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Sample records for canada goose population

  1. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food (urban grass) and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the 2004 and 2005 nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in 2004 and 286 in 2005, only raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were identified as nest predators. Raccoons were responsible for 22-25% of depredated nests, but were rarely capable of depredating nests that were actively defended by a goose. Coyotes were responsible for 75-78% of all Canada goose nest depredation and were documented killing one adult goose and feeding on several others. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyote home ranges (95% Minimum Convex Polygon) were calculated for 19 coyotes to examine third order habitat selection related to goose nest abundance. A 100 m buffer (buffer habitat) was created and centered on each waterway edge and contained 90% of all nests. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection across seasons was compared using a repeated measures MANOVA. Habitat selection

  2. The Rocky Mountain population of the western Canada goose: its distribution, habitats, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, William B.; Bizeau, Elwood G.

    1980-01-01

    The western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) was divided into a Rocky Mountain population (RMP) and a Pacific population (PP) on the basis of band recovery patterns examined in this study and recovery data from other investigators. Habitat information obtained from nine cooperating wildlife agencies within the RMP's range provided a base line for evaluating future changes in nesting, molting, and wintering areas. The habitat inventory indicated that none of the seasonal habitats were currently limiting the size of the RMP. The RMP's range is divided into 15 reference areas and these are briefly described. Past studies of Canada geese in the Intermountain Region are reviewed. Topics covered in the discussion of breeding biology are nesting chronology, spring population composition, breeding age, clutch size, nesting success. artificial nesting structures, and gosling survival. Much of the mortality of Canada geese occurs before the birds are fledged. Man-made nesting structures reduce losses during incubation. but research is needed on the relations between brooding sites and gosling survival. Some western Canada geese, mainly prebreeders and unsuccessful nesters, make molt migrations to and from molting areas during and after the brood-rearing season. More than half of these molt-migrants are yearlings too young to nest; there are indications that even some successful nesters leave nesting areas to molt before the fledging of their offspring. Geese 2 years old or older may serve as guides to traditional molting areas for the first-time migrants (i.e., yearlings). Lack of disturbance appears to influence selection of specific molting areas within the nesting range of moffitti, whereas movements of molters out of the Intermountain Region may be related to the evolution of this subspecies. Apparently. molters of both the PP and RMP that leave the Region go to the Northwest Territories of Canada. Although the taxonomic status of moffitti as related to the

  3. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  4. Limnological regime shifts caused by climate warming and Lesser Snow Goose population expansion in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A; Farquharson, Nicole; Merritt, Gillian; Fooks, Sam; Medeiros, Andrew S; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Macrae, Merrin L; Sweetman, Jon N

    2015-02-01

    Shallow lakes are dominant features in subarctic and Arctic landscapes and are responsive to multiple stressors, which can lead to rapid changes in limnological regimes with consequences for aquatic resources. We address this theme in the coastal tundra region of Wapusk National Park, western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada), where climate has warmed during the past century and the Lesser Snow Goose (LSG; Chen caerulescens caerulescens) population has grown rapidly during the past ∽40 years. Integration of limnological and paleolimnological analyses documents profound responses of productivity, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat to warming at three ponds ("WAP 12", "WAP 20", and "WAP 21″), and to LSG disturbance at the two ponds located in an active nesting area (WAP 20, WAP 21). Based on multiparameter analysis of (210)Pb-dated sediment records from all three ponds, a regime shift occurred between 1875 and 1900 CE marked by a transition from low productivity, turbid, and nutrient-poor conditions of the Little Ice Age to conditions of higher productivity, lower nitrogen availability, and the development of benthic biofilm habitat as a result of climate warming. Beginning in the mid-1970s, sediment records from WAP 20 and WAP 21 reveal a second regime shift characterized by accelerated productivity and increased nitrogen availability. Coupled with 3 years of limnological data, results suggest that increased productivity at WAP 20 and WAP 21 led to atmospheric CO2 invasion to meet algal photosynthetic demand. This limnological regime shift is attributed to an increase in the supply of catchment-derived nutrients from the arrival of LSG and their subsequent disturbance to the landscape. Collectively, findings discriminate the consequences of warming and LSG disturbance on tundra ponds from which we identify a suite of sensitive limnological and paleolimnological measures that can be utilized to inform aquatic ecosystem monitoring.

  5. Canada goose nest survival at rural wetlands in north-central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Brenna N.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    The last comprehensive nest survival study of the breeding giant Canada goose (Branta canadensis maxima) population in Iowa, USA, was conducted >30 years ago during a period of population recovery, during which available nesting habitat consisted primarily of artificial nest structures. Currently, Iowa's resident goose population is stable and nests in a variety of habitats. We analyzed the effects of available habitat on nest survival and how nest survival rates compared with those of the expanding goose population studied previously to better understand how to maintain a sustainable Canada goose population in Iowa. We documented Canada goose nest survival at rural wetland sites in north-central Iowa. We monitored 121 nests in 2013 and 149 nests in 2014 at 5 Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) with various nesting habitats, including islands, muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) houses, and elevated nest structures. We estimated daily nest-survival rate using the nest survival model in Program MARK. Survival was influenced by year, site, stage, presence of a camera, nest age, and an interaction between nest age and stage. Nest success rates for the 28-day incubation period by site and year combination ranged from 0.10 to 0.84. Nest survival was greatest at sites with nest structures (β = 17.34). Nest survival was negatively affected by lowered water levels at Rice Lake WMA (2013 β = −0.77, nest age β = −0.07). Timing of water-level drawdowns for shallow lake restorations may influence nest survival rates.

  6. 76 FR 44604 - Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY... availability of the Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact... resident Canada geese. Action is needed at this time to manage the restored wetlands at the Park. The Plan...

  7. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  8. 50 CFR 21.26 - Special Canada goose permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... limitations on management and control activities? (i) Take of resident Canada geese as a management tool under... management tools to the extent they deem appropriate in an effort to minimize lethal take. (ii) Methods of... of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project 1018-0099, Washington, DC 20503. [64 FR 32774...

  9. The status of goose populations in East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Lei; Fox, Anthony David; Koyama, K

    and the contraction of its wintering range has continued, making it extremely vulnerable. The almost exclusively Chinese wintering range of the Swan Goose (A. cygnoides) has been constricted to fewer and fewer sites, but counts suggest more than the previously estimated 75,000 individuals. The Taiga Bean Goose (A...

  10. Cost-benefit analysis for invasive species control: the case of greater Canada goose Branta canadensis in Flanders (northern Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaas Reyns

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Sound decisions on control actions for established invasive alien species (IAS require information on ecological as well as socio-economic impact of the species and of its management. Cost-benefit analysis provides part of this information, yet has received relatively little attention in the scientific literature on IAS. Methods We apply a bio-economic model in a cost-benefit analysis framework to greater Canada goose Branta canadensis, an IAS with documented social, economic and ecological impacts in Flanders (northern Belgium. We compared a business as usual (BAU scenario which involved non-coordinated hunting and egg destruction with an enhanced scenario based on a continuation of these activities but supplemented with coordinated capture of moulting birds. To assess population growth under the BAU scenario we fitted a logistic growth model to the observed pre-moult capture population. Projected damage costs included water eutrophication and damage to cultivated grasslands and were calculated for all scenarios. Management costs of the moult captures were based on a representative average of the actual cost of planning and executing moult captures. Results Comparing the scenarios with different capture rates, different costs for eutrophication and various discount rates, showed avoided damage costs were in the range of 21.15 M€ to 45.82 M€ under the moult capture scenario. The lowest value for the avoided costs applied to the scenario where we lowered the capture rate by 10%. The highest value occurred in the scenario where we lowered the real discount rate from 4% to 2.5%. Discussion The reduction in damage costs always outweighed the additional management costs of moult captures. Therefore, additional coordinated moult captures could be applied to limit the negative economic impact of greater Canada goose at a regional scale. We further discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approach and its potential application to other

  11. Cost-benefit analysis for invasive species control: the case of greater Canada goose Branta canadensis in Flanders (northern Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaer, Jim; De Smet, Lieven; Devos, Koen; Huysentruyt, Frank; Robertson, Peter A.; Verbeke, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Background Sound decisions on control actions for established invasive alien species (IAS) require information on ecological as well as socio-economic impact of the species and of its management. Cost-benefit analysis provides part of this information, yet has received relatively little attention in the scientific literature on IAS. Methods We apply a bio-economic model in a cost-benefit analysis framework to greater Canada goose Branta canadensis, an IAS with documented social, economic and ecological impacts in Flanders (northern Belgium). We compared a business as usual (BAU) scenario which involved non-coordinated hunting and egg destruction with an enhanced scenario based on a continuation of these activities but supplemented with coordinated capture of moulting birds. To assess population growth under the BAU scenario we fitted a logistic growth model to the observed pre-moult capture population. Projected damage costs included water eutrophication and damage to cultivated grasslands and were calculated for all scenarios. Management costs of the moult captures were based on a representative average of the actual cost of planning and executing moult captures. Results Comparing the scenarios with different capture rates, different costs for eutrophication and various discount rates, showed avoided damage costs were in the range of 21.15 M€ to 45.82 M€ under the moult capture scenario. The lowest value for the avoided costs applied to the scenario where we lowered the capture rate by 10%. The highest value occurred in the scenario where we lowered the real discount rate from 4% to 2.5%. Discussion The reduction in damage costs always outweighed the additional management costs of moult captures. Therefore, additional coordinated moult captures could be applied to limit the negative economic impact of greater Canada goose at a regional scale. We further discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approach and its potential application to other IAS. PMID

  12. Strontium-90 in Canada goose eggshells: Nonfatal monitoring for contamination in wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    90 Sr was measured in eggshells from Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) that nested on Columbia River islands up- and downstream from deactivated plutonium production reactors on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. We also measured 90 Sr in wing bones of goose carcasses. Background levels of 90 Sr were based on eggshells collected on an island upstream of the reactors. A few eggshells collected from nests on a single island downstream of the reactors had slightly higher than background levels of 90 Sr. This may have resulted from geese eating shoreline plants or crops irrigated with Columbia River water that contained 90 Sr released into the river through groundwater seepage

  13. Winter fidelity and apparent survival of lesser snow goose populations in the Pacific flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.K.; Samuel, M.D.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraege, Donald K.

    2008-01-01

    The Beringia region of the Arctic contains 2 colonies of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding on Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Canada, and wintering in North America. The Wrangel Island population is composed of 2 subpopulations from a sympatric breeding colony but separate wintering areas, whereas the Banks Island population shares a sympatric wintering area in California, USA, with one of the Wrangel Island subpopulations. The Wrangel Island colony represents the last major snow goose population in Russia and has fluctuated considerably since 1970, whereas the Banks Island population has more than doubled. The reasons for these changes are unclear, but hypotheses include independent population demographics (survival and recruitment) and immigration and emigration among breeding or wintering populations. These demographic and movement patterns have important ecological and management implications for understanding goose population structure, harvest of admixed populations, and gene flow among populations with separate breeding or wintering areas. From 1993 to 1996, we neckbanded molting birds at their breeding colonies and resighted birds on the wintering grounds. We used multistate mark-recapture models to evaluate apparent survival rates, resighting rates, winter fidelity, and potential exchange among these populations. We also compared the utility of face stain in Wrangel Island breeding geese as a predictor of their wintering area. Our results showed similar apparent survival rates between subpopulations of Wrangel Island snow geese and lower apparent survival, but higher emigration, for the Banks Island birds. Males had lower apparent survival than females, most likely due to differences in neckband loss. Transition between wintering areas was low (exchange between the Banks and northern Wrangel Island populations. Face staining was an unreliable indicator of wintering area. Our findings suggest that northern and southern

  14. Incidence of trypanosomes in the Canada goose as revealed by bone marrow culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, L.S.; Herman, C.M.

    1954-01-01

    1. Techniques are described for the cultural isolation of trypanosomes from avian bone marrow obtained from living birds or at autopsy. A new medium SNB-9 (saline-neopeptone-blood) is described. In addition to being a good medium for growing avian trypanosomes, it is excellent for growing trypanosomes of amphibians and mammals. 2. Evidence is presented demonstrating the superiority of (a) cultures over stained smears for detecting the presence of trypanosomes in the Canada goose, and (b) bone marrow over heart blood of this species as a source of trypanosomes for culture. 3. In April 1952, from cultures of bone marrow collected at autopsy it was demonstrated that trypanosome infection occurred in 33 (40.2%) of 82 Canada geese from the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge. On February 17, 1953, cultures of bone marrow obtained from living birds revealed presence of trypanosomes in 12 (20.7%) of 58 geese from the same refuge. On February 26, 1953, by employing the latter method, 9 (20.4%) of 44 geese from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge were shown to harbor the parasites. In another survey ninety-two geese from seven national wildlife refuges subjected to the biopsy technique showed evidence of infection in 13 (14.1 %) birds and indicated that trypanosome infection is widely distributed in this host.

  15. A global audit of the status and trends of Arctic and Northern Hemisphere goose populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Joel A.; Fox, Anthony D.; Leafloor, James O.

    2018-01-01

    This report attempts to review the abundance, status and distribution of natural wild goose populations in the northern hemisphere. The report comprises three parts that 1) summarise key findings from the study and the methodology and analysis applied; 2) contain the individual accounts for each of the 68 populations included in this report; and 3) provide the datasets compiled for this study which will be made accessible on the Arctic Biodiversity Data Service.

  16. Towards a solution to the goose-agriculture conflict in North Norway, 1988-2012: the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombre, Ingunn M; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988-2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics.

  17. Towards a Solution to the Goose-Agriculture Conflict in North Norway, 1988–2012: The Interplay between Policy, Stakeholder Influence and Goose Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombre, Ingunn M.; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988–2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics. PMID:23977175

  18. The Great Basin Canada goose in southcentral Washington: A 40-year nesting history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Gray, R.H.

    1991-04-01

    Overall, the nesting population of Great Basin Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State is doing well and appears to be increasing. The average annual total nests for the period 1981 through 1990 was 215 nests, which is slightly above the average reported for the period 1950 through 1970. The nesting population has shifted its nucleus from upriver islands (1--10) to the lower river islands (11--20) with over 70% of the present-day nesting occurring on Islands 17, 18, 19, 20. The annual percent-successful nests from 1981 through 1990 was 80%. This is above the 71% reported for 1950 to 1970, but is below the 82% reported for 1971 to 1980. Average annual clutch size for 1981 to 1990 was 6.05, which is above the 1971-to-1980 average of 5.6 and the 1950-to-70 average of 5.5. Next desertions for 1981 to 1990 averaged 8%. This rate is well below the 14% reported for 1950 to 1970. Predators were responsible for an annual predation rate of 9% from 1981 to 1990. This is below the 1950-to-1970 annual average predation rate of 14%. Flooding losses to nests were low during the 1980s, except for 1989 and 1990 when 6% and 9% of the total nests, respectively, were destroyed by flooding. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Stability of the glycoprotein gene of avian metapneumovirus (Canada goose isolate 15a/01) after serial passages in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockalingam, Ashok K; Chander, Yogesh; Halvorson, David A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2010-06-01

    The glycoprotein (G) gene sequences of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtypes A, B, C, and D are variable in size and number of nucleotides. The G gene of early U.S. turkey isolates of aMPV-C have been reported to be 1798 nucleotides (nt) (585 aa) in length, whereas the G genes of more recent turkey isolates have been reported to be 783 nucleotides. In some studies, the G gene of aMPV-C turkey isolates was found to be truncated to a smaller G gene of 783 nt (261 aa) upon serial passages in Vero cells. This is believed to be due to the deletion of 1015 nt near the end of the open reading frame. The purpose of this study was to determine variation, if any, in the G gene of an aMPV-C isolated from a wild bird (Canada goose [Branta canadensis]) following serial passages in Vero cells. No size variation was observed for up to 50 passages, except for a few amino acid changes in the extracellular domain at the 50th passage level. The G gene of this wild bird isolate appears to be unique from subtype C metapneumoviruses of turkeys.

  20. The Canada Goose Project: A First Project with Children under 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ruth A.

    2010-01-01

    This project report describes how five children (an infant, three toddlers, and a preschooler) enrolled at a private day care home engaged in their first journey into project work through a study of Canada geese living on a nearby body of water. Prior to the experience described in this paper, the author had used the Project Approach only with…

  1. Effects of lead poisoning on various plasma constituents in the Canada goose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, G.L.; John, T.M.; McKeown, B.A.; Sileo, L.; George, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Plasma glucose, free fatty acid and uric acid levels were measured in lead-poisoned Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although plasma glucose levels were only slightly elevated, uric acid was significantly higher and free fatty acids were significantly lower. Altered plasma levels were attributed to increased protein catabolism and renal dysfunction. Plasma level of growth hormone and prolactin was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Growth hormone remained unchanged while prolactin was unusually high. The increased prolactin levels may reflect an effort to stabilize free fatty acids. 30 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  2. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  3. Mark-resight approach as a tool to estimate population size of one of the world’s smallest goose populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Fælled, Casper Cæsar; Clausen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of a mark–resight procedure to estimate total population size in a local goose population. Using colour-ring sightings of the increasingly scattered population of Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota from their Danish staging areas, we estimate...... a total population size of 7845 birds (95% CI: 7252–8438). This is in good agreement with numbers obtained from total counts, emphasizing that this population, although steadily increasing, is still small compared with historic numbers....

  4. Implementation of the first adaptive management plan for a European migratory waterbird population: The case of the Svalbard pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jesper; Williams, James Henty; Johnson, Fred A.; Tombre, Ingunn M.; Dereliev, Sergey; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2017-01-01

    An International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose was adopted under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds in 2012, the first case of adaptive management of a migratory waterbird population in Europe. An international working group (including statutory agencies, NGO representatives and experts) agreed on objectives and actions to maintain the population in favourable conservation status, while accounting for biodiversity, economic and recreational interests. Agreements include setting a population target to reduce agricultural conflicts and avoid tundra degradation, and using hunting in some range states to maintain stable population size. As part of the adaptive management procedures, adjustment to harvest is made annually subject to population status. This has required streamlining of monitoring and assessment activities. Three years after implementation, indicators suggest the attainment of management results. Dialogue, consensus-building and engagement among stakeholders represent the major process achievements.

  5. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitch D. Weegman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch years (i.e., between cohorts. In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8% of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young only once in their lifetime and 15 (2% reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4 when environmental conditions were ‘good’ prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7 if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to

  6. Hawaiian Goose (Branta sandvicensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Black, Jeffrey M.; Banko, Winston E.

    1999-01-01

    Evolving in the remote Hawaiian Archipelago and having the smallest range of any living goose, the Hawaiian Goose, or better known by its Hawaiian name—Nënë, is among the most isolated, sedentary, and threatened of waterfowl. The Nënë is also highly terrestrial, and several structural features demonstrate its adaptation to life on islands with limited freshwater habitat: It stands taller and more upright than geese of similar weight, enabling it to reach high to browse the fruits, seeds, and foliage that constitute its herbivorous diet; its legs and padded toes are long and strong, promoting swift, sure walking and running over rugged terrain; webbing is reduced between the toes; and though it is a capable swimmer and readily uses freshwater habitats when available, the Nënë does not require freshwater or oceanic habitats in the same way that many other waterfowl do.

  7. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, Benjamin N.

    1982-01-01

    mediated response to the presence of E. clarkei oocysts and endogenous stages was seen in 83.3% of infected adult geese, but only 20% of immature geese showed a macrophage response to the infective stages of this parasite. A massive E. clarkei infection caused the death of one goose collected at Horicon National Wildlife Refuge. Amidostomiasis, epomidiostomiasis, and renal coccidiosis were important pathogenic diseases in the Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese but did not directly cause significant mortality in the population.

  8. Should I stay or should I go? Fitness costs and benefits of prolonged parent–offspring and sibling–sibling associations in an Arctic‑nesting goose population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weegman, Mitch; Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    –sibling relationships in a long-lived Arctic migrant herbivore, the Greenland white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons flavirostris). Although offspring associated with parents for 1–13 years, 79 % of these associations lasted two or less years. Only 65 (9.9 %) of the 656 marked offspring bred once in their lifetime...

  9. Preservation of goose product by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Cao Hong; Bao Jianzhong; Zhai Jianqing; Wang Jinrong; Han Yan; Jiang Yunsheng; Dong Jie

    2005-01-01

    The influence of temperature, packaging material and irradiation on the shelf life of cooked goose was investigated in this paper. The results showed that irradiation (6 kGy for salted goose and 4 kGy for wind-goose) could extend the shelf life of vacuum Aluminium foil package goose for 2 months at room temperature. (authors)

  10. Comparing population health in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet Nathalie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the paper is to compare population health in the United States (US and Canada. Although the two countries are very similar in many ways, there are potentially important differences in the levels of social and economic inequality and the organization and financing of and access to health care in the two countries. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health 2002/03. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall health-related quality of life (HRQL. Mean HUI3 scores were compared, adjusting for major determinants of health, including body mass index, smoking, education, gender, race, and income. In addition, estimates of life expectancy were compared. Finally, mean HUI3 scores by age and gender and Canadian and US life tables were used to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE. Results Life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. For those Conclusions The population of Canada appears to be substantially healthier than the US population with respect to life expectancy, HRQL, and HALE. Factors that account for the difference may include access to health care over the full life span (universal health insurance and lower levels of social and economic inequality, especially among the elderly.

  11. Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic light-body type goose | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic light-body type goose. ... The 521 bp control region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA from 13 lightbody type breeds ... the value within populations and all the breeds did not exist population expansion.

  12. South Asian populations in Canada: migration and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian populations are the largest visible minority group in Canada; however, there is very little information on the mental health of these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian first-generation immigrant and second-generation Canadian-born populations. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2011 was used to calculate the estimated prevalence rates of the following mental health outcomes: mood disorders, anxiety disorders, fair-poor self-perceived mental health status, and extremely stressful life stress. The characteristics associated with these four mental health outcomes were determined through multivariate logistic regression analysis of merged CCHS 2007–2011 data. Results South Asian Canadian-born (3.5%, 95% CI 3.4-3.6%) and South Asian immigrant populations (3.5%, 95% CI 3.5-3.5%) did not vary significantly in estimated prevalence rates of mood disorders. However, South Asian immigrants experienced higher estimated prevalence rates of diagnosed anxiety disorders (3.4%, 95% CI 3.4-3.5 vs. 1.1%, 95% CI 1.1-1.1%) and self-reported extremely stressful life stress (2.6%, 95% CI 2.6-2.7% vs. 2.4%, 95% CI 2.3-2.4%) compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. Lastly, South Asian Canadian-born populations had a higher estimated prevalence rate of poor-fair self-perceived mental health status (4.4%, 95% CI 4.3-4.5%) compared to their immigrant counterparts (3.4%, 95% CI 3.3-3.4%). Different profiles of mental health determinants emerged for South Asian Canadian-born and immigrant populations. Female gender, having no children under the age of 12 in the household, food insecurity, poor-fair self-rated health status, being a current smoker, immigrating to Canada before adulthood, and taking the CCHS survey in either English or French was associated with greater risk of negative mental health outcomes for South Asian immigrant

  13. Micro-PIXE studies of char populations in northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.L.; Babaluk, J.A.; Halden, N.M.; Kristofferson, A.H.; Maxwell, J.A.; Mejia, S.R.; Reist, J.D.; Teesdale, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis of trace elements in otoliths has been used as the basis for several projects on char, a fish that is important for aboriginal subsistence fisheries in Arctic Canada. Life-history patterns were originally inferred from micro-PIXE line scans of Sr distribution. These were confirmed by superposition of Sr distribution patterns on optical images of otoliths of tag-recaptured fish. Char from various populations showed differentiation in otolith primordial Sr concentration; this enables us to differentiate biological stocks and, it is hoped, eventually to assign individuals from mixed-stock fisheries to their stock of origin. Zn oscillations also correlate with annular structure and provide additional temporally constrained information on fish habitat and behaviour

  14. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site - Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  15. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site – Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-05-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  16. Screening of Feral Pigeon (Colomba livia, Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos and Graylag Goose (Anser anser Populations for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Avian Influenza Virus and Avian Paramyxovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesse LL

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 119 fresh faecal samples were collected from graylag geese migrating northwards in April. Also, cloacal swabs were taken from 100 carcasses of graylag geese shot during the hunting season in August. In addition, samples were taken from 200 feral pigeons and five mallards. The cultivation of bacteria detected Campylobacter jejuni jejuni in six of the pigeons, and in one of the mallards. Salmonella diarizona 14:k:z53 was detected in one graylag goose, while all pigeons and mallards were negative for salmonellae. No avian paramyxovirus was found in any of the samples tested. One mallard, from an Oslo river, was influenza A virus positive, confirmed by RT-PCR and by inoculation of embryonated eggs. The isolate termed A/Duck/Norway/1/03 was found to be of H3N8 type based on sequence analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments, and serological tests. This is the first time an avian influenza virus has been isolated in Norway. The study demonstrates that the wild bird species examined may constitute a reservoir for important bird pathogens and zoonotic agents in Norway.

  17. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thexton, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type reactors in Canada is traced. What is CANDU? and how does it differ from a pressurized water reactor? Whey did Canada adopt this design? What factors have led to its success? These questions are asked and answered. First the design itself is explained. Technical problems are considered and figures on operating reliability presented. The economic advantages of CANDU are shown by comparing electricity generating costs at CANDU stations with those at coal-fired stations. Future CANDU options are discussed and prospects for CANDU considered. (U.K.)

  18. Invasive herbivory: resident Canada geese and the decline of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    While concern grows over the increasing numbers of exotic mute swans (Cygnus olor) on the Chesapeake Bay, less attention seems to be given to the highly familiar and native Canada goose (Branta canadensis) which has over time developed unprecedented nonmigratory, or resident, populations. Although nuisance flocks of Canada geese have been well advertised at city parks, athletic fields, and golf courses over the past three decades, recent expansion of populations to an estimated one million birds in the Atlantic Flyway, and to over 100,000 in Maryland, carries a threat of broader ecological consequences.

  19. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.

    1991-01-01

    Canada, while professing a non-nuclear policy for its own armed forces, is, none the less, a member of a nuclear alliance. The security gained through participation in such arrangements does not come cost-free, despite the common view that countries such as Canada enjoy a free ride. Being under the nuclear umbrella, as this paper seeks to illustrate, does generate its own problems and costs. For example, does influence stem from the actual possession of nuclear weapons (albeit under US control), from support of the concept of nuclear deterrence and its infrastructure, or from possessing territory that is of strategic importance to a more powerful ally? Does the Canadian experience serve as a model for countries that are in close proximity to an existing or threshold nuclear power? Much depends on the willingness of a country to participate in the nuclear infrastructure associated with the acquisition of nuclear weapons for security purposes. It must accept the underlying rationale or logic of nuclear deterrence and the constraints on alternative security options that this imposes and it must also recognize that reliance on nuclear deterrence for military security seven if one seeks to emulate Canada and become a non-nuclear weapon state in a nuclear alliance can produce strains in its own right. The case of Canada shows that a country seeking security through such means should be aware of, and reflect upon, the fact that what appears to be a free ride does not come free of charge. However, a country may have other options in it, military security that have neither historically or geostrategically been available to Canada

  20. A Wild Goose Metapneumovirus Containing a Large Attachment Glycoprotein Is Avirulent but Immunoprotective in Domestic Turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard S.; LaRue, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel; Yu, Qingzhong; Nagaraja, K. V.; Halvorson, David A.; Njenga, M. Kariuki

    2005-01-01

    The genomic structure and composition of an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) recently isolated from wild Canada geese (goose 15a/01) in the United States, together with its replication, virulence, and immunogenicity in domestic turkeys, were investigated. The sizes of seven of the eight genes, sequence identity, and genome organization of goose aMPV were similar to those of turkey aMPV subtype C (aMPV/C) strains, indicating that it belonged to the subtype. However, the goose virus contained the largest attachment (G) gene of any pneumovirus or metapneumovirus, with the predicted G protein of 585 amino acids (aa) more than twice the sizes of G proteins from other subtype C viruses and human metapneumovirus and more than 170 aa larger than the G proteins from the other aMPV subtypes (subtypes A, B, and D). The large G gene resulted from a 1,015-nucleotide insertion at 18 nucleotides upstream of the termination signal of the turkey aMPV/C G gene. Three other aMPV isolates from Canada geese had similarly large G genes, whereas analysis of recent aMPV strains circulating in U.S. turkeys did not indicate the presence of the goose virus-like strain. In vitro, the goose virus replicated to levels (2 × 105 to 5 × 105 50% tissue culture infective dose) comparable to those produced by turkey aMPV/C strains. More importantly, the virus replicated efficiently in the upper respiratory tract of domestic turkeys but with no clinical signs in either day-old or 2-week-old turkeys. The virus was also horizontally transmitted to naïve birds, and turkey infections with goose 15a/01 induced production of aMPV-specific antibodies. Challenging day-old or 2-week-old turkeys vaccinated with live goose aMPV resulted in lower clinical scores in 33% of the birds, whereas the rest of the birds had no detectable clinical signs of the upper respiratory disease, suggesting that the mutant virus may be a safe and effective vaccine against aMPV infection outbreaks in commercial turkeys. PMID:16282483

  1. Some economic implications of population dispersion in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridler, N B

    1982-01-01

    In New Brunswick, as in the rest of Atlantic Canada, the quality of life is highly prized, and for many inhabitants this means a rural life style. New Brunswick (with the exception of Prince Edward Island) is the most rural of the Canadian provinces. In addition, over time it is becoming more rural. This paper examines some of the economic implications arising from the rural life style. The provincial government also has expressed concern over rural dispersion in New Brunswick, hence this paper is predominantly policy-oriented. It argues that social costs are considerable, and advocates increased emphasis on user-pay pricing. The intention is not to prohibit rural non-farm residence, but merely to charge rural dwellers a portion of the social costs they impose. The political feasibility of such a policy is open to question, but the alternatives may be increased tax rates or a reduced level of service, and these may be even more politically unpopular.

  2. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciej, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  3. Short communications Goose barnacles on seals and a penguin at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communications Goose barnacles on seals and a penguin at Gough Island. ... to the pelage of two of the 12 elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) inspected and one ... We also recorded a goose barnacle attached to a Northern rockhopper ...

  4. Goose-mediated nutrient enrichment and planktonic grazer control in arctic freshwater ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geest, G. J.; Hessen, D. O.; Spierenburg, P.; Dahl-Hansen, G. A. P.; Christensen, G.; Faerovig, P. J.; Brehm, M.; Loonen, M. J. J. E.; Van Donk, E.

    A dramatic increase in the breeding population of geese has occurred over the past few decades at Svalbard. This may strongly impact the fragile ecosystems of the Arctic tundra because many of the ultra-oligotrophic freshwater systems experience enrichment from goose feces. We surveyed 21 shallow

  5. The morphological development of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of the migratory barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishop, CM; Butler, PJ; ElHaj, AJ; Egginton, S; Loonen, MJJE

    The masses of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of wild barnacle goose goslings, from a migratory population, were examined systematically during development and their values compared to those of pre-migratory geese. Pre-flight development was typified by approximately linear increases of body, leg,

  6. Adeno-associated virus type 2 enhances goose parvovirus replication in embryonated goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkinson, Mertyn; Winocour, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    The autonomous goose parvovirus (GPV) and the human helper-dependent adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) share a high degree of homology. To determine if this evolutionary relationship has a biological impact, we studied viral replication in human 293 cells and in embryonated goose eggs coinfected with both viruses. Similar experiments were performed with the minute virus of mice (MVM), an autonomous murine parvovirus with less homology to AAV2. In human 293 cells, both GPV and MVM augmented AAV2 replication. In contrast, AAV2 markedly enhanced GPV replication in embryonated goose eggs under conditions where a similar effect was not observed with MVM. AAV2 did not replicate in embryonated goose eggs and AAV2 inactivated by UV-irradiation also enhanced GPV replication. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a human helper-dependent member of the Parvoviridae can provide helper activity for an autonomous parvovirus in a natural host

  7. Mother Goose in the ESL Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Karen

    Mother Goose is well suited to use in the elementary ESL classroom for several reasons. The stories appeal to children's imagination, adhering to the principle that a good story should have surprise value, interesting characters, meaningful conflict, action, and realism. The natural rhythms help develop English intonation, and the stories…

  8. Goose droppings as food for reindeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, R; Loonen, MJJE

    Feeding conditions for Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus, on Spitsbergen are generally poor, owing to low availability of forage. We report on coprophagy: the use of goose faeces as an alternative food source for reindeer. Fresh droppings from Barnacle Geese, Branta leucopsis,

  9. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  10. National recovery strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, boreal population, in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Hervieux

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery planning for the boreal population of woodland caribou is a complex task, spanning eight Canadian provinces and territories. To accommodate unique situations across the country, recovery planning for this Species at Risk Act-listed threatened species is occurring at both provincial/ territorial and national levels. The national recovery strategy strives to identify nationally important issues and provide direction for provinces and territories as they plan and implement boreal caribou recovery within their jurisdictions. The national vision is to conserve and recover boreal caribou and their habitat across Canada. Specific goals are to: 1 Prevent extirpation of local boreal caribou populations from all existing caribou ranges; and 2 Maintain or enhance local boreal caribou populations at or to self-sustaining levels within all existing caribou ranges; and 3 Maintain or enhance boreal caribou habitat to support self-sustaining local populations. Nineteen broad national approaches are identified. These approaches include items relating to: habitat planning and management, caribou population monitoring and management, management of human-caused mortality, management of other wildlife species, consideration of government legislation and policy,promotion of stewardship and public outreach, and research. Specific outcomes are provided for each stated recovery approach. For more information on Canada's national recovery strategy for the boreal population of woodland caribou please see www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/recovery/default_e.cfm

  11. The CMS "Higgs Boson Goose Game" Poster

    CERN Multimedia

    Davis, Siona Ruth

    Building and operating the CMS Detector is a complicated endeavour! Now, more than 20 years after the detector was conceived, the CMS Bologna group proposes to follow the steps of this challenging project by playing "The Higgs Boson Goose Game", illustrating CMS activities and goals. The concept of the game is inspired by the traditional "Game of the Goose". The underlying idea is that the progress of building and operating a detector at the LHC is similar to the progress of the pawns on the game board: it is fast at times, bringing rewards and satisfaction, while sometimes unexpected problems cause delays or even a step back requiring CMS scientists to use all of their skill and creativity to devise new solutions.

  12. The CMS Higgs Boson Goose Game

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallo, Francesca Romana

    2015-01-01

    Building and operating the CMS Detector is a complicated endeavour! Now, more than 20 years after the detector was conceived, the CMS Bologna group proposes to follow the steps of this challenging project by playing The Higgs Boson Goose Game, illustrating CMS activities and goals.The concept of the game is inspired by the traditional Game of the Goose. The underlying idea is that the progress of building and operating a detector at the LHC is similar to the progress of the pawns on the game board it is fast at times, bringing rewards and satisfaction, while sometimes unexpected problems cause delays or even a step back requiring CMS scientists to use all of their skill and creativity to devise new solutions.

  13. Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of goose parvovirus infection in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Désirée S; Feinstein, Ricardo; Kardi, Veronika; Mató, Tamás; Palya, Vilmos

    2007-06-01

    An outbreak of goose parvovirus (GPV) infection on a Swedish goose farm in the spring of 2004 increased the mortality rates from 2% in the early unaffected hatches to 90% and 99% respectively in the two hatches following virus introduction and 40% in goslings hatched later in the same breeding season. In this paper we describe the clinical observations, diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic investigation carried out to elucidate the source of the infection. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology, virus isolation, and sequence analysis of a 493-bp-long fragment of the VP1 gene. Phylogenetically the causative virus was closely related to pathogenic GPV strains isolated in 2003 and 2004 from Poland and the United Kingdom, respectively. The Swedish isolate exhibited less homology with pathogenic strains from Hungary and Asia and with attenuated vaccine strains. The epidemiologic investigation showed that the virus was first introduced to a contract farm (farm A) and then was transferred with newly hatched goslings to the farm that had submitted the birds for necropsy (index farm). The exact time and source of the virus introduction to farm A could not be determined with absolute certainty. Possible sources of the infection included backyard goose eggs that had been delivered to farm A for subcontract incubation and hatching, wild geese that frequented the flock of breeding geese on pasture on farm A, and a clutch of Canada goose eggs (Branta canadensis) that had been produced by wild geese and was hatched in the same machine as the eggs produced by farm A.

  14. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

    1987-11-01

    Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

  15. Diversity and convergence of population aging: evidence from China and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Légaré, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishTaking the diversity and the convergence of demographic transitions intoconsideration, it is hypothesized that population aging that occurs in developed countries anddeveloping countries will reflect diversity, but will also show some convergence. In order to testthis hypothesis, the present study compares the population aging experiences of China (1971-2050 andCanada (1911-2050 and places them within the context of the demographic transition. In this paper welearn how, as population ages, these two countries will, through two distinct pathways, arrive atsimilar age structures by the middle of the 21st century. Both the diversity and the convergence ofpopulation aging are shown in this comparative study.FrenchEn constatant la diversité et la convergence des transitions démographiques,nous faisons l'hypothèse que le processus du vieillissement démographiquecomporte également une certaine diversité et montrera une convergence, enparticulier, entre les pays développés et les pays en développement. Afin devérifier cette hypothèse, la présente étude compare les vieillissementsdémographiques en Chine (1971-2050 et au Canada (1911-2050, en lesmettant dans le contexte de la transition démographique. Cet article montre qu’àmesure que vieillit la population, comment ces deux pays arriveront par deuxvoies distinctes à une structure par âge similaire au milieu du XXIème siècle. Ladiversité et la convergence du vieillissement sont toutes deux illustrées danscette étude comparative.

  16. Effects of gull predation and weather on survival of emperor goose goslings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Joel A.; Manly, Bryan F.J.; Dau, Christian P.

    2001-01-01

    Numbers of emperor geese (Chen canagica) have remained depressed since the mid-1980s. Despite increases in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), a primary predator of goslings, little information existed to assess whether recent patterns of gosling survival have been a major factor affecting population dynamics. We used observations of known families of emperor geese to estimate rates of gosling survival during 1993-96 on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Survival of goslings to 30 days of age varied among years from 0.332 during 1994 to 0.708 during 1995. Survival was lowest during 1993-94, which corresponded with the years of highest frequency of disturbance of goose broods by glaucous gulls. Rainfall during early brood rearing was much higher in 1994 than other years, and this corresponded to low survival among goslings ≤5 days of age. Numbers of juveniles in families during fall staging were negatively related to rainfall during early brood rearing (n = 23 yr). Although there are no data to assess whether gosling survival in emperor geese has declined from some previous level, current survival rates of emperor goose goslings are as high as or higher than those observed in other goose species that are rapidly increasing. A proposed reduction of glaucous gull numbers by managers may not be the most effective means for increasing population growth in emperor geese.

  17. How many people in Canada use prescription opioids non-medically in general and street drug using populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Patra, Jayadeep; Mohapatra, Satya; Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Medical prescriptions for opioids as well as their non-medical use have increased in Canada in recent years. This study aimed to estimate the number of non-medical prescription opioid (PO) users in the general and street drug using populations in Canada. The number of non-medical PO users among the general population and the number of non-medical PO users, heroin users, or both among the street drug using population was estimated for Canada and for the most populous Canadian provinces. Different estimation methods were used: 1) the number of non-medical PO users in the Canadian general population was estimated based on Canadian availability data, and the ratio of US availability to non-medical PO use from US survey data; 2) numbers within the street drug using population were indirectly estimated based on overdose death data, and a key informants survey. Distribution and trends by usage of opioids were determined by using the multi-site Canadian OPICAN cohort data. Between 321,000 to 914,000 non-medical PO users were estimated to exist among the general population in Canada in 2003. The estimated number of non-medical PO users, heroin users, or both among the street drug using population was about 72,000, with more individuals using nonmedical PO than heroin in 2003. Based on data from the OPICAN survey, in 2005 the majority of the street drug using population in main Canadian cities was non-medical PO users, with the exception of Vancouver and Montreal. A relative increase of 24% was observed from 2002 to 2005 in the proportion of the street drug using population who used non-medical POs only. There is an urgent need to further assess the extent and patterns of non-medical prescription opioid use, related problems and drug distribution channels in Canada.

  18. A population-based study of homicide deaths in Ontario, Canada using linked death records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaud, James; Donnelly, Peter D; Henry, David; Kornas, Kathy; Calzavara, Andrew; Bornbaum, Catherine; Rosella, Laura

    2017-07-24

    Homicide - a lethal expression of violence - has garnered little attention from public health researchers and health policy makers, despite the fact that homicides are a cause of preventable and premature death. Identifying populations at risk and the upstream determinants of homicide are important for addressing inequalities that hinder population health. This population-based study investigates the public health significance of homicides in Ontario, Canada, over the period of 1999-2012. We quantified the relative burden of homicides by comparing the socioeconomic gradient in homicides with the leading causes of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neoplasm, and estimated the potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to homicide. We linked vital statistics from the Office of the Registrar General Deaths register (ORG-D) with Census and administrative data for all Ontario residents. We extracted all homicide, neoplasm, and cardiovascular deaths from 1999 to 2012, using International Classification of Diseases codes. For socioeconomic status (SES), we used two dimensions of the Ontario Marginalization Index (ON-Marg): material deprivation and residential instability. Trends were summarized across deprivation indices using age-specific rates, rate ratios, and PYLL. Young males, 15-29 years old, were the main victims of homicide with a rate of 3.85 [IC 95%: 3.56; 4.13] per 100,000 population and experienced an upward trend over the study period. The socioeconomic neighbourhood gradient was substantial and higher than the gradient for both cardiovascular and neoplasms. Finally, the PYLL due to homicide were 63,512 and 24,066 years for males and females, respectively. Homicides are an important cause of death among young males, and populations living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Our findings raise concerns about the burden of homicides in the Canadian population and the importance of addressing social determinants to address these premature deaths.

  19. Population Assessment of an Endangered Shorebird: the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus melodus in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Amirault

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Small, at-risk populations are those for which accurate demographic information is most crucial to conservation and recovery, but also where data collection is constrained by logistical challenges and small sample sizes. Migratory animals in particular may experience a wide range of threats to survival and reproduction throughout each annual cycle, and identification of life stages most critical to persistence may be especially difficult for these populations. The endangered eastern Canadian breeding population of Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus melodus was estimated at only 444 adults in 2005, and extensive effort has been invested in conservation activities, reproductive monitoring, and marking of individual birds, providing a comprehensive data set on population dynamics since 1998. We used these data to build a matrix projection model for two Piping Plover population segments that nest in eastern Canada in order to estimate both deterministic and stochastic rates of population growth (λd and λs, respectively. Annual population censuses suggested moderate growth in abundance between 1998–2003, but vital rate estimates indicated that this temporary growth may be replaced by declines in the long term, both in southern Nova Scotia (λd = 1.0043, λs = 0.9263 and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (λd = 0.9651, λs = 0.8214. Nonetheless, confidence intervals on λ estimates were relatively wide, highlighting remaining uncertainty in future population trajectories. Differences in projected growth between regions appear to be driven by low estimated juvenile post-fledging survival in the Gulf, but threats to juveniles of both population segments following departure from nesting beaches remain unidentified. Similarly, λ in both population segments was particularly sensitive to changes in adult survival as expected for most migratory birds, but very little is understood about the threats to Piping Plover survival during migration and overwintering

  20. Genetic diversity of the golden potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis and determination of the origin of populations in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Annie Christine; Mimee, Benjamin; Montarry, Josselin; Bardou-Valette, Sylvie; Bélair, Guy; Moffett, Peter; Grenier, Eric

    2013-10-01

    The golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis), native to South America, has been introduced in many parts of the world, including Europe and North America. Recently, it was found for the first time in the province of Quebec, Canada in the locality of St. Amable near Montreal. To date, very few studies have examined the population genetics of this pest. Consequently, there is a lack of knowledge about the genetic structure and evolution of this nematode. In this study, twelve new microsatellite markers were developed in order to explore these questions. These markers were used to genotype fifteen populations originating from different regions of the world, including five from Canada. Within populations, the highest genetic diversity was consistently observed in the populations from Bolivia, the postulated region of origin of the golden nematode, and the lowest in populations from British Columbia (Canada) and New York (USA). The two Quebec populations were very similar to each other and to the population found in Newfoundland, but surprisingly, they were significantly different from three other North American populations including those from New York and British Columbia. Based on our results, we conclude that the golden cyst nematode has been introduced in North America at least twice from distinct regions of the world. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The prevalence of diagnosed tourette syndrome in Canada: A national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaeun; Hirsch, Lauren; Martino, Davide; Jette, Nathalie; Roberts, Jodie; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine: (1) the prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome in Canada by sex in youth (aged 12-17) and adults and (2) socioeconomic factors in this population. The majority of epidemiological studies of tics have focused on children and youth, with few studies describing the prevalence of tics in adult populations. Canadian data on Tourette syndrome prevalence were derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2010 and 2011 cycles, a Statistics Canada population-based cross-sectional survey that collects information related to health status. We determined the prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome and examined sociodemographic factors, including age, sex, education, income, employment, and birthplace. Overall, 122,884 Canadians participated in the surveys, with 122 participants diagnosed with Tourette syndrome. The prevalence of Tourette syndrome was higher in males in youth: 6.03 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 3.24-8.81) in males versus 0.48 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.91) in females, with a prevalence risk ratio of 5.31 (95% confidence interval: 2.38-11.81). In adults, the prevalence of Tourette syndrome was 0.89 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval: 0.48-1.29) in males versus 0.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.16.0-0.71) in females, with a prevalence risk ratio of 1.93 (95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.08). After adjusting for age and sex, adults with Tourette syndrome had lower odds of receiving postsecondary education or being employed and higher odds of having income lower than the median and receiving governmental support. Data on the prevalence of Tourette syndrome in adults are scarce because most studies focus on children. Our data demonstrate a decreasing prevalence risk ratio for sex in adults compared to children. A diagnosis of Tourette syndrome is associated with lower education, income, and employment in adulthood. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016

  2. Genetic Discontinuity between the Maritime Archaic and Beothuk Populations in Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Ana T; Harris, Alison J T; Marciniak, Stephanie; Marshall, Ingeborg; Kuch, Melanie; Kitchen, Andrew; Renaud, Gabriel; Southon, John; Fuller, Ben; Young, Janet; Fiedel, Stuart; Golding, G Brian; Grimes, Vaughan; Poinar, Hendrik

    2017-10-23

    Situated at the furthest northeastern edge of Canada, the island of Newfoundland (approximately 110,000 km 2 ) and Labrador (approximately 295,000 km 2 ) today constitute a province characterized by abundant natural resources but low population density. Both landmasses were covered by the Laurentide ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum (18,000 years before present [YBP]); after the glacier retreated, ice patches remained on the island until ca. 9,000 calibrated (cal) YBP [1]. Nevertheless, indigenous peoples, whose ancestors had trekked some 5,000 km from the west coast, arrived approximately 10,000 cal YBP in Labrador and ca. 6,000 cal YBP in Newfoundland [2, 3]. Differential features in material culture indicate at least three settlement episodes by distinct cultural groups, including the Maritime Archaic, Palaeoeskimo, and Beothuk. Newfoundland has remained home to indigenous peoples until present day with only one apparent hiatus (3,400-2,800 YBP). This record suggests abandonment, severe constriction, or local extinction followed by subsequent immigrations from single or multiple source populations, but the specific dynamics and the cultural and biological relationships, if any, among these successive peoples remain enigmatic [4]. By examining the mitochondrial genome diversity and isotopic ratios of 74 ancient remains in conjunction with the archaeological record, we have provided definitive evidence for the genetic discontinuity between the maternal lineages of these populations. This northeastern margin of North America appears to have been populated multiple times by distinct groups that did not share a recent common ancestry, but rather one much deeper in time at the entry point into the continent. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changing distribution and abundance of Swan Goose Anser cygnoides in the Yangtze River floodplain: the likely loss of a very important wintering site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Cao, L.; Barter, M.; Fox, A.D.; Zhao, M.; Meng, F.; Shi, H.; Jiang, Y.; Zhu, W.

