WorldWideScience

Sample records for canada goose population

  1. Plan for Establishment of a Breeding Canada Goose Population on the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines a plan on how to implement a program for the establishment of a breeding Canada Goose population on the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. It...

  2. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food (urban grass) and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the 2004 and 2005 nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in 2004 and 286 in 2005, only raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were identified as nest predators. Raccoons were responsible for 22-25% of depredated nests, but were rarely capable of depredating nests that were actively defended by a goose. Coyotes were responsible for 75-78% of all Canada goose nest depredation and were documented killing one adult goose and feeding on several others. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyote home ranges (95% Minimum Convex Polygon) were calculated for 19 coyotes to examine third order habitat selection related to goose nest abundance. A 100 m buffer (buffer habitat) was created and centered on each waterway edge and contained 90% of all nests. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection across seasons was compared using a repeated measures MANOVA. Habitat selection

  3. The Rocky Mountain population of the western Canada goose: its distribution, habitats, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, William B.; Bizeau, Elwood G.

    1980-01-01

    The western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) was divided into a Rocky Mountain population (RMP) and a Pacific population (PP) on the basis of band recovery patterns examined in this study and recovery data from other investigators. Habitat information obtained from nine cooperating wildlife agencies within the RMP's range provided a base line for evaluating future changes in nesting, molting, and wintering areas. The habitat inventory indicated that none of the seasonal habitats were currently limiting the size of the RMP. The RMP's range is divided into 15 reference areas and these are briefly described. Past studies of Canada geese in the Intermountain Region are reviewed. Topics covered in the discussion of breeding biology are nesting chronology, spring population composition, breeding age, clutch size, nesting success. artificial nesting structures, and gosling survival. Much of the mortality of Canada geese occurs before the birds are fledged. Man-made nesting structures reduce losses during incubation. but research is needed on the relations between brooding sites and gosling survival. Some western Canada geese, mainly prebreeders and unsuccessful nesters, make molt migrations to and from molting areas during and after the brood-rearing season. More than half of these molt-migrants are yearlings too young to nest; there are indications that even some successful nesters leave nesting areas to molt before the fledging of their offspring. Geese 2 years old or older may serve as guides to traditional molting areas for the first-time migrants (i.e., yearlings). Lack of disturbance appears to influence selection of specific molting areas within the nesting range of moffitti, whereas movements of molters out of the Intermountain Region may be related to the evolution of this subspecies. Apparently. molters of both the PP and RMP that leave the Region go to the Northwest Territories of Canada. Although the taxonomic status of moffitti as related to the

  4. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  5. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  6. Limitations On Canada Goose Production at Fish springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We studied the western Canada goose (B. c. moffitti) population at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in western Utah from March to July in 1996 and 1997 to...

  7. Pacific Flyway management plan for the dusky Canada goose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan for the dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) is a revision of earlier plans adopted by the Pacific Flyway Council (1973, 1985,...

  8. 76 FR 44604 - Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... techniques include erosion control and invasive species management. The resident goose management techniques... National Park Service Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental... (NPS) announces the availability of the Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose...

  9. Limnological regime shifts caused by climate warming and Lesser Snow Goose population expansion in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A; Farquharson, Nicole; Merritt, Gillian; Fooks, Sam; Medeiros, Andrew S; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Macrae, Merrin L; Sweetman, Jon N

    2015-02-01

    Shallow lakes are dominant features in subarctic and Arctic landscapes and are responsive to multiple stressors, which can lead to rapid changes in limnological regimes with consequences for aquatic resources. We address this theme in the coastal tundra region of Wapusk National Park, western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada), where climate has warmed during the past century and the Lesser Snow Goose (LSG; Chen caerulescens caerulescens) population has grown rapidly during the past ∽40 years. Integration of limnological and paleolimnological analyses documents profound responses of productivity, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat to warming at three ponds ("WAP 12", "WAP 20", and "WAP 21″), and to LSG disturbance at the two ponds located in an active nesting area (WAP 20, WAP 21). Based on multiparameter analysis of (210)Pb-dated sediment records from all three ponds, a regime shift occurred between 1875 and 1900 CE marked by a transition from low productivity, turbid, and nutrient-poor conditions of the Little Ice Age to conditions of higher productivity, lower nitrogen availability, and the development of benthic biofilm habitat as a result of climate warming. Beginning in the mid-1970s, sediment records from WAP 20 and WAP 21 reveal a second regime shift characterized by accelerated productivity and increased nitrogen availability. Coupled with 3 years of limnological data, results suggest that increased productivity at WAP 20 and WAP 21 led to atmospheric CO2 invasion to meet algal photosynthetic demand. This limnological regime shift is attributed to an increase in the supply of catchment-derived nutrients from the arrival of LSG and their subsequent disturbance to the landscape. Collectively, findings discriminate the consequences of warming and LSG disturbance on tundra ponds from which we identify a suite of sensitive limnological and paleolimnological measures that can be utilized to inform aquatic ecosystem monitoring.

  10. Canada goose nest survival at rural wetlands in north-central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Brenna N.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    The last comprehensive nest survival study of the breeding giant Canada goose (Branta canadensis maxima) population in Iowa, USA, was conducted >30 years ago during a period of population recovery, during which available nesting habitat consisted primarily of artificial nest structures. Currently, Iowa's resident goose population is stable and nests in a variety of habitats. We analyzed the effects of available habitat on nest survival and how nest survival rates compared with those of the expanding goose population studied previously to better understand how to maintain a sustainable Canada goose population in Iowa. We documented Canada goose nest survival at rural wetland sites in north-central Iowa. We monitored 121 nests in 2013 and 149 nests in 2014 at 5 Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) with various nesting habitats, including islands, muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) houses, and elevated nest structures. We estimated daily nest-survival rate using the nest survival model in Program MARK. Survival was influenced by year, site, stage, presence of a camera, nest age, and an interaction between nest age and stage. Nest success rates for the 28-day incubation period by site and year combination ranged from 0.10 to 0.84. Nest survival was greatest at sites with nest structures (β = 17.34). Nest survival was negatively affected by lowered water levels at Rice Lake WMA (2013 β = −0.77, nest age β = −0.07). Timing of water-level drawdowns for shallow lake restorations may influence nest survival rates.

  11. Summary of Cackling Canada goose nesting plot data for the 1984 Yukon Delta NWR Flyway report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Forty sample plots ranging in size from 81-311 acres (total:7041 acres) were located throughout the Yukon Delta CacklingCanada Goose (CCG) nesting range in areas...

  12. Microbial Diversity and Host-Specific Sequences of Canada Goose Feces▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingrang; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Hill, Stephen; Edge, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Methods to assess the impact of goose fecal contamination are needed as the result of the increasing number of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) near North American inland waters. However, there is little information on goose fecal microbial communities, and such data are important for the development of host-specific source-tracking methods. To address this issue, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries for Canada goose fecal samples from Ontario, Canada, and Ohio were analyzed. Analyses of fecal clones from Ontario (447) and Ohio (302) showed that goose fecal communities are dominated by the classes “Clostridia” (represented by 33.7% of clones) and “Bacilli” (38.1% of clones) and the phylum “Bacteroidetes” (10.1% of clones). Sequences not previously found in other avian fecal communities were used to develop host-specific assays. Fecal DNA extracts from sewage plants (10 samples) and different species of birds (11 samples) and mammals (18 samples) were used to test for host specificity. Of all the assays tested, one assay showed specificity for Canada goose fecal DNA. The PCR assay was positive for Canada goose fecal DNA extracts collected from three locations in North America (Ohio, Oregon, and Ontario, Canada). Additionally, of 48 DNA extracts from Lake Ontario waters presumed to be impacted by waterfowl feces, 19 tested positive by the assay, although 10 were positive only after a nested PCR approach was used. Due to the level of host specificity and the presence of signals in environmental waters, the assay is proposed as a part of the toolbox to detect Canada goose contamination in waterfowl-contaminated waters. PMID:19633110

  13. Balancing ecosystem function, services and disservices resulting from expanding goose populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Melman, Theodorus C.P.; Loonen, Maarten J.J.E.; Fox, Anthony D.

    2017-01-01

    As goose populations increase in abundance, their influence on ecological processes is increasing. We review the evidence for key ecological functions of wild goose populations in Eurasia and North America, including aquatic invertebrate and plant propagule transport, nutrient deposition in

  14. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from naturally infected Canada goose (Branta canadensis) detected two new atypical strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild birds are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis because they can serve as reservoir hosts, and vectors of zoonotic pathogens including Toxoplasma gondii. Canada goose (Branta canadensis) is the most widespread goose in North America. Little is known concerning T. gondii infection in bo...

  15. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  16. Flow cytometric assessment of fresh and frozen-thawed Canada goose (Branta canadensis) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Niżański, Wojciech

    2011-09-15

    The present study was conducted to investigate spermatozoal membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, and chromatin structure in fresh and frozen-thawed Canada goose (Branta canadensis) semen with the use of the flow cytometry. The experiment was carried out on ten, 2-year-old, Canada goose ganders. The semen was collected twice a week, by a dorso-abdominal massage method, then pooled and subjected to cryopreservation in straws, in a programmable freezing unit with the use of dimethyloformamide (DMF) as a cryoprotectant. Frozen samples were thawed in a water bath at 60 °C. The freezing procedure was performed ten times. For the cytometric analysis the fresh and the frozen-thawed semen was extended with EK extender to a final concentration of 50 million spermatozoa per mL. Sperm membrane integrity was assessed with SYBR-14 and propidium iodide (PI), acrosomal damage was evaluated with the use of PNA-Alexa Fluor®488 conjugate, mitochondrial activity was estimated with Rhodamine 123 (R123), and spermatozoal DNA integrity was measured by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The cryopreservation of Canada goose semen significantly decreased the percentage of live cells, from 76.3 to 50.4% (P < 0.01). Moreover, we observed the significant decrease in the percentage of live spermatozoa with intact acrosomes (P < 0.01), but we did not detect significant changes in the percentage of live spermatozoa with ruptured acrosomes. However, after thawing 50% of Canada goose live spermatozoa retained intact acrosomes. Furthermore, the percentage of live spermatozoa with active mitochondria was significantly lower in the frozen-thawed semen than in the fresh semen (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, after thawing the mitochondria remained active in almost 50% of live cells. In the present study, we observed no changes in the percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA after freezing-thawing of Canada goose semen. In conclusion, the present study indicates that even

  17. 50 CFR 21.26 - Special Canada goose permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... instructions, gathering and maintaining data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information... information and certification required by § 13.12(a) of this subchapter plus the following information: (1) A... limitations on management and control activities? (i) Take of resident Canada geese as a management tool under...

  18. The status of goose populations in East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Lei; Fox, Anthony David; Koyama, K

    and the contraction of its wintering range has continued, making it extremely vulnerable. The almost exclusively Chinese wintering range of the Swan Goose (A. cygnoides) has been constricted to fewer and fewer sites, but counts suggest more than the previously estimated 75,000 individuals. The Taiga Bean Goose (A...

  19. 12th North American Caribou Workshop, 2-5 November 2008, Happy Valley – Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Egil Haugerud (editor in chief

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 12th NACW was arranged at Happy Valley - Goose Bay 4-6 November 2008 with the theme "Integrating Understanding across Ecotypes". Approximately 140 people attended from Canada, United States, Norway, and Greenland. The 12th NACW included more than 70 oral and poster presentations.

  20. Strontium-90 in Canada goose eggshells and reed canary grass from the Columbia River, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, W H; Price, K R

    1990-01-01

    Strontium-90 ((90)SR) released to the ground near the N Reactor at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site enters the Columbia River through shoreline seeps. The (90)Sr is then potentially available for uptake by plants and animals. The life history and foraging behavior of nesting Canada geese is such that female geese could ingest (90)Sr while foraging on shoreline plants. Radichemical analyses showed that goose eggshells taken from an island, downstream from the N Reactor, contained more (90)Sr than did eggshells collected from other downstream islands. Reed canary grass samples taken from shoreline areas immediately downstream from the N Reactor contained higher concentrations of (90)Sr than samples from other downstream areas. All goose eggshells did not contain enhanced levels of (90)Sr, and all reed canary grass samples did not contain enhanced levels of (90)Sr, but a relationship exists between the releases of (90)Sr to the Columbia River and the enhanced levels of (90)Sr in some of the environmental samples analyzed.

  1. Winter fidelity and apparent survival of lesser snow goose populations in the Pacific flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.K.; Samuel, M.D.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraege, Donald K.

    2008-01-01

    The Beringia region of the Arctic contains 2 colonies of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding on Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Canada, and wintering in North America. The Wrangel Island population is composed of 2 subpopulations from a sympatric breeding colony but separate wintering areas, whereas the Banks Island population shares a sympatric wintering area in California, USA, with one of the Wrangel Island subpopulations. The Wrangel Island colony represents the last major snow goose population in Russia and has fluctuated considerably since 1970, whereas the Banks Island population has more than doubled. The reasons for these changes are unclear, but hypotheses include independent population demographics (survival and recruitment) and immigration and emigration among breeding or wintering populations. These demographic and movement patterns have important ecological and management implications for understanding goose population structure, harvest of admixed populations, and gene flow among populations with separate breeding or wintering areas. From 1993 to 1996, we neckbanded molting birds at their breeding colonies and resighted birds on the wintering grounds. We used multistate mark-recapture models to evaluate apparent survival rates, resighting rates, winter fidelity, and potential exchange among these populations. We also compared the utility of face stain in Wrangel Island breeding geese as a predictor of their wintering area. Our results showed similar apparent survival rates between subpopulations of Wrangel Island snow geese and lower apparent survival, but higher emigration, for the Banks Island birds. Males had lower apparent survival than females, most likely due to differences in neckband loss. Transition between wintering areas was low (<3%), with equal movement between northern and southern wintering areas for Wrangel Island birds and little evidence of exchange between the Banks and northern Wrangel Island

  2. Balancing ecosystem function, services and disservices resulting from expanding goose populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buij, Ralph; Melman, Theodorus C P; Loonen, Maarten J J E; Fox, Anthony D

    2017-03-01

    As goose populations increase in abundance, their influence on ecological processes is increasing. We review the evidence for key ecological functions of wild goose populations in Eurasia and North America, including aquatic invertebrate and plant propagule transport, nutrient deposition in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, the influence of goose populations on vegetation biomass, carbon storage and methane emission, species diversity and disease transmission. To estimate the implications of their growing abundance for humans, we explore how these functions contribute to the provision of ecosystem services and disservices. We assess the weight, extent and trends among such impacts, as well as the balance of their value to society. We examine key unresolved issues to enable a more balanced assessment of the economic costs or benefits of migratory geese along their flyways, including the spatial and temporal variation in services and their contrasting value to different user groups. Many ecological functions of geese are concluded to provide neither services nor disservices and, ecosystem disservices currently appear to outweigh services, although this varies between regions. We consider an improved quantification of ecosystem services and disservices, and how these vary along population flyways with respect to variation in valuing certain cultural services, and under different management scenarios aimed at reducing their disservices, essential for a more balanced management of goose populations.

  3. Migratory bird hunter opinions regarding potential management strategies for controlling light goose populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Andrew J.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Nilon, Charles H.; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A.

    2014-01-01

    We expanded the Nebraska Light Goose Conservation Order (LGCO) harvest survey (NE, USA) in spring 2012 to assess migratory bird hunter opinions regarding future management strategies for controlling light goose populations. Although hunters strongly agreed that population control of light geese was an important wildlife management issue, they were generally unsupportive of wildlife officials using forms of direct control methods to control light goose populations. Respondents who indicated participation in the 2012 LGCO were also less supportive of any form of direct control compared with migratory bird hunters who did not participate in the LGCO. When presented with alternative methods by wildlife officials for future light goose population control, respondents were most supportive of wildlife agencies selectively shooting light geese on migration and wintering areas and least supportive of wildlife officials using bait with approved chemicals to euthanize light geese. A clear understanding of public perception of various potential direct-control options will likely assist wildlife biologists in making informed decisions on how to proceed with population control of light geese.

  4. Effects of Canada goose herbivory on the tidal freshwater wetlands in Anacostia Park, 2009-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Cairn C.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Hammerschlag, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    . At an exclosure elevation of 10 cm and with a soft, mucky substrate, we are assuming that non-goose herbivores such as fish and turtles still have free access to the fenced plots. Annual wildrice (Zizania aquatica), known from previous studies to be especially palatable to Canada geese, has seen the greatest impact from partial access to the fenced plots by mature geese, moving from an overwhelming dominant in the initially-vegetated plots to a minor presence there by August 2011. Interestingly, pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata), also known to be highly palatable to Canada geese, has so far shown only minor herbivory in the fenced plots. By August 2011, pickerelweed had actually increased to significantly greater cover levels in the fenced plots compared to the unfenced control plots. In conclusion, the first three years of data document that vegetation exposed to full herbivory by resident and nonmigratory Canada geese for three years in the unfenced control plots showed significantly lower total vegetative cover and species richness compared to the vegetation in the fenced plots, which experienced reduced herbivory by resident and nonmigratory Canada geese. These effects were documented for modules located in both initially-vegetated and initially-unvegetated habitats.

  5. Canada's population is aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jennifer; Samis, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Canada's population is aging, and the authors of this issue's lead article, Neena Chappell and Marcus Hollander, present a policy prescription for how to design a healthcare system that better responds to needs of older Canadians. The timing of this issue of Healthcare Papers is important: the first of the baby boomers turned 65 in January 2011. There is a pressing need to develop policies and implement sustainable reforms that will allow older adults to stay healthier and maintain their independence longer in their place of choice, while also creating efficiencies and quality improvements in our overall healthcare system that will benefit Canadians of all ages.

  6. Lack of genetic structure in greylag goose (Anser anser populations along the European Atlantic flyway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Pellegrino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Greylag goose populations are steadily increasing in north-western Europe. Although individuals breeding in the Netherlands have been considered mainly sedentary birds, those from Scandinavia or northern Germany fly towards their winter quarters, namely over France as far as Spain. This study aimed to determine the genetic structure of these birds, and to evaluate how goose populations mix. We used mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites from individuals distributed throughout the European Atlantic flyway, from breeding sites in Norway and the Netherlands to stopover and wintering sites in northern and south-western France. The mtDNA marker (CR1 D-Loop, 288 bp sequence, 144 ind. showed 23 different haplotypes. The genetic distances amongst individuals sampled in Norway, northern France and the Netherlands were low (range 0.012–0.013. Individuals in south-western France showed a slightly higher genetic distance compared to all other sampling areas (ranges 0.018–0.022. The NJ tree does not show evidence of any single clades grouping together all individuals from the same geographic area. Besides, individuals from each site are found in different branches. Bayesian clustering procedures on 14 microsatellites (169 individuals did not detect any geographically distinct cluster, and a high genetic admixture was recorded in all studied areas except for the individuals from the breeding sites in Norway, which were genetically very close. Estimation of migration rates through Bayesian inference confirms the scenario for the current mixing of goose populations.

  7. Towards a solution to the goose-agriculture conflict in North Norway, 1988-2012: the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombre, Ingunn M; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988-2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics.

  8. Towards a Solution to the Goose-Agriculture Conflict in North Norway, 1988–2012: The Interplay between Policy, Stakeholder Influence and Goose Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombre, Ingunn M.; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988–2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics. PMID:23977175

  9. Towards a solution to the goose-agriculture conflict in North Norway, 1988-2012: the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn M Tombre

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988-2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size. The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics.

  10. Outbreak of avian cholera on the wintering grounds of the Mississippi Valley Canada goose flock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, R.M.; Duncan, R.M.; Thornburg, D.

    1983-01-01

    Avian cholera is reported for the first time in Canada geese, Branta canadensis, of the Mississippi Valley population. The disease was detected in weekly surveillance transects and was responsible for the loss of about 850 geese during the winter of 1978-1979 at localized areas in southern Illinois. Necropsies performed on 480 geese that died at Union County Conservation Area and on 133 birds at Horseshoe Lake Conservation Area during January and February 1979 revealed that the majority of losses (64%) were caused by avian cholera. Lead poisoning was responsible for the death of 14% of the geese analyzed and the remaining 22%, most of which were decomposed, were undiagnosed. Lethal lead levels and Pasteurella multocida occurred concomitantly in a few instances.

  11. Protection of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, Gmelin, 1790 population: the Gaztelugatxe Marine Reserve (Basque Country, northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Borja

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas are expected to play a prominent role in the conservation of marine resources and fisheries management. In the Basque Country (northern Spain the small Marine Reserve of Gaztelugatxe (158 ha was established in 1998. One of the aspects taken into account in protecting this area was the overexploitation of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes. Now, after five years of protection, differences in density, biomass, size and weight of the goose barnacle are investigated inside the protected area (Aketze and Gaztelugatxe locations and outside of it, at the nearest locations (Izaro and Ogoño which have been continuously exploited. This contribution demonstrates that the reserve could be an efficient tool in preserving the goose barnacle populations in the area. Hence, density, biomass and allometric coefficients are higher in the protected areas. These locations are also associated with higher percentages of juveniles, together with a high number of large-sized individuals.

  12. Genetic structure among greater white-fronted goose populations of the Pacific Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Wilson, Robert E.; Talbot, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of the genetic structure of populations in the wild is essential for long-term conservation and stewardship in the face of environmental change. Knowledge of the present-day distribution of genetic lineages (phylogeography) of a species is especially important for organisms that are exploited or utilize habitats that may be jeopardized by human intervention, including climate change. Here, we describe mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear genetic (microsatellite) diversity among three populations of a migratory bird, the greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons), which breeds discontinuously in western and southwestern Alaska and winters in the Pacific Flyway of North America. Significant genetic structure was evident at both marker types. All three populations were differentiated for mtDNA, whereas microsatellite analysis only differentiated geese from the Cook Inlet Basin. In sexual reproducing species, nonrandom mate selection, when occurring in concert with fine-scale resource partitioning, can lead to phenotypic and genetic divergence as we observed in our study. If mate selection does not occur at the time of reproduction, which is not uncommon in long-lived organisms, then mechanisms influencing the true availability of potential mates may be obscured, and the degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity may appear incongruous with presumed patterns of gene flow. Previous investigations revealed population-specific behavioral, temporal, and spatial mechanisms that likely influence the amount of gene flow measured among greater white-fronted goose populations. The degree of observed genetic structuring aligns well with our current understanding of population differences pertaining to seasonal movements, social structure, pairing behavior, and resource partitioning.

  13. 1977-1984 Canada Goose Necropsy Data from Swan Lake NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Collection of data sheets detailing necropsy results from Canada Geese carcasses found at Swan Lake NWR. The data sheets give detailed reports on what was found...

  14. The Canada Goose Project: A First Project with Children under 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ruth A.

    2010-01-01

    This project report describes how five children (an infant, three toddlers, and a preschooler) enrolled at a private day care home engaged in their first journey into project work through a study of Canada geese living on a nearby body of water. Prior to the experience described in this paper, the author had used the Project Approach only with…

  15. An evaluation of productivity and mortality factors influencing goose populations: A summary report of the 1984 waterfowl monitoring effort at Yukon Delta NWR, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results on an effort in 1983 to determine whether spring mortality was affecting the security of goose populations nesting on the...

  16. Landscape change and its effects on the wintering range of a lesser snow goose Chen caerulescens caerulescens population: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Donna G.; Slack, R. Douglas

    1995-01-01

    The Texas coast has experienced considerable urban, industrial, and agricultural growth during the 20th Century. The region provides important wintering habitat to many avian species, including lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens caerulescens. This paper draws the biological and ecological fields into an historical perspective by examining available literature on the development of the upper Texas coast and range changes of lesser snow geese. Historically, lesser snow geese wintered in the coastal marshes, but expanded their range into the adjacent prairies in the mid-1900s. Winter range expansion was negatively affected by urban and industrial encroachment in the coastal marshes and positively influenced by agricultural development in the prairies, which increased dramatically during World War II. The lesser snow goose population flourished alongside some human-induced landscape alterations. However, projected declines in agriculture and increased urbanization of prairie and coastal marsh habitats may result in significant negative effects on the lesser snow goose population.

  17. Estimating population parameters for northern and southern breeding populations of Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Rusch, Donald H.; Samuel, Michael D.; Humburg, Dale D.; Sullivan, Brian D.

    1998-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have been managed largely as a migratory resource. In the 1960's, Canada goose flocks were restored to historic breeding ranges in the United States and southern Canada to enhance recreational opportunity for observation and harvest. These populations of southern breeding geese have rapidly expanded, increasing conflicts with social and economic interests and causing the Midwinter Waterfowl Survey to be less effective as a management tool to monitor migrant populations. Wildlife agencies need methods to control local, southern breeding geese that reduce conflicts while providing adequate protection to populations of northern breeding geese. New techniques have been developed using mark-resight data from neck-banded geese to estimate distribution and population size during the late summer, fall, and mid-winter. Survival and movement rates can be estimated over special early or late hunting seasons, traditional fall-winter hunting season, and nonharvest periods. Direct recovery rates can be estimated for special and traditional harvest periods and these recovery rates can be related to survival and movement rates. Changes in harvest regulations can be related to changes in recovery, survival, and movement rates for specific cohorts of Canada geese. These techniques can be used to monitor population status and determine more appropriate harvest strategies.

  18. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  19. Changes in Distribution of Canada Geese Nesting in Arkansas

    OpenAIRE

    Ronke, M. Eliese; Krementz, David G.

    2015-01-01

    The reintroduced Canada goose (Branta canadensis) population in Arkansas has grown in range and abundance in recent decades. We determined the geographic range of Arkansas resident Canada geese from 2004 to 2012 using volume contour maps from citizen science observations using eBird, a citizen science website, and hunter recovery locations from the U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory. Resulting maps indicate an increase in Canada goose encounters toward northwestern and southwester...

  20. Ecology of Aleutian Canada geese at Buldir Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....

  1. Uncertainty, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Jensen, Gitte H.; Madsen, Jesper; Williams, Byron K.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the application of dynamic-optimization methods to the problem of pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) management in western Europe. We were especially concerned with the extent to which uncertainty in population dynamics influenced an optimal management strategy, the gain in management performance that could be expected if uncertainty could be eliminated or reduced, and whether an adaptive or robust management strategy might be most appropriate in the face of uncertainty. We combined three alternative survival models with three alternative reproductive models to form a set of nine annual-cycle models for pink-footed geese. These models represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent, and the extent to which they are influenced by spring temperatures. We calculated state-dependent harvest strategies for these models using stochastic dynamic programming and an objective function that maximized sustainable harvest, subject to a constraint on desired population size. As expected, attaining the largest mean objective value (i.e., the relative measure of management performance) depended on the ability to match a model-dependent optimal strategy with its generating model of population dynamics. The nine models suggested widely varying objective values regardless of the harvest strategy, with the density-independent models generally producing higher objective values than models with density-dependent survival. In the face of uncertainty as to which of the nine models is most appropriate, the optimal strategy assuming that both survival and reproduction were a function of goose abundance and spring temperatures maximized the expected minimum objective value (i.e., maxi–min). In contrast, the optimal strategy assuming equal model weights minimized the expected maximum loss in objective value. The expected value of eliminating model uncertainty was an increase in objective value

  2. Mark-resight approach as a tool to estimate population size of one of the world’s smallest goose populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Fælled, Casper Cæsar; Clausen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of a mark–resight procedure to estimate total population size in a local goose population. Using colour-ring sightings of the increasingly scattered population of Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota from their Danish staging areas, we estimate...... a total population size of 7845 birds (95% CI: 7252–8438). This is in good agreement with numbers obtained from total counts, emphasizing that this population, although steadily increasing, is still small compared with historic numbers....

