertility Preservation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L; Wang, Fang; Russell, Kathryn M; Zhang, Hui; Flynn, Jessica S; Huang, Lu; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Landier, Wendy; Leonard, Marcia; Albritton, Karen H; Gupta, Abha A; Casillas, Jacqueline; Colte, Paul; Kutteh, William H; Schover, Leslie R

    2017-12-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of sperm banking among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer and to identify factors associated with banking outcomes. Patients and Methods A prospective, single-group, observational study design was used to test the contribution of sociodemographic, medical, psychological/health belief, communication, and developmental factors to fertility preservation outcomes. At-risk adolescent males (N = 146; age 13.00 to 21.99 years; Tanner stage ≥ 3), their parents, and medical providers from eight leading pediatric oncology centers across the United States and Canada completed self-report questionnaires within 1 week of treatment initiation. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for specified banking outcomes (collection attempt v no attempt and successful completion of banking v no banking). Results Among adolescents (mean age, 16.49 years; standard deviation, 2.02 years), 53.4% (78 of 146) made a collection attempt, with 43.8% (64 of 146) successfully banking sperm (82.1% of attempters). The overall attempt model revealed adolescent consultation with a fertility specialist (OR, 29.96; 95% CI, 2.48 to 361.41; P = .007), parent recommendation to bank (OR, 12.30; 95% CI, 2.01 to 75.94; P = .007), and higher Tanner stage (OR, 5.42; 95% CI, 1.75 to 16.78; P = .003) were associated with an increased likelihood of a collection attempt. Adolescent history of masturbation (OR, 5.99; 95% CI, 1.25 to 28.50; P = .025), banking self-efficacy (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.45; P = .012), and parent (OR, 4.62; 95% CI, 1.46 to 14.73; P = .010) or medical team (OR, 4.26; 95% CI, 1.45 to 12.43; P = .008) recommendation to bank were associated with increased likelihood of sperm banking completion. Conclusion Although findings suggest that banking is underutilized, modifiable adolescent, parent, and provider factors associated with banking outcomes were identified and should be targeted in future

  15. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Feeding Emotions Scale. A measure of parent emotions in the context of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie; Fisher, Jennifer O; Power, Thomas G; Chen, Tzu-An; Cross, Matthew B; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-08-01

    Assessing parent affect is important because studies examining the parent-child dyad have shown that parent affect has a profound impact on parent-child interactions and related outcomes. Although some measures that assess general affect during daily lives exist, to date there are only few tools that assess parent affect in the context of feeding. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure parent affect specific to the feeding context and determine its validity and reliability. A brief instrument consisting of 20 items was developed that specifically asks how parents feel during the feeding process. This brief instrument draws on the structure of a well-validated general affect measure. A total of 296 Hispanic and Black Head Start parents of preschoolers completed the Feeding Emotions Scale along with other parent-report measures as part of a larger study designed to better understand feeding interactions during the dinner meal. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model with independent subscales of positive affect and negative affect (Cronbach's alphas of 0.85 and 0.84, respectively). Concurrent and convergent construct validity was evaluated by correlating the subscales of the Feeding Emotions Scale with positive emotionality and negative emotionality from the Differential Emotions Scale - a measure of general adult emotions. Concurrent and convergent criterion validity was evaluated by testing mean differences in affect across parent feeding styles using ANOVA. A significant difference was found across maternal weight status for positive feeding affect. The resulting validated measure can be used to assess parent affect in studies of feeding to better understand how interactions during feeding may impact the development of child eating behaviors and possibly weight status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring the internalized stigma of parents of persons with a serious mental illness: the factor structure of the parents' internalized stigma of mental illness scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kravetz, Shlomo; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Roe, David

    2013-03-01

    Research has revealed that approximately one third of persons with a serious mental illness (SMI) experience elevated internalized stigma, which is associated with a large number of negative outcomes. Family members of persons with SMI are also often subject to stigma, but the degree to which these experiences are internalized and lead to self-stigma has rarely been studied. The present study investigated the factor structure of a modification of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale by Ritsher, Otilingam, and Grajales (Psychiatry Res 121:31-49, 2003). A central assumption of this investigation was that the factor structure of the Parents' Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (PISMI) scale would be similar to the factor structure of the ISMI scale. A total of 194 parents of persons with SMI completed the PISMI scale. The results revealed that the PISMI scale has high internal consistency and that it is made up of three distinctive factors: discrimination experience, social withdrawal and alienation, and stereotype endorsement. These factors are similar, but not identical, to the factors that underlie the ISMI scale. This study's findings also indicate that parents' prominent reaction to self-stigma is stereotype endorsement.

  17. Parental involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted in Ghana to investigate, (1) factors that predict parental involvement, (2) the relationship between parental home and school involvement and the educational achievement of adolescents, (3) the relationship between parental authoritativeness and the educational achievement of adolescent students, (4) parental involvement serving as a mediator between their authoritativeness and the educational achievement of the students, and (5) whether parental involvement decreases...

  18. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roy, Betty; Groholt, Berit; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne

    2010-07-16

    Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family's psychosocial status should be integrated in the overall

  19. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyerdahl Sonja

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Methods Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Conclusions Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family

  20. Depressive symptoms in parents of adolescents with myelomeningocele: the association of clinical, adolescent neuropsychological functioning, and family protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Timothy J; Woodrome, Stacey E; Fastenau, Philip S; Buran, Constance F; Sawin, Kathleen J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if neuropsychological functioning and family protective factors are related to depressive symptoms in parents of adolescents with myelomeningocele (MMC). Fifty adolescents (28 females, 22 males; predominately Caucasian; ages 12-21 years, M=15.7, SD=2.4) and their parents from a large Midwestern MMC Program participated in a cross-sectional descriptive mixed-methods study. Participants completed measures of adolescent clinical status (WeeFIM®, Demographic and Clinical Information Form), neuropsychological (NP) functioning, family protective factors and parents' depressive symptoms. Parents' depressive symptoms correlated significantly with NP functioning in the domains of Mental Processing Speed, Psychomotor Speed, Executive Functioning, Fine Motor Skills, and Language, and with each self-reported family protective factor. Multiple regression analysis revealed independent main effects for the NP variable, Executive Functioning and the Family Protective Factors Composite (p 0.10). Clinicians are especially encouraged to include assessment of parental depressive symptoms if the adolescent has executive functioning impairments or if the parents have few family protective factors.

  1. “Expectant Parents”: Study protocol of a longitudinal study concerning prenatal (risk factors and postnatal infant development, parenting, and parent-infant relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas A Janneke BM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of the infant-parent relationship from the child’s perspective is acknowledged worldwide, there is still a lack of knowledge about predictors and long-term benefits or consequences of the quality of parent-infant relationships from the parent’s perspective. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the quality of parent-infant relationships from parents’ perspectives, both in the prenatal and postpartum period. This study therefore focuses on prenatal (risk factors that may influence the quality of pre- and postnatal bonding, the transition to parenthood, and bonding as a process within families with young children. In contrast to most research concerning pregnancy and infant development, not only the roles and experiences of mothers during pregnancy and the first two years of infants’ lives are studied, but also those of fathers. Methods/design The present study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, in which pregnant women (N = 466 and their partners (N = 319 are followed from 15 weeks gestation until their child is 24 months old. During pregnancy, midwives register the presence of prenatal risk factors and provide obstetric information after the child’s birth. Parental characteristics are investigated using self-report questionnaires at 15, 26, and 36 weeks gestational age and at 4, 6, 12, and 24 months postpartum. At 26 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum, parents are interviewed concerning their representations of the (unborn child. At 6 months postpartum, the mother-child interaction is observed in several situations within the home setting. When children are 4, 6, 12, and 24 months old, parents also completed questionnaires concerning the child’s (social-emotional development and the parent-child relationship. Additionally, at 12 months information about the child’s physical development and well-being during the first year of life is retrieved from

  2. QOL and sociodemographic factors among first-time parents in Japan: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Naomi; Sun, Yi; Sugawara, Masumi; Matsumoto, Satoko; Sakai, Atsushi; Takaoka, Junko; Goto, Noriko

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors and domains of quality of life (QOL) among married adults in Japan who were either rearing or expecting their first child. Our research focus was on whether different sociodemographic variables interacted with each other in predicting the first-time parents' QOL. In total, 4374 (mean age = 34.9 years, SD = 8.4, range 18-71) community-based married couples pooled from two surveys provided their sociodemographic information (i.e., age, years of education, and annual income) and responded to the brief version of the QOL instrument developed by the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-BREF in Psychological Medicine 28(3):551-555, 1998). Series of multilevel regression analyses revealed that household annual income and education were associated with all domains of QOL, and other sociodemographic variables worked in a domain-specific manner. In addition, the effect of educational attainment on psychological domain was significant for mothers only, whereas the effects of household income on psychological and environmental domains were stronger for the younger (below age 26) than the older (over 43) couples. The effects of sociodemographic factors at couple as well as individual levels on the first-time parents' QOL were examined for the first time in Japan using couple data. In addition to corroborating previous findings on the main effects concerning these variables, the present study demonstrated the complex patterns of interaction across different levels. These findings provide evidence for the need for financial and health measures targeted at specific parent populations.

  3. Parent education and biologic factors influence on cognition in sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Allison A.; Strouse, John J.; Rodeghier, Mark J.; Compas, Bruce E.; Casella, James F.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Noetzel, Michael J.; Quinn, Charles T.; Ichord, Rebecca; Dowling, Michael M.; Miller, J. Philip; DeBaun, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia have a high prevalence of silent cerebral infarcts (SCIs) that are associated with decreased full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). While the educational attainment of parents is a known strong predictor of the cognitive development of children in general, the role of parental education in sickle cell anemia along with other factors that adversely affect cognitive function (anemia, cerebral infarcts) is not known. We tested the hypothesis that both the presence of SCI and parental education would impact FSIQ in children with sickle cell anemia. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in 19 US sites of the Silent Infarct Transfusion Trial among children with sickle cell anemia, age 5–15 years. All were screened for SCIs. Participants with and without SCI were administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. A total of 150 participants (107 with and 43 without SCIs) were included in the analysis. In a multivariable linear regression model for FSIQ, the absence of college education for the head of household was associated with a decrease of 6.2 points (P=0.005); presence of SCI with a 5.2 point decrease (P=0.017); each $1000 of family income per capita with a 0.33 point increase (P=0.023); each increase of 1 year in age with a 0.96 point decrease (P=0.023); and each 1% (absolute) decrease in hemoglobin oxygen saturation with 0.75 point decrease (P=0.030). In conclusion, FSIQ in children with sickle cell anemia is best accounted for by a multivariate model that includes both biologic and socioenvironmental factors. PMID:24123128

  4. Factors associated with the referral of anxious children to mental health care: the influence of family functioning, parenting, parental anxiety and child impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongerden, Loes; Simon, Ellin; Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age = 10.28, standard deviation (SD) = 1.35], 176 non-referred anxious children recruited in primary schools (M age = 9.94, SD = 1.22). Child anxiety and other disorders were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Child anxiety symptoms, behavioural problems, parental anxiety, the parenting styles overprotection, autonomy encouragement, rejection, and the family functioning dimensions control and relational functioning, were assessed with child, father and mother report on questionnaires. The summed interference rating of children's anxiety disorders was a predictor of referral, consistent over child and parent reports, but not comorbidity. Most family and parenting variables did not predict referral, nor differed between the referred and non-referred sample. Contrary to our hypothesis, maternal self-reported anxiety decreased the odds of referral and child reported parental autonomy granting increased, while child reported overprotection decreased the odds of referral. The impairment for the child due to the number and severity of their anxiety disorder(s) is, based on child, mother and father report associated with referral. This indicates that those who need it most, receive clinical treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  6. Parents' Selection Factors when Choosing Preschool Programs for Their Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Pentimonti, Jill; Justice, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Parents, including parents of children with disabilities, are often challenged to find preschools that meet their families' various needs and desires. Research on preschool quality is prevalent, but these studies rarely consider how parents perceive quality. This descriptive study asked what parents value most when choosing a preschool for their…

  7. Factors Influencing the Effects of Parental Marital Status on Adolescent Sexual Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Gretchen; Chambliss, Catherine

    Many studies have been done pertaining to the effects of parental divorce on children. Recently, studies have shown that parental marital status has an effect on adolescents' sexual activity. Specifically, children of divorced parents have been found to be younger at first coitus than children of married parents. This study attempted to replicate…

  8. Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

  9. Factors affecting relationships of Turkish adolescents with parents and same-sex friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortaçsu, N; Oral, A; Yasak-Gültekin, Y

    1991-06-01

    The present study attempted to investigate the differences between Turkish late adolescents' relationships with their parents and friends by using Armsden and Greenberg's (1987) scales for measuring attachment. In addition, an attempt at determining predictors of different aspects of attachment was made. The findings were that (a) similar dimensions of attachment emerged from a factor analysis of Turkish data when compared with Armsden and Greenberg's factors, (b) the data provide evidence for the argument that relationships should be studied with an awareness that they exist within a sociological background that includes other relationships, and (c) regression analysis predicting different aspects of attachment indicated that different variables may be important as determinants of men's and women's relationships with significant others.

  10. Effects of a combined parent-student alcohol prevention program on intermediate factors and adolescents’ drinking behavior: a sequential mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, I.; Maric, M.; MacKinnon, D.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous work revealed that the combined parent-student alcohol prevention program (PAS) effectively postponed alcohol initiation through its hypothesized intermediate factors: increase in strict parental rule setting and adolescents' self-control (Koning, van den Eijnden, Verdurmen,

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-12-26

    The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents' and adolescents' demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12-18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents' obesity.

  12. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUHAMMAD, Noor Azimah; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; OMAR, Khairani; SHAH, Shamsul Azhar; MOHD AMIN, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. Methods: The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Results: Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (< 0.32). Out of the final 20 items of the PBI-M, there were 10 items for the care factor, five items for the autonomy factor and five items for the overprotection factor. All the items loaded positively on their respective factors. Conclusion: The Malaysian population favoured positive items in answering questions. The PBI-M confirmed the three-factor model that consisted of care, autonomy and overprotection. The PBI-M is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the Malaysian parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Keywords: Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity PMID:25977634

  13. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Csaba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68 and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94, after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors.

  14. Exploring Helpful Nursing Care in Pediatric Mental Health Settings: The Perceptions of Children with Suicide Risk Factors and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montreuil, Marjorie; Butler, Kat J D; Stachura, Michal; Pugnaire Gros, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive study explored helpful nursing care from the perspective of children with suicide-associated risk factors, and their parents. Data were collected through participant observation followed by a debriefing session with children, and semi-structured interviews with parents. The inductive analysis revealed four themes of helpful interventions: (1) caring for the child as a special person; (2) caring for the parents; (3) managing the child's illness; and (4) creating a therapeutic environment. The study findings highlight the importance of the relational aspect of nursing care and provide important insights related to family-centered and strengths-based practice with children at increased risk for suicide later in life.

  15. Understanding discrepancies in parent-child reporting of emotional and behavioural problems: Effects of relational and socio-demographic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Heyerdahl Sonja; Groholt Berit; Van Roy Betty; Clench-Aas Jocelyne

    2010-01-01

    Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disa...

  16. Factors influencing the initiation and duration of breastfeeding among low-income women followed by the Canada prenatal nutrition program in 4 regions of quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Isabel; O'Brien, Huguette Turgeon; Beaudoin, André; Turcotte, Daniel; Damant, Dominique; Ferland, Suzanne; Marcotte, Marie-Josée; Jauvin, Nathalie; Champoux, Lyne

    2005-08-01

    The factors that influence the actual initiation and duration of breastfeeding were studied among low-income women followed by the Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program (CPNP). A group of 196 pregnant women were selected at random from a sample of 6223 pregnant women who registered with the CPNP. Two 24-hour recalls and information regarding lifestyle habits, peer support, and infant-feeding practices were obtained between 26 and 34 weeks of gestation and 21 days and 6 months after birth. Women who received a university education (completed or not completed) versus women with < or = high school education (odds ratio [OR], 8.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-69.50), women born outside Canada (OR,8.81; 95% CI, 3.34-23.19), and women of low birth weight infants (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.96) were more likely to initiate breastfeeding. Late introduction of solid foods (P = .004), nonsmoking (P = .005), multiparity (P = .012), and a higher level of education (P = .049) were positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding among initiators. Understanding factors associated with initiation and duration of breastfeeding among low-income women is critical to better target breastfeeding promotion.

  17. Exploring obesogenic food environments in Edmonton, Canada: the association between socioeconomic factors and fast-food outlet access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Eric; Raine, Kim; Spence, John C; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E

    2008-01-01

    To explore the relationship between the placement of fast-food outlets and neighborhood-level socioeconomic variables by determining if indicators of lower socioeconomic status were predictive of exposure to fast food. A descriptive analysis of the fast-food environment in a Canadian urban center, using secondary analysis of census data and Geographic Information Systems technology. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Neighborhoods were classified as High, Medium, or Low Access based on the number of fast-food opportunities available to them. Neighborhood-level socioeconomic data (income, education, employment, immigration status, and housing tenure) from the 2001 Statistics Canada federal census were obtained. A discriminant function analysis was used to determine if any association existed between neighborhood demographic characteristics and accessibility of fast-food outlets. Significant differences were found between the three levels of fast-food accessibility across the socioeconomic variables, with successively greater percentages of unemployment, low income, and renters in neighborhoods with increasingly greater access to fast-food restaurants. A high score on several of these variables was predictive of greater access to fast-food restaurants. Although a causal inference is not possible, these results suggest that the distribution of fast-food outlets relative to neighborhood-level socioeconomic status requires further attention in the process of explaining the increased rates of obesity observed in relatively deprived populations.