    2011-01-01

    Virtually the entire population of the globally ‘Vulnerable’ Swan Goose Anser cygnoides winters in the Yangtze floodplain. Historically, the species was widely distributed throughout the floodplain but now approximately 95% of the population is confined to three closely-situated wetlands in Anhui

  4. Population distribution and burden of acute gastrointestinal illness in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fyfe Murray

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, gastrointestinal illness (GI is typically mild and self-limiting, however, it has considerable economic impact due to high morbidity. Methods The magnitude and distribution of acute GI in British Columbia (BC, Canada was evaluated via a cross-sectional telephone survey of 4,612 randomly selected residents, conducted from June 2002 to June 2003. Respondents were asked if they had experienced vomiting or diarrhoea in the 28 days prior to the interview. Results A response rate of 44.3% was achieved. A monthly prevalence of 9.2% (95%CI 8.4 – 10.0, an incidence rate of 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.4 episodes of acute GI per person-year, and an average probability that an individual developed illness in the year of 71.6% (95% CI 68.0–74.8, weighted by population size were observed. The average duration of illness was 3.7 days, translating into 19.2 million days annually of acute GI in BC. Conclusion The results corroborate those from previous Canadian and international studies, highlighting the substantial burden of acute GI.

  5. Variations in the Life Cycle of Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in Wild Populations of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kricsfalusy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of a perennial herb Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in a variety of natural habitats in Saskatchewan, Canada, eight life stages (seed, seedling, juvenile, immature, vegetative, generative, subsenile, and senile are distinguished and characterized in detail. The species ontogenetic growth patterns are investigated. A. patens has a long life cycle that may last for several decades which leads to the formation of compact clumps. The distribution and age of clumps vary substantially in different environments with different levels of disturbance. The plant ontogeny includes the regular cycle with reproduction occurring through seeds. There is an optional subsenile vegetative disintegration at the end of the life span. The following variations in the life cycle of A. patens are identified: with slower development in young age, with an accelerated development, with omission of the generative stage, with retrogression to previous life stages in mature age, and with vegetative dormancy. The range of variations in the life cycle of A. patens may play an important role in maintaining population stability in different environmental conditions and management regimes.

  6. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  7. Chronic disease and chronic disease risk factors among First Nations, Inuit and Métis populations of northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, S G; Riediger, N D; Lix, L M

    2014-11-01

    Aboriginal populations in northern Canada are experiencing rapid changes in their environments, which may negatively impact on health status. The purpose of our study was to compare chronic conditions and risk factors in northern Aboriginal populations, including First Nations (FN), Inuit and Métis populations, and northern non-Aboriginal populations. Data were from the Canadian Community Health Survey for the period from 2005 to 2008. Weighted multiple logistic regression models tested the association between ethnic groups and health outcomes. Model covariates were age, sex, territory of residence, education and income. Odds ratios (ORs) are reported and a bootstrap method calculated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Odds of having at least one chronic condition was significantly lower for the Inuit (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43-0.81) than for non-Aboriginal population, but similar among FN, Métis and non-Aboriginal populations. Prevalence of many risk factors was significantly different for Inuit, FN and Métis populations. Aboriginal populations in Canada's north have heterogeneous health status. Continued chronic disease and risk factor surveillance will be important to monitor changes over time and to evaluate the impact of public health interventions.

  8. Unregulated health care workers in the care of aging populations: Similarities and differences between Brazil and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Veras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The world’s population is rapidly aging. Unregulated health care workers (UHCWs are emerging as a potentially important workforce in the care of older adults. Objective: A review was conducted to identify the activities of UHCWs with respect to contributions and limitations. Methods: A systematic integrative literature review was conducted using online databases (LILACS, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and grey literature. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (i description of UHCW activities related to older adults; and (ii description of UHCW activities performed in Brazil or Canada. Results: Eleven papers were included in this review. In both countries, UHCW activities included health promotion, mental health care, and rehabilitation. In Brazil, UHCWs performed integrated care, while in Canada UHCWs performed personal care and housekeeping. Conclusion: These results highlight the potential and limits of UHCWs who provide care for the aging population. Such information is important to health and social policy making and household decision making.

  9. Assessing income, population, and technology impacts on CO{sub 2} emissions in Canada. Where's the EKC?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, V.; Feng, Q. [Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management and Department of Economics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates the macroeconomic forces underlying carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from fossil fuel use in Canada. In keeping with the relevant literature on environmental degradation, three forces are expected to influence CO{sub 2} emissions: gross domestic product per capita (GDP/capita), population and technological change. While previous work has employed reduced-form models that allow for non-linear relationships between CO{sub 2} and GDP/capita, it has been common practice to assume linear relationships between CO{sub 2} and the latter two variables. This study tests a more flexible model using a five-region panel data set in Canada over the period 1970-2000. Findings indicate that GDP/capita is unrelated to CO{sub 2}, that an inverted U-shaped relationship exists with population, and that a U-shaped relationship exists with technology. Thus, technological and population changes are supported over the commonly hypothesized environmental Kuznets curve (EKC, an inverted U-shaped relationship between GDP/capita and environmental degradation) for affecting CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel use in Canada. (author)

  10. Refugee maternal and perinatal health in Ontario, Canada: a retrospective population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Yogendra; Gagnon, Anita J; Cole, Donald C; Rashid, Meb; Blake, Jennifer; Dastoori, Parisa; Moineddin, Rahim; Ray, Joel G; Urquia, Marcelo L

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Immigrants are thought to be healthier than their native-born counterparts, but less is known about the health of refugees or forced migrants. Previous studies often equate refugee status with immigration status or country of birth (COB) and none have compared refugee to non-refugee immigrants from the same COB. Herein, we examined whether: (1) a refugee mother experiences greater odds of adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes compared with a similar non-refugee mother from the same COB and (2) refugee and non-refugee immigrants differ from Canadian-born mothers for maternal and perinatal outcomes. Design This is a retrospective population-based database study. We implemented two cohort designs: (1) 1:1 matching of refugees to non-refugee immigrants on COB, year and age at arrival (±5 years) and (2) an unmatched design using all data. Setting and participants Refugee immigrant mothers (n=34 233), non-refugee immigrant mothers (n=243 439) and Canadian-born mothers (n=615 394) eligible for universal healthcare insurance who had a hospital birth in Ontario, Canada, between 2002 and 2014. Primary outcomes Numerous adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Results Refugees differed from non-refugee immigrants most notably for HIV, with respective rates of 0.39% and 0.20% and an adjusted OR (AOR) of 1.82 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.79). Other elevated outcomes included caesarean section (AOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08) and moderate preterm birth (AOR 1.08, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.17). For the majority of outcomes, refugee and non-refugee immigrants experienced similar AORs when compared with Canadian-born mothers. Conclusions Refugee status was associated with a few adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes, but the associations were not strong except for HIV. The definition of refugee status used herein may not sensitively identify refugees at highest risk. Future research would benefit from further refining refugee status based on migration

  11. Thyroid cancer incidence among Asian immigrants to Ontario, Canada: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Baiju R; Griffiths, Rebecca; Hall, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer. Individuals were followed from January 1997 or 5 years after they became eligible for health care coverage in Ontario, whichever came later. Patients were followed until March 2015 for incident-differentiated thyroid cancer, and then for recurrence. The study followed 14,659,733 individuals for a median of 17 years. Thyroid cancer incidence was 43.8 cases per 100,000 person-years among Southeast Asian immigrants, 28.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among East Asian immigrants, 21.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among other immigrants, and 14.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among nonimmigrants. Incidence was highest among immigrants from the Philippines (52.7 cases per 100,000 person-years), South Korea (33.5 cases per 100,000 person-years), and China (30.0 cases per 100,000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios for thyroid cancer compared with nonimmigrants were 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.48-2.84) for Southeast Asian immigrants, 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.00) for East Asian immigrants, and 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57) for other immigrants. Immigrants were more likely to have papillary histology and stage I cancer. East Asian immigrants, but not Southeast Asian immigrants, had a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.94] and 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.26], respectively). Immigrants from Southeast and East Asia had markedly higher thyroid cancer incidence than nonimmigrants. At particularly elevated

  12. Gross anatomical syringeal structures of goose (Anser anser domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: There were some similarities and some differences of the anatomical structures of the syrinx of goose and that of other bird species. No differences between male and female syrinx were observed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 343-347

  13. An Evaluation of the Pearsonian Type I Curve of Fertility for Aboriginal Populations in Canada, 1996 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma, Ravi B.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishIn 2005, Statistics Canada published new projections of the Aboriginal populations (NorthAmerican Indians, Métis, and Inuit in Canada, the provinces and territories from 2001 to2017. To derive the number of births in these projections, the age-specific fertility rates weresimulated by fitting the Pearsonian Type I curve using the projected fertility parameters: totalfertility rates, mean ages of fertility, and modal ages of fertility. For the base period 1996 to2001, the parameters were estimated from the age-specific fertility rates derived from the 2001Census, using the “own-children method.” This paper evaluates the goodness of fit betweenthe age-specific fertility rates developed by the Type I curve and the estimated age-specificfertility rates for Aboriginal identity groups for the period 1996 to 2001 for Canada and forhigh and low fertility regions. Tests of validity of the Type I curve indicate that this method isappropriate for estimating/projecting the number of births for the Aboriginal populations.Key Words: Aboriginal populations, North American Indians, Métis, Inuit, own-childrenmethod, Pearsonian type I curve.FrenchEn 2005, Statistique Canada publiait de nouvelles projections des populations autochtones(Indiens de l’Amérique du Nord, Métis et Inuit au Canada, les provinces et les territoires de2001 à 2017. Afin de calculer le nombre de naissances dans ces projections, les taux de féconditépar âge ont été simulés en ajustant la courbe de Type I de Pearson selon les paramètresde fécondité projetés: l’indice synthétique de fécondité, l’âge moyen à l’accouchement et l’âgemodal à l’accouchement. Pour la période de base de 1996 à 2001, ces paramètres ont étéestimés selon les taux de fécondité par âge générés par la méthode du « décompte des enfantsau foyer » avec les données des enfants âgés de 0 à 4 ans et les femmes dans le groupe d’âgede 15 à 49 ans provenant du

  14. Effect of protective atmosphere on color of goose meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkusz, A; Woloszyn, J; Haraf, G; Okruszek, A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the work was to characterize the color of the of the goose breast meat packaged in protective atmosphere and stored in the refrigerated conditions. The aim was realized by determination of total heme pigment concentration; relative concentration of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and metmyoglobin; parameters of color L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness); and sensory evaluation of the surface color. The experimental material was White Kołuda goose boneless breast meat with the skin from industrial slaughter. The following 2 protective atmospheres were used in the study: vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) consisting of 80% O2 and 20% CO2. The muscles packed in protective atmosphere were examined on d 4, 7, 11, and 14 of storage. A control sample was goose breast meat stored in air and tested after 24 h after slaughter. The total pigment concentration decreased gradually within 14 d of storage for samples packed in 2 types of atmospheres. The increase in relative concentration of metmyoglobin and the decrease in oxymyoglobin relative concentration in total heme pigments in the meat stored in MA was noticed. However, in all times of storage, the relative concentration of the 3 samples of myoglobin forms stored in vacuum was unchanged. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*) did not change for 14 d of storage in the muscles packed in vacuum. One can state a decrease of the value of the color parameter a* as well as an increase of the value of the color parameter b* in the samples packed in MA. From d 11 to 14 of storage, goose meat packed under MA had lower sensory evaluation intensity of color than muscles under vacuum. The obtained data indicated that the surface color of goose breast meat packed in MA (consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2) or vacuum packed was maintained for 11 and 14 d, respectively.

  15. An Analysis of Socio-Economic Strains and Population Gains: Urban and Rural Communities of Canada 1981-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mata

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Important demographic shifts have occurred in Canada in the last decades. As a consequence of these shifts, many geographical communities have won or lost substantial number of residents between 1981 and 2001. Using the CCS (consolidated census subdivision data set of the Agriculture Division of Statistics Canada, the paper explores the linkages between socio-economic strains and population changes affecting communities in a variety of regional and provincial contexts. A total of 2,607 rural and urban consolidated census subdivisions were examined across five census periods. Quasi simplex structural equation models using unemployment, earnings and poverty as indicators were tested on a variety of communities located in various OECD regions and provinces. Although the predictive power of strains on population gains was found to be limited in the models, a higher level of strain was persistently found to be negatively associated with population gains regardless of regional and provincial groupings of communities. Socio-economic strains were also observed to be relatively stable over time across a variety of geographies.

  16. Quantification of virus genes provides evidence for seed-bank populations of phycodnaviruses in Lake Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Cindy M; Rusanova, Oksana; Short, Steven M

    2011-05-01

    Using quantitative PCR, the abundances of six phytoplankton viruses DNA polymerase (polB) gene fragments were estimated in water samples collected from Lake Ontario, Canada over 26 months. Four of the polB fragments were most related to marine prasinoviruses, while the other two were most closely related to cultivated chloroviruses. Two Prasinovirus-related genes reached peak abundances of >1000 copies ml(-1) and were considered 'high abundance', whereas the other two Prasinovirus-related genes peaked at abundances bank populations with members that can become numerically dominant when their host abundances reach appropriate levels.

  17. Étendre la protection de la loi aux populations à risque au Canada ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 juil. 2016 ... La juge en chef de la Cour suprême du Canada, la très honorable Beverley McLachlin, le procureur général de la Sierra Leone, l'honorable Joseph Kamara, et la correspondante parlementaire pour le réseau CBC, Alison Crawford, se sont joints au CRDI le 16 juin 2016 pour discuter des obstacles qui ...

  18. Experimental Study on the Geometrical and Mechanical Properties of Goose Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zhang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper examined the properties of goose eggshells to determine possible areas of improvement in egg transport and storage. First, we measured goose egg sizes and performed statistical tests, and found that the major axis, minor axis, and egg-shape index presented normal distribution. Eggshell thickness first increased and then decreased from the blunt end to the sharp end. Second, the shape of individual goose eggshell was measured using a 3D scanner. Volume equation, surface equation, and contour function of goose eggshell shape were obtained, exhibiting a highly symmetrical structure. Finally, goose eggs were compressed along their major and minor axes between two plates. Breaking strength was highly dependent on the shape index. A crack was found on the force point along the major axis of each goose egg.

  19. Most children with cancer are not enrolled on a clinical trial in Canada: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Jason D; Barber, Randy; Bergeron, Rose-Émilie; Carret, Anne Sophie; Dix, David; Kulkarni, Ketan; Martineau, Emilie; Randall, Alicia; Stammers, David; Strahlendorf, Caron; Strother, Douglas R; Truong, Tony H; Sung, Lillian

    2017-06-05

    Primary objective was to describe the proportion of children newly diagnosed with cancer enrolled on a therapeutic clinical trial. Secondary objectives were to describe reasons for non-enrollment and factors associated with enrollment on trials. In this retrospective cohort study, we included children newly diagnosed with cancer between 0 and 14 years of age and diagnosed from 2001 to 2012. We used data from the Cancer in Young People in Canada (CYP-C) national pediatric cancer population-based database. CYP-C captures all cases of pediatric cancer (0-14 years) diagnosed and treated at one of the 17 tertiary pediatric oncology centers in Canada. Non-enrollment was evaluated using univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. There were 9204 children with cancer included, of whom 2533 (27.5%) were enrolled on a clinical trial. The most common reasons cited for non-enrollment were lack of an available trial (52.2%) and physician choice (11.2%). In multiple regression, Asian and Arab/west Asian race were associated with lower enrollment (P = 0.006 and P = 0.032 respectively). All cancer diagnoses were more likely to be enrolled compared to astrocytoma and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia had an almost 18-fold increased odds of enrollment compared to astrocytoma (P Canada, 27.5% of children with cancer are enrolled onto therapeutic clinical trials and lack of an available trial is the most common reason contributing to non-enrollment. Future research should better understand reasons for lack of trial availability and physician preferences to not offer trials.

  20. A Population-Based Study of Postpartum Mental Health Service Use by Immigrant Women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigod, Simone; Sultana, Anjum; Fung, Kinwah; Hussain-Shamsy, Neesha; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2016-11-01

    Postpartum mental disorders are twice as common among immigrant women compared to nonimmigrant women in developed countries. Immigrant women may experience barriers to access and use of postpartum mental health services, but little is known about their service use on a population level. We described postpartum mental health service use of immigrant mothers living in Ontario, Canada, comparing to a referent group of mothers who were either born in Canada or had lived in Ontario or another Canadian province since 1985. Among all women in Ontario, Canada, delivering a live infant from 2008 to 2012 (n = 450,622), we described mental health service use within 1 year postpartum, including mental health physician visits, psychiatric emergency department visits, and psychiatric hospitalization. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing immigrant women to the referent group were adjusted for maternal age, parity, income, rurality, mental health services in prior 2 years, and maternal and newborn health. Immigrant women (n = 123,231; 27%) were less likely to use mental health services than women in the referent group (14.1% vs. 21.4%; aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.61), including for physician-based (13.9% vs. 21.1%; aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.61) and emergency department (0.6% vs. 1.3%; aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.68) services. Hospitalization risk was lower among immigrants (0.20% vs. 0.33%) but became similar after covariate adjustment (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.06). Underuse of postpartum mental health services may be contributing to the high burden of postpartum mental disorders among immigrant women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Infection of goose with genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus of goose origin elicits strong immune responses at early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND, caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV, is a highly contagious disease of birds that is responsible for heavy economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. However, little is known about host-virus interactions in waterfowl, goose. In this study, we aim to characterize the host immune response in goose, based on the previous reports on the host response to NDV in chickens. Here, we evaluated viral replication and mRNA expression of 27 immune-related genes in 10 tissues of geese challenged with a genotype VIId NDV strain of goose origin (go/CH/LHLJ/1/06. The virus showed early replication, especially in digestive and immune tissues. The expression profiles showed up-regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR1–3, 5, 7 and 15, avian β-defensin (AvBD 5–7, 10, 12 and 16, cytokines interleukin (IL-8, IL-18, IL-1β and interferon-γ, inducible NO synthase (iNOS, and MHC class I in some tissues of geese in response to NDV. In contrast, NDV infection suppressed expression of AvBD1 in cecal tonsil of geese. Moreover, we observed a highly positive correlation between viral replication and host mRNA expressions of TLR1-5 and 7, AvBD4-6, 10 and 12, all the cytokines measured, MHC class I, FAS ligand, and iNOS, mainly at 72 h post-infection. Taken together, these results demonstrated that NDV infection induces strong innate immune responses and intense inflammatory responses at early stage in goose which may associate with the viral pathogenesis.

  2. INCREASING THE REPRESENTATION OF THE BLACK POPULATION IN THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS IN CANADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukic, Adele; Steenbeek, Audrey; Muxlow, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Increased representation of the Black population in the health care system is central to decrease health disparities, enhance access to services, and improve health outcomes and quality of care. Current strategies for recruitment and retention of the Black population in higher education in the health fields are explored. The added value of mentorship programs are presented as a promising approach for addressing the high rates of attrition of the Black population in health professional education institutions.

  3. Reproductive characteristics and population decline of four species of skate (Rajidae) off the eastern coast of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcphie, R P; Campana, S E

    2009-07-01

    Four of the most common species of skate (Rajidae) were studied off eastern Canada to determine if their reproductive characteristics were linked to their population trajectories. The fecundity of the winter skate Leucoraja ocellata, the little skate Leucoraja erinacea, the thorny skate Amblyraja radiata and the smooth skate Malacoraja senta averaged between 41 and 56 egg cases per year for each species. For all species but L. ocellata, males matured at larger sizes and at later ages than females. Theoretical rates of population increase for non-equilibrium populations of L. ocellata (c. 0.07), M. senta (c. 0.14) and L. erinacea and A. radiata (c. 0.20) were low compared to most fishes, indicating that north-west Atlantic skates are intrinsically unproductive, yet are theoretically capable of supporting low-level fisheries. Nevertheless, the results of 36 years of research surveys indicate that the abundance of mature L. ocellata, A. radiata and M. senta all decreased by >90% since 1970, indicating that past fishing mortality (both directed and undirected) has outstripped the net productivity of the skate populations on the eastern Scotian Shelf. The relationship between maximum age (t(max)) and age of maturity (t(mat)) was a better predictor of population growth rate than was body size, with the species exhibiting the highest ratios of t(mat) :t(max) (L. ocellata = 0.68, M. senta = 0.66) having the lowest predicted population growth rates. L. ocellata appears to have the lowest productivity and has experienced the greatest population decline, thus raising concerns over its future status.

  4. Contribution of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain to adverse neonatal outcomes: population attributable fractions for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakpasu, Susie; Fahey, John; Kirby, Russell S; Tough, Suzanne C; Chalmers, Beverley; Heaman, Maureen I; Bartholomew, Sharon; Biringer, Anne; Darling, Elizabeth K; Lee, Lily S; McDonald, Sarah D

    2015-02-05

    Low or high prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and inadequate or excess gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. This study estimates the contribution of these risk factors to preterm births (PTBs), small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) births in Canada compared to the contribution of prenatal smoking, a recognized perinatal risk factor. We analyzed data from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey. A sample of 5,930 women who had a singleton live birth in 2005-2006 was weighted to a nationally representative population of 71,200 women. From adjusted odds ratios, we calculated population attributable fractions to estimate the contribution of BMI, GWG and prenatal smoking to PTB, SGA and LGA infants overall and across four obstetric groups. Overall, 6% of women were underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)) and 34.4% were overweight or obese (≥25.0 kg/m(2)). More than half (59.4%) gained above the recommended weight for their BMI, 18.6% gained less than the recommended weight and 10.4% smoked prenatally. Excess GWG contributed more to adverse outcomes than BMI, contributing to 18.2% of PTB and 15.9% of LGA. Although the distribution of BMI and GWG was similar across obstetric groups, their impact was greater among primigravid women and multigravid women without a previous PTB or pregnancy loss. The contributions of BMI and GWG to PTB and SGA exceeded that of prenatal smoking. Maternal weight, and GWG in particular, contributes significantly to the occurrence of adverse neonatal outcomes in Canada. Indeed, this contribution exceeds that of prenatal smoking for PTB and SGA, highlighting its public health importance.

  5. Tackling health literacy: adaptation of public hypertension educational materials for an Indo-Asian population in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charlotte A; Mawani, Shefina; King, Kathryn M; Allu, Selina Omar; Smith, Megan; Mohan, Sailesh; Campbell, Norman R C

    2011-01-11

    Indo-Asians in Canada are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. There is a need for cultural and language specific educational materials relating to this risk. During this project we developed and field tested the acceptability of a hypertension public education pamphlet tailored to fit the needs of an at risk local Indo-Asian population, in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. A community health board representing Calgary's Indo-Asian communities identified the culturally specific educational needs and language preferences of the local population. An adaptation of an existing English language Canadian Public Hypertension Recommendations pamphlet was created considering the literacy and translation challenges. The adapted pamphlet was translated into four Indo-Asian languages. The adapted pamphlets were disseminated as part of the initial educational component of a community-based culturally and language-sensitive cardiovascular risk factor screening and management program. Field testing of the materials was undertaken when participants returned for program follow-up seven to 12 months later. Fifty-nine English-speaking participants evaluated and confirmed the concept validity of the English adapted version. 28 non-English speaking participants evaluated the Gujarati (N = 13) and Punjabi (N = 15) translated versions of the adapted pamphlets. All participants found the pamphlets acceptable and felt they had improved their understanding of hypertension. Involving the target community to identify health issues as well as help to create culturally, language and literacy sensitive health education materials ensures resources are highly acceptable to that community. Minor changes to the materials will be needed prior to formal testing of hypertension knowledge and health decision-making on a larger scale within this at risk community.

  6. Spatial patterns of goose grubbing suggest elevated grubbing in dry habitats linked to early snowmelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åshild Ø. Pedersen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The western Palaearctic tundra is a breeding habitat for large populations of European geese. After their arrival in spring, pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus forage extensively on below-ground plant parts, using a feeding technique called grubbing that has substantial impact on the tundra vegetation. Previous studies have shown a high frequency of grubbing in lowland fen vegetation. In the present study, we examined the occurrence of grubbing in other habitat types on Spitsbergen, in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Goose grubbing was surveyed along 19 altitudinal transects, going from the valley bottom to altitudes dominated by scree. Grubbing was more frequent in the wet habitat type at low altitudes compared to the drier habitat type at higher altitudes. For the dry habitat type, a higher frequency of grubbing was found in study plots with a south-east facing exposure where snowmelt is expected to be early. This suggests that pink-footed geese primarily use dry vegetation types for grubbing when they are snow-free in early spring and the availability of snow-free patches of the preferred wet vegetation types in the lowlands is limited. Dry vegetation types have poorer recovery rates from disturbance than wet ones. Sites with early snowmelt and dry vegetation types may therefore be at greater risk of long-term habitat degradation. We conclude that the high growth rate of the Svalbard-breeding pink-footed goose population suggests that increasing impacts of grubbing can be expected and argue that a responsible monitoring of the effects on the tundra ecosystem is crucial.

  7. The Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy: implementation of a population-based osteoporosis action plan in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglal, S B; Hawker, G; Cameron, C; Canavan, J; Beaton, D; Bogoch, E; Jain, R; Papaioannou, A

    2010-06-01

    In the last decade, there have been a number of action plans published to highlight the importance of preventing osteoporosis and related fractures. In the province of Ontario Canada, the Ministry of Health provided funding for the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy. The goal is to reduce morbidity, mortality, and costs from osteoporosis and related fractures through an integrated and comprehensive approach aimed at health promotion and disease management. This paper describes the components of the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy and progress on implementation efforts as of March 2009. There are five main components: health promotion; bone mineral density testing, access, and quality; postfracture care; professional education; and research and evaluation. Responsibility for implementation of the initiatives within the components is shared across a number of professional and patient organizations and academic teaching hospitals with osteoporosis researchers. The lessons learned from each phase of the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy provides a tremendous opportunity to inform other jurisdictions embarking on implementing similar large-scale bone health initiatives.

  8. Population fragmentation and inter-ecosystem movements of grizzly bears in Western Canada and the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, M.F.; Paetkau, David; McLellan, B.N.; Stenhouse, G.B.; Kendall, K.C.; Mace, R.D.; Kasworm, W.F.; Servheen, C.; Lausen, C.L.; Gibeau, M.L.; Wakkinen, W.L.; Haroldson, M.A.; Mowat, G.; Apps, C.D.; Ciarniello, L.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.; Boyce, M.S.; Schwartz, C.C.; Strobeck, C.

    2012-01-01

    Population fragmentation compromises population viability, reduces a species ability to respond to climate change, and ultimately may reduce biodiversity. We studied the current state and potential causes of fragmentation in grizzly bears over approximately 1,000,000 km 2 of western Canada, the northern United States (US), and southeast Alaska. We compiled much of our data from projects undertaken with a variety of research objectives including population estimation and trend, landscape fragmentation, habitat selection, vital rates, and response to human development. Our primary analytical techniques stemmed from genetic analysis of 3,134 bears, supplemented with radiotelemetry data from 792 bears. We used 15 locus microsatellite data coupled withmeasures of genetic distance, isolation-by-distance (IBD) analysis, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), linear multiple regression, multi-factorial correspondence analysis (to identify population divisions or fractures with no a priori assumption of group membership), and population-assignment methods to detect individual migrants between immediately adjacent areas. These data corroborated observations of inter-area movements from our telemetry database. In northern areas, we found a spatial genetic pattern of IBD, although there was evidence of natural fragmentation from the rugged heavily glaciated coast mountains of British Columbia (BC) and the Yukon. These results contrasted with the spatial pattern of fragmentation in more southern parts of their distribution. Near the Canada-US border area, we found extensive fragmentation that corresponded to settled mountain valleys andmajor highways. Genetic distances across developed valleys were elevated relative to those across undeveloped valleys in central and northern BC. In disturbed areas, most inter-area movements detected were made by male bears, with few female migrants identified. North-south movements within mountain ranges (Mts) and across BC Highway 3 were more common

  9. Natural and manipulated populations of the treehole mosquito, Ochlerotatus triseriatus, at its northernmost range limit in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D Dudley; MacKay, Sarah E; Verdonschot, Ralf C M; Tacchino, Pierre J P

    2007-12-01

    Ochlerotatus triseriatus, the eastern treehole mosquito, reaches its northernmost range limit in the extreme southeast of Canada. As a known vector of West Nile and La Crosse encephalitis viruses and a potential vector of eastern equine encephalitis, its population biology is of interest. In southern Ontario, high larval densities occur in urban woodlots within sugar maple and American beech treehole communities comprising rotifers, nematode worms, mites, other dipterans, and scirtid beetles. Treehole water was characterized by low dissolved oxygen levels and seasonally variable pH and temperature, with the latter being most influential on local populations. Densities were significantly higher (up to 503 larvae 100 ml(-1)) in tree holes close to the forest floor (holes seeded with autumn-shed maple leaves as opposed to leaves of black oak and beech. In this locality, weekly sampling showed Oc. triseriatus to be multivoltine, with mass egg hatching beginning under coldwater (hole, population losses of Oc. triseriatus due to washout during major rainfall events were negligible despite high flowthrough of water derived from stemflow.

  10. Enabling the participation of marginalized populations: case studies from a health service organization in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesanti, Stephanie R; Abelson, Julia; Lavis, John N; Dunn, James R

    2017-08-01

    We examined efforts to engage marginalized populations in Ontario Community Health Centers (CHCs), which are primary health care organizations serving 74 high-risk communities. Qualitative case studies of community participation in four Ontario CHCs were carried out through key informant interviews with CHC staff to identify: (i) the approaches, strategies and methods used in participation initiatives aimed specifically at engaging marginalized populations in the planning of and decision making for health services; and (ii) the challenges and enablers for engaging these populations. The marginalized populations involved in the community participation initiatives studied included Low-German Speaking Mennonites in a rural town, newcomer immigrants and refugees in an urban downtown city, immigrant and francophone seniors in an inner city and refugee women in an inner city. Our analysis revealed that enabling the participation of marginalized populations requires CHCs to attend to the barriers experienced by marginalized populations that constrain their participation. Key informants outlined the features of a 'community development approach' that they rely on to address the barriers to marginalized peoples' involvement by strengthening their skills, abilities and leadership in capacity-building activities. The community development approach also shaped the participation methods that were used in the engagement process of CHCs. However, key informants also described the challenges of applying this approach, influenced by the cultural values of some groups, which shaped their willingness and motivation to participate. This study provides further insight into the approach, strategies and methods used in the engagement process to enable the participation of marginalized populations, which may be transferable to other health services settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Describing the population health burden of depression: health-adjusted life expectancy by depression status in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steensma

    2016-10-01

    years of HALE observed for men with depression equated to a 13.0-year HRQOL gap and a 1.8-year mortality gap. Conclusion: The population of adult men and women with depression in Canada had substantially lower healthy life expectancy than those without depression. Much of this gap is explained by lower levels of HRQOL, but premature mortality also plays a role.

  12. Polar bear population status in the northern Beaufort Sea, Canada, 1971-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Ian; McDonald, Trent L; Richardson, E S; Regehr, Eric V; Amstrup, Steven C

    2011-04-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the northern Beaufort Sea (NB) population occur on the perimeter of the polar basin adjacent to the northwestern islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sea ice converges on the islands through most of the year. We used open-population capture-recapture models to estimate population size and vital rates of polar bears between 1971 and 2006 to: (1) assess relationships between survival, sex and age, and time period; (2) evaluate the long-term importance of sea ice quality and availability in relation to climate warming; and (3) note future management and conservation concerns. The highest-ranking models suggested that survival of polar bears varied by age class and with changes in the sea ice habitat. Model-averaged estimates of survival (which include harvest mortality) for senescent adults ranged from 0.37 to 0.62, from 0.22 to 0.68 for cubs of the year (COY) and yearlings, and from 0.77 to 0.92 for 2-4 year-olds and adults. Horvtiz-Thompson (HT) estimates of population size were not significantly different among the decades of our study. The population size estimated for the 2000s was 980 +/- 155 (mean and 95% CI). These estimates apply primarily to that segment of the NB population residing west and south of Banks Island. The NB polar bear population appears to have been stable or possibly increasing slightly during the period of our study. This suggests that ice conditions have remained suitable and similar for feeding in summer and fall during most years and that the traditional and legal Inuvialuit harvest has not exceeded sustainable levels. However, the amount of ice remaining in the study area at the end of summer, and the proportion that continues to lie over the biologically productive continental shelf (polar bear population in the northern Beaufort Sea will eventually decline. Management and conservation practices for polar bears in relation to both aboriginal harvesting and offshore industrial activity will need to

  13. Polar bear population status in the northern Beaufort Sea, Canada, 1971-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, I.; McDonald, T.L.; Richardson, E.S.; Regehr, E.V.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the northern Beaufort Sea (NB) population occur on the perimeter of the polar basin adjacent to the northwestern islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sea ice converges on the islands through most of the year. We used open-population capture–recapture models to estimate population size and vital rates of polar bears between 1971 and 2006 to: (1) assess relationships between survival, sex and age, and time period; (2) evaluate the long-term importance of sea ice quality and availability in relation to climate warming; and (3) note future management and conservation concerns. The highest-ranking models suggested that survival of polar bears varied by age class and with changes in the sea ice habitat. Model-averaged estimates of survival (which include harvest mortality) for senescent adults ranged from 0.37 to 0.62, from 0.22 to 0.68 for cubs of the year (COY) and yearlings, and from 0.77 to 0.92 for 2–4 year-olds and adults. Horvtiz-Thompson (HT) estimates of population size were not significantly different among the decades of our study. The population size estimated for the 2000s was 980 ± 155 (mean and 95% CI). These estimates apply primarily to that segment of the NB population residing west and south of Banks Island. The NB polar bear population appears to have been stable or possibly increasing slightly during the period of our study. This suggests that ice conditions have remained suitable and similar for feeding in summer and fall during most years and that the traditional and legal Inuvialuit harvest has not exceeded sustainable levels. However, the amount of ice remaining in the study area at the end of summer, and the proportion that continues to lie over the biologically productive continental shelf (polar bear population in the northern Beaufort Sea will eventually decline. Management and conservation practices for polar bears in relation to both aboriginal harvesting and offshore industrial activity will need

  14. Spatial organization of the gastrointestinal microbiota in urban Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovetski, Sergei V.; O'Mahoney, Michael; Ransome, Emma J.; Matterson, Kenan O.; Lim, Haw Chuan; Chesser, Terry; Graves, Gary R.

    2018-01-01

    Recent reviews identified the reliance on fecal or cloacal samples as a significant limitation hindering our understanding of the avian gastrointestinal (gut) microbiota and its function. We investigated the microbiota of the esophagus, duodenum, cecum, and colon of a wild urban population of Canada goose (Branta canadensis). From a population sample of 30 individuals, we sequenced the V4 region of the 16S SSU rRNA on an Illumina MiSeq and obtained 8,628,751 sequences with a median of 76,529 per sample. These sequences were assigned to 420 bacterial OTUs and a single archaeon. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes accounted for 90% of all sequences. Microbiotas from the four gut regions differed significantly in their richness, composition, and variability among individuals. Microbial communities of the esophagus were the most distinctive whereas those of the colon were the least distinctive, reflecting the physical downstream mixing of regional microbiotas. The downstream mixing of regional microbiotas was also responsible for the majority of observed co-occurrence patterns among microbial families. Our results indicate that fecal and cloacal samples inadequately represent the complex patterns of richness, composition, and variability of the gut microbiota and obscure patterns of co-occurrence of microbial lineages.

  15. Analysis of population development and effectiveness of mnagement in resident greylag geese Anser anser in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Turnhout, van C.; Willems, F.; Voslamber, B.

    2010-01-01

    The resident Greylag goose population in the Netherlands has strongly increased in number which led to conflict with agricultural interests, public concern on goose hunting and legal debate on the need to regulate geese. Such a debate can be facilitated by insight in population development and the

  16. Polar bear population status in the northern Beaufort Sea, Canada, 1971-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, I.; McDonald, T.L.; Richardson, E.S.; Regehr, E.V.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the northern Beaufort Sea (NB) population occur on the perimeter of the polar basin adjacent to the northwestern islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sea ice converges on the islands through most of the year. We used open-population capture–recapture models to estimate population size and vital rates of polar bears between 1971 and 2006 to: (1) assess relationships between survival, sex and age, and time period; (2) evaluate the long-term importance of sea ice quality and availability in relation to climate warming; and (3) note future management and conservation concerns. The highest-ranking models suggested that survival of polar bears varied by age class and with changes in the sea ice habitat. Model-averaged estimates of survival (which include harvest mortality) for senescent adults ranged from 0.37 to 0.62, from 0.22 to 0.68 for cubs of the year (COY) and yearlings, and from 0.77 to 0.92 for 2–4 year-olds and adults. Horvtiz-Thompson (HT) estimates of population size were not significantly different among the decades of our study. The population size estimated for the 2000s was 980 ± 155 (mean and 95% CI). These estimates apply primarily to that segment of the NB population residing west and south of Banks Island. The NB polar bear population appears to have been stable or possibly increasing slightly during the period of our study. This suggests that ice conditions have remained suitable and similar for feeding in summer and fall during most years and that the traditional and legal Inuvialuit harvest has not exceeded sustainable levels. However, the amount of ice remaining in the study area at the end of summer, and the proportion that continues to lie over the biologically productive continental shelf (Sea will eventually decline. Management and conservation practices for polar bears in relation to both aboriginal harvesting and offshore industrial activity will need to adapt.

  17. Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Status and Service Utilization: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Amartey, Abigail; Wang, Xuesong; Kurdyak, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported mental health factors, mental health service use, and unmet needs across the 4 largest ethnic groups in Ontario, Canada: white, South Asian, Chinese, and black groups. The study population was derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey, using a cross-sectional sample of 254,951 white, South Asian, Chinese, and black residents living in Ontario, Canada, between 2001 and 2014. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence estimates for mental health factors, mental health service use, and unmet needs were calculated for each of the 4 ethnic groups overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. We found that self-reported physician-diagnosed mood and anxiety disorders and mental health service use were generally lower among South Asian, Chinese, and black respondents compared to white respondents. Chinese individuals reported the weakest sense of belonging to their local community and the poorest self-rated mental health and were nearly as likely to report suicidal thoughts in the past year as white respondents. Among those self-reporting fair or poor mental health, less than half sought help from a mental health professional, ranging from only 19.8% in the Chinese group to 50.8% in the white group. The prevalence of mental health factors and mental health service use varied widely across ethnic groups. Efforts are needed to better understand and address cultural and system-level barriers surrounding high unmet needs and to identify ethnically tailored and culturally appropriate clinical supports and practices to ensure equitable and timely mental health care.

  18. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  19. Descriptive study of interprofessional collaboration between physicians and osteopaths for the pediatric population in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Morin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopathy is an increasingly popular healthcare approach that uses a wide variety of therapeutic manual techniques to address pain and somatic dysfunction. In Quebec, Canada, osteopathy is the complementary medicine most often recommended by family physicians. However, factors fostering the development of interprofessional collaboration (IPC between physicians and osteopaths are unknown. This study aimed to describe the current situation in terms of IPC among practitioners working with pediatric patients. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was sent to osteopaths, family physicians, and pediatricians involved with pediatric patients in the province of Quebec. The postal questionnaire captured general knowledge about osteopathy and its practice parameters and role, sources of information, communication aspects including having a professional relationship and referrals, and influence of the upcoming government regulation. Quantitative data from the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Logistic regression model for factors associated with osteopathic referrals and multiple linear regression analyses for the number of correct answers about general osteopathic practice parameters were performed. Results A total of 274 physicians (155 family physicians (response rate 13% and 119 pediatricians (17% and 297 osteopaths (42% completed the survey. According to physicians, osteopathy was most appropriate for musculoskeletal pain (241; 91% and plagiocephaly (235; 88%. Osteopathic referral was positively associated with having a professional relationship (odds ratio [OR] 4.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.12; 7.95, p < 0.001, personal consultation (OR 2.58 (95% CI 1.35; 4.93, p = 0.004, community-based practice (OR 1.89 (95% CI 1.03; 3.47, p = 0.040, and belief in the active role of osteopathy for pediatric conditions (OR 1.22 (95% CI 1.01; 1.47, p = 0.042. The majority of physicians (72% and

  20. Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness Severity: A Population-Based Study of Chinese and South Asian Patients in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Lebenbaum, Michael; Newman, Alice M; Zaheer, Juveria; Kurdyak, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the sociocultural determinants of mental illness at hospital presentation. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in illness severity at hospital admission among Chinese, South Asian, and the general population living in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a large, population-based, cross-sectional study of psychiatric inpatients aged from 19 to 105 years who were discharged between 2006 and 2014. A total of 133,588 patients were classified as Chinese (n = 2,582), South Asian (n = 2,452), or the reference group (n = 128,554) using a validated surnames algorithm (specificity: 99.7%). Diagnoses were based on DSM-IV criteria. We examined the association between ethnicity and 4 measures of disease severity: involuntary admissions, aggressive behaviors, and the number and frequency of positive symptoms (ie, hallucinations, command hallucinations, delusions, and abnormal thought process) (Positive Symptoms Scale, Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health [RAI-MH]). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, immigration status, and discharge diagnosis, Chinese patients had greater odds of involuntary admissions (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.64-1.95) and exhibiting severe aggressive behaviors (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.23-1.51) and ≥ 3 positive symptoms (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.24-1.56) compared to the general population. South Asian ethnicity was also an independent predictor of most illness severity measures. The association between Chinese ethnicity and illness severity was consistent across sex, diagnostic and immigrant categories, and first-episode hospitalization. Chinese and South Asian ethnicities are independent predictors of illness severity at hospital presentation. Understanding the role of patient, family, and health system factors in determining the threshold for hospitalization is an important future step in informing culturally specific care for these large and growing populations worldwide. © Copyright 2016 Physicians

  1. Socioeconomic status and treatment of depression during pregnancy: a retrospective population-based cohort study in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Gillian E; Park, Mina; Oberlander, Tim F

    2018-06-02

    Women at the lower end of the socioeconomic distribution have higher rates of depression in pregnancy; however, we know little about the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in determining their treatment. Herein, we investigate the relationships between income and the use of health services for depression in pregnancy. This retrospective cohort study using population-based administrative datasets included all women who delivered a live infant in the province of British Columbia, Canada (population of 4.3 million) between April 1st, 2000 and December 31st, 2009. We restricted to women with an indication of depression during pregnancy and examined their use of health services to treat depression by income quintile. Women in the highest income quintile were significantly more likely to see a psychiatrist for depression during pregnancy and to fill prescriptions for serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants than women in the lowest income quintile. Women at the lower end of the income distribution were more likely to have a GP visit for depression. Women at the low end of the income distribution were more likely to end up in hospital for depression or a mental health condition during pregnancy and more likely to receive a benzodiazepine and/or an antipsychotic medication. Our findings suggest a critical gap in access to health services for women of lower income suffering from depression during pregnancy, a time when proper access to effective treatment has the most potential to improve the long-term health of the developing child and the whole family unit.

  2. Population ecology of polar bears in Davis Strait, Canada and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the sea ice habitat of polar bears was understood to be variable, but environmental variability was considered to be cyclic or random, rather than progressive. Harvested populations were believed to be at levels where density effects were considered not significant. However, because we now understand that polar bear demography can also be influenced by progressive change in the environment, and some populations have increased to greater densities than historically lower numbers, a broader suite of factors should be considered in demographic studies and management. We analyzed 35 years of capture and harvest data from the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulation in Davis Strait, including data from a new study (2005–2007), to quantify its current demography. We estimated the population size in 2007 to be 2,158 ± 180 (SE), a likely increase from the 1970s. We detected variation in survival, reproductive rates, and age-structure of polar bears from geographic sub-regions. Survival and reproduction of bears in southern Davis Strait was greater than in the north and tied to a concurrent dramatic increase in breeding harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) in Labrador. The most supported survival models contained geographic and temporal variables. Harp seal abundance was significantly related to polar bear survival. Our estimates of declining harvest recovery rate, and increasing total survival, suggest that the rate of harvest declined over time. Low recruitment rates, average adult survival rates, and high population density, in an environment of high prey density, but deteriorating and variable ice conditions, currently characterize the Davis Strait polar bears. Low reproductive rates may reflect negative effects of greater densities or worsening ice conditions.

  3. Persons in correctional facilities in Canada: A key population for hepatitis C prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G; McIsaac, Kathryn E

    2015-10-03

    About one in nine Canadians who are infected with hepatitis C spend time in a correctional facility each year. With high rates of current injection drug use and needle sharing, this population may account for a large proportion of new infections. Any national strategy to address hepatitis C should include a focus on persons in correctional facilities, and should build on existing evidence regarding primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.

  4. Helicobacter pylori in First Nations and Recent Immigrant Populations in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola L Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diminishing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among most segments of the Canadian population has led to changes in the etiologies and patterns of associated upper gastrointestinal diseases, including fewer peptic ulcers and their complications. Canadian Aboriginals and recent immigrants are among populations in which the prevalence of H pylori infection remains high and, therefore, the health risks imposed by H pylori remain a significant concern. Population-based strategies for H pylori eradication in groups with a low prevalence of infection are unlikely to be cost effective, but such measures are attractive in groups in which the prevalence rates of infection remain substantial. In addition to a lower prevalence of peptic ulcers and dyspepsia, the public health value of eradication may be particularly important if this leads to a reduction in the prevalence of gastric cancer in high prevalence groups. Therefore The Canadian Helicobacter Study Group held a conference that brought together experts in the field to address these issues, the results of which are reviewed in the present article. Canadians with the highest prevalence of H pylori infection are an appropriate focus for considering the health advantages of eradicating persistent infection. In Canadian communities with a high prevalence of both H pylori and gastric cancer, there remains an opportunity to test the hypothesis that H pylori infection is a treatable risk factor for malignancy.

  5. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  6. An ephemeral sexual population of Phytophthora infestans in the Northeastern United States and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Danies

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease, has been reported in North America since the mid-nineteenth century. In the United States the lack of or very limited sexual reproduction has resulted in largely clonal populations of P. infestans. In 2010 and 2011, but not in 2012 or 2013, 20 rare and diverse genotypes of P. infestans were detected in a region that centered around central New York State. The ratio of A1 to A2 mating types among these genotypes was close to the 50∶50 ratio expected for sexual recombination. These genotypes were diverse at the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase locus, differed in their microsatellite profiles, showed different banding patterns in a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay using a moderately repetitive and highly polymorphic probe (RG57, were polymorphic for four different nuclear genes and differed in their sensitivity to the systemic fungicide mefenoxam. The null hypothesis of linkage equilibrium was not rejected, which suggests the population could be sexual. These new genotypes were monomorphic in their mitochondrial haplotype that was the same as US-22. Through parentage exclusion testing using microsatellite data and sequences of four nuclear genes, recent dominant lineages US-8, US-11, US-23, and US-24 were excluded as possible parents for these genotypes. Further analyses indicated that US-22 could not be eliminated as a possible parent for 14 of the 20 genotypes. We conclude that US-22 could be a parent of some, but not all, of the new genotypes found in 2010 and 2011. There were at least two other parents for this population and the genotypic characteristics of the other parents were identified.

  7. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the blood...... of population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...

  8. Demography of a breeding population of whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Johanna

    I used a GIS raster layer of an area in the Churchill, Manitoba region to investigate the effect of breeding habitat on demography and density of Whimbrel from 2010 through 2013. Program MARK was used to quantify adult and daily nest survival. Apparent annual survival of 0.73 +/- 0.06 SE (95% CI = 0.60-0.83) did not significantly differ between sexes or habitats and was lower than expected based on longevity records and estimates for other large-bodied shorebirds. Nest success, corrected for exposure days, was highly variable, ranging from a low of 3% (95% CI = 0-12%) in 2011 to a high of 71% (95% CI = 54-83%) in 2013. The highest rate of nest survival occurred in the spring with the warmest mean temperature. I developed a generalized linear model (GLM) with a negative-binomial distribution from random plots that were surveyed for abundance to extrapolate a local breeding population size of 410 +/- 230 SE and density of 3.2 birds per square km +/- 1.8 SE. The result of my study suggests that other aspects of habitat not captured by the land cover categories may be more important to population dynamics.