  3. The status of wintering Canada geese in the "Southern Region" of the Atlantic Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In our previous descriptions of Canada goose sub-populations, we have found it convenient to generalize about the "southern region"; those wintering birds...

  4. Species associations and habitat influence the range-wide distribution of breeding Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) on Western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthew E.; Andersen, David E.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2017-01-01

    Inter- and intra-specific interactions are potentially important factors influencing the distribution of populations. Aerial survey data, collected during range-wide breeding population surveys for Eastern Prairie Population (EPP) Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior), 1987–2008, were evaluated to assess factors influencing their nesting distribution. Specifically, associations between nesting Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and EPP Canada Geese were quantified; and changes in the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese were identified. Mixed-effects Poisson regression models of EPP Canada Goose nest counts were evaluated within a cross-validation framework. The total count of EPP Canada Goose nests varied moderately among years between 1987 and 2008 with no long-term trend; however, the total count of nesting Lesser Snow Geese generally increased. Three models containing factors related to previous EPP Canada Goose nest density (representing recruitment), distance to Hudson Bay (representing brood-habitat), nesting habitat type, and Lesser Snow Goose nest density (inter-specific associations) were the most accurate, improving prediction accuracy by 45% when compared to intercept-only models. EPP Canada Goose nest density varied by habitat type, was negatively associated with distance to coastal brood-rearing areas, and suggested density-dependent intra-specific effects on recruitment. However, a non-linear relationship between Lesser Snow and EPP Canada Goose nest density suggests that as nesting Lesser Snow Geese increase, EPP Canada Geese locally decline and subsequently the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese on western Hudson Bay has changed.

  5. Development of an Aerial Breeding Pair Survey of Dusky Canada Geese (Branta canadensis occidentalis) on the Copper River Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) population has declined for several years (Cornely and Jarvis 1984 Cornely et al. 1985; Campbell 1984, 1988;...

  6. Population, distribution and ecology of Aleutian Canada geese on their migration and wintering areas, 1983-84

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 10th annual wintering ground study of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 22 October 1983 to 11 May 1984....

  7. Population, distribution and ecology of Aleutian Canada geese on their migration and wintering areas, 1980-1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The migration and wintering ground study of the Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was continued again in California in 1980-81 from October 10...

  8. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Managed Goose Hunt, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides an introduction to the Canada Goose Hunting Program at Ottawa NWR. Federal and state regulations are summarized, and hunter selection and permit...

  9. Canada: psychosis in the immigrant Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2011-09-01

    Many reports from European countries suggest that acute episodes of psychosis are more frequent among immigrants from the Caribbean than among their non-immigrant peers. The aim of this selective review is to examine how the social correlates of migration to Canada interact with biological mechanisms to contribute to psychosis in the Caribbean population. PubMed and JSTOR social science databases (between 1966 and 2010) were searched using the following search terms: psychiatric genetics; dopamine pathways; Caribbean family structure and child rearing; cannabis and psychosis; obstetric complications and schizophrenia; social defeat; social capital; racial discrimination; urbanicity; immigration; assimilation; and immigration. This was followed by the cross-checking of references pertinent to Canada. There was no information about the prevalence of psychosis in Afro-Caribbean immigrant groups to Canada. There was a suggestion that the form the acute episode takes may differ, depending perhaps on the island of origin. Ethnicity and migration influence susceptibility and response to psychotic illness in a number of distinct and interacting ways depending both on the host country and the country of origin. Understanding the pathways can help to protect the health of immigrants.

  10. Estimating goose populations at Izembek Lagoon with airborne electronic imaging devices: 1991 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Accurate estimates of population size during nesting, migration, andwintering are important for management of waterfowl. For this reason,aerial counts of black brant...

  11. Implementation of the first adaptive management plan for a European migratory waterbird population: The case of the Svalbard pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jesper; Williams, James Henty; Johnson, Fred A.; Tombre, Ingunn M.; Dereliev, Sergey; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2017-01-01

    An International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose was adopted under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds in 2012, the first case of adaptive management of a migratory waterbird population in Europe. An international working group (including statutory agencies, NGO representatives and experts) agreed on objectives and actions to maintain the population in favourable conservation status, while accounting for biodiversity, economic and recreational interests. Agreements include setting a population target to reduce agricultural conflicts and avoid tundra degradation, and using hunting in some range states to maintain stable population size. As part of the adaptive management procedures, adjustment to harvest is made annually subject to population status. This has required streamlining of monitoring and assessment activities. Three years after implementation, indicators suggest the attainment of management results. Dialogue, consensus-building and engagement among stakeholders represent the major process achievements.

  12. Implementation of the first adaptive management plan for a European migratory waterbird population: The case of the Svalbard pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jesper; Williams, James Henty; Johnson, Fred A; Tombre, Ingunn M; Dereliev, Sergey; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2017-03-01

    An International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose was adopted under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds in 2012, the first case of adaptive management of a migratory waterbird population in Europe. An international working group (including statutory agencies, NGO representatives and experts) agreed on objectives and actions to maintain the population in favourable conservation status, while accounting for biodiversity, economic and recreational interests. Agreements include setting a population target to reduce agricultural conflicts and avoid tundra degradation, and using hunting in some range states to maintain stable population size. As part of the adaptive management procedures, adjustment to harvest is made annually subject to population status. This has required streamlining of monitoring and assessment activities. Three years after implementation, indicators suggest the attainment of management results. Dialogue, consensus-building and engagement among stakeholders represent the major process achievements.

  13. Towards a Solution to the Goose-Agriculture Conflict in North Norway, 1988?2012: The Interplay between Policy, Stakeholder Influence and Goose Population Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Tombre, Ingunn M.; Einar Eythórsson; Jesper Madsen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vester...

  14. Renal coccidiosis in interior Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior Todd, of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, Benjamin N.; Crites, John L.

    1984-01-01

    Kidneys from 309 Interior Canada geese from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway were examined for renal coccidia. Oocysts and/or young zygotes of Eimeria sp. were found in 6.8% of goose kidneys sampled. Only one type of renal coccidian oocyst was observed. Significantly more immature geese were infected than adults; however, there was no significant difference observed between the prevalences of infection in male and female birds. A host cellular response to zygotes and oocysts was noted in the majority of infected adult geese. Heavily infected kidneys were hypertrophic with minute foci on the surface of the organ. Histological examinations showed large numbers of unsporulated oocysts accumulated in distended collecting tubules, resulting in pressure necrosis to adjacent tissue and urate retention. Zygotes were observed in the cytoplasm of tubule cells and extracellularly in interstitial tissue. Infected tubule cells were characterized by the peripheral location of the nuclei, cytoplasmic basophilia, and cellular hypertrophy. This is the first report of an Eimeria sp. in the kidneys of Canada geese of the Mississippi Valley population.

  15. Overlap in diet and distribution of two goose species suggests potential for competition at a common moulting area in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Levermann, Nette; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    on activity budgets and spatial distribution were obtained from observations of behaviour, and diet selection was determined through analyses of plant epidermal fragments in faecal samples that were subsequently genotyped to goose species. No differences in diet or spatial distribution of the two species were......Inter-specific competition can occur where two or more species overlap in diet and/or spatial distribution. Such interactions might be most prevalent where a species invades areas previously occupied by another species. In West Greenland, the number of native Greenland White-fronted Geese has...... may reflect population fluctuations for reasons other than the increased presence of the Canada Goose....

  16. Demographic inference from whole-genome and RAD sequencing data suggests alternating human impacts on goose populations since the last ice age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolar, J M; Dalén, L; Hansen, M M; Madsen, J

    2017-11-01

    We investigated how population changes and fluctuations in the pink-footed goose might have been affected by climatic and anthropogenic factors. First, genomic data confirmed the existence of two separate populations: western (Iceland) and eastern (Svalbard/Denmark). Second, demographic inference suggests that the species survived the last glacial period as a single ancestral population with a low population size (100-1,000 individuals) that split into the current populations at the end of the last glacial maximum with Iceland being the most plausible glacial refuge. While population changes during the last glaciation were clearly environmental, we hypothesize that more recent demographic changes are human-related: (1) the inferred population increase in the Neolithic is due to deforestation to establish new lands for agriculture, increasing available habitat for pink-footed geese, (2) the decline inferred during the Middle Ages is due to human persecution, and (3) improved protection explains the increasing demographic trends during the 20th century. Our results suggest both environmental (during glacial cycles) and anthropogenic effects (more recent) can be a threat to species survival. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. An isolated population of small Canada geese on Kaliktagik Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Scott A.; Hatch, Martha A.

    1983-01-01

    Recently we discovered that a small form of the Canada Goose Branta canadensis breeds on Kaliktagik Island, one of the Semidi Islands, about 80 km south of the Alaska Peninsula near longitude 157°W (Figure 1). The unexpected occurrence of geese on this oceanic island and the possibility that they are closely allied with the endangered Aleutian race of Canada Geese B. c. leucopareia prompt this summary of observations made between 1977 and 1981, in the course of field studies on seabirds of the area.

  18. Changes in distribution of Canada geese nesting in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, David G.; Ronke, M. Eliese

    2015-01-01

    The reintroduced Canada goose (Branta canadensis) population in Arkansas has grown in range and abundance in recent decades. We determined the geographic range of Arkansas resident Canada geese from 2004 to 2012 using volume contour maps from citizen science observations using eBird, a citizen science website, and hunter recovery locations from the U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory. Resulting maps indicate an increase in Canada goose encounters toward northwestern and southwestern Arkansas from the original relocations in the Arkansas River valley. We examined movement of Canada geese banded and recovered in Arkansas by determining the distance and angle of movement between initial and final encounter locations; 25% moved east, and 17% went west. The average distance moved from banding to recovery was 50 km (SE = 1 km). Recoveries of Canada geese banded in Arkansas were greatest in the Mississippi Flyway (58% of all geese) followed by the Central Flyway (37%) with some representation in both the Atlantic (4%) and Pacific flyways (0.9%). Movement from Arkansas to other states and Canada was influenced by goose age and sex. Older individuals traveled longer distances than younger ones, and females traveled longer distances than males. Our findings suggest that recently established Canada geese in Arkansas have slowly expanded within the state to the northwest and southwest with the expansion to the east being important now. Movement of Arkansas resident Canada geese on molt-migration can contribute to management issues in other states and provinces.

  19. Risk assessment of lead poisoning and pesticide exposure in the declining population of red-breasted goose (Branta ruficollis) wintering in Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo, Rafael; Petkov, Nikolai; Lopez-Antia, Ana; Rodriguez-Estival, Jaime; Green, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The red-breasted goose Branta ruficollis is a globally threatened species (IUCN Vulnerable) and the only European goose species currently in decline. Working on the wintering grounds on the Black Sea Coast, we address two potential causes of decline of this species for the first time: lead poisoning, and contamination from pesticides. We quantified the densities of spent Pb shot in three wetlands used by the geese in north-east Bulgaria, and analysed the Pb concentration in the faec...

  20. Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic light-body type goose

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... ... goose resources. Genetic differentiation of 13 light- body type goose populations. A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing. As for the bottleneck effect, population ...

  1. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    mediated response to the presence of E. clarkei oocysts and endogenous stages was seen in 83.3% of infected adult geese, but only 20% of immature geese showed a macrophage response to the infective stages of this parasite. A massive E. clarkei infection caused the death of one goose collected at Horicon National Wildlife Refuge. Amidostomiasis, epomidiostomiasis, and renal coccidiosis were important pathogenic diseases in the Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese but did not directly cause significant mortality in the population.

  2. Comparing population health in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet Nathalie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the paper is to compare population health in the United States (US and Canada. Although the two countries are very similar in many ways, there are potentially important differences in the levels of social and economic inequality and the organization and financing of and access to health care in the two countries. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health 2002/03. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall health-related quality of life (HRQL. Mean HUI3 scores were compared, adjusting for major determinants of health, including body mass index, smoking, education, gender, race, and income. In addition, estimates of life expectancy were compared. Finally, mean HUI3 scores by age and gender and Canadian and US life tables were used to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE. Results Life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. For those Conclusions The population of Canada appears to be substantially healthier than the US population with respect to life expectancy, HRQL, and HALE. Factors that account for the difference may include access to health care over the full life span (universal health insurance and lower levels of social and economic inequality, especially among the elderly.

  3. Determination of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), a component of Nicarbazin, in Canada goose (Branta canadensis) eggshells using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Randal S; VerCauteren, Kurt; Buettgenbach, Teresa L; Johnston, John J

    2003-02-26

    A method was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography to assay 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the active ingredient in Nicarbazin, in eggshells collected from Canada geese fed a formulated feed fortified with Nicarbazin at doses of 0, 125, 250, and 500 microg/g. The method was developed using chicken eggshells fortified with DNC. The method was used to quantify DNC in both the shell-associated membranes and the calcified shell extracellular matrix. These values were compared to those obtained for a composite sample consisting of both the membranes and the calcified shell extracellular matrix. The validated method was used to quantify DNC in eggshells from geese fed fortified feed to ascertain the effect of Nicarbazin feed concentration on shell DNC concentration. DNC levels in the eggshells were highly correlated with feed dose.

  4. Nowitna River goose survey, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial goose survey of the upper Nowitna River and a river-floating goose brood survey of the upper Nowitna River were conducted May 27th through July 5th of...

  5. Summary of GOOSE Substation Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast real-time application message is an object-oriented substation event—GOOSE (Generic Object Oriented Substation Event. It mainly works on the process layers and bay layers of digital substation. GOOSE intelligent substation communication network can realize the key function of the overall intelligent sub-station functions. This paper will make a systematic analysis of GOOSE. At first, it will provide a detailed analysis of the transmission mechanism and process of GOOSE message. As certain practical operability lacks the actual application of the multicast filtering method which is applied to GOOSE message based on IEC61850 standard, this paper will summarize three message filtering methods, compare the advantages and disadvantages in topological networks of different kinds in accordance with the instantaneity of GOOSE intelligent substation communication network and draw a conclusion that the independent configuration scheme of GOOSE and SV can adapt to the requirement of times, so as to provide theoretical references for the selection of practical intelligent substation communication network in the future.

  6. Projecting the future of Canada's population: assumptions, implications, and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaujot, Roderic

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available After considering the assumptions for fertility, mortality and international migration, this paper looks at implications of the evolving demographics for population growth, labour force, retirement, and population distribution. With the help of policies favouring gender equity and supporting families of various types, fertility in Canada could avoid the particularly low levels seen in some countries, and remain at levels closer to 1.6 births per woman. The prognosis in terms of both risk factors and treatment suggests further reductions in mortality toward a life expectancy of 85. On immigration, there are political interests for levels as high as 270,000 per year, while levels of 150,000 correspond to the long term post-war average. The future will see slower population growth, and due to migration more than natural increase. International migration of some 225,000 per year can enable Canada to avoid population decline, and sustain the size of the labour force, but all scenarios show much change in the relative size of the retired compared to the labour force population. According to the ratio of persons aged 20-64 to that aged 65 and over, there were seven persons at labour force ages per person at retirement age in 1951, compared to five in 2001 and probably less than 2.5 in 2051. Growth that is due to migration more so than natural increase will accentuate the urbanization trend and the unevenness of the population distribution over space. Past projections have under-projected the mortality improvements and their impact on the relative size of the population at older age groups. Policies regarding fertility, mortality and migration could be aimed at avoiding population decline and reducing the effect of aging, but there is lack of an institutional basis for policy that would seek to endogenize population.

  7. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site – Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-05-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  8. Risk assessment of lead poisoning and pesticide exposure in the declining population of red-breasted goose (Branta ruficollis) wintering in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Rafael; Petkov, Nikolai; Lopez-Antia, Ana; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Green, Andy J

    2016-11-01

    The red-breasted goose Branta ruficollis is a globally threatened species (IUCN Vulnerable) and the only European goose species currently in decline. Working on the wintering grounds on the Black Sea Coast, we address two potential causes of decline of this species for the first time: lead poisoning, and contamination from pesticides. We quantified the densities of spent Pb shot in three wetlands used by the geese in north-east Bulgaria, and analysed the Pb concentration in the faeces of red-breasted geese and the more abundant greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons, using Al concentration as an indicator of soil ingestion. Pb shot densities in sediments were low, and we found no evidence for Pb shot ingestion in red-breasted geese. On the other hand, we found that the geese were feeding on wheat whose seeds were treated with four fungicides: thiram, tebuconazole, difenoconazole and fludioxonil, and the two first were even detected in geese faecal samples. Using data on the daily food intake, we estimated the exposure levels of the geese to these fungicides, both by measuring the concentrations remaining on seeds and by estimating the amount used to coat the seeds at the time of sowing. We found that the exposure rates estimated during the sowing period for both geese species can exceed the recognized hazardous doses for thiram, and to a lesser extent for tebuconazole, which indicates that some pesticides may be playing a previously overlooked role in the decline of red-breasted geese. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Meeting to discuss goose pen on [Holla Bend National Wildlife] Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the conversations concerning the establishment of a resident, free flying goose population in Arkansas, specifically at Holla Bend National...

  10. CANADA

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hakan Mustafa

    . AAAA. Numéro du fournisseur. Protégé B*. (une fois rempli). RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX, FISCAUX ET BANCAIRES DU FOURNISSEUR – CANADA. Section 1 : RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX. Nom du particulier (nom, prénom) ou ...

  11. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 isolated from a lesser snow goose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Shadduck, D.J.; Price, J.I.; Cooch, E.G.

    1997-01-01

    Pharyngeal swabs were collected from 298 lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) at Banks Island (Northwest Territories. Canada) in the summer of 1994. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from an adult male bird and P. multocida serotype 3 was isolated from an adult female goose. Pathogenicity of the serotype 1 isolate was confirmed by inoculation in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The serotype 3 isolate was non-pathogenic in Pekin ducks. This is the first documented isolation of pathogenic P. multocida serotype 1 from apparently healthy wild snow geese.

  12. Canada Lynx Dispersal, Space and Habitat Use Patterns During a Snowshoe Hare Population Cycle products

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Products resulting from the Tetlin NWR project "Canada Lynx Dispersal, Space and Habitat Use Patterns During a Snowshoe Hare Population Cycle" (PRIMR survey...

  13. Goose`s eggshell strength at compressive loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of the goose eggs behaviour under compressive loading between two plates using testing device TIRATEST. The influences of the loading orientation as well as the effect of compressive velocity are studied. 226 eggs from Landes geese were chosen for the experiment. Eggs have been loaded between their poles and in the equator plane. Five different compressive velocities (0.0167, 0.167, 0.334, 1.67 and 5 mm.s-1 were used. The increase in rupture force with loading rate was observed for loading in all direction (along main axes. Dependence of the rupture force on loading rate was quantifies and described. The highest rupture force was obtained when the eggs were loaded along their axes of symmetry (X-axis. Compression in the equator plane (along the Z-axis required the least compressive force to break the eggshells. The eggshell strength was described by the rupture force, specific rupture deformation and by the absorbed energy. The rupture force is highly dependent on compression speeds. The dependence of the rupture force on the compression velocity can be described by a power function. The same is valid for the rate dependence of the energy absorbed by the egg up to the fracture. The rate sensitivity of the Goose's eggshells strength is significantly higher than that reported for the hen's eggs

  14. Postpartum haemorrhage in Canada and France: a population-based comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Bonnet

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Maternal mortality ratio due to postpartum haemorrhage (PPH is higher in France than in Canada. We explored this difference by comparing PPH features between these two countries. METHODS: Using data between 2004 and 2006, we compared the incidence, risk factors, causes and use of second-line treatments, of PPH between France (N = 6,660 PPH and Canada (N = 9,838 PPH. We assessed factors associated with PPH through multivariate logistic models. RESULTS: PPH incidence, overall (4.8% (95% CI 4.7-4.9 in Canada and 4.5% (95% CI 4.4-4.7 in France, and after vaginal delivery (5.3% (95%CI 5.2-5.4 in Canada and 4.8 (95%CI 4.7-4.9 in France, were significantly higher in Canada than in France, but not after caesarean delivery. Women delivering without PPH were similar between the two populations, except for macrosomia (11% in Canada, 7% in France, p<0.001, caesarean delivery (27% in Canada, 18% in France, p<0.001, and episiotomy (17% in Canada, 34% in France, p<0.001. After vaginal delivery, factors strongly associated with PPH were multiple pregnancy, operative delivery and macrosomia in both populations, and episiotomy only in France (Odds Ratio 1.39 (95% CI 1.23-1.57. The use of second-line treatments for PPH management was significantly more frequent in France than in Canada after both vaginal and caesarean delivery. CONCLUSION: PPH incidence was not higher in France than in Canada and there was no substantial difference in PPH risk factors between the 2 countries. Greater use of second-line treatments in PPH management in France suggests a more frequent failure of first-line treatments and a higher rate of severe PPH, which may be involved in the higher maternal mortality ratio due to PPH.

  15. Population demographics and socioeconomic impact of osteoporotic fractures in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrain, Jacques; Paiement, Guy; Chevrier, Normand; Lalumière, Gaston; Laflamme, Georges-Henri; Caron, Pierre; Fillion, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Through a survey of the literature and an analysis of selected national and regional statistics, a review of the incidence of osteoporosis and its consequences was performed. Results illustrate that the consequences of osteoporosis are preventable and should sensitize clinicians to the importance of early detection and the identification of risk factors for disease prevention and to early treatment once disease has been established. A marked increase in the annual incidence of hip fractures in all Canadians is noted. Whereas the incidence was less than 20,000 in 1981, the incidence of hip fracture grew to 27,342 in 1995, with 73% occurring in women. It is estimated that in Canada at least one in four women older than 50 years will have one or more osteoporosis-related fractures in their lifetimes. The consequences of these fractures are considerable, both for patients and healthcare services. Only half of all victims regain total autonomy, and the total direct costs in Canada stemming from osteoporosis are estimated to be $1.3 billion per year.

  16. Canadian support for population stabilization. The Rome draft Plan of Action. Dr. Jean Augustine, MP (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Canada strongly believes in the central role to be played by the civil sector in the process leading to the World Food Summit. Dr. Augustine, Member of Parliament of Canada, described how the Canadian Government involved 350 national organizations over an eight-month period in the creation of the country's official position on food security. Canada has also negotiated with several other countries and international organizations on issues such as trade, human rights, the right to food, and follow-up to the Plan of Action. Dr. Augustine summarized Canada's 18 priorities for the World Food Summit. The priorities include human rights and good governance; poverty reduction; peace, security and conflict resolution; national responsibility for food security; national and global partnerships; nutrition and health; human resource development; gender equity; population stabilization; trade liberalization; agricultural adjustment to international markets; post-harvest marketing and food marketing; the role of the private sector; capacity building; environment and sustainable production; and research and technology transfer.

  17. Some economic implications of population dispersion in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridler, N B

    1982-01-01

    In New Brunswick, as in the rest of Atlantic Canada, the quality of life is highly prized, and for many inhabitants this means a rural life style. New Brunswick (with the exception of Prince Edward Island) is the most rural of the Canadian provinces. In addition, over time it is becoming more rural. This paper examines some of the economic implications arising from the rural life style. The provincial government also has expressed concern over rural dispersion in New Brunswick, hence this paper is predominantly policy-oriented. It argues that social costs are considerable, and advocates increased emphasis on user-pay pricing. The intention is not to prohibit rural non-farm residence, but merely to charge rural dwellers a portion of the social costs they impose. The political feasibility of such a policy is open to question, but the alternatives may be increased tax rates or a reduced level of service, and these may be even more politically unpopular.

  18. Mid-December goose survey 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset provides results of the 1971 mid-December goose survey in the Mississippi Flyway states of Region 4 of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  19. Goose Necropsy Report - Tallahatche NWR 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains USGS Wildlife Health Lab Report of snow goose mortalities adjacent to Tallahatchie NWR. Cause of death of 2 submitted animals was not attributed to...

  20. Mid-December goose survey 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset provides results of the 1973 mid-December goose survey in the Mississippi Flyway states of Region 4 of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  1. Preliminary report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee on the combined Pacific White-fronted goose surveys to estimate a breeding population index for Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Historically the Pacific population of white-fronted geese has been monitored and managed based on wintering inventories conducted in California. In recent years it...

  2. Factors influencing predation associated with visits to artificial goose nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, M. Michele; Handel, Colleen M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial goose nests were used to determine what factors might increase predation after visits to nests of Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima). We tested whether leaving the nest uncovered, marking the nest location with a flag, or placing the nest on an island or peninsula would increase the rate of predation. Predators destroyed significantly more of the nests with eggs exposed to view (61%) than of the nests with eggs covered with goose down (35%) (P nests located on peninsulas than on islands and equal proportions of flagged and unflagged nests were destroyed. We also determined that investigators attracted predators to the study area and caused an increase in predation at uncovered nests immediately after the visit. Covering the eggs with down essentially negated the effect of attracting predators when visiting the nest. Among the 46 nests destroyed, 78% were destroyed by birds and 22% by mammals. Results of our study suggested that visibility of exposed eggs rather than nest markers provided important cues to avian predators and that islands probably provided some refuge from mammalian predators. Investigators can take steps to minimize their impact on nesting success and should incorporate a measure of that impact in their studies.

  3. Moving beyond the historical quagmire of measuring infant mortality for the First Nations population in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Brenda

    2014-12-01

    Infant mortality is a metric influenced by societal, political and medical advances. The way vital events are collected and reported are not always uniform. A lack of uniformity has disadvantaged some groups in society. In Canada, a multi-jurisdictional vital statistics system has truncated our ability to produce infant mortality rates for the Indigenous population. To understand how this evolved, this paper outlines the history of infant mortality, generally and internationally, and then documents the efforts to harmonize the collection and reporting of vital statistics (births and deaths) in Canada. Following this analysis is a historical review of vital event reporting for Canada's Indigenous population. A major finding of this paper is that racism, reframing, and jurisdictional posturing has limited our ability to accurately estimate live births and infant deaths for the Indigenous population. To improve Indigenous infant mortality estimation, Canada's governments need to transcend multijurisdictional challenges and fulfill international reporting obligations to Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. GOOSE: semantic search on internet connected sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Klamer; Bomhof, Freek; Burghouts, Gertjan; van Diggelen, Jurriaan; Hiemstra, Peter; van't Hof, Jaap; Kraaij, Wessel; Pasman, Huib; Smith, Arthur; Versloot, Corne; de Wit, Joost

    2013-05-01

    More and more sensors are getting Internet connected. Examples are cameras on cell phones, CCTV cameras for traffic control as well as dedicated security and defense sensor systems. Due to the steadily increasing data volume, human exploitation of all this sensor data is impossible for effective mission execution. Smart access to all sensor data acts as enabler for questions such as "Is there a person behind this building" or "Alert me when a vehicle approaches". The GOOSE concept has the ambition to provide the capability to search semantically for any relevant information within "all" (including imaging) sensor streams in the entire Internet of sensors. This is similar to the capability provided by presently available Internet search engines which enable the retrieval of information on "all" web pages on the Internet. In line with current Internet search engines any indexing services shall be utilized cross-domain. The two main challenge for GOOSE is the Semantic Gap and Scalability. The GOOSE architecture consists of five elements: (1) an online extraction of primitives on each sensor stream; (2) an indexing and search mechanism for these primitives; (3) a ontology based semantic matching module; (4) a top-down hypothesis verification mechanism and (5) a controlling man-machine interface. This paper reports on the initial GOOSE demonstrator, which consists of the MES multimedia analysis platform and the CORTEX action recognition module. It also provides an outlook into future GOOSE development.