  18. Beyond Food Access: The Impact of Parent-, Home-, and Neighborhood-Level Factors on Children's Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell Dunaway, Lauren; Carton, Thomas; Ma, Ping; Mundorf, Adrienne R; Keel, Kelsey; Theall, Katherine P

    2017-06-20

    Despite the growth in empirical research on neighborhood environmental characteristics and their influence on children's diets, physical activity, and obesity, much remains to be learned, as few have examined the relationship between neighborhood food availability on dietary behavior in children, specifically. This analysis utilized data from a community-based, cross-sectional sample of children ( n = 199) that was collected in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2010. This dataset was linked to food environment data to assess the impact of neighborhood food access as well as household and parent factors on children's diets. We observed a negligible impact of the neighborhood food environment on children's diets, except with respect to fast food, with children who had access to fast food within 500 m around their home significantly less likely (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8) to consume vegetables. Key parental and household factors did play a role in diet, including receipt of public assistance and cooking meals at home. Children receiving public assistance were 2.5 times (95% CI: 1.1, 5.4) more likely to consume fruit more than twice per day compared with children not receiving public assistance. Children whose family cooked dinner at home more than 5 times per week had significantly more consumption of fruit (64% vs. 58%) and vegetables (55% vs. 39%), but less soda (27% vs. 43%). Findings highlight the need for future research that focuses on the dynamic and complex relationships between built and social factors in the communities and homes of children that impact their diet in order to develop multilevel prevention approaches that address childhood obesity.

  19. [The parenting style as protective or risk factor for substance use and other behavior problems among Spanish adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; Fuentes, María C; García, Fernando; Madrid, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the parental socialization styles as a protective or a risk factor for substance use in a sample of 673 Spanish adolescents (51.7% were women) aged 14-17 (M = 15.49, SD = 1.06). All participants completed the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) and a scale of substance use. Additionally, they also completed a scale of delinquency and another one of school misconduct. A multivariate (4×2×2) analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied for substance use, delinquency and school misconduct with parenting style, sex and age. Results from this study showed that indulgent parenting style was a protective factor for substance use whereas authoritarian style was identified as a risk factor. Moreover, results from protective and risk parenting styles on delinquency and school misconduct were consistent with those obtained on substance use. These findings have important implications for the development of family-based substance use prevention programs among Spanish adolescents and other similar cultures where indulgent parenting style is currently displaying a beneficial impact.

  20. Motivational and Parental Mediation Factors Related to Kenyan Adolescents' Intake of Sexual Radio and TV Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngula, Kyalo Wa; Miller, Ann Neville; Mberia, Hellen K

    2017-04-12

    Research on the influence of media on youths' sexual behavior in sub-Saharan Africa has focused almost entirely on the effects of multimedia health communication campaigns and edutainment programming. Scholarly literature is nearly silent about the influence of the multiple hours that young people in many sub-Saharan nations spend immersed in increasingly sex-heavy entertainment programming. We surveyed a stratified cluster sample of 437 Nairobi public high school students about motivational and parental mediation factors associated with their exposure to sexual radio and TV content. Watching sexual content in the bedroom predicted higher intake of both sexual radio and TV content. Believing that parents were successful in their efforts to limit media use predicted lower intake of both sexual radio and TV content. A friend/companion motive for watching was associated with taking in higher levels of sexual TV content. For day school students, watching sexual content in the sitting room also predicted higher levels of exposure to sexual TV content.

  1. Moderation of genetic factors by parental divorce in adolescents' evaluations of family functioning and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Niels; Boomsma, Dorret I; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Bartels, Meike

    2010-04-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of family functioning may have a significant impact on their subjective well-being and adjustment. The aim of the study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life and the overlap between them. We assessed whether genetic and environmental influences are moderated by parental divorce by analyzing self-report data from 6,773 adolescent twins and their non-twin siblings. Genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in general family functioning and family conflict, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls than boys in general family functioning. Genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in quality of life, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls. Evidence was found for interaction between genetic factors and parental divorce: genetic influence on general family functioning was larger in participants from divorced families. The overlap between general family functioning and quality of life, and family conflict and quality of life was accounted for the largest part by genetic effects, with nonshared environmental effects accounting for the remaining part. By examining the data from monozygotic twins, we found evidence for interaction between genotype and nonshared, non-measured, environmental influences on evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life.

  2. Parent-reported problems in 211 adopted children: some risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, D

    1997-05-01

    Parents of 211 adopted children, now young adults, were interviewed about their children's behaviour and development during childhood and adolescence. The children were placed for adoption at different ages. The quality of children's pre-placement care also varied, older-placed children generally experiencing adverse backgrounds prior to joining their adoptive parents. Depending on their quality of pre-placement care, the children were placed in one of three groups for the purposes of analysis: (a) baby adoptions, (b) older-children adoptions in which children had enjoyed satisfactory care as babies, and (c) older-children adoptions in which children had experienced adverse care as babies. The rate of adolescent problem behaviours varied between the three groups, with the older-children adoptions/adverse baby care group showing the highest rates. Two subgroups were identified. A quarter of the baby-adopted children were reported to have had problem behaviours during adolescence. In contrast, no problem behaviours were reported in 28% of the older-adopted/adverse baby care children. Some possible risk and protective factors are explored.

  3. Perceived Parental Attitudes of Gender Expansiveness: Development and Preliminary Factor Structure of a Self-Report Youth Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marco A; Chen, Diane; Garofalo, Robert; Forbes, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Parental acceptance of gender identity/expression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) youth moderates the effects of minority stress on mental health outcomes. Given this association, mental health clinicians of gender-expansive adolescents often assess the degree to which these youth perceive their parents/primary caregivers as accepting or nonaffirming of their gender identity and expression. While existing measures may reliably assess youth's perceptions of general family support, no known tool aids in the assessment an adolescent's perceived parental support related to adolescent gender-expansive experiences. Methods: To provide both clinicians and researchers with an empirically derived tool, the current study used factor analysis to explore an underlying factor structure of a brief questionnaire developed by subject-matter experts and pertaining to multiple aspects of perceived parental support in gender-expansive adolescents and young adults. Respondents were gender-expansive adolescents and young adults seeking care in an interdisciplinary gender-health clinic within a pediatric academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. Results: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 14-item questionnaire comprised of two subscales assessing perceived parental nonaffirmation and perceived parental acceptance. Internal consistency and construct validity results provided support for this new questionnaire. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the Parental Attitudes of Gender Expansiveness Scale for Youth (PAGES-Y). These findings demonstrate both the clinical and research utility of the PAGES-Y, a tool that can yield a more nuanced understanding of family-related risk and protective factors in gender-expansive adolescents.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Patsopoulou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents’ and adolescents’ demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ, the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2 and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ. Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy, maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents’ obesity.

  5. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Parents in the Selection of Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faizuddin

    2016-11-01

    dipilih. Data wawancara dianalisis dan dikelompokkan berdasarkan tema-tema khusus. Hasil interpretasi analisis menemukan bahwa alasan orang tua tergambarkan pada tiga item: (1 kebutuhan kurikulum tertentu, (2 kurangnya metode mengajar kreatif yang digunakan di sekolah Indonesia, dan (3 kurang strategis dari lokasi sekolah Indonesia. Akhirnya, tulisan ini memberikan analisis wawasan tentang alasan orang tua dan rekomendasi untuk peningkatan. How to Cite : Faizuddin, A. An-Nuaimy, T. Irzal, M. (2016. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Parents in the Selection of Schools. TARBIYA: Journal Of Education In Muslim Society, 3(1, 90-95. doi:10.15408/tjems.v3i1. 3398. Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/tjems.v3i1.3398  

  6. Long-term impacts of parental migration on Chinese children's psychosocial well-being: mitigating and exacerbating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenyue; Wang, Feng; Li, Leah; Zhou, Xudong; Hesketh, Therese

    2017-06-01

    Prolonged separation from migrant parents raises concerns for the well-being of 60 million left behind children (LBC) in rural China. This study aimed to investigate the impact of current and previous parental migration on child psychosocial well-being, with a focus on emotional and behavioral outcomes, while considering factors in family care and support. Children were recruited from schools in migrant-sending rural areas in Zhejiang and Guizhou provinces by random stratified sampling. A self-administered questionnaire measured children's psychosocial well-being, demographics, household characteristics, and social support. Multiple linear regression models examined the effects of parental migration and other factors on psychosocial difficulties. Data from 1930 current, 907 previous, and 701 never LBC were included (mean age 12.4, SD 2.1). Adjusted models showed both previous and current parental migration was associated with significantly higher overall psychosocial difficulties, involving aspects of emotion, conduct, peer relationships, hyperactivity, and pro-social behaviors. Parental divorce and lack of available support demonstrated a strong association with greater total difficulties. While children in Guizhou had much worse psychosocial outcomes than those in Zhejiang, adjusted subgroup analysis showed similar magnitude of between-province disparities regardless of parental migration status. However, having divorced parents and lack of support were greater psychosocial risk factors for current and previous-LBC than for never LBC. Parental migration has an independent, long-lasting adverse effect on children. Psychosocial well-being of LBC depends more on the relationship bonds between nuclear family members and the availability of support, rather than socioeconomic status.

  7. The effects of maternal psychosocial factors on parenting attitudes of low-income, single mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, M; Hall, L A

    1998-01-01

    Although recent evidence implies linkages among depression or depressive symptoms, self-esteem, history of childhood abuse, and parenting attitudes, the evidence does not clearly elucidate the relationships among these variables. To investigate the relationships among maternal psychosocial factors (history of childhood abuse, everyday stressors, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms) and parenting attitudes of low-income, single mothers who have young children. Secondary analyses of data from in-home interviews with 206 low-income, single mothers from a southeastern United States urban area were conducted. A variety of scales, including the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI), were used to measure maternal psychosocial factors. Using the AAPI, a Modified Parenting Attitudes Measure (MPAM), and subscales, a three-stage regression procedure was used to test the model. For stages 1 and 2, everyday stressors were the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Childhood sexual abuse, everyday stressors, low self-esteem, and control variables accounted for 58% of variance in depressive symptoms. In the third stage for the AAPI, only control variables were retained except in the Lack of Empathy subscale, where depressive symptoms and control variables accounted for 16% of the variance. The third stage for the MPAM yielded, by subscale: Only control variables predicted Corporal Punishment Beliefs; depressive symptoms were the strongest predictor for the total MPAM (19% of variance) and of the Inappropriate Emotional Expectations subscale (17%); and childhood physical abuse was the only predictor of Role Reversal. Depressive symptoms mediated the effects of childhood abuse, everyday stressors, and self-esteem and provided the linkage between these variables and at-risk parenting attitudes. Self-esteem decreased as everyday stressors increased but did not directly affect parenting attitudes. A relationship was not found between childhood abuse and low self-esteem. This study

  8. Factors Associated with Successful Mentoring of Parents Addressing Childhood Obesity: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Abigail Villanueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Parents mentoring other parents as a behavioral intervention for child obesity is novel with limited data describing the experience and dynamics of this approach. This study aimed to describe the experiences of parent mentors and the self-efficacy and attitudes of their mentees in the context of a clinical trial for childhood obesity. Methods. The context for this study was a randomized clinical trial using either parent mentors or a community health worker engaging parents of obese children in behavioral change over six months. Parent mentors were interviewed at the mid-point of the intervention using a semistructured questionnaire to elicit their perceptions and experiences during the process of mentoring. Parent mentees completed a survey assessing their self-efficacy, perception of the parent mentor, and attitudes and beliefs related to their child’s weight. Results. The qualitative analysis of parent mentor interviews indicated high commitment despite their nonprofessional status, facing challenges of engagement with fellow parents and attitudes of persistence and being nonjudgmental. The parent mentee ratings of parent mentors were overall very high and similar to the ratings of a community health worker (paraprofessional. Conclusion. The data suggest that a parent mentor model of intervention for child obesity is an acceptable mode of approaching behavior change in the Hispanic population around childhood obesity with potential for scalability if proven effective.

  9. Factors that influence the participation of parents in the oral rehabilitation process of children with cochlear implants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Maria Inês Vieira; Carvalho, Ana Claudia Martinho

    2013-01-01

    To identify and analyze factors that influence the participation of parents in the rehabilitation process of children with cochlear implants (CI). Question formulation and articles selection in three databases using the following keywords: cochlear implant (implante coclear) and parents (pais). Complete original articles published in Brazilian Portuguese or English, with direct participation of parents of children with CI. Articles were fully read. Data regarding characterization of the centers, research methodology and content were analyzed. Thirteen articles were selected based on the established criteria. The types of studies were cross-sectional and case-control (interview technique). The following influential factors were identified: pre-CI surgery factors (knowledge about CI, quality and quantity of information, specialist's advices, ethical and biomedical aspects, rehabilitation engagement, contact with experienced families, social service support and overall costs); rehabilitation aspects (CI use, oral communication modality, regular school, other disabilities, social and demographic aspects and rehabilitation program's effectiveness); other important influential processes (communication modality, auditory and language development, second oral language learning, as well as parent's behavior and satisfaction). The engagement of parents in the rehabilitation process of children with CI depends on several distinct influential factors which audiologists should understand and consider when elaborating a rehabilitation program.

  10. Initial validation of the Spanish childhood trauma questionnaire-short form: factor structure, reliability and association with parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ana; Gallardo-Pujol, David; Pereda, Noemí; Arntz, Arnoud; Bernstein, David P; Gaviria, Ana M; Labad, Antonio; Valero, Joaquín; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Jose Alfonso

    2013-05-01

    The present study examines the internal consistency and factor structure of the Spanish version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and the association between the CTQ-SF subscales and parenting style. Cronbach's α and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed in a female clinical sample (n = 185). Kendall's ι correlations were calculated between the maltreatment and parenting scales in a subsample of 109 patients. The Spanish CTQ-SF showed adequate psychometric properties and a good fit of the 5-factor structure. The neglect and abuse scales were negatively associated with parental care and positively associated with overprotection scales. The results of this study provide initial support for the reliability and validity of the Spanish CTQ-SF.

  11. Reactions by Native American Parents to Child Protection Agencies: Cultural and Community Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horejsi, Charles; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explains characteristics and behaviors of Native American parents who react to child protection services with extreme aggressiveness, passivity, or avoidance. Discusses appropriate behaviors for social workers to use with such parents. (BG)

  12. Nonoffending parent expectations of sexually abused children: predictive factors and influence on children's recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R; Hansen, David J

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment, while parental expectations of children's overall future functioning were not predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact their children and about their children's overall future functioning were not predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at posttreatment. Results highlight the influential role the sexual abuse label has in shaping parental expectations about children's functioning. Recommendations for research and intervention are discussed.

  13. Factors Affecting Parent-Adolescent Discussion on Reproductive Health Issues in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Open family discussion on reproductive health (RH issues often leads to increased awareness on RH matters and reduces risky behaviors among adolescents. This study was conducted to assess factors affecting parent-adolescent discussion on RH issues in Harar, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey using face to face interview supplemented with focus group discussion (FGD was conducted on 751 randomly selected parents of 10–19-year-old adolescents. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results. More than one-fourth (28.76% of parents reported discussing RH issues with their adolescents during the last six months. In the logistic regression, parents who have demonstrated good RH knowledge and positive attitude towards RH were almost six times and seventy percent (AOR 5.69, 95% CI: 3.67–8.82; AOR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08–2.68 higher in discussing RH with their adolescents than their counterparts, respectively. Conclusion. Parent-adolescent discussion about RH issues rarely occurs and is bounded by lack of knowledge, sociocultural norms, and parental concern that discussion would encourage premarital sex. Reproductive health programs should target on improving awareness of parents and addressing sociocultural norms surrounding reproductive health issues.

  14. Longitudinal child-oriented dietary intervention: Association with parental diet and cardio-metabolic risk factors. The Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Johanna M; Pahkala, Katja; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Niinikoski, Harri; Jokinen, Eero; Lagström, Hanna; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli

    2017-11-01

    Background The child-oriented dietary intervention given in the prospective Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) has decreased the intake of saturated fat and lowered serum cholesterol concentration in children from infancy until early adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether the uniquely long-term child-oriented intervention has affected also secondarily parental diet and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods The STRIP study is a longitudinal, randomized infancy-onset atherosclerosis prevention trial continued from the child's age of 8 months to 20 years. The main aim was to modify the child's diet towards reduced intake of saturated fat. Parental dietary intake assessed by a one-day food record and cardio-metabolic risk factors were analysed between the child's ages of 9-19 years. Results Saturated fat intake of parents in the intervention group was lower [mothers: 12.0 versus 13.9 daily energy (E%), p cardio-metabolic risk factors were similar in the study groups. Conclusions Child-oriented dietary intervention shifted the dietary fat intakes of parents closer to the recommendations and tended to decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the intervention mothers. Dietary intervention directed to children benefits also parents.

  15. Smoking status of step-parents as a risk factor for smoking in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Jennifer A; West, Robert; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Jarvis, Martin J; Wardle, Jane

    2008-03-01

    To examine the extent to which smoking by step-parents and biological parents predicts adolescent smoking. DESIGN Five-year cohort study. SETTING Thirty-six schools in South London, England. Participants A subset of 650 students participating in the Health and Behaviour In Teenagers Study (HABITS), who reported living in step-families, were assessed annually from age 11-12 to age 15-16 years. Students reported their smoking status, which was cotinine-verified, as well as whether their parents smoked and, if they lived with a step-parent, whether that step-parent smoked. Analyses also controlled for gender, ethnicity and deprivation. Students who reported that just their step-parent smoked at age 11-12 were significantly more likely to report current smoking at any time-point from age 11-16 than those who reported having neither biological parents nor a step-parent who smoked [odds ratio (OR) 2.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36-5.47], as were those with both a parent and a step-parent who smoked (OR 2.23, 95% CI = 1.46-3.41). While the association between smoking in students and smoking in biological parents in this subsample did not reach statistical significance (OR 1.39, 95% CI = 0.88-2.19), these students were no more or less likely to smoke than those with just a step-parent who smoked. Smoking by a non-biological parent appears at least as influential as smoking by biological parents. This confirms the importance of social influence on smoking initiation and suggests that attempts to work with parents in smoking prevention should involve, and perhaps pay particular attention to, step-parents who smoke.