  9. Breeding Status and Population Trends of Golden Eagles in Northeastern Québec, Canada

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    François Morneau

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In North America, it is hypothesized that the Golden Eagle's (Aquila chrysaetos eastern population declined during the period 1946-1973 because of organochlorine pesticides and other anthropogenic causes of mortality. Since 1970, upward trends for the species have been observed at most eastern hawkwatches. To determine whether such positive trends can be observed on breeding grounds, Golden Eagle counts were performed to monitor nesting territory occupancy between 1994 and 2007 in the Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite River valleys, northeastern Québec. Aerial surveys were conducted during seven of the 14 years. During this period, the number of known nesting territories in the study area increased from 10 to 20, while the number of pairs rose from six to 14. The increase is attributed mostly to investigators' improved experience in finding nests and to their greater familiarity with the study area, and possibly to the growth of the regional population. Occupancy of nesting territories by pairs was very stable over the years. Annual mean % of laying pairs (or laying rate was 48.0 (SD = 19.9, and productivity (mean number of fledglings per pair was 0.49 (SD = 0.35.

  10. Assessment of the microbial populations in field and test pit experiments at Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, M.; Taylor, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    Enumeration of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic (organic carbon-using) bacteria shows the establishment of a microbial population on vegetated tailings. The development of a population of heterotrophic bacteria, 90% of which are obligate aerobes, in the top 5 cm of the tailings is indicative of normal soil formation. The cell concentration decrease is greater than that found in older, well-developed soils. Iron-oxidizing thiobacilli are rarely present in the revegetated tailings, and then only at depths below 40 cm and at cell concentrations less than 100 cells/g. On an adjacent unvegetated portion of the tailings, fewer heterotrophic bacteria are found in the top 5 cm of the tailings. Iron-oxidizing thiobacilli are present uniformly in the top 47 cm. Enumeration of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the effluents of four test pit experiments indicate blockage of the drainage tiles in two experiments. Chemical conditions of the effluents are suitable for the formation of basic ferric precipitates that could cause this blockage

  11. Preterm birth in the Inuit and First Nations populations of Québec, Canada, 1981–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Sing, Mélanie Fon; Park, Alison L.; Lo, Ernest; Trempe, Normand; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate preterm birth (PTB) for Inuit and First Nations vs. non-Indigenous populations in the province of Québec, Canada. Study design Retrospective cohort study. Methods We evaluated singleton live births for Québec residents, 1981–2008 (n =2,310,466). Municipality of residence (Inuit-inhabited, First Nations-inhabited, rest of Québec) and language (Inuit, First Nations, French/English) were used to identify Inuit and First Nations births. The outcome was PTB (Inuit language speakers in Inuit-inhabited areas and the rest of Québec compared with French/English speakers in the rest of Québec, and disparities persisted over time. Relative to French/English speakers in the rest of Québec, Inuit language speakers in the rest of Québec had the highest risk of PTB (HR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.62–2.41). The risk was also elevated for Inuit language speakers in Inuit-inhabited areas, though to a lesser extent (HR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18–1.41). In contrast, First Nations language speakers in First Nations-inhabited areas and the rest of Québec had similar or lower risks of PTB relative to French/English speakers in the rest of Québec. Conclusions Inuit populations, especially those outside Inuit-inhabited areas, have persistently elevated risks of PTB, indicating a need for strategies to prevent PTB in this population. PMID:22456035

  12. Preterm birth in the Inuit and First Nations populations of Québec, Canada, 1981-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Fon Sing, Mélanie; Park, Alison L; Lo, Ernest; Trempe, Normand; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2012-03-24

    To evaluate preterm birth (PTB) for Inuit and First Nations vs. non-Indigenous populations in the province of Québec, Canada. Retrospective cohort study. We evaluated singleton live births for Québec residents, 1981-2008 (n = 2,310,466). Municipality of residence (Inuit-inhabited, First Nations-inhabited, rest of Québec) and language (Inuit, First Nations, French/English) were used to identify Inuit and First Nations births. The outcome was PTB (Inuit language speakers in Inuit-inhabited areas and the rest of Québec compared with French/English speakers in the rest of Québec, and disparities persisted over time. Relative to French/English speakers in the rest of Québec, Inuit language speakers in the rest of Québec had the highest risk of PTB (HR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.62-2.41). The risk was also elevated for Inuit language speakers in Inuit-inhabited areas, though to a lesser extent (HR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18-1.41). In contrast, First Nations language speakers in First Nations-inhabited areas and the rest of Québec had similar or lower risks of PTB relative to French/English speakers in the rest of Québec. Inuit populations, especially those outside Inuit-inhabited areas, have persistently elevated risks of PTB, indicating a need for strategies to prevent PTB in this population.

  13. Preterm birth in the Inuit and First Nations populations of Québec, Canada, 1981–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Auger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate preterm birth (PTB for Inuit and First Nations vs. non-Indigenous populations in the province of Québec, Canada. Study design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: We evaluated singleton live births for Québec residents, 1981–2008 (n = 2,310,466. Municipality of residence (Inuit-inhabited, First Nations-inhabited, rest of Québec and language (Inuit, First Nations, French/English were used to identify Inuit and First Nations births. The outcome was PTB (<37 completed weeks. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to estimate hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of PTB, adjusting for maternal age, education, marital status, parity and birth year. Results: PTB rates were higher for Inuit language speakers in Inuit-inhabited areas and the rest of Québec compared with French/English speakers in the rest of Québec, and disparities persisted over time. Relative to French/English speakers in the rest of Québec, Inuit language speakers in the rest of Québec had the highest risk of PTB (HR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.62–2.41. The risk was also elevated for Inuit language speakers in Inuit-inhabited areas, though to a lesser extent (HR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18–1.41. In contrast, First Nations language speakers in First Nations-inhabited areas and the rest of Québec had similar or lower risks of PTB relative to French/English speakers in the rest of Québec. Conclusions: Inuit populations, especially those outside Inuit-inhabited areas, have persistently elevated risks of PTB, indicating a need for strategies to prevent PTB in this population.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in ethnic populations within Canada: results from national cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard; So, Lawrence; Mohan, Sailesh; Khan, Nadia; King, Kathryn; Quan, Hude

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors have been noted across ethnic groups both within and between countries. The Canadian population is becoming increasingly diverse because of immigration. Understanding ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors is critically important in planning appropriate prevention strategies for the country's rapidly changing population. We sought to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in various Canadian ethnic groups. We analyzed 3 cross-sectional cycles (for 2000, 2003 and 2005) of the Canadian Community Health Survey of people aged 12 years and older. The surveys were conducted by means of self-reported questionnaires. We used stratified analysis to evaluate the relation between risk factors and ethnicity. The effect of participants' ethnicity on the prevalence of risk factors was estimated by means of logistic regression, with adjustment for differences in age, sex, marital status, education, household income, language spoken, immigration status, residency type (urban or rural), household size, region (province or territory) and chronic diseases (heart disease, stroke, cancer, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bowel disease, arthritis, epilepsy, ulcers, thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus). We included 371 154 individuals in the analysis. Compared with white people, people from visible minorities (i.e., neither white nor Aboriginal) had a lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus (4.5% v. 4.0%), hypertension (14.7% v. 10.8%), smoking (20.4% v. 9.7%) and obesity (defined as body mass index ≥ 30; 14.8% v. 9.7%) but a higher prevalence of physical inactivity (50.3% v. 58.1%). More specifically, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, people from most visible minorities, in comparison with the white population, were less likely to smoke; were more likely to be physically inactive, with the exception of people of Korean, Japanese and

  15. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  16. A population based time series analysis of asthma hospitalisations in Ontario, Canada: 1988 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upshur Ross EG

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a common yet incompletely understood health problem associated with a high morbidity burden. A wide variety of seasonally variable environmental stimuli such as viruses and air pollution are believed to influence asthma morbidity. This study set out to examine the seasonal patterns of asthma hospitalisations in relation to age and gender for the province of Ontario over a period of 12 years. Methods A retrospective, population-based study design was used to assess temporal patterns in hospitalisations for asthma from April 1, 1988 to March 31, 2000. Approximately 14 million residents of Ontario eligible for universal healthcare coverage during this time were included for analysis. Time series analyses were conducted on monthly aggregations of hospitalisations. Results There is strong evidence of an autumn peak and summer trough seasonal pattern occurring every year over the 12-year period (Fisher-Kappa (FK = 23.93, p > 0.01; Bartlett Kolmogorov Smirnov (BKS = 0.459, p Conclusions A clear and consistent seasonal pattern was observed in this study for asthma hospitalisations. These findings have important implications for the development of effective management and prevention strategies.

  17. Demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness in Canada: a population study

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    Horrocks Julie

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal illness is an important global public health issue, even in developed countries, where the morbidity and economic impact are significant. Our objective was to evaluate the demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness in Canadians. Methods We used data from two population-based studies conducted in select communities between 2001 and 2003. Together, the studies comprised 8,108 randomly selected respondents; proxies were used for all respondents under 12 years and for respondents under 19 years at the discretion of the parent or guardian. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, we evaluated the following demographic determinants: age, gender, cultural group, and urban/rural status of the respondent, highest education level of the respondent or proxy, number of people in the household, and total annual household income. Two-way interaction terms were included in the multivariate analyses. The final multivariate model included income, age, gender, and the interaction between income and gender. Results After adjusting for income, gender, and their interaction, children under 10 years had the highest risk of acute gastrointestinal illness, followed by young adults aged 20 to 24 years. For males, the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was similar across all income levels, but for females the risk was much higher in the lowest income category. Specifically, in those with total annual household incomes of less than $20,000, the odds of acute gastrointestinal illness were 2.46 times higher in females than in males. Conclusion Understanding the demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness is essential in order to identify vulnerable groups to which intervention and prevention efforts can be targeted.

  18. A population-based study of chronic hepatitis C in immigrants and non-immigrants in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Christina; Azoulay, Laurent; Allard, Robert; Cox, Joseph; Tran, Viet Anh; Abou Chakra, Claire Nour; Steele, Russ; Klein, Marina

    2017-02-13

    Immigrants originating from intermediate and high HCV prevalence countries may be at increased risk of exposure to hepatitis C infection (HCV) in their countries of origin, however they are not routinely screened after arrival in most low HCV prevalence host countries. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of HCV in immigrants compared to the Canadian born population. Using the reportable infectious disease database linked to the landed immigration database and several provincial administrative databases, we assembled a cohort of all reported cases of HCV in Quebec, Canada (1998-2008). Underlying co-morbidities were identified in the health services databases. Stratum specific rates of reported cases/100,000, rate ratios (RRs) and trends over the study period were estimated. A total of 20,862 patients with HCV were identified, among whom 1922 (9.2%) were immigrants. Immigrants were older and diagnosed a mean of 9.8 ± 7 years after arrival. The Canadian born population was more likely to have behavior co-morbidities (problematic alcohol or drug use) and HIV co-infection. Immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe had the highest HCV reported rates with RRs compared to non-immigrants ranging from 1.5 to 1.7. The age and sex adjusted rates decreased by 4.9% per year in non-immigrants but remained unchanged in immigrants. The proportion of HCV occurring in immigrants doubled over the study period from 5 to 11%. Immigrants from intermediate and high HCV prevalence countries are at increased risk for HCV and had a mean delay in diagnosis of almost 10 years after arrival suggesting that they may benefit from targeted HCV screening and earlier linkage to care.

  19. The Rising Prevalence and Incidence of Gout in British Columbia, Canada: Population-Based Trends from 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sharan K.; Aviña-Zubieta, J. Antonio; McCormick, Natalie; De Vera, Mary A.; Shojania, Kam; Sayre, Eric C.; Choi, Hyon K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Gout is increasingly recognized as the most common form of inflammatory arthritis worldwide; however, no Canadian data on the disease burden of gout are available. We estimated the prevalence, incidence, prescription patterns, and comorbidity burden of gout in an entire Canadian province (British Columbia [BC]) over the last decade. Methods We utilized PopulationData BC, a province-wide database, to estimate temporal trends in the prevalence and incidence of gout from 2000-2012, as well as according to age category. Annual estimates were age-sex-standardized using 2012 as the reference. We also examined annual trends in prescription patterns of common gout medications and assessed the comorbidity burden among gout patients in 2012. Results The 2012 prevalence of gout was 3.8% among the overall population, and the incidence rate was 2.9 per 1,000 person-years. Both gout prevalence and incidence increased substantially over the study period. This burden additionally increased according to age category, affecting over 8% of those ages 60-69 years in 2012. Approximately 22% of gout patients received a prescription for urate-lowering therapy (ULT), which remained stable over the study period, while colchicine and oral glucocorticoid use both increased modestly. By 2012, 72%, 52%, and 18% of prevalent gout patients had been diagnosed with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, respectively. Conclusions The burden of gout in BC, Canada, is substantial, and both the prevalence and incidence have increased over the past decade, while prescription of ULT remains low. These data support the need to improve gout prevention and care. PMID:28040245

  20. Associations between race, discrimination and risk for chronic disease in a population-based sample from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Shahidi, Faraz Vahid; Ramraj, Chantel; Williams, David R

    2017-12-01

    A major epidemiological finding emerging from studies using U.S. samples is that racial differences in experiences of discrimination are associated with racial differences in health. A newer area of research is exploring the population-level dynamics between race, discrimination, and health status in various societies. The objective of this study is to assess for the first time in a national sample from Canada: (a) racial differences in experiences of discrimination and, (b) the association between discrimination and chronic conditions and their major risk factors. Data were obtained from the 2013 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 16,836). Race was categorized as Aboriginal, Asian, Black, or White. Discrimination was measured using the Williams Everyday Discrimination Scale. Outcomes included having any chronic condition or major risk factors (obesity, hypertension, smoking, binge drinking, infrequent physical activity, and poor self-rated health). Crude and adjusted (for age, sex, immigrant status, socioeconomics) logistic regressions modeled the association between (a) race and discrimination and, (b) discrimination and each outcome. Results indicated that Blacks were most likely to experience discrimination, followed by Aboriginals. For example, Blacks were almost twice as likely (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.19-3.11), and Aboriginals 75 percent more likely (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.37-2.22) to report being treated with less courtesy or respect than others. Blacks were more than four times as likely (OR: 4.27, 95% CI: 2.23-8.19), and Aboriginals more than twice as likely (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.66-3.08) to report being feared by others. Asians were not statistically different from Whites. With two exceptions (binge drinking and physical activity), discrimination was associated with chronic conditions and their risk factors (OR for any chronic condition: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.52-2.08). Initial results suggest that in Canada, experience of discrimination is a determinant of

  1. Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Söderquist

    Full Text Available Wild populations of the world's most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started, present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males. Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more "goose-like" bills (wider, higher, and shorter than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with 'alien genes' may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  2. Thermoacoustic design using stem of goose down stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farikhah, Irna; Ristanto, Sigit; Idrus, Hadiyati; Kaltsum, Ummi; Faisal, Affandi; Setiawan, Ihsan; Setio Utomo, Agung Bambang

    2012-09-01

    Many refrigerators using CFC as a refrigerant are seen as the cause of the depletion of ozone. Hence, thermoacoustic was chosen as an alternative refrigerator that safe for environment. There are many variable that influenced the optimization of thermoacoustic design. One of them is thermal conductivity of material of stack. The Stack material must have a low thermal conductivity. In this research we used organic stack made of stem of goose down. It has superior thermal insulating. It means that they have the lowest thermal conductivity. The system uses no refrigerant or compressor, and the only mechanical moving part is the loudspeaker connected to a signal generator that produces the acoustic. The working fluid is air and the material of resonator is stainless steel. A series test on the laboratory found that there is a decrease of 5°C in temperature for about 2 minutes.

  3. Estimate of the benefits of a population-based reduction in dietary sodium additives on hypertension and its related health care costs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffres, Michel R; Campbell, Norm R C; Manns, Braden; Tu, Karen

    2007-05-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide. One-quarter of the adult Canadian population has hypertension, and more than 90% of the population is estimated to develop hypertension if they live an average lifespan. Reductions in dietary sodium additives significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and population reductions in dietary sodium are recommended by major scientific and public health organizations. To estimate the reduction in hypertension prevalence and specific hypertension management cost savings associated with a population-wide reduction in dietary sodium additives. Based on data from clinical trials, reducing dietary sodium additives by 1840 mg/day would result in a decrease of 5.06 mmHg (systolic) and 2.7 mmHg (diastolic) blood pressures. Using Canadian Heart Health Survey data, the resulting reduction in hypertension was estimated. Costs of laboratory testing and physician visits were based on 2001 to 2003 Ontario Health Insurance Plan data, and the number of physician visits and costs of medications for patients with hypertension were taken from 2003 IMS Canada. To estimate the reduction in total physician visits and laboratory costs, current estimates of aware hypertensive patients in Canada were used from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Reducing dietary sodium additives may decrease hypertension prevalence by 30%, resulting in one million fewer hypertensive patients in Canada, and almost double the treatment and control rate. Direct cost savings related to fewer physician visits, laboratory tests and lower medication use are estimated to be approximately $430 million per year. Physician visits and laboratory costs would decrease by 6.5%, and 23% fewer treated hypertensive patients would require medications for control of blood pressure. Based on these estimates, lowering dietary sodium additives would lead to a large reduction in hypertension prevalence and result in health care cost savings in Canada.

  4. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population of Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu L Bourbonnais

    Full Text Available Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife

  5. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife system and others

  6. Differences in heat-related mortality across four ecological regions with diverse urban, rural, and remote populations in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sarah B; Wan, Victoria; Kosatsky, Tom

    2013-09-01

    Temperature-mortality analyses are challenging in rural and remote communities with small populations, but this information is needed for climate change and emergency planning. The geographic health areas of British Columbia, Canada were aggregated into four ecoregions delineated by microclimatic conditions. Time series models were used to estimate the effect of maximum apparent temperature on daily non-traumatic mortality. The population of the coldest ecoregion was most sensitive to hot weather, while the population of the hottest ecoregion was least sensitive. The effects were consistently strongest in decedents aged less than 75 years. A province-wide total of 815 deaths was attributed to hot weather over the 25-year study period, with 735 deaths in the most populous ecoregion. The framework described could be adapted to other climatically variable regions with urban, rural, and remote populations. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Socio-geographic mobility and health status: a longitudinal analysis using the National Population Health Survey of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Sarah; Setia, Maninder S; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie

    2009-12-01

    The paper reviews arguments that associations between small area socio-economic conditions and individual health are likely to vary according to the type of health condition considered. We comment on the importance of longitudinal research to examine how far area conditions predict later health outcomes, and also how far area variations in health may result from selective migration processes predicted by health status. Using data for 1996 and 2002, from the National Population Health Survey of Canada, linked to small area data on social and on material deprivation in the area of residence for 6950 survey respondents at the two time points, we report on analyses to address these questions. The area measures of material and social deprivation were previously developed by Pampalon and colleagues at the Institut National de Santé Publique de Québec and related to the dissemination area matching the informant's postal code. The health outcomes considered were restriction of activity due to chronic conditions and psychological distress. Our findings suggest that individuals living in materially deprived areas in 2002 were more likely to be affected by health conditions resulting in restriction of activity. Prevalence of psychological distress was higher in areas with greater social deprivation in 2002. Most of these area differences were attenuated when adjustment was made for individual socio-demographic characteristics. Measures recorded in 1996 of individual characteristics and measures of deprivation for area of residence were used to predict change in health outcomes by 2002. Several individual factors (sex, age group, income, household composition) in 1996 were predictive of later health outcomes. After controlling for these individual characteristics the only significant association between health change and area deprivation was with development of restricted activity, which was more common among people who, in 1996, had lived in areas that ranked moderately

  8. Occurrence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations along roadsides in southern Manitoba, Canada and their potential role in intraspecific gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Gulden, Robert H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2011-04-01

    Alfalfa is a highly outcrossing perennial species that can be noticed in roadsides as feral populations. There remains little information available on the extent of feral alfalfa populations in western Canadian prairies and their role in gene flow. The main objectives of this study were (a) to document the occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, and (b) to estimate the levels of outcrossing facilitated by feral populations. A roadside survey confirmed widespread occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, particularly in alfalfa growing regions. The feral populations were dynamic and their frequency ranged from 0.2 to 1.7 populations km(-1). In many cases, the nearest feral alfalfa population from alfalfa production field was located within a distance sufficient for outcrossing in alfalfa. The gene flow study confirmed that genes can move back and forth between feral and cultivated alfalfa populations. In this study, the estimated outcrossing levels were 62% (seed fields to feral), 78% (feral to seed fields), 82% (hay fields to feral) and 85% (feral to feral). Overall, the results show that feral alfalfa plants are prevalent in alfalfa producing regions in western Canada and they can serve as bridges for gene flow at landscape level. Management of feral populations should be considered, if gene flow is a concern. Emphasis on preventing seed spill/escapes and intentional roadside planting of alfalfa cultivars will be particularly helpful. Further, realistic and pragmatic threshold levels should be established for markets sensitive to the presence of GE traits.

  9. A guide to multi-objective optimization for ecological problems with an application to cackling goose management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Perry J.; Kendall, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Choices in ecological research and management are the result of balancing multiple, often competing, objectives. Multi-objective optimization (MOO) is a formal decision-theoretic framework for solving multiple objective problems. MOO is used extensively in other fields including engineering, economics, and operations research. However, its application for solving ecological problems has been sparse, perhaps due to a lack of widespread understanding. Thus, our objective was to provide an accessible primer on MOO, including a review of methods common in other fields, a review of their application in ecology, and a demonstration to an applied resource management problem.A large class of methods for solving MOO problems can be separated into two strategies: modelling preferences pre-optimization (the a priori strategy), or modelling preferences post-optimization (the a posteriori strategy). The a priori strategy requires describing preferences among objectives without knowledge of how preferences affect the resulting decision. In the a posteriori strategy, the decision maker simultaneously considers a set of solutions (the Pareto optimal set) and makes a choice based on the trade-offs observed in the set. We describe several methods for modelling preferences pre-optimization, including: the bounded objective function method, the lexicographic method, and the weighted-sum method. We discuss modelling preferences post-optimization through examination of the Pareto optimal set. We applied each MOO strategy to the natural resource management problem of selecting a population target for cackling goose (Branta hutchinsii minima) abundance. Cackling geese provide food security to Native Alaskan subsistence hunters in the goose's nesting area, but depredate crops on private agricultural fields in wintering areas. We developed objective functions to represent the competing objectives related to the cackling goose population target and identified an optimal solution

  10. Back to the basics: Identifying and addressing underlying challenges in achieving high quality and relevant health statistics for indigenous populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Firestone, Michelle

    Canada is known internationally for excellence in both the quality and public policy relevance of its health and social statistics. There is a double standard however with respect to the relevance and quality of statistics for Indigenous populations in Canada. Indigenous specific health and social statistics gathering is informed by unique ethical, rights-based, policy and practice imperatives regarding the need for Indigenous participation and leadership in Indigenous data processes throughout the spectrum of indicator development, data collection, management, analysis and use. We demonstrate how current Indigenous data quality challenges including misclassification errors and non-response bias systematically contribute to a significant underestimate of inequities in health determinants, health status, and health care access between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The major quality challenge underlying these errors and biases is the lack of Indigenous specific identifiers that are consistent and relevant in major health and social data sources. The recent removal of an Indigenous identity question from the Canadian census has resulted in further deterioration of an already suboptimal system. A revision of core health data sources to include relevant, consistent, and inclusive Indigenous self-identification is urgently required. These changes need to be carried out in partnership with Indigenous peoples and their representative and governing organizations.

  11. GOOSE Version 1.4: A powerful object-oriented simulation environment for developing reactor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nypaver, D.J.; March-Leuba, C.; Abdalla, M.A.; Guimaraes, L.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype software package for a fully interactive Generalized Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (GOOSE) is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dynamic models are easily constructed and tested; fully interactive capabilities allow the user to alter model parameters and complexity without recompilation. This environment provides assess to powerful tools such as numerical integration packages, graphical displays, and online help. In GOOSE, portability has been achieved by creating the environment in Objective-C 1 , which is supported by a variety of platforms including UNIX and DOS. GOOSE Version 1.4 introduces new enhancements like the capability of creating ''initial,'' ''dynamic,'' and ''digital'' methods. The object-oriented approach to simulation used in GOOSE combines the concept of modularity with the additional features of allowing precompilation, optimization, testing, and validation of individual modules. Once a library of classes has been defined and compiled, models can be built and modified without recompilation. GOOSE Version 1.4 is primarily command-line driven

  12. Distribution of attenuated goose parvoviruses in Muscovy ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, K; Saitoh, M; Kiyono, M; Nakamura, M

    1998-03-01

    With a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, goose parvovirus (GPV) DNA was detected in Muscovy ducklings inoculated with attenuated GPV strains, IH and IHC. Strain IH that had been passed 20 times in Muscovy duck embryos could be detected in ducklings at 2- to 28-days after oral inoculation by PCR, however, a cell culture adapted strain IHC that had been passed 15 times in Muscovy duck embryos and then successively 50 times in Muscovy duck embryo fibroblasts could not be detected by 6 days postinoculation by the oral route, but via intramuscular inoculation the virus was detected from 6 dpi. With both strains Muscovy ducklings produced neutralizing antibodies against GPV, but GPV could be recovered from heart muscles even in birds that had high titer of neutralizing antibody. This means that GPV remains in birds for a long period under the presence of high titer of neutralizing antibody in the serum. Recovery of the virus was consistent with PCR results with one exception in which the bird had a neutralizing antibody titer of more than 100,000. After inoculation of these strains, no clinical signs were detected in ducklings. These results suggest that strains IH and IHC can be candidates for live attenuated vaccine for GPV infection.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of Hungarian goose parvovirus isolates and vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár-Kis, Tímea; Mató, Tamás; Markos, Béla; Palya, Vilmos

    2004-08-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to analyse goose parvovirus field isolates and vaccine strains. Two fragments of the genome were amplified. Fragment "A" represents a region of VP3 gene, while fragment "B" represents a region upstream of the VP3 gene, encompassing part of the VP1 gene. In the region of fragment "A" the deduced amino acid sequence of the strains was identical, therefore differentiation among strains could be done only at the nucleotide level, which resulted in the formation of three groups: Hungarian, West-European and Asian strains. In the region of fragment "B", separation of groups could be done by both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence level. The nucleotide sequences resulted in the same groups as for fragment "A" but with a different clustering pattern among the Hungarian strains. Within the "Hungarian" group most of the recent field isolates fell into one cluster, very closely related or identical to each other, indicating a very slow evolutionary change. The attenuated strains and field isolates from 1979/80 formed a separate cluster. When vaccine strains and field isolates were compared, two specific amino acid differences were found that can be considered as possible markers for vaccinal strains. Sequence analysis of fragment "B" seems to be a suitable method for differentiation of attenuated vaccine strains from virulent strains. Copyright 2004 Houghton Trust Ltd

  14. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    -gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site......This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy...... Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace...

  15. Alliance members' roles in collective field-building: an assessment of leadership and championship within the Population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Kishchuk, Natalie; Viehbeck, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Robinson, Kerry; Riley, Barbara; Fowler, Heather Smith

    2017-12-06

    The Population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada (PHIRIC) is a multi-stakeholder alliance founded in 2006 to advance population health intervention research (PHIR). PHIRIC aimed to strengthen Canada's capacity to conduct and use such research to inform policy and practice to improve the public's health by building PHIR as a field of research. In 2014, an evaluative study of PHIRIC at organisational and system levels was conducted, guided by a field-building and collaborative action perspective. The study involved 17 qualitative key informant interviews with 21 current and former PHIRIC Planning Committee and Working Group members. The interviews examined how individuals and organisations were acting as champions and exerting leadership in building the field of PHIR. Founding PHIRIC organisational members have been championing PHIR at organisational and system levels. While the PHIR field has progressed in terms of enhanced funding, legitimacy, profile and capacity, some members and organisations faced constraints and challenges acting as leaders and champions in their respective environments. Expectations about the future of PHIRIC and field-building of PHIR were mixed, where longer-term and founding members of PHIRIC expressed more optimism than recent members. All agreed on the need for incorporating perspectives of decision-makers into PHIR directions and initiatives. The findings contribute to understanding alliance members' roles in leadership and championship for field-building more generally, and for population health and PHIR specifically. Building this field requires multi-level efforts, collaborative action and distributed leadership to create the necessary conditions for PHIRIC members to both benefit from and contribute to advancing PHIR as a field. Lessons from this 'made in Canada' model may be of interest to other countries regarding the structures needed for PHIR field-building.

  16. Failure of orally administered attenuated goose parvovirus strain B to induce a humoral immune response in adult geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisary, J; Kelemen, M

    1981-01-01

    Two-month-old geese responded with the production of virus neutralising antibodies against virulent goose parvovirus strain B administered either per os or intramuscularly. They were shedding the virus within a short period after exposure. Humoral immune response in geese of the same age was induced by the attenuated goose parvovirus strain B only by intramuscular injection but not with per os administration.

  17. A Vocal-Based Analytical Method for Goose Behaviour Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Karstoft

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since human-wildlife conflicts are increasing, the development of cost-effective methods for reducing damage or conflict levels is important in wildlife management. A wide range of devices to detect and deter animals causing conflict are used for this purpose, although their effectiveness is often highly variable, due to habituation to disruptive or disturbing stimuli. Automated recognition of behaviours could form a critical component of a system capable of altering the disruptive stimuli to avoid this. In this paper we present a novel method to automatically recognise goose behaviour based on vocalisations from flocks of free-living barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis. The geese were observed and recorded in a natural environment, using a shielded shotgun microphone. The classification used Support Vector Machines (SVMs, which had been trained with labeled data. Greenwood Function Cepstral Coefficients (GFCC were used as features for the pattern recognition algorithm, as they can be adjusted to the hearing capabilities of different species. Three behaviours are classified based in this approach, and the method achieves a good recognition of foraging behaviour (86–97% sensitivity, 89–98% precision and a reasonable recognition of flushing (79–86%, 66–80% and landing behaviour(73–91%, 79–92%. The Support Vector Machine has proven to be a robust classifier for this kind of classification, as generality and non-linearcapabilities are important. We conclude that vocalisations can be used to automatically detect behaviour of conflict wildlife species, and as such, may be used as an integrated part of awildlife management system.

  18. Ethnic disparities in children's oral health: findings from a population-based survey of grade 1 and 2 schoolchildren in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Congshi; Faris, Peter; McNeil, Deborah A; Patterson, Steven; Potestio, Melissa L; Thawer, Salima; McLaren, Lindsay

    2018-01-04

    Although oral health has improved remarkably in recent decades, not all populations have benefited equally. Ethnic identity, and in particular visible minority status, has been identified as an important risk factor for poor oral health. Canadian research on ethnic disparities in oral health is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to examine ethnic disparities in oral health outcomes and to assess the extent to which ethnic disparities could be accounted for by demographic, socioeconomic and caries-related behavioral factors, among a population-based sample of grade 1 and 2 schoolchildren (age range: 5-8 years) in Alberta, Canada. A dental survey (administered during 2013-14) included a mouth examination and parent questionnaire. Oral health outcomes included: 1) percentage of children with dental caries; 2) number of decayed, extracted/missing (due to caries) and filled teeth; 3) percentage of children with two or more teeth with untreated caries; and 4) percentage of children with parental-ratings of fair or poor oral health. We used multivariable regression analysis to examine ethnic disparities in oral health, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and caries-related behavioral variables. We observed significant ethnic disparities in children's oral health. Most visible minority groups, particularly Filipino and Arab, as well as Indigenous children, were more likely to have worse oral health than White populations. In particular, Filipino children had an almost 5-fold higher odds of having severe untreated dental problems (2 or more teeth with untreated caries) than White children. Adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and caries-related behavior variables attenuated but did not eliminate ethnic disparities in oral health, with the exception of Latin American children whose outcomes did not differ significantly from White populations after adjustment. Significant ethnic disparities in oral health exist in Alberta, Canada, even when adjusting for

  19. Fire Regime in Marginal Jack Pine Populations at Their Southern Limit of Distribution, Riding Mountain National Park, Central Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Tardif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In central Canada, long fire history reconstructions are rare. In a context where both anthropogenic and climate influences on fire regime have changed, Parks Canada has a mandate to maintain ecological integrity. Here we present a fire history derived from fire-scarred jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. trees growing at their southern distribution limit in Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP. In Lake Katherine Fire Management Unit (LKFMU, a subregion within the park, fire history was reconstructed from archival records, tree-ring records, and charcoal in lake sediment. From about 1450 to 1850 common era (CE the fire return intervals varied from 37 to 125 years, according to models. During the period 1864–1930 the study area burned frequently (Weibull Mean Fire Intervals between 2.66 and 5.62 years; this period coincided with the end of First Nations occupation and the start of European settlement. Major recruitment pulses were associated with the stand-replacing 1864 and 1894 fires. This period nevertheless corresponded to a reduction in charcoal accumulation. The current fire-free period in LKFMU (1930–today coincides with RMNP establishment, exclusion of First Nations land use and increased fire suppression. Charcoal accumulation further decreased during this period. In the absence of fire, jack pine exclusion in LKFMU is foreseeable and the use of prescribed burning is advocated to conserve this protected jack pine ecosystem, at the southern margins of its range, and in the face of potential climate change.

  20. Occupational variation in incidence of bladder cancer: a comparison of population-representative cohorts from Nordic countries and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; MacLeod, Jill; Demers, Paul A; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sparen, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Anne Harris, M; Tjepkema, Michael; Peters, Paul A; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-08-04

    The objective of this study was to compare occupational variation of the risk of bladder cancer in the Nordic countries and Canada. In the Nordic Occupational Cancer study (NOCCA), 73 653 bladder cancer cases were observed during follow-up of 141.6 million person-years. In the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), 8170 cases were observed during the follow-up of 36.7 million person-years. Standardised incidence ratios with 95% CI were estimated for 53 occupations in the NOCCA cohort and HR with 95% CIs were estimated for 42 occupations in the CanCHEC. Elevated risks of bladder cancer were observed among hairdressers, printers, sales workers, plumbers, painters, miners and laundry workers. Teachers and agricultural workers had reduced risk of bladder cancer in both cohorts. Chimney-sweeps, tobacco workers and waiters had about 1.5-fold risk in the Nordic countries; no risk estimates for these categories were given from the CanCHEC cohort. We observed different occupational patterns in risk of bladder cancer in Nordic countries and Canada. The only occupation with similarly increased risk was observed among sales workers. Differences in smoking across occupational groups may explain some, but not all, of this variation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Effects of the light goose conservation order on non-target waterfowl distribution during spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Andrew J.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Vrtiska, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Light Goose Conservation Order (LGCO) was initiated in 1999 to reduce mid-continent populations of light geese (lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens and Ross's geese C. rossi). However, concern about potential for LGCO activities (i.e. hunting activities) to negatively impact non-target waterfowl species during spring migration in the Rainwater Basin (RWB) of Nebraska prompted agency personnel to limit the number of hunt days each week and close multiple public wetlands to LGCO activities entirely. To evaluate the effects of the LGCO in the RWB, we quantified waterfowl density at wetlands open and closed to LGCO hunting and recorded all hunter encounters during springs 2011 and 2012. We encountered a total of 70 hunting parties on 22 study wetlands, with over 90% of these encounters occurring during early season when the majority of waterfowl used the RWB region. We detected greater overall densities of dabbling ducks Anas spp., as well as for mallards A. platyrhynchos and northern pintails A. acuta on wetlands closed to the LGCO. We detected no effects of hunt day in the analyses of dabbling duck densities. We detected no differences in mean weekly dabbling duck densities among wetlands open to hunting, regardless of weekly or cumulative hunting encounter frequency throughout early season. Additionally, hunting category was not a predictor for the presence of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifronsin a logistic regression model. Given that dabbling duck densities were greater on wetlands closed to hunting, providing wetlands free from hunting disturbance as refugia during the LGCO remains an important management strategy at migration stopover sites. However, given that we did not detect an effect of hunt day or hunting frequency on dabbling duck density, our results suggest increased hunting frequency at sites already open to hunting would likely have minimal impacts on the distribution of non-target waterfowl species using the region for spring

  2. Identification of protective components that prevent the exacerbation of goose fatty liver: Characterization, expression and regulation of adiponectin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tuoyu; Yang, Biao; Li, Fuyuan; Xia, Lili; Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Xing; Gong, Daoqing

    2016-01-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver is a natural process in goose, which prepares goose for long-distance migration. In contrast to mammalian fatty liver that usually progresses into an irreversible status, steatohepatitis, goose fatty liver can return to normal without obvious pathological damage, suggesting a protective system exists in goose liver. This study was to identify the components of this system. We first focused on goose adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (Adipor1/2) as they have ceramidase activity, and can cleave ceramide, a group of proinflammatory signaling lipid species. Quantitative analysis indicated that tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfα), a key proinflammatory cytokine, was down-regulated in goose fatty liver by overfeeding. This inhibition of Tnfα was accompanied with reduced adiponectin and increased Adipor1/2 in the adipose tissues and in the livers of the overfed geese, respectively. To investigate the regulation of goose Adipor2 in the context of fatty liver, we treated goose primary hepatocytes with fatty liver associated factors. Data indicated that Adipor2 was upregulated by glucose and oleate but not palmitate. Its expression was even suppressed by high level of insulin. The regulation of Adipor1 by these factors was quite similar to that of Adipor2 except that glucose did not induce Adipor1. Together, these findings suggest the upregulation of Adipor1/2 may, at least partially, contribute to the inhibition of inflammation in goose fatty liver, and the expression of Adipor1/2 can be regulated by fatty liver-associated factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of OAZ1 and its potential functions in goose follicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kang

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The goose OAZ1 structure confirms that OAZ1 plays an important role in ornithine decarboxylase-mediated regulation of polyamine homeostasis. Our findings provide an evidence for a potential function of OAZ1 in follicular development, ovulation and regression.

  4. Mitochondrial D-loop sequence of domesticated waterfowl in Central Java: goose and muscovy duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the genetic characterization of domesticated waterfowl (goose and Muscovy duck) in Central Java based on a D-loop mtDNA gene. The D-loop gene was amplified using PCR technique by specific primer and sequenced using dideoxy termination method. Multiple alignments of D-loop gene obtained were 710 nucleotides at position 74 to 783 at the 5’ end (for goose) and 712 nucleotides at position 48 to 759 at the 5’ end (for Muscovy duck). The results of the polymorphism analysis on D-loop sequences of muscovy duck produced 3 haplotypes. In the D-loop gene of goose does not show polymorphism, with substitution at G117A. Phylogenetic trees reconstructions of goose and Muscovy duck, which was collected during this research compared with another species from Anser, Chairina and Anas was generated 2 forms of clusters. The first group consists of all kind of Muscovy duck together with Chairina moschata and Anas, while the second group consists of all geese and Anser cygnoides the other. The determination of Muscovy duck and geese identity can be distinguished from the genetic marker information. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, it can be concluded that the Muscovy duck is closely related to Chairina moschata, while geese is closely related to Anser cygnoides.

  5. Inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence creates goose habitat along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Ken D.; Flint, Paul L.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are sea level for kilometers inland, and are underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Increased storm surges or terrestrial subsidence would therefore expand the area subject to marine inundation. Since 1976, the distribution of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain has shifted from inland freshwater lakes to coastal marshes, such as those occupying the Smith River and Garry Creek estuaries. We hypothesized that the movement of geese from inland lakes was caused by an expansion of high quality goose forage in coastal areas. We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between 1948 and 2010 with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon. Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between 1948 and 1995, accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation. This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution. Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a 'tipping point' whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes.

  6. Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic light-body type goose

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... The 521 bp control region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA from 13 light- body type breeds was ... Key words: Domestic goose, mtDNA D-loop, systematic evolution. ..... effects of cytoplasmic inheritance on production traits exist.

  7. Development of Colloidal Gold-Based Immunochromatographic Assay for Rapid Detection of Goose Parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Goose parvovirus (GPV remains as a worldwide problem in goose industry. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a new diagnostic approach that is easier and faster than conventional tests. A rapid immunochromatographic assay based on antibody colloidal gold nanoparticles specific to GPV was developed for the detection of GPV in goose allantoic fluid and supernatant of tissue homogenate. The monoclonal antibodies (Mab was produced by immunizing the BALB/c mice with purified GPV suspension, and the polyclonal antibody (pAb was produced by immunizing the rabbits with recombinant VP3 protein. The colloidal gold was prepared by the reduction of gold salt with sodium citrate coupled with Mab against GPV. The optimal concentrations of the coating antibody and capture antibody were determined to be 1.6 mg/ml and 9 μg/ml. With visual observation, the lower limit was found to be around 1.2 μg/ml. Common diseases of goose were tested to evaluate the specificity of the immune colloidal gold (ICG strip, and no cross-reaction was observed. The clinical detection was examined by carrying out the ICG strip test with 92 samples and comparing the results of these tests with those obtained via agar diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. Therefore, the ICG strip test was a sufficiently sensitive and accurate detection method for a rapid screening of GPV.

  8. Interactions between hare and brent goose in a salt marsh system : evidence for food competition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, R; Kunst, P; Drent, R

    1998-01-01

    In this study we accumulate evidence that brown hare competes with brent goose for food resources in a temperate salt marsh. We show that both species overlap in habitat use and share food plants. The two herbivores mainly used the common habitat at different times of the day, with hares active in

  9. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  10. Sea lice population and sex differences in P-glycoprotein expression and emamectin benzoate resistance on salmon farms in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Burka, John F; Fast, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Parasitic sea lice are a major challenge for salmon aquaculture. This is especially due to the recent development of resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB) in the parasite. We investigated: (1) whether EMB treatment success in Grand Manan, Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada can be explained through EMB bioassay and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mRNA expression studies; (2) if other populations of sea lice not under EMB selective pressure possess similar EMB sensitivity as Grand Manan sea lice populations; and (3) the heritability of EMB resistance in Lepeophtheirus salmonis. EMB bioassay results indicated population, species, sex and temporal differences in EMB EC50 values. RT-qPCR analyses revealed population and sex differences in P-gp mRNA levels, correlating with the bioassay results. Laboratory-reared sea lice maintained their EMB sensitivity status up to the F3 generation. Caligus elongatus, collected from Grand Manan showed more than twofold lower EMB EC50 values compared with L. salmonis collected from the same site. Concurrent exposure to EMB and verapamil yielded no increase in C. elongatus sensitivity to the parasiticide. Sea lice bioassay and P-gp mRNA studies can be used to track EMB resistance and sex differences in EMB sensitivity and P-gp mRNA levels exist in the parasite. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Testing the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis with bird populations as habitat-specific environmental indicators: evidence from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Van; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto

    2008-04-01

    The traditional environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis postulates that environmental degradation follows an inverted U-shaped relationship with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. We tested the EKC hypothesis with bird populations in 5 different habitats as environmental quality indicators. Because birds are considered environmental goods, for them the EKC hypothesis would instead be associated with a U-shaped relationship between bird populations and GDP per capita. In keeping with the literature, we included other variables in the analysis-namely, human population density and time index variables (the latter variable captured the impact of persistent and exogenous climate and/or policy changes on bird populations over time). Using data from 9 Canadian provinces gathered over 37 years, we used a generalized least-squares regression for each bird habitat type, which accounted for the panel structure of the data, the cross-sectional dependence across provinces in the residuals, heteroskedasticity, and fixed- or random-effect specifications of the models. We found evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for 3 of the 5 bird population habitat types. In addition, the relationship between human population density and the different bird populations varied, which emphasizes the complex nature of the impact that human populations have on the environment. The relationship between the time-index variable and the different bird populations also varied, which indicates there are other persistent and significant influences on bird populations over time. Overall our EKC results were consistent with those found for threatened bird species, indicating that economic prosperity does indeed act to benefit some bird populations.

  12. Mental Health Disorders and Publicly Funded Service Use by HIV Positive Individuals: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna; Brown, Hilary K; Antoniou, Tony; Sirotich, Frank; Bansal, Symron; Heifetz, Marina; Roesslein, Kay; Lunsky, Yona

    2017-12-01

    We compared use of community and hospital-based mental health and addiction (MH&A) services by adults with and without HIV. This population-based study examined the probability and intensity of MH&A service use by individuals with (n = 5095) and without HIV (n = 2,753,091) in Ontario, Canada between 2013 and 2014. Adults with HIV were more likely than HIV-negative adults to use MH&A primary and psychiatric care, and to have MH&A emergency department visits and hospital admissions; they also used more of each service. Use of MH&A hospital services was particularly high for persons in the HIV group compared to the no HIV group.

  13. A 10-year population based study of 'opt-out' HIV testing of tuberculosis patients in Alberta, Canada: national implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Long

    Full Text Available Compliance with the recommendation that all tuberculosis (TB patients be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has not yet been achieved in Canada or globally.The experience of "opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients in the Province of Alberta, Canada is described over a 10-year period, 2003-2012. Testing rates are reported before and after the introduction of the "opt-out" approach. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity are described and demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of TB patients who were newly diagnosed versus previously diagnosed with HIV are compared. Genotypic clusters, defined as groups of two or more cases whose isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis had identical DNA fingerprints over the 10-year period or within 2 years of one another, were analyzed for their ability to predict HIV co-infection.HIV testing rates were 26% before and 90% after the introduction of "opt-out" testing. During the "opt-out" testing years those 64 years of age at diagnosis were less likely to have been tested. In those tested the prevalence of HIV was 5.6%. In the age group 15-64 years, risk factors for HIV were: age (35-64 years, Canadian-born Aboriginal or foreign-born sub-Saharan African origin, and combined respiratory and non-respiratory disease. Compared to TB patients previously known to be HIV positive, TB patients newly discovered to be HIV positive had more advanced HIV disease (lower CD4 counts; higher viral loads at diagnosis. Large cluster size was associated with Aboriginal ancestry. Cluster size predicted HIV co-infection in Aboriginal peoples when clusters included all cases reported over 10 years but not when clusters included cases reported within 2 years of one another."Opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients is effective and well received. Universal HIV testing of TB patients (>80% of patients tested has immediate (patients and longer-term (TB/HIV program planning benefits.

  14. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and the Methodology for Mitigation and Enhancement in the Flathead Drainage, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.

    1985-01-01

    The lower Flathead System Canada Goose Study was initiated to determine population trends and the effects of water level fluctuations on nest and brood habitat on the southern half of Flathead Lake and the lower Flathead River as a result of the operations of Kerr Dam. This report presents data collected during the 1984 field season as part of an ongoing project. Geese used Pablo, Kicking Horse, Ninepipe Reservoirs heavily during late summer and fall. Use of the river by geese was high during the winter, when the reservoirs were frozen, and during the breeding period. Most breeding geese left the river after broods fledged. Thirteen percent of the artificial tree nest structures on the river were used by nesting geese. Goose nest initiation on the river peaked the last week in March through the first week in April, and hatching peaked the first week in May. Predation was the most significant cause of nest loss on the river, and nest loss by flooding was not observed. Avian predation was the single largest factor contributing to nest loss on the lake. Habitat use was studied in 4 brood areas on the river and 8 brood areas on the lake, and available habitat was assessed for 2 portions of both the lake and the river. Brood habitat use was significantly different from the available habitat in all areas studied. On the lower river, broods used wheat fields, gravel bars, and shrub habitats. On the upper river, coniferous forest and shrub habitats were preferred. On the West Bay of the lake, brood areas consisted primarily of lawns and tall herbaceous habitat, while on the South Bay, marshes dominated the brood areas studied. Water levels on the river and lake affect both accessibility of these areas to brooding geese, and the ecology of the habitats preferred by geese. 43 refs., 24 figs., 31 tabs.