  5. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  6. Age of Sexual Consent Law in Canada: Population-Based Evidence for Law and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Bonnie B.; Cox, David N.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the implications of the 2008 increase in age for sexual consent in Canada using a population health survey of Canadian adolescents. Government rationales for the increase asserted younger adolescents were more likely to experience sexual exploitation and engage in risky sexual behaviour than adolescents 16 and older. Using data from sexually experienced adolescents in the 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (BC AHS, N=6,262; age range 12 – 19; 52% female), anal...

  7. National recovery strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, boreal population, in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Hervieux

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery planning for the boreal population of woodland caribou is a complex task, spanning eight Canadian provinces and territories. To accommodate unique situations across the country, recovery planning for this Species at Risk Act-listed threatened species is occurring at both provincial/ territorial and national levels. The national recovery strategy strives to identify nationally important issues and provide direction for provinces and territories as they plan and implement boreal caribou recovery within their jurisdictions. The national vision is to conserve and recover boreal caribou and their habitat across Canada. Specific goals are to: 1 Prevent extirpation of local boreal caribou populations from all existing caribou ranges; and 2 Maintain or enhance local boreal caribou populations at or to self-sustaining levels within all existing caribou ranges; and 3 Maintain or enhance boreal caribou habitat to support self-sustaining local populations. Nineteen broad national approaches are identified. These approaches include items relating to: habitat planning and management, caribou population monitoring and management, management of human-caused mortality, management of other wildlife species, consideration of government legislation and policy,promotion of stewardship and public outreach, and research. Specific outcomes are provided for each stated recovery approach. For more information on Canada's national recovery strategy for the boreal population of woodland caribou please see www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/recovery/default_e.cfm

  8. Goose droppings as food for reindeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, R; Loonen, MJJE

    Feeding conditions for Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus, on Spitsbergen are generally poor, owing to low availability of forage. We report on coprophagy: the use of goose faeces as an alternative food source for reindeer. Fresh droppings from Barnacle Geese, Branta leucopsis,

  9. A harvest management strategy for Canada geese in the western Mississippi Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) harvest in the Mississippi Flyway became increasingly complex during the 1980s. A strategy for managing harvest was...

  10. The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Canada: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Charles N; Wajda, Andre; Svenson, Lawrence W; MacKenzie, Adrian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Jackson, Maureen; Fedorak, Richard; Israel, David; Blanchard, James F

    2006-07-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated a high incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Canadian province of Manitoba. However, the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in other regions of Canada has not been defined. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of CD and UC in diverse regions of Canada and the overall burden of IBD in Canada. We applied a common case identification algorithm, previously validated in Manitoba to the provincial health databases in British Columbia (BC), Alberta (AB), Saskatchewan (SK), Manitoba (MB), and Nova Scotia (NS) to determine the age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 person-years for 1998-2000 and prevalence per 100,000 for mid 2000 and to estimate the IBD burden in Canada. Poisson regression was used to assess differences in incidence rates and prevalence by gender, age, and province. The incidence rate for CD ranged from 8.8 (BC) to 20.2 (NS), and for UC ranged from 9.9 (BC) to 19.5 (NS). The prevalence of CD was approximately 15- to 20-fold higher than the incidence rate, ranging from 161 (BC) to 319 (NS). This was similar for the prevalence of UC, which ranged from 162 (BC) to 249 (MB). Adjusting for age and province, the female:male ratio for incidence ratio was 1.31 (p < 0.0001) for CD and 1.02 (n.s.) for UC and was mostly stable across the five provinces. Approximately 0.5% of the Canadian population has IBD. Canada has the highest incidence and prevalence of CD yet reported.

  11. Projected Population Size and Age Structure for Canada and Provinces: With and Without International Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loh, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper examines the effect of net international migration on prospectivepopulation growth and age structure in Canada for the next 50 years. It alsoexamines the impact of international migration on provincial growth anddistribution. The procedure used in this study is by comparing two projectedpopulation scenarios, one with international migration and the other withoutinternational migration, based on the latest 2005-based population projections.The analysis of the scenarios shows that the assumed level of internationalmigration which is higher than the current level contributes to a continuousincrease in population over the next 50 years, but has limited effect to prevent oroffset the overall aging trend.FrenchCe document examine l’effet de la migration internationale sur la croissanceprospective de la population et la structure par âge au Canada pour les 50prochaines années. Il examine aussi l’impact de la migration internationale surla croissance et la distribution provinciales. La démarche utilisée dans cetteétude est de comparer les deux scénarios de population projetée l’un avecmigration internationale et l’autre sans migration internationale, selon lesdernières projections de population de 2005. L’analyse des scénarios démontreque le niveau présumé de migration internationale, plus élevé que le niveauactuel, contribue à une croissance continuelle de la population au cours des 50prochaines années, mais a peu d’effet quand à la prévention ou la tendance auvieillissement.

  12. The CMS "Higgs Boson Goose Game" Poster

    CERN Multimedia

    Davis, Siona Ruth

    Building and operating the CMS Detector is a complicated endeavour! Now, more than 20 years after the detector was conceived, the CMS Bologna group proposes to follow the steps of this challenging project by playing "The Higgs Boson Goose Game", illustrating CMS activities and goals. The concept of the game is inspired by the traditional "Game of the Goose". The underlying idea is that the progress of building and operating a detector at the LHC is similar to the progress of the pawns on the game board: it is fast at times, bringing rewards and satisfaction, while sometimes unexpected problems cause delays or even a step back requiring CMS scientists to use all of their skill and creativity to devise new solutions.

  13. The CMS Higgs Boson Goose Game

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallo, Francesca Romana

    2015-01-01

    Building and operating the CMS Detector is a complicated endeavour! Now, more than 20 years after the detector was conceived, the CMS Bologna group proposes to follow the steps of this challenging project by playing The Higgs Boson Goose Game, illustrating CMS activities and goals.The concept of the game is inspired by the traditional Game of the Goose. The underlying idea is that the progress of building and operating a detector at the LHC is similar to the progress of the pawns on the game board it is fast at times, bringing rewards and satisfaction, while sometimes unexpected problems cause delays or even a step back requiring CMS scientists to use all of their skill and creativity to devise new solutions.

  14. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

    1987-11-01

    Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

  15. Diversity and convergence of population aging: evidence from China and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Légaré, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishTaking the diversity and the convergence of demographic transitions intoconsideration, it is hypothesized that population aging that occurs in developed countries anddeveloping countries will reflect diversity, but will also show some convergence. In order to testthis hypothesis, the present study compares the population aging experiences of China (1971-2050 andCanada (1911-2050 and places them within the context of the demographic transition. In this paper welearn how, as population ages, these two countries will, through two distinct pathways, arrive atsimilar age structures by the middle of the 21st century. Both the diversity and the convergence ofpopulation aging are shown in this comparative study.FrenchEn constatant la diversité et la convergence des transitions démographiques,nous faisons l'hypothèse que le processus du vieillissement démographiquecomporte également une certaine diversité et montrera une convergence, enparticulier, entre les pays développés et les pays en développement. Afin devérifier cette hypothèse, la présente étude compare les vieillissementsdémographiques en Chine (1971-2050 et au Canada (1911-2050, en lesmettant dans le contexte de la transition démographique. Cet article montre qu’àmesure que vieillit la population, comment ces deux pays arriveront par deuxvoies distinctes à une structure par âge similaire au milieu du XXIème siècle. Ladiversité et la convergence du vieillissement sont toutes deux illustrées danscette étude comparative.

  16. Emergency preparedness in Canada : case studies on vulnerable populations in large-scale crises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, S.Y.M.

    2009-01-15

    A 2007 study, conducted by the Canadian Red Cross, assessed the extent to which federal and provincial/territorial emergency management arrangements addressed the needs of high-risk populations and found that current emergency management practices overlooked high-risk populations and noted that further research was required to better understand the needs and specific disaster susceptibilities among high-risk groups. In response to this study, and in order to contribute to remedying this critical gap in emergency management, this report presented several case studies and recommendations, with a particular focus on these high risk groups which include ethnic, cultural and religious minorities. The report discussed the case studies in detail and presented lessons learned. The evaluative criteria for emergency management were also identified. Examples that were cited in the report included Toronto's emergency planning and vulnerable populations; the Red River flood in 1997 in Manitoba; the great ice storm in Kingston in 1998; the 2002 SARS crisis; and Hurricane Juan in 2003. For each of these examples, the report discussed the crisis; pre-disaster management; disaster response; vulnerable populations; the aftermath; and lessons learned. It was concluded that Canada needs to invest in research to understand challenges faced by vulnerable populations in the event of disaster. refs.

  17. Goose management schemes to resolve conflicts with agriculture: Theory, practice and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eythórsson, Einar; Tombre, Ingunn M; Madsen, Jesper

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, the four countries hosting the Svalbard population of pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus along its flyway launched an International Species Management Plan for the population. One of the aims was to reduce conflicts between geese and agriculture to an acceptable level. Since 2006, Norway has offered subsidies to farmers that provide refuge areas for geese on their land. We evaluate the mid-Norwegian goose management subsidy scheme, with a view to its adjustment to prevailing ecological and socio-economic parameters. The analysis indicates that the legitimacy of the scheme is highly dependent on transparency of knowledge management and accountability of management scheme to the farming community. Among farmers, as well as front-line officials, outcomes of prioritisation processes within the scheme are judged unfair when there is an evident mismatch between payments and genuine damage. We suggest how the scheme can be made more fair and responsive to ecological changes, within a framework of adaptive management.

  18. Hospital-associated Costs of Chronic Pelvic Pain in Canada: A Population-based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Innie; Thavorn, Kednapa; Shen, Minxue; Goddard, Yvette; Yong, Paul; MacRae, George S; Nishi, Corrine; Matar, Ayah; Allaire, Catherine

    2017-03-01

    To determine the hospital-related costs incurred by women requiring surgery or inpatient admission for chronic pelvic pain in Canada. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study, focusing on women ages 15-59 with a most responsible International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of pelvic and perineal pain, dysmenorrhea, or dyspareunia who had surgery or inpatient admission with a discharge date between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2012. This study was based on the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract database and the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System. Clinical diagnoses and interventions and resource intensity weights (RIW) were extracted. Hospital costs were estimated by multiplying cost per weighted case (CPWC) calculated at the national level with respective RIWs. Over four years, there were 34 346 cases of surgery or inpatient admission for chronic pelvic pain amounting to $100.5 million with an average cost of $25 million per year. Pelvic and perineal pain accounted for 61.5% (n = 21 127) of the cases, while dysmenorrhea accounted for 31.8% (n = 10 936), and dyspareunia accounted for 6.6% (n = 2283). The vast majority of the cases (92.9%, n = 31 923) were associated with surgical interventions, with the most common surgeries being hysterectomy (47.1%, n = 16 189), followed by laparoscopy (25.8%, n = 8850), adnexal surgery (6.8%, n = 2349), and other procedures (11.6%, n = 3968). While these estimates do not take into account non-hospital related costs, such as outpatient treatment, loss of productivity, and impact on quality of life, this study demonstrates that chronic pelvic pain represents a considerable economic burden to Canada's health care system. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Threatened species to super-abundance: The unexpected international implications of successful goose conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Anthony D.; Madsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Wild geese wintering in western Europe were declining by the 1930s probably due to loss of natural habitat and over exploitation through hunting, although the causes will never be known. Refuge provision and hunting restrictions from the 1950s enabled numbers to recover. Improved monitoring systems enabled the description of progressive increases and extensions of wintering range since that time, especially amongst those goose populations that increasingly exploited agricultural landscapes. T...

  20. The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Goose Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this plan is to restore populations of cackling Canada geese, Emperor geese, Pacific white-fronted geese, and Pacific brant to prescribed levels. The...

  1. Components of population growth rate for White-winged Scoters in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisauskas, R. T.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding range and abundance of White-winged Scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi have declined in northwestern North America. Hypotheses proposed to account for this trend are that survival and/or recruitment of females had declined. Thus, we used a reverse-time capture-recapture approach to directly estimate survival, seniority and capture probabilities for females of breeding age at Redberry Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada for 1975-1980 and 2000-2003. We also estimated population size of breeding females for 1975-1985 and 2000-2003 using capture-recapture data. Initially, this local population was in serious decline [95%CL(landa75-80 = 0.89 ± 0.09], but has since stabilized and may be slowly increasing [95%CL(landa00-03=1.07±0.11]. This reversal in trajectory apparently resulted from increased recruitment rather than increased apparent survival. Importantly, recent recruitment of adult females appeared to be driven solely by immigration of adult females with no detectable in situ recruitment, suggesting a hypothesis that the local population is being rescued by females produced elsewhere.

  2. Population Assessment of an Endangered Shorebird: the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus melodus in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Amirault

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Small, at-risk populations are those for which accurate demographic information is most crucial to conservation and recovery, but also where data collection is constrained by logistical challenges and small sample sizes. Migratory animals in particular may experience a wide range of threats to survival and reproduction throughout each annual cycle, and identification of life stages most critical to persistence may be especially difficult for these populations. The endangered eastern Canadian breeding population of Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus melodus was estimated at only 444 adults in 2005, and extensive effort has been invested in conservation activities, reproductive monitoring, and marking of individual birds, providing a comprehensive data set on population dynamics since 1998. We used these data to build a matrix projection model for two Piping Plover population segments that nest in eastern Canada in order to estimate both deterministic and stochastic rates of population growth (λd and λs, respectively. Annual population censuses suggested moderate growth in abundance between 1998–2003, but vital rate estimates indicated that this temporary growth may be replaced by declines in the long term, both in southern Nova Scotia (λd = 1.0043, λs = 0.9263 and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (λd = 0.9651, λs = 0.8214. Nonetheless, confidence intervals on λ estimates were relatively wide, highlighting remaining uncertainty in future population trajectories. Differences in projected growth between regions appear to be driven by low estimated juvenile post-fledging survival in the Gulf, but threats to juveniles of both population segments following departure from nesting beaches remain unidentified. Similarly, λ in both population segments was particularly sensitive to changes in adult survival as expected for most migratory birds, but very little is understood about the threats to Piping Plover survival during migration and overwintering

  3. An Examination of the Validity of the Family Affluence Scale II (FAS II) in a General Adolescent Population of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Brock; Poulin, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the performance of the FAS II in a general population of 17,545 students in grades 7, 9, 10 and 12 in the Atlantic provinces of Canada. The FAS II was assessed against two other measures of socioeconomic status: mother's highest level of education and family structure. Our study found that the FAS II reduces the likelihood of…

  4. Growth of black brant and lesser snow goose goslings in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Hogrefe, Kyle R.; Sedinger, James S.; Martin, Philip D.; Stickney, Alice A; Obritschkewitsch, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Gosling body mass can affect first year survival, recruitment, adult body size, and future fecundity of geese, and can serve as an indicator of forage availability and quality on brood-rearing areas. From 2012–2014 we measured body mass of 76 black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and 268 lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goslings of known age on the Colville River Delta (CRD) of northern Alaska to determine if there was evidence of density-dependent declines in gosling growth following recent population increases of those species and sympatric greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis). We contrasted contemporary body mass of brant goslings and forage biomass in brood-rearing habitats that were shared by all species, with measures obtained on, and near the CRD in the 1990s, prior to the establishment of snow goose nesting colonies in the area. Body mass of brant goslings recaptured between 25 and 32 days of age had not changed over the past 2 decades, despite an influx of snow geese, and increases in populations of brant and white-fronted geese. At 30 days of age, body mass of brant goslings on the CRD was 100–400 g heavier than for brant goslings of the same age on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska. Contemporary biomass of grazed Carex subspathacea on CRD brood-rearing areas was comparable to the 1990s and was 2–4 times greater than for the same plant community on the YKD. Historical data on growth of snow goose goslings were not available for the CRD. However, average body mass of 34-day-old snow goose goslings was >230 g heavier than for conspecifics of the same age in the Hudson Bay region. We conclude that the establishment of nesting snow geese on the CRD has not negatively affected brant gosling growth, and that recent population increases of all species have likely not been constrained by forage availability on brood-rearing areas. Barring demographic changes elsewhere in their annual cycles, we predict that

  5. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada.Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001, binge drinking (P < 0.001, obesity (P < 0.001 and diabetes (P < 0.001, and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029, and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001. Sex differences were also

  6. Impact of environmental dewatering of Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs on benthic invertebrates and macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-09-01

    An investigation into the effects of dewatering on the benthic fauna in Lower Granite and Little Goose reservoirs was undertaken. Benthos in both the soft bottom regions of the reservoirs as well as those inhabiting the rock rip-rap along the shoreline were studied. These organisms provide an important food resource for both migrating salmonids and resident fish species; thus, impacts of contemplated dewatering schemes require evaluation. The results of these studies indicate that there were no significant, long-term impacts to the soft bottom benthos as a result of dewatering in Little Goose Reservoir. In fact, higher numbers of some taxa indicate that there may have been a washout of these organisms from Lower Granite Reservoir with subsequent deposition in the upper reaches of Little Goose Reservoir. This should be accompanied by a coincident decrease in these organisms in Lower Granite Reservoir. However, we did not have pre-dewatering samples from Lower Granite Reservoir with which we could compare post-filling samples to determine if the dewatering resulted in lower benthic populations.

  7. Cancer incidence and mortality among the Métis population of Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Sanchez-Ramirez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer has been identified as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Canada over the last decade. However, there is a paucity of information about cancer patterns in Aboriginal people, particularly for Métis. This study aims to explore cancer incidence and mortality burden among Métis and to compare disease estimates with non-Métis population. Methods: This population-based descriptive epidemiological study used cancer incidence and mortality data from 2007 to 2012 obtained from Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan (AHCIP – Central Stakeholder Registry – and Alberta Cancer Registry (ACR. To identify cancer cases in Métis, the ACR was linked with the Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA Identification Registry. In Métis and non-Métis people, age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were estimated and subsequently compared between both groups. Results: A higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer was found among Métis men compared with their non-Métis counterparts (RR=1.69, CI 1.28–2.09; p=0.01. No other statistically significant differences in cancer incidence or mortality were found between Métis and non-Métis people living in Alberta over the course of the 6 years studied. Conclusions: Overall incidence and mortality associated with cancer were not higher among Métis people compared with non-Métis people. However, special efforts should be considered to decrease the higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer in Métis men. Further development and maintenance of new and existing institutional collaborations are necessary to continue cancer research and health status surveillance in Métis population.

  8. Cancer incidence and mortality among the Métis population of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; Colquhoun, Amy; Parker, Sara; Randall, Jason; Svenson, Lawrence W; Voaklander, Don

    2016-01-01

    Cancer has been identified as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Canada over the last decade. However, there is a paucity of information about cancer patterns in Aboriginal people, particularly for Métis. This study aims to explore cancer incidence and mortality burden among Métis and to compare disease estimates with non-Métis population. This population-based descriptive epidemiological study used cancer incidence and mortality data from 2007 to 2012 obtained from Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan (AHCIP) - Central Stakeholder Registry - and Alberta Cancer Registry (ACR). To identify cancer cases in Métis, the ACR was linked with the Métis Nation of Alberta (MNA) Identification Registry. In Métis and non-Métis people, age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were estimated and subsequently compared between both groups. A higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer was found among Métis men compared with their non-Métis counterparts (RR=1.69, CI 1.28-2.09; p=0.01). No other statistically significant differences in cancer incidence or mortality were found between Métis and non-Métis people living in Alberta over the course of the 6 years studied. Overall incidence and mortality associated with cancer were not higher among Métis people compared with non-Métis people. However, special efforts should be considered to decrease the higher incidence of bronchus/lung cancer in Métis men. Further development and maintenance of new and existing institutional collaborations are necessary to continue cancer research and health status surveillance in Métis population.

  9. 77 FR 26032 - Proposed Information Collection; Control and Management of Resident Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ...-1232-0000-P2] Proposed Information Collection; Control and Management of Resident Canada Geese AGENCY..., operators, and tenants actively engaged in commercial agriculture to conduct damage management control when... conduct (via the State or tribal wildlife agency) resident Canada goose control and management activities...

  10. Landbird Breeding and Fall Migration Banding at Mother Goose Lake

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We studied landbirds at Mother Goose Lake on the Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge Complex (NWRC) for the sixth consecutive year (1994 - 1999). We...

  11. Combining modelling tools to evaluate a goose management scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveco, Johannes M; Bergjord, Anne-Kari; Bjerke, Jarle W; Chudzińska, Magda E; Pellissier, Loïc; Simonsen, Caroline E; Madsen, Jesper; Tombre, Ingunn M; Nolet, Bart A

    2017-03-01

    Many goose species feed on agricultural land, and with growing goose numbers, conflicts with agriculture are increasing. One possible solution is to designate refuge areas where farmers are paid to leave geese undisturbed. Here, we present a generic modelling tool that can be used to designate the best locations for refuges and to gauge the area needed to accommodate the geese. With a species distribution model, locations are ranked according to goose suitability. The size of the area to be designated as refuge can be chosen by including more or less suitable locations. A resource depletion model is then used to estimate whether enough resources are available within the designated refuge to accommodate all geese, taking into account the dynamics of food resources, including depletion by geese. We illustrate this with the management scheme for pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus implemented in Norway. Here, all geese can be accommodated, but damage levels appear to depend on weather, land use and refuge size.

  12. Anal erogeneity: the goose and the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengold, L

    1982-01-01

    A case is presented in which the patient's traumatically derived intense anal erogeneity (associated with traumatic anxiety as well as with castration anxiety) inhibited his phallic sensations and potency and also his power to sustain productive thought. His passive cravings were disguised and reacted against in his compulsive-exhibitionistically phallic role of a Don Juan. He described at least two levels of anal feelings: a dangerous but exciting, tolerable or even pleasurable tension associated with the imago of the goose; and an unbearable, terrifying overcharged level embodied in the imago of the rat. (He had read of, and had felt himself identified with, Freud's Rat Man.) Contrasts are presented with François Rabelais' account of the instinctual development and anal training of Gargantua, in which the connotations of the goose lead to a happy anal, phallic and intellectual control. Generalizations are ventured about the crucial attainment of command over the anal sphincter for the taming of 'primal affect'(Fliess). With early psychopathology there is a defensive overcathexis of anal control (and of anal mechanisms and character traits) to try to contain over-stimulation. In contrast true anal mastery contributes to the acquisition of optimal genital feelings and functioning and to the capacity for sustaining integrative thinking so necessary for 'owning' one's affects and impulses, and therefore for a feeling of identity. Finally, some remarks of Freud on Rabelais are reviewed in relation to levels of urethral erogeneity, seen as developmental way stations between the anal and the phallic, and partaking of both.

  13. Variations in the Life Cycle of Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in Wild Populations of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kricsfalusy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of a perennial herb Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in a variety of natural habitats in Saskatchewan, Canada, eight life stages (seed, seedling, juvenile, immature, vegetative, generative, subsenile, and senile are distinguished and characterized in detail. The species ontogenetic growth patterns are investigated. A. patens has a long life cycle that may last for several decades which leads to the formation of compact clumps. The distribution and age of clumps vary substantially in different environments with different levels of disturbance. The plant ontogeny includes the regular cycle with reproduction occurring through seeds. There is an optional subsenile vegetative disintegration at the end of the life span. The following variations in the life cycle of A. patens are identified: with slower development in young age, with an accelerated development, with omission of the generative stage, with retrogression to previous life stages in mature age, and with vegetative dormancy. The range of variations in the life cycle of A. patens may play an important role in maintaining population stability in different environmental conditions and management regimes.

  14. Feasibility of an altruistic sperm donation program in Canada: results from a population-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Daria; Bowen, James M; Perampaladas, Kuhan; Qureshi, Riaz; Xie, Feng; Hughes, Edward

    2017-01-14

    Stringent donor-screening criteria and legislation prohibiting payment for donor gametes have contributed to the radical decline of donor insemination (DI) using sperm provided by Canadian men. Thus, many individuals rely on imported sperm. This paper examines the feasibility of an altruistic sperm donation (ASD) program to meet the needs of Canadians. Using Canadian census data, published literature and expert opinions, two population-based, top-down mathematical models were developed to estimate the supply and demand for donor sperm and the feasibility of an ASD program. It was estimated that 63 donors would pass Canadian screening criteria, which would provide 1,575 donations. The demand for DI by women was 7,866 samples (4,319 same sex couples, 1,287 single women and 2,260 heterosexual couples). Considerable effort would be necessary to create the required increase in awareness of the program and change in societal behaviour towards sperm donation for an ASD program to be feasible in Canada.

  15. Perinatal suicide in Ontario, Canada: a 15-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriadis, Sophie; Wilton, Andrew S; Kurdyak, Paul A; Rhodes, Anne E; VonderPorten, Emily H; Levitt, Anthony; Cheung, Amy; Vigod, Simone N

    2017-08-28

    Death by suicide during the perinatal period has been understudied in Canada. We examined the epidemiology of and health service use related to suicides during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. In this retrospective, population-based cohort study, we linked health administrative databases with coroner death records (1994-2008) for Ontario, Canada. We compared sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and health service use in the 30 days and 1 year before death between women who died by suicide perinatally, women who died by suicide outside of the perinatal period and living perinatal women. The perinatal suicide rate was 2.58 per 100 000 live births, with suicide accounting for 51 (5.3%) of 966 perinatal deaths. Most suicides occurred during the final quarter of the first postpartum year, with highest rates in rural and remote regions. Perinatal women were more likely to die from hanging (33.3% [17/51]) or jumping or falling (19.6% [10/51]) than women who died by suicide non-perinatally (p = 0.04). Only 39.2% (20/51) had mental health contact within the 30 days before death, similar to the rate among those who died by suicide non-perinatally (47.7% [762/1597]; odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-1.25). Compared with living perinatal women matched by pregnancy or postpartum status at date of suicide, perinatal women who died by suicide had similar likelihood of non-mental health primary care and obstetric care before the index date but had a lower likelihood of pediatric contact (64.5% [20/31] v. 88.4% [137/155] at 30 days; OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.58). The perinatal suicide rate for Ontario during the period 1994-2008 was comparable to international estimates and represents a substantial component of Canadian perinatal mortality. Given that deaths by suicide occur throughout the perinatal period, all health care providers must be collectively vigilant in assessing risk. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  16. Perinatal suicide in Ontario, Canada: a 15-year population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriadis, Sophie; Wilton, Andrew S.; Kurdyak, Paul A.; Rhodes, Anne E.; VonderPorten, Emily H.; Levitt, Anthony; Cheung, Amy; Vigod, Simone N.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Death by suicide during the perinatal period has been understudied in Canada. We examined the epidemiology of and health service use related to suicides during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. METHODS: In this retrospective, population-based cohort study, we linked health administrative databases with coroner death records (1994–2008) for Ontario, Canada. We compared sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and health service use in the 30 days and 1 year before death between women who died by suicide perinatally, women who died by suicide outside of the perinatal period and living perinatal women. RESULTS: The perinatal suicide rate was 2.58 per 100 000 live births, with suicide accounting for 51 (5.3%) of 966 perinatal deaths. Most suicides occurred during the final quarter of the first postpartum year, with highest rates in rural and remote regions. Perinatal women were more likely to die from hanging (33.3% [17/51]) or jumping or falling (19.6% [10/51]) than women who died by suicide non-perinatally (p = 0.04). Only 39.2% (20/51) had mental health contact within the 30 days before death, similar to the rate among those who died by suicide non-perinatally (47.7% [762/1597]; odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40–1.25). Compared with living perinatal women matched by pregnancy or postpartum status at date of suicide, perinatal women who died by suicide had similar likelihood of non–mental health primary care and obstetric care before the index date but had a lower likelihood of pediatric contact (64.5% [20/31] v. 88.4% [137/155] at 30 days; OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10–0.58). INTERPRETATION: The perinatal suicide rate for Ontario during the period 1994–2008 was comparable to international estimates and represents a substantial component of Canadian perinatal mortality. Given that deaths by suicide occur throughout the perinatal period, all health care providers must be collectively vigilant in assessing risk. PMID

  17. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  18. Case report: Coccidiosis and lead poisoning in Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.