  16. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP10) scale: two-factor model and association with adult depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denollet, Johan; Smolderen, Kim G E; van den Broek, Krista C; Pedersen, Susanne S

    2007-06-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with poor mental and physical health. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale retrospectively assesses Alienation (dysfunctional communication and intimacy) and Control (overprotection by parents), with an emphasis on deficiencies in empathic parenting. We examined the 2-factor structure of the RRP(10) and its relationship with adult depression. 664 respondents from the general population (48% men, mean age 54.6+/-14.2 years) completed the RRP(10), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and Beck Depression Inventory. The Alienation and Control dimensions of the RRP(10) displayed a sound factor structure, good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.83-0.86), and convergent validity against the PBI scales. No significant gender differences were found on the RRP(10) scales. Stratifying by RRP(10) dimensions showed that respondents high in Alienation and Control, for both father (33.3% vs. 14.5%, pAlienation and Control. While scoring high on Alienation or Control alone was also significantly and independently associated with depressive symptoms, scoring high on both Alienation and Control was most strongly connected with depressive symptoms for both father (OR=2.48, pparental Alienation and Control. High Alienation and Control were independently related to increased risk of depressive symptoms. Given the brevity of the RRP(10), it can easily be used in epidemiological/clinical research on the link between the remembered relationship with parents and mental/physical health.

  17. Correlates of Chilean Adolescents’ Negative Attitudes Toward Cigarettes: The Role of Gender, Peer, Parental, and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. Methods: A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. Results: For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Conclusion: Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls’ but not boys’ attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking. PMID:22157230

  18. Nonoffending Parent Expectations of Sexually Abused Children: Predictive Factors and Influence on Children's Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…

  19. Factors Related to Parents' Choices of Treatments for Their Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.; Butter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The history of autism treatment has been plagued with fad therapies which waste parents' and children's time, energy, and money. To determine if referral sources, such as professionals' recommendations, media, or scholarly sources, have influenced parents' treatment decisions, parents of at least one child with an autism spectrum disorder (N =…

  20. Viewing Generativity and Social Capital as Underlying Factors of Parent Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sharon; Patel, Nimisha

    2015-01-01

    Parent involvement in education is a multifaceted support that has many well-documented benefits for students of all ages. Parent involvement is also a common expression of generativity as defined in Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. The activities parents engage in during their children's educational pursuits, as well as their…

  1. Factors associated with trajectories of psychological distress for Australian fathers across the early parenting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Cooklin, Amanda; Christensen, Daniel; Nicholson, Jan M

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the course of fathers' psychological distress and associated risk factors beyond the postnatal period. Therefore, the current study aimed to: (a) assess the course of distress over 7 years postnatally; (b) identify classes of fathers defined by their symptom trajectories; and (c) identify early postnatal factors associated with persistent symptoms. Data from 2,470 fathers in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed using latent growth modelling. Fathers' psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler-6 (Kessler et al. in Arch Psychiatry 60:184-189, 2003) when their children were aged 0-1, 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7 years. Overall, distress was highest in the first postnatal year and then decreased over time. Two distinct trajectories were identified. The majority of fathers (92%) were identified as having minimal distress in the first postnatal year which decreased over time, whilst 8% had moderate distress which increased over time. Low parental self-efficacy, poor relationship and job quality were associated with 'persistent and increasing distress'. Early postnatal factors associated with fathers' persistent distress were identified, providing opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention.

  2. Personal and couple level risk factors: Maternal and paternal parent-child aggression risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Meagan C; Rodriguez, Christina M; Baker, Levi R

    2017-07-01

    Previous literature examining parent-child aggression (PCA) risk has relied heavily upon mothers, limiting our understanding of paternal risk factors. Moreover, the extent to which factors in the couple relationship work in tandem with personal vulnerabilities to impact PCA risk is unclear. The current study examined whether personal stress and distress predicted PCA risk (child abuse potential, over-reactive discipline style, harsh discipline practices) for fathers as well as mothers and whether couple functioning mediated versus moderated the relation between personal stress and PCA risk in a sample of 81 couples. Additionally, the potential for risk factors in one partner to cross over and affect their partner's PCA risk was considered. Findings indicated higher personal stress predicted elevated maternal and paternal PCA risk. Better couple functioning did not moderate this relationship but partially mediated stress and PCA risk for both mothers and fathers. In addition, maternal stress evidenced a cross-over effect, wherein mothers' personal stress linked to fathers' couple functioning. Findings support the role of stress and couple functioning in maternal and paternal PCA risk, including potential cross-over effects that warrant further inquiry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ellen K; Koo, Helen P

    2010-12-14

    In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters), we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1) parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2) factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes). Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers) talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics and identifies gender differences in

  4. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo Helen P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Methods Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters, we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1 parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2 factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. Results With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes. Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Conclusions Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent

  5. Factors Associated with Parental Communication with Young People about Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manu, Abubakar; Kotoh, Agnes M.; Asante, Rexford Kofi Oduro; Ankomah, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Available studies on parent-child communication about sexual and reproductive health in Ghana have largely focused on assessing communication frequency, barriers, and who communicates with whom within the family. The purpose of this paper is to examine parental and family contextual factors that predict parental communication with young…

  6. The impact of environmental, parental and child factors on health-related behaviors among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaad, Salma M A; Speirs, Katherine E; Hayes, Jenna T; Mobley, Amy R; Fitzgerald, Nurgul; Jones, Blake L; VanBrackle, Angela; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2017-05-01

    Multi-level factors act in concert to influence child weight-related behaviors. This study examined the simultaneous impact of variables obtained at the level of the home environment (e.g., mealtime ritualization), parent (e.g., modeling) and child (e.g., satiety responsiveness) with the outcomes of practicing healthy and limiting unhealthy child behaviors (PHCB and LUCB, respectively) in a low-income U.S. This was a cross sectional study of caregivers of preschool children (n = 432). Caregivers were interviewed using validated scales. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations with the outcomes. Adjusting for study region, demographics and caregiver's body mass index, we found significant associations between PHCB and higher mealtime ritualizations (β: 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11; 0.32, more parental modeling (β: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.27; 0.49) and less parental restrictive behavior (β: -0.19, 95% CI: -0.29; -0.10). More parental covert control (β: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.35; 0.54), more parental overt control (β: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.03; 0.25) and less parental permissive behavior (β: -0.25, 95% CI: -0.34; -0.09) were significantly associated with LUCB. Findings suggest the synergistic effects of mealtime ritualizations and covert control at the environmental-level and parental modeling, overt control, restrictive and permissive behavior at the parent-level on the outcomes. Most factors are modifiable and support multidisciplinary interventions that promote healthy child weight-related behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Examining parents' ratings of middle-school students' academic self-regulation using principal axis factoring analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peggy P; Cleary, Timothy J; Lui, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS: (a) Managing Behavior and Learning (α = .92), (b) Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors (α = .76), and (c) Managing Environment (α = .84). The majority of the observed relations between these 3 subscales, and the SRSI-SR, student motivation beliefs, and student mathematics grades were statistically significant and in the small to medium range. After controlling for various student variables and motivation indices of parental involvement, 2 SRSI-PRS factors (Managing Behavior and Learning, Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors) reliably predicted students' achievement in their mathematics course. This study provides initial support for the validity and reliability of the SRSI-PRS and underscores the advantages of obtaining parental ratings of students' SRL behaviors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Parental attitudes on restorative materials as factors influencing current use in pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J A; Feigal, R J; Till, M J; Hodges, J S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pediatric dentists' current practices and the perceptions about parents' opinions and how those parental preferences regarding dental materials influence dentists' practices. A questionnaire was sent to 500 randomly selected active members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Twenty-five items queried demographics, use of restorative materials, perceptions of parents' attitudes towards materials, and dentists' reactions to parents' concerns. The survey response rate was 61%. Parental concerns about materials in decreasing order were: (1) esthetics; (2) cost; (3) toxicity; and (4) durability. Parents' greatest concerns about stainless steel crowns were: (1) esthetics; and (2) cost. Among respondents, 43% followed parental preferences when challenged, and 28% currently never use amalgam. Amalgam use and the dentists' perception of parental challenge were each related to the socioeconomic status of the practice population, with lower socioeconomic practices feeling less parental challenge than higher socioeconomic practices and being more likely to use amalgam than "white" filling materials (P = .001). Mercury concerns occur more frequently with higher than lower socioeconomic status parents (P = .002). Stainless steel crowns are challenged based on esthetics and cost. When confronted, many pediatric dentists (43%) follow parental preferences, even when that action is contrary to their initial clinical judgment.

  9. Age at natural menopause and its associated factors in Canada: cross-sectional analyses from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanian, Christy; McCague, Hugh; Tamim, Hala

    2017-10-02

    Early onset of menopause is associated with long-term disease and higher mortality risks. Research suggests that age at natural menopause (ANM) varies across populations. Little is known about factors that affect ANM in Canadian women. This study aims to estimate the median ANM and examine factors associated with earlier ANM among Canadian women. Baseline data from the Tracking cohort of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging was used for this analysis. The relation of sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors with ANM was examined among 7,719 women aged 40 and above. Nonparametric Kaplan-Meier cumulative survivorship estimates were used to assess the timing of natural menopause. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to characterize ANM and its association with relevant covariates. Overall, median ANM was 51 years. Having no partner, low household income and education levels, current and former smoking, and cardiovascular disease were all associated with an earlier ANM, whereas current employment, alcohol consumption, and obesity were associated with later ANM. These findings provide a national estimate of ANM in Canada and show the importance of lifestyle factors and health conditions in determining menopausal age. These factors might help in risk assessment, prevention and early management of chronic disease risk during the menopausal transition.

  10. Punitive parenting practices of contemporary young parents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodward, Lianne J; Fergusson, David M; Chesney, Anna; Horwood, L John

    2007-01-01

    To describe the punitive parenting practices of a cohort of young (<25 years) New Zealand parents and to examine the life course risk factors that placed these parents at increased risk of severe child physical punishment/abuse...

  11. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Luk, Jeremy W.; King, Kevin M.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by...

  12. What factors influence patient and parent choice of cochlear implant model for children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamp, Philip J; Rotchell, Terri; Maddocks, Jennefer; Robinson, Philip J

    2013-06-01

    The West of England Cochlear Implant Programme purchases two makes of cochlear implant (CI) for paediatric use (MED-EL and Cochlear). If the CI team has no preference, the decision regarding which implant to use is made by the patient and family. Families are provided with information about the devices and allowed time to handle dummy implants and ask questions. The aim of this study is to establish how patients make this choice and which factors are considered most important in the decision-making process. Patients who received a CI within the past 4 years were sent a postal survey, with reminders issued when patients attended for checkups. Patients were asked to rate certain factors from 0 to 10 depending on their importance in the decision-making process. Sixty-four patients replied (response rate 74%). In most cases (83%), the parents and/or children were involved in the decision regarding the choice of implant. Eighty-nine percent of patients received information about the choices of CI from the CI team. Patients also accessed information directly from the manufacturer, from other CI users, and from websites. The most important factor in choosing CI model was robustness and reliability (mean score 9.6), followed by comfort (9.4), size/shape (9.2), and control system/ease of use (8.9). All patients were happy with the choices they made. In this study, most patients undergoing cochlear implantation were offered a choice of model. Robustness, reliability, comfort, and size/shape of CI are considered the most important factors in this decision.

  13. Partnering for Learnware: Critical Success Factors in the Use of Learnware by Human Resources Sector Councils and Industry Associations in Canada = Partenariats pour les technologies d'apprentissage: Facteurs critiques de succes dans l'utilisation des technologies d'apprentissage par les conseils sectoriels des ressources humaines et les associations industrielles au Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahmer, Anna; Green, Lyndsay

    The use of learnware by human resources sector councils and industry associations in Canada was examined to identify critical success factors in the use of technology-based training. Eight case studies--four involving sector councils and four involving industry associations that either have national mandates or distribute their products across…

  14. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; O`Malley, C.D. [California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Results of studies determine whether women who smoke during early pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering infants with orofacial clefts have been mixed, and recently a gene-environment interaction between maternal smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFa), and clefting has been reported. Using a large population-based case-control study, we investigated whether parental periconceptional cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk for having offspring with orofacial clefts. We also investigated the influence of genetic variation of the TGFa locus on the relation between smoking and clefting. Parental smoking information was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers of 731 (84.7% of eligible) orofacial cleft case infants and with mothers of 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed control infants. DNA was obtained from newborn screening blood spots and genotyped for the allelic variants of TGFa. We found that risks associated with maternal smoking were most elevated for isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, (odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6]) and for isolated cleft palate (odds ratio 2.2 [1.1-4.5]) when mothers smoked {ge} 20 cigarrettes/d. These risks for white infants ranged from 3-fold to 11-fold across phenotypic groups. Paternal smoking was not associated with clefting among the offspring of nonsmoking mothers, and passive smoke exposures were associated with at most slightly increased risks. This study offers evidence that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele. 56 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Pediatrician identification of child behavior problems: the roles of parenting factors and cross-practice differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C

    2012-06-01

    While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care.

  16. Psychological complaints among children in joint physical custody and other family types: Considering parental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Emma; Turunen, Jani; Hjern, Anders; Östberg, Viveca; Bergström, Malin

    2016-03-01

    Increasing proportions of Scandinavian children and children in other Western countries live in joint physical custody, moving between parents' homes when parents live apart. Children and parents in non-intact families are at risk of worse mental health. The potential influence of parental ill-health on child well-being in the context of differing living arrangements has not been studied thoroughly. This study investigates the psychological complaints of children in joint physical custody in comparison to children in sole parental care and nuclear families, while controlling for socioeconomic differences and parental ill-health. Data were obtained from Statistics Sweden's yearly Survey of Living Conditions 2007-2011 and child supplements with children 10-18 years, living in households of adult participants. Children in joint physical custody (n=391) were compared with children in sole parental care (n=654) and children in nuclear families (n=3,639), using a scale of psychological complaints as the outcome measure. Multiple regression modelling showed that children in joint physical custody did not report higher levels of psychological complaints than those in nuclear families, while children in sole parental care reported elevated levels of complaints compared with those in joint physical custody. Adding socioeconomic variables and parental ill-health only marginally attenuated the coefficients for the living arrangement groups. Low parental education and parental worry/anxiety were however associated with higher levels of psychological complaints. Psychological complaints were lower among adolescents in joint physical custody than in adolescents in sole parental care. The difference was not explained by parental ill-health or socioeconomic variables. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Development and analysis of the factor structure of parents' internalized stigma of neurodevelopmental disorder in child scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mahapatra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, frequently face public stigma which is often internalized and leads to psychological burden. However, there is a lack of data on the perceptions of internalized stigma among parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders, especially from lower-middle-income countries like India. Aims: This study aims to develop an adapted version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale for use in parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders and to explore the factor structure of this instrument through exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient setting in a tertiary care hospital in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition were recruited for the study after screening for psychiatric disorder using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 6.0. A modified 16-item scale was constructed Parents' Internalized Stigma of Neurodevelopmental Disorder in Child (PISNC scale and applied on 105 parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, after translation to Hindi and back-translation, in keeping with the World Health Organization's translation-back-translation methodology. Statistical Analysis: EFA was carried out using principal component analysis with orthogonal (varimax rotation. Internal consistency of the Hindi version of the scale was estimated in the form of Cronbach's alpha. Spearman–Brown coefficient and Guttman split-half coefficient were calculated to evaluate the split-half reliability. Results: The initial factor analysis yielded three-factor models with an eigenvalue of >1 and the total variance explained by these factors was 62.017%. The internal consistency of the 16-item scale was 0

  18. Influencing factors of screen time in preschool children: an exploration of parents' perceptions through focus groups in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, E; De Craemer, M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Wijndaele, K; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Grammatikaki, E; Iotova, V; Usheva, N; Fernández-Alvira, J M; Zych, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2012-03-01

    Preschoolers already spend significant proportions of their waking hours being sedentary. Screen time (i.e. television/DVD viewing and computer use) has been negatively associated with several health outcomes but interventions aiming to reduce preschoolers' sedentary behaviour are scarce. This study aimed to explore parents' perceptions of their preschool children's screen time. One hundred twenty-two parents of low and medium-high socioeconomic status from six European countries with children between 4 and 6 years old were involved in 24 focus groups. Following a qualitative content analysis, the available information and key findings were centrally analysed. Results showed that children tend to like watching television (TV) and most parents do not express worries about their children's TV viewing time. Education is considered to be the main benefit of watching TV and in general, parents only have informal rules about TV viewing. Computer and active games use are less frequent compared with TV viewing. No univocal results are found about the influence of siblings or friends on children's screen time. Weather conditions and parental habits at home are the most important factors influencing children's screen time. Alternatives for screen activities and information on how to set rules for screen time should be provided to parents to assist them in decreasing their preschool children's screen time. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. Characterizing environmental risk factors for West Nile virus in Quebec, Canada, using clinical data in humans and serology in pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, J P; Michel, P; Lindsay, L R; Drebot, M; Dibernardo, A; Ogden, N H; Fortin, A; Arsenault, J

    2017-10-01

    The identification of specific environments sustaining emerging arbovirus amplification and transmission to humans is a key component of public health intervention planning. This study aimed at identifying environmental factors associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infections in southern Quebec, Canada, by modelling and jointly interpreting aggregated clinical data in humans and serological data in pet dogs. Environmental risk factors were estimated in humans by negative binomial regression based on a dataset of 191 human WNV clinical cases reported in the study area between 2011 and 2014. Risk factors for infection in dogs were evaluated by logistic and negative binomial models based on a dataset including WNV serological results from 1442 dogs sampled from the same geographical area in 2013. Forested lands were identified as low-risk environments in humans. Agricultural lands represented higher risk environments for dogs. Environments identified as impacting risk in the current study were somewhat different from those identified in other studies conducted in north-eastern USA, which reported higher risk in suburban environments. In the context of the current study, combining human and animal data allowed a more comprehensive and possibly a more accurate view of environmental WNV risk factors to be obtained than by studying aggregated human data alone.