  15. Temporal trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors among white, South Asian, Chinese and black groups in Ontario, Canada, 2001 to 2012: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Maclagan, Laura C; Tu, Jack V; Shah, Baiju R

    2015-08-10

    To determine ethnic-specific temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Ontario between 2001 and 2012. A population-based repeated cross-sectional study. Ontario, Canada. 219,276 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey (205,326 white, 5620 South Asian, 4368 Chinese and 3962 black) during the period 2001 to 2012. Age-standardised ethnic-sex-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors for three time periods: 2001-2004, 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 among Canada's four major ethnic groups: white, South Asian, Chinese and black. During the study period, the prevalence of diabetes increased 2.3-fold (p = 0.0001) among South Asian males and 1.9-fold (p = 0.02) among black females. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) increased over time across all ethnic groups, with the largest relative increases observed among males of Chinese (2.1-fold increase, p = 0.04) and black (1.7-fold increase, p = 0.06) descent. The prevalence of hypertension increased the most among black females. Smoking prevalence decreased by more than 20% among South Asian, Chinese and white females. Overall, South Asian males and black males and females showed the greatest declines in cardiovascular health over the study period. We observed important ethnic differences in the temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factor profiles in Ontario. Awareness of the direction and magnitude of these risk factor trends may be useful in informing targeted strategies for preventing cardiovascular diseases in multiethnic populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Effect of changes in treatment practice on survival for cervical cancer: results from a population-based study in Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoon-Jung; O’Connell, Dianne L.; Lotocki, Robert; Kliewer, Erich V.; Goldsbury, David E.; Demers, Alain A.; Canfell, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Results from clinical trials in the 1990s led to changes in the recommended treatment for the standard therapy for stage IIB-IVA cervical cancer from radiotherapy alone to chemo-radiotherapy. We conducted the first population-based study in Canada to investigate temporal treatment patterns for cervical cancer and long-term survival in relation to these changes in the treatment guidelines. Detailed information on stage and treatment for 1085 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer in 1984–2008 and identified from the population-based Manitoba Cancer Registry (MCR) in Canada was obtained from clinical chart review and the MCR. Factors associated with receiving guideline treatment were identified using logistic regression. All cause and cervical cancer specific survival were compared in patients who were and were not treated as recommended in the guidelines, using Cox proportional hazards models. The median follow-up time was 6.4 years (range: 0.05–26.5 years). The proportion of women who received guideline treatment was 79 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 76–81 %). However, the likelihood of being treated according to the guidelines over time was modified by age (p < 0.0001) and tumour stage at diagnosis (p = 0.002). Women who were treated according to the guidelines after the change in recommended clinical practice (1999–2008) had a significantly lower risk of death from all causes and from cervical cancer. This was driven by lower mortality rates in cases with stage IIB-IVA tumours (all causes of death: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.60, 95 % CI: 0.43–0.82, p = 0.002; cervical cancer related death: HR = 0.64, 95 % CI: 0.44–0.93, p = 0.02). The management of cervical cancer patients in Manitoba, Canada was in good agreement with treatment guidelines although reasons for departure from the guideline recommendations could not be examined further due to lack of data. Treatment of stage IIB-IVA cervical cancers with recommended concurrent chemo-radiotherapy, which

  17. Estimating the mercury exposure dose in a population of migratory bird hunters in the St. Lawrence River region, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, J.-F.; Levesque, B.; Gauvin, Denis; Braune, Birgit; Gingras, Suzanne; Dewailly, E.

    2004-01-01

    St. Lawrence River hunters (Quebec, Canada) are exposed to the pollutants, especially mercury, that contaminate birds and fish. However, the health risks of this have remained unclear because of a lack of information about the hunters' duck, geese, and sportfish consumption habits. A nutritional survey was set up to characterize waterfowl and sportfish consumption in St. Lawrence River duck hunters and to estimate their daily exposure to mercury. During the winter of 2000, 512 hunters selected from the Canadian Wildlife Service database completed a self-administered questionnaire. Daily exposure to contaminants was measured using data from the Canadian Wildlife Service (waterfowl) and available data on St. Lawrence River sportfish. The annual average consumption was 7.5 meals of ducks and geese and 8.7 meals of sportfish. The daily exposure to mercury related to waterfowl consumption was below the Canadian tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.47 μg/kg body wt/day for all participants. The daily mercury intake associated with fish consumption was greater than the TDI in 2 duck hunters. The daily exposure to mercury was higher than the TDI in 4 participants when both waterfowl and fish consumption were combined. Our results suggest that fish consumption (especially freshwater fish) represents the main source of exposure to pollutants in duck hunters

  18. Investigation into the possibility of vertical transmission of avian bornavirus in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnatte, Pauline; Nagy, Eva; Ojkic, Davor; Crawshaw, Graham; Smith, Dale A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of in ovo infection with avian bornavirus (ABV) in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 53 eggs were opportunistically collected at various stages of embryonic development from 16 free-ranging goose nests at a large urban zoo site where ABV infection is known to be present in this species. ABV RNA was detected in the yolk of one of three unembryonated eggs using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. ABV RNA was not identified in the brains from 23 newly hatched goslings or 19 embryos, nor from three early whole embryos. Antibodies against ABV were not detected in the plasma of any of the hatched goslings using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Possible reasons for the failure to detect ABV RNA in hatchlings or embryos include low sample size, eggs deriving from parents not actively infected with ABV, the testing of only brain tissue, and failure of the virus to replicate in Canada goose embryos. In conclusion, this preliminary investigation demonstrating the presence of ABV RNA in the yolk of a Canada goose egg provides the first evidence for the potential for vertical transmission of ABV in waterfowl.

  19. Decision-support model to explore the feasibility of using translocation to restore a woodland caribou population in Pukaskwa National Park, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Gonzales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou have declined dramatically in the past century. Without intervention the most southern population of caribou in eastern North America is expected to disappear within 20 years. Although translocations have reintroduced and reinforced some populations, approximately half of caribou translocation efforts fail. Translocations are resource intensive and risky, and multiple interrelated factors must be considered to assess their potential for success. Structured decision-making tools, such as Bayesian belief networks, provide objective methods to assess different wildlife management scenarios by identifying the key components and relationships in an ecosystem. They can also catalyze dialogue with stakeholders and provide a record of the complex thought processes used in reaching a decision. We developed a Bayesian belief network for a proposed translocation of woodland caribou into a national park on the northeastern coast of Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. We tested scenarios with favourable (e.g., good physical condition of adult caribou and unfavourable (e.g., high predator densities conditions with low, medium, and high numbers of translocated caribou. Under the current conditions at Pukaskwa National Park, augmenting the caribou population is unlikely to recover the species unless wolf densities remain low (<5.5/1000 km2 or if more than 300 animals could be translocated.

  20. Faranak Parent-Child Mother Goose Program: Impact on Mother-Child Relationship for Mothers of Preschool Hearing Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayeh Koohi

    2016-12-01

    Discussion: The Frank parent-child Mother Goose program could help families with hearing-impaired children in this 12-week community-based program, wherein parents learned skills that affect the relationship between mother and child.

  1. Association between home visiting interventions and First Nations families' health and social outcomes in Manitoba, Canada: protocol for a study of linked population-based administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Marni D; Nickel, Nathan C; Enns, Jennifer E; Chartier, Mariette; Campbell, Rhonda; Phillips-Beck, Wanda; Chateau, Dan; Burland, Elaine; Santos, Rob; Katz, Alan

    2017-10-10

    First Nations people are descendants of Canada's original inhabitants. In consequence of historical and ongoing structural injustices, many First Nations families struggle with challenging living conditions, including high rates of poverty, poor housing conditions, mental illness and social isolation. These risk factors impede caregivers' abilities to meet their children's basic physical and psychosocial needs. Home visiting programmes were developed to support child developmental health in families facing parenting challenges. However, whether home visiting is an effective intervention for First Nations families has not been examined. We are evaluating two home visiting programmes in Manitoba, Canada, to determine whether they promote nurturing family environments for First Nations children. This research builds on new and established relationships among academic researchers, government decision-makers and First Nations stakeholders. We will link health, education and social services data from the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository to data from two home visiting programmes in Manitoba. Logistic regression modelling will be used to assess whether programme participation is associated with improved child developmental health, better connections between families and social services, reduced instances of child maltreatment and being taken into out-of-home care by child welfare and reduced inequities for First Nations families. Non-participating individuals with similar sociodemographic characteristics will serve as comparators. We will use an interrupted time series approach to test for differences in outcomes before and after programme implementation and a propensity score analysis to compare differences between participants and non-participants. Approvals were granted by the Health Information Research Governance Committee of the First Nations Health and Social Secretariat of Manitoba and the University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board. Our

  2. Use of residential wood heating in a context of climate change: a population survey in Québec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valois Pierre

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wood heating is recommended in several countries as a climate change (CC adaptation measure, mainly to increase the autonomy of households during power outages due to extreme climatic events. The aim of this study was to examine various perceptions and individual characteristics associated with wood heating through a survey about CC adaptations. Methods A telephone survey (n = 2,545 of adults living in the southern part of the province of Québec (Canada was conducted in the early fall season of 2005. The questionnaire used closed questions and measured the respondents' beliefs and current adaptations about CC. Calibration weighting was used to adjust the data analysis for the respondent's age and language under stratified sampling based on health regions. Results More than three out of four respondents had access to a single source of energy at home, which was mainly electricity; 22.2% combined two sources or more; 18.5% heated with wood occasionally or daily during the winter. The prevalence of wood heating was higher in the peripheral regions than in the more urban regions, where there was a higher proportion of respondents living in apartments. The prevalence was also higher with participants completely disagreeing (38.5% with the eventual prohibition of wood heating when there is smog in winter, compared to respondents somewhat disagreeing (24.2% or agreeing (somewhat: 17.5%; completely: 10.4% with the adoption of this strategy. It appears that the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, smog warnings in the media, or the belief in the human contribution to CC, did not influence significantly wood heating practices. Conclusion Increased residential wood heating could very well become a maladaptation to climate change, given its known consequences on winter smog and respiratory health. It would thus be appropriate to implement a long-term national program on improved and controlled residential wood

  3. Development and evaluation of a competitive ELISA using a monoclonal antibody for antibody detection after goose parvovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) and vaccine immunization in goose sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ju, Huanyu; Li, Yanwei; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Bo; Gao, Mingchun; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Junwei

    2014-12-01

    An assay protocol based on a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAb-based C-ELISA) for detecting antibodies against goose parvovirus (GPV) and its virus-like particles (VLPs) is described. The assay was developed using baculovirus-expressed recombinant VP2 virus-like particles (rVP2-VLPs) as antigens and a monoclonal antibody against GPV as the competitive antibody. Of the four anti-GPV MAbs that were screened, MAb 1G3 was selected as it was blocked by the GPV positive serum. Based on the distribution of percent inhibition (PI) of the known negative sera (n=225), a cut-off value was set at 36% inhibition. Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity of the assay was 93.3% and the specificity was 95.8%, as compared with the gold standard (virus neutralization assay). The rVP2-VLPs did not react with anti-sera to other goose pathogens, indicating that it is specific for the recognization of goose parvovirus antibodies. The assay was then validated with serum samples from goslings vaccinated with several VLPs (rVP1-VLPs, rVP2-VLPs, rVP3-VLPs, and rCGV-VLPs) and other vaccines (inactivated and attenuated). The C-ELISA described in this study is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test and should have wide applications for the sero-diagnosis and immunologic surveillance of GPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Venous thromboembolism after induced abortion: a population-based, propensity-score-matched cohort study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Vigod, Simone N; Farrugia, M Michèle; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G

    2018-06-08

    A woman's risk of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy is estimated to be two-to-six times higher than her risk when she is not pregnant. Such risk estimates are largely based on pregnancies that result in delivery of a newborn baby; no estimates exist for the risk of venous thromboembolism after induced abortion, another common pregnancy outcome. To fill this knowledge gap, we aimed to assess the risk of venous thromboembolism in women whose first pregnancy ended with induced abortion. We did this propensity score-matched cohort study using data from the universal health-care system of Ontario, Canada. We included primigravid women who had an induced abortion between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2015, and used a propensity score to match them to primigravid women who had a livebirth (1:1) or nulligravid women who were not pregnant on the procedure date of their matched counterpart and who did not conceive within 1 year afterwards (5:1). We excluded from our analysis women younger than 15 years or older than 49 years and individuals who had missing or invalid information about their sex, area of residence, residential income, or world region of origin. The primary outcome was risk of any venous thromboembolism within 42 days of the index date (defined as the date of an induced abortion, delivery date for livebirth, or for non-pregnant women the induced abortion date of their matched counterpart). We compared the rate of venous thromboembolism in primigravid women who had an induced abortion with the rate of venous thromboembolism in propensity-score-matched non-pregnant women and propensity-score-matched primigravid women whose pregnancy ended with a livebirth. We generated hazard ratios (HRs) of 42-day risk of venous thromboembolism after induced abortion using Cox proportional hazard models. We identified 194 086 eligible women whose first pregnancy ended with induced abortion, of whom 176 001 (90·7%) could be matched with women whose first pregnancy ended in

  5. Design of Deflectors for Little Goose Spillway, Snake River, Oregon: A Physical Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    to reduce total dissolved gas production during spill operations. The design of the deflectors was developed by examining their hydraulic ...and Laurin I. Yates Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180...Dissolved Gas Abatement Studies, spillway deflectors were recommended for the exterior bays of the Little Goose Spillway to reduce total dissolved

  6. Expression of goose parvovirus whole VP3 protein and its epitopes in Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasiuk, K; Woźniakowski, G; Holec-Gąsior, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the expression of goose parvovirus capsid protein (VP3) and its epitopes in Escherichia coli cells. Expression of the whole VP3 protein provided an insufficient amount of protein. In contrast, the expression of two VP3 epitopes (VP3ep4, VP3ep6) in E. coli, resulted in very high expression levels. This may suggest that smaller parts of the GPV antigenic determinants are more efficiently expressed than the complete VP3 gene.

  7. Inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence creates goose habitat along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, Ken D; Flint, Paul L; Meixell, Brandt W; Gaglioti, Benjamin V

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are <1 m above sea level for kilometers inland, and are underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Increased storm surges or terrestrial subsidence would therefore expand the area subject to marine inundation. Since 1976, the distribution of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain has shifted from inland freshwater lakes to coastal marshes, such as those occupying the Smith River and Garry Creek estuaries. We hypothesized that the movement of geese from inland lakes was caused by an expansion of high quality goose forage in coastal areas. We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between 1948 and 2010 with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon. Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between 1948 and 1995, accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation. This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution. Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a ‘tipping point’ whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes. (letter)

  8. Retrieval of proximally migrated double J ureteric stents in children using goose neck snare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivasankar Jayakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Proximal migration of the ureteric double J stent is a rare but known complication. We describe three cases where a minimally invasive technique for retrieval of displaced double J stents using Amplatz™ goose-neck snare was successful. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of patients with displaced double J stent was carried out, in whom cystoscopy guided retrieval of double J stent was attempted with the help of Amplatz goose-neck snare under radiological control. Results: All three patients were under the age of 3 years. Two patients had migrated double J stent following pyeloplasty and in one patient the double J stent was displaced during a retrograde insertion of double J stent. In all cases, retrieval of displaced double J stent was successfully achieved using Amplatz goose-neck snare. There were no postoperative complications. Conclusion: Our method of retrieval of stent from renal pelvis is simple, safe and minimally invasive. This technique is a useful and safe alternative option for retrieval of proximally migrated double J stents in children.

  9. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  10. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Huanyu; Wei, Na; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chunyuan; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Liu, Dapeng; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2011-05-27

    Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cloning of the genome of a goose parvovirus vaccine strain SYG61v and rescue of infectious virions from recombinant plasmid in embryonated goose eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Duan, Jinkun; Meng, Xia; Gong, Jiansen; Jiang, Zhiwei; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2014-05-01

    The SYG61v is an attenuated goose parvovirus (GPV) that has been used as a vaccine strain in China. The genome of SYG61v was sequenced to attempt to identify the genetic basis for the attenuation of this strain. The entire genome consists of 5102 nucleotides (nts), with four nt deletions compared to that of virulent strain B. The inverted terminal repeats (ITR) are 442 nts in length, of which 360 nts form a stem region, and 43 nts constitute the bubble region. Although mutations were observed throughout the ITR, no mismatch was found in the stem. Alignment with other pathogenic GPV strains (B, 82-0321, 06-0329, and YZ99-5) indicated that there are 10 and 11 amino acid mutations in the Rep1 and VP1 proteins of SYG61v, respectively. The complete genome of SYG61v was cloned into the pBluescript II vector and an infectious plasmid pSYG61v was generated. Infectious progeny virus was successfully rescued through transfection of the plasmid pSYG61v in embryonated goose eggs and yielded viral titers similar to its parental virus, as evaluated by ELD50. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between methylmercury and cardiovascular risk factors in a native population of Quebec (Canada): a retrospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Beatriz; Dewailly, Eric; Poirier, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a negative impact of methylmercury (MeHg) on cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). This issue is of concern in Arctic populations such as in the Inuit of Nunavik since this contaminant is accumulated in fish and marine mammals, which still represent the subsistence diet of this population. We examined the associations between MeHg and BP and resting HR among Inuit adults. The "Santé Quebec" health survey was conducted in 1992 in the 14 villages of Nunavik and a complete set of data was obtained for 313 Inuit adults≥18 years. Blood samples were collected in order to determine total mercury, lead, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fasting glucose and lipid profile while socio-demographic variables were obtained through questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements as well as BP and resting HR were obtained using standardised protocols. Pulse pressure (PP: systolic BP minus diastolic BP) was also calculated. Multiple linear regression was used in order to determine the change in the dependent variables associated with the quartiles of MeHg concentration, taking the quartile 1 as reference. The mean age of the participants was 38±14 years and the sample was composed of 132 men (42.2%) and 181 women (57.8%). MeHg geometric mean was 15.4 μg/L (95%CI: 13.9-17.0) and levels ranged from 0.8 to 112.0 μg/L. Resting HR increased linearly across quartiles of blood MeHg concentration after adjusting for confounders (p for trend=0.02). An increase of 6.9 beats per minute (bpm) between the 4th and 1st quartile was observed after adjusting for confounders. No significant association was observed between blood MeHg and systolic BP, diastolic BP or PP. MeHg was associated with increasing resting HR after considering traditional risk factors as well as other contaminants (lead and total PCBs) and n-3 PUFAs. In contrast, no significant association with blood

  13. What is the comparative health status and associated risk factors for the Métis? A population-based study in Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Patricia J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Métis are descendants of early 17th century relationships between North American Indians and Europeans. This study's objectives were: (1 to compare the health status of the Métis people to all other residents of Manitoba, Canada; and (2 to analyze factors in predicting the likelihood of diabetes and related lower limb amputation. Methods Using de-identified administrative databases plus the Métis Population Database housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, age/sex-adjusted rates of mortality and disease were calculated for Métis (n = 73,016 and all other Manitobans (n = 1,104,672. Diseases included: hypertension, arthritis, diabetes, ischemic heart disease (age 19+; osteoporosis (age 50+; acute myocardial infarction (AMI and stroke (age 40+; total respiratory morbidity (TRM, all ages. Using logistic regression, predictors of diabetes (2004/05-2006/07 and diabetes-related lower-limb amputations (2002/03-2006/07 were analyzed. Results Disease rates were higher for Métis compared to all others: premature mortality before age 75 (4.0 vs. 3.3 per 1000, p Conclusion Despite universal healthcare, Métis' illness and mortality rates are mostly higher. Although elevated diabetes risk persists for the Métis even after adjusting for sociodemographic, healthcare and comorbidity variables, the risk of amputation for Métis appears more related to healthcare access rather than ethnicity.

  14. Breast cancer screening disparities among immigrant women by world region of origin: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kumar, Matthew; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-07-01

    Rates of mammography screening for breast cancer are disproportionately low in certain subgroups including low-income and immigrant women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in rates of appropriate breast cancer screening (i.e., screening mammography every 2 years) among Ontario immigrant women by world region of origin and explore the association between appropriate breast cancer screening among these women groups and individual and structural factors. A cohort of 183,332 screening-eligible immigrant women living in Ontario between 2010 and 2012 was created from linked databases and classified into eight world regions of origin. Appropriate screening rates were calculated for each region by age group and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and healthcare-related characteristics. The association between appropriate screening across the eight regions of origin and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and health-related characteristics was explored using multivariate Poisson regression. Screening varied by region of origin, with South Asian women (48.5%) having the lowest and Caribbean and Latin American women (63.7%) the highest cancer screening rates. Factors significantly associated with lower screening across the world regions of origin included living in the lowest income neighborhoods, having a refugee status, being a new immigrant, not having a regular physical examination, not being enrolled in a primary care patient enrollment model, having a male physician, and having an internationally trained physician. Multiple interventions entailing cross-sector collaboration, promotion of patient enrollment models, community engagement, comprehensive and intensive outreach to women, and knowledge translation and transfer to physicians should be considered to address screening disparities among immigrant population. Consideration should be given to design and delivery of culturally appropriate and easily accessible cancer screening programs

  15. Use of a Remote Car Starter in Relation to Smog and Climate Change Perceptions: A Population Survey in Québec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkacem Abdous

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote car starters encourage motorists to warm up their vehicles by idling the motor – thus increasing atmospheric pollutants, including several greenhouse gas (GHG with impacts on public health. This study about climate change (CC adaptation and mitigation actions examined perceptions on air pollution and climate change and individual characteristics associated with the use of a remote car starter. A telephone survey (n = 2,570; response rate: 70% of adults living in Québec (Canada measured the respondents’ beliefs and current behaviours regarding CC. Approximately 32.9% (daily car users and 27.4% (occasional users reported using a remote car starter during winter. The odds of the use of a remote car starter was higher in the less densely populated central (OR: 1.5 and peripheral regions (OR: 2.7 compared to the urban centers (ex. Montreal. The odds was also higher in population with a mother tongue other than English or French (OR: 2.6 and francophones than anglophones (OR: 2.1, women than men (OR: 1.5, daily drivers than occasional ones (OR: 1.2, and respondents who at least sometimes consulted temperature/humidity reports than those who consulted them less often (OR: 1.5. In multivariate analysis, the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, being aware of smog warnings, or the belief in the human contribution to CC did not significantly influence the use of a remote car starter. The use of remote car starters encourages idling which produces increased atmospheric pollution and GHG production and it should be more efficiently and vigorously managed by various activities. A five-minute daily reduction in idling is equivalent to reducing the total car emissions by 1.8%. This would constitute a “no-regrets” approach to CC as it can simultaneously reduce GHG, air pollution and their health impacts.

  16. Assessing Timely Presentation to Care Among People Diagnosed with HIV During Hospital Admission: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Claire E; Shoemaker, Esther S; Raboud, Janet; Mark, Amy E; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Burchell, Ann N; Loutfy, Mona; Rourke, Sean B; Liddy, Clare E; Rosenes, Ron; Rogers, Timothy; Antoniou, Tony

    2018-03-13

    Timely presentation to care for people newly diagnosed with HIV is critical to optimize health outcomes and reduce onward HIV transmission. Studies describing presentation to care following diagnosis during a hospital admission are lacking. We sought to assess the timeliness of presentation to care and to identify factors associated with delayed presentation. We conducted a population-level study using health administrative databases. Participants were all individuals older than 16 and newly diagnosed with HIV during hospital admission in Ontario, Canada, between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2015. We used modified Poisson regression models to derive relative risk ratios for the association between sociodemographic and clinical variables and the presentation to out-patient HIV care by 90 days following hospital discharge. Among 372 patients who received a primary HIV diagnosis in hospital, 83.6% presented to care by 90 days. Following multivariable analysis, we did not find associations between patient sociodemographic or clinical characteristics and presentation to care by 90 days. In a secondary analysis of 483 patients diagnosed during hospitalization but for whom HIV was not recorded as the principal reason for admission, 73.1% presented to care by 90 days. Following multivariable adjustment, we found immigrants from countries with generalized HIV epidemics (RR 1.265, 95% CI 1.133-1.413) were more likely to present to care, whereas timely presentation was less likely for people with a mental health diagnosis (RR 0.817, 95% CI 0.742-0.898) and women (RR 0.748, 95% CI 0.559-1.001). Future work should evaluate mechanisms to facilitate presentation to care among these populations.

  17. Use of a remote car starter in relation to smog and climate change perceptions: a population survey in Québec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre; Valois, Pierre; Germain, Stéphane; Abdous, Belkacem

    2009-02-01

    Remote car starters encourage motorists to warm up their vehicles by idling the motor--thus increasing atmospheric pollutants, including several greenhouse gas (GHG) with impacts on public health. This study about climate change (CC) adaptation and mitigation actions examined perceptions on air pollution and climate change and individual characteristics associated with the use of a remote car starter. A telephone survey (n = 2,570; response rate: 70%) of adults living in Québec (Canada) measured the respondents' beliefs and current behaviours regarding CC. Approximately 32.9% (daily car users) and 27.4% (occasional users) reported using a remote car starter during winter. The odds of the use of a remote car starter was higher in the less densely populated central (OR: 1.5) and peripheral regions (OR: 2.7) compared to the urban centers (ex. Montreal). The odds was also higher in population with a mother tongue other than English or French (OR: 2.6) and francophones than anglophones (OR: 2.1), women than men (OR: 1.5), daily drivers than occasional ones (OR: 1.2), and respondents who at least sometimes consulted temperature/humidity reports than those who consulted them less often (OR: 1.5). In multivariate analysis, the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, being aware of smog warnings, or the belief in the human contribution to CC did not significantly influence the use of a remote car starter. The use of remote car starters encourages idling which produces increased atmospheric pollution and GHG production and it should be more efficiently and vigorously managed by various activities. A five-minute daily reduction in idling is equivalent to reducing the total car emissions by 1.8%. This would constitute a "no-regrets" approach to CC as it can simultaneously reduce GHG, air pollution and their health impacts.

  18. Temporal trends in general and age-specific fertility rates among women with schizophrenia (1996-2009): a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigod, Simone N; Seeman, Mary V; Ray, Joel G; Anderson, Geoffrey M; Dennis, Cindy Lee; Grigoriadis, Sophie; Gruneir, Andrea; Kurdyak, Paul A; Rochon, Paula A

    2012-08-01

    There is substantial evidence that women with schizophrenia in many parts of the world have fewer children than their peers. Our objective was to analyze recent trends in general and age-specific fertility rates among women with schizophrenia in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional population-based study from 1996 to 2009 using population-based linked administrative databases for the entire province of Ontario. Women aged 15-49 years were classified into schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia groups in each successive 12-month period. Annual general and age-specific fertility rates were derived. The general fertility rate (GFR) among women with schizophrenia was 1.16 times higher in 2007-2009 than in 1996-1998 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.31). The annual GFR ratio of women with vs. without schizophrenia was 0.41 (95% CI 0.36-0.47) in 2009, which was slightly higher than the same ratio in 1996 of 0.30 (95% CI 0.25-0.35). Annual age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) increased over time among women with schizophrenia aged 20-24, 25-29, 35-39 and 40-44 years, but the increase was not always statistically significant. Among women aged 20-24 years, the ASFR ratio in women with vs. without schizophrenia was not significant by the end of the study period (0.93, 95% CI 0.70-1.22). The general fertility rate among women with schizophrenia appears to have increased modestly over the past 13 years. Clinical care and health policy should consider new strategies that focus on the mental health of women with schizophrenia as new mothers, while optimizing healthy pregnancies and child rearing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Asthma, Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease amongst South Asian Immigrants to Canada and Their Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Eric I.; Manuel, Douglas G.; To, Teresa; Mack, David R.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Croitoru, Kenneth; Mojaverian, Nassim; Wang, Xuesong; Quach, Pauline; Guttmann, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children. METHODS Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants. RESULTS Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61) and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65). Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49), as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42). Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71) and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67) was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81) and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22). CONCLUSION Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children. PMID:25849480

  20. Asthma, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease amongst South Asian immigrants to Canada and their children: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric I Benchimol

    Full Text Available There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children.Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants.Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61 and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65. Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49, as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42. Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71 and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67 was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81 and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22.Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children.

  1. Mortality from myocardial infarction following postlumpectomy radiotherapy for breast cancer: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszat, Lawrence F.; Mackillop, William J.; Groome, Patti A.; Schulze, Karleen; Holowaty, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the risk of mortality from myocardial infarction (MI) after left-sided postlumpectomy radiotherapy (RT) to the risk after right-sided postlumpectomy RT. Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study of cases of invasive female breast cancer in Ontario, diagnosed between January 1, 1982 and December 31, 1987 (n = 25,570). Records of the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) were linked to hospital procedure and discharge abstracts and to RT records from Ontario cancer centers. A case was labelled as lumpectomy if this was the maximum breast surgery within 4 months of diagnosis. Postlumpectomy RT occurred up to 1 year postdiagnosis. Laterality was assigned from the laterality descriptor of the RT records. A case was labelled as having had a fatal MI if ICD code 410 (myocardial infarction) was recorded as the cause of death in the OCR. We used logistic regression to compare the likelihood of utilization of : 1. Dose per fraction > 2.00 Gy; 2. cobalt vs. linac; and 3. boost RT. We used life table analysis and the log rank test comparing the time to fatal MI from diagnosis of breast cancer between women who received left-sided postlumpectomy RT and women who received right-sided. We used Cox proportional hazards models to study the relative risk for left-sided cases overall, and stratified by age, RT characteristics, and among conditional survival cohorts. Results: Postlumpectomy RT was received by 1,555 left-sided and 1,451 right-sided cases. With follow-up to December 31, 1995, 2% of women with left-sided RT had a fatal MI compared to 1% of women with right-sided RT. Comparison of the time to failure between women who had left-sided RT and women who had right-sided RT showed the left-sided RT group to be associated with a higher risk of fatal MI (p = 0.02). Adjusting for age at diagnosis, the relative risk for fatal MI with left-sided postlumpectomy RT was 2.10 (1.11, 3.95). Conclusion: Among women who received postlumpectomy RT for breast cancer

  2. Attenuation of the goose parvovirus strain B. Laboratory and field trials of the attenuated mutant for vaccination against Derzsy's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisary, J; Derzsy, D; Meszaros, J

    1978-07-01

    Serial transfer of the goose parvovirus strain B, causal agent of Derzsy's gosling disease, in cultured goose-embryo fibroblast (GEF) resulted in a mutant (designated as Bav) apathogenic for both goose embryos and susceptible goslings. Goose embryos inoculated with the 38th or higher passages of strain B survived the infection, although the virus replicated in their organs. Susceptible goslings survived challenge with the Bav strain without showing symptoms, and developed normally. Only 4.2% of gosling progeny of parents vaccinated twice with strain Bav died after challenge with the virulent strain B goose parvovirus compared with 95% of gosling progeny of unvaccinated parents. Progeny of vaccinated and unvaccinated geese were placed on a farm on which Derzsy's disease was present. During the first month of life mortality was 7.7% in the progeny of vaccinated geese compared with 59.8% in the progeny of the unvaccinated geese. At 8 weeks of age the mean weight of the vaccinated goslings was 20% greater than for the unvaccinated goslings. These results indicate that the attenuated apathogenic Bav mutant is suitable for the immunisation of layers to protect their progeny by passive immunisation against Derzsy's disease.

  3. Health Promotion and Related Factors Among Korean Goose Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyoung Cha, PhD, RN

    2010-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings of this study contributed to the body of knowledge of health promotion among international migrant populations by identifying the differential effects of social support, acculturation attitudes, and perceived family health for six areas of health promotion.

  4. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney W. Brook

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how climate change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first-year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  5. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Rodney W.; Leafloor, James O.; Douglas, David C.; Abraham, Kenneth F.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  6. Enhancement of local species richness in tundra by seed dispersal through guts of muskox and barnacle goose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Lundgren, Rebekka; Philipp, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    The potential contribution of vertebrate-mediated seed rain to the maintenance of plant community richness in a High Arctic ecosystem was investigated. We analyzed viable seed content in dung of the four numerically most important terrestrial vertebrates in Northeast Greenland - muskox (Ovibos...... moschatus), barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis), Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus). High numbers of plant propagules were found in the dung of muskox and barnacle goose. Seeds of many plant species were found in the faeces of one vertebrate species only. Propagule composition...... in barnacle goose droppings was relatively uniform over samples, with a high abundance of the nutritious bulbils of Polygonum viviparum (Bistorta vivipara), suggesting that geese have a narrow habitat preference and feed selectively. Propagule composition in muskox dung was diverse and heterogeneous among...

  7. Performance and Cost-Effectiveness of Computed Tomography Lung Cancer Screening Scenarios in a Population-Based Setting: A Microsimulation Modeling Analysis in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Ten Haaf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST results indicate that computed tomography (CT lung cancer screening for current and former smokers with three annual screens can be cost-effective in a trial setting. However, the cost-effectiveness in a population-based setting with >3 screening rounds is uncertain. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening in a population-based setting in Ontario, Canada, and evaluate the effects of screening eligibility criteria.This study used microsimulation modeling informed by various data sources, including the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP, Ontario Cancer Registry, smoking behavior surveys, and the NLST. Persons, born between 1940 and 1969, were examined from a third-party health care payer perspective across a lifetime horizon. Starting in 2015, 576 CT screening scenarios were examined, varying by age to start and end screening, smoking eligibility criteria, and screening interval. Among the examined outcome measures were lung cancer deaths averted, life-years gained, percentage ever screened, costs (in 2015 Canadian dollars, and overdiagnosis. The results of the base-case analysis indicated that annual screening was more cost-effective than biennial screening. Scenarios with eligibility criteria that required as few as 20 pack-years were dominated by scenarios that required higher numbers of accumulated pack-years. In general, scenarios that applied stringent smoking eligibility criteria (i.e., requiring higher levels of accumulated smoking exposure were more cost-effective than scenarios with less stringent smoking eligibility criteria, with modest differences in life-years gained. Annual screening between ages 55-75 for persons who smoked ≥40 pack-years and who currently smoke or quit ≤10 y ago yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $41,136 Canadian dollars ($33,825 in May 1, 2015, United States dollars per life-year gained

  8. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Results Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. Conclusions The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities. PMID:23724920

  9. A molecular tool for detection and tracking of a potential indigenous Beauveria bassiana strain for managing emerald ash borer populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George

    2014-10-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive species from Asia. Beauveria bassiana strain L49-1AA is being tested for the control of emerald ash borer in Canada, using an autocontamination trapping system. We have developed a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to screen B. bassiana strain, L49-1AA from other Beauveria species by targeting the inter-strain genetic differences in 5' end of EF1-α gene of the genus Beauveria. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site, T→C was identified only in L49-1AA and was used to develop a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on a modified allelic inhibition of displacement activity (AIDA) approach for distinguishing B. bassiana L49-1AA from all background Beauveria isolates. The SNP site was employed to design inner primers but with a deliberate mismatch introduced at the 3' antepenultimate from the mutation site in order to maximize specificity and detection efficiency. Amplification was specific to L49-1AA without cross-reaction with DNA from other Beauveria strains. In addition, the designed primers were also tested against environmental samples in L49-1AA released plots and observed to be highly efficient in detecting and discriminating the target strain, L49-1AA from both pure and crude DNA samples. This new method can potentially allow for more discriminatory tracking and monitoring of released L49-1AA in our autocontamination and dissemination projects for managing EAB populations. Additionally, the modified-AIDA format has potential as a tool for simultaneously identifying and differentiating closely related Beauveria species, strains/isolates as well as general classification of other pathogens or organisms. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Trends in incidence of diabetes in pregnancy and serious perinatal outcomes: a large, population-based study in Ontario, Canada, 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Denice S; Hwee, Jeremiah; Shah, Baiju R; Booth, Giliian L; Bierman, Arlene S; Lipscombe, Lorraine L

    2014-06-01

    Women with diabetes in pregnancy have high rates of pregnancy complications. Our aims were to explore trends in the incidence of diabetes in pregnancy and examine whether the risk of serious perinatal outcomes has changed. We performed a population-based cohort study of 1,109,605 women who delivered in Ontario, Canada, between 1 April 1996 and 31 March 2010. We categorized women as gestational diabetes (GDM) (n = 45,384), pregestational diabetes (pre-GDM) (n = 13,278), or no diabetes (n = 1,050,943). The annual age-adjusted rates of diabetes in pregnancy were calculated, and rates of serious perinatal outcomes were compared between groups and by year using Poisson regression. The age-adjusted rate of both GDM (2.7-5.6%, P women with no diabetes, women with pre-GDM and GDM faced an increased risk of congenital anomalies (relative risk 1.86 [95% CI 1.49-2.33] and 1.26 [1.09-1.45], respectively), and perinatal mortality remained elevated in women with pre-GDM (2.33 [1.59-3.43]). The incidence of both GDM and pre-GDM in pregnancy has doubled over the last 14 years, and the overall burden of diabetes in pregnancy on society is growing. Although congenital anomaly rates have declined in women with diabetes, perinatal mortality rates remain unchanged, and the risk of both remains significantly elevated compared with nondiabetic women. Increased efforts are needed to reduce these adverse outcomes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. Characteristics of opioid-users whose death was related to opioid-toxicity: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaz Madadi

    Full Text Available The impact of the prescription opioid public health crisis has been illustrated by the dramatic increase in opioid-related deaths in North America. We aimed to identify patterns and characteristics amongst opioid-users whose cause of death was related to opioid toxicity.This was a population-based study of Ontarians between the years 2006 and 2008. All drug-related deaths which occurred during this time frame were reviewed at the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario, and opioid-related deaths were identified. Medical, toxicology, pathology, and police reports were comprehensively reviewed. Narratives, semi-quantitative, and quantitative variables were extracted, tabulated, and analyzed.Out of 2330 drug-related deaths in Ontario, 58% were attributed either in whole or in part, to opioids (n = 1359. Oxycodone was involved in approximately one-third of all opioid-related deaths. At least 7% of the entire cohort used opioids that were prescribed for friends and/or family, 19% inappropriately self-administered opioids (injection, inhalation, chewed patch, 3% were recently released from jail, and 5% had been switched from one opioid to another near the time of death. Accidental deaths were significantly associated with personal history of substance abuse, enrollment in methadone maintenance programs, cirrhosis, hepatitis, and cocaine use. Suicides were significantly associated with mental illness, previous suicide attempts, chronic pain, and a history of cancer.These results identify novel, susceptible groups of opioid-users whose cause of death was related to opioids in Ontario and provide the first evidence to assist in quantifying the contribution of opioid misuse and diversion amongst opioid-related mortality in Canada. Multifaceted prevention strategies need to be developed based on subpopulations of opioid users.

  12. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures.

  13. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Huanyu; Wei, Na; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chunyuan; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Liu, Dapeng; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → All three capsid proteins can be expressed in insect cells in baculovirus expression system. → All three recombinant proteins were spontaneously self-assemble into virus-like particles whose size and appearance were similar to those of native purified GPV virions. → The immunogenicity of GPV-VLPs was better than commercial inactivated vaccine and attenuated vaccine. -- Abstract: Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs.

  14. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Huanyu; Wei, Na; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chunyuan; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Liu, Dapeng; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); Wang, Junwei, E-mail: jwwang@neau.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China)

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} All three capsid proteins can be expressed in insect cells in baculovirus expression system. {yields} All three recombinant proteins were spontaneously self-assemble into virus-like particles whose size and appearance were similar to those of native purified GPV virions. {yields} The immunogenicity of GPV-VLPs was better than commercial inactivated vaccine and attenuated vaccine. -- Abstract: Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs.

  15. Lipid oxidation and color changes of goose meat stored under vacuum and modified atmosphere conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkusz, A; Haraf, G; Okruszek, A; Werenska-Sudnik, M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the work was to investigate the color and lipid oxidation changes of goose breast meat packaged in vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) conditions consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2, and stored in refrigerated conditions at 4°C. Color stability was monitored by determining total heme pigments concentration; relative concentration of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and metmyoglobin; parameters of color L*, a*, b*, and sensory evaluation of the surface color. Lipid stability was measured by determining thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The samples were examined in 24 h after slaughter (unpacked muscles) and on d 4, 7, 9, 11 of storage (muscles packed in vacuum and in MA). Through the time of storage, samples packed in MA had higher TBARS values in comparison to the meat packed in vacuum. For samples packed in two types of atmospheres, the total pigments concentration decreased gradually within 11 d of storage. It was observed that relative metmyoglobin concentration increased whereas relative oxymyoglobin concentration decreased in total heme pigments in the MA stored muscle. The relative concentration of all three myoglobin forms sample packed in vacuum remained unchanged. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*) did not change for 11 d of storage for the vacuum packed meat. The value of the color parameter a* decreased and the value of the color parameters L* and b* increased in the samples packaged in MA. The data prove that if you store goose meat in MA (consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2) or vacuum, the unchanged surface color is preserved for 9 and 11 day, respectively.Vacuum appears to be a better method as regards the maintaining of lipid stability in goose meat. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Is cardiovascular risk reduction therapy effective in South Asian, Chinese and other patients with diabetes? A population-based cohort study from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Calvin H; Morgan, Steve; Smolina, Kate; Gasevic, Danijela; Qian, Hong; Khan, Nadia A

    2017-08-31

    Guidelines recommend ACE inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and diuretics in all patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the effectiveness of these agents in South Asian and Chinese populations is unknown. We sought to determine whether ACEi, ARB, CCB and diuretics are associated with reduced mortality in South Asian, Chinese and other patients with diabetes. Population-based cohort study using administrative health databases. Province of British Columbia, Canada (2006-2013). Patients aged ≥35 years with incident diabetes. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality for each medication class compared with untreated patients within each ethnicity. Treatment effect was assessed using inverse probability of treatment weighted Cox proportional hazards models. Medication adherence effect on mortality was also evaluated. 208 870 patients (13 755 South Asian, 22 871 Chinese, 172 244 other Canadian) were included. ACEi reduced mortality in other patients (HR=0.88, 0.84-0.91), but power was insufficient to evaluate for benefit in Chinese and South Asian patients. ARB and diuretics reduced mortality in Chinese (ARB HR=0.64, 0.50-0.82; diuretics HR=0.77, 0.62-0.96) and other patients (ARB HR=0.69, 0.64-0.74; diuretics HR=0.66, 0.63-0.69) compared with untreated patients. No mortality benefit was observed among South Asians for any drug class or for CCB among all ethnicities. Higher medication adherence was associated with lower mortality for other patients only (HR=0.79, 0.72-0.86). Effectiveness of cardiovascular risk reduction therapy on mortality varies considerably by ethnicity. Further study is needed to evaluate the mortality benefit of antihypertensive agents in South Asians. Inclusion of these ethnic groups in future clinical trials is essential to examine for differential responses. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  17. Goose-skin Pleura: A Thoracoscopic Finding in a Case of Recurrent Undiagnosed Pleural Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halfawy, Ahmed; Light, Richard W

    2010-10-01

    We present the case of a female patient who presented with undiagnosed pleural effusion. Thoracoscopy was performed and at the beginning of the procedure, the parietal pleura was rather uniformly congested but with a smooth surface. As time passed, the parietal pleura became roughened by bumpy areas of mucosal elevations, which looked soft and watery. This became evident during the biopsy procedure, as the pleura was markedly edematous. The biopsy specimens were nonspecific and the cause of the effusion remained unclear. This phenomenon, which we termed "goose-skin" pleura, showed that the origin of the pleural effusion formed was the parietal pleura, for unknown causes.

  18. Fine-scale population genetic structure of arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) in the High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Sandra; Quiles, Adrien; Lambourdière, Josie; Berteaux, Dominique; Lalis, Aude

    2017-12-01

    The arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) is a circumpolar species inhabiting all accessible Arctic tundra habitats. The species forms a panmictic population over areas connected by sea ice, but recently, kin clustering and population differentiation were detected even in regions where sea ice was present. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic structure of a population in the High Arctic using a robust panel of highly polymorphic microsatellites. We analyzed the genotypes of 210 individuals from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, using 15 microsatellite loci. No pattern of isolation-by-distance was detected, but a spatial principal component analysis (sPCA) revealed the presence of genetic subdivisions. Overall, the sPCA revealed two spatially distinct genetic clusters corresponding to the northern and southern parts of the study area, plus another subdivision within each of these two clusters. The north-south genetic differentiation partly matched the distribution of a snow goose colony, which could reflect a preference for settling into familiar ecological environments. Secondary clusters may result from higher-order social structures (neighbourhoods) that use landscape features to delimit their borders. The cryptic genetic subdivisions found in our population may highlight ecological processes deserving further investigations in arctic foxes at larger, regional spatial scales.

  19. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-01-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30 μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  20. Identification of linear B-cell epitopes on goose parvovirus non-structural protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Fei; Ma, Bo; Wang, Jun-Wei

    2016-10-15

    Goose parvovirus (GPV) infection can cause a highly contagious and lethal disease in goslings and muscovy ducklings which is widespread in all major goose (Anser anser) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) farming countries, leading to a huge economic loss. Humoral immune responses play a major role in GPV immune protection during GPV infection. However, it is still unknown for the localization and immunological characteristics of B-cell epitopes on GPV non-structural protein (NSP). Therefore, in this study, the epitopes on the NSP of GPV were identified by means of overlapping peptides expressed in Escherichia coli in combination with Western blot. The results showed that the antigenic epitopes on the GPV NSP were predominantly localized in the C-terminal (aa 485-627), and especially, the fragment NS (498-532) was strongly positive. These results may facilitate future investigations on the function of NSP of GPV and the development of immunoassays for the diagnosis of GPV infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Sequencing and generation of an infectious clone of the pathogenic goose parvovirus strain LH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Duan, Jinkun; Zhu, Liqian; Jiang, Zhiwei; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the complete genome of the virulent strain LH of goose parvovirus (GPV) was sequenced and cloned into the pBluescript II (SK) plasmid vector. Sequence alignments of the inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of GPV strains revealed a common 14-nt-pair deletion in the stem of the palindromic structure in the LH strain and three other strains isolated after 1982 when compared to three GPV strains isolated earlier than that time. Transfection of 11-day-old embryonated goose eggs with the plasmid pLH, which contains the entire genome of strain LH, resulted in successful rescue of the infectious virus. Death of embryos after transfection via the chorioallantoic membrane infiltration route occurred earlier than when transfection was done via the allantoic cavity inoculation route. The rescued virus exhibited virulence similar to that of its parental virus, as evaluated by the mortality rate in goslings. Generation of the pathogenic infectious clone provides us with a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of GPV in the future.

  2. Genetic evaluation of reproductive potential in the Zatorska goose under a conservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Magdalena; Andres, Krzysztof; Kapkowska, Ewa; Szwaczkowski, Tomasz

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and inbreeding effect on the fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability traits in the Zatorska goose covered by the animal genetic resources conservation program. The material for this study contains information about results of hatching of 18 863 eggs from 721 dams and 168 sires, laid between 1998-2015. Genetic parameters were estimated based on the threshold animal model by the use of Restricted Maximum Likelihood and Gibbs sampling. The percentage of fertilized eggs ranged yearly between 37-80%. The percentage of embryo mortality was very low, ranging between 4.63-23.73%. The percentage of the hatched goslings from the total number of analyzed eggs was on average 33.18%, and 53.72% from fertilized eggs. On average based on both methods, the heritability estimates of the fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability reached 0.36, 0.07, 0.24 for males and 0.44, 0.11, 0.32 for females. The genetic trend had increasing tendency for fertility and hatchability and was stable for embryo mortality for both sexes. The obtained result shows that the Zatorska goose can be still maintained in the reserves of the local gene pool according to current rules and use in the local market as a breed with good reproductive potential. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Remote population-based intervention for disruptive behavior at age four: study protocol for a randomized trial of Internet-assisted parent training (Strongest Families Finland-Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families™ Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent–child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. Methods/design This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child’s sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using

  4. Remote population-based intervention for disruptive behavior at age four: study protocol for a randomized trial of Internet-assisted parent training (Strongest Families Finland-Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Patrick J; Sourander, Andre; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Ristkari, Terja; Cunningham, Charles; Huttunen, Jukka; Filbert, Katharine; Aromaa, Minna; Corkum, Penny; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Lampi, Katja; Penttinen, Anne; Sinokki, Atte; Unruh, Anita; Vuorio, Jenni; Watters, Carolyn

    2013-10-21

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent-child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child's sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using parental and daycare teacher measures

  5. Cancer survival in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the UK, 1995–2007 (the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership): an analysis of population-based cancer registry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, MP; Forman, D; Bryant, H; Butler, J; Rachet, B; Maringe, C; Nur, U; Tracey, E; Coory, M; Hatcher, J; McGahan, CE; Turner, D; Marrett, L; Gjerstorff, ML; Johannesen, TB; Adolfsson, J; Lambe, M; Lawrence, G; Meechan, D; Morris, EJ; Middleton, R; Steward, J; Richards, MA

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Cancer survival is a key measure of the effectiveness of health-care systems. Persistent regional and international differences in survival represent many avoidable deaths. Differences in survival have prompted or guided cancer control strategies. This is the first study in a programme to investigate international survival disparities, with the aim of informing health policy to raise standards and reduce inequalities in survival. Methods Data from population-based cancer registries in 12 jurisdictions in six countries were provided for 2·4 million adults diagnosed with primary colorectal, lung, breast (women), or ovarian cancer during 1995–2007, with follow-up to Dec 31, 2007. Data quality control and analyses were done centrally with a common protocol, overseen by external experts. We estimated 1-year and 5-year relative survival, constructing 252 complete life tables to control for background mortality by age, sex, and calendar year. We report age-specific and age-standardised relative survival at 1 and 5 years, and 5-year survival conditional on survival to the first anniversary of diagnosis. We also examined incidence and mortality trends during 1985–2005. Findings Relative survival improved during 1995–2007 for all four cancers in all jurisdictions. Survival was persistently higher in Australia, Canada, and Sweden, intermediate in Norway, and lower in Denmark, England, Northern Ireland, and Wales, particularly in the first year after diagnosis and for patients aged 65 years and older. International differences narrowed at all ages for breast cancer, from about 9% to 5% at 1 year and from about 14% to 8% at 5 years, but less or not at all for the other cancers. For colorectal cancer, the international range narrowed only for patients aged 65 years and older, by 2–6% at 1 year and by 2–3% at 5 years. Interpretation Up-to-date survival trends show increases but persistent differences between countries. Trends in cancer incidence and

  6. Predator protection or similar habitat selection in red-breasted goose nesting associations : extremes along a continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, JL; Prop, J; Kokorev, Y; Black, JM

    We tested the predator protection and similar habitat hypotheses in relation to red-breasted goose, Branta ruficollis, nesting associations. Geese began laying 1-3 weeks after all associated species. In almost all cases they nested on the mainland only if raptors were also present and always

  7. ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF SULFATE ASSOCIATED WITH THE OXIDATION OF ARSENIAN SULFIDE MINERALOGY IN THE GOOSE RIVER GROUNDWATERSHED, MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geogenic arsenic occurs in groundwater within the polymethamorphic amphibolite-grade Waldoboro Pluton Complex in mid-coastal Maine. A few As water samples exceeded 10 ug l(-1). Part of the fractured hydrogeologic "aquifer" is exposed in the Goose River groundwatershed (33 km(2))....