    1967-01-01

    Four dead Canada geese (Branta canadensis L.) collected at the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Delaware were found to have both marked duodenal lesions of coccidiosis and high levels of lead in the liver. Although only one goose had lead shot in the gizzard, all four had levels of lead in the liver suggestive of lead poisoning.

  19. Unregulated health care workers in the care of aging populations: Similarities and differences between Brazil and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Veras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The world’s population is rapidly aging. Unregulated health care workers (UHCWs are emerging as a potentially important workforce in the care of older adults. Objective: A review was conducted to identify the activities of UHCWs with respect to contributions and limitations. Methods: A systematic integrative literature review was conducted using online databases (LILACS, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and grey literature. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (i description of UHCW activities related to older adults; and (ii description of UHCW activities performed in Brazil or Canada. Results: Eleven papers were included in this review. In both countries, UHCW activities included health promotion, mental health care, and rehabilitation. In Brazil, UHCWs performed integrated care, while in Canada UHCWs performed personal care and housekeeping. Conclusion: These results highlight the potential and limits of UHCWs who provide care for the aging population. Such information is important to health and social policy making and household decision making.

  20. Changing distribution and abundance of Swan Goose Anser cygnoides in the Yangtze River floodplain: the likely loss of a very important wintering site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Cao, L.; Barter, M.; Fox, A.D.; Zhao, M.; Meng, F.; Shi, H.; Jiang, Y.; Zhu, W.

    2011-01-01

    Virtually the entire population of the globally ‘Vulnerable’ Swan Goose Anser cygnoides winters in the Yangtze floodplain. Historically, the species was widely distributed throughout the floodplain but now approximately 95% of the population is confined to three closely-situated wetlands in Anhui

  1. Effects of pesticides on Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Rusch, Donald H.; Samuel, Michael D.; Humburg, Dale D.; Sullivan, Brian D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes published and unpublished sources relating to exposure of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to pesticides, emphasizing documented episodes of poisoning by organochlorine (OC), organophosphorus (OP), and carbamate compounds. Canada geese accumulate the lipid-soluble OC compounds, although they have a lower potential for biomagnification of these pesticides than animals at higher trophic levels in food webs. Low residues of p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE were frequently found in tissues and eggs of Canada geese, but they had no apparent adverse effects on reproductive success or eggshell thickness. Likewise, in an orchard system in central Washington state, the OC rodenticide endrin accumulated in tissues and eggs of Canada geese without apparent adverse effect. In contrast, ingestion of seeds treated with the OC heptachlor caused mortality, lowered reproductive success, and caused a local population decline of geese in Oregon and Washington. In recent years, the most persistent OC's have been banned by law and replaced with less persistent carbamate and OP compounds that do not readily accumulate in animal tissues. However, many of these compounds are acutely toxic and have caused numerous die-offs of Canada geese. Among OP compounds, diazinon was responsible for most reported die-offs (41 incidents involving >535 geese), whereas parathion applied alone or jointly with methyl parathion accounted for most reported mortalities (8 incidents involving >3,000 geese). Three other OP's, a carbamate (carbofuran), zinc phosphide, and strychnine also caused goose die-offs. Mortality from anticholinesterase (antiChE) compounds occurs relatively soon after exposure and death can usually be diagnosed by evaluation of brain cholinesterase (thE) activity. Because geese are primarily grazers, the main route of exposure to antiChE's is apparently ingestion of contaminated grasses and forbs; dermal absorption and inhalation are other routes. Despite the

  2. Spatial Analysis of Factors Influencing Long-Term Stress in the Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos) Population of Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L.; Trisalyn A. Nelson; Cattet, Marc R. L.; Darimont, Chris T.; Stenhouse, Gordon B.

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We cha...

  3. Assessing income, population, and technology impacts on CO{sub 2} emissions in Canada. Where's the EKC?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, V.; Feng, Q. [Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management and Department of Economics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates the macroeconomic forces underlying carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from fossil fuel use in Canada. In keeping with the relevant literature on environmental degradation, three forces are expected to influence CO{sub 2} emissions: gross domestic product per capita (GDP/capita), population and technological change. While previous work has employed reduced-form models that allow for non-linear relationships between CO{sub 2} and GDP/capita, it has been common practice to assume linear relationships between CO{sub 2} and the latter two variables. This study tests a more flexible model using a five-region panel data set in Canada over the period 1970-2000. Findings indicate that GDP/capita is unrelated to CO{sub 2}, that an inverted U-shaped relationship exists with population, and that a U-shaped relationship exists with technology. Thus, technological and population changes are supported over the commonly hypothesized environmental Kuznets curve (EKC, an inverted U-shaped relationship between GDP/capita and environmental degradation) for affecting CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel use in Canada. (author)

  4. Survival Comparison of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis in Canada and the United States: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Anne L; Sykes, Jenna; Stanojevic, Sanja; Quon, Bradley S; Marshall, Bruce C; Petren, Kristofer; Ostrenga, Josh; Fink, Aliza K; Elbert, Alexander; Goss, Christopher H

    2017-04-18

    In 2011, the median age of survival of patients with cystic fibrosis reported in the United States was 36.8 years, compared with 48.5 years in Canada. Direct comparison of survival estimates between national registries is challenging because of inherent differences in methodologies used, data processing techniques, and ascertainment bias. To use a standardized approach to calculate cystic fibrosis survival estimates and to explore differences between Canada and the United States. Population-based study. 42 Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics and 110 U.S. cystic fibrosis care centers. Patients followed in the Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Registry (CCFR) and U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) between 1990 and 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare survival between patients followed in the CCFR (n = 5941) and those in the CFFPR (n = 45 448). Multivariable models were used to adjust for factors known to be associated with survival. Median age of survival in patients with cystic fibrosis increased in both countries between 1990 and 2013; however, in 1995 and 2005, survival in Canada increased at a faster rate than in the United States (P cystic fibrosis survival between Canada and the United States persisted after adjustment for risk factors associated with survival, except for private-insurance status among U.S. patients. Differential access to transplantation, increased posttransplant survival, and differences in health care systems may, in part, explain the Canadian survival advantage. U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.

  5. Design of Deflectors for Little Goose Spillway, Snake River, Oregon: A Physical Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Little Goose Lock and Dam. ............................................................................... 3 Figure 2. Cross section of Little Goose...reduction, analysis, and presentation. John F. George was Chief, Inland Hydraulics Structures Branch, CHL, and helped coordinate the effort. During the...Little Goose Dam consists of a powerhouse, spillway and roller-bucket stilling basin, navigation lock , and a non-overflow earthen embankment (Figure

  6. Thyroid cancer incidence among Asian immigrants to Ontario, Canada: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Baiju R; Griffiths, Rebecca; Hall, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer. Individuals were followed from January 1997 or 5 years after they became eligible for health care coverage in Ontario, whichever came later. Patients were followed until March 2015 for incident-differentiated thyroid cancer, and then for recurrence. The study followed 14,659,733 individuals for a median of 17 years. Thyroid cancer incidence was 43.8 cases per 100,000 person-years among Southeast Asian immigrants, 28.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among East Asian immigrants, 21.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among other immigrants, and 14.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among nonimmigrants. Incidence was highest among immigrants from the Philippines (52.7 cases per 100,000 person-years), South Korea (33.5 cases per 100,000 person-years), and China (30.0 cases per 100,000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios for thyroid cancer compared with nonimmigrants were 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.48-2.84) for Southeast Asian immigrants, 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.00) for East Asian immigrants, and 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57) for other immigrants. Immigrants were more likely to have papillary histology and stage I cancer. East Asian immigrants, but not Southeast Asian immigrants, had a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.94] and 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.26], respectively). Immigrants from Southeast and East Asia had markedly higher thyroid cancer incidence than nonimmigrants. At particularly elevated

  7. Cancer incidence in indigenous people in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the USA: a comparative population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Suzanne P; Antoni, Sébastien; Colquhoun, Amy; Healy, Bonnie; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Potter, John D; Garvey, Gail; Bray, Freddie

    2015-11-01

    Indigenous people have disproportionally worse health and lower life expectancy than their non-indigenous counterparts in high-income countries. Cancer data for indigenous people are scarce and incidence has not previously been collectively reported in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the USA. We aimed to investigate and compare, for the first time, the cancer burden in indigenous populations in these countries. We derived incidence data from population-based cancer registries in three states of Australia (Queensland, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory), New Zealand, the province of Alberta in Canada, and the Contract Health Service Delivery Areas of the USA. Summary rates for First Nations and Inuit in Alberta, Canada, were provided directly by Alberta Health Services. We compared age-standardised rates by registry, sex, cancer site, and ethnicity for all incident cancer cases, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers, diagnosed between 2002 and 2006. Standardised rate ratios (SRRs) and 95% CIs were computed to compare the indigenous and non-indigenous populations of each jurisdiction, except for the Alaska Native population, which was compared with the white population from the USA. We included 24 815 cases of cancer in indigenous people and 5 685 264 in non-indigenous people from all jurisdictions, not including Alberta, Canada. The overall cancer burden in indigenous populations was substantially lower in the USA except in Alaska, similar or slightly lower in Australia and Canada, and higher in New Zealand compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. Among the most commonly occurring cancers in indigenous men were lung, prostate, and colorectal cancer. In most jurisdictions, breast cancer was the most common cancer in women followed by lung and colorectal cancer. The incidence of lung cancer was higher in indigenous men in all Australian regions, in Alberta, and in US Alaska Natives than in their non-indigenous counterparts. For breast cancer

  8. An Evaluation of the Pearsonian Type I Curve of Fertility for Aboriginal Populations in Canada, 1996 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma, Ravi B.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishIn 2005, Statistics Canada published new projections of the Aboriginal populations (NorthAmerican Indians, Métis, and Inuit in Canada, the provinces and territories from 2001 to2017. To derive the number of births in these projections, the age-specific fertility rates weresimulated by fitting the Pearsonian Type I curve using the projected fertility parameters: totalfertility rates, mean ages of fertility, and modal ages of fertility. For the base period 1996 to2001, the parameters were estimated from the age-specific fertility rates derived from the 2001Census, using the “own-children method.” This paper evaluates the goodness of fit betweenthe age-specific fertility rates developed by the Type I curve and the estimated age-specificfertility rates for Aboriginal identity groups for the period 1996 to 2001 for Canada and forhigh and low fertility regions. Tests of validity of the Type I curve indicate that this method isappropriate for estimating/projecting the number of births for the Aboriginal populations.Key Words: Aboriginal populations, North American Indians, Métis, Inuit, own-childrenmethod, Pearsonian type I curve.FrenchEn 2005, Statistique Canada publiait de nouvelles projections des populations autochtones(Indiens de l’Amérique du Nord, Métis et Inuit au Canada, les provinces et les territoires de2001 à 2017. Afin de calculer le nombre de naissances dans ces projections, les taux de féconditépar âge ont été simulés en ajustant la courbe de Type I de Pearson selon les paramètresde fécondité projetés: l’indice synthétique de fécondité, l’âge moyen à l’accouchement et l’âgemodal à l’accouchement. Pour la période de base de 1996 à 2001, ces paramètres ont étéestimés selon les taux de fécondité par âge générés par la méthode du « décompte des enfantsau foyer » avec les données des enfants âgés de 0 à 4 ans et les femmes dans le groupe d’âgede 15 à 49 ans provenant du

  9. Serologic survey for viral and bacterial infections in western populations of Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman Biek; Randall L. Zarnke; Colin Gillin; Margaret Wild; John R. Squires; Mary Poss

    2002-01-01

    A serologic survey for exposure to pathogens in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America was conducted. Samples from 215 lynx from six study areas were tested for antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. A subset of...

  10. Histological Studies on Pancreas of Goose (Anser Albifrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mobini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Histological and histochemical studies on the pancreas of goose (Anser albifrons were carried out using special staining and light microscope. The pancreas in goose is serous tubuloacinar gland having exocrine and endocrine part. Smooth muscle fibres were absent in capsule of pancreas. Acinar cells have bizonal shape. Intralobular ducts, Interlobular and main excretory ducts were present within parenchyma. The intralobular ducts were lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium reach interlobular ducts lined with low columnar epithelium. The main excretory ducts were lined by simple to stratified columnar epithelium. The glands inside the connective tissue of the ducts and basophilic staining on the apical surface of pancreatic duct system were found from the interlobular ducts to the main excretory ducts. The endocrine part was consisted of various shapes and sizes of alpha and beta islets. Mixed islets were not observed in the goose pancreas. Parasympathetic ganglia were observed in the exocrine pancreas. No significant differences were noted between males and females.

  11. Determining geographic areas and populations with timely access to cardiac catheterization facilities for acute myocardial infarction care in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Nigel M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses geographic information systems (GIS as a tool to evaluate and visualize the general accessibility of areas within the province of Alberta (Canada to cardiac catheterization facilities. Current American and European guidelines suggest performing catheterization within 90 minutes of the first medical contact. For this reason, this study evaluates the populated places that are within a 90 minute transfer time to a city with a catheterization facility. The three modes of transport considered in this study are ground ambulance, rotary wing air ambulance and fixed wing air ambulance. Methods Reference data from the Alberta Chart of Call were interpolated into continuous travel time surfaces. These continuous surfaces allowed for the delineation of isochrones: lines that connect areas of equal time. Using Dissemination Area (DA centroids to represent the adult population, the population numbers were extracted from the isochrones using Statistics Canada census data. Results By extracting the adult population from within isochrones for each emergency transport mode analyzed, it was found that roughly 70% of the adult population of Alberta had access within 90 minutes to catheterization facilities by ground, roughly 66% of the adult population had access by rotary wing air ambulance and that no population had access within 90 minutes using the fixed wing air ambulance. An overall understanding of the nature of air vs. ground emergency travel was also uncovered; zones were revealed where the use of one mode would be faster than the others for reaching a facility. Conclusion Catheter intervention for acute myocardial infarction is a time sensitive procedure. This study revealed that although a relatively small area of the province had access within the 90 minute time constraint, this area represented a large proportion of the population. Within Alberta, fixed wing air ambulance is not an effective means of transporting

  12. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1987-08-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council calls for wildlife mitigation at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River System. Beginning April, 1984, the Bonneville Power Administration funded a study of the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr Dams on the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffittii) inhabitating the Flathead Valley of northwest Montana. The study was conducted by personnel of the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP), to: (1) identify the size and productivity of this population, (2) identify current habitat conditions and losses of nesting and brood-rearing areas, (3) describe the effects of water level fluctuations on nesting and brood-rearing, and (4) identify mitigation alternatives to offset these effects. Annual pair and nest surveys were used to document the location and fate of goose nests. The number of known nesting attempts varied from 44 in 1984 to 108 in 1985, to 136 in 1986 and 134 in 1987. Fifty-four percent of the annual meeting nesting effort took place on elevated sites which were secure from the flooding and dewatering effects of fluctuating water levels. An average of 15 nests were found on stumps in the remnant Flathead River delta, however, an area strongly influenced by the operation of Kerr Dam. Annual nest losses to flooding and predation attributable to fluctuations caused by the dam were recorded. 53 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  13. An Analysis of Socio-Economic Strains and Population Gains: Urban and Rural Communities of Canada 1981-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mata

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Important demographic shifts have occurred in Canada in the last decades. As a consequence of these shifts, many geographical communities have won or lost substantial number of residents between 1981 and 2001. Using the CCS (consolidated census subdivision data set of the Agriculture Division of Statistics Canada, the paper explores the linkages between socio-economic strains and population changes affecting communities in a variety of regional and provincial contexts. A total of 2,607 rural and urban consolidated census subdivisions were examined across five census periods. Quasi simplex structural equation models using unemployment, earnings and poverty as indicators were tested on a variety of communities located in various OECD regions and provinces. Although the predictive power of strains on population gains was found to be limited in the models, a higher level of strain was persistently found to be negatively associated with population gains regardless of regional and provincial groupings of communities. Socio-economic strains were also observed to be relatively stable over time across a variety of geographies.

  14. Contrasting Population Trends at Two Razorbill Colonies in Atlantic Canada: Additive Effects of Fox Predation and Hunting Mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Lavers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a stochastic, stage-based, matrix-projection population model to assess population viability and estimate the impact of mortality caused by hunting, illegal and incidental to the murre (Uria sp. hunt, and fox (Alopex lagopus predation on Razorbill (Alca torda populations breeding on the Gannet Islands, Labrador, the "affected" population, and Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, the "unaffected" population. We estimated the potential population growth rate in the absence of anthropogenic mortality sources by using juvenile survival estimates from the relatively unaffected Machias Seal Island Razorbill population. We used data collected on fox predation on the Gannet Islands from 1978-2009 to estimate the change in productivity as a result of fox presence. The intrinsic growth rate (λ of the stochastic matrix based on vital rates from the Gannet Islands was 0.957±0.008 and 1.058±0.005 for Machias Seal Island. Hunting mortality reduced the predicted Gannet Islands population growth rate by 0.033, while fox predation reduced population growth rate by 0.017. These sources combined reduced the baseline population growth rate by 0.050. According to our model, the Razorbill population on Machias Seal Island appears to be growing rapidly. In contrast, the Gannet Islands population may decline, likely because of hunting. However, oceanographic differences between the two areas and uncertainty regarding dispersal behavior in this species may also contribute to the disparity between populations. Based on our findings, we make several recommendations for the conservation and management of Razorbills in Atlantic Canada.

  15. Étendre la protection de la loi aux populations à risque au Canada ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 juil. 2016 ... La juge en chef de la Cour suprême du Canada, la très honorable Beverley McLachlin, le procureur général de la Sierra Leone, l'honorable Joseph Kamara, et la correspondante parlementaire pour le réseau CBC, Alison Crawford, se sont joints au CRDI le 16 juin 2016 pour discuter des obstacles qui ...

  16. Estimation of Coast-Wide Population Trends of Marbled Murrelets in Canada Using a Bayesian Hierarchical Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas F Bertram

    Full Text Available Species at risk with secretive breeding behaviours, low densities, and wide geographic range pose a significant challenge to conservation actions because population trends are difficult to detect. Such is the case with the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus, a seabird listed as 'Threatened' by the Species at Risk Act in Canada largely due to the loss of its old growth forest nesting habitat. We report the first estimates of population trend of Marbled Murrelets in Canada derived from a monitoring program that uses marine radar to detect birds as they enter forest watersheds during 923 dawn surveys at 58 radar monitoring stations within the six Marbled Murrelet Conservation Regions on coastal British Columbia, Canada, 1996-2013. Temporal trends in radar counts were analyzed with a hierarchical Bayesian multivariate modeling approach that controlled for variation in tilt of the radar unit and day of year, included year-specific deviations from the overall trend ('year effects', and allowed for trends to be estimated at three spatial scales. A negative overall trend of -1.6%/yr (95% credibility interval: -3.2%, 0.01% indicated moderate evidence for a coast-wide decline, although trends varied strongly among the six conservation regions. Negative annual trends were detected in East Vancouver Island (-9%/yr and South Mainland Coast (-3%/yr Conservation Regions. Over a quarter of the year effects were significantly different from zero, and the estimated standard deviation in common-shared year effects between sites within each region was about 50% per year. This large common-shared interannual variation in counts may have been caused by regional movements of birds related to changes in marine conditions that affect the availability of prey.

  17. Estimation of Coast-Wide Population Trends of Marbled Murrelets in Canada Using a Bayesian Hierarchical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Douglas F; Drever, Mark C; McAllister, Murdoch K; Schroeder, Bernard K; Lindsay, David J; Faust, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Species at risk with secretive breeding behaviours, low densities, and wide geographic range pose a significant challenge to conservation actions because population trends are difficult to detect. Such is the case with the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), a seabird listed as 'Threatened' by the Species at Risk Act in Canada largely due to the loss of its old growth forest nesting habitat. We report the first estimates of population trend of Marbled Murrelets in Canada derived from a monitoring program that uses marine radar to detect birds as they enter forest watersheds during 923 dawn surveys at 58 radar monitoring stations within the six Marbled Murrelet Conservation Regions on coastal British Columbia, Canada, 1996-2013. Temporal trends in radar counts were analyzed with a hierarchical Bayesian multivariate modeling approach that controlled for variation in tilt of the radar unit and day of year, included year-specific deviations from the overall trend ('year effects'), and allowed for trends to be estimated at three spatial scales. A negative overall trend of -1.6%/yr (95% credibility interval: -3.2%, 0.01%) indicated moderate evidence for a coast-wide decline, although trends varied strongly among the six conservation regions. Negative annual trends were detected in East Vancouver Island (-9%/yr) and South Mainland Coast (-3%/yr) Conservation Regions. Over a quarter of the year effects were significantly different from zero, and the estimated standard deviation in common-shared year effects between sites within each region was about 50% per year. This large common-shared interannual variation in counts may have been caused by regional movements of birds related to changes in marine conditions that affect the availability of prey.

  18. Multi-scale habitat selection of the endangered Hawaiian Goose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Christina R.; Hess, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    After a severe population reduction during the mid-20th century, the endangered Hawaiian Goose (Branta sandvicensis), or Nēnē, has only recently re-established its seasonal movement patterns on Hawai‘i Island. Little is currently understood about its movements and habitat use during the nonbreeding season. The objectives of this research were to identify habitats preferred by two subpopulations of the Nēnē and how preferences shift seasonally at both meso-and fine scales. From 2009 to 2011, ten Nēnē ganders were outfitted with 40-to 45-g satellite transmitters with GPS capability. We used binary logistic regression to compare habitat use versus availability and an information-theoretic approach for model selection. Meso-scale habitat modeling revealed that Nēnē preferred exotic grass and human-modified landscapes during the breeding and molting seasons and native subalpine shrubland during the nonbreeding season. Fine-scale habitat modeling further indicated preference for exotic grass, bunch grass, and absence of trees. Proximity to water was important during molt, suggesting that the presence of water may provide escape from introduced mammalian predators while Nēnē are flightless. Finescale species-composition data added relatively little to understanding of Nēnē habitat preferences modeled at the meso scale, suggesting that the meso-scale is appropriate for management planning. Habitat selection during our study was consistent with historical records, although dissimilar from more recent studies of other subpopulations. Nēnē make pronounced seasonal movements between existing reserves and use distinct habitat types; understanding annual patterns has implications for the protection and restoration of important seasonal habitats.

  19. Gross anatomical syringeal structures of goose (Anser anser domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: There were some similarities and some differences of the anatomical structures of the syrinx of goose and that of other bird species. No differences between male and female syrinx were observed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 343-347

  20. Short communications Goose barnacles on seals and a penguin at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a survey of seals in September and October 2009 at Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean, we recorded goose barnacles (Lepas australis) attached to the pelage of two of the 12 elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) inspected and one of the seven vagrant Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) which were found ...

  1. An Ecological Study of Gray Goose Marsh, Alviso California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The area of our study is located in the heart of the 300m wide strip of land just north of Triangle Marsh, known as Gray Goose Marsh. This land used to be part of an...

  2. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1986-04-01

    Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River causes sporadic water level fluctuations along the main stem Flathead River. Changes in chronology of seasonal water level fluctuations and substantial habitat losses have occurred as a result of construction and operation of Kerr Dam, which regulates Flathead Lake. These fluctuations may impact goose populations through flooding and erosion of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and increased susceptibility of nests and young to predation. The number, location, and success of goose nests were determined through pair surveys and nest searches. Our 1985 pair count data indicated that 95 to 143 nests may have been present. Hatching success for 1985 nests (55%) was low compared to long-term averages for the region. Predation was the predominant cause of ground nest failure (25 nests); we documented 2 nest failures due to flooding. The maximum gosling count in the study area for 1985 was 197. Six key brood-rearing areas were identified. Most (80%) sites were located in the herbaceous or pasture cover type and the riparian bench landform. Analysis of aerial photographs taken prior to construction of Kerr Dam documented the loss of 1859 acres of habitat along the north shore of Flathead Lake. Losses were attributed to inundation and to continuing erosion due to operation of Kerr Dam. Lake and river water level regimes were compared with the chronology of important periods in the nesting cycle. Low lake levels in May and early June coincide with the breed-rearing period. Mudflats are heavily used by broods, but their effect on survival must still be documented. Preliminary recommendations to protect and enhance Canada goose habitat and production are being developed.

  3. Frequency of bone mineral density testing in adult kidney transplant recipients from Ontario, Canada: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Kyla L; Zou, Guangyong; Leslie, William D; McArthur, Eric; Lam, Ngan N; Knoll, Gregory A; Kim, S Joseph; Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hodsman, Anthony B; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    We lack consensus on the clinical value, frequency, and timing of bone mineral density (BMD) testing in kidney transplant recipients. This study sought to determine practice patterns in BMD testing across kidney transplant centres in Ontario, Canada, and to compare the frequency of testing in kidney transplant recipients to non-transplant reference groups. Using healthcare databases from Ontario, Canada we conducted a population-based cohort study of adult kidney transplant recipients who received a transplant from 1994-2009. We used logistic regression to determine if there was a statistically significant difference across transplant centres in the decision to perform at least one BMD test after transplantation, adjusting for covariates that may influence a physician's decision to order a BMD test. We used the McNemar's test to compare the number of recipients who had at least one BMD test to non-transplant reference groups (matching on age, sex, and date of cohort entry). In the first 3 years after transplant, 4821 kidney transplant recipients underwent 4802 BMD tests (median 1 test per recipient, range 0 to 6 tests), costing $600,000 (2014 CAD equivalent dollars). Across the six centres, the proportion of recipients receiving at least one BMD test varied widely (ranging from 15.6 to 92.1 %; P population with a previous non-vertebral fracture [hip, forearm, proximal humerus], 13.8 %; general population with no previous non-vertebral fracture, 8.5 %; P value <0.001 for each of the comparisons). There is substantial practice variability in BMD testing after transplant. New high-quality information is needed to inform the utility, optimal timing, and frequency of BMD testing in kidney transplant recipients.