  20. Clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors in parents of adolescents with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Tossavainen, Päivi H; Owen, Katharine; Fullah, Catherine; Benitez-Aguirre, Paul; Masi, Stefano; Ong, Ken; Nguyen, Helen; Chiesa, Scott T; Dalton, R Neil; Deanfield, John; Dunger, David B

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the association between a clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors in parents and the development of microalbuminuria (MA) in their offspring with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). The study population comprised 53 parents (mean age [±SD]: 56.7±6.2 years) of 35 T1D young people with MA (MA+) and 86 parents (age: 56.1±6.3 years) of 50 matched offspring with normoalbuminuria (MA-), who underwent clinical, biochemical and cardiovascular imaging assessments. The primary study endpoint was the difference between parents from the MA+ and MA- groups in a cardio-metabolic risk score, calculated as the average value of the standardized measures (z-scores) for waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Cardiovascular parameters, including carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), were also assessed. A DXA scan was performed to assess body composition. The cardio-metabolic risk score was significantly higher in parents of MA+ compared to parents of MA- offspring (mean [95% CI]: 1.066[0.076; 2.056] vs -0.268[-0.997; 0.460], P = .03). Parents of MA+ offspring had slightly higher values of waist circumference, lipids, insulin and blood pressure, although only diastolic blood pressure was statistically different between the 2 groups (P = .0085). FMD, cIMT, PWV (all P > .3), and DXA parameters (all P > .2) were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Parents of young offspring with childhood-onset T1D and MA showed an abnormal metabolic profile, reflected by a calculated risk score. The finding supports the role of a familial predisposition to risk of developing diabetic nephropathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The parenting style as protective or risk factor for substance use and other behavior problems among Spanish adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martínez, Isabel; Fuentes, María C; García, Fernando; Madrid, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the parental socialization styles as a protective or a risk factor for substance use in a sample of 673 Spanish adolescents (51.7% were women) aged 14-17 (M = 15.49, SD = 1.06...

  2. Risk and Resilience Factors Related to Parental Bereavement Following the Death of a Child with a Life-Limiting Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Jaaniste

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on risk and resilience factors impacting on parental bereavement outcomes following the death of a child with a life-limiting condition. Over the past few decades, bereavement research has focussed primarily on a risk-based approach. In light of advances in the literature on resilience, the authors propose a Risk and Resilience Model of Parental Bereavement, thus endeavouring to give more holistic consideration to a range of potential influences on parental bereavement outcomes. The literature will be reviewed with regard to the role of: (i loss-oriented stressors (e.g., circumstances surrounding the death and multiple losses; (ii inter-personal factors (e.g., marital factors, social support, and religious practices; (iii intra-personal factors (e.g., neuroticism, trait optimism, psychological flexibility, attachment style, and gender; and (iv coping and appraisal, on parental bereavement outcomes. Challenges facing this area of research are discussed, and research and clinical implications considered.

  3. Childhood Anxiety in a Diverse Primary Care Population: Parent-Child Reports, Ethnicity and SCARED Factor Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Frances J.; Berg, Eric A.; Heiden, Lynda A.; Kinnamon, Carolyn J.; Ohlson, Lirio A.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Bernal, M. Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore in a multiethnic primary care population the impact of child gender and of race/ethnicity on parent and child reports of school-age anxiety and on the factor structure of the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Method: A consecutive sample of 515 children (8 to less than 13 years) and their…

  4. Risk and Resilience Factors Related to Parental Bereavement Following the Death of a Child with a Life-Limiting Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaaniste, Tiina; Coombs, Sandra; Donnelly, Theresa J; Kelk, Norm; Beston, Danielle

    2017-11-09

    This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on risk and resilience factors impacting on parental bereavement outcomes following the death of a child with a life-limiting condition. Over the past few decades, bereavement research has focussed primarily on a risk-based approach. In light of advances in the literature on resilience, the authors propose a Risk and Resilience Model of Parental Bereavement, thus endeavouring to give more holistic consideration to a range of potential influences on parental bereavement outcomes. The literature will be reviewed with regard to the role of: (i) loss-oriented stressors (e.g., circumstances surrounding the death and multiple losses); (ii) inter-personal factors (e.g., marital factors, social support, and religious practices); (iii) intra-personal factors (e.g., neuroticism, trait optimism, psychological flexibility, attachment style, and gender); and (iv) coping and appraisal, on parental bereavement outcomes. Challenges facing this area of research are discussed, and research and clinical implications considered.

  5. Factors Influencing Young Children's Risk of Unintentional Injury: Parenting Style and Strategies for Teaching about Home Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Corbett, Michael; Lasenby, Jennifer; Johnston, Natalie; McCourt, Meghan

    2006-01-01

    This study examined mothers' teaching about home-safety issues to 24-30 month and 36-42 month old children, explored the relationship of teaching strategies to parenting styles, and assessed how these factors are related to children's risk of unintentional injury. A structured interview assessed home-safety issues relevant to falls, burns, cuts,…

  6. Periconceptional health and lifestyle factors of both parents affect the risk of live-born children with orofacial clefts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapels, I.P.C.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Vroom, F.; Jong-van den Berg, L.T. de; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Molen, A.B. van der; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) or cleft palate only (CPO) are orofacial clefts and have a multifactorial etiology. The identification of amendable parental risk factors may contribute to a reduced occurrence of these malformations in the future. METHODS:

  7. Do Family and Parenting Factors in Adolescence Influence Condom Use in Early Adulthood in a Multiethnic Sample of Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A.; Kopak, Albert M.; Robillard, Alyssa G.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent-child closeness, parental…

  8. Environmental risk and protective factors of adolescents' and youths' mental health : differences between parents' appraisal and self-reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalonga Olives, Ester; Garcia Forero, Carlos; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Almansa, Josue; Palacio Vieira, Jorge A.; Valderas, Jose M.; Ferrer, Montserrat; Rajmil, Luis; Alonso, Jordi

    PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of parents' mental health, life events, and home life (among other factors) on adolescents'/youths' mental health, whether such an effect varies when several variables are assessed jointly, and also whether the informant source of the mental health problem

  9. Influence of Exogenous Factors on Genomic Imprinting. 2. Effect of Bad Habits of Parents on Genomic Imprinting of the Descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research data, which suggest that alcohol abuse and smoking of parents have an adverse effect on fetal development and the health of the child. These factors disrupt the processes of DNA methylation of imprinted genes, causing an increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation, and of pathological abnormalities in fetal neurogenesis.

  10. Risk and Resilience Factors Related to Parental Bereavement Following the Death of a Child with a Life-Limiting Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaaniste, Tiina; Coombs, Sandra; Donnelly, Theresa J.; Kelk, Norm; Beston, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on risk and resilience factors impacting on parental bereavement outcomes following the death of a child with a life-limiting condition. Over the past few decades, bereavement research has focussed primarily on a risk-based approach. In light of advances in the literature on resilience, the authors propose a Risk and Resilience Model of Parental Bereavement, thus endeavouring to give more holistic consideration to a range of potential influences on parental bereavement outcomes. The literature will be reviewed with regard to the role of: (i) loss-oriented stressors (e.g., circumstances surrounding the death and multiple losses); (ii) inter-personal factors (e.g., marital factors, social support, and religious practices); (iii) intra-personal factors (e.g., neuroticism, trait optimism, psychological flexibility, attachment style, and gender); and (iv) coping and appraisal, on parental bereavement outcomes. Challenges facing this area of research are discussed, and research and clinical implications considered. PMID:29120367

  11. Comparison of parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents presenting with internalizing and externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; DeGrace, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to: (a) examine parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents referred to an outpatient service for internalizing and externalizing disorders, and (b) compare the demographic variables and diagnoses for the two diagnostic groups. Parents of all children who were referred to the child and adolescent outpatient service were asked to participate. Following their informed consent, they completed a socio-demographic questionnaire for themselves and a Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) for their child. The CBCL scores and the diagnoses assigned by the psychiatrists were then recorded for each child. Diagnoses were classified as internalizing or externalizing based on the primary DSM-IV diagnosis assigned by the psychiatrists. Data for the two groups were compared for study variables using Pearson correlation, t-tests, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression. Children who had externalizing disorders tended to live with unemployed single parents who had lower education levels and lived in rented or assisted housing. Children with internalizing problems tended to live in owned homes with employed parents. There was no significant association between age or gender for either group. Previous literature has reported an association between low SES and more mental health problems; however, the relationship between different indicators of SES and diagnosis is not clear. Despite small numbers, our study revealed significant differences between the parental socio-demographic factors for externalizing compared with internalizing disorders.

  12. Contribution of parenting factors to the developmental attainment of 9-month-old infants: results from the Japan Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shunyue; Maeda, Tadahiko; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka; Yamakawa, Noriko; Koeda, Tatsuya; Kawai, Masatoshi; Ogura, Tamiko; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2009-01-01

    Child development integrates several interdependent domains, but few studies have attempted to identify the common factors that contribute to these different domains of development in infancy. The aim of the present study was to identify the factors that contribute to several domains of developmental attainment in 9-month-old infants. We used data from the Japan Children's Study, a prospective cohort study underway in Japan since 2005. Mothers completed questionnaires about their children's temperament, coparenting behaviors, maternal parenting stress, and parenting behavior. The Kinder infant development scale was used to evaluate child development outcomes. A total of 270 children were included in this analysis. After adjusting for the children's birth weight, gestational age, temperament, and other family environmental variables, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that greater maternal cognitive stimulation was associated with the development of receptive language, expressive language, social relationships, and feeding. Results also suggest that early supportive coparenting helped to promote development in manipulation, receptive language, and social relationships. Maternal parenting stress was stable between the infant ages of 4 and 9 months and was negatively correlated with scores for coparenting and maternal stimulation, which suggests an indirect effect of maternal parenting stress on child outcomes. Supportive coparenting and maternal cognitive stimulation were the most important contributors to most domains of child development. Our findings suggest that educational interventions targeting young families would help parents establish and maintain an environment of successful coparenting and cognitive stimulation as their children grow.

  13. Parental risk factors and anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwink Nadine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anorectal malformations (ARM are rare forms of congenital uro-rectal anomalies with largely unknown causes. Besides genetic factors, prenatal exposures of the parents to nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, illicit drugs, occupational hazards, overweight/obesity and diabetes mellitus are suspected as environmental risk factors. Methods Relevant studies published until August 2010 were identified through systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library databases. Furthermore, related and cross-referencing publications were reviewed. Pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were determined to quantify associations of maternal and paternal smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, underweight (body mass index [BMI] Results 22 studies that reported on the association between prenatal environmental risk factors and infants born with ARM were included in this review. These were conducted in the United States of America (n = 12, Spain (n = 2, Sweden (n = 2, the Netherlands (n = 2, Japan (n = 1, France (n = 1, Germany (n = 1 and Hungary (n = 1. However, only few of these studies reported on the same risk factors. Studies were heterogeneous with respect to case numbers, control types and adjustment for covariates. Consistently increased risks were observed for paternal smoking and maternal overweight, obesity and diabetes, but not for maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. In meta-analyses, pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals for paternal smoking, maternal overweight, obesity, pre-gestational and gestational diabetes were 1.53 (1.04-2.26, 1.25 (1.07-1.47, 1.64 (1.35-2.00, 4.51 (2.55-7.97 and 1.81 (1.23-2.65, respectively. Conclusion Evidence on risk factors for ARM from epidemiological studies is still very limited. Nevertheless, the few available studies indicate paternal smoking and maternal overweight, obesity and diabetes to be associated with increased risks. Further, ideally large

  14. Factors related to mothers' perceptions of parenting following their children's disclosures of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert-Murphy, D

    2000-08-01

    Predictors of parenting satisfaction and efficacy were examined in a sample of 102 mothers of children who disclosed sexual abuse within the previous 12 months. Parenting satisfaction was predicted by conduct behavior problems exhibited by the child, social support from friends, and the use of approach coping strategies. Parenting efficacy was predicted by age of the child and conduct and sexual behavior problems exhibited by the child. Maternal history of child sexual abuse was not related to parenting satisfaction or efficacy. Results are discussed in relation to a stress-coping model of understanding mothers during the postdisclosure period.

  15. Factors related to voluntary parental decision-making in pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Nelson, Robert M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine demographic and contextual correlates of voluntariness in parents making research or treatment decisions for their children with cancer. Participants included 184 parents of children with cancer who made a decision about enrolling the child in a research or treatment protocol within the previous 10 days. Parents completed questionnaires that assessed voluntariness, external influence by others, concern that the child's care would be negatively affected if the parent did not agree, time pressure, information adequacy, and demographics. Lower perceived voluntariness was associated with lower education, male gender, minority status, and not having previous experience with a similar decision. Parents who reported lower voluntariness also perceived more external influence and time pressure, had more concern about the child's care being negatively affected if they declined, and perceived that they had either too much or not enough information about the decision. In a multivariate regression, education, minority status, gender, external influence, and too little information remained significantly associated with voluntariness. Several groups of parents appear to be at risk for decreased voluntariness when making research or treatment decisions for their seriously ill children, including fathers, nonwhite parents, and those with less education. Parental voluntariness may be enhanced by helping parents to mitigate the effects of unhelpful or unwanted influences by others and ensuring that their information needs are met.

  16. Health Beliefs, Behaviors, and Environmental Factors related to Diet and Physical Activity among College Students and their Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalewska, Agata O.

    2010-01-01

    Diet and physical activity behaviors may be influenced by internal and external factors that may change over time, in response to personal development and changes in environments. The current literature does not explore specifically how the different factors and particularly Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs, affect behaviors of college students. This project, aimed to compare the influence of SCT constructs between college students and parents in healthier foods (HF) and physical a...

  17. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population of Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu L Bourbonnais

    Full Text Available Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife

  18. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife system and others

  19. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.

  20. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.G.; Roliff, W.A.; Sealey, R.; Palonen, P.A.

    1981-10-01

    Uncertainty of increased taxation of petroleum revenues proposed under the Canadian national energy program effected a minor slowdown of the rapid exploration in 1980. Total numbers of wells drilled in eastern Canada were: Ontario, 224; Quebec, 3; Nova Scotia, 1; and the Atlantic offshore, 13. Much of the Ontario drilling, 123 wells, was for development purposes. The success ratio on exploratory drilling in Ontario was 34.7, while all Quebec and Nova Scotia wells were dry. Production of oil and gas declined by 16.8% and 18.5% in New Brunswick. Oil production in Ontario increased by 1.2%. The increase in gas production of 14.3% to almost 443,535.5 x 10/sup 3/m/sup 3/ was due almost entirely to development of known fields underlying Lake Erie. The exploration of offshore eastern Canada continued at a stable rate, with 12 wells completed. Of these, 2 were in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 3 on the Grand Banks, 6 on the Labrador Shelf, and 1 in Davis Strait. All wells were abandoned or suspended at year end, although discoveries of hydrocarbon were made in Davis Strait and the Grand Banks. The early exploration stage, combined with record water depths, prevented any of these wells from being put into production, although testing will be continued on the most promising shows. Seismic exploration increased to approximately 30,000 km in the Atlantic offshore areas. In addition, 1,420.94 km was shot in Lake Erie. Onshore seismic exploration accounted for 1,078.67 km in Ontario, 350 km in Nova Scotia and 242.76 km in Quebec. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  2. Prevalence and the Relationship between Characteristics and Parental Conditions with Risk Factors for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Gholamzadeh Baeis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is a disease which causes unexpected death of infants aged less than 1 year. Given the undeniable role of parents in the presence or absence of SIDS risk factors, the present study aimed to studythe prevalence and the relationship between characteristics and conditions of parent’s infants with SIDS risk factors. Materials and Methods  In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, 1,021 infants aged 1 to 12 months in the health centers in Qom-Iran in 2014 were selected as the sample by stratified random sampling method. The required data were collected using an author-made questionnaire on SIDS risk factors. The obtained data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS 18 at a significance level of 95%. Results 4.5% of mothers were younger than 20 years, 92.3% infants had a co-sleeping with their parents, and 35.7% of infants had a bed-sharing with their parents. 19% of infants used Soft pillow. Study findings showed that there is no significant relationship between the age of mothers and using a shared bedroom (P>0.05, while such a relationship exists between education backgrounds of parents and sharing a bedroom (P

  3. Risks and Protective Factors for Stress Self-Management in Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Integrated Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonis, Susan A; Sawin, Kathleen J

    Stress in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been reported to be very high. However, little is known about what risk and protective factors influence parental stress self-management in this population. Accordingly, this manuscript is a synthesis of the risk and protective factors that impact self-management of stress in these parents. The concepts in the individual and family self-management theory context domain were used as a framework to guide data collection and analysis. Searches were conducted using CINAHL, MedLine and PsychInfo. Studies were included if they addressed context factors in parents of children with ASD and were written in English. Ninety-eight studies met review criteria. This review highlighted risk factors to parental stress self-management within the context of condition-specific factors, physical and social environment, and individual and family. The most concerning of these findings is that parents struggle accessing a diagnosis and services for their child and are frustrated with health care providers' knowledge of ASD and lack of communication. The risks parents experience as they care for their child with ASD far outweigh the protective factors for self-management of parental stress. Nurses who are aware of these issues can make important changes to their practice and have a significant impact on parental stress self-management and the care of children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Posttraumatic stress, partner violence victimization, and harmful drinking: risk factors for relationship discord in new parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotskova, Alina; Woodin, Erica M

    2013-11-01

    The first year of parenthood can be a stressful time, especially for high-risk couples. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) have been associated with decreased intimacy, communication, and relationship adjustment, yet there is a lack of research on how PTS symptoms might affect couples in early parenthood. Furthermore, there is little evidence regarding the way in which PTS symptoms may affect couples above and beyond known risk factors such as intimate partner violence (IPV) and harmful alcohol use. The current study investigated how PTS symptoms were related to new parents' relationship satisfaction in the context of IPV and harmful drinking. Ninety-eight heterosexual couples filled out questionnaires 1 year after the birth of their first child. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that, for men, PTS symptoms predicted lower relationship satisfaction over and above IPV victimization and harmful drinking. However, for women, psychological IPV victimization was the only significant multivariate predictor. In addition, for men, PTS symptoms interacted with harmful drinking to predict poorer relationship satisfaction. The results suggest that women's relationship satisfaction is particularly linked to psychological IPV victimization during early parenthood, whereas men's relationship satisfaction is particularly associated with their own harmful drinking and PTS symptoms. Implications are discussed.