  8. 78 FR 9355 - Influenza Viruses Containing the Hemagglutinin From the Goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES [Docket: CDC-2012-0010] 42 CFR Part 73 Influenza Viruses... influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) from the Goose/Guangdong/1/96 lineage, and... concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) from the...

  9. Use and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioid Analgesics in the General Population of Canada and Correlations with Dispensing Levels in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Shield

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, harm from nonmedical prescription opioid analgesic (POA use (NMPOU has increased in recent years; however, there are limitations to the current estimates of NMPOU. The 2009 Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey presents an opportunity to produce more accurate estimates of NMPOU.

  10. Body size declines despite positive directional selection on heritable size traits in a barnacle goose population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, K; van der Jeugd, HP; van der Veen, IT; Forslund, P

    Analyses of more than 2000 marked barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) in the largest Baltic colony, Sweden, showed that structurally large females generally produced larger clutches and larger eggs, hatched their broods earlier in the season, and produced more and heavier-young than smaller females.

  11. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gina; Anderson, Maureen; Marra, Fawziah; McNeil, Shelly; Pielak, Karen; Dawar, Meena; McIvor, Marilyn; Ehlen, Thomas; Dobson, Simon; Money, Deborah; Patrick, David M; Naus, Monika

    2010-05-04

    Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine in a

  12. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ogilvie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1 of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7 consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9 consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%, advice from a physician (8.7%, and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%. The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%, preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%, and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%. In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having

  13. Effect of the loading rate on compressive properties of goose eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedomová, Š; Kumbár, V; Trnka, J; Buchar, J

    2016-03-01

    The resistance of goose (Anser anser f. domestica) eggs to damage was determined by measuring the average rupture force, specific deformation and rupture energy during their compression at different compression speeds (0.0167, 0.167, 0.334, 1.67, 6.68 and 13.36 mm/s). Eggs have been loaded between their poles (along X axis) and in the equator plane (Z axis). The greatest amount of force required to break the eggs was required when eggs were loaded along the X axis and the least compression force was required along the Z axis. This effect of the loading orientation can be described in terms of the eggshell contour curvature. The rate sensitivity of the eggshell rupture force is higher than that observed for the Japanese quail's eggs.

  14. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  15. Recombinant Goose Circoviruses Circulating in Domesticated and Wild Geese in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stenzel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Circoviruses are circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that infect a variety of animals, both domestic and wild. Circovirus infection in birds is associated with immunosuppression and this in turn predisposes the infected animals to secondary infections that can lead to mortality. Farmed geese (Anser anser in many parts of the world are infected with circoviruses. The majority of the current genomic information for goose circoviruses (GoCVs (n = 40 are from birds sampled in China and Taiwan, and only two genome sequences are available from Europe (Germany and Poland. In this study, we sampled 23 wild and 19 domestic geese from the Gopło Lake area in Poland. We determined the genomes of GoCV from 21 geese; 14 domestic Greylag geese (Anser anser, three wild Greylag geese (A. anser, three bean geese (A. fabalis, and one white fronted goose (A. albifrons. These genomes share 83–95% nucleotide pairwise identities with previously identified GoCV genomes, most are recombinants with exchanged fragment sizes up to 50% of the genome. Higher diversity levels can be seen within the genomes from domestic geese compared with those from wild geese. In the GoCV capsid protein (cp and replication associated protein (rep gene sequences we found that episodic positive selection appears to largely mirror those of beak and feather disease virus and pigeon circovirus. Analysis of the secondary structure of the ssDNA genome revealed a conserved stem-loop structure with the G-C rich stem having a high degree of negative selection on these nucleotides.

  16. Fads1 and 2 are promoted to meet instant need for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in goose fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Rashid H; Liu, Long; Xia, Lili; Zhao, Xing; Wang, Qianqian; Sun, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Biao; Zheng, Yun; Gong, Daoqing; Geng, Tuoyu

    2016-07-01

    Global prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) constitutes a threat to human health. Goose is a unique model of NAFLD for discovering therapeutic targets as its liver can develop severe steatosis without overt injury. Fatty acid desaturase (Fads) is a potential therapeutic target as Fads expression and mutations are associated with liver fat. Here, we hypothesized that Fads was promoted to provide a protection for goose fatty liver. To test this, goose Fads1 and Fads2 were sequenced. Fads1/2/6 expression was determined in goose liver and primary hepatocytes by quantitative PCR. Liver fatty acid composition was also analyzed by gas chromatography. Data indicated that hepatic Fads1/2/6 expression was gradually increased with the time of overfeeding. In contrast, trans-C18:1n9 fatty acid (Fads inhibitor) was reduced. However, enhanced Fads capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) synthesis was not sufficient to compensate for the depleted LC-PUFAs in goose fatty liver. Moreover, cell studies showed that Fads1/2/6 expression was regulated by fatty liver-associated factors. Together, these findings suggest Fads1/2 as protective components are promoted to meet instant need for LC-PUFAs in goose fatty liver, and we propose this is required for severe hepatic steatosis without liver injury.

  17. Genetic characterization of a potentially novel goose parvovirus circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Shi-Long; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Long

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel goose parvovirus (MDGPV/PT) isolated from an affected Muscovy duck in Fujian Province, China. In this study, the NS1 sequence analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between MDGPV/PT and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strains, although MDGPV/DY, which was isolated from a Muscovy duck in 2006 in Sichuan Province, could be divided into GPV-related groups. Phylogenetic analysis showed that except for differences in the NS1 gene, MDGPV strains PT and DY are closely related to a parvovirus that infects domestic waterfowls. This is the first demonstration of recombination between goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses in nature, and MDGPV/PT might have led to the generation of a novel waterfowl parvovirus strain circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in China.

  18. Double enzymatic hydrolysis preparation of heme from goose blood and microencapsulation to promote its stability and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baowei; Cheng, Fansheng; Gao, Shun; Ge, Wenhua; Zhang, Mingai

    2017-02-15

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. This deficiency could be solved by preparing stable, edible, and absorbable iron food ingredients using environmentally friendly methods. This study investigated enzymatic hydrolysis and microencapsulation process of goose blood. The physicochemical properties, stabilities of the microencapsulated goose blood hydrolysate (MGBH) and a supplement for rats with IDA were also evaluated. The results showed that the synergetic hydrolytic action of neutrase and alkaline protease significantly increased the heme-releasing efficiency. The heme was then microencapsulated using sodium caseinate, maltodextrin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the edible wall material, and the encapsulation efficiency of the product reached 98.64%. Meanwhile, favorable thermal, storage and light stabilities were observed for the microencapsulation. It was found that MGBH can significantly improve the body weight and hematological parameters of IDA Wistar rat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Goose-Origin Parvovirus as a Cause of Newly Emerging Beak Atrophy and Dwarfism Syndrome in Ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kexiang; Ma, Xiuli; Sheng, Zizhang; Qi, Lihong; Liu, Cunxia; Wang, Dan; Huang, Bing; Li, Feng; Song, Minxun

    2016-08-01

    A recent epizootic outbreak, in China, of duck beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS) was investigated using electron microscopic, genetic, and virological studies, which identified a parvovirus with a greater similarity to goose parvovirus (GPV) (97% protein homology) than to Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) (90% protein homology). The new virus, provisionally designated GPV-QH15, was found to be antigenically more closely related to GPV than to MDPV in a virus neutralization assay. These findings were further supported by phylogenetic analysis showing that GPV-QH15 evolved from goose lineage parvoviruses, rather than from Muscovy duck- or other duck species-related parvoviruses. In all, two genetic lineages (GPV I and GPV II) were identified from the GPV samples analyzed, and GPV-QH15 was found to be closely clustered with two known goose-origin parvoviruses (GPVa2006 and GPV1995), together forming a distinctive GPV IIa sublineage. Finally, structural modeling revealed that GPV-QH15 and the closely related viruses GPVa2006 and GPV1995 possessed identical clusters of receptor-interacting amino acid residues in the VP2 protein, a major determinant of viral receptor binding and host specificity. Significantly, these three viruses differed from MDPVs and other GPVs at these positions. Taken together, these results suggest that GPV-QH15 represents a new variant of goose-origin parvovirus that currently circulates in ducklings and causes BADS, a syndrome reported previously in Europe. This new finding highlights the need for future surveillance of GPV-QH15 in poultry in order to gain a better understanding of both the evolution and the biology of this emerging parvovirus. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Elemental microchemistry, fatty acid profile and geometric morphometrics signatures of goose barnacles (Pollicipes pollicipes reveal their place of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Albuquerque

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seafood plays an important role in the socioeconomic, gastronomy and cultural heritage of Portuguese coastal communities. In the Iberian Peninsula, the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the intertidal biological resource most heavily exploited by man, resulting on overexploitation of stocks. In the MPA of BNR P.pollicipes harvesting is however strictly regulated, making it a good example of marine resources management. Analytical methods able to identify the origin of goose barnacle would be an important tool to help the management of the trade. For such purpose, we investigated whether P. pollicipes have site-specific differences based on its elemental microchemistry (EM, fatty acid profile (FA and capitulum shape (CS. The analysis was performed on specimens collected from 3 sites in the BNR and 7 along a 300 km stretch of the Portuguese coast. For each individual we analysed the largest lateral shell for EM using ICP-MS, the FA content of the muscle using GC-FID, and the CS using geometric morphometrics. Discriminant function analyses (DFA for both EM and FA separately provided a high reclassification success (77.6% and 99% respectively, of cross-validated cases correctly classified, while for EM combined with FA allowed for a 100% reclassification success. DFA analysis based only on CS, revealed a low classification success (29.6%. These results show that EM and FA signatures can be a powerful tool to infer goose barnacles origin. Such “fingerprinting” approach can be used to track and identify goose barnacles origin, helping in establishing an origin certificate and increasing the potential value of biological resources from Portuguese MPAs.

  1. Short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) of mule duck is caused by a distinct lineage of Goose parvovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Palya , Vilmos; Zolnai , Anna; Benyeda , Zsofia; Kovács , Edit; Kardi , Veronika; Mató , Tamás

    2009-01-01

    Abstract From early `70s till now numerous cases of ?short beak and dwarfism syndrome? have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus. The syndrome was suggested to be caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not been reproduced by experimental infection so far. The aim of the present study was to characterize the vi...

  2. Short beak and dwarfism syndrome of mule duck is caused by a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palya, Vilmos; Zolnai, Anna; Benyeda, Zsófia; Kovács, Edit; Kardi, Veronika; Mató, Tamás

    2009-04-01

    From the early 1970s to the present, numerous cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus. It was suggested that the syndrome was caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not so far been reproduced by experimental infection. The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus strains isolated from field cases of SBDS, and to reproduce the disease experimentally. Phylogenetic analysis proved that the parvovirus isolates obtained from SBDS of mule duck belonged to a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus-related group of waterfowl parvoviruses. The authors carried out experimental infections of 1-day-old, 2-week-old and 3-week-old mule ducks by the oral route with three different parvovirus strains: strain D17/99 of goose parvovirus from Derzsy's disease, strain FM of Muscovy duck parvovirus from the parvovirus disease of Muscovy ducks, and strain D176/02 isolated from SBDS of mule duck. The symptoms of SBDS of the mule duck could only be reproduced with the mule duck isolate (strain D176/02) following 1-day-old inoculation. Infection with a genetically different strain of goose parvovirus isolated from classical Derzsy's disease (D17/99) or with the Muscovy duck parvovirus strain (FM) did not cause any clinical symptoms or pathological lesions in mule ducks.

  3. Analysis of mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acids synthesis in goose fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Xiang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of overfeeding on mRNA expression levels of genes involved in lipogenesis, in order to understand the mechanism of hepatic stea - tosis in the goose. Using Landes geese (Anser anser and Sichuan White geese (Anser cygnoides as experimental animals, we quantified the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-α (ACCα and fatty acid synthase (FAS, and of two transcription factors, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins- 1 (SREBP-1 and carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR, and measured the lipid and triglyceride (TG content in the liver and the plasma level of glucose, insulin and TG. Our results indicated that compared to the control group, the overfeeding induced an increase of the lipid and TG content in the liver and also of the plasma insulin and TG concentration in both breeds. However, the plasma glucose level decreased after overfeeding in the Sichuan White goose, and there was no evident change in the Landes goose. Lastly, the mRNA expression of ACCα, FAS, SREBP-1 and ChREBP in the overfed group was lower than in the control group in both breeds. We concluded that the lipogenesis pathway plays a role in overfeeding- induced hepatic steatosis and that the decreased mRNA level of related genes may be the indicator of hepatic steatosis.

  4. ASA24-Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  5. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and associations for symptom-based Rome IV functional dyspepsia in adults in the USA, Canada, and the UK: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Palsson, Olafur S; Törnblom, Hans; Sperber, Ami D; Whitehead, William E; Simrén, Magnus

    2018-04-01

    The population prevalence, clinical characteristics, and associations for Rome IV functional dyspepsia are not known. Following the publication of the Rome IV criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders, we aimed to assess the prevalence, characteristics, and associations for symptom-based Rome IV functional dyspepsia in adults across the USA, Canada, and the UK. We sent an internet-based cross-sectional health survey to adults in the general population of three English-speaking countries: the USA, Canada, and the UK. We used quota-based sampling to generate demographically balanced and population-representative samples. Individuals were invited to complete an online questionnaire on general health, without mention that the purpose of this survey was to examine gastrointestinal symptoms. We excluded participants who failed two attention-test questions or were excessively inconsistent on the three gastrointestinal questions that were presented twice in the survey for this particular purpose. The survey enquired about demographics, health-care visits, medications, somatisation, quality of life, and symptom-based criteria for Rome IV functional dyspepsia as well as for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional heartburn. We made subsequent comparisons between participants with Rome IV functional dyspepsia and controls without dyspepsia. The primary objective was to identify participants who fulfilled symptom-based criteria for Rome IV functional dyspepsia and categorise them into postprandial distress syndrome, epigastric pain syndrome, or overlapping subtypes. 6300 general population adults completed the health survey; 2100 each from the USA, Canada, and the UK. 369 responses were deemed inconsistent, leaving data for 5931 adults. Rome IV functional dyspepsia was significantly more prevalent in the USA (232 [12%] of 1949) than in Canada (167 [8%] of 1988) and the UK (152 [8%] of 1994; p<0·0001). The subtype distribution was 61% postprandial distress

  6. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  7. Hospitalizations due to unintentional transport injuries among Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, changes over time and ecological analysis of risk markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    Full Text Available Worldwide, Indigenous people have disproportionately higher rates of transport injuries. We examined disparities in injury-related hospitalizations resulting from transport incidents for three population groups in British Columbia (BC: total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations. We also examined sociodemographic, geographic and ethnic risk markers for disparities.We identified Aboriginal people through BC's universal health care insurance plan insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization for unintentional transport injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA, relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with SRR of transport injury by multivariable linear regression.During the period 1991-2010, the SRR for the off-reserve Aboriginal population was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.71 to 1.83; and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.93 to 2.07 among those living on-reserve. Decline in crude rate and SRRs was observed over this period among both the Aboriginal and total populations of BC, but was proportionally greater among the Aboriginal population. The best-fitting multivariable risk marker model was an excellent fit (R2 = 0.912, p<0.001, predicted SRRs very close to observed values, and retained the following terms: urban residence, population per room, proportion of the population with a high school certificate, proportion of the population employed; and multiplicative interactions of Aboriginal ethnicity with population per room and proportion of the population employed.Disparities in risk of hospitalization due to unintentional transport injury have narrowed. Aboriginal ethnicity modifies the effects of socioeconomic risk factors. Continued improvement of socioeconomic conditions

  8. Hospitalizations due to unintentional transport injuries among Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, changes over time and ecological analysis of risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; George, M Anne; Jin, Andrew; Amram, Ofer; McCormick, Rod; Lalonde, Christopher E

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, Indigenous people have disproportionately higher rates of transport injuries. We examined disparities in injury-related hospitalizations resulting from transport incidents for three population groups in British Columbia (BC): total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations. We also examined sociodemographic, geographic and ethnic risk markers for disparities. We identified Aboriginal people through BC's universal health care insurance plan insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional transport injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with SRR of transport injury by multivariable linear regression. During the period 1991-2010, the SRR for the off-reserve Aboriginal population was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.71 to 1.83); and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.93 to 2.07) among those living on-reserve. Decline in crude rate and SRRs was observed over this period among both the Aboriginal and total populations of BC, but was proportionally greater among the Aboriginal population. The best-fitting multivariable risk marker model was an excellent fit (R2 = 0.912, ppopulation per room, proportion of the population with a high school certificate, proportion of the population employed; and multiplicative interactions of Aboriginal ethnicity with population per room and proportion of the population employed. Disparities in risk of hospitalization due to unintentional transport injury have narrowed. Aboriginal ethnicity modifies the effects of socioeconomic risk factors. Continued improvement of socioeconomic conditions and implementation of culturally relevant injury prevention interventions are needed.

  9. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. During 1986 the program was strongly influenced by radioactive fallout on Canada resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986 in the Soviet Ukraine. The Environmental Radiation Hazards Division (ERHD) increased its frequency of analyses of environmental samples immediately following the accident. Interim screening limits for foodstuffs were developed. A measurement program for radioactivity in domestic and imported foods was implemented. The ERHD measurement program was supplemented by additional measurements conducted by many other private and government laboratories. Radiation doses to Canadian from Chernobyl fallout were extremely low with no group in the population receiving more than 10 microsieverts

  10. Effect of the loading rate on compressive properties of goose eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedomová, Š.; Kumbár, V.; Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2016), s. 223-233 ISSN 0092-0606 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : goose egg * compression * rupture force * deformation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.241, year: 2016 http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/770/art%253A10.1007%252Fs10867-015-9403-2.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2Fs10867-015-9403-2&token2=exp=1460539397~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F770%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252Fs10867-015-9403-2.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Farticle%252F10.1007%252Fs10867-015-9403-2*~hmac=fd2b9956908d60e519ce45c412eaf5c228f6f96333e62a06285950a2123f7739

  11. Transcriptome profiling reveals the immune response of goose T cells under selenium stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Li, Wanyan; Li, Bingxin; Tian, Yunbo; Xu, Danning

    2017-12-01

    The goose is an economically important poultry species and a principal natural host of avian viruses. This study aimed to determine the effects of selenium on the immune response of geese. Under selenium stimulation, gene expression profiling was investigated using transcriptome sequencing. The selenoproteins were promoted by selenium stimulation, while the heat shock proteins, interleukin and interferons were mainly down-regulated. After comparison, 2228 differentially expressed genes were primarily involved in immune and environmental response, and infectious disease and genetic information processing related pathways were identified. Specifically, the enzymes of the lysosomes which acted as a safeguard in preventing pathogens were mostly up-regulated and six randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the most proportional increased transcription factor family basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) located in the 5' flank of selenoprotein P-like protein for selenium metabolism was identified by response to the selenium stimulation in this study. These analyses show that selenium can promote immune function by activating selenoproteins, transcript factors and lysosome pathway related genes, while weakening cytokine content genes in geese. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Immunogenicity of virus-like particles containing modified goose parvovirus VP2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongyan; Li, Chuanfeng; Zhu, Yingqi; Wang, Binbin; Meng, Chunchun; Liu, Guangqing

    2012-10-01

    The major capsid protein VP2 of goose parvovirus (GPV) expressed using a baculovirus expression system (BES) assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs). To optimize VP2 gene expression in Sf9 cells, we converted wild-type VP2 (VP2) codons into codons that are more common in insect genes. This change greatly increased VP2 protein production in Sf9 cells. The protein generated from the codon-optimized VP2 (optVP2) was detected by immunoblotting and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the formation of VLPs. These findings indicate that optVP2 yielded stable and high-quality VLPs. Immunogenicity assays revealed that the VLPs are highly immunogenic, elicit a high level of neutralizing antibodies and provide protection against lethal challenge. The antibody levels appeared to be directly related to the number of GP-Ag-positive hepatocytes. The variation trends for GP-Ag-positive hepatocytes were similar in the vaccine groups. In comparison with the control group, the optVP2 VLPs groups exhibited obviously better responses. These data indicate that the VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Thus, GPV optVP2 appears to be a good candidate for the vaccination of goslings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fish monitoring project -- Oregon: Smolt monitoring activities at Little Goose Dam in 1996. Annual Report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setter, A.

    1998-01-01

    The juvenile fish facility at Little Goose Dam is operated seasonally to collect and bypass downstream migrating smolts and keep them from passing through the turbine blades. Fish are diverted from turbines by traveling screens as they sound in the forebay to pass the dam. A small percentage of the passing fish are sampled on a daily basis to provide information on fish condition, species composition, migration timing, and size distribution. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife personnel perform daily fish sampling and data collection. Physical operation of the facility is the responsibility of the US Army Corps of Engineers. Data is reported to the Fish Passage Center daily by means of electronic data transfer. Funding for this project was provided through the Smolt Monitoring Program administered by the Fish Passage Center. Overall, the number of fish collected and sampled in 1996 was a reduction from the previous years of operation. The 1996 migration season was characterized by higher than average flows and greater spill frequency at the dam. It was the first year that coho salmon were obtained in the sample. The predominant species collected was steelhead with hatchery fish outnumbering wild fish by a ratio of 8:1. An increased emphasis was placed on gas bubble trauma examination and a routine, consistent effort was implemented using a protocol established by the Fish Passage Center. The objective of the gas bubble trauma (GBT) examinations was to document the relative incidence of symptoms throughout the migration season

  14. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  15. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i Aboriginal and total populations; ii populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. Methods We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC’s universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. “On-reserve” residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs were classified as “metropolitan” if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Results Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0, but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86. For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0; 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1

  16. Community-based outbreaks in vulnerable populations of invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 5 and 8 in Calgary, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto G Vanderkooi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD typically occur within institutions. Beginning in 2005, we detected an increase in serotype (ST 5 and ST8 IPD cases, predominantly in homeless persons living in an open community. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CASPER (Calgary Area S. pneumoniae Epidemiology Research surveillance study of all IPD (sterile site isolates in our region (pop ~1,100,000. Interviews and chart reviews of all cases and all isolates phenotypically analyzed and selected isolated tested by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: During 2005-2007, 162 cases of ST5 IPD and 45 cases of ST8 IPD were identified. The isolates demonstrated phenotypic and genotypic clonality. The ST5 isolates were sequence type (ST 289 and demonstrated intermediate susceptibility to TMP-SMX. The ST8 isolates were predominantly ST1268, with a susceptible antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Individuals with ST5 IPD were more likely to be middle aged (OR 2.6, homeless (OR 4.4, using illicit drugs(OR 4.8, and asthmatic(OR 2.6. Those with ST8 were more likely to be male (OR 4.4, homeless (OR 2.6, aboriginal (OR7.3, and a current smoker (OR 2.5. Overlapping outbreaks of ST5 and ST8 IPD occurred in an open community in Calgary, Canada and homelessness was a predominant risk factor. Homelessness represents a unique community in which pneumococcal outbreaks can occur.

  17. Canada puts emphasis on SMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to hydroelectricity and 16% share of nuclear power, Canada is among the few countries to respect GIEC's 2050 climate objectives: producing 80% of electricity without emitting CO 2 . In the context of a growing power demand, Canada has integrated nuclear energy in its energy scenarios. Small Modular Reactors (SMR) are considered as an efficient means to replace diesel generators used in small isolated communities. Several North America start-ups such as Terrestrial Energy that develops molten salt reactors, have moved to Canada. The British firm Moltex has chosen Canadian Nuclear Safety Authority (CCSN for the certification of its 4. generation reactor. In Ontario, Canada's most populated province, nuclear energy produces 60% of its electricity consumption and has allowed the progressive shutdown of all coal-fed power plants of the province. Between 2000 and 2013 nuclear power increased by 20% whereas the coal share in power production dropped by 27%. The 2014 Toronto Public Health report highlights that since 2004 premature mortality has dropped by 23% and the hospitalization due to air pollution by 41%. (A.C.)

  18. Injury hospitalizations due to unintentional falls among the Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: incidence, changes over time, and ecological analysis of risk markers, 1991-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jin

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls.We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA, relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression.During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94. Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07. Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment.Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of hospitalization due to unintentional fall

  19. Injury hospitalizations due to unintentional falls among the Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: incidence, changes over time, and ecological analysis of risk markers, 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Andrew; Lalonde, Christopher E; Brussoni, Mariana; McCormick, Rod; George, M Anne

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls. We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression. During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94). Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07). Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment. Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of hospitalization due to unintentional fall injury has

  20. Post-marketing experience with nevirapine extended release (XR) tablets: effectiveness and tolerability in a population-based cohort in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepik, Katherine J; Yip, Benita; McGovern, Rachel A; Ding, Erin; Nohpal, Adriana; Watson, Birgit E; Toy, Junine; Akagi, Linda; Harrigan, P Richard; Moore, David M; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G; Barrios, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Nevirapine 400 mg extended release tablets (nevirapine-XR) are a once-daily alternative to nevirapine 200 mg immediate release tablets (nevirapine-IR). Study objectives were to describe the effectiveness and tolerability of nevirapine-XR in clinical practice and, for patients who switched from once daily 2×200 mg nevirapine-IR to nevirapine-XR, compare virological suppression and plasma nevirapine concentrations during each treatment period. HIV-1-infected adults entered the study cohort if they initiated nevirapine-XR in British Columbia (BC) Canada between 1 April 2012 and 30 September 2012 and were followed until 30 September 2013. Demographic and clinical variables were abstracted from the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS databases. Patients who switched from once daily nevirapine-IR to nevirapine-XR were monitored for 6 months pre- and post-switch with comparison of virological suppression (McNeamer's test) and median random plasma nevirapine concentrations (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test) in each period. The 536 nevirapine-XR-treated patients were 96% male, median (IQR) age 49.9 (44.0-56.9) years. Median follow-up was 15.6 (14.7-16.5) months, with 474/536 (88%) maintaining virological suppression. Emergent drug resistance developed in 5/536 (1%), adverse drug reactions in 17/536 (3%) and, although 31/536 (6%) reported 'whole' tablets in their stools, this was not associated with adverse outcomes. Among the 305 patients who switched from nevirapine-IR to nevirapine-XR, median (IQR) random plasma nevirapine concentration was higher during nevirapine-IR 5,000 (3,690-6,090) ng/ml than nevirapine-XR 3,930 (3,050-5,150) ng/ml (Pmarketing study affirms the effectiveness and tolerability of nevirapine-XR as an alternative to nevirapine-IR in adults.

  1. Neighbourhood immigration, health care utilization and outcomes in patients with diabetes living in the Montreal metropolitan area (Canada): a population health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Alain; Courteau, Josiane; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Bergeron, Patrick; Cohen, Alan A; Niyonsenga, Théophile

    2015-04-09

    Understanding health care utilization by neighbourhood is essential for optimal allocation of resources, but links between neighbourhood immigration and health have rarely been explored. Our objective was to understand how immigrant composition of neighbourhoods relates to health outcomes and health care utilization of individuals living with diabetes. This is a secondary analysis of administrative data using a retrospective cohort of 111,556 patients living with diabetes without previous cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and living in the metropolitan region of Montreal (Canada). A score for immigration was calculated at the neighbourhood level using a principal component analysis with six neighbourhood-level variables (% of people with maternal language other than French or English, % of people who do not speak French or English, % of immigrants with different times since immigration (immigration scores, those living in neighbourhoods with high immigration scores were less likely to die, to suffer a CVD event, to frequently visit general practitioners, but more likely to visit emergency departments or a specialist and to use an antidiabetic drug. These differences remained after controlling for patient-level variables such as age, sex, and comorbidities, as well as for neighbourhood attributes like material and social deprivation or living in the urban core. In this study, patients with diabetes living in neighbourhoods with high immigration scores had different health outcomes and health care utilizations compared to those living in neighbourhoods with low immigration scores. Although we cannot disentangle the individual versus the area-based effect of immigration, these results may have an important impact for health care planning.

  2. Geographic Variation Immediate and Delayed Breast Reconstruction Utilization in Ontario, Canada and Plastic Surgeon Availability: A Population-Based Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jennica; Zhong, Toni; Moineddin, Rahim; Booth, Gillian L; Easson, Alexandra M; Fernandes, Kimberly; Gozdyra, Peter; Baxter, Nancy N

    2015-08-01

    Utilization of breast reconstruction (BR) is low in many jurisdictions. We studied the geographical and surgical workforce factors that contribute to access and use of BR using a small area analysis approach with a geographical unit of analysis. We linked administrative data from Ontario Canada to calculate the age-standardized rates for immediate BR (IBR) (same time as mastectomy) between 2002 and 2011, and delayed BR (DBR) (within 3 years of mastectomy) for each county. The influence of plastic surgeon access on variation in county rates of BR was examined using Poisson random effects models. 12,663 women underwent mastectomy in Ontario; 2,948 had BR within 3 years (23.3%). Over 50% of the counties had no access to any plastic surgeon. County IBR rates ranged from 0 to 21.5%; plastic surgeon access explained 46% of geographic variation (pplastic surgeons were significantly less than counties with high access (relative rate [RR] 0.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.66], RR 0.61 [CI 0.43-0.87] and RR 0.70 [CI 0.52-0.96], respectively) after adjusting for age and county socioeconomic characteristics. For DBR, while there was less geographic variation, very low access counties demonstrated reduced rates (RR 0.60 [CI 0.47-0.76]). Geographic access to a plastic surgeon is a major determinant of BR. Targeted interventions for regions without high access to plastic surgeons may improve overall rates and reduce geographic disparities in care, particularly for IBR.

  3. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and

  4. Monitoring the impact of the Gordon C. Leitch oil spill on the breeding bird populations of the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve, (QC) Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, B.; Chapdelaine, G.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a monitoring study of the impact of a 1999 oil spill on the breeding bird population in the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec, are discussed. The common eider, the black guillemot and the bald eagle were the three species studied by observing and comparing the status of these bird populations on islands located inside and outside of the contaminated area. Data from before and after the oil spill were compared. Results show that an estimated 211 to 777 breeding birds have died as a result of the oil spill, however, the overall impact on the reproductive potential of the breeding bird population was insignificant. Various protective measures to mitigate the effects of future oil spills are proposed. 38 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Molecular analysis of red maple (Acer rubrum) populations from a reclaimed mining region in Northern Ontario (Canada): soil metal accumulation and translocation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalubi, K N; Mehes-Smith, M; Narendrula, R; Michael, P; Omri, A

    2015-04-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum) species is one of the most widespread deciduous (hardwood) trees of eastern North America. It is among the dominant tree species in the Northern Ontario after land reclamation. To date, the effects of heavy metal contamination from the mining activities on terrestrial ecosystems are not well understood. The main objectives of the present study are (1) to determine the level of phytoavailable metal in soil and accumulation in A. rubrum, and (2) to compare the levels of genetic variation among and within A. rubrum populations from areas with different metal contents in a Northern Ontario region. The total heavy metal levels were found to be high but the availability of these metals were much lower. We found that red maple does not accumulate heavy metals in their leaves as other hardwood species. The translocation factors were 0.05, 0.21, 0.38, 0.90, and 2.8 for Cu, Ni, Fe, Zn, and Mg, respectively. The levels of genetic variation in red maple populations from reclaimed lands in Northern Ontario were moderate to high since the percentage of polymorphic loci varied between 51 and 67%. The mean values for observed number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei's gene diversity (h), and Shannon's information index (I) were 1.60, 1.24, 0.15 and 0.24, respectively. The population differentiation (GST) among the fragmented populations was high (0.28) despite a high level of gene flow (Nm = 1.28). Nevertheless, all the populations within the targeted region were genetically closely related. A specific ISSR marker that was identified in all the samples from the reference sites was absent in most samples from metal contaminated. This specific band was cloned and sequenced. Overall, the present study confirms that red maple populations in Northern Ontario are genetically sustainable despite the high level of total metal content in soil.

  6. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  7. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  8. Overlap in diet and distribution of two goose species suggests potential for competition at a common moulting area in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Levermann, Nette; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    found, and behavioural observations indicated only slight modifications in attentive behaviour and increased distance to the lakeshore in sympatry. This would seem to imply that the area has sufficient space and forage to support both species. If so, the local decline in Greenland White-fronted Goose...... on activity budgets and spatial distribution were obtained from observations of behaviour, and diet selection was determined through analyses of plant epidermal fragments in faecal samples that were subsequently genotyped to goose species. No differences in diet or spatial distribution of the two species were...

  9. Minority populations in Canadian second language education

    CERN Document Server

    Arnett, Katy

    2013-01-01

    This book broadens the study of second language learning in Canada beyond the examination of majority populations in French immersion to highlight lessons learned from studies of minority populations learning languages in Canada.

  10. Evidence of Territoriality and Species Interactions from Spatial Point-Pattern Analyses of Subarctic-Nesting Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthew E.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of bird nests and nest fate provides insights into processes influencing a species’ distribution. At Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, recent declines in breeding Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) has coincided with increasing populations of nesting lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross’s geese (Chen rossii). We conducted a spatial analysis of point patterns using Canada goose nest locations and nest fate, and lesser snow goose nest locations at two study areas in northern Manitoba with different densities and temporal durations of sympatric nesting Canada and lesser snow geese. Specifically, we assessed (1) whether Canada geese exhibited territoriality and at what scale and nest density; and (2) whether spatial patterns of Canada goose nest fate were associated with the density of nesting lesser snow geese as predicted by the protective-association hypothesis. Between 2001 and 2007, our data suggest that Canada geese were territorial at the scale of nearest neighbors, but were aggregated when considering overall density of conspecifics at slightly broader spatial scales. The spatial distribution of nest fates indicated that lesser snow goose nest proximity and density likely influence Canada goose nest fate. Our analyses of spatial point patterns suggested that continued changes in the distribution and abundance of breeding lesser snow geese on the Hudson Bay Lowlands may have impacts on the reproductive performance of Canada geese, and subsequently the spatial distribution of Canada goose nests. PMID:24312520

  11. Using 137Cs as a tool for the assessment and the management of erosion/sedimentation risks in view of the restoration of the Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) fish population in the Boyer River basin (Quebec, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Laverdiere, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Boyer River (Quebec, Canada) drains a 217 km 2 watershed that is under cultivation at 60%. The last 2 km of the river bed has always been used as a spawning ground by Rainbow Smelts (Osmerus mordax). This fish population, which plays an important ecological role in the St. Lawrence River estuary, has dramatically declined over the last decades. Siltation and excessive algal growth in the spawning area were identified as the most probable causes of the fish population decline; suggesting that soil erosion, nutrient and sediment transport are major factors underlying the environmental problem. In this context, 137 Cs provides an effective tool for investigating the magnitude and spatial distribution of long-term soil redistribution taking place in the watershed. Sampling of cultivated fields, riverbanks, bottom sediments and forested sites were thus undertaken to help understand the erosive behaviour of the watershed. Results obtained so far suggest in-field erosion rates of up to 13 t ha -1 yr -1 with net outputs reaching 11 t ha -1 yr -1 . These results agree well with estimates obtained from the USLE. The 137 Cs data indicate that fields located in the upstream half of the basin produce smaller sediment loadings than those in the downstream portion, despite higher soil erodibilities and more frequent use for annual crops. They also suggest that more than 75% of the sediment deposited in the spawning area originates from cultivated fields, and less than 25% from streambanks. (author)

  12. Identification of sequence changes in live attenuated goose parvovirus vaccine strains developed in Asia and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shien, J-H; Wang, Y-S; Chen, C-H; Shieh, H K; Hu, C-C; Chang, P-C

    2008-10-01

    Live attenuated vaccines have been used for control of the disease caused by goose parvovirus (GPV), but the mechanism involved in attenuation of GPV remains elusive. This report presents the complete nucleotide sequences of two live attenuated strains of GPV (82-0321V and VG32/1) that were independently developed in Taiwan and Europe, together with the parental strain of 82-0321V and a field strain isolated in Taiwan in 2006. Sequence comparisons showed that 82-0321V and VG32/1 had multiple deletions and substitutions in the inverted terminal repeats region when compared with their parental strain or the field virus, but these changes did not affect the formation of the hairpin structure essential for viral replication. Moreover, 82-0321V and VG32/1 had five amino acid changes in the non-structural protein, but these changes were located at positions distant from known functional motifs in the non-structural protein. In contrast, 82-0321V had nine changes and VG32/1 had 11 changes in their capsid proteins (VP1), and the majority of these changes occurred at positions close to the putative receptor binding sites of VP1, as predicted using the structure of adeno-associated virus 2 as the model system. Taken together, the results suggest that changes in sequence near the receptor binding sites of VP1 might be responsible for attenuation of GPV. This is the first report of complete nucleotide sequences of GPV other than the virulent B strain, and suggests a possible mechanism for attenuation of GPV.

  13. Expression, purification, characterization and subcellular localization of the goose parvovirus rep1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongyan; Li, Chuanfeng; Peng, Gaojing; Liu, Guangqing

    2013-07-01

    The goose parvovirus (GPV) Rep1 protein is both essential for viral replication and a potential target for GPV diagnosis, but its protein characterization and intracellular localization is not clear. We constructed a recombinant plasmid, pET28a/GPV-Rep1, and expressed the Rep1 gene in BL21 (DE3) Escherichia coli. A protein approximately 75 kDa in size was obtained from lysates of E. coli cells expressing the recombinant plasmid. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that after induction with 0.6 mM isopropyl β-D-thiogalactosidase (IPTG) at 30°C for 5 h, the Rep1 protein was highly overexpressed. Two methods used to purify proteins, a salinity-gradient elution and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, were performed. The amount of Rep1 protein obtained by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography was 41.23 mg, while 119.9 mg of Rep1 protein was obtained by a salinity-gradient elution from a 1 L E. coli BL21 (DE3) culture. An immunogenicity analysis showed that the protein could significantly elicit a specific antibody response in immunized goslings compared to control groups. Antibody titers peaked to 1:5120 (optical density (OD) 450 = 3.9) on day 28 after immunization but had mean titers of 1:10,240 (OD450 = 4.2) in gosling groups immunized with a commercially available GPV-attenuated vaccine strain. Experiments examining subcellular localization showed that the Rep1 protein appeared to associate predominantly with the nuclear membrane, especially during later times of infection. This work provides a basis for biochemical and structural studies on the GPV Rep1 protein.

  14. Place matters: A longitudinal analysis measuring the association between neighbourhood walkability and walking by age group and population center size in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Rania; Steinmetz-Wood, Madeleine; Kestens, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the influence of walkability on walking behaviour and assessed whether associations varied according to life-stage and population center (PC) size. Walkability scores were obtained for the six-digit postal codes of residential neighbourhoods of 11,200 Canadians, who participated in biennial assessments of the National Population Health Survey from 1994 to 2010. Participants were stratified by age-group. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to estimate the influence of cumulative exposure to neighborhood walkability on utilitarian and exercise walking by PC size and life-stage. Associations of neighbourhood walkability with utilitarian and exercise walking varied according to age-group and PC size. Exposure to high walkable neighborhoods was associated with utilitarian walking in younger and older adults in all PC sizes, except for older adults living in a medium PC. Living in a highly walkable neighborhood in a large PC was associated with walking for exercise in younger (OR: 1.42; 95%CI: 1.20-1.67) and older adults (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.51-2.89). Living in highly walkable neighbourhood in a medium PC was associated with walking for exercise in older adults (OR: 1.62; 95%CI: 1.15-2.29). These results emphasize the need to consider the size and nature of every community, and the age-group of a population when implementing strategies to promote walking.

  15. Development of a duplex semi-nested PCR assay for detection of classical goose parvovirus and novel goose parvovirus-related virus in sick or dead ducks with short beak and dwarfism syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Ruihua; Chen, Junhao; Sun, Dapeng; Lan, Jingjing; Lin, Shaoli; Song, Shasha; Xie, Zhijing; Jiang, Shijin

    2017-11-01

    Duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) in China. Until now, it remains uncertain whether the Cherry Valley ducks and mule ducks with SBDS are co-infected with classical goose parvovirus (GPV) and NGPV. In this study, a duplex semi-nested PCR assay with high specificity and sensitivity was developed for detection of the two viruses. Using the duplex PCR assay, NGPV was tested positive in all the 15 duck flocks with SBDS, whereas classical GPV was not detected in all the 133 sick and dead ducks collected from East China. A total of 87 (91.58%) Cherry Valley ducks aged from 5 to 18days and 35 (92.11%) mule ducks aged from 17 to 25days were detected positive for NGPV. In the NGPV-positive ducks, the virus detection rates were 81.97% to 8.20% in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, pancreas, bile, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, and brain. The results indicated that NGPV was prevalent in the duck flocks of East China, whereas classical GPV was not detected in Cherry Valley ducks and mule ducks with SBDS. NGPV has extensive tissue tropism in Cherry Valley duck and mule duck, which could invade both the central and peripheral immune organs and break through the blood-brain barrier of ducks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Canada's contribution to global research in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai V; de Oliveira, Claire; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Wong, William W L; Woo, Gloria; Grootendorst, Paul; Liu, Peter P; Krahn, Murray D

    2013-06-01

    The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Canada and other developed countries is growing, in part because of the aging of the population and the alarming rise of obesity. Studying Canada's contribution to the global body of CVD research output will shed light on the effectiveness of investments in Canadian CVD research and inform if Canada has been responding to its CVD burden. Search was conducted using the Web-of-Science database for publications during 1981 through 2010 on major areas and specific interventions in CVD. Search was also conducted using Canadian and US online databases for patents issued between 1981 and 2010. Search data were used to estimate the proportions of the world's pool of research publications and of patents conducted by researchers based in Canada. The results indicate that Canada contributed 6% of global research in CVD during 1981 through 2010. Further, Canada's contribution shows a strong upward trend during the period. Based on patent data, Canada's contribution level was similar (5%-7%). Canada's contribution to the global pool of CVD research is on par with France and close to the UK, Japan, and Germany. Canada's contribution in global CVD research is higher than its average contribution in all fields of research (6% vs 3%). As the burden of chronic diseases including CVD rises with Canada's aging population, the increase in Canadian research into CVD is encouraging. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Feasibility and Field Performance of a Simultaneous Syphilis and HIV Point-of-Care Test Based Screening Strategy in at Risk Populations in Edmonton, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Bergman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the feasibility of delivering syphilis point-of-care (POC testing in outreach (nonclinical settings in resource rich countries. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic performance of performing both HIV and syphilis POC testing in outreach settings and to document new cases identified in the study population. 1,265 outreach testing visits were offered syphilis and HIV POC testing and 81.5% (n=1,031 consented to testing. In our population, the SD Bioline 3.0 Syphilis Test had a sensitivity of 85.3% [CI (68.9–95.0], specificity of 100.0% [CI (99.6–100.0], positive predictive value (PPV of 100.0% [CI (88.1–100.0], and negative predictive value (NPV of 99.5% [CI (98.9–99.8]. Test characteristics for the INSTI HIV-1/HIV-2 Antibody Test had a 100.0% sensitivity [CI (39.8–100.00], 99.8 specificity [CI (99.3–100], 66.7% PPV [CI (22.3–95.7], and 100.0% NPV [CI (99.6–100.0]. Four new cases of syphilis and four new HIV cases were diagnosed. In summary, at risk population seeking STI testing found POC tests to be acceptable, the POC tests performed well in outreach settings, and new cases of syphilis and HIV were identified and linked to treatment and care.

  18. Developing population segments with different levels of complexity and primary health care needs: An analysis using health administrative data in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Langton

    2017-04-01

    We developed population segments designed to account for patient complexity and primary health care needs; as such, segments provide more information than traditional indices of morbidity burden based on counts of chronic conditions. These segments will be used to report information on the quality of primary care. We plan to include conduct validation studies using additional variables (e.g, socio-economic factors, level of vulnerability from patient surveys so that segments more accurately represent the level of complexity and patients’ primary health care needs.

  19. Assessing the validity of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in the adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Food- Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is a dietary assessment tool frequently used in large-scale nutritional epidemiology studies. The goal of the present study is to validate a self-administered version of the Hawaii FFQ modified for use in the general adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Methods Over a one year period, 195 randomly selected adults completed four 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDRs) by telephone and one subsequent self-administered FFQ. Estimates of energy and nutrients derived from the 24-HDRs and FFQs were compared (protein, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, vitamin A, carotene, vitamin D, and calcium). Data were analyzed using the Pearson’s correlation coefficients, cross-classification method, and Bland–Altman plots. Results The mean nutrient intake values of the 24-HDRs were lower than those of the FFQs, except for protein in men. Sex and energy-adjusted de-attenuated Pearson correlation coefficients for each nutrient varied from 0.13 to 0.61. Except for protein in men, all correlations were statistically significant with p food consumption in the general adult population of NL. This tool can be used to classify individual energy and nutrient intakes into quartiles, which is useful in examining relationships between diet and chronic disease. PMID:23590645

  20. Fusion Canada issue 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  1. Fusion Canada issue 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.

  2. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  3. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  4. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  5. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  6. Immunogenicity of recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 expressing goose parvovirus VP2 gene in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ying; Yang, Wen-Tao; Shi, Shao-Hua; Li, Ya-Jie; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Chun-Wei; Zhou, Fang-Yu; Jiang, Yan-Long; Hu, Jing-Tao; Gu, Wei; Yang, Gui-Lian; Wang, Chun-Feng

    2017-06-30

    Goose parvovirus (GPV) continues to be a threat to goose farms and has significant economic effects on the production of geese. Current commercially available vaccines only rarely prevent GPV infection. In our study, Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum NC8 was selected as a vector to express the VP2 gene of GPV, and recombinant L. plantarum pSIP409-VP2/NC8 was successfully constructed. The molecular weight of the expressed recombinant protein was approximately 70 kDa. Mice were immunized with a 2 × 10 9 colony-forming unit/200 μL dose of the recombinant L. plantarum strain, and the ratios and numbers of CD11c + , CD3 + CD4 + , CD3 + CD8 + , and interferon gamma- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-expressing spleen lymphocytes in the pSIP409-VP2/NC8 group were higher than those in the control groups. In addition, we assessed the capacity of L. plantarum SIP409-VP2/NC8 to induce secretory IgA production. We conclude that administered pSIP409-VP2/NC8 leads to relatively extensive cellular responses. This study provides information on GPV infection and offers a clear framework of options available for GPV control strategies.