  4. Mortality causes and outcomes in Indigenous populations of Canada, the United States, and Australia with rheumatic disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Kelle; Barnabe, Cheryl

    2017-07-25

    Indigenous populations of Canada, America, Australia, and New Zealand have increased rates and severity of rheumatic disease. Our objective was to summarize mortality outcomes and explore disease and social factors related to mortality. A systematic search was performed in medical (Medline, EMBASE, and CINAHL), Indigenous and conference abstract databases (to June 2015) combining search terms for Indigenous populations and rheumatic diseases. Studies were included if they reported measures of mortality (crude frequency, mortality rate, survival, and potential years of life lost (PYLL)) in Indigenous populations from the four countries. Of 5269 titles and abstracts identified, 504 underwent full-text review and 12 were included. No studies from New Zealand were found. In five Canadian studies of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, First Nations ethnicity was associated with lower survival after adjusting for disease and social factors, and an increased frequency of death from lupus and its complications compared to Caucasians was found. All-cause mortality was higher in Native Americans (n = 2 studies) relative to Whites with SLE after adjusting for disease and social factors, but not in those with lupus nephritis alone. Australian Aborigines with SLE frequently developed infection and lupus complications leading to death (n = 3 studies). Mortality rates were increased in Pima Indians in the United States with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to those without RA. One study in Native Americans with scleroderma found nearly all deaths were related to progressive disease. Canadian and American Indigenous populations with SLE have increased mortality rates compared to Caucasian populations. Mortality in Canadian and Australian Indigenous populations with SLE, and in Native American populations with RA and scleroderma, is frequently attributed to disease progression or complications. The proportional attribution of rheumatic disease severity and social factors

  5. Estimating the Size of the MSM Population in Metro Vancouver, Canada, Using Multiple Methods and Diverse Data Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Ashleigh J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Sereda, Paul; Cui, Zishan; Wong, Jason; Wong, Stanley; Jollimore, Jody; Raymond, Henry Fisher; Hottes, Travis Salway; Roth, Eric A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M

    2017-06-19

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV globally, regionally in Canada, and locally in Vancouver. Lack of reliable population size estimates of MSM impedes effective implementation of health care services and limits our understanding of the HIV epidemic. We estimated the population size of MSM residing in Metro Vancouver drawing on four data sources: the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), a cross-sectional bio-behavioural MSM survey, HIV testing services data from sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics serving MSM, and online social networking site Facebook. Estimates were calculated using (1) direct estimates from the CCHS, (2) "Wisdom of the Crowds" (WOTC), and (3) the multiplier method using data from a bio-behavioural MSM survey, clinic-based HIV testing, and online social media network site Facebook. Data sources requiring greater public disclosure of sexual orientation resulted in our mid-range population estimates (Facebook 23,760, CCHS 30,605). The WOTC method produced the lowest estimate, 10,000. The multiplier method using STI clinic HIV testing data produced the largest estimate, 41,777. The median of all estimates was 27,183, representing 2.9% of the Metro Vancouver census male adult population, with an interquartile range of 1.1-4.5%. Using multiple data sources, our estimates of the MSM population in Metro Vancouver are similar to population prevalence estimates based on population data from other industrialized nations. These findings will support understanding of the HIV burden among MSM and corresponding public health and health services planning for this key population.

  6. Climatic Influences on Cryptococcus gattii [corrected] Populations, Vancouver Island, Canada, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K; Mak, Sunny; Manangan, Arie; Luber, George; Bartlett, Karen H

    2015-11-01

    Vancouver Island, Canada, reports the world's highest incidence of Cryptococcus gattii infection among humans and animals. To identify key biophysical factors modulating environmental concentrations, we evaluated monthly concentrations of C. gatti in air, soil, and trees over a 3-year period. The 2 study datasets were repeatedly measured plots and newly sampled plots. We used hierarchical generalized linear and mixed effect models to determine associations. Climate systematically influenced C. gattii concentrations in all environmental media tested; in soil and on trees, concentrations decreased when temperatures were warmer. Wind may be a key process that transferred C. gattii from soil into air and onto trees. C. gattii results for tree and air samples were more likely to be positive during periods of higher solar radiation. These results improve the understanding of the places and periods with the greatest C. gattii colonization. Refined risk projections may help susceptible persons avoid activities that disturb the topsoil during relatively cool summer days.

  7. Climatic Influences on Cryptoccoccus gattii Populations, Vancouver Island, Canada, 2002–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Sunny; Manangan, Arie; Luber, George; Bartlett, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Vancouver Island, Canada, reports the world’s highest incidence of Cryptococcus gattii infection among humans and animals. To identify key biophysical factors modulating environmental concentrations, we evaluated monthly concentrations of C. gatti in air, soil, and trees over a 3-year period. The 2 study datasets were repeatedly measured plots and newly sampled plots. We used hierarchical generalized linear and mixed effect models to determine associations. Climate systematically influenced C. gattii concentrations in all environmental media tested; in soil and on trees, concentrations decreased when temperatures were warmer. Wind may be a key process that transferred C. gattii from soil into air and onto trees. C. gattii results for tree and air samples were more likely to be positive during periods of higher solar radiation. These results improve the understanding of the places and periods with the greatest C. gattii colonization. Refined risk projections may help susceptible persons avoid activities that disturb the topsoil during relatively cool summer days. PMID:26484590

  8. Prompted awareness and use of Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, N; Van der Meer, L; Agborsangaya, C B; Murray, T; Storey, K; Johnson, J A; Loitz, C C; Johnson, S T

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the awareness of Canada's Food Guide (CFG). The present study aimed to report the general and specific awareness of CFG recommendations among adults in Alberta, Canada. For this cross-sectional study, respondents (aged >18 years) from randomly selected households completed a telephone survey. Questions pertaining to CFG, physical activity, and vegetable and fruit consumption were included. Logistic regression determined associations between demographic characteristics and awareness of CFG. Thousand two hundred and ten Albertans (50% female, mean age 50.5 years) responded. Most [86.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 84.6-88.4] indicated being generally aware of CFG when prompted and 82.5% were aware of specific CFG recommendations. There were no differences in age between those generally aware and unaware of CFG. Female sex [odds ratio (OR) = 3.6; 95%CI = 24-5.4], Caucasian ethnicity (OR = 3.7; 95% CI = 2.3-5.8), income ≥ Canadian $100 000 per annum (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1-2.3), reporting ≥5 vegetables and fruit per day (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.4-3.2), exceeding recommended levels for physical activity (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.3-2.9) and perception of current weight as healthy (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.2-2.8) were associated with an awareness of CFG. Sex, ethnicity and income were associated with general awareness of CFG. Future studies could explore the relationship between awareness and other health-related behaviours. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Substance Use, Health, and Functioning Characteristics of Medical Marijuana Program Participants Compared to the General Adult Population in Ontario (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Ialomiteanu, Anca R; Aeby, Samantha; Rudzinski, Katherine; Kurdyak, Paul; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Existent profiles of Medical Marijuana Program (MMP) participants indicate common and co-morbid chronic diseases, yet evidence on disability or functioning as well as comparisons with general populations are largely lacking. This study compared health, substance use, and functioning status among formally approved MMP participants with the general adult population in Ontario (Canada). A community-recruited sample (n = 53) of MMP participants was compared to a sub-sample (n = 510) of the representative Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor (2015 cycle) survey of Ontario general population adults (ages 18+) based on identical telephone-based interviews regarding substance use, health, and functioning measures. Means and standard deviations for all indicators were computed by sex, controlled for age and education, and compared by regression techniques. MMP participants were more likely to be male, younger, and less socio-economically integrated; they indicated more common psychoactive substance (e.g., tobacco, daily cannabis) and psychotropic medication use, as well as overall worse physical and mental health and functioning status. Marked differences between MMP participants and general population adults were observed. MMPs appear to attract individuals with complex chronic health problems; however, little is known about the impact of MMP participation on these.

  10. Experimental Study on the Geometrical and Mechanical Properties of Goose Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zhang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper examined the properties of goose eggshells to determine possible areas of improvement in egg transport and storage. First, we measured goose egg sizes and performed statistical tests, and found that the major axis, minor axis, and egg-shape index presented normal distribution. Eggshell thickness first increased and then decreased from the blunt end to the sharp end. Second, the shape of individual goose eggshell was measured using a 3D scanner. Volume equation, surface equation, and contour function of goose eggshell shape were obtained, exhibiting a highly symmetrical structure. Finally, goose eggs were compressed along their major and minor axes between two plates. Breaking strength was highly dependent on the shape index. A crack was found on the force point along the major axis of each goose egg.

  11. Reproductive characteristics and population decline of four species of skate (Rajidae) off the eastern coast of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcphie, R P; Campana, S E

    2009-07-01

    Four of the most common species of skate (Rajidae) were studied off eastern Canada to determine if their reproductive characteristics were linked to their population trajectories. The fecundity of the winter skate Leucoraja ocellata, the little skate Leucoraja erinacea, the thorny skate Amblyraja radiata and the smooth skate Malacoraja senta averaged between 41 and 56 egg cases per year for each species. For all species but L. ocellata, males matured at larger sizes and at later ages than females. Theoretical rates of population increase for non-equilibrium populations of L. ocellata (c. 0.07), M. senta (c. 0.14) and L. erinacea and A. radiata (c. 0.20) were low compared to most fishes, indicating that north-west Atlantic skates are intrinsically unproductive, yet are theoretically capable of supporting low-level fisheries. Nevertheless, the results of 36 years of research surveys indicate that the abundance of mature L. ocellata, A. radiata and M. senta all decreased by >90% since 1970, indicating that past fishing mortality (both directed and undirected) has outstripped the net productivity of the skate populations on the eastern Scotian Shelf. The relationship between maximum age (t(max)) and age of maturity (t(mat)) was a better predictor of population growth rate than was body size, with the species exhibiting the highest ratios of t(mat) :t(max) (L. ocellata = 0.68, M. senta = 0.66) having the lowest predicted population growth rates. L. ocellata appears to have the lowest productivity and has experienced the greatest population decline, thus raising concerns over its future status.

  12. INCREASING THE REPRESENTATION OF THE BLACK POPULATION IN THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS IN CANADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukic, Adele; Steenbeek, Audrey; Muxlow, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Increased representation of the Black population in the health care system is central to decrease health disparities, enhance access to services, and improve health outcomes and quality of care. Current strategies for recruitment and retention of the Black population in higher education in the health fields are explored. The added value of mentorship programs are presented as a promising approach for addressing the high rates of attrition of the Black population in health professional education institutions.

  13. Safety and efficacy of an inactivated Carbopol-adjuvanted Goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus vaccine for domestic geese

    OpenAIRE

    GELFI, Jacqueline; PAPPALARDO, Michael; Claverys, Carine; Peralta, Brigitte; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Hemorrhagic Nephritis Enteritis of Goose (HNEG) is an epizootic viral disease in domestic geese. Its agent is a polyomavirus, namely Goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV). To help control the disease, an inactivated vaccine was developed, based on viral particles produced in goose kidney cells. Viral material was quantified using real-time quantitative PCR, inactivated with ?-propiolactone and adjuvanted with Carbopol, an acrylic acid polymer. Carbopol proved to be more i...

  14. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among indigenous populations in Canada: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2017-05-03

    Previous studies on overweight and obesity among indigenous peoples in Canada have been inconclusive. A systematic review was conducted on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Canadian indigenous populations. Major bibliographic databases were searched for relevant studies published between January 1990 and June 2013. We reviewed 594 abstracts and included 41 studies in the meta-analyses. Using the heterogeneity test (Cochrane Q) results, the overall prevalence was estimated using fixed- or random-effects model. Nonadults (obesity at 29.8% (95% CI: 25.2-34.4) and 26.5% (95% CI: 21.8-31.3), respectively. The pooled prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults were 29.7% (95% CI: 28.2-31.2) and 36.6% (95% CI: 32.9-40.2), respectively. Adult males had higher overweight prevalence than females (34.6% vs. 26.6%), but lower obesity prevalence (31.6% vs. 40.6%). Nonadult girls had higher prevalence than boys [overweight: 27.6%; 95% CI: 22.6-32.7 vs. 24.7%; 95% CI: 19.0-30.5; obesity: 28.6%; 95% CI: 20.3-36.9 vs. 25.1%; 95% CI: 13.8-36.4]. Nonadult Inuit had the highest overweight and lowest obesity prevalence. Although Inuit adult had the lowest prevalence of overweight (28.7%; 95% CI: 27.3-30.2) and obesity (32.3%; 95% CI: 25.5-39.1), it was relatively high. This study highlights the need for nutritional intervention programs for obesity prevention among indigenous populations in Canada.

  15. Tackling health literacy: adaptation of public hypertension educational materials for an Indo-Asian population in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Sailesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indo-Asians in Canada are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. There is a need for cultural and language specific educational materials relating to this risk. During this project we developed and field tested the acceptability of a hypertension public education pamphlet tailored to fit the needs of an at risk local Indo-Asian population, in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Methods A community health board representing Calgary's Indo-Asian communities identified the culturally specific educational needs and language preferences of the local population. An adaptation of an existing English language Canadian Public Hypertension Recommendations pamphlet was created considering the literacy and translation challenges. The adapted pamphlet was translated into four Indo-Asian languages. The adapted pamphlets were disseminated as part of the initial educational component of a community-based culturally and language-sensitive cardiovascular risk factor screening and management program. Field testing of the materials was undertaken when participants returned for program follow-up seven to 12 months later. Results Fifty-nine English-speaking participants evaluated and confirmed the concept validity of the English adapted version. 28 non-English speaking participants evaluated the Gujarati (N = 13 and Punjabi (N = 15 translated versions of the adapted pamphlets. All participants found the pamphlets acceptable and felt they had improved their understanding of hypertension. Conclusions Involving the target community to identify health issues as well as help to create culturally, language and literacy sensitive health education materials ensures resources are highly acceptable to that community. Minor changes to the materials will be needed prior to formal testing of hypertension knowledge and health decision-making on a larger scale within this at risk community.

  16. Contribution of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain to adverse neonatal outcomes: population attributable fractions for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakpasu, Susie; Fahey, John; Kirby, Russell S; Tough, Suzanne C; Chalmers, Beverley; Heaman, Maureen I; Bartholomew, Sharon; Biringer, Anne; Darling, Elizabeth K; Lee, Lily S; McDonald, Sarah D

    2015-02-05

    Low or high prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and inadequate or excess gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. This study estimates the contribution of these risk factors to preterm births (PTBs), small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) births in Canada compared to the contribution of prenatal smoking, a recognized perinatal risk factor. We analyzed data from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey. A sample of 5,930 women who had a singleton live birth in 2005-2006 was weighted to a nationally representative population of 71,200 women. From adjusted odds ratios, we calculated population attributable fractions to estimate the contribution of BMI, GWG and prenatal smoking to PTB, SGA and LGA infants overall and across four obstetric groups. Overall, 6% of women were underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)) and 34.4% were overweight or obese (≥25.0 kg/m(2)). More than half (59.4%) gained above the recommended weight for their BMI, 18.6% gained less than the recommended weight and 10.4% smoked prenatally. Excess GWG contributed more to adverse outcomes than BMI, contributing to 18.2% of PTB and 15.9% of LGA. Although the distribution of BMI and GWG was similar across obstetric groups, their impact was greater among primigravid women and multigravid women without a previous PTB or pregnancy loss. The contributions of BMI and GWG to PTB and SGA exceeded that of prenatal smoking. Maternal weight, and GWG in particular, contributes significantly to the occurrence of adverse neonatal outcomes in Canada. Indeed, this contribution exceeds that of prenatal smoking for PTB and SGA, highlighting its public health importance.

  17. A new cause of spoilage in goose sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacumin, Lucilla; Manzano, Marisa; Panseri, Sara; Chiesa, Luca; Comi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the microorganisms present and to investigate their metabolites that cause spoilage of many goose sausages produced in Friuli, a northeast region of Italy. The defect was observed by sensorial analysis using the "needle probing" technique; the spoiled sausages were unsafe and not marketable. Despite the addition of starter, the microorganisms, particularly enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae, grew during ripening and produced a large amount of biogenic amines; therefore, these sausages represented a risk to consumers. The production of those compounds was confirmed in vitro. Furthermore, a second cause of spoilage was attributed to moulds that grew during ripening; the fungi grew between the meat and casing, producing a large amount of total volatile nitrogen, and consequently an ammonia smell was present either in the ripening area or in the sausages. This is the first description of this type of defect in goose sausages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Disparities and Trends in Birth Outcomes, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in Aboriginal vs. Non-Aboriginal Populations: A Population-Based Study in Quebec, Canada 1996–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Xiao, Lin; Auger, Nathalie; Torrie, Jill; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Zoungrana, Hamado; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Aboriginal populations are at substantially higher risks of adverse birth outcomes, perinatal and infant mortality than their non-Aboriginal counterparts even in developed countries including Australia, U.S. and Canada. There is a lack of data on recent trends in Canada. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study (n = 254,410) using the linked vital events registry databases for singleton births in Quebec 1996–2010. Aboriginal (First Nations, Inuit) births were identified by mother tongue, place of residence and Indian Registration System membership. Outcomes included preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age, large-for-gestational-age, low birth weight, high birth weight, stillbirth, neonatal death, postneonatal death, perinatal death and infant death. Results Perinatal and infant mortality rates were 1.47 and 1.80 times higher in First Nations (10.1 and 7.3 per 1000, respectively), and 2.37 and 4.46 times higher in Inuit (16.3 and 18.1 per 1000, respectively) relative to non-Aboriginal (6.9 and 4.1 per 1000, respectively) births (all prates were persistently (1.7–1.8 times) higher in Inuit, large-for-gestational-age birth rates were persistently (2.7–3.0 times) higher in First Nations births over the study period. Between 1996–2000 and 2006–2010, as compared to non-Aboriginal infants, the relative risk disparities increased for infant mortality (from 4.10 to 5.19 times) in Inuit, and for postneonatal mortality in Inuit (from 6.97 to 12.33 times) or First Nations (from 3.76 to 4.25 times) infants. Adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, marital status, parity, education and rural vs. urban residence) attenuated the risk differences, but significantly elevated risks remained in both Inuit and First Nations births for the risks of perinatal mortality (1.70 and 1.28 times, respectively), infant mortality (3.66 and 1.47 times, respectively) and postneonatal mortality (6.01 and 2.28 times, respectively) in Inuit and

  19. Disparities and Trends in Birth Outcomes, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in Aboriginal vs. Non-Aboriginal Populations: A Population-Based Study in Quebec, Canada 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Xiao, Lin; Auger, Nathalie; Torrie, Jill; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Zoungrana, Hamado; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal populations are at substantially higher risks of adverse birth outcomes, perinatal and infant mortality than their non-Aboriginal counterparts even in developed countries including Australia, U.S. and Canada. There is a lack of data on recent trends in Canada. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study (n = 254,410) using the linked vital events registry databases for singleton births in Quebec 1996-2010. Aboriginal (First Nations, Inuit) births were identified by mother tongue, place of residence and Indian Registration System membership. Outcomes included preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age, large-for-gestational-age, low birth weight, high birth weight, stillbirth, neonatal death, postneonatal death, perinatal death and infant death. Perinatal and infant mortality rates were 1.47 and 1.80 times higher in First Nations (10.1 and 7.3 per 1000, respectively), and 2.37 and 4.46 times higher in Inuit (16.3 and 18.1 per 1000, respectively) relative to non-Aboriginal (6.9 and 4.1 per 1000, respectively) births (all prates were persistently (1.7-1.8 times) higher in Inuit, large-for-gestational-age birth rates were persistently (2.7-3.0 times) higher in First Nations births over the study period. Between 1996-2000 and 2006-2010, as compared to non-Aboriginal infants, the relative risk disparities increased for infant mortality (from 4.10 to 5.19 times) in Inuit, and for postneonatal mortality in Inuit (from 6.97 to 12.33 times) or First Nations (from 3.76 to 4.25 times) infants. Adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, marital status, parity, education and rural vs. urban residence) attenuated the risk differences, but significantly elevated risks remained in both Inuit and First Nations births for the risks of perinatal mortality (1.70 and 1.28 times, respectively), infant mortality (3.66 and 1.47 times, respectively) and postneonatal mortality (6.01 and 2.28 times, respectively) in Inuit and First Nations infants (all pinfant

  20. Disparities and Trends in Birth Outcomes, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in Aboriginal vs. Non-Aboriginal Populations: A Population-Based Study in Quebec, Canada 1996-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Chen

    Full Text Available Aboriginal populations are at substantially higher risks of adverse birth outcomes, perinatal and infant mortality than their non-Aboriginal counterparts even in developed countries including Australia, U.S. and Canada. There is a lack of data on recent trends in Canada.We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study (n = 254,410 using the linked vital events registry databases for singleton births in Quebec 1996-2010. Aboriginal (First Nations, Inuit births were identified by mother tongue, place of residence and Indian Registration System membership. Outcomes included preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age, large-for-gestational-age, low birth weight, high birth weight, stillbirth, neonatal death, postneonatal death, perinatal death and infant death.Perinatal and infant mortality rates were 1.47 and 1.80 times higher in First Nations (10.1 and 7.3 per 1000, respectively, and 2.37 and 4.46 times higher in Inuit (16.3 and 18.1 per 1000, respectively relative to non-Aboriginal (6.9 and 4.1 per 1000, respectively births (all p<0.001. Compared to non-Aboriginal births, preterm birth rates were persistently (1.7-1.8 times higher in Inuit, large-for-gestational-age birth rates were persistently (2.7-3.0 times higher in First Nations births over the study period. Between 1996-2000 and 2006-2010, as compared to non-Aboriginal infants, the relative risk disparities increased for infant mortality (from 4.10 to 5.19 times in Inuit, and for postneonatal mortality in Inuit (from 6.97 to 12.33 times or First Nations (from 3.76 to 4.25 times infants. Adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, marital status, parity, education and rural vs. urban residence attenuated the risk differences, but significantly elevated risks remained in both Inuit and First Nations births for the risks of perinatal mortality (1.70 and 1.28 times, respectively, infant mortality (3.66 and 1.47 times, respectively and postneonatal mortality (6.01 and 2.28 times

  1. Population fragmentation and inter-ecosystem movements of grizzly bears in Western Canada and the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, M.F.; Paetkau, David; McLellan, B.N.; Stenhouse, G.B.; Kendall, K.C.; Mace, R.D.; Kasworm, W.F.; Servheen, C.; Lausen, C.L.; Gibeau, M.L.; Wakkinen, W.L.; Haroldson, M.A.; Mowat, G.; Apps, C.D.; Ciarniello, L.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.; Boyce, M.S.; Schwartz, C.C.; Strobeck, C.

    2012-01-01

    Population fragmentation compromises population viability, reduces a species ability to respond to climate change, and ultimately may reduce biodiversity. We studied the current state and potential causes of fragmentation in grizzly bears over approximately 1,000,000 km 2 of western Canada, the northern United States (US), and southeast Alaska. We compiled much of our data from projects undertaken with a variety of research objectives including population estimation and trend, landscape fragmentation, habitat selection, vital rates, and response to human development. Our primary analytical techniques stemmed from genetic analysis of 3,134 bears, supplemented with radiotelemetry data from 792 bears. We used 15 locus microsatellite data coupled withmeasures of genetic distance, isolation-by-distance (IBD) analysis, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), linear multiple regression, multi-factorial correspondence analysis (to identify population divisions or fractures with no a priori assumption of group membership), and population-assignment methods to detect individual migrants between immediately adjacent areas. These data corroborated observations of inter-area movements from our telemetry database. In northern areas, we found a spatial genetic pattern of IBD, although there was evidence of natural fragmentation from the rugged heavily glaciated coast mountains of British Columbia (BC) and the Yukon. These results contrasted with the spatial pattern of fragmentation in more southern parts of their distribution. Near the Canada-US border area, we found extensive fragmentation that corresponded to settled mountain valleys andmajor highways. Genetic distances across developed valleys were elevated relative to those across undeveloped valleys in central and northern BC. In disturbed areas, most inter-area movements detected were made by male bears, with few female migrants identified. North-south movements within mountain ranges (Mts) and across BC Highway 3 were more common

  2. Constitutive heterochromatin in chromosomes of duck hybrids and goose hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, E; Smalec, E

    2017-01-01

    Constitutive heterochromatin is a highly condensed fraction of chromatin in chromosomes. It is characterized by a high degree of polymorphism. Heterochromatin is located in the centromeric, telomeric, and interstitial parts of chromosomes. We used the CBG ( C: banding using B: arium hydroxide by G: iemsa) staining technique to identify heterochromatin in chromosomes. Analysis of karyotypes of F1 hybrids resulting from intergeneric hybridization of ducks (A. platyrhynchos × C. moschata) and interspecific crosses of geese (A. anser × A. cygnoides) were used to compare the karyotypes of 2 species of duck and 2 species of geese, as well as to compare the hybrids with the parent species. The localization of C-bands and their size were determined. In the duck hybrid, greater amounts of heterochromatin were noted in the homologous chromosomes from the duck A. platyrhynchos than in the chromosomes from the duck C. moschata. In the goose hybrid more heterochromatin was observed in the homologous chromosomes from the goose A. cygnoides than in the chromosomes from the goose A. anser. Comparison of chromosomes from the duck hybrid with chromosomes of the ducks A. platyrhynchos and C. moschata revealed nearly twice as much constitutive heterochromatin in the chromosomes of the hybrid. When chromosomes from the goose hybrid were compared with those of the geese A. anser and A. cygnoides, differences in the average content of heterochromatin were observed on only a few chromosomes. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Population structure of resident, immigrant, and swimming Corophium volutator (Amphipoda) on an intertidal mudflat in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, David; Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2012-05-01

    Spatial variation in biotic and abiotic conditions, and differences in dispersive behavior of different life history stages can result in the formation of zones with different demography for infaunal and epifaunal species within vast intertidal flats. In this study, we evaluated within-mudflat homogeneity of the infaunal amphipod Corophium volutator found in the mud (residents), colonizing artificially disturbed areas (immigrants), and caught in the water column (swimmers) on a large mudflat in the upper Bay of Fundy, Canada. Densities of residents, immigrants, and swimmers were well structured in space (both along and across shore). Occasionally, significant differences in size structure, sex ratio, and proportion of ovigerous females were found at different intertidal levels, but these were short-lived. Comparisons of size and sex structure of residents, immigrants, and swimmers revealed occasional marked differences, with small juveniles and large adult males moving most. However, this size-bias in movement did not translate into zones with different population dynamics, suggesting that ample dispersal, through swimming and drifting in the water column, homogenized the population and masked potential effects of variation in environmental conditions. We therefore conclude that the mudflat represents one homogeneous population.