  5. Seroprevalence of heartworm infection, risk factors for seropositivity, and frequency of prescribing heartworm preventives for cats in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Julie K; Burling, Amie N; Crandall, Michael M; Tucker, Sylvia J; Wood, Erin G; Foster, Jessie D

    2017-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the seroprevalence of heartworm infection, risk factors for seropositivity, and frequency of prescribing heartworm preventives for cats. DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 34,975 cats from 1,353 veterinary clinics (n = 26,707) and 125 animal shelters (8,268) in the United States and Canada. PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected from all cats and tested with a point-of-care ELISA for Dirofilaria immitis antigen, FeLV antigen, and FIV antibody. Results were compared among geographic regions and various cat groupings. RESULTS Seropositivity for heartworm antigen in cats was identified in 35 states but not in Canada; overall seroprevalence in the United States was 0.4%. Seroprevalence of heartworm infection was highest in the southern United States. A 3-fold increase in the proportion of seropositive cats was identified for those with (vs without) outdoor access, and a 2.5-fold increase was identified for cats that were unhealthy (vs healthy) when tested. Seroprevalence was 0.3% in healthy cats, 0.7% in cats with oral disease, 0.9% in cats with abscesses or bite wounds, and 1.0% in cats with respiratory disease. Coinfection with a retrovirus increased the risk of heartworm infection. Heartworm preventives were prescribed for only 12.6% of cats at testing, and prescribing was more common in regions with a higher seroprevalence. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE At an estimated prevalence of 0.4%, hundreds of thousands of cats in the United States are likely infected with heartworms. Given the difficulty in diagnosing infection at all clinically relevant parasite stages and lack of curative treatment options, efforts should be increased to ensure all cats receive heartworm preventives.

  6. Assessing patients' and caregivers' perspectives on stability of factor VIII products for haemophilia A: a web-based study in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBenedetti, D B; Coles, T M; Sharma, T; Pericleous, L; Kulkarni, R

    2014-07-01

    Haemophilia A is a rare inherited bleeding disorder characterized by an inability of the blood to clot normally. Patients can experience spontaneous or trauma-induced joint and soft tissue bleeding and must keep coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) accessible at all times; thus, FVIII product storage and stability are critical. Our primary objective was to assess haemophilia A patients' and caregivers' experiences and preferences with FVIII product storage and stability. A secondary objective was to evaluate the use of the social media site Facebook in recruitment. In this cross-sectional study, 145 English-speaking adult patients and caregivers of children with haemophilia A were recruited through two state-based haemophilia organizations in the United States (US) and one national organization in Canada for a web-based survey assessing demographics and FVIII product ordering, usage, and storage practices. Of the 101 individuals who completed the survey, 60% resided in Canada; 57% were recruited through Facebook. Caregivers and patients responded similarly to questions about ordering practices and product usage, with some distinction between groups in storage practices. Two-thirds of participants noted challenges with storing FVIII products, especially storage away from home. More than half preferred storing FVIII products at room temperature vs. in the refrigerator for long periods of time. FVIII product accessibility, usage and storage affect disease management. Results support the need for more convenient and accessible FVIII products for patients in daily life and while travelling. In addition, the use of social media has potential value in recruiting this population. © 2014 The Authors. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Risk factors for psychological maladjustment of parents of children with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM; Jaspers, JPC; Kamps, WA; Klip, EC

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine risk variables for future, more immediate, and persistent psychological distress of parents of pediatric cancer patients. Method: Parents (n = 128) completed questionnaires at the time of diagnosis (T-1) and 12 months later (T-2). Multiple regression analyses were performed

  8. Understanding Teachers' Perspectives of Factors That Influence Parental Involvement Practices in Special Education in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Stacey; Mahon, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Parental involvement has been defined in various ways by researchers and is reported to have many advantages for children's education. The research utilises a case study strategy to investigate teachers' perspectives of parental involvement at four case sites in Barbados. In-depth interviews were done with teachers and analysis utilised content…

  9. Risk and Protective Factors for Children of Adolescents: Maternal Depression and Parental Sense of Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoche, Lisa L.; Givens, Jami E.; Sheridan, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between depression and parental sense of competence to child cognitive outcomes for a sample of 49 adolescent mothers and their young children ("Mean age" = 9 1/2 months) enrolled in a student parenting program. Cognitive development of the infants and toddlers was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant…

  10. Parenting styles as a tobacco-use protective factor among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondowski, Cláudia S; Bedendo, André; Zuquetto, Carla; Locatelli, Danilo P; Opaleye, Emérita S; Noto, Ana R

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the relationship between tobacco use (previous month and frequent use), parenting styles and parental smoking behavior in a sample of high school students. Participants were recruited from public and private high schools from 27 Brazilian state capitals (N = 17,246). The overall prevalence of tobacco use in life was 25.2%; 15.3% in the previous year; 8.6% in the previous month; and 3.2% for frequent use. Tobacco use by the parents was reported by 28.6% of the students. Regarding parenting styles, 39.2% were classified as negligent, 33.3% authoritative, 15.6% as indulgent and 11.9% authoritarian. Compared to adolescents with authoritative parents, those with negligent or indulgent parents were more prone to report tobacco use during the last month or frequent use. This study showed an association between parenting styles and tobacco use by high school students. Authoritative parents were associated with protection from frequent and previous month tobacco use among adolescents.

  11. Factors Affecting Parental Decision-Making Regarding Interventions for Their Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Elizabeth Baltus

    2014-01-01

    Due to the numerous interventions available for children with autism, parents are faced with challenging decisions regarding treatments from the time of diagnosis and throughout their child's life. This exploratory qualitative study investigated the reasons behind parents' decisions about interventions for their child with autism. In-depth…

  12. Political Activism of Palestinian Youth: Exploring Individual, Parental, and Ecological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellings, Carolyn R.; Barber, Brian K.; Olsen, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The growing literature on youth and political conflict has not included an adequate focus on youth activism. To address this deficit, this study used youth- and parent-reported data (N = 6,718) from the 1994-1995 Palestinian Family Study to test an ecological model of family influence (parents' activism, expectations for their adolescents'…

  13. The Impact of Childrens' Divorce on Parents: And Some Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Ralph; Kaslow, Florence

    1985-01-01

    Considers the impact of an adult child's divorce on his or her parents. Within the context of a cybernetic circular systems model of conceptualization about family relations, it is posited that older parents' reactions impact upon their childrens' post-divorce readjustment. (Author/NRB)

  14. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: The mediating role of individual and social factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 %

  15. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: the mediating role of individual and social factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 %

  16. Factors Contributing to Stress in Parents of Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehee, Erin; Honan, Rita; Hevey, David

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study explores the experiences of parents of individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs), and examines the influences of parent gender and child age on perceived stress, stress and coping, child-rearing involvement, support and information/education accessed. Methods and Materials: Questionnaires assessed general perceived…

  17. Predicting Change in Parenting Stress across Early Childhood: Child and Maternal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…

  18. Parenting Styles: A Key Factor to Self Determination and Personal Growth of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Manika Arbab; Sultan, Sarwat

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to explore the impact of parenting styles of adolescents on their self-determination and personal growth. The data was collected from 300 adults evenly divided by gender, aged 23-38 years. To measure the parenting styles, level of self-determination and personal growth, the Caregivers Practices Report, Self Determination…

  19. Parental Factors in Children's Motivation for Learning English: A Case in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2015-01-01

    Schools in China and elsewhere are starting to teach English as a second language or foreign language (FL) to students at increasingly earlier ages. Although young learners (YLs), due to their developmental stage, are likely to be particularly susceptible to the influence of parents, parents' roles in YLs' motivation to learn English as an FL is…

  20. Do Parenting Behaviors Predict Externalizing Behavior in Adolescence, or Is Attachment the Neglected 3rd Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Braet, Caroline; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Beyers, Wim

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of attachment in the link between parenting behaviors (including positive parenting and negative control) and problem behaviors during adolescence. Using questionnaires, we examined 511 Flemish, Dutch-speaking adolescents ranging in age from 10 to 18 years. We distinguished 3 age groups (10-12, 13-15,…

  1. Cross-National Study on Factors That Influence Parents' Knowledge about Their Children's Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Hermida, Jose-Ramon; Calafat, Amador; Becoña, Elisardo; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Juan, Montse; Sumnall, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that parents underestimate their children's substance use. The aim of the present work was to analyze parental estimation of their children's use of alcohol in five countries from northern, central, and southern Europe, and to explore the variables that influenced this perceptual bias. The sample comprised 1,181…

  2. Intergenerational Transmission of Family Factors: Parenting Styles, Attachment Styles & Family Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    میرمحمدباقر آزادموسوی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the relationship between parental styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, attachment styles (secure, avoidant and ambivalent & family climate (hot and cold of two generations. Subjects were 220 (110 boy students of third class of secondary schools of two districts of Qazvin, and 110 parents who were selected via cluster sampling. In this study, Schaffer,s parenting questionnaires styles (Naqashian, 1358 and Collins and Read,s attachment (Collins & Read, 1990 were used as measures for collecting required data. Analyzes were carried out using simple linear regression, pearson correlation and chi-square. Results revealed that parenting styles, attachment styles and family climate of parents, predict same variables in children as second generation.

  3. The abiotic and biotic factors limiting establishment of predatory fishes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alofs, Karen M; Jackson, Donald A

    2015-06-01

    There is a poor understanding of the importance of biotic interactions in determining species distributions with climate change. Theory from invasion biology suggests that the success of species introductions outside of their historical ranges may be either positively (biotic acceptance) or negatively (biotic resistance) related to native biodiversity. Using data on fish community composition from two survey periods separated by approximately 28 years during which climate was warming, we examined the factors influencing the establishment of three predatory centrarchids: Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu), Largemouth Bass (M. salmoides), and Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) in lakes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario. Variance partitioning demonstrated that, at a regional scale, abiotic factors play a stronger role in determining the establishment of these species than biotic factors. Pairing lakes within watersheds where each species had established with lakes sharing similar abiotic conditions where the species had not established revealed both positive and negative relationships between the establishment of centrarchids and the historical presence of other predatory species. The establishment of these species near their northern range boundaries is primarily determined by abiotic factors at a regional scale; however, biotic factors become important at the lake-to-lake scale. Studies of exotic species invasions have previously highlighted how spatial scale mediates the importance of abiotic vs. biotic factors on species establishment. Our study demonstrates how concepts from invasion biology can inform our understanding of the factors controlling species distributions with changing climate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Factors Associated With Parents' Intent to Vaccinate Adolescents for Human Papillomavirus: Findings From the 2014 National Immunization Survey-Teen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Kahee A; Vivian, Elaina; Loux, Travis M; Arnold, Lauren D

    2017-06-08

    While factors associated with receipt of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination have been well characterized, less is known about the characteristics associated with parents' intent to have their adolescent children vaccinated. This study aimed to examine factors associated with parental intention toward HPV vaccination. We analyzed data on 10,354 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from the 2014 National Immunization Survey-Teen. Weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between sociodemographic characteristics of mothers and adolescents, as well as a health care provider recommendation with parents' intention to have their children receive HPV vaccine. Among unvaccinated adolescents, Hispanic ethnicity (boys adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-2.61; and girls AOR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05-2.35), mothers with less than a high school diploma (boys AOR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.58-3.67; and girls AOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.02-3.38), and having a health care provider recommend the vaccine (boys AOR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.52-2.31; and girls AOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.05-1.82) were significantly associated with parents' intention to have their adolescent child vaccinated within the next 12 months. In addition, non-Hispanic black race was a significant predictor of parents' intent to vaccinate for boys (AOR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.35-2.65). Maternal education and Hispanic ethnicity were the strongest predictors of parental intent to vaccinate against HPV, followed by provider recommendation. As HPV vaccination rates in the United States remain below the Healthy People 2020 goal, messages may need to be targeted based on maternal education, race/ethnicity, and provider recommendation.

  5. Factors Affecting Parent-Child Relationships One Year After Positive Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis or Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Brown, Roger L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine factors that mediate parent-infant relationships 12 months after positive newborn screening (NBS). Method We examined effects of infant diagnosis, parents’ perceptions of child vulnerability and child attachment, parental depression and anxiety on parent-infant feeding interactions for 131 mothers and 118 fathers of 131 infants whose NBS and diagnostics confirmed cystic fibrosis (CF, n=23), congenital hypothyroidism (CH, n=35), CF carrier status (CF-C, n=38), or healthy, normal NBS (H, n=35). Results Separate composite indicator structural equation models for mothers and fathers showed neonatal diagnosis was not associated with increased anxiety or depression. In comparison to the H group, CF group parents reported higher perceptions of child vulnerability (paffective involvement and verbalization was associated with high infant affective expressiveness, communicative skills, and social responsiveness (mothers’ paffect and/or inconsistent and intrusive behavior was associated with infant dysregulation and irritability (mothers’ paffect parents’ perceptions of their child’s vulnerability and attachment. Infant feeding problems in the context of chronic health conditions, like CF, could represent signs of more deeply rooted concerns regarding the parent-child relationship that merit additional clinical evaluation. PMID:25493463

  6. Protective mental health factors in children of parents with alcohol and drug use disorders: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Wlodarczyk

    Full Text Available Children of parents with drug and alcohol use disorders often grow up under severe stress and are at greater risk of developing psychological and social problems. However, a substantial proportion of affected children adapt to their distressing life conditions and show positive development in terms of their mental health. These children are described as resilient. One difference between resilient and maladapted children is the presence of protective factors. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the current state of the research concerning protective mental health factors in children of parents with alcohol or drug use disorders (COPAD. For that purpose, the PsychInfo, PubMed, CINAHL and ISI Web of Science databases were searched through January 2017. All the identified publications were screened using previously developed inclusion criteria. The search yielded 3,402 articles. Eleven of these publications (2003-2013 met the criteria for inclusion in the present review. Information on the studies was extracted using an extraction form. A narrative analysis was performed, and the methodological quality was examined using a checklist based on the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The research identified familial, parental, child-related and biological factors that influenced mental health outcomes in affected children (N = 1,376, age range = 1-20 years. Overall, protective mental health factors are understudied in this target group. Most of the included studies were conducted in the United States and employed a cross-sectional design. A comparison of the included cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicated consistent results related to a secure parent-child attachment. Based on the current state of the research, no causal conclusions with regard to the effectiveness of protective factors can be drawn. To develop effective prevention programs, further longitudinal studies and studies assessing the interactions between

  7. Protective mental health factors in children of parents with alcohol and drug use disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Olga; Schwarze, Mirjam; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Metzner, Franka; Pawils, Silke

    2017-01-01

    Children of parents with drug and alcohol use disorders often grow up under severe stress and are at greater risk of developing psychological and social problems. However, a substantial proportion of affected children adapt to their distressing life conditions and show positive development in terms of their mental health. These children are described as resilient. One difference between resilient and maladapted children is the presence of protective factors. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the current state of the research concerning protective mental health factors in children of parents with alcohol or drug use disorders (COPAD). For that purpose, the PsychInfo, PubMed, CINAHL and ISI Web of Science databases were searched through January 2017. All the identified publications were screened using previously developed inclusion criteria. The search yielded 3,402 articles. Eleven of these publications (2003-2013) met the criteria for inclusion in the present review. Information on the studies was extracted using an extraction form. A narrative analysis was performed, and the methodological quality was examined using a checklist based on the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The research identified familial, parental, child-related and biological factors that influenced mental health outcomes in affected children (N = 1,376, age range = 1-20 years). Overall, protective mental health factors are understudied in this target group. Most of the included studies were conducted in the United States and employed a cross-sectional design. A comparison of the included cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicated consistent results related to a secure parent-child attachment. Based on the current state of the research, no causal conclusions with regard to the effectiveness of protective factors can be drawn. To develop effective prevention programs, further longitudinal studies and studies assessing the interactions between risk and protective

  8. The effects of household income distribution on stroke prevalence and its risk factors of high blood pressure and smoking: a cross-sectional study in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla

    2017-03-01

    Stroke is a major chronic disease and a common cause of adult disability and mortality. Although there are many known risk factors for stroke, lower income is not one that is often discussed. To determine the unadjusted and adjusted association of income distribution on the prevalence of stroke in Saskatchewan, Canada. Information was collected from the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada for 2000-2008. In total, 178 variables were analysed for their association with stroke. Prior to statistical adjustment, stroke was seven times more common for lower income residents than higher income residents. After statistical adjustment, only four covariates were independently associated with stroke prevalence, including having high blood pressure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.12-3.24), having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.88-3.29), being a daily smoker (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.16-1.58) and being physically inactive (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.13-1.43). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.41-1.63). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with daily smoking prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.25-1.33). Knowledge of disparities in the prevalence, severity, disability and mortality of stroke is critically important to medical and public health professionals. Our study found that income distribution was strongly associated with stroke, its main disease intermediary - high blood pressure - and its main risk factor - smoking. As such, income is an important variable worthy of public debate as a modifiable risk factor for stroke.

  9. Exploration of the Factor Structure of ADHD in Adolescence through Self, Parent, and Teacher Reports of Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J Quyen V A; Shoulberg, Erin K; Garner, Annie A; Hoza, Betsy; Burt, Keith B; Murray-Close, Dianna; Arnold, L Eugene

    2017-04-01

    Factor analytic studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults have shown that second-order and bifactor models better represent ADHD symptoms than two- or three-factor models, yet there is far less evidence for a bestfitting model of ADHD in adolescence. Thus, the current study examined the factor structure of ADHD in adolescence and further evaluated the external validity of the best fitting model. Participants were 588 adolescents (22 % female; 366 with a childhood ADHD diagnosis; mean age 15.9 years) from the 8-year assessment of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). ADHD symptoms were assessed via adolescent self-report, parent report, and teacher report on the SNAP-IV scale. Potential factor structures for the 18 symptoms of ADHD were tested for each informant, which included traditional one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor models of ADHD, as well as second-order factor (specific factors loading onto general factor) and bifactor (items loading onto both specific and general factors) models. Unique associations between external criteria and the identified factors of each informant's best fitting model were examined. Although several of the proposed models exhibited good fit, the second-order two-factor model best accounted for ADHD in adolescence according to self-report and parent report, and the second-order three-factor model was optimal according to teacher report. Several key measurement issues emerged for the hierarchical bifactor models, such as numerous Heywood cases and out-of-bound parameter estimates, which rendered them unfit as optimal representations of ADHD in adolescence. These findings and the implications of the best fitting model of ADHD in adolescence suggest that a possible reorganization of this disorder may eventually aid clinicians in the accurate diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents.