  7. Post mortem rigor development in the Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) breast muscle (pectoralis): factors which may affect the tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Muller, Nina; Frylinck, Lorinda; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-15

    Baseline research on the toughness of Egyptian goose meat is required. This study therefore investigates the post mortem pH and temperature decline (15 min-4 h 15 min post mortem) in the pectoralis muscle (breast portion) of this gamebird species. It also explores the enzyme activity of the Ca(2+)-dependent protease (calpain system) and the lysosomal cathepsins during the rigor mortis period. No differences were found for any of the variables between genders. The pH decline in the pectoralis muscle occurs quite rapidly (c = -0.806; ultimate pH ∼ 5.86) compared with other species and it is speculated that the high rigor temperature (>20 °C) may contribute to the increased toughness. No calpain I was found in Egyptian goose meat and the µ/m-calpain activity remained constant during the rigor period, while a decrease in calpastatin activity was observed. The cathepsin B, B & L and H activity increased over the rigor period. Further research into the connective tissue content and myofibrillar breakdown during aging is required in order to know if the proteolytic enzymes do in actual fact contribute to tenderisation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Mitochondrial population structure and post-glacial dispersal of longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus in Labrador, Canada: evidence for multiple refugial origins and limited ongoing gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, B L; Perry, R; Keefe, D; Barker, O; Marshall, H D

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and eighty-seven longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus were collected from 14 lakes in Labrador, 52 from three lakes in Ontario, 43 from two lakes in British Columbia and 32 from a lake in Yukon; a total of 414 in all. The resulting 34 haplotypes (20 in Labrador) contained moderate haplotypic diversity (h = 0·657) and relatively low nucleotide diversity (π = 3·730 × 10(-3) . Mean ϕST (0·453, P network revealed one major and two minor clades within Labrador that were assigned to the Atlantic, Beringian and Mississippian refugia, respectively, with tests of neutrality and mismatch distribution indicative of a recent population expansion in Labrador, dated between c. 3500 and 8300 years ago. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. The health care cost of dying: a population-based retrospective cohort study of the last year of life in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tanuseputro

    Full Text Available Coordinated and appropriate health care across sectors is an ongoing challenge, especially at the end-of-life. Population-level data on end-of-life health care use and cost, however, are seldom reported across a comprehensive array of sectors. Such data will identify the level of care being provided and areas where care can be optimized.This retrospective cohort study identified all deaths in Ontario from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2013. Using population-based health administrative databases, we examined health care use and cost in the last year of life.Among 264,755 decedents, the average health care cost in the last year of life was $53,661 (Quartile 1-Quartile 3: $19,568-$66,875. The total captured annual cost of $4.7 billion represents approximately 10% of all government-funded health care. Inpatient care, incurred by 75% of decedents, contributed 42.9% of total costs ($30,872 per user. Physician services, medications/devices, laboratories, and emergency rooms combined to less than 20% of total cost. About one-quarter used long-term-care and 60% used home care ($34,381 and $7,347 per user, respectively. Total cost did not vary by sex or neighborhood income quintile, but were less among rural residents. Costs rose sharply in the last 120 days prior to death, predominantly for inpatient care.This analysis adds new information about the breadth of end-of-life health care, which consumes a large proportion of Ontario's health care budget. The cost of inpatient care and long-term care are substantial. Introducing interventions that reduce or delay institutional care will likely reduce costs incurred at the end of life.

  10. Development of a taqman-based real-time PCR assay for the rapid and specific detection of novel duck- origin goose parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchang; Wang, Jinfeng; Cui, Yuan; Nan, Huizhu; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2017-08-01

    A real-time PCR assay was developed for specific detection of novel duck-origin goose parvovirus (N-GPV), the etiological agent of duck beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS). The detection limit of the assay was 10 2 copies. The assay was useful in the prevention and control of BADS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of World Health Organization Groups 1 to 4 Pulmonary Hypertension: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, D Thiwanka; Lajkosz, Katherine; Brogly, Susan B; Lougheed, M Diane; Jiang, Li; Housin, Ahmad; Barber, David; Johnson, Ana; Doliszny, Katharine M; Archer, Stephen L

    2018-02-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes 5 groups of pulmonary hypertension (PH), categorized by pathogenesis or comorbidity: 1-pulmonary arterial hypertension 2-left-heart disease, 3-lung disease and hypoxia 4-chronic thromboembolic disease, and 5-miscellaneous. The epidemiology of PH, apart from group 1, is largely unknown. We describe incidence, prevalence, comorbidities, mortality and prescribing patterns for groups 1 to 4 PH from 1993 to 2012. Case definitions are based on hospitalizations and emergency department visits, using the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences data, which comprises linked databases of universal coverage health service records for Ontario residents. This cohort included 50 529 patients with PH. The annual incidence of adult PH increased from 2003 to 2012 from 24.1 to 28.7 cases/100 000 population and the annual prevalence from 1993 to 2012 from 99.8 to 127.3 cases/100 000 population, respectively. The most common form of adult PH was group 2, alone (34.2%) or combined with group 3 PH (29.3%). A diagnosis of PH increased the 1-year standardized mortality ratio 7.2-fold. Mortality in adults with PH was 13.0%, 36.4%, and 62.4%, at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years, respectively. Mortality was highest in groups 2 and 3 and lowest in group 1. PH was present in only 3.6% of people with left heart disease, 0.7% with lung disease, and 1.4% with thromboembolic disease, suggesting that PH is a relatively rare complication of these common diseases. Children (age<16 years) accounted for 3.6% of the cohort. In children group 1 PH was most common (65.2%), and 5-year mortality was lower (21.4%) than in adults. Group 1-specific PH therapies were increasingly prescribed over time and paradoxically were often used in patients who seemed to have group 2, PH based on diagnostic codes indicating left heart disease. The incidence and prevalence of adult PH are increasing. Groups 2 and 3 are the most common and lethal forms of PH. This study identifies an

  12. Surgery for diverticular disease results in a higher hernia rate compared to colorectal cancer: a population-based study from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, E S; Robertson, D I; Whitehead, M; Xu, J; Hall, S F

    2017-11-16

    Incisional hernias are a well described complication of abdominal surgery. Previous studies identified malignancy and diverticular disease as risk factors. We compared incisional hernia rates between colon resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) and diverticular disease (DD). We performed a retrospective, population-based, matched cohort study. Provincial databases were linked through the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. These databases include all patients registered under the universal Ontario Health Insurance Plan. Patients aged 18-105 undergoing open colon resection, without ostomy formation between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2009, were included. We excluded those with previous surgery, hernia, obstruction, and perforation. The primary outcomes were surgery for hernia repair, or diagnosis of hernia in clinic. We identified 4660 cases of DD. These were matched 2:1 by age and gender to 8933 patients with CRC for a total of 13,593. At 5 years, incisional hernias occurred in 8.3% of patients in the CRC cohort, versus 13.1% of those undergoing surgery for DD. After adjusting for important confounders (comorbidity score, wound infection, age, diabetes, prednisone and chemotherapy), hernias were still more likely in patients with DD [HR 1.58, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.43-1.76, P < 0.001]. The only significant covariate was wound infection (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.43-1.87, P < 0.001). Our study found that incisional hernias occur more commonly in patients with DD than CRC.

  13. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the synaptotagmin-1 gene in the hypothalamus and pituitary of Huoyan goose during different stages of the egg-laying cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Xinhong; Luo, Lina; Cao, Zhongzan; Li, Rongrong; Liu, Dawei; Gao, Ming; Liu, Mei; Wang, Laiyou

    2014-08-21

    Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) is an abundant, evolutionarily conserved integral membrane protein that plays essential roles in neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion. Neurotransmitters secreted by hypothalamic neurons can alter GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormones) neuronal activity by binding to and activating specific membrane receptors in pituitary cells and, in turn, control the release of gonadotropin hormones from the pituitary gland. To reveal the influence of Syt1 on the process of goose egg-laying, we cloned and characterized the cDNA of goose Syt1 originating from hypothalamus and pituitary tissues of Huoyan goose and investigated the mRNA expression profiles during different stages of the egg-laying cycle. Hypothalamus and pituitary tissues were obtained from 36 Huoyan geese in the pre-laying period, early laying period, peak-laying period, and ceased period. The cDNA sequences of goose Syt1 were cloned and characterized from Huoyan goose tissues using 5'-RACE and 3'-RACE methods. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analyses of the deduced Syt1 amino acid sequence were conducted using bioinformatics tools. The expression profiles of the Syt1 mRNA in the hypothalamus and pituitary during pre-laying, early laying, peak-laying and ceased period were examined using real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The cDNA of Syt1 consisted of a 274 bp 5' UTR, a 1266 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 421 amino acids, and a 519 bp 3' UTR. The deduced amino acid sequence of goose Syt1 is highly conserved with the sequence from other species, especially with birds (more than 98%), and contains two protein kinase C2 conserved regions (C2 domain) from amino acids residue 157 to 259 and 288 to 402. The results of qRT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of Syt1 mRNA increased from the pre-laying period to the peak-laying period, reached its peak in the peak-laying period, and then decreased in the ceased period. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to obtain full

  14. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracey, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  16. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1981 on bottled mineral waters and in conjunction with unusual occurences at nuclear reactor sites and a uranium refinery. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  17. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Meyerhof, D.P.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and asessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1980 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format is used with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  18. The influence of cholinesterase inhibitor therapy for dementia on risk of cardiac pacemaker insertion: a retrospective, population-based, health administrative databases study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Allen R; Redpath, Calum J; van Walraven, Carl

    2015-04-28

    Cholinesterase inhibitors are used to treat the symptoms of dementia and can theoretically cause bradycardia. Previous studies suggest that patients taking these medications have an increased risk of undergoing pacemaker insertion. Since these drugs have a marginal impact on patient outcomes, it might be preferable to change drug treatment rather than implant a pacemaker. This population-based study determined the association of people with dementia exposed to cholinesterase inhibitor medication and pacemaker insertion. We used data from the Ontario health administrative databases from January 1, 1993 to June 30, 2012. We included all community-dwelling seniors who had a code for dementia and were exposed to cholinesterase inhibitors (donezepil, galantamine, and rivastigmine) and/or drugs used to treat co-morbidities of hypertension, diabetes, depression and hypothyroidism. We controlled for exposure to anti-arrhythmic drugs. Observation started at first exposure to any medication and continued until the earliest of pacemaker insertion, death, or end of study. 2,353,909 people were included with 96,000 (4.1%) undergoing pacemaker insertion during the observation period. Case-control analysis showed that pacemaker patients were less likely to be coded with dementia (unadjusted OR 0.42 [95%CI 0.41-0.42]) or exposed to cholinesterase inhibitors (unadjusted OR 0.39 [95%CI 0.37-0.41]). That Cohort analysis showed patients with dementia taking cholinesterase inhibitors had a decreased risk of pacemaker insertion (unadj-HR 0.58 [0.55-0.61]). Adjustment for patient age, sex, and other medications did not notably change results, as did restricting the analysis to incident users. Patients taking cholinesterase inhibitors rarely undergo, and have a significantly reduced risk of, cardiac pacemaker insertion.

  19. Do women spend longer on wait lists for coronary bypass surgery? Analysis of a population-based registry in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuramoto Lisa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown patients who are delayed for surgical cardiac revascularization are faced with increased risks of symptom deterioration and death. This could explain the observation that operative mortality among persons undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG is higher among women than men. However, in jurisdictions that employ priority wait lists to manage access to elective cardiac surgery, there is little information on whether women wait longer than men for CABG. It is therefore difficult to ascertain whether higher operative mortality among women is due to biological differences or to delayed access to elective CABG. Methods Using records from a population-based registry, we compared the wait-list time between women and men in British Columbia (BC between 1990 and 2000. We compared the number of weeks from registration to surgery for equal proportions of women and men, after adjusting for priority, comorbidity and age. Results In BC in the 1990s, 9,167 patients aged 40 years and over were registered on wait lists for CABG and spent a total of 136,071 person-weeks waiting. At the time of registration for CABG, women were more likely to have a comorbid condition than men. We found little evidence to suggest that women waited longer than men for CABG after registration, after adjusting for comorbidity and age, either overall or within three priority groups. Conclusion Our findings support the hypothesis that higher operative mortality during elective CABG operations observed among women is not due to longer delays for the procedure.

  20. Social vulnerability from a social ecology perspective: a cohort study of older adults from the National Population Health Survey of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous social factors, generally studied in isolation, have been associated with older adults’ health. Even so, older people’s social circumstances are complex and an approach which embraces this complexity is desirable. Here we investigate many social factors in relation to one another and to survival among older adults using a social ecology perspective to measure social vulnerability among older adults. Methods 2740 adults aged 65 and older were followed for ten years in the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). Twenty-three individual-level social variables were drawn from the 1994 NPHS and five Enumeration Area (EA)-level variables were abstracted from the 1996 Canadian Census using postal code linkage. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify dimensions of social vulnerability. All social variables were summed to create a social vulnerability index which was studied in relation to ten-year mortality. Results The PCA was limited by low variance (47%) explained by emergent factors. Seven dimensions of social vulnerability emerged in the most robust, yet limited, model: social support, engagement, living situation, self-esteem, sense of control, relations with others and contextual socio-economic status. These dimensions showed complex inter-relationships and were situated within a social ecology framework, considering spheres of influence from the individual through to group, neighbourhood and broader societal levels. Adjusting for age, sex, and frailty, increasing social vulnerability measured using the cumulative social vulnerability index was associated with increased risk of mortality over ten years in a Cox regression model (HR 1.04, 95% CI:1.01-1.07, p = 0.01). Conclusions Social vulnerability has important independent influence on older adults’ health though relationships between contributing variables are complex and do not lend themselves well to fragmentation into a small number of discrete factors. A

  1. ATLAS-Canada Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, I; Sobie, R J [HEPnet/Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bedinelli, M; Butterworth, S; Groer, L; Kupchinsky, V [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Caron, B; McDonald, S; Payne, C [TRIUMF Laboratory, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chambers, R [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fitzgerald, B [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hatem, R; Marshall, P; Pobric, D [CANARIE Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Maddalena, P; Mercure, P; Robertson, S; Rochefort, M [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); McWilliam, D [BCNet, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Siegert, M [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada)], E-mail: igable@uvic.ca (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The ATLAS-Canada computing model consists of a WLCG Tier-1 computing centre located at the TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, and two distributed Tier-2 computing centres in eastern and western Canadian universities. The TRIUMF Tier-1 is connected to the CERN Tier-0 via a 10G dedicated circuit provided by CANARIE. The Canadian institutions hosting Tier-2 facilities are connected to TRIUMF via 1G lightpaths, and routing between Tier-2s occurs through TRIUMF. This paper discusses the architecture of the ATLAS-Canada network, the challenges of building the network, and the future plans.

  2. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  3. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  4. Radiation oncology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Meredith; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2018-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and the cancer care system in Canada as it pertains to the governance, funding and delivery of radiotherapy programmes. We also review the training and practice for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists in Canada. We describe the clinical practice of radiation medicine from patients' referral, assessment, case conferences and the radiotherapy process. Finally, we provide an overview of the practice culture for Radiation Oncology in Canada. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  6. Disentangling the determinants of interest and willingness-to-pay for breast cancer susceptibility testing in the general population: a cross-sectional Web-based survey among women of Québec (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin-Bougie, Jolyane; Amara, Nabil; Bouchard, Karine; Simard, Jacques; Dorval, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To identify common and specific individual factors that favour or impede women’s interest in and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for breast cancer susceptibility testing (BCST) and to identify the most impactful factors on both outcome measures. Design and methods This study used a self-administered cross-sectional Web-based questionnaire that included hypothetical scenarios about the availability of a new genetic test for breast cancer. Participants French-speaking women of the general population of Québec (Canada), aged between 35 and 69 years, were identified from a Web-based panel (2410 met the selection criteria, 1160 were reached and 1031 completed the survey). Measures The outcomes are the level of interest in and the range of WTP for BCST. Three categories of individual factors identified in the literature were used as potential explanatory factors, that is, demographic, clinical and psychosocial. Results Descriptive statistics indicated that the vast majority of sampled women are interested in BCST (90%). Among those, more than half of them are willing-to-pay for such a test (57%). The regression models pointed out several factors associated with both outcomes (eg, age, income, family history, locus of control-powerful others) and marginal effects were used to highlight the most impactful factors for each outcome. Conclusion The results of this study provide a proxy of the readiness of women of the general population to use and to pay for BCST. They also offer insights for developing inclusive and specific strategies to foster informed decision-making and guide the services offered by health organisations corresponding to women’s preferences and needs. PMID:29487071

  7. Disentangling the determinants of interest and willingness-to-pay for breast cancer susceptibility testing in the general population: a cross-sectional Web-based survey among women of Québec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin-Bougie, Jolyane; Amara, Nabil; Bouchard, Karine; Simard, Jacques; Dorval, Michel

    2018-02-27

    To identify common and specific individual factors that favour or impede women's interest in and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for breast cancer susceptibility testing (BCST) and to identify the most impactful factors on both outcome measures. This study used a self-administered cross-sectional Web-based questionnaire that included hypothetical scenarios about the availability of a new genetic test for breast cancer. French-speaking women of the general population of Québec (Canada), aged between 35 and 69 years, were identified from a Web-based panel (2410 met the selection criteria, 1160 were reached and 1031 completed the survey). The outcomes are the level of interest in and the range of WTP for BCST. Three categories of individual factors identified in the literature were used as potential explanatory factors, that is, demographic, clinical and psychosocial. Descriptive statistics indicated that the vast majority of sampled women are interested in BCST (90%). Among those, more than half of them are willing-to-pay for such a test (57%). The regression models pointed out several factors associated with both outcomes (eg, age, income, family history, locus of control-powerful others) and marginal effects were used to highlight the most impactful factors for each outcome. The results of this study provide a proxy of the readiness of women of the general population to use and to pay for BCST. They also offer insights for developing inclusive and specific strategies to foster informed decision-making and guide the services offered by health organisations corresponding to women's preferences and needs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Canada's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1976-01-01

    Although Canada has developed the CANDU type reactor, and has an ambitious programme of nuclear power plant construction, there has been virtually no nuclear controversy. This progress was seen as a means to bring Canada out of the 'resource cow' era, and onto a more equal footing with technologically elite nations. However the Indian nuclear explosion test, waste storage problems, contamination problems arising from use of uranium ore processing waste as land fill and subsidised sale of nuclear power plants to Argentina and South Korea have initiated public and parliamentary interest. Some economists have also maintained that Canada is approaching over-supply of nuclear power and over-investment in plant. Canada has no official overall energy production plan and alternative sources have not been evaluated. (JIW)

  9. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  10. Wait times in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Janice Christine

    2017-07-01

    A significant barrier to accessing healthcare in Canada is long waiting lists, which can be linked to the way that Medicare was structured. After significant pressure, provincial governments began to address wait times. An example of a successful strategy to reduce wait times for elective surgery is the Saskatchewan Surgical Initiative, which saw wait times in the province change from being among the longest in Canada to the shortest.

  11. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  12. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  13. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. Terrorism in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollek, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.

  15. Natural background radiation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, R.L.; Carson, J.M.; Charbonneau, B.W.; Holman, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Published airborne gamma ray survey data from 33 areas of Canada were used to compile information on the average ground level exposure from natural radiation. The exposures at ground level were calculated from the surface concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. The highest levels of radioactivity were found in northern Canada and were generally related to granitic rocks; the lowest levels with the Athabasca sandstone. Summer outdoor exposure rates have a population-weighted average of 3.7 +- 2.3 μR.h -1 , of which 48 percent orginated from potassium, 43 percent from the thorium series and 9 percent from the uranium series. This low level of radioactivity, compared to worldwide data, has resulted from erosion of a geologically old continental crust in which radioactivity decreases with depth. When seasonal variations of soil moisture and snow cover are considered, the annual population-weighted average outdoor exposure rate decreases to 2.8 +- 1.7 μR.h -1 corresponding to an annual outdoor dose-equivalent of 150 +- 90 μSV. Factors increasing the annual outdoor dose-equivalent are cosmic radiation (320 +- 30 μSV) and the internal radioactivity of the body (190 μSV). Using the ratio between indoor and outdoor values for worldwide published data, the average annual Canadian whole-body dose-equivalent from all sources of natural radiation is estimated to be 690 +-130 μSV

  16. All projects related to Canada | Page 18 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The presence of pollutants in Brazil's coastal ecosystems can affect food systems ... China's large population, fast-growing economy, rapidly evolving social networks, ... Thailand, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Canada.

  17. Profiles of children's social–emotional health at school entry and associated income, gender and language inequalities: a cross-sectional population-based study in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Martin; Richardson, Chris G; Ark, Tavinder K; Shoveller, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Early identification of distinct patterns of child social–emotional strengths and vulnerabilities has the potential to improve our understanding of child mental health and well-being; however, few studies have explored natural groupings of indicators of child vulnerability and strengths at a population level. The purpose of this study was to examine heterogeneity in the patterns of young children's social and emotional health and investigate the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics were associated. Design Cross-sectional study based on a population-level cohort. Setting All kindergarten children attending public schools between 2004 and 2007 in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Participants 35 818 kindergarten children (age of 5 years) with available linked data from the Early Development Instrument (EDI), BC Ministry of Health and BC Ministry of Education. Outcome measure We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify distinct profiles of social–emotional health according to children's mean scores across eight social–emotional subscales on the EDI, a teacher-rated measure of children's early development. Subscales measured children's overall social competence, responsibility and respect, approaches to learning, readiness to explore, prosocial behaviour, anxiety, aggression and hyperactivity. Results Six social–emotional profiles were identified: (1) overall high social–emotional functioning, (2) inhibited-adaptive (3) uninhibited-adaptive, (4) inhibited-disengaged, (5) uninhibited-aggressive/hyperactive and (6) overall low social–emotional functioning. Boys, children with English as a second language (ESL) status and children with lower household income had higher odds of membership to the lower social–emotional functioning groups; however, this association was less negative among boys with ESL status. Conclusions Over 40% of children exhibited some vulnerability in early social–emotional health, and profiles were

  18. Profiles of children's social-emotional health at school entry and associated income, gender and language inequalities: a cross-sectional population-based study in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kimberly C; Guhn, Martin; Richardson, Chris G; Ark, Tavinder K; Shoveller, Jean

    2017-07-26

    Early identification of distinct patterns of child social-emotional strengths and vulnerabilities has the potential to improve our understanding of child mental health and well-being; however, few studies have explored natural groupings of indicators of child vulnerability and strengths at a population level. The purpose of this study was to examine heterogeneity in the patterns of young children's social and emotional health and investigate the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics were associated. Cross-sectional study based on a population-level cohort. All kindergarten children attending public schools between 2004 and 2007 in British Columbia (BC), Canada. 35 818 kindergarten children (age of 5 years) with available linked data from the Early Development Instrument (EDI), BC Ministry of Health and BC Ministry of Education. We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify distinct profiles of social-emotional health according to children's mean scores across eight social-emotional subscales on the EDI, a teacher-rated measure of children's early development. Subscales measured children's overall social competence, responsibility and respect, approaches to learning, readiness to explore, prosocial behaviour, anxiety, aggression and hyperactivity. Six social-emotional profiles were identified: (1) overall high social-emotional functioning, (2) inhibited-adaptive (3) uninhibited-adaptive, (4) inhibited-disengaged, (5) uninhibited-aggressive/hyperactive and (6) overall low social-emotional functioning. Boys, children with English as a second language (ESL) status and children with lower household income had higher odds of membership to the lower social-emotional functioning groups; however, this association was less negative among boys with ESL status. Over 40% of children exhibited some vulnerability in early social-emotional health, and profiles were associated with sociodemographic factors. Approximately 9% of children exhibited multiple co

  19. Duck "beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome" disease complex: Interplay of novel goose parvovirus-related virus and duck circovirus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Li, J; Zhang, R; Chen, J; Wang, W; Lan, J; Xie, Z; Jiang, S

    2018-04-01

    As a newly emerged infectious disease, duck "beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS)" disease has caused huge economic losses to waterfowl industry in China since 2015. Novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) is believed the main pathogen of BADS disease; however, BADS is rarely reproduced by infecting ducks with NGPV alone. As avian circovirus infection causes clinical symptoms similar to BADS, duck circovirus (DuCV) is suspected the minor pathogen of BADS disease. In this study, an investigation was carried out to determine the coinfection of NGPV and DuCV in duck embryos and in ducks with BADS disease. According to our study, the coinfection of emerging NGPV and DuCV was prevalent in East China (Shandong, Jiangsu and Anhui province) and could be vertical transmitted, indicating their cooperative roles in duck BADS disease. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Molecular characterization of a novel Muscovy duck parvovirus isolate: evidence of recombination between classical MDPV and goose parvovirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Ling, Jueyi; Wang, Zhixian; Huang, Yu; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2017-11-09

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) and Goose parvovirus (GPV) are important etiological agents for Muscovy duck parvoviral disease and Derzsy's disease, respectively; both of which can cause substantial economic losses in waterfowl industry. In contrast to GPV, the complete genomic sequence data of MDPV isolates are still limited and their phylogenetic relationships largely remain unknown. In this study, the entire genome of a pathogenic MDPV strain ZW, which was isolated from a deceased Muscovy duckling in 2006 in China, was cloned, sequenced, and compared with that of other classical MDPV and GPV strains. The genome of strain ZW comprises of 5071 nucleotides; this genome was shorter than that of the pathogenic MDPV strain YY (5075 nt). All the four deleted nucleotides produced in strain ZW are located at the base-pairing positions in the palindromic stem of inverted terminal repeats (ITR) without influencing the formation of a hairpin structure. Recombination analysis revealed that strain ZW originated from genetic recombination between the classical MDPV and GPV strain. The YY strain of MDPV acts as the major parent, whereas the virulent strains YZ99-6 and B and the vaccine strain SYG61v of GPV act as the minor parents in varying degrees. Two recombination sites were detected in strain ZW, with the small recombination site surrounding the P9 promoter, and the large recombination site situated in the middle of the VP3 gene. The SYG61V strain is a vaccine strain used for preventing goose parvoviral disease. This strain was found to be solely involved in the recombination event detected in the P9 promoter region. Phylogenetic analyses between strain ZW and other classical strains of MDPV and GPV were performed. The results supported the in silico recombination analysis conclusion. MDPV Strain ZW is a novel recombinant parvovirus, and the bulk of its genome originates from the classical MDPV strain. Two virulent strains and a vaccine strain of GPV were involved in the

  1. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Canadian uranium exploration and development efforts in 1985 and 1986 resulted in a significant increase in estimates of measured uranium resources. New discoveries have more than made up for production during 1985 and 1986, and for the elimination of some resources from the overall estimates, due to the sustained upward pressure on production costs and the stagnation of uranium prices in real terms. Canada possesses a large portion of the world's uranium resources that are of current economic interest and remains the major focus of inter-national uranium exploration activity. Expenditures for uranium exploration in Canada in 1985 and 1986 were $32 million and $33 million, respectively. Although much lower than the $130 million total reported for 1979, expenditures for 1987 are forecast to increase. Exploration and surface development drilling in 1985 and 1986 were reported to be 183 000 m and 165σ2 000 m, respectively, 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada has maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium. By the year 2000, Canada's annual uranium requirements will be about 2 100 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or expected to be in service by the late 1990s. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Annual sales currently approach $1 billion, of which exports account for 85 per cent. Forward domestic and export contract commitments totalled 73 000 tU and 62 000 tU, respectively, as of early 1987

  2. Canada's uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.L.; Williams, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Canadian Government policies which affect the uranium industry and, where appropriate, to provide some background on the development of these policies. This review is timely because of two recent announcements by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources - one concerning the Canadian Government's renewed commitment to maintain the nuclear power option for Canada, and the other concerning some adjustments to Canada's uranium export policy. The future of Canada's nuclear industry was subject to a thorough review by the Canadian Government during 1989. This review occurred at a time when environmental issues were attracting increasing attention around the world, and the environmental advantages of nuclear power were becoming increasingly recognised. The strong support for the nuclear industry in Canada is consistent with the government's long-standing efforts to maintain Canada's position as a reliable and competitive supplier of uranium. This paper is particularly devoted to an outline of the results of the uranium export policy review. (author)

  3. Building Canada: Phase One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-04-15

    The 'Building Canada' program modelled after the 'Building America' program, aims at increasing energy efficiency and affordability, primarily for single family homes. The program takes a holistic and whole house view, employing a systems approach and is committed to continuous improvement through testing, evaluation, retesting and novel construction practices. The program's objective is to re-engineer house designs so that builders can take advantage of advanced products and achieve maximum efficiency. Building Canada aims to achieve its objectives through partnership with the housing industry, focusing on increasing energy efficiency while reducing construction time, using and wasting fewer materials, forestalling call backs, and reducing overall costs. The Building Canada procedures encompass marketing, research of builder's operations, re-engineering mechanical systems, framing components and techniques, moisture control and thermal performance, construction, resolution of problems in re-engineered homes, and discussion of results in demonstration homes. The program as a whole is built on the feasibility study of a Building Canada program carried out in Nova Scotia and Ontario. Some of the results of this pilot study summarized in this report indicate that the Building Canada is not suitable for use by small builders. Benefits are most likely to be realized by only by builders constructing more than 100 homes annually.

  4. Canada's domestic nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) is a committee of representatives of religious groups in Toronto, a group of people concerned about the moral and ethical implications of the operation of Canada's nuclear industry and of its exports to other countries. The faith groups represented are the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, the Baha'i Community of Canada, the Jewish Community of Toronto, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto and the United Church of Canada Toronto Conference. Wishing to encourage the Canadian government to enquire into this broad question, the faith groups established IPPANI and assigned to it the task of enhancing their knowledge of the nuclear industry. IPPANI was to develop an effective set of questions to be placed before governments and to promote public discussion so that governments might become more responsive to these issues

  5. Cardiac Rehabilitation Series: Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L.; Bennett, Stephanie; Ardern, Chris I.; Clark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Canada. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has a long robust history here, and there are established clinical practice guidelines. While the effectiveness of CR in the Canadian context is clear, only 34% of eligible patients participate, and strategies to increase access for under-represented groups (e.g., women, ethnic minority groups) are not yet universally applied. Identified CR barriers include lack of referral and physician recommendation, travel and distance, and low perceived need. Indeed there is now a national policy position recommending systematic inpatient referral to CR in Canada. Recent development of 30 CR Quality Indicators and the burgeoning national CR registry will enable further measurement and improvement of the quality of CR care in Canada. Finally, the Canadian Association of CR is one of the founding members of the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, to promote CR globally. PMID:24607018

  6. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  7. Case study analysis of legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric potential at Goose River, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The case study is an analysis of the legal, institutional, and financial incentives and obstacles to the development of the hydroelectric potential on the Goose River in Maine. The Goose River project concerns development by a private developer, Maine Hydro-Electric Development Corporation. The project is comprised of a five-dam system, with the first dam located at Swan Lake and the fifth dam about one mile from the sea. It will utilize the 7500 acre-feet of storage capacity of Swan Lake to run the four downstream power stations. The system is designed to generate 430 kWs of total capacity which would be sold to Central Maine Power, the local investor-owned public utility.

  8. Generation and evaluation of a recombinant genotype VII Newcastle disease virus expressing VP3 protein of Goose parvovirus as a bivalent vaccine in goslings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzhong; Cong, Yanlong; Yin, Renfu; Feng, Na; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Xiao, Yueqiang; Wang, Wenxiu; Liu, Xiufan; Hu, Shunlin; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing; Wang, Chunfeng; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-05-04

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Goose parvovirus (GPV) are considered to be two of the most important and widespread viruses infecting geese. In this study, we generated a recombinant rmNA-VP3, expressing GPV VP3 using a modified goose-origin NDV NA-1 by changing the multi-basic cleavage site motif RRQKR↓F of the F protein to the dibasic motif GRQGR↓L as that of the avirulent strain LaSota as a vaccine vector. Expression of the VP3 protein in rmNA-VP3 infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot assay. The genetic stability was examined by serially passaging 10 times in 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs. Goslings were inoculated with rmNA-VP3 showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong GPV and NDV neutralizing antibodies response. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant NDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against Goose parvovirus and Newcastle disease virus infection in birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  10. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  11. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  12. Fusion Canada issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs.

  13. Suicide in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    1998-01-01

    ... provides long-awaited information that focuses specifically on Canada. It addresses suicide as a multidimensional problem with biological, psychological, cultural, sociological, personal, and philosophical aspects. The contributions integrate both critical analysis and personal experience. There are accounts from Inuit elders, fr...

  14. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  15. Fusion Canada issue 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  16. Fusion Canada issue 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs.

  17. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  18. Fusion Canada issue 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs.

  19. Nuclear technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed

  20. Fusion Canada issue 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue tritium supply for Japanese research, Canada to host the 1995 IAEA Conference on Tritium, studies on the tokamak divertor and edge plasma studies, a tritium field release study, erosion studies on plasma facing materials, G. Pacher returns to CCFM and an update on CCFM/TdeV

  1. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  2. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  3. Fusion Canada issue 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs.

  4. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  5. Canada`s greenhouse gas emissions inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, Canada was the seventh largest global emitter of CO{sub 2}. The Kyoto Protocol has made it necessary to continue to improve methods for developing emissions inventories. An emissions inventory was defined as `a comprehensive account of air pollutant emissions and associated data from sources within the inventory area over a specified time frame that can be used to determine the effect of emissions on the environment`. The general approach is to compile large-scale emission estimates under averaged conditions for collective sources and sectors, using data that is available on a sectoral, provincial and national basis. Ideally, continuous emission monitors should be used to develop emissions inventories. Other needed improvements include additional research on emissions data, and increased support for international negotiations on reporting policies and related methodologies, verification procedures and adjustments. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  6. Nuclear regulatory developments in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper from CNSC discusses nuclear regulatory developments in Canada. It starts with the Fukushima accident and the effect on the nuclear sector. It summarises what CNSC has done, what it has learned and their plans going forward. It has made recommendations to IAEA for international enhancements to regulatory procedures. It outline the activities of Canada's nuclear power plants, Canada's uranium projects, deep geological repository and waste management as well as nuclear research in Canada.

  7. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  8. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrill, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  9. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuoyu; Liu, Lin; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Roebothan, Barbara; Zhao, Jin; Dicks, Elizabeth; Cotterchio, Michelle; Buehler, Sharon; Campbell, Peter T; McLaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2012-03-26

    Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON), Canada. Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760) were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000) and NL (1999-2003). Controls (n = 2481) were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ), personal history questionnaire (PHQ), and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile), whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile), carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile) and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile). Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.

  10. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhuoyu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL and Ontario (ON, Canada. Methods Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000 and NL (1999-2003. Controls (n = 2481 were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ, personal history questionnaire (PHQ, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Results Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile, whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile, carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile. Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. Conclusion This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.

  11. Does emergency department use and post-visit physician care cluster geographically and temporally for adolescents who self-harm? A population-based 9-year retrospective cohort study from Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Johnson, David W; Urichuk, Liana; Dong, Kathryn; Newton, Amanda S

    2016-07-11

    Clustering of adolescent self-harming behaviours in the context of health care utilization has not been studied. We identified geographic areas with higher numbers of adolescents who (1) presented to an emergency department (ED) for self-harm, and (2) were without a physician follow-up visit for mental health within 14 days post-ED visit. We extracted a population-based cohort of adolescents aged 15-17 years (n = 3,927) with ED visits during 2002-2011 in Alberta, Canada. We defined the case as an individual with one or more ED presentations for self-harm in the fiscal year of the analysis. Crude case rates were calculated and clusters were identified using a spatial scan. The rates decreased over time for ED visits for self-harm (differences: girls -199.6/100,000; p self-harm (differences: girls -108.3/100,000; p self-harm (relative risks [RRs]: 1.58 for cluster 1, 3.54 for cluster 2) and were without a 14-day physician follow-up (RRs: 1.78 for cluster 1, 4.17 for cluster 2). In 2010/2011, clusters in the North, Edmonton, and Central zones were identified for adolescents with and without a follow-up visit within 14 days following an ED visit for self-harm (p self-harm and rates of adolescents without a 14-day physician follow-up visit following emergency care for self-harm decreased during the study period. The space-time clusters identified the areas and years where visits to the ED by adolescents for self-harm were statistically higher than expected. These clusters can be used to identify locations where adolescents are potentially not receiving follow-up and the mental health support needed after emergency-based care. The 2010/2011 geographic cluster suggests that the northern part of the province still has elevated numbers of adolescents visiting the ED for self-harm. Prospective research is needed to determine outcomes associated with adolescents who receive physician follow-up following ED-based care for self-harm compared to those who do not.

  12. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.)

  13. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  14. Electric power in Canada 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs.

  15. Climate change and the increasing impact of polar bears on bird populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouke eProp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is becoming warmer at a high rate, and contractions in the extent of sea ice are currently changing the habitats of marine top-predators dependent on ice. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus depend on sea ice for hunting seals. For these top-predators, longer ice-free seasons are hypothesized to force the bears to hunt for alternative terrestrial food, such as eggs from colonial breeding birds. We analyzed time-series of polar bear observations at four locations on Spitsbergen (Svalbard and one in east Greenland. Summer occurrence of polar bears, measured as the probability of encountering bears and the number of days with bear presence, has increased significantly from the 1970/80s to the present. The shifts in polar bear occurrence coincided with trends for shorter sea ice seasons and less sea ice during the spring in the study area. This resulted in a strong inverse relationship between the probability of bear encounters on land and the length of the sea ice season. Within ten years after their first appearance on land, polar bears had advanced their arrival dates by almost 30 days. Direct observations of nest predation showed that polar bears may severely affect reproductive success of the barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis, common eider (Somateria mollissima and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus. Nest predation was strongest in years when the polar bears arrived well before hatch, with more than 90% of all nests being predated. The results are similar to findings from Canada, and large-scale processes, such as climate and subsequent habitat changes, are pinpointed as the most likely drivers in various parts of the Arctic. We suggest that the increasing, earlier appearance of bears on land in summer reflects behavioral adaptations by a small segment of the population to cope with a reduced hunting range on sea ice. This exemplifies how behavioral adaptations may contribute to the cascading effects of climate change.

  16. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Haese

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000. Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50. Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8, or no-treatment (n=8, developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral

  17. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, January - June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for the first half of 1979 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  18. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1973-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. This report summarizes the results obtained during 1973-1976 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides. During this period, all radioactivity levels were below the maximum permissible limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (Auth)

  19. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  20. Status and conservation of the ruddy-headed goose Chloephaga rubidiceps Sclater (Aves, Anatidae in its wintering grounds (Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina Estado y conservación del cauquén colorado Chloephaga rubidiceps Sclater (Aves, Anatidae en su zona de invernada (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL E BLANCO

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The mainland population of the ruddy-headed goose (Chloephaga rubidiceps breeds in southern Patagonia and winters in the south of Buenos Aires province (Argentina, with a recent estimated size at around 900 individuals. This population is considered "in danger of extinction", while the Malvinas (Falkland Islands population is in well conservation status, with an estimated size of 40,000 birds. The aim of this work is to contribute with updated information about the ruddy-headed goose's population wintering in southern Buenos Aires province. The specific objectives were to better delimit its wintering area, to look for sites with large numbers, to study its habitat used, and to identify main threats to the species. Two intensive surveys were conducted during the austral winter of 1999. The results: (1 confirm the low abundance of the ruddy-headed goose supporting its critical conservation status, (2 corroborate its very restricted distribution, with more than 80 % of sightings concentrated in an area of 13,000 ha in southern Buenos Aires province, and (3 suggest that changes in the species' habitat use during the wintering season appear to be a response to changes in habitat availability, resulting from the growth of crops and pastures. The overlap between the species wintering distribution and the main wheat cropping areas of Argentina results in serious threats to this goose. Management actions are discussed to contribute to the conservation of this endangered species.La población continental del Cauquén colorado (Chloephaga rubidiceps cría en el sur de la Patagonia e inverna en el sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina, con un tamaño poblacional estimado recientemente en alrededor de 900 individuos. Esta población está considerada "en peligro de extinción", mientras la población de las Islas Malvinas se mantiene en buen estado de conservación, con un tamaño estimado en 40.000 individuos. La meta de este trabajo es

  1. Uranium tailings in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulden, R.S.; Bragg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The last few years have produced significant changes in the way uranium tailings are managed in Canada. This is due both to the development of new technology and to changes in regulatory approach. The interrelationships between these two areas are examined with particular attention paid to the long term and the development of close-out criteria. New technological initiatives are examined including dry placement techniques, pit disposal and deep lake disposal

  2. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  3. Electric deregulation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the electric power deregulation activities across Canada, particularly in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, was presented. A central element of the restructuring is creation of a power pool which acts as an open spot market, and a transmission administrator that provides access to the generators, distribution companies, importers and exporters. Load forecasts, average daily load profile and hourly pool prices for TransAlta Corporation were presented as an example. 22 figs

  4. Plugging into Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Exports of electricity from Canada to the U.S.A. are increasing in importance and have reached a new phase with proposals to build generating stations initially dedicated to export, notably a second nuclear station in New Brunswick. The author considers that the National Energy Board does a good job of protecting Canadian interests. Opposition in the United States comes from within the government or congress rather than from the power industry or public

  5. Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Evolving Perspectives on Lyme Borreliosis in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, JLH; Middelveen, MJ; Klein, D; Sperling, FAH

    2012-01-01

    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:23091570

  7. Tuberculosis in Canada: Detection, Intervention and Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Richardson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the current state of TB in Canada by referencing information presented at the workshop, “Tuberculosis: Detection, Prevention, and Compliance.” The workshop took place on November 14 and 15, 2012 in Ottawa. The workshop was organized by the Centre for Disease Modeling and the Public Health Agency of Canada as a two-day knowledge translation event that was comprised of scientific and policy focused presentations designed to address four key objectives: (1 Evaluate the success of current tuberculosis (TB health policies and control strategies in Canada and for specific Canadian sub-populations; (2 Determine the impact of detection, intervention, compliance, and education strategies in terms of TB incidence and prevalence; (3 Develop targets for future interventions by identifying key characteristics of TB epidemics that impact the success of TB health policies and control strategies; (4 Leverage our existing ties with public health decision makers, aboriginal health organizations, and organizations serving the homeless to develop a research community that is based on close collaboration, and will foster national TB control efforts. The workshop elicited robust discussions between experts from a variety of academic disciplines and government officials. A summary of the information presented, comments shared, and questions posed, will provide a comprehensive understanding of the status of TB in Canada and future directions to be taken for improved control of the disease.

  8. Presentation of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedley, Dianne E.

    1997-01-01

    In contingency of a nuclear emergency event, requiring application of intervention measures on a federal scale, Canada has of a plan ensuring the compatibility of the plans of different provinces and serving as interface between federal and provincial authorities. Exclusive of a nuclear attack against North America, by nuclear emergency it is understood an accident resulting in radionuclide release. This is called the Plan of federal intervention in case of nuclear emergency. 'Sante Canada' is the federal authority responsible for intervention in case of nuclear emergency and it has the task of preparing and coordinating the actions on a federal scale.Should the plan be set in action and if the emergency has repercussions upon the agricultural sector, the sustaining organism will be 'Agriculture and agroalimentaire Canada' which in case of emergency acts through the channels of the National System of intervention in the agro-alimentary sector (SNIUA). The paper presents the objectives, the principles of organization and operation, the responsibilities and the plans which SNIUA has in its charge to implement in case of emergency

  9. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  10. Energy cascades in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, A. C.; Brown, T. D.

    1979-03-15

    Combining energy uses in a cascade can result in significant overall reductions in fuel requirements. The simplest applications for a cascade are in the recovery of waste heat from existing processes using special boilers or turbines. Specific applications of more-complex energy cascades for Canada are discussed. A combined-cycle plant at a chemical refinery in Ontario is world leader in energy efficiency. Total-energy systems for commercial buildings, such as one installed in a school in Western Canada, offer attractive energy and operating cost benefits. A cogeneration plant proposed for the National Capital Region, generating electricity as well as steam for district heating, allows the use of a low-grade fossil fuel (coal), greatly improves energy-transformation efficiency, and also utilizes an effectively renewable resource (municipal garbage). Despite the widespread availability of equipment and technology of energy cascades, the sale of steam and electricity across plant boundaries presents a barrier. More widespread use of cascades will require increased cooperation among industry, electric utilities and the various levels of government if Canada is to realize the high levels of energy efficiency potential available.

  11. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  13. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  14. Strontium isotope systematics of mixing groundwater and oil-field brine at Goose Lake in northeastern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Preston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater, surface water, and soil in the Goose Lake oil field in northeastern Montana have been affected by Cl−-rich oil-field brines during long-term petroleum production. Ongoing multidisciplinary geochemical and geophysical studies have identified the degree and local extent of interaction between brine and groundwater. Fourteen samples representing groundwater, surface water, and brine were collected for Sr isotope analyses to evaluate the usefulness of 87Sr/86Sr in detecting small amounts of brine. Differences in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr are optimal at this site for the experiment. Strontium concentrations range from 0.13 to 36.9 mg/L, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.71097 to 0.70828. The local brine has 168 mg/L Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70802. Mixing relationships are evident in the data set and illustrate the sensitivity of Sr in detecting small amounts of brine in groundwater. The location of data points on a Sr isotope-concentration plot is readily explained by an evaporation-mixing model. The model is supported by the variation in concentrations of most of the other solutes.

  15. Splicing of goose parvovirus pre-mRNA influences cytoplasmic translation of the processed mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Long; Pintel, David J., E-mail: pinteld@missouri.edu

    2012-04-25

    Translation of goose parvovirus (GPV) 72 kDa Rep 1 is initiated from unspliced P9-generated mRNAs in ORF1 from the first in-frame AUG (537 AUG); however, this AUG is bypassed in spliced P9-generated RNA: translation of the 52 kDa Rep 2 protein from spliced RNA is initiated in ORF2 at the next AUG downstream (650 AUG). Usage of the 537 AUG was restored in spliced RNA when the GPV intron was replaced with a chimeric SV40 intron, or following specific mutations of the GPV intron which did not appear in the final spliced mRNA. Additionally, 650 AUG usage was gained in unspliced RNA when the GPV intron splice sites were debilitated. Splicing-dependent regulation of translation initiation was mediated in cis by GPV RNA surrounding the target AUGs. Thus, nuclear RNA processing of GPV P9-generated pre-mRNAs has a complex, but significant, effect on alternative translation initiation of the GPV Rep proteins.

  16. Coupling Modern Portfolio Theory and Marxan enhances the efficiency of Lesser White-fronted Goose's (Anser erythropus) habitat conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Gao, Xiang; Zeng, Guangming; Hua, Shanshan; Zhong, Minzhou; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Xin

    2018-01-09

    Climate change and human activities cause uncertain changes to species biodiversity by altering their habitat. The uncertainty of climate change requires planners to balance the benefit and cost of making conservation plan. Here optimal protection approach for Lesser White-fronted Goose (LWfG) by coupling Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) and Marxan selection were proposed. MPT was used to provide suggested weights of investment for protected area (PA) and reduce the influence of climatic uncertainty, while Marxan was utilized to choose a series of specific locations for PA. We argued that through combining these two commonly used techniques with the conservation plan, including assets allocation and PA chosing, the efficiency of rare bird's protection would be enhanced. In MPT analyses, the uncertainty of conservation-outcome can be reduced while conservation effort was allocated in Hunan, Jiangxi and Yangtze River delta. In Marxan model, the optimal location for habitat restorations based on existing nature reserve was identified. Clear priorities for the location and allocation of assets could be provided based on this research, and it could help decision makers to build conservation strategy for LWfG.

  17. Splicing of goose parvovirus pre-mRNA influences cytoplasmic translation of the processed mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Long; Pintel, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Translation of goose parvovirus (GPV) 72 kDa Rep 1 is initiated from unspliced P9-generated mRNAs in ORF1 from the first in-frame AUG (537 AUG); however, this AUG is bypassed in spliced P9-generated RNA: translation of the 52 kDa Rep 2 protein from spliced RNA is initiated in ORF2 at the next AUG downstream (650 AUG). Usage of the 537 AUG was restored in spliced RNA when the GPV intron was replaced with a chimeric SV40 intron, or following specific mutations of the GPV intron which did not appear in the final spliced mRNA. Additionally, 650 AUG usage was gained in unspliced RNA when the GPV intron splice sites were debilitated. Splicing-dependent regulation of translation initiation was mediated in cis by GPV RNA surrounding the target AUGs. Thus, nuclear RNA processing of GPV P9-generated pre-mRNAs has a complex, but significant, effect on alternative translation initiation of the GPV Rep proteins.