  4. Population limitation of the northern red-backed vole in the boreal forests of northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Rudy; Krebs, Charles J

    2006-11-01

    1. Across the vast boreal forests of North America, no population cycles in Clethrionomys species occur. In Eurasia, by contrast, some Clethrionomys populations of the same species undergo regular 3-5-year cycles. We examined the effects of nutrients, food, competitors, predators and climate on population limitation in the northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus Pallas) in the south-western Yukon to determine why this difference occurs. 2. From 1986 to 1996 we added food, reduced large mammal predators and excluded snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) from large plots and found that none of these manipulations affected red-backed vole abundance. Adding nutrients as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizer had a slight negative effect, probably acting through a reduction in dwarf shrub productivity caused by competition from grasses. 3. We monitored weasel populations directly through trapping and indirectly through snow tracking. Predation by these vole specialists was irrelevant as a limiting factor most of the time because voles in this area do not reach the densities needed to sustain weasel populations. Other boreal forest mammal and bird predators did not focus on red-backed voles. However, when red-backed vole populations increased in the forest and Microtus voles also increased in the meadows, weasel populations increased and may have temporarily depressed red-backed voles in winter. 4. We monitored one major potential food, white spruce seeds, but seed fall was not related to population changes in red-backed voles, even after mast years. 5. We assessed the impact of weather variables, and the average depth of the snow pack during winter (October-March) was correlated directly with vole demography, having both direct effects in that year and delayed effects in the following year. 6. Our long-term trapping data (1973-96) indicate that Clethrionomys populations fluctuated, with peaks following hare peaks by 2-3 years. 7. We propose

  5. Moose (Alces alces population size and density in the Inuvik Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Davison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Responding to community concerns, the Gwich’in Renewable Resources Board (GRRB and the Government of the Northwest Territories Department of Environment and Natural Resources (ENR conducted an aerial moose (Alces alces survey in the Inuvik region of the Northwest Territories, Canada to estimate moose density and distribution. The survey was flown in March 2011 and a random stratified sample design was used. Local knowledge was incorporated in to the stratification of survey cells. Moose density in survey blocks ranged from 9.66 moose/100 km2 in the Ikhil Pipeline block to 0 in the Peel River block with a coarse overall moose density 2.24 moose/100 km2. Densities found were low but within expected range for the species in this region of North America based on past surveys. Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}

  6. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Bone Mineral Status in a Population of Newcomer Children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gushulak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low levels of circulating vitamin D are more likely to be found in those with darker skin pigmentation, who live in areas of high latitude, and who wear more clothing. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in newcomer immigrant and refugee children. Methods: We evaluated circulating vitamin D status of immigrant children at the national level. Subsequently, we investigated vitamin D intake, circulating vitamin D status, and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC in newcomer children living in Saskatchewan. Results: In the sample of newcomer children in Saskatchewan, the prevalence of inadequacy in calcium and vitamin D intakes was 76% and 89.4%, respectively. Vitamin D intake from food/supplement was significantly higher in immigrants compared to refugees, which accords with the significant difference in serum status. Circulating vitamin D status indicated that 29% of participants were deficient and another 44% had inadequate levels of serum 25(OHD for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake, sex, region of origin, and length of stay in Canada were significant predictors of serum vitamin D status. Results for TBBMC revealed that 38.6% were found to have low TBBMC compared to estimated values for age, sex, and ethnicity. In the regression model, after controlling for possible confounders, children who were taller and had greater circulating vitamin D also had greater TBBMC. Nationally, immigrant children, particularly girls, have significantly lower plasma 25(OHD than non-immigrant children. Interpretation: Newcomer immigrant and refugee children are at a high risk of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, which may have serious negative consequences for their health.

  7. Enabling the participation of marginalized populations: case studies from a health service organization in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesanti, Stephanie R; Abelson, Julia; Lavis, John N; Dunn, James R

    2017-08-01

    We examined efforts to engage marginalized populations in Ontario Community Health Centers (CHCs), which are primary health care organizations serving 74 high-risk communities. Qualitative case studies of community participation in four Ontario CHCs were carried out through key informant interviews with CHC staff to identify: (i) the approaches, strategies and methods used in participation initiatives aimed specifically at engaging marginalized populations in the planning of and decision making for health services; and (ii) the challenges and enablers for engaging these populations. The marginalized populations involved in the community participation initiatives studied included Low-German Speaking Mennonites in a rural town, newcomer immigrants and refugees in an urban downtown city, immigrant and francophone seniors in an inner city and refugee women in an inner city. Our analysis revealed that enabling the participation of marginalized populations requires CHCs to attend to the barriers experienced by marginalized populations that constrain their participation. Key informants outlined the features of a 'community development approach' that they rely on to address the barriers to marginalized peoples' involvement by strengthening their skills, abilities and leadership in capacity-building activities. The community development approach also shaped the participation methods that were used in the engagement process of CHCs. However, key informants also described the challenges of applying this approach, influenced by the cultural values of some groups, which shaped their willingness and motivation to participate. This study provides further insight into the approach, strategies and methods used in the engagement process to enable the participation of marginalized populations, which may be transferable to other health services settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Describing the population health burden of depression: health-adjusted life expectancy by depression status in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, C; Loukine, L; Orpana, H; McRae, L; Vachon, J; Mo, F; Boileau-Falardeau, M; Reid, C; Choi, B C

    2016-10-01

    depression equated to a 13.0-year HRQOL gap and a 1.8-year mortality gap. The population of adult men and women with depression in Canada had substantially lower healthy life expectancy than those without depression. Much of this gap is explained by lower levels of HRQOL, but premature mortality also plays a role.

  9. Conservation prioritization in widespread species: the use of genetic and morphological data to assess population distinctiveness in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Eric B.; Tamkee, Patrick; Keeley, Ernest R; Parkinson, Eric A

    2010-01-01

    Prioritization of efforts to maintain biodiversity is an important component of conservation, but is more often applied to ecosystems or species than within species. We assessed distinctiveness among 27 populations of rainbow trout (Salmonidae: Oncorhynchus mykiss) from British Columbia, Canada, using microsatellite DNA variation (representing historical or contemporary demography) and morphology (representing adaptive variation). Standardized genetic scores, that is, the average deviation ac...

  10. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  11. Most children with cancer are not enrolled on a clinical trial in Canada: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Jason D; Barber, Randy; Bergeron, Rose-Émilie; Carret, Anne Sophie; Dix, David; Kulkarni, Ketan; Martineau, Emilie; Randall, Alicia; Stammers, David; Strahlendorf, Caron; Strother, Douglas R; Truong, Tony H; Sung, Lillian

    2017-06-05

    Primary objective was to describe the proportion of children newly diagnosed with cancer enrolled on a therapeutic clinical trial. Secondary objectives were to describe reasons for non-enrollment and factors associated with enrollment on trials. In this retrospective cohort study, we included children newly diagnosed with cancer between 0 and 14 years of age and diagnosed from 2001 to 2012. We used data from the Cancer in Young People in Canada (CYP-C) national pediatric cancer population-based database. CYP-C captures all cases of pediatric cancer (0-14 years) diagnosed and treated at one of the 17 tertiary pediatric oncology centers in Canada. Non-enrollment was evaluated using univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. There were 9204 children with cancer included, of whom 2533 (27.5%) were enrolled on a clinical trial. The most common reasons cited for non-enrollment were lack of an available trial (52.2%) and physician choice (11.2%). In multiple regression, Asian and Arab/west Asian race were associated with lower enrollment (P = 0.006 and P = 0.032 respectively). All cancer diagnoses were more likely to be enrolled compared to astrocytoma and children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia had an almost 18-fold increased odds of enrollment compared to astrocytoma (P enrollment (P enrolled onto therapeutic clinical trials and lack of an available trial is the most common reason contributing to non-enrollment. Future research should better understand reasons for lack of trial availability and physician preferences to not offer trials.

  12. Polar bear population status in the northern Beaufort Sea, Canada, 1971-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Ian; McDonald, Trent L; Richardson, E S; Regehr, Eric V; Amstrup, Steven C

    2011-04-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the northern Beaufort Sea (NB) population occur on the perimeter of the polar basin adjacent to the northwestern islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sea ice converges on the islands through most of the year. We used open-population capture-recapture models to estimate population size and vital rates of polar bears between 1971 and 2006 to: (1) assess relationships between survival, sex and age, and time period; (2) evaluate the long-term importance of sea ice quality and availability in relation to climate warming; and (3) note future management and conservation concerns. The highest-ranking models suggested that survival of polar bears varied by age class and with changes in the sea ice habitat. Model-averaged estimates of survival (which include harvest mortality) for senescent adults ranged from 0.37 to 0.62, from 0.22 to 0.68 for cubs of the year (COY) and yearlings, and from 0.77 to 0.92 for 2-4 year-olds and adults. Horvtiz-Thompson (HT) estimates of population size were not significantly different among the decades of our study. The population size estimated for the 2000s was 980 +/- 155 (mean and 95% CI). These estimates apply primarily to that segment of the NB population residing west and south of Banks Island. The NB polar bear population appears to have been stable or possibly increasing slightly during the period of our study. This suggests that ice conditions have remained suitable and similar for feeding in summer and fall during most years and that the traditional and legal Inuvialuit harvest has not exceeded sustainable levels. However, the amount of ice remaining in the study area at the end of summer, and the proportion that continues to lie over the biologically productive continental shelf (polar bear population in the northern Beaufort Sea will eventually decline. Management and conservation practices for polar bears in relation to both aboriginal harvesting and offshore industrial activity will need to

  13. Polar bear population status in the northern Beaufort Sea, Canada, 1971-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, I.; McDonald, T.L.; Richardson, E.S.; Regehr, E.V.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the northern Beaufort Sea (NB) population occur on the perimeter of the polar basin adjacent to the northwestern islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sea ice converges on the islands through most of the year. We used open-population capture–recapture models to estimate population size and vital rates of polar bears between 1971 and 2006 to: (1) assess relationships between survival, sex and age, and time period; (2) evaluate the long-term importance of sea ice quality and availability in relation to climate warming; and (3) note future management and conservation concerns. The highest-ranking models suggested that survival of polar bears varied by age class and with changes in the sea ice habitat. Model-averaged estimates of survival (which include harvest mortality) for senescent adults ranged from 0.37 to 0.62, from 0.22 to 0.68 for cubs of the year (COY) and yearlings, and from 0.77 to 0.92 for 2–4 year-olds and adults. Horvtiz-Thompson (HT) estimates of population size were not significantly different among the decades of our study. The population size estimated for the 2000s was 980 ± 155 (mean and 95% CI). These estimates apply primarily to that segment of the NB population residing west and south of Banks Island. The NB polar bear population appears to have been stable or possibly increasing slightly during the period of our study. This suggests that ice conditions have remained suitable and similar for feeding in summer and fall during most years and that the traditional and legal Inuvialuit harvest has not exceeded sustainable levels. However, the amount of ice remaining in the study area at the end of summer, and the proportion that continues to lie over the biologically productive continental shelf (climate continues to warm as predicted, we predict that the polar bear population in the northern Beaufort Sea will eventually decline. Management and conservation practices for polar bears in relation to both

  14. Distribution, abundance and productivity of fall staging lesser snow geese on coastal habitats of northeast Alaska and northwest Canada, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fall staging of the western arctic lesser snow goose population was I. monitored on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Yukon Territory...

  15. Migraine headache and risk of self-harm and suicide: A population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Ian; Kingsbury, Mila; Sareen, Jitender; Bolton, James; van Walraven, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Migraine has been associated with mental illness, and may also be associated with increased risk of suicidal behavior. The aim of this article was to examine the association between migraine headache and self-harm and suicide mortality using population-based health administrative data from Ontario, Canada. The sample included 101,114 participants in a population-based health survey in the province of Ontario, Canada, who responded to the survey in 2003, 2005, or 2007, and provided health card numbers for linkage to population-based health administrative data. Participants self-reported a physician diagnosis of migraine headache. Heath administrative data were used to calculate (1) Follow-up time until first presentation to the emergency department for intentional self-harm; (2) Follow-up time until death by suicide. Proportional subdistribution hazards regression was used to compare time until death among those with and without history of migraine, after accounting for competing risks of death and adjusting for confounders. Physician diagnosis of migraine was reported by 11.2% of the sample (11,314 individuals). Mean follow-up time was 7.3 years. Emergency department visits for self-harm during the follow-up period were almost 50% more likely in those with migraine (76.4 vs 35.7 per 100,000 person years; adjusted hazard ratio = 1.48; 95%CI: 1.11,1.96). Death by suicide was rare with only 55 suicides in the follow-up period (7.45 per 100,000 person-years). Risk of suicide was similar for both those with and without history of migraine headache (adjusted hazard ratio=0.60; 95%CI: 0.22,1.65). Physician diagnosis of migraine headache was found to be prospectively associated with increased risk of deliberate self-harm, but there was no evidence linking it to suicide mortality. Definitively linking migraine to death by suicide may require very large samples. Health care professionals should consider monitoring suicidal risk in individuals with migraine headache.

  16. Descriptive study of interprofessional collaboration between physicians and osteopaths for the pediatric population in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Morin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopathy is an increasingly popular healthcare approach that uses a wide variety of therapeutic manual techniques to address pain and somatic dysfunction. In Quebec, Canada, osteopathy is the complementary medicine most often recommended by family physicians. However, factors fostering the development of interprofessional collaboration (IPC between physicians and osteopaths are unknown. This study aimed to describe the current situation in terms of IPC among practitioners working with pediatric patients. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was sent to osteopaths, family physicians, and pediatricians involved with pediatric patients in the province of Quebec. The postal questionnaire captured general knowledge about osteopathy and its practice parameters and role, sources of information, communication aspects including having a professional relationship and referrals, and influence of the upcoming government regulation. Quantitative data from the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Logistic regression model for factors associated with osteopathic referrals and multiple linear regression analyses for the number of correct answers about general osteopathic practice parameters were performed. Results A total of 274 physicians (155 family physicians (response rate 13% and 119 pediatricians (17% and 297 osteopaths (42% completed the survey. According to physicians, osteopathy was most appropriate for musculoskeletal pain (241; 91% and plagiocephaly (235; 88%. Osteopathic referral was positively associated with having a professional relationship (odds ratio [OR] 4.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.12; 7.95, p < 0.001, personal consultation (OR 2.58 (95% CI 1.35; 4.93, p = 0.004, community-based practice (OR 1.89 (95% CI 1.03; 3.47, p = 0.040, and belief in the active role of osteopathy for pediatric conditions (OR 1.22 (95% CI 1.01; 1.47, p = 0.042. The majority of physicians (72% and

  17. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    of population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...

  18. Exposure of a Cree population living near mine tailings in northern Quebec (Canada) to metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussières, Dominique; Ayotte, Pierre; Levallois, Patrick; Dewailly, Eric; Nieboer, Evert; Gingras, Suzanne; Côté, Suzanne

    2004-12-01

    The authors investigated the effect of residues from copper- and gold-mining on the Cree population of Oujé-Bougoumou, located 560 km north of Quebec City, Canada. Subjects (225) from Oujé-Bougoumou and a control population (100) completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and dietary habits and provided blood and urine samples for analysis. Geometric means of arsenic, lead, cadmium, and copper concentrations were not significantly different for subjects or controls 15 yr and older or children (8-14 yr old). However, blood zinc was higher and selenium was lower in Oujé-Bougoumou samples. Mean blood lead level was higher in children from Oujé-Bougoumou, but lower in adults aged 40 yr and older. For adults (15 yr and older) blood lead level increased with age and was higher in men, those who hunted, and consumed wild meat (R2 = 0.43). Blood cadmium increased with age and smoking (R2 = 0.61). No influence of mine residues was observed among residents of Oujé-Bougoumou, but lifestyle exposure associations were noted for both communities.

  19. Threatened species to super-abundance: The unexpected international implications of successful goose conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Anthony D; Madsen, Jesper

    2017-03-01

    Wild geese wintering in western Europe were declining by the 1930s probably due to loss of natural habitat and over exploitation through hunting, although the causes will never be known. Refuge provision and hunting restrictions from the 1950s enabled numbers to recover. Improved monitoring systems enabled the description of progressive increases and extensions of wintering range since that time, especially amongst those goose populations that increasingly exploited agricultural landscapes. This introductory article sets the scene for the special issue on the increasing interactions and conflicts created by recent increases in the range and abundance of wild geese throughout the northern hemisphere, especially with regard to agricultural damage, but including issues associated with air flight safety, human and animal health, ecosystem effects and conflicts with other biodiversity objectives. It also provides the context for finding common solutions to problems, presenting experiences from regional-, national- and flyway-coordinated management to find solutions to conflict.

  20. Population ecology of polar bears in Davis Strait, Canada and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the sea ice habitat of polar bears was understood to be variable, but environmental variability was considered to be cyclic or random, rather than progressive. Harvested populations were believed to be at levels where density effects were considered not significant. However, because we now understand that polar bear demography can also be influenced by progressive change in the environment, and some populations have increased to greater densities than historically lower numbers, a broader suite of factors should be considered in demographic studies and management. We analyzed 35 years of capture and harvest data from the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulation in Davis Strait, including data from a new study (2005–2007), to quantify its current demography. We estimated the population size in 2007 to be 2,158 ± 180 (SE), a likely increase from the 1970s. We detected variation in survival, reproductive rates, and age-structure of polar bears from geographic sub-regions. Survival and reproduction of bears in southern Davis Strait was greater than in the north and tied to a concurrent dramatic increase in breeding harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) in Labrador. The most supported survival models contained geographic and temporal variables. Harp seal abundance was significantly related to polar bear survival. Our estimates of declining harvest recovery rate, and increasing total survival, suggest that the rate of harvest declined over time. Low recruitment rates, average adult survival rates, and high population density, in an environment of high prey density, but deteriorating and variable ice conditions, currently characterize the Davis Strait polar bears. Low reproductive rates may reflect negative effects of greater densities or worsening ice conditions.

  1. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  2. Spatial patterns of goose grubbing suggest elevated grubbing in dry habitats linked to early snowmelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åshild Ø. Pedersen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The western Palaearctic tundra is a breeding habitat for large populations of European geese. After their arrival in spring, pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus forage extensively on below-ground plant parts, using a feeding technique called grubbing that has substantial impact on the tundra vegetation. Previous studies have shown a high frequency of grubbing in lowland fen vegetation. In the present study, we examined the occurrence of grubbing in other habitat types on Spitsbergen, in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Goose grubbing was surveyed along 19 altitudinal transects, going from the valley bottom to altitudes dominated by scree. Grubbing was more frequent in the wet habitat type at low altitudes compared to the drier habitat type at higher altitudes. For the dry habitat type, a higher frequency of grubbing was found in study plots with a south-east facing exposure where snowmelt is expected to be early. This suggests that pink-footed geese primarily use dry vegetation types for grubbing when they are snow-free in early spring and the availability of snow-free patches of the preferred wet vegetation types in the lowlands is limited. Dry vegetation types have poorer recovery rates from disturbance than wet ones. Sites with early snowmelt and dry vegetation types may therefore be at greater risk of long-term habitat degradation. We conclude that the high growth rate of the Svalbard-breeding pink-footed goose population suggests that increasing impacts of grubbing can be expected and argue that a responsible monitoring of the effects on the tundra ecosystem is crucial.

  3. 77 FR 37035 - Goose River Hydro, Inc.; Independence Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...-027] Goose River Hydro, Inc.; Independence Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions to Intervene On June 6, 2012, Goose River Hydro, Inc. (transferor... Commission approval to transfer the license for the Goose River Project from the transferor to the transferee...

  4. An ephemeral sexual population of Phytophthora infestans in the Northeastern United States and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Danies

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease, has been reported in North America since the mid-nineteenth century. In the United States the lack of or very limited sexual reproduction has resulted in largely clonal populations of P. infestans. In 2010 and 2011, but not in 2012 or 2013, 20 rare and diverse genotypes of P. infestans were detected in a region that centered around central New York State. The ratio of A1 to A2 mating types among these genotypes was close to the 50∶50 ratio expected for sexual recombination. These genotypes were diverse at the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase locus, differed in their microsatellite profiles, showed different banding patterns in a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay using a moderately repetitive and highly polymorphic probe (RG57, were polymorphic for four different nuclear genes and differed in their sensitivity to the systemic fungicide mefenoxam. The null hypothesis of linkage equilibrium was not rejected, which suggests the population could be sexual. These new genotypes were monomorphic in their mitochondrial haplotype that was the same as US-22. Through parentage exclusion testing using microsatellite data and sequences of four nuclear genes, recent dominant lineages US-8, US-11, US-23, and US-24 were excluded as possible parents for these genotypes. Further analyses indicated that US-22 could not be eliminated as a possible parent for 14 of the 20 genotypes. We conclude that US-22 could be a parent of some, but not all, of the new genotypes found in 2010 and 2011. There were at least two other parents for this population and the genotypic characteristics of the other parents were identified.

  5. Preterm birth in the Inuit and First Nations populations of Québec, Canada, 1981–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Auger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate preterm birth (PTB for Inuit and First Nations vs. non-Indigenous populations in the province of Québec, Canada. Study design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: We evaluated singleton live births for Québec residents, 1981–2008 (n = 2,310,466. Municipality of residence (Inuit-inhabited, First Nations-inhabited, rest of Québec and language (Inuit, First Nations, French/English were used to identify Inuit and First Nations births. The outcome was PTB (<37 completed weeks. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to estimate hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of PTB, adjusting for maternal age, education, marital status, parity and birth year. Results: PTB rates were higher for Inuit language speakers in Inuit-inhabited areas and the rest of Québec compared with French/English speakers in the rest of Québec, and disparities persisted over time. Relative to French/English speakers in the rest of Québec, Inuit language speakers in the rest of Québec had the highest risk of PTB (HR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.62–2.41. The risk was also elevated for Inuit language speakers in Inuit-inhabited areas, though to a lesser extent (HR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18–1.41. In contrast, First Nations language speakers in First Nations-inhabited areas and the rest of Québec had similar or lower risks of PTB relative to French/English speakers in the rest of Québec. Conclusions: Inuit populations, especially those outside Inuit-inhabited areas, have persistently elevated risks of PTB, indicating a need for strategies to prevent PTB in this population.

  6. Demography of a breeding population of whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Johanna

    I used a GIS raster layer of an area in the Churchill, Manitoba region to investigate the effect of breeding habitat on demography and density of Whimbrel from 2010 through 2013. Program MARK was used to quantify adult and daily nest survival. Apparent annual survival of 0.73 +/- 0.06 SE (95% CI = 0.60-0.83) did not significantly differ between sexes or habitats and was lower than expected based on longevity records and estimates for other large-bodied shorebirds. Nest success, corrected for exposure days, was highly variable, ranging from a low of 3% (95% CI = 0-12%) in 2011 to a high of 71% (95% CI = 54-83%) in 2013. The highest rate of nest survival occurred in the spring with the warmest mean temperature. I developed a generalized linear model (GLM) with a negative-binomial distribution from random plots that were surveyed for abundance to extrapolate a local breeding population size of 410 +/- 230 SE and density of 3.2 birds per square km +/- 1.8 SE. The result of my study suggests that other aspects of habitat not captured by the land cover categories may be more important to population dynamics.

  7. High-Cost Users of Prescription Drugs: A Population-Based Analysis from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, Deirdre; Smolina, Kate; Gladstone, Emilie J; Morgan, Steven G

    2017-04-01

    To examine variation in pharmaceutical spending and patient characteristics across prescription drug user groups. British Columbia's population-based linked administrative health and sociodemographic databases (N = 3,460,763). We classified individuals into empirically derived prescription drug user groups based on pharmaceutical spending patterns outside hospitals from 2007 to 2011. We examined variation in patient characteristics, mortality, and health services usage and applied hierarchical clustering to determine patterns of concurrent drug use identifying high-cost patients. Approximately 1 in 20 British Columbians had persistently high prescription costs for 5 consecutive years, accounting for 42 percent of 2011 province-wide pharmaceutical spending. Less than 1 percent of the population experienced discrete episodes of high prescription costs; an additional 2.8 percent transitioned to or from high-cost episodes of unknown duration. Persistent high-cost users were more likely to concurrently use multiple chronic medications; episodic and transitory users spent more on specialized medicines, including outpatient cancer drugs. Cluster analyses revealed heterogeneity in concurrent medicine use within high-cost groups. Whether low, moderate, or high, costs of prescription drugs for most individuals are persistent over time. Policies controlling high-cost use should focus on reducing polypharmacy and encouraging price competition in drug classes used by ordinary and high-cost users alike. © 2016 The Authors. Health Services Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. MHC class I loci of the Bar-Headed goose (Anser indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglong Liang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MHC class I proteins mediate functions in anti-pathogen defense. MHC diversity has already been investigated by many studies in model avian species, but here we chose the bar-headed goose, a worldwide migrant bird, as a non-model avian species. Sequences from exons encoding the peptide-binding region (PBR of MHC class I molecules were isolated from liver genomic DNA, to investigate variation in these genes. These are the first MHC class I partial sequences of the bar-headed goose to be reported. A preliminary analysis suggests the presence of at least four MHC class I genes, which share great similarity with those of the goose and duck. A phylogenetic analysis of bar-headed goose, goose and duck MHC class I sequences using the NJ method supports the idea that they all cluster within the anseriforms clade.

  9. Prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among the general and Aboriginal populations in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Probst, Charlotte; Parunashvili, Nino; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure may cause a number of health complications for the mother and developing fetus, including Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). This study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of i) alcohol use (any amount) and binge drinking (4 or more standard drinks on a single occasion) during pregnancy, and ii) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and FASD among the general and Aboriginal populations in Canada and the United States, based on the available literature. Comprehensive systematic literature searches and meta-analyses, assuming a random-effects model, were conducted. It was revealed that about 10% and 15% of pregnant women in the general population consume alcohol in Canada and the United States, respectively, and that about 3% of women engage in binge drinking during pregnancy in both countries. However, the prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy in the Aboriginal populations of the United States and Canada were found to be approximately 3-4 times higher, respectively, compared to the general population. Even more alarmingly, it was estimated that approximately one in five women in the Aboriginal populations in both countries engage in binge drinking during pregnancy. Further, among the general population of Canada, the pooled prevalence was estimated to be about 1 per 1000 for FAS and 5 per 1000 for FASD. However, compared to the general population, the prevalence of FAS and FASD among the Aboriginal population in Canada was estimated to be 38 times and 16 times higher, respectively. With respect to the United States, the pooled prevalence of FAS and FASD was estimated to be about 2 per 1000 and 15 per 1,000, respectively, among the general population, and 4 per 1000 and 10 per 1,000, respectively, among the Aboriginal population. The FAS and FASD pooled prevalence estimates presented here should be used with caution due to the limited number of existing studies and their methodological limitations. Based on the results of the current

  10. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  11. Variations in physicians' hospitalization practices: a population-based study in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, N P; Flowerdew, G; Wajda, A; Tate, R B

    1986-01-01

    This paper uses claims data from a universal health care system to describe physicians' hospitalization styles after adjusting for case-mix characteristics of their primary patients. Patients were uniquely assigned to that physician (general or family practitioners, internist, general surgeon, or obstetrician/gynecologist) seen most frequently over each two two-year periods (1972-74 and 1974-76). Four indices were developed including: 1) percentage of primary patients hospitalized; 2) mean number of readmissions for such patients; 3) mean length of stay; and 4) total days of hospitalization per primary care patient (a summary measure combining the first three). Rates of admission, not length of stay, were shown to be strongly related to this summary measure. Marked variations in the hospitalization indices were observed across physicians; these variations cannot be explained by the health or sociodemographic characteristics of a physician's patients. Rural physicians practicing in areas with high bed-to-population ratios and low occupancy rates were particularly high users of hospitals. The economic implications of different practice styles are shown to be large; physicians who were high users of hospitals serve 27 per cent of the patients but their patients consume 42 per cent of the hospital days. PMID:3079630

  12. A population based time series analysis of asthma hospitalisations in Ontario, Canada: 1988 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upshur Ross EG

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a common yet incompletely understood health problem associated with a high morbidity burden. A wide variety of seasonally variable environmental stimuli such as viruses and air pollution are believed to influence asthma morbidity. This study set out to examine the seasonal patterns of asthma hospitalisations in relation to age and gender for the province of Ontario over a period of 12 years. Methods A retrospective, population-based study design was used to assess temporal patterns in hospitalisations for asthma from April 1, 1988 to March 31, 2000. Approximately 14 million residents of Ontario eligible for universal healthcare coverage during this time were included for analysis. Time series analyses were conducted on monthly aggregations of hospitalisations. Results There is strong evidence of an autumn peak and summer trough seasonal pattern occurring every year over the 12-year period (Fisher-Kappa (FK = 23.93, p > 0.01; Bartlett Kolmogorov Smirnov (BKS = 0.459, p Conclusions A clear and consistent seasonal pattern was observed in this study for asthma hospitalisations. These findings have important implications for the development of effective management and prevention strategies.