  10. Relationships between psychosocial factors and abusive parenting attitudes in low-income single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, Melanie

    2002-01-01

    Linkages among family violence, maternal mental health, and parenting attitudes are not clearly understood. To investigate the relationships of abuse (childhood and/or partner), everyday stressors, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anger with abusive parenting attitudes. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in interviews with 53 low-income, single mothers from wave two of a 3-wave study. A conceptual framework and bivariate correlations guided a series of multiple regressions to identify the best predictors for each variable. A high prevalence of abuse, depressive symptoms, and abusive parenting attitudes was found. Few women had ever received mental health treatment. Abuse (partner and childhood physical) predicted higher everyday stressors which in turn predicted lower self-esteem. Childhood abuse and lower self-esteem predicted more depressive symptoms. More depressive symptoms were related to higher levels of state anger. More everyday stressors and more depressive symptoms predicted higher levels of trait anger. Higher levels of anger expression were associated with higher everyday stressors and lower self-esteem. The presence of partner abuse best predicted higher levels of overall abusive parenting attitudes and more parent-child role reversal. Less parental empathy was associated with higher levels of state anger. This study partially explains the relationships of maternal abuse history and mental health status with parenting attitudes. Other predictors of parenting attitudes remain to be identified. The findings underscore the need for healthcare providers to consider the mental health status and abuse histories of low-income, single mothers. The potential disturbance in the parenting process of single mothers in abusive relationships warrants further investigation.

  11. Low parental tolerance for infant crying: an underlying factor in infant sleep problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; Juda-Hanael, Michal; Livne-Karp, Efrat; Kahn, Michal; Tikotzky, Liat; Anders, Thomas F; Calkins, Susan; Sivan, Yakov

    2016-10-01

    Parenting behaviours play a major role in the evolution of infant sleep. Sleep problems in infancy have been associated with excessive parental involvement at night-time, and with shorter delays in response to infant night wakings and signalling. Infant crying and sleep problems are linked, yet little is known about the impact of parental responses to crying on infant sleep patterns. This study examined the hypothesis that lower parental tolerance for crying is associated with infant sleep problems. We studied 144 married couples divided into three groups: parents of infants suffering from night-waking problems (i.e. the clinical group), parents of infants without sleep problems and childless couples. Crying tolerance was assessed using questionnaires, audio recordings of crying infants and using a novel paradigm, in which participants were shown a video of a crying infant and asked when they would intervene. Parents in the clinical group demonstrated shorter intervention delays in the crying infant clip (group effect: P < 0.0001), and tended to attribute more distress to the crying infants compared to parents in both control groups (P < 0.05). Additionally, women demonstrated lower tolerance for infant crying on most measures compared to men. Our results suggest that parents of sleep-disturbed infants appear to have lower tolerance for infant crying, which may be a predisposition underlying their excessive involvement in soothing their infants to sleep which may lead to the development of sleep problems. These preliminary findings should be explored further to assess their clinical validity and utility. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Asthma in Off-Reserve Aboriginal Children and Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation.

  13. Criminal track and risk factors of minors who exercise filio-parental violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cuervo

    2017-10-01

    The profile found in this study for this kind of crime is a boy of 16 years old, who has born in Spain, has committed one aggression towards his parents, has also committed other sort of crimes and has risk in the areas of Parenting and Education/employment. On the other hand, the feminine profile is a girl of 15 years old, who has born in Spain, has committed one aggression towards her parents, has not committed other kind of crimes and has risk in the area of leisure/recreation.

  14. An Analysis of Spatial Clustering of Stroke Types, In-hospital Mortality, and Reported Risk Factors in Alberta, Canada, Using Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rheenen, Susan; Watson, Timothy W J; Alexander, Shelley; Hill, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Despite advances in the quality and delivery of stroke care, regional disparities in stroke incidence and outcome persist. Spatial analysis using geographic information systems (GIS) can assist in identifying high-risk populations and regional differences in efficacy of stroke care. The aim of this study was to identify and locate geographic clusters of high or low rates of stroke, risk factors, and in-hospital mortality across a provincial health care network in Alberta, Canada. This study employed a spatial epidemiological approach using population-based hospital administrative data. Getis-Ord Gi* and Spatial Scan statistics were used to identify and locate statistically significant "hot" and "cold" spots of stroke occurrence by type, risk factors, and in-hospital mortality. Marked regional variations were found. East central Alberta was a significant hot spot for ischemic stroke (relative risk [RR] 1.43, pinformation systems contributes valuable information by identifying the existence and location of regional disparities in the spatial distribution of stroke occurrence and outcomes. Findings from this study raise important questions regarding why regional differences exist and how disparities might be mitigated.

  15. International migration from non-endemic settings as a protective factor for HIV/STI risk among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M.; Liu, Vivian; Nguyen, Paul; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Background Given heterogeneous evidence regarding the impacts of migration on HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs), we explored factors associated with international migration among FSWs in Vancouver, Canada. Methods We draw on baseline questionnaire and HIV/STI testing data from a community-based cohort, AESHA, from 2010-2012. Logistic regression identified correlates of international migration. Results Of 650 FSWs, 163 (25.1%) were international migrants, who primarily worked in formal indoor establishments. HIV/STI prevalence was lower among migrants than Canadian-born women (5.5% vs. 25.9%). In multivariate analysis, international migration was positively associated with completing high school, supporting dependents, and paying a third party, and negatively associated with HIV, injecting drugs and inconsistent condom use with clients. Discussion Although migrants experience lower workplace harms and HIV risk than Canadian-born women, they face concerning levels of violence, police harassment, and HIV/STIs. Research exploring structural and socio-cultural factors shaping risk mitigation and migrants’ access to support remains needed. PMID:24700025

  16. The impact of clinical, demographic and risk factors on rates of HIV transmission: a population-based phylogenetic analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Art F Y; Joy, Jeffrey B; Woods, Conan K; Shurgold, Susan; Colley, Guillaume; Brumme, Chanson J; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G; Harrigan, P Richard

    2015-03-15

    The diversification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is shaped by its transmission history. We therefore used a population based province wide HIV drug resistance database in British Columbia (BC), Canada, to evaluate the impact of clinical, demographic, and behavioral factors on rates of HIV transmission. We reconstructed molecular phylogenies from 27,296 anonymized bulk HIV pol sequences representing 7747 individuals in BC-about half the estimated HIV prevalence in BC. Infections were grouped into clusters based on phylogenetic distances, as a proxy for variation in transmission rates. Rates of cluster expansion were reconstructed from estimated dates of HIV seroconversion. Our criteria grouped 4431 individuals into 744 clusters largely separated with respect to risk factors, including large established clusters predominated by injection drug users and more-recently emerging clusters comprising men who have sex with men. The mean log10 viral load of an individual's phylogenetic neighborhood (composed of 5 other individuals with shortest phylogenetic distances) increased their odds of appearing in a cluster by >2-fold per log10 viruses per milliliter. Hotspots of ongoing HIV transmission can be characterized in near real time by the secondary analysis of HIV resistance genotypes, providing an important potential resource for targeting public health initiatives for HIV prevention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. International migration from non-endemic settings as a protective factor for HIV/STI risk among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Liu, Vivian; Nguyen, Paul; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-02-01

    Given heterogeneous evidence regarding the impacts of migration on HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs), we explored factors associated with international migration among FSWs in Vancouver, Canada. We draw on baseline questionnaire and HIV/STI testing data from a community-based cohort, AESHA, from 2010-2012. Logistic regression identified correlates of international migration. Of 650 FSWs, 163 (25.1%) were international migrants, who primarily worked in formal indoor establishments. HIV/STI prevalence was lower among migrants than Canadian-born women (5.5 vs. 25.9%). In multivariate analysis, international migration was positively associated with completing high school, supporting dependents, and paying a third party, and negatively associated with HIV, injecting drugs and inconsistent condom use with clients. Although migrants experience lower workplace harms and HIV risk than Canadian-born women, they face concerning levels of violence, police harassment, and HIV/STIs. Research exploring structural and socio-cultural factors shaping risk mitigation and migrants' access to support remains needed.

  18. Participation of children with neurodevelopmental risk factors in the early rehabilitation program in relation to the level of parental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikelić, Valentina Matijević; Kosicek, Tena; Crnković, Maja; Radanović, Branko

    2011-12-01

    Many factors that have an adverse effect on fetal growth and development can manifest later in the child's development. Because of the biological basis, children born under the influence of these factors belong to the group of neurorisk children. They need special attention and prompt participation in the early rehabilitation program to encourage the use of brain plasticity. In addition to the biological influences, socioeconomic status affects a wide array of medical, cognitive and socio-emotional consequences in children, which begin before birth and continue into adulthood. This retrospective study included 50 children aged one to three years, hospitalized at Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation, University Department of Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center in Zagreb. The aim was to determine the frequency of inclusion of children with neurodevelopmental risks in the early rehabilitation program according to the level of parental education. The results showed the highest percentage of parents of neurorisk children to have high school education, while the smallest number of parents had elementary school education. These data pointed to the lack of public awareness of the importance of the early period of life. However, they also indicated the lack of parental knowledge of their rights and opportunities for involvement of their neurorisk children in the early rehabilitation programs.

  19. Obesity, lifestyle risk-factors, and health service outcomes among healthy middle-aged adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alter David A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which uncomplicated obesity among an otherwise healthy middle-aged population is associated with higher longitudinal health-care expenditures remains unclear. Methods To examine the incremental long-term health service expenditures and outcomes associated with uncomplicated obesity, 9398 participants of the 1994–1996 National Population Health Survey were linked to administrative data and followed longitudinally forward for 11.5 years to track health service utilization costs and death. Patients with pre-existing heart disease, those who were 65 years of age and older, and those with self-reported body mass indexes of 2 at inception were excluded. Propensity-matching was used to compare obesity (+/− other baseline risk-factors and lifestyle behaviours with normal-weight healthy controls. Cost-analyses were conducted from the perspective of Ontario’s publicly-funded health care system. Results Obesity as an isolated risk-factor was not associated with significantly higher health-care costs as compared with normal weight matched controls (Canadian $8,294.67 vs. Canadian $7,323.59, P = 0.27. However, obesity in combination with other lifestyle factors was associated with significantly higher cumulative expenditures as compared with normal-weight healthy matched controls (CAD$14,186.81 for those with obesity + 3 additional risk-factors vs. CAD$7,029.87 for those with normal BMI and no other risk-factors, P  Conclusions The incremental health-care costs associated with obesity was modest in isolation, but increased significantly when combined with other lifestyle risk-factors. Such findings have relevance to the selection, prioritization, and cost-effective targeting of therapeutic lifestyle interventions.

  20. The effect of social media (#SoMe) on journal impact factor and parental awareness in paediatric urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, F; Nason, G J; Manecksha, R P; Cascio, S; Quinn, F J; Leonard, M; Koyle, M A; Farhat, W; Leveridge, M J

    2017-10-01

    Social media (SoMe) comprises a number of internet-based applications that have the capability to disseminate multimodal media and allow for unprecedented inter-user connectivity. The role of Twitter has been studied in conferences and education; moreover, there is increasing evidence that patients are more likely to use social media for their own health education. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social media platforms on the impact factor of both urological and paediatric journals that publish on paediatric urology, and to assess parental awareness of social media in paediatric urology. A filtered Journal of Citation Reports (JCR) search was performed for the period 2012-16 for journals that published articles on paediatric urology. Journals were ranked according to impact factor, and each individual journal website was accessed to assess for the presence of social media. Parents in paediatric urology clinics and non-paediatric urology patients also filled out a questionnaire to assess for awareness and attitudes to social media. All statistical analysis was performed using Prism 6 software (Prism 6, GraphPad Software, California, USA). Overall, there were 50 urological journals and 39 paediatric journals with a mean impact factor of 2.303 and 1.766, respectively. There was an overall average increase in impact factor across all urological journals between 2012 and 16. The presence of a Twitter feed was statistically significant for a rise in impact factor over the 4 years (P = 0.017). The cohort of parents was statistically more likely to have completed post-secondary education, to have and access to a social media profile, use it for health education, and use it to access journal/physician/hospital social media accounts. This study examined, for the first time, the role of social media in paediatric urology, and demonstrated that SoMe use is associated with a positive influence in impact factor, but also a parental appetite for it

  1. Influence of parental factors on adolescents' transition to first sexual intercourse in Nairobi, Kenya: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigbo, Chinelo C; Kabiru, Caroline W; Mumah, Joyce N; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien

    2015-08-21

    Several studies have demonstrated a link between young people's sexual behavior and levels of parental monitoring, parent-child communication, and parental discipline in Western countries. However, little is known about this association in African settings, especially among young people living in high poverty settings such as urban slums. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of parental factors (monitoring, communication, and discipline) on the transition to first sexual intercourse among unmarried adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya. Longitudinal data collected from young people living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya were used. The sample was restricted to unmarried adolescents aged 12-19 years at Wave 1 (weighted n = 1927). Parental factors at Wave 1 were used to predict adolescents' transition to first sexual intercourse by Wave 2. Relevant covariates including the adolescents' age, sex, residence, school enrollment, religiosity, delinquency, and peer models for risk behavior were controlled for. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of interest. All analyses were conducted using Stata version 13. Approximately 6% of our sample transitioned to first sexual intercourse within the one-year study period; there was no sex difference in the transition rate. In the multivariate analyses, male adolescents who reported communication with their mothers were less likely to transition to first sexual intercourse compared to those who did not (p adolescents. For female adolescents, parental monitoring, discipline, and communication with fathers predicted transition to first sexual intercourse; however, only communication with fathers remained statistically significant after controlling for relevant covariates (OR: 0.30; 95% C.I.: 0.13-0.68). This study provides evidence that cross-gender communication with parents is associated with a delay in the onset of sexual intercourse among slum-dwelling adolescents

  2. HIV/AIDS risk factors as portrayed in mass media targeting First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Friedman, Daniela B; Clarke, Juanne N

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the coverage and portrayal of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) risk factors as framed in newspaper targeting Aboriginal (First Nations, Métis, and Inuit) peoples in canada. From a sample of 31 Aboriginal newspapers published in English from 1996 to 2000, 14 newspapers were randomly selected. Of 167 articles published on HIV/AIDS during this time period, all anecdotal (n=34) and an approximate 25% random sample of scientific (n=32) articles were analyzed using both quantitative (coding reliability and frequencies) and qualitative (in-depth content analysis) analyses. Individual risk factors for HIV/AIDS were described in 74%, (49/66) of the articles and included unprotected sexual intercourse (20/49 or 41%), sharing of needles for injection drug use (IDU; 16/49 or 33%), infected blood transfusions (3/49 or 6%), and vertical transmission from mother to a baby (10/49 or 20%). Additional risk factors of alcohol use and poverty were mentioned in 29% and 25% of the articles. In addition to the well-recognized HIV/AIDS risk groups of prostitutes and homosexual men, sexual abuse victims, prisoners, and women were identified in aboriginal newspapers as being at risk. Although Aboriginal women were identified as being at high risk, the newspaper coverage also emphasized their lack of knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS. Heterosexual men were not mentioned as being at risk for HIV/AIDS in the newspaper articles. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is higher among Canadian Aboriginals than in the general population. Local and community newspapers are an important channels for the dissemination of health information for isolated, rural, and aboriginal communities. The findings show that Aboriginal media identify high-risk groups and individualistic risk factors for HIV/AIDS within a public health perspective.

  3. Conocimientos sobre riesgo de embarazo y autoeficacia en hombres adolescentes:apoyo parental y factores escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Estrada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar la asociación entre conocimiento sobre riesgo de embarazo y autoeficacia en el uso del condón, con el apoyo parental y factores escolares, en hom­bres. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal con 448 estudiantes en Puebla y Morelos. Se ajustaron dos modelos logísticos. Resultados. Los conocimientos sobre riesgo de embarazo se asocian con el que los padres hablen sobre sexualidad (RM=2.45, IC95% 1.35-4.47, con el agrado por asistir a la escuela (RM=2.18, IC95% 1.15-4.13, con el que los profesores hablen frecuentemente/muy frecuentemente sobre equidad de género (RM=1.69, IC95% 1.06-2.67 y con la edad (RM=1.77, IC95%1.26-2.50. La autoeficacia en el uso de condón se relaciona con el que los padres hablen sobre sexualidad (RM=1.80, IC95% 1.01-3.20, con el agrado por asistir a la escuela (RM=2.60, IC95% 1.42-4.77, con el nivel socioeconómico medio (RM=1.82, IC95% 1.07-3.11 y con alto grado de marginación (RM=0.47, IC95% 0.30-0.73. Con­clusiones. Estudiar el apoyo familiar y escolar, considerando la influencia del entorno social, permite mayor entendimiento de la adquisición de habilidades para una conducta sexual preventiva en hombres durante la adolescencia temprana

  4. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic fai...