  18. Botulismo tipo C em ganso ocorrido em Minas Gerais, Brasil Type C botulism in a goose at Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulismo é uma intoxicação causada pela ingestão das toxinas produzidas pelo Clostridium botulinum, que acomete mamíferos e aves, caracterizando-se por um quadro de paralisia flácida. Neste trabalho, é descrito um caso de botulismo em ganso, ocorrido no município de Santa Luzia, região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Ao exame clínico, o animal apresentava-se com um quadro de paralisia flácida dos músculos do pescoço, das pernas e asas, além de apresentar ainda desprendimento de penas. A necropsia não revelou lesões significativas. Foi colhido o soro do animal e submetido ao teste de soroneutralização em camundongo, que identificou a toxina de C. botulinum tipo C.Botulism is an intoxication caused by the ingestion of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, that affects mammals and birds, characterized by a flaceid paralysis. This report describes a case of botulism in a goose in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Clinical examinations showed dropping feathers and flaccid paralysis involving the muscles of the wings, legs and neck. post-mortem examination showed no significant gross or macroscopic lesions C. botulinum type C toxin was demonstrated in the serum of the affected animal through serum neutralization test in mice.

  19. Teacher Diversity in Canada: Leaky Pipelines, Bottlenecks, and Glass Ceilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James; Pollock, Katina; Antonelli, Fab

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the racial diversity of the teacher population in Canada. In particular, we compare the number of teachers of colour in Canadian elementary and secondary schools from the 2001 and 2006 Census data with the diversity of the student and general populations. We also explore ways to understand the gap between the proportion of…

  20. Clinical neuropsychology practice and training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura A; Guger, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper provides information about professional neuropsychology issues in Canada and is part of a special issue addressing international perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology. Information was gathered from literature searches and personal communication with other neuropsychologists in Canada. Canada has a rich neuropsychological history. Neuropsychologists typically have doctoral-level education including relevant coursework and supervised practical experience. Licensure requirements vary across the 10 provinces and there are regional differences in salary. While training at the graduate and internship level mirrors that of our American colleagues, completion of a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology is not required to obtain employment in many settings and there are few postdoctoral training programs in this country. The majority of neuropsychologists are employed in institutional settings (e.g. hospitals, universities, rehabilitation facilities), with a growing number entering private practice or other settings. There are challenges in providing neuropsychological services to the diverse Canadian population and a need for assessment measures and normative data in multiple languages. Canadian neuropsychologists face important challenges in defining ourselves as distinct from other professions and other psychologists, in maintaining funding for high-quality training and research, in establishing neuropsychology-specific training and practice standards at the provincial or national level, and ensuring the clinical care that we provide is efficient and effective in meeting the needs of our patient populations and consumers, both within and outside of the publically funded health care system.

  1. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Canada and international financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lafrance; James Powell

    1996-01-01

    International financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Bank for International Settlements, are important players in the global financial system. This article provides an overview of the major international financial institutions to which Canada belongs. The paper highlights their activities and the nature of Canada's involvement, including that of the Bank of Canada. Recent initiatives coming out of the Halifax and Lyon Summits to improve the eff...

  3. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate.

  4. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  5. Psychiatric problems among Iranian immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, A

    1992-02-01

    The number of Iranian immigrants in Canada has been increasing since 1979. This study is the result of a review of 111 charts of Iranian patients who were referred for psychiatric treatment between 1985 and 1988. Ninety-eight percent of them arrived in Canada after the Iranian revolution, which started in 1979, and the Iran-Iraq war of 1980. Ten percent were experiencing trauma as a result of their involvement with the revolutionary government or the war. The symptoms were in accordance with the DSM-III-R criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Sixty percent met the criteria for adjustment disorder with depressed or anxious mood. Six percent had been subjected to physical and psychological torture and confinement. This is the first study that looks at the prevalence of psychiatric illness among Iranians and illustrates the effect of migration and displacement in the integrity of the psychic life of this population.

  6. Rural women caregivers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosato, Kay E; Leipert, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    Informal caregiving within rural contexts in Canada is increasing. This is due in part to a number of factors related to the restructuring of the Canadian health care system, the regionalization of services to urban locations, the increased population of people 65 years and older, and the desire of this population to age within their rural homes. Most often, the informal caregiving role is assumed by rural women. Women tend to fall into the role of informal caregiver to elders because of the many societal and gender expectations and values that are present within the rural culture. The purpose of this literature review is to identify the context in which women provide care for an elder in rural Canada. Illustrating these issues will help to uncover challenges and barriers rural women face when providing care and highlight recommendations and implications for rural women caregivers and nurses employed within rural settings. Many rural women share similar caregiving experiences as urban informal caregivers, but rural women are faced with additional challenges in providing quality care for an elder. Rural women caregivers are faced with such issues as limited access to adequate and appropriate healthcare services, culturally incongruent health care, geographical distance from regionalized centers and health services, transportation challenges, and social/geographical isolation. In addition to these issues, many rural women are faced with the multiple role demands that attend being a wife, mother, caregiver and employee. The pile up of these factors leaves rural women caregivers susceptible to additional stresses and burn out, with limited resources on which to depend. Through reviewing pertinent literature, appropriate implications and recommendations can be made that may assist rural women caregivers and rural nurses. Nurses working within rural communities are in ideal settings to work collaboratively in building supportive relationships with rural women in order to

  7. Nutrition inequities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

    2010-04-01

    In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.

  8. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.S.

    1980-12-01

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  9. Wheeling in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytche, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    The quest for economic efficiency, or lowest cost, in the electricity supply industry is furthered by trading between high and low cost utilities, one aspect being transporting or wheeling power through the transmission system of a third party. Some of the pressures and constraints limiting wheeling are discussed. A simple formula is presented for determining whether trading and wheeling are worthwhile. It is demonstrated for assumed capital and operating cost levels, the viability of nine cases where bulk power or economy energy would need to be wheeled across provincial boundaries in order to reach potential buyers. Wheeling in Canada is different from the situation in the USA, due to large distances spanned by Canadian utilities and because most are provincial crown corporations, with different territorial interests and profit motivations than investor-owned utilities. Most trading in electricity has been between contiguous neighbours, for mutual advantage. New technology allows power transmission over distances of up to 1000 miles, and the economics of Canada's electrical supply could be improved, with means including access to low cost coal of Alberta, and remote hydro in British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec and Labrador. Nuclear plants could be located anywhere but suffer from an unfriendly public attitude. A bridge across the Prairies appears uneconomic due to cost of transmission, and also due to low valuation given to Alberta coal. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  11. Use of Fibrates in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackevicius, Cynthia A.; Tu, Jack V.; Ross, Joseph S.; Ko, Dennis T.; Carreon, Daniel; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2012-01-01

    Context Interest in the role of fibrates has intensified with the publication of the negative ACCORD trial with fenofibrate, especially since the evidence for clinical outcomes benefit for fibrates is heavily weighted on older fibrates, gemfibrozil and clofibrate. Objective This study seeks to examine trends in the current use of fibrates, and for fenofibrate, to illuminate the relationship between differences in the availability of proprietary versus generic formulations and use and economic implications in the United States (US) compared with Canada. Design/Setting/Patients Population-level, cohort study using IMS Health data in the United States and Canada of patients prescribed fibrates between 2002 and 2009. Main Outcome Measure(s) Fibrate prescribing and expenditures. Results From 2002–2009, fibrate prescriptions increased 117.1% in the US, by 12,000/month to 2.1 million prescriptions/month, yet only increased by 18.1% in Canada. (pCanada, while in the US, it increased by 159.3%, comprising 47.9% of total fibrate prescriptions in 2002 and 65.2% in 2009. The annual ratio of generic:brand fenofibrate use in the US from 2002 to 2008 ranged from 0:1 to 0.09:1, while the ratio in Canada steadily increased from 2005 to 2008 from 0.51:1 to 1.89:1. In the US, crude fenofibrate expenditures rose from $33.2 million/month in 2002 to $129.6 million/month in 2009, while those in Canada declined from $5.6 million/month to $5.1 million/month. Fibrate expenditures per 100,000 population were 3-fold higher in the US compared with Canada in 2009. Conclusions During the past decade, prescriptions for fibrates, particularly, fenofibrate, increased in the United States, while prescriptions for fibrates in Canada remained stable. PMID:21427374

  12. Japanese Immigrants in the United States and Canada : A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Glenn G.

    2000-01-01

    The experiences of Japanese immigrants to the United States and Canada is the difference between assimilating cultures, which bear different attitudes towards wealth and immigration. The United States population does not openly hate Japanese, but in times of economic problems the inherent discrimination shown towards those perceived as outsiders rises. Canada does not have such constrictions, although this should not be construed as implying that there is no discrimination in Canada. It is si...

  13. Canada's steps towards nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1958-09-01

    This paper describes the policy development of nuclear power in Canada. Canada has a natural abundance of coal, oil, natural gas, water power and uranium. It was recognized that the demand for nuclear power would only materialize if it met an economically competitive range.

  14. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1986-09-01

    This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs

  15. ESPlannerBASIC CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kotlikoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional financial planning is based on a fundamental rule of thumb: Aim to save enough for retirement to replace 80 per cent of your pre-retirement income with income from pensions and assets. Millions of Canadians follow this formula. Yet, there is no guarantee this approach is consistent with a savings plan that will allow them to experience their optimal standard of living — given their income — throughout their working lives. Consumption smoothing happens when a consumer projects her income and her non-discretionary expenses (such as mortgage payments all the way up until the end of her life, and is able to determine her household discretionary spending power over time, to achieve the smoothest living standard path possible without going into debt. When consumption smoothing is calculated accurately, a person’s lifestyle should be roughly the same whether she is in her 30s with small children, in her 50s with kids in college, or in retirement, with adult children. Consumption smoothing allows that to happen. But while it is conceptually straightforward, consumption smoothing requires the use of advanced numerical techniques. Now, Canadian families have access to a powerful consumption-smoothing tool: ESPlannerBASIC Canada. This free, secure and confidential online tool will allow Canadian families to safely and securely enter their earnings and other financial resources and will calculate for them how much they can spend and how much they should save in order to maintain their lifestyle from now until they die, without going into debt. It will also calculate how much life insurance they should buy, to ensure that household living standards are not affected after a family member dies. Users can easily and instantly run “what-if” scenarios to see how retiring early (or later, changing jobs, adjusting retirement contributions, having children, moving homes, timing RRSP withdrawals, and other financial and lifestyle decisions would

  16. Energy in Canada 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This publication provides a panoramic overview of Canada's energy situation at the beginning of the 21st century, presenting the issues that drive the country's energy policy, and a look at the various technologies by which energy is produced, its sources, transformation and the infrastructure required to deliver it to the consumer. Energy consumption by sectors of the economy, energy conservation and energy conservation issues are analyzed, and details of the lines of actions designed by the federal government to achieve its energy policy objectives are explained. Appendix One provides more detail on the complex issue of climate change, while Appendix Two provides some energy-related statistics, extracted from a database of energy statistics which are also available in graphic or spreadsheet format at http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/ener2000. 12 tabs., 40 figs

  17. Tritium activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian tritium activites comprise three major interests: utilites, light manufacturers, and fusion. There are 21 operating CANDU reactors in Canada; 19 with Ontario Hydro and one each with Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power. There are two light manufacturers, two primary tritium research facilities (at AECL Chalk River and Ontario Hydro Technologies), and a number of industry and universities involved in design, construction, and general support of the other tritium activities. The largest tritum program is in support of the CANDU reactors, which generate tritium in the heavy water as a by-product of normal operation. Currently, there are about 12 kg of tritium locked up in the heavy water coolant and moderator of these reactors. The fusion work is complementary to the light manufacturing, and is concerned with tritium handling for the ITER program. This included design, development and application of technologies related to Isotope Separation, tritium handling, (tritiated) gas separation, tritium-materials interaction, and plasma fueling

  18. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  19. Telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird, the barnacle goose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliny Angela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories of ageing predict a trade-off between metabolism, reproduction, and maintenance. Species with low investment in early reproduction are thus expected to be able to evolve more efficient maintenance and repair mechanisms, allowing for a longer potential life span (intrinsic longevity. The erosion of telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of linear chromosomes, plays an important role in cellular and organismal senescence, signalling the onset of age-related disease due to accumulation of unrepaired somatic damage. Using extensive longitudinal data from a long-term study of a natural population of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis, we investigated individual rates of telomere length changes over two years in 34 birds between 0 and 22 years of age, covering almost 80% of the species’ lifespan. Results We show that telomeres in this long-lived bird are very well maintained, as theoretically expected, with an average loss rate of only 5 base pairs per year among adults. We thus found no significant relationship between change in telomere length and age. However, telomeres tended to shorten at a faster pace in juveniles compared to adults. For the first time, we demonstrate a faster telomere attrition rate in females compared to males. We found no correlation between telomere loss rate and adult survival or change in body mass. Conclusions Our results add further support for a link between longevity and telomere maintenance, and highlight the complexities of telomere dynamics in natural populations.

  20. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Langlois, Kellie A; Kohen, Dafna E

    2013-01-01

    Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2-5 years (n=1,234). Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2-5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p0.05). The majority (81%) of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size), living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  1. Avoidable cost of alcohol abuse in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Gnam, William H; Sarnocinska-Hart, Anna; Popova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    To estimate avoidable burden and avoidable costs of alcohol abuse in Canada for the year 2002. A policy effectiveness approach was used. The impact of six effective and cost-effective alcohol policy interventions aimed to reduce alcohol consumption was modeled. In addition, the effect of privatized alcohol sales that would increase alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable costs was also modeled. The effects of these interventions were compared with the baseline (aggregate) costs obtained from the second Canadian Study of Social Costs Attributable to Substance Abuse. It was estimated that by implementing six cost-effective policies from about 900 million to two billion Canadian dollars per year could be saved in Canada. The greatest savings due to the implementation of these interventions would be achieved in the lowering of productivity losses, followed by health care, and criminality. Substantial increases in burden and cost would occur if Canadian provinces were to privatize alcohol sales. The implementation of proven effective population-based interventions would reduce alcohol-attributable burden and its costs in Canada to a considerable degree. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  3. Canada`s green plan - The second year. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Canada`s Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan`s goal is `to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.` It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan`s short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities.

  4. Glucose-induced lipid deposition in goose primary hepatocytes is dependent on the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chunchun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that fatty liver formation in overfed geese was accompanied by PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway activation and changes in plasma glucose concentrations. Here, we show that glucose acts in goose hepatocellular lipid metabolism through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. We observed that glucose increased lipogenesis, decreased fatty acid oxidation and increased very low density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. Co-treatment with glucose and inhibitors of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway (LY294002, rapamycin, NVP-BEZ235 decreased the levels of factors involved in lipogenesis and increased the levels of factors involved in fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. These findings show that inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway decreased glucose-induced lipogenesis, inhibited the downregulation of fatty acid oxidation by glucose and increased the upregulation of VLDL-TG assembly and secretion by glucose. The results presented herein provide further support for the role of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in lipid metabolism as we showed that in goose primary hepatocytes, glucose acts through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR-dependent pathway to stimulate lipid deposition by increasing lipogenesis and decreasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion.

  5. Patterns of ovarian and luteal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry V. Fanson; Nadja C. Wielebnowski; Tanya M. Shenk; Jennifer H. Vashon; John R. Squires; Jeffrey R. Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Canada lynx face some unique breeding restrictions, which may have implications for population viability and captive management. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of basic reproductive physiology in Canada lynx. Using fecal hormone metabolite analysis, we established normative patterns of fecal estrogen (fE) and progestagen (fP)...

  6. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married and common-law couples with a female partner aged 18–44. The three definitions of the risk of conception were derived sequentially starting with birth control use in the previous 12 months, adding reported sexual intercourse in the previous 12 months, then pregnancy intent. Prevalence and odds ratios of current infertility were estimated by selected characteristics. RESULTS Estimates of the prevalence of current infertility ranged from 11.5% (95% CI 10.2, 12.9) to 15.7% (95% CI 14.2, 17.4). Each estimate represented an increase in current infertility prevalence in Canada when compared with previous national estimates. Couples with lower parity (0 or 1 child) had significantly higher odds of experiencing current infertility when the female partner was aged 35–44 years versus 18–34 years. Lower odds of experiencing current infertility were observed for multiparous couples regardless of age group of the female partner, when compared with nulliparous couples. CONCLUSIONS The present study suggests that the prevalence of current infertility has increased since the last time it was measured in Canada, and is associated with the age of the female partner and parity. PMID:22258658

  7. Construction and sequencing of an infectious clone of the goose embryo-adapted Muscovy duck parvovirus vaccine strain FZ91-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Huang, Yu; Zhou, Mingxu; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2016-06-21

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) is the etiological agent of Muscovy duckling parvoviral disease, which is characterized by diarrhea, locomotive dysfunction, stunting, and death in young ducklings, and causes substantial economic losses in the Muscovy duck industry worldwide. FZ91-30 is an attenuated vaccine strain that is safe and immunogenic to ducklings, but the genomic information and molecular mechanism underlining the attenuation are not understood. The FZ91-30 strain was propagated in 11-day-old embryonated goose eggs, and viral particles were purified from the pooled allantoic fluid by differential centrifugation and ultracentrifugation. Single-stranded genomic DNA was extracted and annealed to form double-stranded DNA. The dsDNA digested with NcoI resulted two sub-genomic fragments, which were then cloned into the modified plasmid pBluescript II SK, respectively, generating plasmid pBSKNL and pBSKNR. The sub-genomic plasmid clones were sequenced and further combined to construct the plasmid pFZ that contained the entire genome of strain FZ91-30. The complete genome sequences of strain FM and YY and partial genome sequences of other strains were retrieved from GenBank for sequence comparison. The plasmid pFZ containing the entire genome of FZ91-30 was transfected in 11-day-old embryonated goose eggs via the chorioallantoic membranes route to rescue infectious virus. A genetic marker was introduced into the rescued virus to discriminate from its parental virus. The genome of FZ91-30 consists of 5,131 nucleotides and has 98.9 % similarity to the FM strain. The inverted terminal repeats (ITR) are 456 nucleotides in length, 14 nucleotides longer than that of Goose parvovirus (GPV). The exterior 415 nucleotides of the ITR form a hairpin structure, and the interior 41 nucleotides constitute the D sequence, a reverse complement of the D' sequence at the 3' ITR. Amino acid sequence alignment of the VP1 proteins between FZ91-30 and five pathogenic MDPV strains

  8. Canada No. 1 in business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Canada has for the fifth time in a row been chosen the best industrialized country in the world in which to initiate and run a business. The Norwegian interest in Canada has grown strongly the last years and Norwegian companies have invested over 20 billion NOK there. Canada is the perfect gateway to the large markets in the USA. Norway is currently Canada's 15th largest trading partner. In addition to low costs and strategic location, Canada has the most highly educated workforce in the world. A company on the Canadian side of the US border has the same access to the American market as a US-based company. There is even a Norwegian company in Canada that exports 100 per cent of its products across the border to the USA. The trade between the USA and Canada is more extensive than between the USA and all the EU countries together. Furthermore, Canadian companies concentrating on research and education are given a generous tax credit

  9. Wellons Canada energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Wellons Canada is a British Columbia-based company that specializes in the manufacture and installation of lumber drying and energy conversion equipment. This brochure provided details of the Wellons energy system designed for oriented strand board (OSB) plants. The brochure outlined the system's scope of supply, and provided illustrations of system procedures from the initial wet fuel bin through to the electric precipitator used for air clean-up. During the process, fuel was conveyed from the bin to metering bins into combustors and through a cyclo-blast cell. Forced draft fan systems were then used to provide primary and secondary combustion air. Radiant heaters were then used. A drop-out chamber was supplied to allow for complete combustion of fuel particles and to provide a drop-out of ash. A fan was then used to deliver diluent air to maintain the set point temperature in the hot gas stream. Refractory lined hot gas ducts were used to deliver heat to the dryers. Hot gas was then drawn through a multi-cyclone collector for ash removal. Electrostatic precipitators were used to clean up emissions on a continuous operating basis. An automatic system was used to collect ash from the combustion system grates and other areas. Details of installation services provided by the company were also included. 42 figs.

  10. The nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Broughton, W.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Canada comprises three identifiable groups: (1) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), (2) electrical utilities that use nuclear power plants, (3) private engineering and manufacturing companies. At the end of World War II, AECL was charged with investigating and developing peaceful uses of atomic power. Included in the results is the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, a peculiarly Canadian design. The AECL maintains research capability and operates as the prime nuclear steam supply system supplier. Utilities in three Canadian provinces operate nuclear power plants, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario, with the majority in Ontario. From the beginning of the nuclear program in Canada, private industry has been an important partner to AECL and the utilities, filling roles as manufacturing subcontractors and as component designers. The prime objective of this paper is to illuminate the role of private industry in developing and maintaining a competitive world-class nuclear industry

  11. Canada-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ek, Carl; Fergusson, Ian F; Nunez-Neto, Blas; Clarke, Stephen F; Abel, Amy; Becker, Geoffrey S; Buck, Eugene H; Corn, M. L; Gelb, Bernard A; Gorte, Ross W

    2006-01-01

    .... The early 1990s brought new governments to Ottawa and Washington, and although Canada's Liberal Party emphasized its determination to act independently of the United States when necessary, relations...

  12. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  13. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    reaffirmed this timetable and added goat meat, chicken, ginseng, pecans , and macadamia nuts as covered commodities. A final rule was issued on...major countries gather to discuss and coordinate international policies. The G-8 is a group of advanced countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy ...Financial Crisis Since the mid-1970s, leaders from the G-7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy , Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States), a small group

  14. A staff shortage in Canada?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, P.

    1995-01-01

    Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members' future personnel requirements. (author)

  15. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  16. SCWR Concept in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    AECL is designing the Canadian SCWR concept, which has evolved from the well-established pressuretube type CANDU® reactor. The Canadian SCWR is designed to produce electrical energy as the main product, plus process heat, hydrogen, industrial isotopes, and drinking water (through the desalination process) as supplementary products, all within a more compact reactor building. Another potential application of the available co-generated process heat is the extraction and refining of oil sands, which is presently achieved using co-generation with natural gas turbines and process heat. The extraction and upgrading process requires: thermal power to lower the viscosity and extract the oil; electric power for separation and refining equipment; and hydrogen gas for upgrading the oil product prior to transport. A National Program has been established in Canada to support R&D studies for the Canadian SCWR design. It covers key areas of interest (such as thermal hydraulics, safety, materials, and chemistry) to participants in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) SCWR designs. Results generated from the program are contributed to the GIF SCWR project management boards (PMBs). For example, heat transfer correlations have been derived using experimental data primarily obtained from fossil-plant related studies (which were started as early as 1930s. Materials and chemistry studies have evolved from operating experience of fossil-fired power plants to a) develop, and perform targeted testing of, materials for key components, in particular in-core reactor components that will be exposed to conditions not encountered in a fossil-fired boiler (such as irradiation and water radiolysis), and b) develop a suitable water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport.

  17. Approach, passage, and survival of juvenile salmonids at Little Goose Dam, Washington: Post-construction evaluation of a temporary spillway weir, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, J.W.; Braatz, A.C.; Hansel, H.C.; Fielding, S.D.; Haner, P.V.; Hansen, G.S.; Shurtleff, D.J.; Sprando, J.M.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a study of dam passage and survival of radio-tagged juvenile salmonids after installation of a temporary spillway weir (TSW) at Little Goose Dam, Washington, in 2009. The purpose of the study was to document fish passage and survival when the dam was operated with the TSW in place. Spillway weirs are one of several methods used to improve downstream passage of juvenile salmonids. Each spillway weir design is based on the concept of providing an overflow weir with a depth more similar to the natural migration depth of juvenile salmonids than conventional spill bays. Little Goose Dam was the last of the four lower Snake River dams to have a spillway weir installed. This was the first year that some form of surface passage device was operating at all Snake River and Columbia River dams between Lewiston, Idaho, and the Columbia River estuary. The study design stipulated that a total of 30 percent of the river discharge would continuously be passed over the TSW and the conventional spill bays, and this percentage was achieved. The TSW also was to be operated at the 'low crest' elevation during the spring and the 'high crest' elevation during the summer, but the TSW was only operated at the low crest elevation during this study. Behavior, passage, and survival of spring and summer juvenile salmonid migrants passing through Little Goose Dam were examined using radio telemetry. Survival was estimated using the Route Specific Survival Model (RSSM) by releasing tagged fish near Central Ferry State Park 21 kilometers upstream of the dam and in the tailrace approximately 0.5 kilometer downstream of the dam. From April 18 to May 21, 2009, 1,520 yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and 1,517 juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) were radio tagged and released. From June 6 to July 5, 2009, 4,251 subyearling Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) were radio tagged and released. Release dates of subyearling Chinook salmon were selected to avoid 'reservoir

  18. Croatian Language Maintenance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Petrović

    2017-01-01

    factors to be examined concern the absolute number of community members, their geographical distribution, the number of Croatian language speakers, and the number of those with Croatian as their mother tongue. According to the 2011 census, there were 114 880 Canadians of Croatian origin, representing an increase of 3.5% over 2006. In 2006, 110 880 Canadian residents reported Croatian ancestry, representing a percentage change of 12.5% from 2001. In 2001, there were 97 050 Canadians who self-identified as being of Croatian origin, representing a percentage change of 13% from 1996, when there were 84 495 Canadians of Croatian origin. Furthermore, census data show that the percentage of Canadians of Croatian origin reporting multiple ethnicity increased over the period; in 1996, there were 65.5% single ethnic origin responses, compared to 60% in 2001, 50.9% in 2006, and only 45.1% in 2011. In terms of geographical distribution of members of Croatian community in Canada, almost two thirds of all Canadians of Croatian descent (74 020 live in the province Ontario, with significant numbers also in British Columbia (19 855 and Alberta (10 055. The largest Croatian community is in the Toronto area, where 35 115 Croatians live, with significant numbers also in Vancouver (13 025 and Hamilton (11 640. The census data presented here indicate that demographic factors that positively influence Croatian language maintenance are the size of the linguistic group and geographic concentration of the group. More precisely, the absolute number of people of Croatian descent living in Canada is on the rise and the population of Croatian origin is mostly concentrated in the province of Ontario and in major urban centers in other provinces. On the other hand, the rise in the percentage of Canadians of Croatian descent reporting more than one ancestry could be viewed as a factor that negatively affects Croatian language maintenance. It is provided by the evidence of gradually changing marriage

  19. Dynamics of immigrants' health: Evidence from Canada, 1994-95 to 2002-03. Summary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkins, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary of: Ng, Edward, Russell Wilkins, François Gendron, and Jean-Marie Berthelot.2005. "Dynamics of immigrants' health in Canada: evidence from the NationalPopulation Health Survey." Healthy today, healthy tomorrow? Findings fromthe National Population Health Survey. Ottawa: Statistics Canada catalogue 82-618; 2:1-11. Available free at: http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/82-618-MIE/82-618-MIE2005002.htm.

  20. Immigrant Status and Secondary School Performance as Determinants of Post-Secondary Participation: A Comparison of Canada and Switzerland. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 77

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Garnett

    2012-01-01

    This working paper seeks to explore the reasons why educational attainment in the immigrant population varies between North America and Europe. Specifically, the examples of Canada and Switzerland are used as Canada has an immigrant population with a typically higher rate of post-secondary education than that of the domestic population, while in…

  1. Economic evaluation of vaccines in Canada: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chit, Ayman; Lee, Jason K H; Shim, Minsup; Nguyen, Van Hai; Grootendorst, Paul; Wu, Jianhong; Van Exan, Robert; Langley, Joanne M

    2016-05-03

    Economic evaluations should form part of the basis for public health decision making on new vaccine programs. While Canada's national immunization advisory committee does not systematically include economic evaluations in immunization decision making, there is increasing interest in adopting them. We therefore sought to examine the extent and quality of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada. We conducted a systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada to determine and summarize: comprehensiveness across jurisdictions, studied vaccines, funding sources, study designs, research quality, and changes over time. Searches in multiple databases were conducted using the terms "vaccine," "economics" and "Canada." Descriptive data from eligible manuscripts was abstracted and three authors independently evaluated manuscript quality using a 7-point Likert-type scale scoring tool based on criteria from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). 42/175 articles met the search criteria. Of these, Canada-wide studies were most common (25/42), while provincial studies largely focused on the three populous provinces of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia. The most common funding source was industry (17/42), followed by government (7/42). 38 studies used mathematical models estimating expected economic benefit while 4 studies examined post-hoc data on established programs. Studies covered 10 diseases, with 28/42 addressing pediatric vaccines. Many studies considered cost-utility (22/42) and the majority of these studies reported favorable economic results (16/22). The mean quality score was 5.9/7 and was consistent over publication date, funding sources, and disease areas. We observed diverse approaches to evaluate vaccine economics in Canada. Given the increased complexity of economic studies evaluating vaccines and the impact of results on public health practice, Canada needs improved, transparent and consistent processes

  2. Immunomorphologic Manifestations in Mice Liver Infected with Influenza A/H5N1, A/Goose/Krasnoozerskoye/627/05 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana V. Potapova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1 viruses can infect mammals, including humans, causing severe systemic disease with the inhibition of the immune system and a high mortality rate. In conditions of lymphoid tissue depletion, the liver plays an important role in host defence against viruses. The changes in mice liver infected with HPAI H5N1 virus A/goose/Krasnoozerskoye/627/05 have been studied. It has been shown that the virus persistence in the liver leads to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and intracellular proteases (lysozyme, cathepsin D, and myeloperoxidase by Kupffer cells. Defective antiviral response exacerbates destructive processes in the liver accelerating the development of liver failure.

  3. Diurnal variation in the behaviour of the Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) during the spring stopover in Trøndelag, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudzinska, Magda Ewa; Madsen, Jesper; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    behaviour at a staging site and assess the extent to which behavioural patterns are attributable to physiological factors (digestibility of the food) and environmental conditions (flock size, type and frequency of disturbance and distance to roost). We found that feeding activity peaked at mid-day, whereas...... different energetic and nutrient demands when at spring staging sites. Seasonal changes in habitat availability as well as density dependence may also affect the birds’ behavioural patterns. A sporadic, unpredictable disturbance reduced the proportion of geese feeding to a greater extent than a predictable...... the birds were most alert in the morning and afternoon. The behaviour of Pink-footed Goose also varied with habitat type, disturbance level and distance to roost. The diurnal variation in feeding activity differed from behaviour reported for geese on the wintering grounds, indicating that the birds have...

  4. Canada's isotope crisis : what next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathwani, J.; Wallace, D.

    2010-01-01

    Canada urgently requires a rigorous debate on the strategic options for ensuring a robust, reliable, and affordable supply of radioactive isotopes. Should the debate be confined to how Canada can best develop the necessary technologies solely for our own use or should Canada abandon the idea of producing its own isotope supply and any future aspirations to serve the global market? Canada's Isotope Crisis focuses on the central policy question: do we dare to try to shape the future or do we retreat into silence because we are not prepared to make the necessary investments for the future well-being of Canadians? This volume showcases pointed essays and analysis from members of the academy and individuals who have made contributions to the development of medical isotopes and pioneered their use in medical practice. It also includes commentary from those involved in the production, manufacturing, processing, and distribution of isotopes. Canada's Isotope Crisis is a multi-disciplinary effort that addresses the global dimension of isotope supply and combines expert opinions on the present and past with knowledge of the relevant government agencies and the basis for their decisions at critical junctures.

  5. Killing the goose

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, N.

    2017-01-01

    The regulatory framework for implanted medical devices is preventing severely impaired people from benefitting from rehabilitation research. Consequently, research effort is wasted and we are unable to use implants to reduce the costs of healthcare. The framework should be altered so that it is economically possible to get new devices for small patient groups into widespread use.

  6. Energy and the future : Canada's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymont, M.

    2005-01-01

    The rise in global energy consumption is driven by economic growth, particularly in developing countries. It is expected that by 2030, the world population will consume 50 per cent more energy than today. This increase in global energy demand can no longer be met through the business as usual approach. Graphs depicting emerging energy demand in Asia were presented for nuclear energy, coal, natural gas, oil and renewables. The issue of how China can meet it's growing energy demand was discussed with reference to energy consumed by its industrial, agricultural, commercial, residential and transportation sectors. The author emphasized the uneven distribution of resources, where consuming areas do not coincide with producing areas. It is expected that traditional energy sources will still supply most of the world's energy need for the foreseeable future, but they will leave less of an environmental impact. The author suggested that renewable energy sources will also increase but will comprise less than 20 per cent of the world supply in 2050. The author also discussed the issue of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Kyoto obligations and projections of what will happen with Kyoto post 2012. Canada's GHG record and recent environmental findings were also discussed with reference to Arctic ice coverage and the decline in average winter temperature. It was suggested that technology is the key to the energy shortage the environment and security. With declining conventional oil reserves, old nuclear technology and aging electric power technology, new technology must be used to address supply issues, distribution, interconversion, environmental impacts and risks. It was emphasized that since the energy sector is Canada's greatest economic driver, Canada should focus on energy technologies to build a more competitive energy sector. Huge export opportunities also exist for energy technologies. The role of industry and governments in achieving this goal was also discussed. figs

  7. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  8. Pachybrachis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) of Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Robert J.; LeSage, Laurent; Savard, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen Pachybrachis species occurring in eastern Canada [Ontario (ON), Québec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Prince Edward Island (PE)] are treated by the authors. Two new national records were discovered, both from southernmost Ontario: P. cephalicus Fall and P. luctuosus Suffrian. Four species were new provincial records: P. cephalicus (ON), P. luctuosus (ON, QC), P. obsoletus Suffrian (NB), P. peccans (PE). A fully illustrated key to the Pachybrachis of eastern Canada is provided and supported with extensive photographs, distribution maps, and plant associations. Three species were distributed from southern Ontario into at least one province in the Maritimes (P. nigricornis (Say), P. obsoletus Suffrianand P. peccans Suffrian). Six species were distributed along the shores of the Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, and Ontario) and rivers (Ottawa, Saguenay and St. Lawrence), but unknown from central and northern ON and QC (P. bivittatus (Say), P. hepaticus hepaticus (F. E. Melsheimer), P. othonus othonus (Say), P. pectoralis (F. E. Melsheimer), P. spumarius Suffrianand P. trinotatus (F. E. Melsheimer)). Seven species were rare, five being found exclusively from southern ON (P. calcaratus Fall, P. cephalicus, P. luridus (Fabricius), P. subfasciatus (J. E. LeConte)and P. tridens (F. E. Melsheimer)), with two having, in addition, a disjunct population in QC (P. atomarius (F. E. Melsheimer)and P. luctuosus). One species was found to be the northern most extension of an eastern United States (US) distribution into the eastern townships of QC (P. m-nigrum (F. E. Melsheimer)). There were no Pachybrachis that could be considered arctic, subarctic, or boreal species; no specimens were found from Labrador and Newfoundland, and all species had southern affinities. Pachybrachis atomarius, P. calcaratus, P. luridus, P. subfaciatus, and P. tridens, not seen over the last 30–70 years, may be extirpated from eastern Canada. PMID:24163583

  9. Estimated Number of Birds Killed by House Cats (Felis catus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blancher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predation by house cats (Felis catus is one of the largest human-related sources of mortality for wild birds in the United States and elsewhere, and has been implicated in extinctions and population declines of several species. However, relatively little is known about this topic in Canada. The objectives of this study were to provide plausible estimates for the number of birds killed by house cats in Canada, identify information that would help improve those estimates, and identify species potentially vulnerable to population impacts. In total, cats are estimated to kill between 100 and 350 million birds per year in Canada (> 95% of estimates were in this range, with the majority likely to be killed by feral cats. This range of estimates is based on surveys indicating that Canadians own about 8.5 million pet cats, a rough approximation of 1.4 to 4.2 million feral cats, and literature values of predation rates from studies conducted elsewhere. Reliability of the total kill estimate would be improved most by better knowledge of feral cat numbers and diet in Canada, though any data on birds killed by cats in Canada would be helpful. These estimates suggest that 2-7% of birds in southern Canada are killed by cats per year. Even at the low end, predation by house cats is probably the largest human-related source of bird mortality in Canada. Many species of birds are potentially vulnerable to at least local population impacts in southern Canada, by virtue of nesting or feeding on or near ground level, and habitat choices that bring them into contact with human-dominated landscapes where cats are abundant. Because cat predation is likely to remain a primary source of bird mortality in Canada for some time, this issue needs more scientific attention in Canada.

  10. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 23 figs., 95 tabs

  11. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1991 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  12. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Information is appended on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  13. Canada report on bioenergy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Canada possesses significant forest resources. This paper reviewed Canada's bioenergy potential and market. Biomass in Canada is used to produce heat and power, as well as to produce ethanol and biodiesel. Biomass is also used to produce pyrolysis oil and wood pellets. Biomass resources included woody biomass; annual residue production; hog fuel piles; forest harvest waste and urban wood residues; agricultural residues; and municipal solid wastes. Trends in biomass production and consumption were discussed, and current biomass users were identified. A review of biomass prices was presented, and imports and exports for ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets were discussed. Barriers and opportunities for trade were also outlined. 6 tabs., 6 figs. 1 appendix.

  14. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    recapture analysis with model estimates. The utility of combining sources of information into analysis of populations was the explicit subject of the other two papers. Gauthier & Lebreton (2004 draw on a long–term study of an Arctic–breeding Goose population, where both extensive mark–recapture, ring recovery, and census data are available. The primary goal is to use these various sources of information to to evaluate the effect of increased harvests on dynamics of the population. A number of methods are compared; most notably they describe an approach based on the Kalman filter which allows for different sources of information to be used in the same model, that is demographic data (i.e. transition matrix and census data (i.e. annual survey. They note that one advantage of this approach is that it attempts to minimize both uncertainties associated with the survey and demographic parameters based on the variance of each estimate. The final paper, by Brooks, King and Morgan (Brooks et al., 2004 extends the notion of the combining information in a common model further. They present a Bayesian analysis of joint ring–recovery and census data using a state–space model allowing for the fact that not all members of the population are directly observable. They then impose a Leslie–matrix–based model on the true population counts describing the natural birth–death and age transition processes. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC approach (which eliminates the need for some of the standard assumption often invoked in use of a Kalman filter, Brooks and colleagues describe methods to combine information, including potentially relevant covariates that might explain some of the variation, within a larger framework that allows for discrimination (selection amongst alternative models. We submit that all of the papers presented in this session indicate clearly significant interest in approaches for combining data and modeling approaches. The Bayesian framework appears a natural

  15. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, R.H.G.

    1996-01-01

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  16. The State of Ethnic Dermatology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunyemi, Boluwaji; Miller-Monthrope, Yvette

    Approximately 30% of Canadians will be members of a visible minority by 2031. When dermatology became an independent medical discipline in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, most residents of Canada and the United States were of Northern European descent. Morphology and descriptions of dermatoses are based on patients with light skin. Skin of colour dermatology refers to a unique field in dermatology dedicated to the diagnosis and management of disorders that are more prevalent in patients with moderately to richly pigmented skin. Important differences in the presentation of common dermatoses such as seborrheic dermatitis and acne exist in patients with darker skin types. The effect of traditional treatments for common and uncommon dermatoses is also an important consideration in managing patients with skin of colour. Such treatments may result in adverse effects such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation or keloid scarring at a higher rate. Most respondents from a 2013 UK study of dermatology residents and consultants agreed that individuals with 'ethnic skin' had specific and unique dermatological problems. The Royal College of Physician and Surgeons of Canada's Objectives of Training in Dermatology states that residents must demonstrate the requisite knowledge, skills, and attitudes for effective patient-centred care and service to a diverse population. Future steps include creating a national society of dermatologists interested in clinical and academic aspects of ethnic dermatology. As well, presentations on skin of colour dermatology could be encouraged at major Canadian dermatology meetings.

  17. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    56 RBC Financial Group, Daily Forex Fundamentals, February 27, 2009. [ http...www.actionforex.com/fundamental- analysis/daily- forex -fundamentals/canada%27s-fourth%11quarter-current-account-moves-into-deficit-after-nine-years- of-surpluses...sharing, infrastructure improvements, improvement of compatible immigration databases , visa policy coordination, common biometric identifiers in

  18. Food irradiation: progress in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada; non-regulatory developments (poultry irradiation; fish irradiation; Government willingness to fund industry initiated projects; Government willingness to establish food irradiation research and pilot plant facilities; food industry interest is increasing significantly; Canadian Consumers Association positive response; the emergence of new consulting and entrepreneurial firms). (U.K.)

  19. Comparing pyloromyotomy outcomes across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ednie, Alexander C; Amram, Ofer; Schuurman, Nadine; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2017-05-01

    Changing patterns of referral and management of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) in North America have recently been described. Comfort with perioperative management, anesthesia, and corrective surgery have been cited as reasons for these changes. Our primary objective was to assess pyloromyotomy outcomes between different hospital types across Canada. The secondary objective was to geospatially map all pyloromyotomies to identify regions of higher HPS incidence across Canada. Data of all pyloromyotomies done between 2011 and 2013 were acquired from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Complication rates and length of hospital stay (LOS) were analyzed. Postal codes for each patient were used to geospatially map regions of higher HPS incidence. A total of 1261 pyloromyotomies were assessed. There was no difference in LOS or complication rates between different hospital types or surgeon group. Open pyloromyotomies were done in 75% of the cases. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified across Canada. This study found no difference in complication rate or LOS stay between hospital type and surgeon type across Canada. This may reflect a previously identified referral trend in the United States towards pediatric centers. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified, and may aid in identifying genetic elements causing HPS. 2c. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Canada report on bioenergy 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.

    2008-06-01

    Canada is a nation rich in fossil fuel resources. Canada has a large, well-developed forest sector and is one of the world's largest exporters of wood products. Although national bioenergy policies exist, provincial policies regarding forest resources are necessary because 77 per cent of Canada's forests are under provincial jurisdiction. This report presented an update on Canada's bioenergy policy and resources. The report discussed biomass resources such as woody biomass; agricultural residues; and municipal waste. The use of biomass was presented with particular reference to heat and power; biofuels production; pyrolysis oil; wood pellets; and trends in biomass production and consumption. Current biomass users and biomass prices were also examined. Last, the report addressed imports and exports of ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets as well as barriers and opportunities to trade. A list of Canadian bioenergy initiatives and programs was also provided. It was concluded that the greatest opportunities for trade are to succeed in research on super-densified pellets; raise ocean shipping capacity to bring down rates; and to establish and entire biomass industry in Newfoundland Labrador. 20 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  1. Canada and Missions for Peace

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The study focuses primarily on Canada's role in these missions in light of ..... simply because peacekeeping has been the chief form of UN intervention and one in which ... Other factors, such as financial constraints and increasing social problems ..... Luck, superior armaments, the shortage of professional officers among the ...

  2. Uranium: the nuclear fuel. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E E.N. [Eldorado Nuclear Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1976-05-01

    A brief history is presented of Canadian uranium exploration, production, and sales. Statistics show that Canada is a good customer for its own uranium due to a rapidly expanding nuclear power program. Due to an average 10 year lag between commencement of exploration and production, and with current producers sold out through 1985, it is imperative that exploration efforts be increased.

  3. Nuclear fuel activities in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D S [Fuel Development Branch, Chalk River Labs., AECL (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Nuclear fuel activities in Canada are considered in the presentation on the following directions: Canadian utility fuel performance; CANDU owner`s group fuel programs; AECL advanced fuel program (high burnup fuel behaviour and development); Pu dispositioning (MOX) activities. 1 tab.

  4. Canada-India Reactor (CIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1960-12-15

    Design information on the Canada-India Reactor is presented. Data are given on reactor physics, the core, fuel elements, core heat transfer, control, reactor vessel, fluid flow, reflector and shielding, containment, cost estimates, and research facilities. Drawings of vertical and horizontal sections of the reactor and fluid flow are included. (M.C.G.)

  5. Canada's commitment to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Murray J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives a broad update on all facets of the Canadian nuclear industry and demonstrates Canada's continuing commitment to nuclear technology. Canada has developed a global leadership position in nuclear technology for power generation, uranium production and isotope supply. This commitment is being further enhanced by successes in international markets with Candu technology, new uranium mine developments in our province of Saskatchewan, and expanding isotope capabilities including the construction of two new production reactors. Korea's economy is benefiting through collaboration with Canada's leading nuclear companies, both in Korea and Canada. These collaborations have the potential to expand considerably with the implementation of the Kyoto Framework Convention on Climate Change and the anticipated increased demand for new nuclear power generation installations in all major global markets. Much has been publicized about the situation surrounding Ontario Hydro Nuclear and its nuclear recovery program. This paper gives the background and highlights the actions within Ontario and Ontario Hydro designed to ensure the long term recovery of all twenty nuclear units in Ontario. The presentation at the conference will bring the audience completely up-to-date on recent events. (author)

  6. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.

    1995-01-01

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  7. Unique Measles Virus in Canada

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, discusses a measles outbreak in Canada.  Created: 8/24/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  8. Status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike O Hammill

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals are associated with small islets, reefs and rocks exposed at low tide and estuarine habitats throughout eastern Canada. Evidence of harvesting by indigenous people has been found in pre-European contact archaeological excavations. A bounty harvest as well as subsistence and commercial hunting probably lead to a decline in the population from 1949 to the early 1970s. The bounty was removed in 1976, and harbour seals, in the southern parts of their range have been protected since then. There is little information available on total abundance and current population trend. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA research has shown separation between Northeast and Northwest Atlantic harbour seals. Within Canada, the subspecies Phoca vitulina concolor shows some population sub-structure with three distinct units that could be separated into Hudson Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence and Sable Island. Urban development resulting in habitat degradation is probably the most important factor affecting harbour seal populations in AtlanticCanada, although other factors such as incidental catches in commercial fisheries and competition with grey seals may also be important.

  9. Building better health care leadership for Canada: implementing evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denis, Jean-Louis; Sullivan, Terrence James

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund for our publishing activities. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Building better health care leadership for Canada: imple...

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1987. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and to assess the resulting population exposures. The report is prepared as a summary of work in progress and as a means of publishing the results of ongoing programs. Special studies reported on included the evaluation of the contamination by cesium-137 of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities; the development of methods for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples; and monitoring of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. Environmental monitoring programs conducted included external radiation exposure, tritium in water vapour, gross beta radioactivity, and monitoring of air, drinking water, precipitation and milk. A list of reports and presentations is also included.

  11. Fusion Canada issue 32. Final edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Fusion Canada is a bulletin of the National Fusion Program, this is the last edition. Included in this July edition are articles on Funding for Canada's fusion program, Research and Development on TdeV-96 , Divertor Maintenance Robotics and reference listing for Canada's Fusion research and development sites

  12. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  13. The economic burden of prematurity in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Karissa M; Gooch, Katherine; Korol, Ellen; Vo, Pamela; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Bradt, Pamela; Levy, Adrian

    2014-04-05

    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality among infants worldwide, and imposes considerable burden on health, education and social services, as well as on families and caregivers. Morbidity and mortality resulting from preterm birth is highest among early (prematurity due to the larger number of late preterm infants relative to early and moderate preterm infants. The aim in this study was to characterize the burden of premature birth in Canada for early, moderate, and late premature infants, including resource utilization, direct medical costs, parental out-of-pocket costs, education costs, and mortality, using a validated and published decision model from the UK, and adapting it to a Canadian setting based on analysis of administrative, population-based data from Québec. Two-year survival was estimated at 56.0% for early preterm infants, 92.8% for moderate preterm infants, and 98.4% for late preterm infants. Per infant resource utilization consistently decreased with age. For moderately preterm infants, hospital days ranged from 1.6 at age two to 0.09 at age ten. Cost per infant over the first ten years of life was estimated to be $67,467 for early preterm infants, $52,796 for moderate preterm infants, and $10,010 for late preterm infants. Based on population sizes this corresponds to total national costs of $123.3 million for early preterm infants, $255.6 million for moderate preterm infants, $208.2 million for late preterm infants, and $587.1 million for all infants. Premature birth results in significant infant morbidity, mortality, healthcare utilization and costs in Canada. A comprehensive decision-model based on analysis of a Canadian population-based administrative data source suggested that the greatest national-level burden is associated with moderate preterm infants due to both a large cost per infant and population size while the highest individual-level burden is in early preterm infants and the largest total population size is

  14. Public inquiries in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourque, D.

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Constitution provides that the provinces may exclusively make laws in relation to electrical generation facilities. However through the exercise of its declaratory power, which is an exceptional power assigned to the federal Parliament, the latter has assumed exclusive legislative jurisdiction over the nuclear fuel cycle. Thus, the legislation applying to nuclear power plants is that which is passed by the federal Parliament. On June 18, 1990, the Canadian government tabled Bill C-78 (Environmental Assessment Act), which clarifies the nature, purpose and scope of public hearings into the construction of nuclear power plants. These reflections upon the role of the public hearing in the Canadian context lead to more general observations on the need to restructure decision-making mechanisms in order to take into account new values that important segments of the population are espousing. More open and democratic decision-making mechanisms, both for developing the content of energy policies and reviewing the construction of specific projects, constitute one of the avenues that should be explored in order to arrive at better public understanding and acceptance of nuclear energy. Public hearings can play an important role in this restructuring of decision-making mechanisms. Precise rules must nevertheless be established in order to use this means effectively and to avoid raising false expectations. (author)

  15. The Need for Consensus and Transparency in Assessing Population-Based Rates of Positive Circumferential Radial Margins in Rectal Cancer: Data from Consecutive Cases in a Large Region of Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Christine; Coates, Angela; Grubac, Vanja; Lovrics, Peter; DeNardi, Franco; Thabane, Lehana; Simunovic, Marko

    2016-02-01

    A positive circumferential radial margin (CRM) after rectal cancer surgery is an important predictor of local recurrence. The definition of a positive CRM differs internationally, and reported rates vary greatly in the literature. This study used time-series population-based data to assess positive CRM rates in a region over time and to inform future methods of CRM analysis in a defined geographic area. Chart reviews provided relevant data from consecutive patients undergoing rectal cancer surgery between 2006 and 2012 in all hospitals of the authors' region. Outcomes included rates for pathologic examination of CRM, CRM distance reporting, and positive CRM. The rate of positive CRM was calculated using various definitions. The variations included positive margin cutoffs of CRM at 1 mm or less versus 2 mm or less and inclusion or exclusion of cases without CRM assessment. In this study, 1222 consecutive rectal cancer cases were analyzed. The rate for pathology reporting of CRM distance increased from 54.7 to 93.2 % during the study. Depending on how the rate of positive CRM was defined, its value varied 8.5 to 19.4 % in 2006 and 6.0 to 12.5 % in 2012. Using a pre-specified definition, the rate of positive CRM decreased over time from 14.0 to 6.3 %. A marked increase in CRM distance reporting was observed, whereas the rates of positive CRM dropped, suggesting improved pathologist and surgeon performance over time. Changing definitions greatly influenced the rates of positive CRM, indicating the need for more transparency when such population-based rates are reported in the literature.