  13. Insulin pump use and discontinuation in children and teens: a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Rayzel; Stukel, Therese A; Miller, Fiona A; Newman, Alice; Daneman, Denis; Guttmann, Astrid

    2017-02-01

    To describe insulin pump use by youth since introduction of universal funding in Ontario, Canada and to explore the relationship between pump use and pediatric diabetes center characteristics and the relationship between discontinuation and center and patient characteristics. Observational, population-based cohort study of youth with type 1 diabetes (pump funding from 2006 to 2013 (n = 3700). We linked 2012 survey data from 33 pediatric diabetes centers to health administrative databases. We tested the relationship between center-level pump uptake and center characteristics (center type, physician model, and availability of 24-h support) using an adjusted negative binomial model; we studied center- and patient-level factors (socioeconomic status and baseline glycemic control) associated with discontinuation using a Cox proportional hazards model with generalized estimating equations. Pump users were more likely to be in the highest income quintile than non-pump users (29.6 vs. 19.1%, p pump use was 38.0% with variability across centers. There was no association between uptake and center characteristics. Discontinuation was low (0.42/100 person-yr) and was associated with being followed at a small community center [hazard ratio (HR): 2.24 (1.05-4.76)] and being more deprived [HR: 2.36 (1.14-1.48)]. Older age was associated with a lower rate of discontinuation [HR: 0.31 (0.14-0.66)]. Rates of pump use have increased since 2006 and discontinuation is rare. Large variation in uptake across centers was not explained by the factors we examined but may reflect variation in patient populations or practice patterns, and should be further explored. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The rising prevalence and incidence of gout in British Columbia, Canada: Population-based trends from 2000 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sharan K; Aviña-Zubieta, J Antonio; McCormick, Natalie; De Vera, Mary A; Shojania, Kam; Sayre, Eric C; Choi, Hyon K

    2017-02-01

    Gout is increasingly recognized as the most common form of inflammatory arthritis worldwide; however, no Canadian data on the disease burden of gout are available. We estimated the prevalence, incidence, prescription patterns, and comorbidity burden of gout in an entire Canadian province [British Columbia (BC)] over the last decade. We utilized PopulationData BC, a province-wide database, to estimate temporal trends in the prevalence and incidence of gout from 2000 to 2012, as well as according to age category. Annual estimates were age-sex-standardized using 2012 as the reference. We also examined annual trends in prescription patterns of common gout medications and assessed the comorbidity burden among gout patients in 2012. The 2012 prevalence of gout was 3.8% among the overall population, and the incidence rate was 2.9 per 1000 person-years. Both gout prevalence and incidence increased substantially over the study period. This burden additionally increased according to age category, affecting over 8% of those ages 60-69 years in 2012. Approximately 22% of gout patients received a prescription for urate-lowering therapy (ULT), which remained stable over the study period, while colchicine and oral glucocorticoid use both increased modestly. By 2012, 72%, 52%, and 18% of prevalent gout patients had been diagnosed with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, respectively. The burden of gout in BC, Canada, is substantial, and both the prevalence and incidence have increased over the past decade, while prescription of ULT remains low. These data support the need to improve gout prevention and care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A population-based study of chronic hepatitis C in immigrants and non-immigrants in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Christina; Azoulay, Laurent; Allard, Robert; Cox, Joseph; Tran, Viet Anh; Abou Chakra, Claire Nour; Steele, Russ; Klein, Marina

    2017-02-13

    Immigrants originating from intermediate and high HCV prevalence countries may be at increased risk of exposure to hepatitis C infection (HCV) in their countries of origin, however they are not routinely screened after arrival in most low HCV prevalence host countries. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of HCV in immigrants compared to the Canadian born population. Using the reportable infectious disease database linked to the landed immigration database and several provincial administrative databases, we assembled a cohort of all reported cases of HCV in Quebec, Canada (1998-2008). Underlying co-morbidities were identified in the health services databases. Stratum specific rates of reported cases/100,000, rate ratios (RRs) and trends over the study period were estimated. A total of 20,862 patients with HCV were identified, among whom 1922 (9.2%) were immigrants. Immigrants were older and diagnosed a mean of 9.8 ± 7 years after arrival. The Canadian born population was more likely to have behavior co-morbidities (problematic alcohol or drug use) and HIV co-infection. Immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe had the highest HCV reported rates with RRs compared to non-immigrants ranging from 1.5 to 1.7. The age and sex adjusted rates decreased by 4.9% per year in non-immigrants but remained unchanged in immigrants. The proportion of HCV occurring in immigrants doubled over the study period from 5 to 11%. Immigrants from intermediate and high HCV prevalence countries are at increased risk for HCV and had a mean delay in diagnosis of almost 10 years after arrival suggesting that they may benefit from targeted HCV screening and earlier linkage to care.

  16. Demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness in Canada: a population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horrocks Julie

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal illness is an important global public health issue, even in developed countries, where the morbidity and economic impact are significant. Our objective was to evaluate the demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness in Canadians. Methods We used data from two population-based studies conducted in select communities between 2001 and 2003. Together, the studies comprised 8,108 randomly selected respondents; proxies were used for all respondents under 12 years and for respondents under 19 years at the discretion of the parent or guardian. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, we evaluated the following demographic determinants: age, gender, cultural group, and urban/rural status of the respondent, highest education level of the respondent or proxy, number of people in the household, and total annual household income. Two-way interaction terms were included in the multivariate analyses. The final multivariate model included income, age, gender, and the interaction between income and gender. Results After adjusting for income, gender, and their interaction, children under 10 years had the highest risk of acute gastrointestinal illness, followed by young adults aged 20 to 24 years. For males, the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was similar across all income levels, but for females the risk was much higher in the lowest income category. Specifically, in those with total annual household incomes of less than $20,000, the odds of acute gastrointestinal illness were 2.46 times higher in females than in males. Conclusion Understanding the demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness is essential in order to identify vulnerable groups to which intervention and prevention efforts can be targeted.

  17. Population-based evaluation of type-specific HPV prevalence among women in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, G S; Cook, D A; Taylor, D L; Rank, C; Kan, L; Yu, A; Mei, W; van Niekerk, D J; Coldman, A J; Krajden, M

    2013-02-04

    British Columbia (BC) introduced a school-based HPV vaccine program in September 2008. As part of the HPV vaccine program evaluation, we determined the type-specific HPV prevalence in a population-based sample of women presenting for routine cervical cancer screening in the province. From June 2010 to February 2011, a total of 1100 physicians from all health regions in BC were invited to return ten sequential cytobrushes used during routine office-based Pap screening to the Provincial Health Services Authority Laboratories for HPV type-specific testing. Client age was the only identifier provided. Specimens were screened by the Digene Hybrid Capture(®) 2 High-Risk (hr) HPV DNA Test (HC2). HC2 positive specimens were then genotyped using the Roche cobas(®) 4800 HPV Test, the Roche Linear Array (LA) HPV Genotyping Test and the Digene(®) HPV Genotyping LQ Test. Overall, 12.2% of the 4330 specimens with valid HC2 results were hrHPV positive. Age range was 15-69 (median 39.0). By age group, the proportion HC2 hrHPV positive was: 15-19, 25.7%; 20-24, 33.2%; 25-29, 21.9%; 30-34, 12.6%; 35-39, 9.5%; 40-44, 8.4%; ≥45, 3.4%. Overall hrHPV prevalence was 10.1% by Roche cobas(®) 4800, 10.5% by Roche LA and 10.3% by Digene LQ. For HPV 16/18, rates by age group by Roche LA were: 15-19, 5.1%/2.8%; 20-24, 9.5%/3.9%; 25-29, 6.2%/1.0%; 30-34, 2.4%/1.7%; 35-39, 1.2%/1.0%; 40-44, 1.6%/0.2%; ≥45, 0.3%/0.2%. Similar HPV 16/18 rates were obtained with the Digene LQ and Roche cobas(®) 4800 methods. Agreement between the three genotyping methods for HPV 16 and 18 was high. Comparable to other evaluations, hrHPV positivity was highest among younger women and HPV 16 was the most frequent genotype detected. These baseline estimates will be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine in BC. Type-specific analyses repeated at regular intervals over time may determine whether the use of HPV vaccine results in hrHPV genotype replacement in the province. Copyright © 2012

  18. Effectiveness of Canada's tuberculosis surveillance strategy in identifying immigrants at risk of developing and transmitting tuberculosis: a population-based retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Leyla Asadi, MD; Courtney Heffernan, MA; Prof Dick Menzies, MD; Prof Richard Long, MD

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Canada, tuberculosis disproportionately affects the foreign-born population. The national tuberculosis medical surveillance programme aims to prevent these cases. Individuals referred for further in-country surveillance (referrals) have a history of active tuberculosis or have features of old, healed tuberculosis on chest radiograph; those not referred (non-referrals) do not undergo surveillance. We aimed to examine the risk of transmission arising from referrals versus non-ref...

  19. Antimicrobial peptides derived from goose egg white lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasirirak, Sompong; Pukcothanung, Yuwatida; Preecharram, Sutthidech; Daduang, Sakda; Patramanon, Rina; Fukamizo, Tamo; Araki, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    Peptide fragments possessing antimicrobial activity were obtained by protease digestion of goose egg white lysozyme. Digested peptide purified from RP-HPLC which showed no lysozyme activity exhibited bactericidal activity toward Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. LC/MS-MS and automated Edman degradation revealed the amino acid sequence to be Thr-Ala-Lys-Pro-Glu-Gly-Leu-Ser-Tyr. This sequence corresponds to amino acid positions 20-28, located at the N-terminal outer part of goose lysozyme. The peptide acted on bacterial membrane as shown by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanism of action could be explained from a helical structure that may be formed by the centered Pro residue and the terminal Lys residue after the peptide attaches to a cell membrane. This is the first study to report that a peptide derived from the protease digests of G-type lysozyme possesses antimicrobial activity with broad spectrum activity. Our result is comparative to the previous reports of Chicken lysozyme and T4 phage lysozyme, which showed antimicrobial activity after digestion with protease. These results might contribute to the usage of antimicrobial peptides engineered by genetic or chemical synthesis.

  20. The Relationship Between Trimethylamine-N-Oxide and Prevalent Cardiovascular Disease in a Multiethnic Population Living in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Andrew; Chalcraft, Kenneth; Ak, Handan; Davis, A Darlene; Lonn, Eva; Miller, Ruby; Potter, Murray A; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S; McQueen, Matthew J

    2015-09-01

    Microflora-dependent trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) formation, which results from intake of choline and L-carnitine-rich food, shows promise as a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but these associations have not been examined in ethnically diverse populations. In a multiethnic population-based study of adults in Canada, we assessed the stability of TMAO and L-carnitine in stored serum samples and their association with intimal medial thickness, prevalent risk factors, and clinical events. In a randomly sampled cross-sectional study of 1286 Canadians, fasting serum samples were collected and stored. In 292 consecutive individuals (99 CVD cases and 193 unmatched control subjects), L-carnitine and TMAO concentrations were assessed using validated analytical approaches. The mean (± SD) TMAO level was 1.998 ± 3.13 μM and L-carnitine was 42.29 ± 11.35 μM. The relative levels of the samples did not appreciably change after 3 freeze-thaw cycles (coefficient of variation, 5.6% and 4.7%, respectively). No significant association between L-carnitine levels and prevalent CVD was found, with adjustment for covariates (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-4.26; P trend = 0.65), for highest vs lowest quintile group. TMAO levels showed a significant, graded association with prevalent CVD (odds ratio, 3.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-9.51; P trend = 0.02). After further adjustment for diabetes status, meat, fish, and cholesterol intake, the association remained significant. No significant association between carotid intimal medial thickness and L-carnitine (P = 0.64) or TMAO (P = 0.18) was found. Serum TMAO and L-carnitine analysis on stored samples is reliable. Our findings support an association between TMAO with prevalent CVD in a multiethnic population. This finding requires replication in larger studies in which dietary intake and stored serum samples exist. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Unintentional injuries among refugee and immigrant children and youth in Ontario, Canada: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Natasha Ruth; Macpherson, Alison; Guan, Jun; Guttmann, Astrid

    2017-09-25

    Unintentional injuries are a leading reason for seeking emergency care. Refugees face vulnerabilities that may contribute to injury risk. We aimed to compare the rates of unintentional injuries in immigrant children and youth by visa class and region of origin. Population-based, cross-sectional study of children and youth (0-24 years) from immigrant families residing in Ontario, Canada, from 2011 to 2012. Multiple linked health and administrative databases were used to describe unintentional injuries by immigration visa class and region of origin. Poisson regression models estimated rate ratios for injuries. There were 6596.0 and 8122.3 emergency department visits per 100 000 non-refugee and refugee immigrants, respectively. Hospitalisation rates were 144.9 and 185.2 per 100 000 in each of these groups. The unintentional injury rate among refugees was 20% higher than among non-refugees (adjusted rate ratio (ARR) 1.20, 95% CI 1.16, 1.24). In both groups, rates were lowest among East and South Asians. Young age, male sex, and high income were associated with injury risk. Compared with non-refugees, refugees had higher rates of injury across most causes, including for motor vehicle injuries (ARR 1.51, 95% CI 1.40, 1.62), poisoning (ARR 1.40, 95% CI 1.26, 1.56) and suffocation (ARR 1.39, 95% CI 1.04, 1.84). The observed 20% higher rate of unintentional injuries among refugees compared with non-refugees highlights an important opportunity for targeting population-based public health and safety interventions. Engaging refugee families shortly after arrival in active efforts for injury prevention may reduce social vulnerabilities and cultural risk factors for injury in this population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Natural stranding of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) in Scot's Bay, Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, from populations of concern in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, N D; Cormier, Y; Logan-Chesney, L M; Gibson, G; Wirgin, I; Dadswell, M J; Stokesbury, M J W

    2017-06-01

    Natural mortality of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) has been determined to be low (M = 0.07). Reported herein is the mortality by beach stranding of 11 Atlantic sturgeon in Scot's Bay, part of the inner Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia, Canada on 22 June 2014. Genetic analyses, histological analysis and age determination were performed to determine origin, maturity stage and age of the stranded Atlantic sturgeon. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses indicated that four of the Atlantic sturgeon (2 males and 2 females) were from the Saint John River, NB population, which was designated as threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Seven Atlantic sturgeon (1 male, 5 females, 1 unknown) were from the Kennebec River, Maine population, that was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in the U. S. Ageing of A. oxyrinchus by pectoral fin spine analysis determined that the mean age of the individuals from the Saint John River ( [Formula: see text] years, sd = 5.0) and the Kennebec River ( [Formula: see text] years, sd = 3.5) were not significantly different. This is the first report of a stranding event of Atlantic sturgeon, and describes a source of natural mortality affecting populations of concern in both Canada and the U. S.

  3. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population of Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu L Bourbonnais

    Full Text Available Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife

  4. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife system and others

  5. The prognostic effect of ethnicity for gastric and esophageal cancer: the population-based experience in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Amil M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric and esophageal cancers are among the most lethal human malignancies. Their epidemiology is geographically diverse. This study compares the survival of gastric and esophageal cancer patients among several ethnic groups including Chinese, South Asians, Iranians and Others in British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods Data were obtained from the population-based BC Cancer Registry for patients diagnosed with invasive esophageal and gastric cancer between 1984 and 2006. The ethnicity of patients was estimated according to their names and categorized as Chinese, South Asian, Iranian or Other. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of ethnicity adjusted for patient sex and age, disease histology, tumor location, disease stage and treatment. Results The survival of gastric cancer patients was significantly different among ethnic groups. Chinese patients showed better survival compared to others in univariate and multivariate analysis. The survival of esophageal cancer patients was significantly different among ethnic groups when the data was analyzed by a univariate test (p = 0.029, but not in the Cox multivariate model adjusted for other patient and prognostic factors. Conclusions Ethnicity may represent underlying genetic factors. Such factors could influence host-tumor interactions by altering the tumor's etiology and therefore its chance of spreading. Alternatively, genetic factors may determine response to treatments. Finally, ethnicity may represent non-genetic factors that affect survival. Differences in survival by ethnicity support the importance of ethnicity as a prognostic factor, and may provide clues for the future identification of genetic or lifestyle factors that underlie these observations.

  6. Field evaluation of lead effects on Canada geese and mallards in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C J; Blus, L J; Hoffman, D J; Sileo, L; Audet, D J; Snyder, M R

    2000-07-01

    . Only 6 (15.8%) of these 38 contained ingested lead shot, which contrasts greatly with the 75-94% incidence of ingested lead shot when mortality was due to lead shot ingestion. Lead from other contaminated sources (i.e., sediments and vegetation) in the CDA River Basin was strongly implicated in most Canada goose deaths. Based on the 31 live mallards and Canada geese collected in the CDA River Basin, which were representative of the live populations blood sampled only, the prevalence of subclinical and clinical lead poisoning (as determined by liver lead concentrations, excluding birds with ingested lead shot) was higher in mallards: subclinical (4 of 8, 50% HYs and 6 of 11, 55% adults); clinical (0% HYs and 4 of 11, 36% adults), with less data available for Canada geese (only 1 of 9, 11% HYs marginally subclinical). The clinically lead-poisoned mallards had extremely high concentrations of lead in blood (2.69-8. 82 microg/g) and liver (6.39-17.89 microg/g). Eight mallards found dead in the CDA River Basin during a concurrent study were diagnosed as lead poisoned, and only one (12.5%) contained ingested lead shot, which again strongly implicates other lead sources. The finding of dead lead poisoned Canada geese together with the high percentage of live mallards classified as subclinically or clinically lead poisoned, in combination with the low incidence of ingested lead shot causes us concern for both of these species, which live in association with lead-contaminated sediment in the CDA River Basin.

  7. Field evaluation of lead effects on Canada geese and mallards in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Blus, L.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, Daniel J.; Snyder, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    1997. Only 6 (15.8%) of these 38 contained ingested lead shot, which contrasts greatly with the 75–94% incidence of ingested lead shot when mortality was due to lead shot ingestion. Lead from other contaminated sources (i.e., sediments and vegetation) in the CDA River Basin was strongly implicated in most Canada goose deaths. Based on the 31 live mallards and Canada geese collected in the CDA River Basin, which were representative of the live populations blood sampled only, the prevalence of subclinical and clinical lead poisoning (as determined by liver lead concentrations, excluding birds with ingested lead shot) was higher in mallards: subclinical (4 of 8, 50% HYs and 6 of 11, 55% adults); clinical (0% HYs and 4 of 11, 36% adults), with less data available for Canada geese (only 1 of 9, 11% HYs marginally subclinical). The clinically lead-poisoned mallards had extremely high concentrations of lead in blood (2.69–8.82 μg/g) and liver (6.39–17.89 μg/g). Eight mallards found dead in the CDA River Basin during a concurrent study were diagnosed as lead poisoned, and only one (12.5%) contained ingested lead shot, which again strongly implicates other lead sources. The finding of dead lead poisoned Canada geese together with the high percentage of live mallards classified as subclinically or clinically lead poisoned, in combination with the low incidence of ingested lead shot causes us concern for both of these species, which live in association with lead-contaminated sediment in the CDA River Basin.

  8. Identification of IFITM1 and IFITM3 in Goose: Gene Structure, Expression Patterns, and Immune Reponses against Tembusu Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anqi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs, interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins 1 and 3 (IFITM1 and IFITM3 can effectively inhibit the replication of multiple viruses. Here, goose IFITM1 and IFITM3 were cloned and identified for the first time. The two proteins share the same topological structure and several important sites critical for the antiviral functions in other species are conserved in the goose. Goose IFITM1 and IFITM3 are most closely related to their respective orthologs in ducks; these proteins exhibited high mRNA transcript levels in immune-related tissues, including the thymus, bursa of Fabricius, and Harderian gland, compared to other tissues. Moreover, goose IFITM1 was highly constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tract tissues, while goose IFITM3 was expressed in respiratory organs. Furthermore, goose IFITM3 was activated in goose peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs infected with Tembusu virus (TMUV or treated with Toll-like receptors (TLRs agonists, while only the R848 and Poly (I:C agonists induced significant upregulation of goose IFITM1. Furthermore, goose IFITM1 and IFITM3 were upregulated in the sampled tissues, to some extent, after TMUV infection. Notably, significant upregulation of goose IFITM1 and IFITM3 was detected in the cecum and cecal tonsil, where TMUV was primarily distributed. These data provide new insights into the immune effectors in geese and promote our understanding of the role of IFITM1 and IFITM3 in the defense against TMUV.

  9. Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Söderquist

    Full Text Available Wild populations of the world's most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started, present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males. Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more "goose-like" bills (wider, higher, and shorter than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with 'alien genes' may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  10. Lichens and mosses of Mother Goose Lake region, Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To examine the unique botanical community of the Mother Goose Lake basin, we sought to make a comprehensive inventory of epiphytic lichens, and to briefly survey the...

  11. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Resident Dark Goose Nest Survey Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The resident dark goose (RDG) nest survey is an inventory method to estimate the abundance and distribution of the RDGs. The survey is conducted in coordination with...

  12. Thermoacoustic design using stem of goose down stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farikhah, Irna; Ristanto, Sigit; Idrus, Hadiyati; Kaltsum, Ummi; Faisal, Affandi; Setiawan, Ihsan; Setio Utomo, Agung Bambang

    2012-09-01

    Many refrigerators using CFC as a refrigerant are seen as the cause of the depletion of ozone. Hence, thermoacoustic was chosen as an alternative refrigerator that safe for environment. There are many variable that influenced the optimization of thermoacoustic design. One of them is thermal conductivity of material of stack. The Stack material must have a low thermal conductivity. In this research we used organic stack made of stem of goose down. It has superior thermal insulating. It means that they have the lowest thermal conductivity. The system uses no refrigerant or compressor, and the only mechanical moving part is the loudspeaker connected to a signal generator that produces the acoustic. The working fluid is air and the material of resonator is stainless steel. A series test on the laboratory found that there is a decrease of 5°C in temperature for about 2 minutes.

  13. Occurrence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations along roadsides in southern Manitoba, Canada and their potential role in intraspecific gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Gulden, Robert H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2011-04-01

    Alfalfa is a highly outcrossing perennial species that can be noticed in roadsides as feral populations. There remains little information available on the extent of feral alfalfa populations in western Canadian prairies and their role in gene flow. The main objectives of this study were (a) to document the occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, and (b) to estimate the levels of outcrossing facilitated by feral populations. A roadside survey confirmed widespread occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, particularly in alfalfa growing regions. The feral populations were dynamic and their frequency ranged from 0.2 to 1.7 populations km(-1). In many cases, the nearest feral alfalfa population from alfalfa production field was located within a distance sufficient for outcrossing in alfalfa. The gene flow study confirmed that genes can move back and forth between feral and cultivated alfalfa populations. In this study, the estimated outcrossing levels were 62% (seed fields to feral), 78% (feral to seed fields), 82% (hay fields to feral) and 85% (feral to feral). Overall, the results show that feral alfalfa plants are prevalent in alfalfa producing regions in western Canada and they can serve as bridges for gene flow at landscape level. Management of feral populations should be considered, if gene flow is a concern. Emphasis on preventing seed spill/escapes and intentional roadside planting of alfalfa cultivars will be particularly helpful. Further, realistic and pragmatic threshold levels should be established for markets sensitive to the presence of GE traits.

  14. Microsatellite analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Asian Longhorned Beetles from an Invasive Population in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Longhorned Beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) were discovered in Ontario, Canada in 2003 at a commercial warehouse site, where they likely arrived on solid wood packing materials from China. Trees in the area were heavily scarred with oviposition sites, and larvae and adult beetle...

  15. Molecular Cloning and Mrna Expression Analysis of Sichuan White Goose (Anser Cygnoides Chrebp Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HY Xu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP is an important nuclear factor that regulates glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis. However, the role of ChREBP in fatty liver development in geese remains unclear. In order to understand the function of ChREBP in lipid metabolism of geese, we first cloned the complete cDNA of the ChREBP of the Sichuan White goose (Anser cygnoides using RT-PCR, 5’ RACE and 3’ RACE, and analyzed goose ChREBP expression in nine different tissues using real-time PCR technology. The results showed that the goose ChREBP CDS consists of 945bp nucleotides that encode 314 amino acids, and the sequence has high similarities with the swan goose (Anser cygnoides domesticus and duck (Anas platyrhynchos sequences, both at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. The predicted ChREBP protein had a molecular mass of 35.64 kDa with pI value of 5.36. The phylogenetic analysis indicated its evolutionary relationships with corresponding orthologous sequences in swan geese and ducks. The qPCR assays revealed that ChREBP is highly expressed in liver in the Sichuan White goose. Together, these results indicate that goose ChREBP may play an important role in the development of hepatic steatosis.

  16. Back to the basics: Identifying and addressing underlying challenges in achieving high quality and relevant health statistics for indigenous populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Firestone, Michelle

    Canada is known internationally for excellence in both the quality and public policy relevance of its health and social statistics. There is a double standard however with respect to the relevance and quality of statistics for Indigenous populations in Canada. Indigenous specific health and social statistics gathering is informed by unique ethical, rights-based, policy and practice imperatives regarding the need for Indigenous participation and leadership in Indigenous data processes throughout the spectrum of indicator development, data collection, management, analysis and use. We demonstrate how current Indigenous data quality challenges including misclassification errors and non-response bias systematically contribute to a significant underestimate of inequities in health determinants, health status, and health care access between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The major quality challenge underlying these errors and biases is the lack of Indigenous specific identifiers that are consistent and relevant in major health and social data sources. The recent removal of an Indigenous identity question from the Canadian census has resulted in further deterioration of an already suboptimal system. A revision of core health data sources to include relevant, consistent, and inclusive Indigenous self-identification is urgently required. These changes need to be carried out in partnership with Indigenous peoples and their representative and governing organizations.

  17. 2000 : Waterfowl Production Surveys, Canada Goose Nesting Data [for Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report on waterfowl production for Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge during 2000 may cover species count, broods, bird nesting, predators and waterfowl...

  18. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  19. Benzodiazepine Use, Misuse, and Harm at the Population Level in Canada: A Comprehensive Narrative Review of Data and Developments Since 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Yoko; Wilson, Emily; Goldner, Elliot M; Fischer, Benedikt

    2016-07-01

    Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed psycho-pharmaceuticals (e.g., for anxiety, tension, and insomnia); they are generally considered safe but have potential adverse effects. Benzodiazepine use in Canada versus internationally is comparably high, yet no recent comprehensive review of use, misuse, or related (e.g., morbidity, mortality) harm at the population level exists; the present review aimed to fill this gap. We searched four key scientific literature databases (Medline, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, and Web of Science) with relevant search terms, and collected relevant "gray literature" (e.g., survey, monitoring, government reports) data published in 1995-2015. Two reviewers conducted data screening and extraction; results were categorized and narratively summarized by key sub-topics. Levels of benzodiazepine use in the general population have been relatively stable in recent years; medical use is generally highest among older adults. Rates of non-medical use are fairly low in general but higher in marginalized (e.g., street drug use) populations; high and/or inappropriate prescribing appears common in older adults. Benzodiazepines are associated with various morbidity outcomes (e.g., accidents/injuries, cognitive decline, sleep disturbances, or psychiatric issues), again commonly observed in older adults; moreover, benzodiazepines are identified as a contributing factor in suicides and poisoning deaths. Overall there is a substantial benzodiazepine-related health problem burden-although lower than that for other psycho-medications (e.g., opioids)-in Canada, mainly as a result of overuse and/or morbidity. National benzodiazepine prescription guidelines are lacking, and few evaluated interventions to reduce benzodiazepine-related problems exist. There is a clear need for reducing inappropriate benzodiazepine use and related harm in Canada through improved evidence-based practice as well as monitoring and control.