  5. Does child-parent resemblance in body weight status vary by sociodemographic factors in the USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Lamichhane, Rajan; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Xue, Hong; Wang, Youfa

    2014-11-01

    Clustered obese parents and children are prevalent, but there is little knowledge about whether and how child-parent resemblance varies by sociodemographic groups. This paper used nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES: 1988-1994). We matched 4958 parents with 6765 children aged 2-16 years old for whom we had complete data on body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity status. Correlation coefficients and κ statistics between parents' and children's BMI and body weight status were calculated for different sociodemographic groups. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were fit to study the child-parent resemblance and socioeconomic and demographic differences in the resemblance. The child-parent correlation coefficients for BMI were greater in Caucasians than in minorities and greater in groups with higher socioeconomic status. The mother-child resemblance in BMI was negatively associated with child age (pfather-child resemblance in overweight was significantly lower in high school graduates compared with those with less-than-high-school-graduate fathers (OR=0.53, 95% CI (0.37 to 0.77) for father-son dyads and OR=0.69, 95% CI (0.50 to 0.96) for father-daughter dyads). Similar results were found for parent-child resemblance in obesity. Child-parent resemblance in body weight status exists across sociodemographic groups in the USA, but it varies by demographics and socioeconomic status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. The relationship between cyberbullying, self-esteem and parenting factors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Buljan Flander, Gordana; Dugić, Sara; Handabaka, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of involvement in cyberbullying as perpetrators and victims on a sample of Croatian high school students, as well as to determine the contribution of self-esteem, parental warmth and parental control in its prediction, whilst controlling for gender, school performance and frequency of internet use. The study was conducted on 208 students (129 girls and 79 boys) of first to third grade of comprehensive schools. The administered instrument...

  7. Parental and Family Factors as Predictors of Threat Bias in Anxious Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Blossom, Jennifer B.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Birmaher, Boris; Walkup, John T.; Kendall, Philip C.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Langley, Audra K.; Piacentini, John C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Albano, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relative predictive value of parental anxiety, parents' expectation of child threat bias, and family dysfunction on child's threat bias in a clinical sample of anxious youth. Participants (N = 488) were part of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multi-modal study (CAMS), ages 7–17 years (M = 10.69; SD = 2.80). Children met diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety and/or social phobia. Children and caregivers completed questionnaires ass...

  8. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Janz, Teresa A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  9. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Study design and methods. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Results. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. Conclusions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  10. Modeling the relationship between family home environment factors and parental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didericksen, Katharine Wickel; Berge, Jerica M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding parental health is an important part of understanding family health. Previous research suggests that family meals, familial relationship satisfaction, and family physical activity may separately be related to physical health. The current study aims to combine these variables into a structural equation model to determine the collective relationship they have with adult health within a sample of parents (n = 1,435). Most parents were married, White, and highly educated. The relationship between family meals and parental health was significant (β = -.07, t = -2.29, p health. Familial relationship satisfaction and family physical activity were not found to be associated with parental health. Exploratory findings of the sample stratified by biological sex are described. Findings from the current study were consistent with a systemic perspective in that parents may have health benefits when they participate in family-level behavior (e.g., family meals). Additional areas for research and limitations to the current study are also discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Annick St-Denis; Daniel Kneeshaw; Christian Messier

    2013-01-01

    Direct tree seeding is potentially an economical technique for restoring forests on abandoned fields. However, the success of tree establishment depends on many factors related to species and seed characteristics, environmental conditions, competition and predation. We compared seedling emergence, survival and growth of six tree species of different seed sizes in a forest restoration project of abandoned fields. Species were seeded in plots with and without herbaceous vegetation and with and ...

  12. Altered cardiovascular autonomic function in young normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents - Is obesity an additional risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johncy, Selvaraj Smilee; Karthik, Challakere Subramanya; Bondade, Suresh Yankanna; Jayalakshmi, Malavar Kariyappa

    2015-11-01

    A study was undertaken to analyze the nature and magnitude of autonomic dysregulation that starts early in the offspring of a hypertensive parent and also whether obesity in them add an additional risk for future hypertension. Forty normotensive subjects aged 18-25 years with at least one hypertensive parent constitute the study group. The study group was divided into obese and non-obese depending on their body mass index (non-obese with BMI 18.50-24.99 kg/m2; obese with BMI≥30 kg/m2). Twenty age-matched normotensive, without parental history subjects constitute the control group. Anthropometric parameters, heart rate, systolic and diastolic pressures were recorded. Heart rate variability indices like total power, LF, HF, LF/HF, SDNN, RMSSD, and PNN50% were studied. One-way ANOVA was used for simultaneous multiple group comparison followed by post hoc Tukey's test for groupwise comparison. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between BMI and other variables. Subjects who were obese with parental history of hypertension showed significantly higher heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, LF, LF/HF ratio and reduced total power, HF, SDNN, RMSSD, and PNN50% compared to the other groups with normal BMI. HF and all the time domain indices showed negative correlation and LF a positive correlation with BMI. In the obese offspring of hypertensive parents, HRV markers, which represent a vagal dominance were reduced substantially, and indices of sympathetic activity were increased. So obesity in a normotensive offspring of a hypertensive parent is an additional risk factor for the future development of hypertension as it further dysregulates the autonomic control of the heart.

  13. Parent-reported adverse food reactions in Hong Kong Chinese pre-schoolers: epidemiology, clinical spectrum and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ting Fan; Yung, Edmund; Wong, Yun Sze; Lam, Christopher W K; Wong, Gary W K

    2009-06-01

    The epidemiology of adverse food reactions (AFRs), including the potentially life-threatening food allergy (FA), in Asia is unclear. AFR is believed to be less prevalent than in Caucasians. This study determines the prevalence, clinical features and risk factors for parent-reported AFR in Chinese pre-school children in Hong Kong. Children aged 2-7 yr living in Hong Kong were recruited through local nurseries and kindergartens to ascertain the occurrence and clinical spectrum of AFR and other atopic disorders. Subjects' parents answered a self-administered questionnaire that was modified and validated based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood. A total of 3827 children from 21 nurseries and kindergartens returned the study questionnaires, and information on AFR was analyzable for 3677 (96.1%) children. The prevalence rates of parent-reported AFR and parent-reported, doctor-diagnosed AFR were 8.1% and 4.6%, respectively, whereas 5.0% of pre-schoolers had doctor-diagnosed asthma. The six leading causes of AFR were shellfish (15.8%), egg (9.1%), peanut (8.1%), beef (6.4%), cow's milk (5.7%), and tree nuts (5.0%). When compared with children born and raised in Hong Kong, children born in mainland China (n = 253) had less parent-reported AFR (4.0% vs. 6.7%; p = 0.016). On logistic regression, parent-reported AFR was associated with younger age (p = 0.010), born in mainland China (p = 0.038), and AFR history in father (p = 0.001), mother (p < 0.001), siblings (p = 0.020), and paternal history of rhinitis (p = 0.044). This study shows that AFR is a common atopic disorder in Hong Kong pre-school children, and prevalence rates are comparable to the Caucasians.

  14. The Prevalence of Cardiac Risk Factors in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot K. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT reduces the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality in high-risk localized prostate cancer, it adversely affects cardiovascular (CV risk factor profiles in treated men. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 100 consecutive men with intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency for ADT. Data on CV risk factors and disease were collected and Framingham risk scores were calculated. Results. The median age of the study cohort was 73 years. Established cardiovascular disease was present in 25% of patients. Among patients without established CV disease, calculated Framingham risk was high in 65%, intermediate in 33%, and low in 1%. Baseline hypertension was present in 58% of patients, dyslipidemia in 51%, and diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in 24%. Hypertension was more prevalent in the study cohort than in an age- and sex-matched population sample (OR 1.74, P=0.006; diabetes had a similar prevalence (OR 0.93, P=0.8. Conclusions. Patients receiving ADT have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors and are more likely to be hypertensive than population controls. Low rates of CV risk screening suggest opportunities for improved primary and secondary prevention of CV disease in this population.

  15. [Peculiarities of constellation of parental pairs as risk factors and resistance-factors in the formation of gastroduodenal pathology in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychkovs'ka, O L; Hnateĭko, O Z; Kulachkovs'ka, I Iu; Semen, V D

    2014-01-01

    Current study is dedicated to determination of psychosocial factors of predisposition and resistance to the formation of upper gastrointestinal pathology in children. For the examination of parental pairs Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire and genealogical method Family Study were used. There were revealed following risk-factors of the formation of gastroduodenal pathology in children: the dominant mother's position; passive and shun father's behavior; protracted conflicts; hidden hostility between the parents; poor support, emotional warmth, and unity in the family; available external control of the family. Described family constellation can promote basic conflict in patients with gastroduodenal pathology by F. Alexander. This could be an indication for the family psychological counselling, which can be regarded as a "reserve" for increasing of the effectiveness of treatment and prevention of gastroduodenal pathology in children.

  16. Evaluation of the Factor Structure of the Obstacles to Engagement Scale with Low-income African American Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Winders Davis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parenting anticipatory guidance is one way to promote optimal child health and development and minimize disparities between children from lower socio-economic status families and their higher income peers. However, low rates of attendance at and completion of parenting programs has been demonstrated. Understanding barriers to participation has important implications. The Obstacles to Engagement Scale (OES has been used in some populations, but it has not been evaluated for use with low-income African American samples. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the factor structure of the OES with a sample of low-income, African American parents.Method: Parents or legal guardians with children aged 3-8 years completed a survey in the waiting room of a primary care pediatric academic practice in an urban location in the southern United States of America (N = 114. Almost 87% had < 12th grade education and 93% of the children received Medicaid services. The OES was one measure from a larger study and only participants with complete data on the OES were included in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA.Results: The EFA did not support the previous 4-factor solution (intervention demands, personal or family stressors or obstacles, relevance of or trust in intervention, and time and scheduling demands. Instead, a 3-factor statistical solution emerged, but not all items held together conceptually.Conclusions: The current study supports the necessity for evaluating study instruments for use with specific populations. Larger samples are needed to disentangle the effects of educational and poverty status from race and ethnicity and to develop and validate instruments that are appropriate for the study population.

  17. Herd characteristics and cow-level factors associated with Prototheca mastitis on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, L; Godkin, A; Roesler, U; Polleichtner, A; Slavic, D; Leslie, K E; Kelton, D F

    2012-10-01

    Prototheca spp. are algae that cause incurable acute or chronic mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of this case-control study was the identification of cow- and herd-level risk factors for this unusual mastitis pathogen. Aseptically collected composite milk samples from 2,428 milking cows in 23 case and 23 control herds were collected between January and May 2011. A questionnaire was administered to the producers, and cow-level production and demographic data were gathered. In 58 of 64 isolates, Prototheca spp. and Prototheca zopfii genotypes were differentiated using PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. All isolates were identified as Prototheca zopfii genotype 2. The mean within-herd prevalence for Prototheca spp. was 5.1% (range 0.0-12.5%). Case herds had a significantly lower herd-level prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and a higher prevalence of yeasts than did control herds. The final logistic regression model for herd-level risk factors included use of intramammary injections of a non-intramammary drug [odds ratio (OR) = 136.8], the number of different injectable antibiotic products being used (OR = 2.82), the use of any dry cow teat sealant (external OR = 80.0; internal OR = 34.2), and having treated 3 or more displaced abomasums in the last 12 mo OR = 44.7). The final logistic regression model for cow-level risk factors included second or greater lactation (OR = 4.40) and the logarithm of the lactation-average somatic cell count (OR = 2.99). Unsanitary or repeated intramammary infusions, antibiotic treatment, and off-label use of injectable drugs in the udder might promote Prototheca udder infection. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seroprevalences of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats in the United States and Canada and risk factors for seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burling, Amie N; Levy, Julie K; Scott, H Morgan; Crandall, Michael M; Tucker, Sylvia J; Wood, Erin G; Foster, Jessie D

    2017-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To estimate seroprevalences for FeLV antigen and anti-FIV antibody and risk factors for seropositivity among cats in the United States and Canada. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 62,301 cats tested at 1,396 veterinary clinics (n = 45,406) and 127 animal shelters (16,895). PROCEDURES Blood samples were tested with a point-of-care ELISA for FeLV antigen and anti-FIV antibody. Seroprevalence was estimated, and risk factors for seropositivity were evaluated with bivariate and multivariable mixed-model logistic regression analyses adjusted for within-clinic or within-shelter dependencies. RESULTS Overall, seroprevalence was 3.1% for FeLV antigen and 3.6% for anti-FIV antibody. Adult age, outdoor access, clinical disease, and being a sexually intact male were risk factors for seropositivity for each virus. Odds of seropositivity for each virus were greater for cats tested in clinics than for those tested in shelters. Of 1,611 cats with oral disease, 76 (4.7%) and 157 (9.7%) were seropositive for FeLV and FIV, respectively. Of 4,835 cats with respiratory disease, 385 (8.0%) were seropositive for FeLV and 308 (6.4%) were seropositive for FIV. Of 1,983 cats with abscesses or bite wounds, 110 (5.5%) and 247 (12.5%) were seropositive for FeLV and FIV, respectively. Overall, 2,368 of 17,041 (13.9%) unhealthy cats were seropositive for either or both viruses, compared with 1,621 of 45,260 (3.6%) healthy cats. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Seroprevalences for FeLV antigen and anti-FIV antibody were similar to those reported in previous studies over the past decade. Taken together, these results indicated a need to improve compliance with existing guidelines for management of feline retroviruses.

  19. Concentrations of metals in tissues of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) near a copper-nickel smelter at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: A factor analytic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagatto, G.; Shorthouse, J.D. (Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)); Crowder, A.A. (Queens Univ., Kingston (Canada))

    1993-10-01

    Ecosystems damaged by emissions from the copper-nickel smelters of Inco and Falconbridge Ltd. near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada have provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of metal particulates and sulphur dioxide fumigations on plant and animal communities. The most infamous terrain in the Sudbury region is nearest the smelters (two active and one closed), where nearly all vegetation has been destroyed and soils eroded and contaminated. However, over all the past twenty years, some species of plants have developed a tolerance to polluted soils and some denuded lands have been naturally and artificially revegetated. Furthermore, a series of unique anthropogenic forests have developed away from the smelters. Several studies on the accumulation of metals in plant tissues indicate the levels of metals are usually highest closest to the smelters. Consequently, several studies have reported high correlations between plant concentrations of certain metals with distance from the source of pollution. However, tissue metal burdens are not always correlated with distance from the emission source, suggesting that other biological and physico-chemical factors may influence tissue metal burdens in the Sudbury habitat. The present study provides information on the metal burdens in another plant, lowbush blueberry, growing both near and away from the smelters. This study assesses the apparent influence of the Sudbury smelting operations on plant tissue burdens of five additional elements, along with copper and nickel, by using a factor analytic approach. This approach will allow determination of underlying factors which govern tissue metal burdens in a polluted environment and helps to refine the future direction of research in the Sudbury ecosystem. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. The impact of children with disabilities on parent health-related quality of life and family functioning in Kelantan and its associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Aziz, Aniza Abd; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Ibrahim, Wan Pauzi Wan; Mohamad, Norsarwany; Othman, Azizah; Rahman, Normastura Abd; Harith, Sakinah; Van Rostenberghe, Hans

    2013-05-01

    Caring for children with disabilities brings about a significant impact on the parents and families. The purposes of this study were to determine the impact of having children with disabilities on parents' health-related quality of life (HRQOL), family functioning, and total family impact and to identify the associated factors. A total of 425 parents/caregivers of children with disabilities who were registered to community-based rehabilitation centers in 5 districts in Kelantan, Malaysia, participated in this study. The Malay version of PedsQL Family Impact Module was used as research instrument. General linear regression was applied to analyze the association between family impact scores (Total Impact, Parent HRQOL Summary, and Family Functioning Summary) and study factors using Stata/SE 11 software. The mean (SD) Total Impact Score and Parent HRQOL Summary Score of the parents/caregivers was 75.1 (16.85) and 75.0 (18.74) respectively, and the median (IQR) of Family Functioning Summary Score was 84.4 (28.13). Mothers, non-Malays, and widowed parents/caregivers, parents/caregivers having male children with disabilities, and children with more complex disability had significantly lower parent HRQOL and family functioning. Both parents/caregivers' characteristics and children's characteristics contributed to family impact in local setting. Results of this study emphasize the importance of the whole family involvement as the focus of services and supports by health care providers.

  1. Objective and subjective factors as predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms in parents of children with cancer--a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Lindahl Norberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parents of children with cancer report post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS years after the child's successful treatment is completed. The aim of the present study was to analyze a number of objective and subjective childhood cancer-related factors as predictors of parental PTSS. METHODS: Data were collected from 224 parents during and after their child's cancer treatment. Data sources include self-report questionnaires and medical records. RESULTS: In a multivariate hierarchical model death of the child, parent's perception of child psychological distress and total symptom burden predicted higher levels of PTSS. In addition, immigrants and unemployed parents reported higher levels of PTSS. The following factors did not predict PTSS: parent gender, family income, previous trauma, child's prognosis, treatment intensity, non-fatal relapse, and parent's satisfaction with the child's care. CONCLUSIONS: Although medical complications can be temporarily stressful, a parent's perception of the child's distress is a more powerful predictor of parental PTSS. The vulnerability of unemployed parents and immigrants should be acknowledged. In addition, findings highlight that the death of a child is as traumatic as could be expected.

  2. Child behaviors associated with childhood obesity and parents' self-efficacy to handle them: confirmatory factor analysis of the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina

    2015-03-11

    The development of family-based programs for child weight management requires an understanding of parents' difficulties in managing children's eating and physical activity behaviors; however, knowledge about the specific behaviors that parents find most difficult to address is still limited. The Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC) is an Australian instrument that assesses parents' perceptions of children's obesity-related behaviors (the Problem scale), and parents' self-efficacy in dealing with these behaviors (the Confidence scale). Our aims were 1) to examine the psychometric properties (the factor structure, internal reliability, construct and discriminative validity) of the LBC in parents of preschoolers in Sweden, using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) as a criterion measure, 2) to study associations between the LBC and socio-demographic factors. The LBC and the CFQ (measuring parental feeding practices) were distributed to parents from 25 schools/preschools and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. To test the fit of the original four-factor model (misbehavior in relation to food, overeating, emotional correlates of being overweight, physical activity (24 items)) to the data, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. Structural equation modelling was used to examine associations between the LBC and the CFQ and socio-demographic factors. In a sample of 478 parents, a five-factor structure proved best fit to data, after excluding 6 items and allowing two pairs of error terms to correlate (TLI = 0.899; CFI = 0.918; RMSEA = 0.042; SRMR = 0.055). The Confidence scale indicated unidimensionality, therefore a hierarchical CFA with 5 first order factors and one second order factor was tested showing good fit. The validity of the LBC was proven by relevant associations with the CFQ and child weight status; parental responses differed depending on child weight status. The Confidence scale was not associated with any child or

  3. The effect of non-nutritional factors on milk urea nitrogen levels in dairy cows in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunvipas, P; Dohoo, I R; VanLeeuwen, J A; Keefe, G P

    2003-05-30

    We determined the effects of non-nutritional factors such as breed, parity, days in milk (DIM), milk production, milk quality and milk components on milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration. A total of 177 dairy farms in Prince Edward Island containing 10,688 lactating dairy cows participated in the project. Individual-cow milk samples (n=68,158) were collected monthly from July 1999 to June 2000 from each farm. MUN was measured using a Fossomatic 4000 Milkoscan Analyzer at the PEI Milk Quality Laboratory. Descriptive statistics for MUN, parity, DIM, and test-day milk yield, fat and protein were calculated. Mixed linear-regression models were used; "cow" and "herd" were included as random effects to control for the effect of clustering of MUN test dates within cow, and clustering of cows within herd, respectively. The MUN was lower during the first month of lactation, peaked at 4 months of lactation, and decreased later in lactation. A positive relationship existed between MUN concentration and milk yield, while negative relationships with milk protein% and linear score were observed. A quadratic relationship existed between milk fat% and MUN concentration, with higher MUN occurring at mid-range fat percentages. The variation at the herd and cow levels in the model were 19.7 and 19.0%, respectively; while the variation at the test date level was 61.3%. The non-nutritional factors studied explained 13.3% of the variation in MUN.