  16. Mathematical assessment of Canada's pandemic influenza preparedness plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumel, Abba B; Nuño, Miriam; Chowell, Gerardo

    2008-03-01

    The presence of the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus in wild bird populations in several regions of the world, together with recurrent cases of H5N1 influenza arising primarily from direct contact with poultry, have highlighted the urgent need for prepared-ness and coordinated global strategies to effectively combat a potential influenza pandemic. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the Canadian pandemic influenza preparedness plan. A mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of influenza was used to keep track of the population according to risk of infection (low or high) and infection status (susceptible, exposed or infectious). The model was parametrized using available Canadian demographic data. The model was then used to evaluate the key components outlined in the Canadian plan. The results indicated that the number of cases, mortalities and hospitalizations estimated in the Canadian plan may have been underestimated; the use of antivirals, administered therapeutically, prophylactically or both, is the most effective single intervention followed by the use of a vaccine and basic public health measures; and the combined use of pharmaceutical interventions (antivirals and vaccine) can dramatically minimize the burden of the pending influenza pandemic in Canada. Based on increasing concerns of Oseltamivir resistance (wide-scale implementation), coupled with the expected unavailability of a suitable vaccine during the early stages of a pandemic, the present study evaluated the potential impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) which were not emphasized in the current Canadian plan. To this end, the findings suggest that the use of NPIs can drastically reduce the burden of a pandemic in Canada. A deterministic model was designed and used to assess Canada's pandemic preparedness plan. The study showed that the estimates of pandemic influenza burden given in the Canada pandemic preparedness plan may be an underestimate, and that Canada

  17. Differentiating Canada: The Future of the Canada-US Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Dobson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Turbulence will mark the world economy in the coming decade as Canada’s traditional trading partners in North America and Europe struggle with slow growth and rising structural unemployment and move, as they must, to restore the health of their public finances. Settling for the status quo is not a compelling option as the US border thickens and Canada stays on the sidelines in two areas vital to its long-term interest: climate change policy and trade liberalization. In this context, the Policy Brief evaluates the strategic options for Canada’s long-standing economic relationship with the United States. The authors propose a two-part proactive strategy. The first part is for Canada to differentiate its economy by building on its macroeconomic, financial and energy strengths relative to the United States and by shaping a best-practice North American climate change policy. The second part of the strategy is to deepen NAFTA by participating in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP, a comprehensive, highquality FTA that has strategic attention of the US administration. Any country can join by accepting the agreement’s provisions. The TPP offers at least two strategic opportunities: a comprehensive negotiation in which Canada, the United States and Mexico could upgrade NAFTA and a way to diversify and deepen trade and investment liberalization with major economies in the Asia-Pacific region.

  18. Hospitalization rates among economic immigrants to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edward; Sanmartin, Claudia; Manuel, Douglas G

    2017-07-19

    Economic immigrants generally, and economic class principal applicants (ECPAs) specifically, tend to have better health than other immigrants. However, health outcomes vary among subcategories within this group, especially by sex. This study examines hospitalization rates among ECPAs aged 25 to 74 who arrived in Canada between 1980 and 2006 as skilled workers, business immigrants, or live-in caregivers. The analysis used two linked databases to estimate age-standardized hospitalization rates (ASHRs) overall and for leading causes by sex. ASHRs of ECPA subcategories were compared with each other and with those of the Canadian-born population. Logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios for hospitalization among ECPAs, by sex. Male and female ECPAs aged 25 to 74 had significantly lower all-cause ASHRs than did the Canadian-born population in the same age range. This pattern prevailed for each ECPA subcategory and for each disease examined. Compared with skilled workers, business immigrants had lower odds of hospitalization; live-in caregivers who arrived after 1992 had higher odds. Adjustment for education, official language proficiency, and world region reduced the strength of or eliminated these associations. Compared with the Canadian-born population, ECPAs generally had low hospitalization rates. Differences were apparent among ECPA subcategories.

  19. Declines in Outpatient Antimicrobial Use in Canada (1995–2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Rita; Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K.; Hutchinson, Jim; Patrick, David M.; Weiss, Karl; Conly, John

    2013-01-01

    Background With rising reports of antimicrobial resistance in outpatient communities, surveillance of antimicrobial use is imperative for supporting stewardship programs. The primary objective of this article is to assess the levels of antimicrobial use in Canada over time. Methods Canadian antimicrobial use data from 1995 to 2010 were acquired and assessed by four metrics: population-adjusted prescriptions, Defined Daily Doses, spending on antimicrobials (inflation-adjusted), and average Defined Daily Doses per prescription. Linear mixed models were built to assess significant differences among years and antimicrobial groups, and to account for repeated measurements over time. Measures were also compared to published reports from European countries. Results Temporal trends in antimicrobial use in Canada vary by metric and antimicrobial grouping. Overall reductions were seen for inflation-adjusted spending, population-adjusted prescription rates and Defined Daily Doses, and increases were observed for the average number of Defined Daily Doses per prescription. The population-adjusted prescription and Defined Daily Doses values for 2009 were comparable to those reported by many European countries, while the average Defined Daily Dose per prescription for Canada ranked high. A significant reduction in the use of broad spectrum penicillins occurred between 1995 and 2004, coupled with increases in macrolide and quinolone use, suggesting that replacement of antimicrobial drugs may occur as new products arrive on the market. Conclusions There have been modest decreases of antimicrobial use in Canada over the past 15 years. However, continued surveillance of antimicrobial use coupled with data detailing antimicrobial resistance within bacterial pathogens affecting human populations is critical for targeting interventions and maintaining the effectiveness of these products for future generations. PMID:24146863

  20. The cost of vision loss in Canada. 1. Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith D; Cruess, Alan F; Bellan, Lorne; Mitchell, Scott; Pezzullo, M Lynne

    2011-08-01

    This paper outlines the methodology used to estimate the cost of vision loss in Canada. The results of this study will be presented in a second paper. The cost of vision loss (VL) in Canada was estimated using a prevalence-based approach. This was done by estimating the number of people with VL in a base period (2007) and the costs associated with treating them. The cost estimates included direct health system expenditures on eye conditions that cause VL, as well as other indirect financial costs such as productivity losses. Estimates were also made of the value of the loss of healthy life, measured in Disability Adjusted Life Years or DALY's. To estimate the number of cases of VL in the population, epidemiological data on prevalence rates were applied to population data. The number of cases of VL was stratified by gender, age, ethnicity, severity and cause. The following sources were used for estimating prevalence: Population-based eye studies; Canadian Surveys; Canadian journal articles and research studies; and International Population Based Eye Studies. Direct health costs were obtained primarily from Health Canada and Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) sources, while costs associated with productivity losses were based on employment information compiled by Statistics Canada and on economic theory of productivity loss. Costs related to vision rehabilitation (VR) were obtained from Canadian VR organizations. This study shows that it is possible to estimate the costs for VL for a country in the absence of ongoing local epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural gas resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component in many of the technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In order to understand the role that natural gas can play, it is important to know how much may be present, where it is, when can it be accessed and at what cost. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee has completed its second report 'Natural Gas Potential in Canada - 2001' (CGPC, 2001). This comprehensive study of exploration plays in Canada addresses the two issues of 'how much may be present' and 'where is it'. The Report deals with both conventional gas and non-conventional gas. One hundred and seven Established Conventional Exploration Plays, where discoveries of gas exist, have been assessed in all of the sedimentary basins in Canada. In addition, where sufficient information was available, twelve Conceptual Exploration Plays, where no discoveries have been made, were assessed. Sixty-five other Conceptual Plays were described and qualitatively ranked. An experienced volunteer team of exploration professionals conducted assessments of undiscovered gas potential over a four-year period. The team used technical judgment, statistical techniques and a unique peer review process to make a comprehensive assessment of undiscovered gas potential and estimates of the size of individual undiscovered gas accumulations. The Committee assessed all gas in place in individual exploration plays. For Established Plays, estimates of Undiscovered Nominal Marketable Gas are based on the percentage of the gas in place that is marketable gas in the discovered pools in a play. Not all of the Nominal Marketable Gas will be available. Some underlies areas where exploration is not possible, such as parks, cities and other closed areas. Some will be held in gas pools that are too small to be economic and some of the pools will never be found. In some areas no production infrastructure will be available. Detailed studies of individual exploration plays and basins will be required

  2. Fusion energy and Canada's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    Fusion is the process of releasing energy from matter which occurs in our sun. Canada is contributing to the development of technology which will permit this process to be harnessed and made available on earth. The international effort has increased from a modest beginning in the 1950s to a level of approximately two billion dollars annually in the 1980s. The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the concept of fusion energy as a technology which should make an important addition to the mix of energy sources for our future. Through a co-ordinated approach, Canada has established several projects which will contribute significantly to the development of technologies in specific areas leading to opportunities now for Canadian industry in the international effort

  3. Nuclear criticality safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, K.R.

    1980-04-01

    The approach taken to nuclear criticality safety in Canada has been influenced by the historical development of participants. The roles played by governmental agencies and private industry since the Atomic Energy Control Act was passed into Canadian Law in 1946 are outlined to set the scene for the current situation and directions that may be taken in the future. Nuclear criticality safety puts emphasis on the control of materials called special fissionable material in Canada. A brief account is given of the historical development and philosophy underlying the existing regulations governing special fissionable material. Subsequent events have led to a change in emphasis in the regulatory process that has not yet been fully integrated into Canadian legislation and regulations. Current efforts towards further development of regulations governing the practice of nuclear criticality safety are described. (auth)

  4. National Pharmacare in Canada: 2019 or Bust?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Adams

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is the Canadian public policy issue that rears its head with regularity, never achieving much more than discussion, and yet never going away entirely. The issue is pharmacare, and once again it is back for discussion among academics and policy-makers, and once again it looks like the discussions will not go anywhere anytime soon. The proposal for a publicly funded pharmaceuticalcoverage plan is frequently on the table in Canada, but it still is not in the cards. Canada is the only member country of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD with a public health-care system that does not include coverage for pharmaceuticals. As a result, Canada spends markedly less public money than the OECD average on pharmaceuticals (42 per cent of drug payments are public funds, versus the average 70 per cent, although it also spends more than the OECD average on hospitals and doctor visits. Advocates for an expansion of the publicly funded medicare system to include prescription medication note that it has become common for some lower-income Canadians who lack private drug insurance to leave prescriptions unfilled due to the cost, or will miss doses. This affordability problem for lower-income Canadians appears to be getting more serious. However, while Canadians seem to express support for the idea of pharmacare when asked about it in surveys, it remains well behind a list of other improvements to the health-care system that they consider to be of higher priority. They are more interested in improving access and wait times, and they are more concerned about the sustainability of the current system given the increased demands of the aging population. Both employers and workers, meanwhile, also support the existing model of employer-provided drug plans. Perhaps the biggest obstacle for champions of pharmacare, however, is that the term can mean so many different things to different people. There is virtually no consensus on what would

  5. Canada: The largest uranium producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Despite all the current difficulties, previous erroneous forecasts and other mistakes, the longer term future looks good for uranium mining and for Canada's industry in particular. Saskatchewan continues to offer the most exciting new prospects, the huge and fabulously high grade Cigar Lake deposits being the most spectacular of the recent discoveries. Notwithstanding continuous mining for 30 years from Elliot Lake there still remain there significant uncommitted reserves which can be developed when the market for uranium is in better balance

  6. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  7. Electric power in Canada, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (78 tabs., 27 figs.)

  8. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Scott,Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  9. The nuclear debate in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaulay, H.L.

    1981-06-01

    The author argues that the nuclear debate in Canada is concerned less with the safety of nuclear power plants and more with arguments of economics and social decision-making. The nuclear industry cannot afford to neglect the continuing need to inform the public about nuclear risks. But there is also a need to develop specific arguments to increase public acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic, democratic and equitable energy option

  10. Canada; Financial Sector Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This report discusses key findings of the Financial Sector Stability Assessment on Canada. Canada’s financial system successfully navigated the global financial crisis, and stress tests suggest that major financial institutions would continue to be resilient to credit, liquidity, and contagion risks arising from a severe stress scenario. Elevated housing prices and high household debt remain an area of concern, though targeted prudential and macroprudential measures are proving to be effectiv...

  11. Overview of Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1982-06-01

    This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries

  12. Women in Physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  13. Natural gas potential in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An independent assessment of the undiscovered gas potential in Canada was conducted by a group of volunteer geoscientists. This report is the first of a series of assessments that are planned to be issued every three to four years. Separate assessments were made of conventional gas resources, unconventional gas resources and frontier gas resources. The assessment for conventional gas resources was organized into three categories: (1) gas producing areas where new discoveries can be integrated into existing producing and transportation infrastructure, (2) frontier basins where gas discoveries have been made, but no production is currently underway, and (3) frontier areas where gas-containing sedimentary rocks are known to exist, but where no gas discoveries have been made to date. The committee used year-end 1993 reserves data from discovered pools in each exploration play to predict the undiscovered potential. Information about discovered pools, geological setting, geographic limits and pool sizes of undiscovered pools in each exploration play was provided. Results of the investigation led to the conclusion that the natural gas potential in Canada is in fact larger than hitherto expected. It was estimated that in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin 47 per cent of the total volume of conventional gas is yet to be discovered. 152 figs

  14. Canada's helium output rising fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-12-01

    About 12 months from now, International Helium Limited will be almost ready to start up Canada's second helium extraction plant at Mankota, in Saskatchewan's Wood Mountain area about 100 miles southwest of Moose Jaw. Another 80 miles north is Saskatchewan's (and Canada's) first helium plant, operated by Canadian Helium and sitting on a gas deposit at Wilhelm, 9 miles north of Swift Current. It contains almost 2% helium, some COD2U, and the rest nitrogen. One year in production was apparently enough to convince Canadian Helium that the export market (it sells most of its helium in W. Europe) can take a lot more than it's getting. Construction began this summer on an addition to the Swift Current plant that will raise its capacity from 12 to 36MMcf per yr when it goes on stream next spring. Six months later, International Helium's 40 MMcf per yr plant to be located about 4 miles from its 2 Wood Mountain wells will double Canada's helium output again.

  15. Situation Reports--Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, Surinam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, and Surinam. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics on population, birth and death rates, G. N. P.,…

  16. Chronic disruptive pain in emerging adults with and without chronic health conditions and the moderating role of psychiatric disorders: Evidence from a population-based cross-sectional survey in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, Rana A; Shanahan, Lilly; Ferro, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    There has been a growth in the proportion of emerging adults vulnerable to pain-related sequelae of chronic health conditions (CHCs). Given the paucity of research during this important developmental period, this study investigated the association between CHCs and chronic disruptive pain among emerging adults and the extent to which psychiatric disorders moderate this association. Data come from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH). This cross-sectional survey included 5987 participants that were 15-30 years of age and self-reported their CHCs (n=2460, 41%) and the extent to which pain impacted daily functioning using items from the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI 3). Group comparisons between respondents with CHCs and healthy controls were made using chi-square tests. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed from ordinal logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Product-term interactions between CHCs and psychiatric disorders were included in the models to explore moderating effects. All analyses were weighted to maintain representativeness of the study sample to the Canadian population. The mean age of participants was 23.5 (SE 0.1) years and 48% were female. Compared to healthy controls, a greater proportion of participants with CHCs reported having chronic pain (20.3% vs. 4.5%, pmoderate the association between CHCs and chronic disruptive pain. Specifically, the probability of chronic disruptive pain was higher for emerging adults without CHCs and with alcohol or drug disorders; however, among participants with CHCs, probability was higher for those without these disorders. There is a robust association between CHCs and chronic disruptive pain. The moderating effects suggest that alcohol or drug disorders are especially harmful for emerging adults without CHCs and contribute to higher levels of chronic disruptive pain; however, among those with CHCs, alcohol and illicit drugs

  17. Experimental reproduction of beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome by infection in cherry valley ducklings with a novel goose parvovirus-related parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Dou, Yanguo; Tang, Yi; Zheng, Xiaoqiang; Niu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jing; Yu, Xianglong; Diao, Youxiang

    2016-02-01

    Infection of clinically susceptible ducks, including cherry valley and Muscovy ducks, with a novel goose parvovirus (GPV)-related virus (N-GPV) can result in beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS). To obtain new insights into the host range and pathogenic potential of this novel waterfowl parvovirus, cherry valley ducklings (n=20) were experimentally infected with N-GPV strain SDLC01. An equal number of ducklings served as uninfected controls. The appearance of clinical signs, histopathological changes, viral shedding, and seroconversion was monitored for 20 days post-infection. Infection status of all ducks was monitored using indirect ELISA, virus neutralization test, nested PCR, clinical indicators, and microscopic examination. Three ducks developed the typical clinical, gross, and histological changes of BADS. By study day 6, the infected ducks had seroconverted to N-GPV. The antibodies raised were neutralizing against the SDLC01 strain in vitro. Here we successfully developed an experimental infection model for studying the pathogenicity and role of N-GPV in BADS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a distinct duck-origin goose parvovirus causing an outbreak of duckling short beak and dwarfism syndrome in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shilong; Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Xiao, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoli; Lin, Fengqiang; Wu, Nanyang; Wang, Jinxiang; Huang, Meiqing; Zheng, Min; Chen, Shaoying; Yu, Fusong

    2016-09-01

    Many mule duck and Cherry Valley duck flocks in different duck-producing regions of China have shown signs of an apparently new disease designated "short beak and dwarfism syndrome" (SBDS) since 2015. The disease is characterized by dyspraxia, weight loss, a protruding tongue, and high morbidity and low mortality rates. In order to characterize the etiological agent, a virus designated SBDSV M15 was isolated from allantoic fluid of dead embryos following serial passage in duck embryos. This virus causes a cytopathic effect in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. Using monoclonal antibody diagnostic assays, the SBDSV M15 isolate was positive for the antigen of goose parvovirus but not Muscovy duck parvovirus. A 348-bp (2604-2951) VP1gene fragment was amplified, and its sequence indicated that the virus was most closely related to a Hungarian GPV strain that was also isolated from mule ducks with SBDS disease. A similar disease was reproduced by inoculating birds with SBDSV M15. Together, these data indicate that SBDSV M15 is a GPV-related parvovirus causing SBDS disease and that it is divergent from classical GPV isolates.

  19. Suicide policy in Canada: lessons from history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Elias, Brenda; Bolton, James M; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-07-18

    In Canada, suicide has transitioned from being a criminal activity with much associated stigma, to being a public health concern that needs to be managed by governments and clinicians in a culturally sensitive manner. In Canada and worldwide, the social attitudes toward and legal interpretation of suicide have been dynamic. Much has been proposed in the development of suicide policy in Canada, however Canada is unique in that it remains one of the only industrialized countries without a national suicide prevention strategy. The current article provides a critical review of the history of suicide in Canada, as well as an appraisal of Canadian suicide prevention policies and key government and political milestones that have impacted suicide policy. Current activity regarding a national suicide prevention strategy in Canada is discussed, as well as potential options for clinician involvement.

  20. Industrial wind turbine post-construction bird and bat monitoring: A policy framework for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisé, Jason; Walker, Tony R

    2017-10-01

    Electricity generation from wind energy has proliferated throughout North America and will continue to grow. Given Canada's expected increase in wind energy capacity, consideration of the potential adverse impacts to bird and bat populations is prudent given their sensitivity to these projects. The province of Ontario, Canada is currently the leading jurisdiction for wind energy development, and for provincial guidance on pre- and post-construction monitoring. With uniform monitoring guidance in Ontario, wind energy proponents, and third-party consultants, have developed post-construction monitoring protocols that meet provincial guidance, while also providing standardized reporting. In Atlantic Canada, post-construction guidelines vary between provinces, depending mostly on guidance from the Environment Canada Canadian Wildlife Service and relevant provincial agencies. To ensure quality post-construction monitoring results in Atlantic Canada and other provinces, it is imperative that all Canadian provinces adopt similar approaches to those employed in Ontario. This paper reviews major causes of bird and bat mortalities; reviews Canadian federal and Ontario provincial bird and bat monitoring guidelines to elucidate gaps between environmental assessment (EA) theory and application; summarizes post-construction monitoring protocols from eight bird and bat post-construction monitoring programs used in Ontario; and, proposes recommendations to support future wind development opportunities across Canada and specifically in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Canada's green plan: Summary. Le plan vert du Canada: Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of Canada's Green Plan, a comprehensive action plan to ensure a healthy environment for the future. The plan defines targets and schedules which will drive federal environmental initiatives, and incorporates concepts of sustainable development. Elements of the plan include initiatives to combat and prevent water pollution; control ocean dumping; control smog-causing emissions; provide tighter air pollution standards; provide for sound waste management according to the principles of reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover; assess and control chemical wastes; sustain Canadian forests and maintain their diversity while shifting forest management from sustained yield to sustainable development; maintain and enhance environmental sustainability in the agro-food sector and the fishery sector; preserve and protect national parks and wildlife; and preserve and enhance the integrity, health, biodiversity and productivity of Arctic ecosystems. With respect to global-scale problems, measures will be taken to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, limit acid rain-related emissions, and phase out the use of ozone-depleting substances. The plan also intends to improve Canada's capability to respond to environmental emergencies, improve environmental decision-making by strengthening and building of partnerships, promote environmental science research and development, and make effective and balanced use of enviromental laws, with market-based approaches for environmental protection.

  2. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-13

    Recruitment drive for nurse gradutates British Columbia (BC), the westernmost Canadian province, urgently needs 1,500 qualified nurses graduates to staff longterm care and assisted-living beds as well as home care clients. The provincial government has launched a $160,000 (£78,600) marketing campaign called BC Cares. Craig Hebert, dean of development and access training at Northern Lights College in BC, said: 'The industry needs to get the message out to students that there has never been a better time to start a career in senior health care. Graduates who study for about one year, sometimes less, will have their pick of jobs in a number of service environments and can advance relatively quickly to the nursing profession.'

  3. Landfill gas management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.

    1997-01-01

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (10 15 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring

  4. Integrating hydrogen into Canada's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, P.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation outlines the steps in integrating of hydrogen into Canada's energy future. Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell investment is primarily driven by two government commitments - climate change commitments and innovation leadership commitments. Canada's leading hydrogen and fuel cell industry is viewed as a long-term player in meeting the above commitments. A hydrogen and fuel cell national strategy is being jointly developed to create 'Win-Wins' with industry

  5. CHILD WELFARE IN CANADA : PART II

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 眞一; Shinichi, Matsumoto; 桃山学院大学社会学部

    2006-01-01

    This part study aims to research on the whole aspect of child protection in Canada. And so, this paper consists of five chapters as follows: (1)Canadian history of child protection, (2)definition of child abuse, (3)current situation of child protection in Canada, (4)outline of child protection and treatment, (5)triangular comparison of child protection and prevention in Canada, Australia and England. The first efforts at identifying and combating child abuse occurred in the latter part of the...

  6. Fusion energy. What Canada can do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    As Canada's fusion programs have grown, Canadian capabilities in fusion science and technology have grown and matured with them. The fusion capabilities described in this booklet have come from a coordinated national effort. The Government of Canada is committed to continuing its fusion energy program, and to supporting global fusion efforts. These first pages provide an overview of Canada's fusion work and its underlying basis of science and technology

  7. An Energy Strategy for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal C. Moore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Canada is struggling to fully develop, sell and move its energy resources. This is a dramatic change from the recent past where the U.S. has provided stable growth in demand for energy supplied by the provinces, from hydrocarbons to electricity. Current circumstances now challenge this relationship, adding environmental, policy and economic hurdles that exacerbate the impact of fluctuations in world demand and pricing. In addition, competitive interaction between provinces, aboriginal land owners and special interest groups complicate and compound the issues of royalty returns, regulatory authority and direction, land-use management and long-term market opportunities for Canadian companies. There is no strategic document guiding the country’s energy future. As the steward of one of the largest, most diverse and valuable energy "banks" in the world, Canada has a unique opportunity to exploit a critical and valuable economic niche in the world economy. Given the lack of federal leadership and the tendency for each province to undercut each other in the same marketplace, there is also the distinct possibility the nation will squander the opportunity. This document offers the rationale for a comprehensive energy strategy, literally a vision where Canada can lead and not follow opportunities in energy markets. This strategic approach to energy systems by definition will include transportation, housing, employment and financial markets. It is not a plan, not a foil for tax or policy guidance in one or more sectors. This strategy is a fundamental rail on which plans, tactics and policies can be built. This vision identifies how the provinces can work together using all the tools available to them, maximizing long-term resource development while minimizing environmental damage. This document assumes there can be a broad commitment and effort by the federal government to help build those tools, providing guidance and assistance where needed without

  8. Radioactive waste mangement in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of the Canadian radioactive waste management program are to manage the wastes so that the potential hazards of the material are minimized, and to manage the wastes in a manner which places the minimum possible burden on future generations. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all activities in the nuclear field in Canada, including radioactive waste management facility licensing. The Atomic Energy Control Act authorizes the Board to make rules for regulating its proceedings and the performance of its functions. The Atomic Energy Control Regulations define basic regulatory requirements for the licensing of facilities, equipment and materials, including requirements for records and inspection, for security and for health and safety

  9. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scott

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.

  10. NPP construction cost in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of capital costs during NPP construction in Canada is considered. Capital costs comprise direct costs (cost of the ground and ground rights, infrastructure, reactor equipment, turbogenerators, electrotechnical equipment, auxiliary equipment), indirect costs (construction equipment and services, engineering works and management services, insurance payments, freight, training, operating expenditures), capital per cents for the period of construction and cost of heavy water storages. It proceeds from the analysis of the construction cost structure for a NPP with the CANDU reactor of unit power of 515, 740 and 880 MW, that direct costs make up on the average 62%

  11. Critical energy infrastructure protection in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendron, Angela [Canadian Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies, Carleton University (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    In Canada government acknowledged the need to protect energy assets against attacks. However, so far no strategy has been developed. The aim of this report is to present the characteristics of the energy sector in Canada, the threats, and how the government is responding to those threats. The energy sector in Canada is concentrated and diverse and is under not only terrorism or cyber attacks threats but also environmental threats. This report shows that the Government of Canada is focusing on the protection and assurance of important energy infrastructures but that they are facing several challenges resulting in long delays in the adoption of a formal strategy.

  12. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; McKernan, Moira A.; Eisenreich, Karen M.; Link, William A.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Hoffman, David J.; Knowles, K.A.; McGowan, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was lympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 μg/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 μg/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 μg/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney (<5 μg/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  13. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  14. The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Papp

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. across Canada. Generalized linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that risk of AIV infection was higher in hatch-year birds compared to adults, and was positively associated with a high proportion of hatch-year birds in the population. Males were more likely to be infected than females in British Columbia and in Eastern Provinces of Canada, but more complex relationships among age and sex cohorts were found in the Prairie Provinces. A species effect was apparent in Eastern Canada and British Columbia, where teal (A. discors and/or A. carolinensis were less likely to be infected than mallards (A. platyrhynchos. Risk of AIV infection increased with the density of the breeding population, in both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces, and lower temperatures preceding sampling were associated with a higher probability of AIV infection in Eastern Canada. Our results provide new insights into the ecological and demographic factors associated with AIV infection in waterfowl.

  15. Impact of the ENHANCE trial on the use of ezetimibe in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingyun; Krumholz, Harlan M; Tu, Jack V; Ross, Joseph S; Ko, Dennis T; Jackevicius, Cynthia A

    2014-05-01

    We previously found that the use of ezetimibe increased rapidly with different patterns between the United States (US) and Canada prior to the landmark Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholesterolemia Enhance Atherosclerosis Regression (ENHANCE) trial, which was reported in January 2008, and failed to show that the drug slowed the progression of atherosclerosis. What is not known is how practice in the 2 countries changed after the ENHANCE trial. We examined ezetimibe use trends in the US and Canada before and after the reporting of the ENHANCE trial. We conducted a population-based, retrospective, time-series analysis using the data collected by IMS Health in the US and CompuScript in Canada from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2009. The main outcome measure was monthly number of prescriptions for ezetimibe-containing products. The monthly number of ezetimibe prescriptions/100,000 population rose from 6 to 1,082 in the US from November 2002 to January 2008, then significantly declined to 572/100,000 population by December 2009 after the release of the ENHANCE trial, a decrease of 47.1% (P Canada, use continuously rose from 2 to 495/100,000 population from June 2003 to December 2009 (P = .2). United States expenditures totaled $2.24 billion in 2009. Ezetimibe remains commonly used in both the US and Canada. Ezetimibe use has decreased in the US post-ENHANCE, whereas use has gradually but steadily increased in Canada. The diverging patterns of ezetimibe use in the US and Canada require further investigation, as they reveal that a common evidence base is eliciting very different utilization patterns in neighboring countries. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  17. Disparities in the burden of HIV/AIDS in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Hogg

    Full Text Available We aimed to characterize changes in patterns of new HIV diagnoses, HIV-related mortality, and HAART use in Canada from 1995 to 2008.Data on new HIV diagnoses were obtained from Health Canada, HIV-related mortality statistics were obtained from Statistics Canada, and information on the number of people on HAART was obtained from the single antiretroviral distribution site in British Columbia (BC, and the Intercontinental Marketing Services Health for Ontario and Quebec. Trends of new HIV-positive tests were assessed using Spearman rank correlations and the association between the number of individuals on HAART and new HIV diagnoses were estimated using generalized estimating equations (GEE.A total of 34,502 new HIV diagnoses were observed. Rates of death in BC are higher than those in Ontario and Quebec with the rate being 2.03 versus 1.06 and 1.21 per 100,000 population, respectively. The number of HIV infected individuals on HAART increased from 5,091 in 1996 to 20,481 in 2008 in the three provinces (4 fold increase. BC was the only province with a statistically significant decrease (trend test p<0.0001 in the rate of new HIV diagnoses from 18.05 to 7.94 new diagnoses per 100,000 population. Our analysis showed that for each 10% increment in HAART coverage the rate of new HIV diagnoses decreased by 8% (95% CI: 2.4%, 13.3%Except for British Columbia, the number of new HIV diagnoses per year has remained relatively stable across Canada over the study period. The decline in the rate of new HIV diagnoses per year may be in part attributed to the greater expansion of HAART coverage in this province.

  18. The burden of illness of osteoporosis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarride, J-E; Hopkins, R B; Leslie, W D; Morin, S; Adachi, J D; Papaioannou, A; Bessette, L; Brown, J P; Goeree, R

    2012-11-01

    To update the 1993 burden of illness of osteoporosis in Canada, administrative and community data were used to calculate the 2010 costs of osteoporosis at $2.3 billion in Canada or 1.3% of Canada's healthcare expenditures. Prevention of fractures in high-risk individuals is key to decrease the financial burden of osteoporosis. Since the 1996 publication of the burden of osteoporosis in 1993 in Canada, the population has aged and the management of osteoporosis has changed. The study purpose was to estimate the current burden of illness due to osteoporosis in Canadians aged 50 and over. Analyses were conducted using five national administrative databases from the Canadian Institute for Health Information for the fiscal-year ending March 31 2008 (FY 2007/2008). Gaps in national data were supplemented by provincial and community data extrapolated to national levels. Osteoporosis-related fractures were identified using a combination of most responsible diagnosis at discharge and intervention codes. Fractures associated with severe trauma codes were excluded. Costs, expressed in 2010 dollars, were calculated for osteoporosis-related hospitalizations, emergency care, same day surgeries, rehabilitation, continuing care, homecare, long-term care, prescription drugs, physician visits, and productivity losses. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to measure the impact on the results of key assumptions. Osteoporosis-related fractures were responsible for 57,413 acute care admissions and 832,594 hospitalized days in FY 2007/2008. Acute care costs were estimated at $1.2 billion. When outpatient care, prescription drugs, and indirect costs were added, the overall yearly cost of osteoporosis was over $2.3 billion for the base case analysis and as much as $3.9 billion if a proportion of Canadians were assumed to be living in long-term care facilities due to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that affects a large segment of the adult population and results in a

  19. Crisis of Identity in a Multi-cultural Society: The Case of Muslims in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Serajul Islam

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A great majority of studies on ethnic identity or ethnic separatism indicate that a minority group dealing with severe deprivation becomes more frustrated, more aggressive, and more demanding of autonomy or separation. However, in a multi-cultural society where the people can live with their both separate and co-existing identities, the minority group usually demands for greater rights within societies, not an exit from them. This is the case of the Muslims in Canada who constitute a tiny minority in the Canadian population. Since Canada is a multicultural country, the Muslims have not demanded any kind of autonomy but have demanded rights to preserve Islamic values, and their own distinct identity as Muslims. In this article some basic questions are raised regarding the Canadian Muslims. When and how did the Muslims arrive in Canada? What types of challenges they are facing? How do they meet these challenges? What is the future of Muslims in Canada?

  20. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in Canada: recommendations for testing and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan; Bienzle, Dorothee; Carioto, Lisa; Chisholm, Hugh; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Scherk, Margie

    2011-08-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious disease agents of cats in Canada. Seroprevalence data for FeLV and FIV in various populations of Canadian cats are reviewed and recommendations for testing and management of infections by these viruses in cats in Canada are presented. Retrovirus testing in Canada is infrequent in comparison with the United States, and efforts should be focused on reducing physical and other barriers to testing, and on education of veterinarians, veterinary team members, and cat owners regarding the importance of testing. New test methodologies for FeLV and FIV are emerging, and should be independently evaluated in order to provide practitioners with information on test reliability. Finally, more information is needed on FIV subtypes in Canada to improve diagnostics and vaccines, and to provide information on disease outcomes.

  1. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  2. 2000 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, D.L.

    1999-10-01

    All wells drilled in Western Canada during the first nine months of 1999 are listed and sorted into 12 geographical areas used in the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) well cost study. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Area totals for well counts and meters drilled were determined from the sorting process. Previous years' activities are reviewed and various operators and PSAC members contacted to review upcoming programs. In addition, trends and other projections were consulted to develop an estimate of drilling activity for the rest of 1999 as well as a projection of drilling activity for 2000. The historical and projected drilling activities were tabulated and plotted for each area. Average drilling costs for each area were determined, and the total expenditures were calculated for each area by multiplying the the projected meterage by the adjusted drilling costs. All costs were allocated to various services and products utilizing percentages determined in the Well Cost Study. During the sorting process, a list was developed of the major operators in each area, which list is included in the report along with average depths and types of wells drilled by the various operators in each area. The costs included in the report include only drilling and completion operations, starting with the building of the location prior to drilling, and ending with the installation of the wellhead after construction. 5 tabs

  3. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  4. Energy in Canada: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recent changes in the North American natural gas industry are discussed, with a focus on how these changes will affect the ability of Alberta and Canadian natural gas supply to meet market growth. These changes include a decline in the merchant role of many of the major interstate pipelines, resulting in a larger number of smaller-sized purchasers for natural gas marketers to deal with; a greater extent of direct purchasing by local distribution companies and large industrial users, combined with a preference for spot sales rather than long-term commitments; direct marketing of uncontracted gas by many producers and brokers; a bidding type of sales process rather than a negotiated process; and price deregulation. It is foreseen that long term security of supply will again become an important factor to North American buyers, and Canada can offer substantial supplies under secure long term contracts. Marketers will have to seek new market targets such as cogeneration plants and the transportation sector. Access to pipeline transport will be one of the major factors in obtaining new markets. The Canada-USA free trade agreement is viewed as a positive development which should help Canadian gas marketers to gain and retain U.S. customers

  5. Wind turbine supply in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodin, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study reported on wind turbine supplies to the Canadian market. The report was written to address concerns for Canada's supply outlook in the near future due to the booming wind energy market. Turbine shortages have arisen as a result of continued growth in both European and North American markets. Long lead-times on turbine orders are now increasing the pressure to lock in turbine supply during the initial phases of the development process. Future growth of the wind energy industry will be impacted if turbine supply difficulties continue to contribute to uncertainties in the development process. The report provided an overview of the North American and global wind energy markets, as well as a summary of telephone interviews conducted with turbine suppliers. The implications for the future of turbine supply to the Canadian market were also analyzed. It was concluded that policy-makers should focus on supporting the expansion of manufacturing facilities for small wind turbines and control infrastructure in Canada 7 refs., 3 figs

  6. Canada's forest biomass resources: deriving estimates from Canada's forest inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, M.; Power, K.; Muhairwe, C.; Tellier, R.; Wang, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A biomass inventory for Canada was undertaken to address the data needs of carbon budget modelers, specifically to provide estimates of above-ground tree components and of non-merchantable trees in Canadian forests. The objective was to produce a national method for converting volume estimates to biomass that was standardized, repeatable across the country, efficient and well documented. Different conversion methods were used for low productivity forests (productivity class 1) and higher productivity forests (productivity class 2). The conversion factors were computed by constructing hypothetical stands for each site, age, species and province combination, and estimating the merchantable volume and all the above-ground biomass components from suitable published equations. This report documents the procedures for deriving the national biomass inventory, and provides illustrative examples of the results. 46 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  8. Cultural Dependency in Canada's Feature Film Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendakur, Manjunath

    1981-01-01

    Examines the ownership and policies of the dominant firms in the Canadian film market to explain Canada's dependence on imported films. Demonstrates how the economic relations existing between Canadian and U.S. film industries limit the profitability of films made in Canada. (JMF)

  9. Professor: Lær af Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada.......Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada....

  10. A Conserved Epitope Mapped with a Monoclonal Antibody against the VP3 Protein of Goose Parvovirus by Using Peptide Screening and Phage Display Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Liu, Hongyu; Li, Jinzhe; Liu, Dafei; Meng, Runze; Zhang, Qingshan; Shaozhou, Wulin; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl parvovirus (WPV) infection causes high mortality and morbidity in both geese (Anser anser) and Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata), resulting in significant losses to the waterfowl industries. The VP3 protein of WPV is a major structural protein that induces neutralizing antibodies in the waterfowl. However, B-cell epitopes on the VP3 protein of WPV have not been characterized. To understand the antigenic determinants of the VP3 protein, we used the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4A6 to screen a set of eight partially expressed overlapping peptides spanning VP3. Using western blotting and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we localized the VP3 epitope between amino acids (aa) 57 and 112. To identify the essential epitope residues, a phage library displaying 12-mer random peptides was screened with mAb 4A6. Phage clone peptides displayed a consensus sequence of YxRFHxH that mimicked the sequence 82Y/FNRFHCH88, which corresponded to amino acid residues 82 to 88 of VP3 protein of WPVs. mAb 4A6 binding to biotinylated fragments corresponding to amino acid residues 82 to 88 of the VP3 protein verified that the 82FxRFHxH88 was the VP3 epitope and that amino acids 82F is necessary to retain maximal binding to mAb 4A6. Parvovirus-positive goose and duck sera reacted with the epitope peptide by dot blotting assay, revealing the importance of these amino acids of the epitope in antibody-epitope binding reactivity. We identified the motif FxRFHxH as a VP3-specific B-cell epitope that is recognized by the neutralizing mAb 4A6. This finding might be valuable in understanding of the antigenic topology of VP3 of WPV.

  11. [Purification of human goose-type lysozyme 2 (HLysG2) from human seminal plasma and analysis of its enzymatic properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Yang, Zhifang; Bao, Jianying; Zhang, Ning; Li, Wenshu

    2017-03-01

    Objective To purify human goose-type lysozyme 2 (HLysG2) from human seminal plasma by chromatography and analyze its enzymatic properties. Methods The distribution of HLysG2 in semen was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Seminal plasma was subjected to the separation of target protein using cation-exchange chromatography, chitin affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified product was identified by Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry (MS).The purity was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Then, the optimum pH, ion concentration and temperature of HLysG2 and its standard activity were determined by the turbidimetric assay. The bactericidal activity of HLysG2 was assessed by the colony-forming assay. Results The existence of HLysG2 in seminal plasma was confirmed by Western blot analysis. A protein of about 21.5 kDa was purified from seminal plasma by the three kinds of chromatography and identified as HLysG2 by Western blot analysis and MS. The final purity of the purified product was above 99.0% and the peak enzymatic activity reached 13 800 U/mg under the condition of pH 6.4, 0.09 mol/L Na + , 30DegreesCelsius. In vitro assay indicated that HLysG2 had a significant killing effect on Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, but not on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Conclusion Native HLysG2 can be obtained from seminal plasma by chromatography. It has in vitro bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria, suggesting that it might play a role in innate immunity of the male reproductive system.

  12. Food insecurity and migraine in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Joseph M; Gordon, Kevin E; Kuhle, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of household food insecurity in individuals reporting migraine within a large population-based sample of Canadians. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) uses a stratified cluster sample design to obtain information on Canadians ≥12 years of age. Data on household food insecurity were assessed for individuals who reported having migraine or not, providing a current point prevalence. This was assessed for stability in two CCHS datasets from four and eight years earlier. Factors associated with food insecurity among those reporting migraine were examined and a logistic regression model of food insecurity was developed. We also examined whether food insecurity was associated with other reported chronic health conditions. Of 48,645 eligible survey respondents, 4614 reported having migraine (weighted point prevalence 10.2%). Food insecurity was reported by 14.8% who reported migraine compared with 6.8% of those not reporting migraine, giving an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% confidence interval 2.0-2.8%). This risk estimate was stable over the previous eight years. The higher risk for food insecurity was not unique to migraine and was seen with some, but not all, chronic health conditions reported in the CCHS. Food insecurity is more frequent among individuals reporting migraine in Canada. © International Headache Society 2015.

  13. A retrospective study of owner-requested testing as surveillance for equine infectious anemia in Canada (2009-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Sara N; Howden, Krista J; James, Carolyn R; Epp, Tasha; Lohmann, Katharina L

    2017-12-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to estimate i) the surveillance coverage for equine infectious anemia (EIA) based on owner-requested testing, and ii) the incidence of case detection from this surveillance activity to inform a review of Canada's national disease control strategy. Based on sample submissions by accredited veterinarians to laboratories CFIA-approved for EIA testing between 2009 and 2012, the estimated national surveillance coverage was 14% for all years, and 72 cases of EIA were detected. The annual national incidence of EIA detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.08 cases/1000 horses. On average, a greater proportion of the horse population was tested in eastern Canada (32%) than in western Canada (6%, P Canada (0.25 cases/1000 horses) than in eastern Canada (0.02 cases/1000 horses, P < 0.0001). This study identified regional differences in owner-requested EIA testing and case detection resulting from this testing activity.

  14. Western Canada : changing pricing dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, B.

    1998-01-01

    Natural gas supply and demand trends in Western Canada are reviewed in a series of overhead viewgraphs. Production versus pipeline capacity, required gas well completions in the WCSB to meet local demand and fill export pipeline capacity to year 2005, NYMEX and AECO price trends during 1995-2000, and the question of what will happen to prices with additional pipeline capacity to the U.S. Midwest were summarized. The best guess is that Midwest prices will need to be high enough to attract marginal supplies from the Gulf, i.e. prices have be around the Henry Hub + five cents/ mmbtu. The new Canadian pipelines, (Northern Border and Alliance) will lower Midwest prices somewhat, but the impact will be modest. Assuming that additional planned pipeline expansion come on-stream, the pressure to expand east of Chicago will be considerable. tabs., figs

  15. Student research in Canada's north

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Admas, P [ed.; Johnson, P G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    A conference was organized in Canada to allow a large number of students with northern interests to meet together to present the results of their work and to discuss many other matters of mutual interset. In addition, this conference allowed students from many disciplines in the natural and social sciences to advance northern scholarship, and to foster a multidisciplinary approach to northern studies. A wide range of topics from the physical, biological, and social sciences were covered, including Inuit music, traditional medicine, mammoth bones, fossil trees, icebreaker design, archaeology, caves, naturally acid and other lakes, glaciers, bogs, Inuit clothing, education, northern parks, river ice jams, geology, marine science including large marine mammals, and global strategy. Separate abstracts have been prepared for twelve papers from this conference.

  16. Nuclear emergency exercises in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    The practice followed in planning, preparing and conducting offsite nuclear emergency exercises in the Province of Ontario, Canada, is described. In addition, some of the main issues that arise during this process are discussed, as well as Canadian experience in dealing with them. The planning process starts with basic decisions on the aim, scope and duration of the exercise. It proceeds through selection of the exercise objectives and participants, the development of scenarios and incident lists culminating in a master scenario and a master incident list, and finally, the production of control inputs. Preparations include the setting up of a planning organization, making arrangements for exercise control and evaluation, and the required logistics. Some aspects of international exercises are also covered, based upon experience with joint exercises with the U.S.A

  17. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, John [Department of Finance and Real Estate, 1272 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  18. What fusion means to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    Fusion can and will play an ever-increasing role in the energy balance once it has been brought on line. Taming of this technology and the maturing processes of engineering and economic feasibility will proceed at a rate which depends very strongly upon international and collective national wills to see it through. Large experimental devices, particularly of the tokamak type, are now being completed; their performance should give a very good idea of the scientific feasibility. The next-stage devices are at the pre-proposal and proposal stages but are not yet approved, even in principle. An improved general economic climate sustained for a few years would certainly help re-establish the momentum of world international efforts in fusion. This paper gives an overview of fusion research on a world scale and details of the particular aspects that Canada has chosen to pursue

  19. Climate change research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, K.

    1994-01-01

    The current consensus on climatic change in Canada is briefly summarized, noting the results of modelling of the effects of a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 , the nonuniformity of climate change across the country, the uncertainties in local responses to change, and the general agreement that 2-4 degrees of warming will occur for each doubling of CO 2 . Canadian government response includes programs aimed at reducing the uncertainties in the scientific understanding of climate change and in the socio-economic response to such change. Canadian climate change programs include participation in large-scale experiments on such topics as heat transport in the ocean, and sources and sinks of greenhouse gases; development of next-generation climate models; studying the social and economic effects of climate change in the Great Lakes Basin and Mackenzie River Basin; investigation of paleoclimates; and analysis of climate data for long-term trends

  20. Focus: Asian migration to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A

    1988-01-01

    This collection of 5 short essays on Asian migration to Canada focuses on the relationships between individual migrants and their social contexts, both Asian and Canadian. Papers by Anderson and Kobayashi adopt research perspectives of outsider and insider, respectively. Vibert provides a historical overview against which the substantive issues introduced in the other 3 papers can be understood, and he illustrates the links between circumstances of migration and the larger issues by which the course of Canadian social progress has been steered. Mercer provides an introduction to issues that dominate the agenda of contemporary research, to show that Canadian communities of Asian heritage continue to grow in size, diversity, and complexity, as they become more established on the Canadian landscape. This collection is as much about the geography of racism as it is about migration.