  4. What is the comparative health status and associated risk factors for the Métis? A population-based study in Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Patricia J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Métis are descendants of early 17th century relationships between North American Indians and Europeans. This study's objectives were: (1 to compare the health status of the Métis people to all other residents of Manitoba, Canada; and (2 to analyze factors in predicting the likelihood of diabetes and related lower limb amputation. Methods Using de-identified administrative databases plus the Métis Population Database housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, age/sex-adjusted rates of mortality and disease were calculated for Métis (n = 73,016 and all other Manitobans (n = 1,104,672. Diseases included: hypertension, arthritis, diabetes, ischemic heart disease (age 19+; osteoporosis (age 50+; acute myocardial infarction (AMI and stroke (age 40+; total respiratory morbidity (TRM, all ages. Using logistic regression, predictors of diabetes (2004/05-2006/07 and diabetes-related lower-limb amputations (2002/03-2006/07 were analyzed. Results Disease rates were higher for Métis compared to all others: premature mortality before age 75 (4.0 vs. 3.3 per 1000, p Conclusion Despite universal healthcare, Métis' illness and mortality rates are mostly higher. Although elevated diabetes risk persists for the Métis even after adjusting for sociodemographic, healthcare and comorbidity variables, the risk of amputation for Métis appears more related to healthcare access rather than ethnicity.

  5. Dynamic and static factors associated with discharge dispositions: the national trajectory project of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C

    2014-09-01

    The majority of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada spend some time in hospital before they are conditionally or absolutely (no conditions) discharged to the community by a legally mandated review board. By law, the decision to conditionally discharge an individual found NCRMD should be guided by the need to protect the public, the mental condition of the accused, and the other needs of the accused, especially regarding his/her community reintegration. At the time of this study, Canadian legislation and case law required that the review board disposition should be the "least onerous and least restrictive" possible for the accused. This means that, if there is no evidence that the person poses a significant risk to public safety, he/she must be released. However, the Canadian Criminal Code does not specify the criteria that must be considered when making this risk assessment. This leads to two questions. (1) What predicts review board dispositions? (2) To what extent do disposition determinations reflect evidence-based practices? The present study examined dynamic and static predictors of detention in custody, conditional discharge (CD), and absolute discharge (AD) dispositions among persons found NCRMD across the three largest provinces in Canada. The National Trajectory Project (NTP) examined men and women found NCRMD in British Columbia (BC), Québec (QC), and Ontario (ON) between May 2000 and April 2005, followed until December 2008. For the purposes of this study, individuals who had at least one hearing with a review board were extracted from the NTP dataset (N = 1794: QC = 1089, ON = 483, BC = 222). Over the course of the study, 6743 review board hearings were examined (QC = 3505, ON = 2185, BC = 1053). Despite advances in the risk assessment field, presentation of a comprehensive structured risk assessment to the review board was not the norm. Yet our findings suggest that

  6. The "fear factor" for surgical masks and face shields, as perceived by children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgie, Sarah E; Reitsma, Jeff; Spady, Don; Wright, Bruce; Stobart, Kent

    2009-10-01

    The goal was to determine whether young children and their parents prefer physicians wearing clear face shields or surgical masks. Eighty children (4-10 years of age) and their guardians were recruited from a pediatric emergency department. A survey and color photographs of the same male and female physicians wearing face shields and surgical masks were distributed. The parents were asked to decide which set of physicians they would prefer to care for their children and with which set of physicians they thought their children would be most comfortable. The children then were asked to decide which set of physicians they would prefer to take care of them and why. The children also were asked whether they found any of the physicians frightening and, if so, why. Fifty-one percent of parents preferred the pictures of physicians wearing face shields, and 62% thought that their children would choose the physicians in the face shields because their faces were visible and therefore less frightening. However, 59% of children stated that either set of physicians would be fine and neither was frightening; if given a choice, 49% would choose physicians in face shields. Physicians and parents have a perception that surgical masks are frightening to all children. Our study has shown that this perception is not completely true. Face shields may be a better choice, however, because both parents and children would prefer this option.

  7. Controlling factors of the parental safety perception on children's travel mode choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevelsteen, Kristof; Steenberghen, Thérèse; Van Rompaey, Anton; Uyttersprot, Liesbeth

    2012-03-01

    The travel mode of children changed significantly over the last 20 years, with a decrease of children travelling as pedestrians or cyclists. This study focuses on six to twelve year old children. Parents determine to a large extent the mode choice of children in this age category. Based on the analysis of an extensive survey, the research shows that traffic infrastructure has a significant impact on parental decision making concerning children's travel mode choice, by affecting both the real and the perceived traffic safety. Real traffic safety is quantified in terms of numbers of accidents and road infrastructure. For the perceived traffic safety a parental allowance probability is calculated per road type to show that infrastructure characteristics influence parental decision making on the children's mode choice. A binary logistic model shows that this allowance is determined by age, gender and traffic infrastructure near the child's home or near destinations frequently visited by children. Since both real and perceived traffic safety are influenced by infrastructure characteristics, a spatial analysis of parental perception and accident statistics can be used to indicate the locations where infrastructure improvements will be most effective to increase the number of children travelling - safely - as pedestrians or cyclists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors that Influence Participation of Students in Secondary Science and Mathematics Subjects in IB Schools Outside of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straffon, Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that affect the extent of international secondary students' participation in International Baccalaureate science and mathematics courses. The factors examined were gender, home region, size, percent host culture and age of the program, and coeducational and legal status of the school. Participation in math and science subjects was determined by analyzing the level and number of courses taken by students taking International Baccalaureate exams in 2010. Chi-Square and Cramer's V analysis were used to measure the effect of categorical variables on student participation and One-Way ANOVA and Bonferroni comparison of means were used to analyze the quantitative variables. All categorical variables were statistically significant (pNew Zealand, Northern Europe, East Africa and South-Central and Western Asia. State schools showed higher math and science participation. Science and math participation was also greater in all-male schools though associations were weak. Boys participated more than girls, especially in math. All quantitative variables were statistically significant. The program size had the largest effect size for both math and science with larger programs showing more participation at the higher level. A decreasing trend for age of the program and percent host culture was found for math participation. Three years of participation data were collected from an international school in Western Europe (n = 194). Variables included the influence of parent occupation, math preparedness (PSAT-Math), student achievement (GPA), and the importance of significant others in career and academic decisions. Findings indicate that performance on the PSAT- Math was the most important predictor of both science and mathematics participation. Twenty students were also interviewed. Results showed the importance of several key factors. These include the role of parents in student academic and career decisions, the importance of

  9. The Role of Practitioner Self-Efficacy, Training, Program and Workplace Factors on the Implementation of an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Karen M. T.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting the implementation by primary care practitioners (nursing, education, allied health, and medical) of a brief parenting and family support intervention (the Primary Care Triple P--Positive Parenting Program) following professional training. It assesses the impact of prior experience, self-efficacy, program…

  10. Long-Term Effects of Pre-Placement Risk Factors on Children's Psychological Symptoms and Parenting Stress among Families Adopting Children from Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Erum; Waterman, Jill; Foster, Jared; Paczkowski, Emilie; Belin, Thomas R.; Miranda, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory longitudinal study examined behavioral outcomes and parenting stress among families with children adopted from foster care, taking into account environmental and biological risk factors. Child internalizing and externalizing problems and parenting stress were assessed in 82 adopted children and their families at 2 months…

  11. Exposure to public natural space as a protective factor for emotional well-being among young people in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    with other factors including demographic characteristics, family affluence, and perceptions of neighbourhood surroundings. Conclusion Exposure to natural space in youth’s immediate living environment may not be a leading determinant of their emotional well-being. The relationship between natural space and positive emotional well-being may be context specific, and thus different for Canadian youth compared to adult populations and those studied in other nations. Factors of the individual context were stronger potential determinants. PMID:23627738

  12. Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick St-Denis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct tree seeding is potentially an economical technique for restoring forests on abandoned fields. However, the success of tree establishment depends on many factors related to species and seed characteristics, environmental conditions, competition and predation. We compared seedling emergence, survival and growth of six tree species of different seed sizes in a forest restoration project of abandoned fields. Species were seeded in plots with and without herbaceous vegetation and with and without protection from bird and mammal predation. Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis did not emerge in all treatments, paper birch (Betula papyrifera and tamarack (Larix laricina had a seedling emergence rate lower than 1%, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum had a low overall emergence rate of 6%. Seedling emergence reached 57% for northern red oak (Quercus rubra and 34% for red pine (Pinus resinosa, but survival of oak after one year was much higher (92% than pine seedlings (16%. Overall, protection from birds and mammals and elimination of the herbaceous vegetation cover had no detectable effects on seedling emergence, survival and height. Nonetheless, red oak seedlings growing in the presence of vegetation had a smaller diameter and shoot biomass and a larger specific leaf area. We conclude that only large seeded species, such as oak, should be used for forest restoration of abandoned fields by direct seeding in our region.

  13. Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L

    2013-12-01

    Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Parent genotype and environmental factors influence introduction success of the critically endangered Savannas Mint (Dicerandra immaculata var. savannarum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Peterson

    Full Text Available Species previously unknown to science are continually discovered and some of these species already face extinction at the time of their discovery. Conserving new and rare species in these cases becomes a trial-and-error process and conservationists will attempt to manage them by using knowledge of closely related species, or those that fill the same ecological niche, and then adapting the management program as needed. Savannas Mint (Dicerandra immaculata Lakela var. savannarum Huck is a perennial plant that was discovered in Florida scrub habitat at two locations in 1995, but is nearly extinct at these locations. We tested whether shade, leaf litter, propagation method, parent genotype, parent collection site, planting date, and absorbent granules influenced survival, reproduction, and recruitment of Savannas Mint in a population of 1,614 plants that we introduced between June 2006 and July 2009 into a state protected site. Survival and reproduction of introduced plants, and recruitment of new plants, was higher in microhabitats in full sun and no leaf litter and lower in partially shaded habitats. The two sites from which parent plants were collected differentially influenced survival and reproduction of introduced plants. These differences in survival and reproduction are likely due to underlying genetic differences. Differential survival of progeny from different parent genotypes further supports the idea that underlying genetics is an important consideration when restoring plant populations. The most successful progeny of parent genotypes had survival rates nearly 12 times higher than the least successful progeny. We speculate that many of these environmental and genetic factors are likely to influence allopatric congeners and other critically endangered gap specialists that grow in Florida scrub and our results can be used to guide their conservation.

  15. An Interspecific Plant Hybrid Shows Novel Changes in Parental Splice Forms of Genes for Splicing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scascitelli, Moira; Cognet, Marie; Adams, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization plays an important role in plant adaptive evolution and speciation, and the process often results in phenotypic novelty. Hybrids can show changes in genome structure and gene expression compared with their parents including chromosomal rearrangments, changes in cytosine methylation, up- and downregulation of gene expression, and gene silencing. Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental aspect of the expression of many genes. However alternative splicing patterns have not been examined in multiple genes in an interspecific plant hybrid compared with its parents. Here we studied alternative splicing patterns in an interspecific Populus hybrid and its parents by assaying 40 genes using reverse transcription PCR. Most of the genes showed identical alternative splicing patterns between the parents and the hybrid. We found new alternative splicing variants present in the hybrid in two SR genes involved in the regulation of splicing and alternative splicing. The novel alternative splicing patterns included changes in donor and acceptor sites to create a new exon in one allele of PtRSZ22 in the hybrid and retention of an intron in both alleles of PtSR34a.1 in the hybrid, with effects on the function of the corresponding truncated proteins, if present. Our results suggest that novel alternative splicing patterns are present in a small percentage of genes in hybrids, but they could make a considerable impact on the expression of some genes. Changes in alternative splicing are likely to be an important component of the genetic changes that occur upon interspecific hybridization. PMID:20100939

  16. Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental Divorce: A Review of the Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on parental divorce and early childhood development, using developmental psychopathology as an organizing framework. Because this review is unique in its focus on divorce-related issues specific to young children, limitations of existing research are noted and directions for future research are suggested. (Contains 63…

  17. Factors Shaping Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sexuality in Urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Fuller, Jeffrey; Hutton, Alison; Grant, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Within a rapidly changing cultural and socio-economic context, young people in China are increasingly engaging in romantic experiences and sexual behaviours with consequences such as unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Across a range of contexts, parental communication about sexuality has been recognised as protective in…

  18. Children Home Alone Unsupervised: Modeling Parental Decisions and Associated Factors in Botswana, Mexico, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Monica; Heymann, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines different child care arrangements utilized by working families in countries undergoing major socio-economic transitions, with a focus on modeling parental decisions to leave children home alone. Method: The study interviewed 537 working caregivers attending government health clinics in Botswana, Mexico, and Vietnam.…

  19. The effect of psychological factors and parental education on adolescents' academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to check the assumed path model of causal relationships between adolescent's psychological characteristics (language competence, intellectual ability, and personality dimensions, parental education, and adolescent's academic achievement. Adolescents (N = 427; among them 225 girls and 202 boys, who were attending the ninth grade of elementary school in the school year 2005/2006, and their parents participated in the study. Adolescent's academic achievement was assessed by the results of national examinations in Slovene and mathematics, teachers' marks in Slovene and mathematics, and adolescent's general school success. The results of structural equation modelling showed a good fit of the assumed path model if it included the direct effect of adolescent's psychological characteristics and parental education on adolescent's academic achievement and also the indirect effect of parental education and three personality dimensions (Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness/Intellect through the adolescent's language competence and general intelligence. The fit of the adopted path model was acceptable regardless of the way in which academic achievement was assessed and regardless of the sex of the participants. The most important predictors of the academic achievement were language competence, general intelligence, and personality dimensions Conscientiousness and Openness/Intellect. With the assumed path model of casual relationships we could explain between 53% and 63% of differences in adolescents' academic achievement.

  20. The Sexual Orientation of a Parent as a Factor when Considering Care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article will also address the question of whether or not the role of a parent's sexual orientation in determining the best interests of the child has changed since the common law concept of custody was replaced by the concept of care in the Children's Act. In this article, care and the best interests of the child will be ...

  1. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.

  2. Parental Factors and Early English Education as a Foreign Language: A Case Study in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2014-01-01

    As English has increasingly become associated with social and economic power in the context of globalisation, there has been a growing concern regarding achievement gaps in English that appear to be correlated to learners' socio-economic status (SES). The present study aims to examine how parents' SES and their behaviours and beliefs about English…

  3. Childhood obesity and parental smoking as risk factors for childhood ADHD in Liverpool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshy, Gibby; Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD prevalence has risen in parallel with rising prevalence of pregnancy smoking and childhood obesity. The objective was to determine the epidemiological association of pregnancy smoking and childhood obesity with ADHD. A cross-sectional community study was conducted in 2006 using a parental

  4. Factors Associated with Sex under the Influence of Alcohol among Adolescents with Divorced Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Carratala, Elena; Carballo, Jose L.; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the association of diverse individual variables, traditionally associated with sexual risk practices in the general population, with sex under the influence of alcohol in adolescents with divorced parents. A sample of 132 adolescents provided information about their knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS and sexual risk…

  5. Parents' evaluation of the IDEFICS intervention: an analysis focussing on socio-economic factors, child's weight status and intervention exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, S G; Pohlabeln, H; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Chadjigeorgiou, C; Gwozdz, W; Hebestreit, A; Lauria, F; Lissner, L; Molnár, D; Santaliestra-Pasías, A M; Veidebaum, T; Williams, G

    2015-12-01

    From April 2008 to August 2010 the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) intervention aimed to encourage healthier diets, higher physical activity levels and lower stress levels among European children and their families. While the intervention was intended to improve children's health, we also wished to assess whether there were unwelcome aspects or negative side-effects. Therefore all parents of children who participated in the IDEFICS intervention were asked for their views on different aspects of the intervention. A total of 10,016 parents of children who participated in the IDEFICS survey and who were involved in the intervention were invited to complete a questionnaire on positive and negative impacts of the intervention. Responses to each of the statements were coded on a four point Likert-type scale. Demographic data were collected as part of the baseline (T0 ) and first follow-up (T1 ) surveys; intervention exposure data was also collected in the T1 follow-up survey. Anthropometric data was collected in the same surveys, and child's weight status was assessed according to Cole and Lobstein. After initial review of the univariate statistics multilevel logistic regression was conducted to analyse the influence of socio-economic factors, child's weight status and intervention exposure on parental responses. In total 4,997 responses were received. Approval rates were high, and few parents reported negative effects. Parents who reported higher levels of exposure to the intervention were more likely to approve of it and were also no more likely to notice negative aspects. Less-educated and lower income parents were more likely to report that the intervention would make a lasting positive difference, but also more likely to report that the intervention