  20. Alliance members' roles in collective field-building: an assessment of leadership and championship within the Population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Kishchuk, Natalie; Viehbeck, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Robinson, Kerry; Riley, Barbara; Fowler, Heather Smith

    2017-12-06

    The Population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada (PHIRIC) is a multi-stakeholder alliance founded in 2006 to advance population health intervention research (PHIR). PHIRIC aimed to strengthen Canada's capacity to conduct and use such research to inform policy and practice to improve the public's health by building PHIR as a field of research. In 2014, an evaluative study of PHIRIC at organisational and system levels was conducted, guided by a field-building and collaborative action perspective. The study involved 17 qualitative key informant interviews with 21 current and former PHIRIC Planning Committee and Working Group members. The interviews examined how individuals and organisations were acting as champions and exerting leadership in building the field of PHIR. Founding PHIRIC organisational members have been championing PHIR at organisational and system levels. While the PHIR field has progressed in terms of enhanced funding, legitimacy, profile and capacity, some members and organisations faced constraints and challenges acting as leaders and champions in their respective environments. Expectations about the future of PHIRIC and field-building of PHIR were mixed, where longer-term and founding members of PHIRIC expressed more optimism than recent members. All agreed on the need for incorporating perspectives of decision-makers into PHIR directions and initiatives. The findings contribute to understanding alliance members' roles in leadership and championship for field-building more generally, and for population health and PHIR specifically. Building this field requires multi-level efforts, collaborative action and distributed leadership to create the necessary conditions for PHIRIC members to both benefit from and contribute to advancing PHIR as a field. Lessons from this 'made in Canada' model may be of interest to other countries regarding the structures needed for PHIR field-building.

  1. Mycoplasma infection of geese. II. Studies on pathogenicity of mycoplasmas in goslings and goose and chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisary, J; El-Ebeedy, A A; Stipkovits, L

    1976-01-01

    Of various mycoplasma strains of goose original, axanthum strains (609 and 612) caused the death both of goose and chicken embryos, A. laid-lawii strain (606) killed only goose embryos, whereas M. gallinarum (598) failed to kill either. Infection of 3-day-old goslings with these mycoplasmas resulted in no mortality but lesions were produced with A. axanthum in 9 of 10 birds. Less severe lesions were seen in fewer birds infected with other strains. Dual infection of 3-day-old goslings, with maternal antibody to goose parvovirus, with M. gallinarum (598) or A. axanthum (612) and a virulent parvovirus resulted in some death and all birds showed lesions.

  2. Life history and reproductive biology of Corophium volutator (crustacea: amphipoda) and the influence of shorebird predation on population structure in chignecto bay, bay of fundy, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, D. L.; Linkletter, L. E.; Hicklin, P. W.

    Intertidal populations of Corophium volutator were sampled over a 17-month period at 5 locations in Chignecto Bay, Bay of Fundy, Canada. This is a macrotidal environment with extensive mudflats. Two generations were produced annually. The lengths of gravid females and brood sized were larger than those previously reported in most European studies. Production was highest during May-September. During late summer (July-September) the larger animals were selectively removed from the population by predatory shorebirds (Charadriiformes) thus modifying the population structure from a bimodal to a unimodal distribution composed of numerous but small animals. Although shorebird predation was extensive, the associated reductions in Corophium densities were temporary-Densities increased following the birds' departure from the study sites in early fall. Frequency distribution histograms of size classes remained unimodal and growth was low, until the next breeding season. Annual net production over 2 one-year periods was 6250 and 3277 mg·m -2 (dry weight).

  3. Conservation prioritization in widespread species: the use of genetic and morphological data to assess population distinctiveness in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric B; Tamkee, Patrick; Keeley, Ernest R; Parkinson, Eric A

    2011-01-01

    Prioritization of efforts to maintain biodiversity is an important component of conservation, but is more often applied to ecosystems or species than within species. We assessed distinctiveness among 27 populations of rainbow trout (Salmonidae: Oncorhynchus mykiss) from British Columbia, Canada, using microsatellite DNA variation (representing historical or contemporary demography) and morphology (representing adaptive variation). Standardized genetic scores, that is, the average deviation across individuals within populations from the overall genetic score generated by factorial correspondence analysis, ranged from 1.05 to 4.90 among populations. Similar standardized morphological scores, generated by principal components analysis, ranged from 1.19 to 5.35. There was little correlation between genetic and morphological distinctiveness across populations, although one population was genetically and morphologically the most distinctive. There was, however, a significant correlation (r = 0.26, P = 0.008) between microsatellite (F ST) and morphological (P ST) divergence. We combined measures of allelic richness, genetic variation within, and divergence among, populations and morphological variation to provide a conservation ranking of populations. Our approach can be combined with other measures of biodiversity value (habitat, rarity, human uses, threat status) to rationalize the prioritization of populations, especially for widespread species where geographic isolation across distinct environments promotes intraspecific variability.

  4. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the recent increase in obstetric acute renal failure in Canada: population based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Azar; Liu, Shiliang; Bartholomew, Sharon; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Magee, Laura A; Kramer, Michael S; Liston, Robert M; Joseph, K S

    2014-07-30

    To examine whether changes in postpartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, or other risk factors explain the increase in obstetric acute renal failure in Canada. Retrospective cohort study. Canada (excluding the province of Quebec). All hospital deliveries from 2003 to 2010 (n=2,193,425). Obstetric acute renal failure identified by ICD-10 diagnostic codes. Information on all hospital deliveries in Canada (excluding Quebec) between 2003 and 2010 (n=2,193,425) was obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Temporal trends in obstetric acute renal failure were assessed among women with and without postpartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, or other risk factors. Logistic regression was used to determine if changes in risk factors explained the temporal increase in obstetric acute renal failure. Rates of obstetric acute renal failure rose from 1.66 to 2.68 per 10,000 deliveries between 2003-04 and 2009-10 (61% increase, 95% confidence interval 24% to 110%). Adjustment for postpartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, and other factors did not attenuate the increase. The temporal increase in acute renal failure was restricted to deliveries with hypertensive disorders (adjusted increase 95%, 95% confidence interval 38% to 176%), and was especially pronounced among women with gestational hypertension with significant proteinuria (adjusted increase 171%, 71% to 329%). No significant increase occurred among women without hypertensive disorders (adjusted increase 12%, -28 to 72%). The increase in obstetric acute renal failure in Canada between 2003 and 2010 was restricted to women with hypertensive disorders and was especially pronounced among women with pre-eclampsia. Further study is required to determine the cause of the increase among women with pre-eclampsia. © Mehrabadi et al 2014.

  5. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: a re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Moir, D.; Whyte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970s in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14 000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a log–normal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 11.2 Bq m–3 and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.9. Based on the information from that survey, it was estimated that ∼10 % of lung cancers in Canada resulted from indoor radon exposure. To gain a better understanding of radon concentrations in homes across the country, a national residential radon survey was launched in April 2009. In the recent survey, long-term (3 month or longer) indoor radon measurements were made in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada. The observed radon concentrations follow, as expected, a log–normal distribution with a GM of 41.9 Bq m–3 and a GSD of 2.8. Based on the more accurate radon distribution characteristics obtained from the recent cross-Canada radon survey, a re-assessment of Canadian population risk for radon induced lung cancer was undertaken. The theoretical estimates show that 16 % of lung cancer deaths among Canadians are attributable to indoor radon exposure. These results strongly suggest the ongoing need for the Canadian National Radon Program. In particular, there is a need for a focus on education and awareness by all levels of government, and in partnership with key stakeholders, to encourage Canadians to take action to reduce the risk from indoor radon exposure. PMID:22874897

  6. Contrasting Population Trends at Two Razorbill Colonies in Atlantic Canada: Additive Effects of Fox Predation and Hunting Mortality?

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Lavers; Ian L. Jones; Gregory J. Robertson; Antony W. Diamond

    2009-01-01

    We developed a stochastic, stage-based, matrix-projection population model to assess population viability and estimate the impact of mortality caused by hunting, illegal and incidental to the murre (Uria sp.) hunt, and fox (Alopex lagopus) predation on Razorbill (Alca torda) populations breeding on the Gannet Islands, Labrador, the "affected" population, and Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, the "unaffected" population. We estimated the potential population growth rate in the absence of ant...

  7. A guide to multi-objective optimization for ecological problems with an application to cackling goose management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Perry J.; Kendall, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Choices in ecological research and management are the result of balancing multiple, often competing, objectives. Multi-objective optimization (MOO) is a formal decision-theoretic framework for solving multiple objective problems. MOO is used extensively in other fields including engineering, economics, and operations research. However, its application for solving ecological problems has been sparse, perhaps due to a lack of widespread understanding. Thus, our objective was to provide an accessible primer on MOO, including a review of methods common in other fields, a review of their application in ecology, and a demonstration to an applied resource management problem.A large class of methods for solving MOO problems can be separated into two strategies: modelling preferences pre-optimization (the a priori strategy), or modelling preferences post-optimization (the a posteriori strategy). The a priori strategy requires describing preferences among objectives without knowledge of how preferences affect the resulting decision. In the a posteriori strategy, the decision maker simultaneously considers a set of solutions (the Pareto optimal set) and makes a choice based on the trade-offs observed in the set. We describe several methods for modelling preferences pre-optimization, including: the bounded objective function method, the lexicographic method, and the weighted-sum method. We discuss modelling preferences post-optimization through examination of the Pareto optimal set. We applied each MOO strategy to the natural resource management problem of selecting a population target for cackling goose (Branta hutchinsii minima) abundance. Cackling geese provide food security to Native Alaskan subsistence hunters in the goose's nesting area, but depredate crops on private agricultural fields in wintering areas. We developed objective functions to represent the competing objectives related to the cackling goose population target and identified an optimal solution

  8. The demography of feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations occurring in roadside habitats in Southern Manitoba, Canada: implications for novel trait confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Gulden, Robert H; Begg, Graham S; Van Acker, Rene C

    2010-09-01

    Feral populations of cultivated crops can act as reservoirs for novel genetically engineered (GE) traits and aid in trait movement at the landscape level. However, little information is available on the potential of cultivated crops to become feral. In this study, we investigated the ferality of alfalfa populations (non-GE version) occurring in roadside habitats. Knowledge on the nature of roadside alfalfa populations would be useful for designing efficient trait confinement protocols and coexistence strategies in alfalfa. We investigated roadside alfalfa populations from 2006 to 2009 in three rural municipalities (Hanover, MacDonald, and Springfield) in Southern Manitoba, Canada. We studied the demography of these populations including seedbank, seedling recruitment, and fecundity and examined the impact of road verge mowing on key life stages of these populations. We also compared the growth and reproductive attributes of roadside and cultivated alfalfa populations. Alfalfa is reproductively successful in roadside habitats and capable of establishing self-perpetuating populations. A substantial portion of the alfalfa seeds we extracted from seedbank samples were viable but not germinable, suggesting some degree of seedbank persistence in roadside habitats. In the roadside habitat, alfalfa seedlings recruited successfully, however, seedling mortality was high when seedlings were in close proximity to well-established alfalfa plants. Mowing dramatically reduced the reproductive success of roadside alfalfa. Generally, the growth and reproduction of roadside alfalfa was comparable to cultivated alfalfa except for total fecundity. Considering the long lifespan (>10 years) of alfalfa and the levels of fecundity, seedbank, and seedling survival we observed, long-term persistence of roadside alfalfa populations seems reasonable. In the context of novel trait confinement, our results suggest that feral alfalfa populations required to be managed if there is a desire

  9. Cancer incidence, morbidity, and survival in Canadian first nation children: a Manitoba population-based study from the cancer in young people in Canada (CYP-C) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammers, David M; Israels, Sara J; Lambert, Pascal J; Cuvelier, Geoff D E

    2014-12-01

    Health disparities between Canadian First Nation (FN) people and the rest of the national population exist. No studies have specifically documented cancer-related health outcomes in Canadian FN children. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence of pediatric malignancies in Manitoba FN children, and to compare morbidity patterns and survival between FN and non-FN children with cancer in the Canadian province of Manitoba. A retrospective, population-based review of all children (0-14.99 years) diagnosed with malignancy (2001-2008) in Manitoba, Canada was undertaken using the Cancer in Young People in Canada registry. FN children were compared to the non-FN population for markers of morbidity and survival. The average annual age-standardized incidence rate for all childhood cancers in FN children was 132 per 1,000,000 per year. 240 children were included in the morbidity and survival analyses (38 FN; 202 non-FN). No differences were found between FN and non-FN children in time from first presentation of symptoms to consultation with an oncology specialist or diagnosis, or number of hospital admissions / total days of admission for treatment complications. Overall survival was inferior for FN children in univariable analysis (P = 0.048) but not when risk group was included in a multivariable analysis (P = 0.15). No difference in event free survival or cumulative incidence of relapse was identified. The estimated incidence of childhood cancers in the Manitoba FN population is similar to provincial incidence rates. No differences in morbidity patterns or survival were found between Manitoba FN and non-FN children with cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Fire Regime in Marginal Jack Pine Populations at Their Southern Limit of Distribution, Riding Mountain National Park, Central Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Tardif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In central Canada, long fire history reconstructions are rare. In a context where both anthropogenic and climate influences on fire regime have changed, Parks Canada has a mandate to maintain ecological integrity. Here we present a fire history derived from fire-scarred jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. trees growing at their southern distribution limit in Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP. In Lake Katherine Fire Management Unit (LKFMU, a subregion within the park, fire history was reconstructed from archival records, tree-ring records, and charcoal in lake sediment. From about 1450 to 1850 common era (CE the fire return intervals varied from 37 to 125 years, according to models. During the period 1864–1930 the study area burned frequently (Weibull Mean Fire Intervals between 2.66 and 5.62 years; this period coincided with the end of First Nations occupation and the start of European settlement. Major recruitment pulses were associated with the stand-replacing 1864 and 1894 fires. This period nevertheless corresponded to a reduction in charcoal accumulation. The current fire-free period in LKFMU (1930–today coincides with RMNP establishment, exclusion of First Nations land use and increased fire suppression. Charcoal accumulation further decreased during this period. In the absence of fire, jack pine exclusion in LKFMU is foreseeable and the use of prescribed burning is advocated to conserve this protected jack pine ecosystem, at the southern margins of its range, and in the face of potential climate change.

  11. The decrease in population bone lead levels in Canada between 1993 and 2010 as assessed by in vivo XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, F E; Fisher, M; Chettle, D R; Inskip, M; Healey, N; Bray, R; Webber, C E; Manton, W I; Marro, L; Arbuckle, T E

    2017-12-28

    Objective and Approach: A study, conducted in Toronto, Canada, between 2009 and 2011, measured the bone lead concentrations of volunteers aged 1-82 years using in vivo x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology. Bone lead levels were lower compared to Ontario in vivo XRF studies from the early 1990s. In adults, the slope of tibia lead content versus age was reduced by 36-56%, i.e. bone lead levels for a given age group were approximately half compared to the same age group 17 years prior. Further, bone lead levels of individuals fell over that time period. In 2010, an average person aged 57 years had a bone lead level approximately 1/3 less than their bone lead level age 40 years in 1993. Using this data, the half-lives of lead in the tibia were estimated as 7-26 years. Tibia lead levels were found to be low in children. The reduction in bone tibia content in children was not significant (p  =  0.07), but using data from additional north eastern US studies, there is evidence that childhood tibia stores are lower than in the 1990s. In vivo XRF analysis shows that there has been a reduction in the level of lead in bone in Canada over the last two decades. Public health measures have been very successful in reducing ongoing exposure to lead and in reducing bone lead stores.

  12. Low rates of cervical cancer screening among urban immigrants: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, Aisha K; Moineddin, Rahim; Hwang, Stephen W; Glazier, Richard H

    2010-07-01

    Women who are immigrants or socioeconomically disadvantaged have been found to have significantly lower cervical cancer screening rates than their peers in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The objective of this study was to examine rates of appropriate cervical cancer screening among women living in Ontario, Canada, using recent registration with Ontario's universal health insurance plan as an indicator of immigrant status. This retrospective cohort study included 2,273,995 screening-eligible women aged 25 to 69 years, who resided in Ontario's metropolitan areas during the calendar years 2003, 2004, and 2005. A validated algorithm was applied to the Ontario-wide physicians' claims database to determine which women had undergone cervical cancer screening with a Pap test during the 3-year period. Appropriate cervical cancer screening occurred for 61.1% of women. Despite adjustment for physician contact and pregnancy rates, cervical cancer screening rates were especially low among: women aged 50 to 69 years; women living in low-income areas; and women who had registered with Ontario's universal health insurance plan within the preceding 10 years, a group consisting largely of recent immigrants. Women with all 3 of these characteristics had a screening rate of 31.0% compared with 70.5% among women with none of these characteristics. Within a system of universal health insurance, appropriate cervical cancer screening is significantly lower among women who are older, living in low-income areas, or recent immigrants. Efforts to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening should focus on women with these characteristics.

  13. Comparing capture-recapture methods for estimation of the size of small and medium-sized populations using empirical data on commercial turkey farms in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allaki, Farouk; Christensen, Jette; Vallières, André

    2015-06-01

    The study objectives were (1) to conduct a systematic review of the performance of capture-recapture methods; (2) to use empirical data to estimate population size in a small-sized population (turkey breeder farms) and a medium-sized population (meat turkey farms) by applying two-source capture-recapture methods (the Lincoln-Petersen, the Chapman, and Chao's lower-bound estimators) and multi-source capture-recapture methods (the log-linear modeling and sample coverage approaches); and (3) to compare the performance of these methods in predicting the true population sizes (2007 data). Our set-up was unique in that we knew the population sizes for turkey breeder farms (99) and meat turkey farms (592) in Canada in 2007, which we applied as our true population sizes, and had surveillance data from the Canadian Notifiable Avian Influenza Surveillance System (2008-2012). We defined each calendar year of sampling as a data source. We confirmed that the two-source capture-recapture methods were sensitive to the violation of the local independence assumption. The log-linear modeling and sample coverage approaches yielded estimates that were closer to the true population sizes than were the estimates provided by the two-source methods for both populations. The performance of both multi-source capture-recapture methods depended on the number of data sources analyzed and the size of the population. Simulation studies are recommended to better understand the limits of each multi-source capture-recapture method. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Year-round effects of climate on demographic parameters of an arctic-nesting goose species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhove, Louise; Gauthier, Gilles; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique

    2014-11-01

    Understanding how climate change will affect animal population dynamics remains a major challenge, especially in long-distant migrants exposed to different climatic regimes throughout their annual cycle. We evaluated the effect of temperature throughout the annual cycle on demographic parameters (age-specific survival and recruitment, breeding propensity and fecundity) of the greater snow goose (Chen caerulescens atlantica L.), an arctic-nesting species. As this is a hunted species, we used the theory of exploited populations to estimate hunting mortality separately from natural mortality in order to evaluate climatic effects only on the latter form of mortality. Our analysis was based on a 22-year marking study (n = 27,150 females) and included live recaptures at the breeding colony and dead recoveries from hunters. We tested the effect of climatic covariates by applying a procedure that accounts for unexplained environmental variation in the demographic parameter to a multistate capture-mark-recapture recruitment model. Breeding propensity, clutch size and hatching probability all increased with high temperatures on the breeding grounds. First-year survival to natural causes of mortality increased when temperature was high at the end of the summer, whereas adult survival was not affected by temperature. On the contrary, accession to reproduction decreased with warmer climatic conditions during the non-breeding season. Survival was strongly negatively related to hunting mortality in adults, as expected, but not in first-year birds, which suggests the possibility of compensation between natural and hunting mortality in the latter group. We show that events occurring both at and away from the breeding ground can affect the demography of migratory birds, either directly or through carryover effects, and sometimes in opposite ways. This highlights the need to account for the whole life cycle of an animal when attempting to project the response of populations to future

  15. Responses of wintering geese to the designation of goose foraging areas in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffijberg, Kees; Schekkerman, Hans; van der Jeugd, Henk; Hornman, Menno; van Winden, Erik

    2017-03-01

    The Netherlands is important for wintering migratory herbivorous geese, numbers of which have rapidly increased, leading to conflict with agriculture. In 2005/2006, a new goose management policy aimed to limit compensation payments to farmers by concentrating foraging geese in 80 000 ha of designated 'go' areas-where farmers received payment to accommodate them-and scaring geese from 'no go' areas elsewhere. Monthly national counts of four abundant goose species during 10 years prior to the new policy and in 8 years following implementation found that 57% of all goose days were spent within 'go' areas under the new management, the same as prior to implementation. Such lack of response suggests no predicted learning effects, perhaps because of (i) increases in abundance outside of 'go' areas, (ii) irregularly shaped boundaries and enclaves of 'no go' farmland within 'go' areas and/or (iii) insufficient differences in disturbance levels within and outside designated areas.

  16. Safety and efficacy of an inactivated Carbopol-adjuvanted goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus vaccine for domestic geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfi, Jacqueline; Pappalardo, Michael; Claverys, Carine; Peralta, Brigitte; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2010-04-01

    Haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of the goose (HNEG) is an epizootic viral disease in domestic geese. The causal agent is a polyomavirus, namely goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus. To help control the disease, an inactivated vaccine was developed, based on viral particles produced in goose kidney cells. Viral material was quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, inactivated with beta-propiolactone and adjuvanted with Carbopol, an acrylic acid polymer. Carbopol proved to be more immunogenic than aluminium hydroxide and was totally safe when administered to young goslings and breeders alike. Carbopol-adjuvanted vaccine induced a high serological response. Moreover, goslings hatched from vaccinated breeders were protected against viral challenge, indicating that maternally-derived neutralizing antibodies (MDA) were efficiently transferred. MDA were still detectable 15 days post-hatch. Clinical trials will be necessary to accurately evaluate a vaccine-based HNEG control strategy under field conditions.

  17. Analysis of the human population bitten by Ixodes scapularis ticks in Quebec, Canada: Increasing risk of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Salima; Ogden, Nicholas H; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Thivierge, Karine

    2016-10-01

    Ixodes scapularis, the main vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, is expanding its range in southern Canada and bringing risk to the public from Lyme disease. The aims of this study were to (i) describe how risk of Lyme disease in Quebec, Canada, has changed from 2008 to 2014 by analysis of the number of tick submissions, the geographic scope of ticks submitted and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi in ticks removed from people and submitted through the Quebec passive tick surveillance program and (ii) explore whether exposure to ticks is influenced by age and sex. Ticks were collected from 2008 to 2014 in a passive surveillance program conducted by the Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (LSPQ), and tested by PCR for B. burgdorferi at the National Microbiology Laboratory. The number of ticks submitted each year more than quadrupled during the study period (from 174 in 2008 to 962 in 2014), increases in the geographic range and geographic uniformity of submissions amongst municipalities were observed, and infection prevalence in the ticks (mostly adult females) submitted rose from 5.9% in 2008 to 18.1% in 2014. These data are consistent with outcomes from active surveillance for blacklegged ticks. More men (54.4%) than women (45.6%) were bitten by I. scapularis ticks and the frequency of tick submission was highest in children under 15 years of age and in the adults 50-70 years old. These findings demonstrate the utility of conducting passive tick surveillance using humans and provides information on risk groups (i.e., males, children under 15, adults older than 50, and those living in the more southern parts of the province) to which information on personal protection and tick-bite prevention should be most strongly targeted. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. The hawk/goose story: the classical ethological experiments of Lorenz and Tinbergen, revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleidt, Wolfgang; Shalter, Michael D; Moura-Neto, Humberto

    2011-05-01

    We present a historical account of the story behind the famous hawk/goose experiments of Lorenz and Tinbergen in a wider context of cognitive ethology. We discuss their significance, for ethological experimentation in general, and specifically for understanding innate constraints on cognition. As examples of the continuing significance of the hawk/goose paradigm of selective habituation, we discuss its relation to "exposure therapy" of human phobias and the use of hawk silhouettes as deterrents for songbirds. Finally we rephrase Uexküll's thesis of taxon-specific worlds ("Umwelten") as a "Theory of World." 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Re: making health and care systems fit for and ageing population. Why we wrote it, who we wrote it for, and how relevant it might be to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David

    2014-12-01

    In response to the commentary((1)) in this month's Canadian Geriatrics Journal by Andrew and Rockwood on the recent paper I co-wrote with King's Fund colleagues-"Making Health and Care Systems Fit for an Ageing Population"((2))-I wanted to pen a very personal response, not least because of my visits to health systems in Ontario and Alberta and conversations with many Canadian colleagues that are fresh in my mind. The paper was certainly the most important and influential thing I have written, and was an attempt to weave all the elements of good practice in health care for older people into one overarching narrative. Whilst its biggest target audience is UK health services, I hope it has some relevance to Canada and might stimulate some constructive conversations.

  20. Mental Health Disorders and Publicly Funded Service Use by HIV Positive Individuals: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Anna; Brown, Hilary K; Antoniou, Tony; Sirotich, Frank; Bansal, Symron; Heifetz, Marina; Roesslein, Kay; Lunsky, Yona

    2017-12-01

    We compared use of community and hospital-based mental health and addiction (MH&A) services by adults with and without HIV. This population-based study examined the probability and intensity of MH&A service use by individuals with (n = 5095) and without HIV (n = 2,753,091) in Ontario, Canada between 2013 and 2014. Adults with HIV were more likely than HIV-negative adults to use MH&A primary and psychiatric care, and to have MH&A emergency department visits and hospital admissions; they also used more of each service. Use of MH&A hospital services was particularly high for persons in the HIV group compared to the no HIV group.

  1. Validation of diagnostic codes for intussusception and quantification of childhood intussusception incidence in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Robin; Benchimol, Eric I; Deeks, Shelley L; Hawken, Steven; Fergusson, Dean A; Wilson, Kumanan

    2013-10-01

    To validate an algorithm to identify cases of intussusception using the health administrative data of Ontario, Canada, and to apply the algorithm to estimate provincial incidence of intussusception, preceding the introduction of the universal rotavirus vaccination program. We determined the accuracy of various combinations of diagnostic, procedural, and billing codes using the chart-abstracted diagnoses of patients of the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario as the reference standard. We selected an algorithm that maximized positive predictive value while maintaining a high sensitivity and used it to ascertain annual incidence of intussusception for fiscal years 1995-2010. We explored temporal trends in incidence using Poisson regression. The selected algorithm included only the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 code for intussusception in the hospitalization database and was sensitive (89.3%) and highly specific (>99.9%). The positive predictive value of the ICD code was 72.4%, and the negative predictive value was >99.9%. We observed the highest mean incidence (34 per 100000) in male children health administrative data using validated algorithms. We have described changes in temporal trends in intussusception incidence in Ontario and established a baseline to allow ongoing monitoring as part of vaccine safety surveillance. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. STRESS INFLUENCE ON PLASMA PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS IN THE RED-BREASTED GOOSE (BRANTA RUFICOLLIS) AND HAWAIIAN GOOSE (BRANTA SANDVICENSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Antoine; Mulot, Baptiste; Brunet, Alice; Roman, Yannick

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of stress (as measured by total heterophil + eosinophil counts [THECs] and plasma corticosterone [PC] levels) on plasma protein electrophoresis (PPE) in two Anseriform species. Ten red-breasted geese ( Branta ruficollis ) and eight Hawaiian geese (Branta sandvicensis) were received into quarantine at Beauval Zoo and housed together with other Anseriformes. Two days later, all were examined as part of routine quarantine procedures, and blood was collected. THECs were performed using a Malassez hemocytometer after a 1 : 200 dilution with an eosinophil dilution liquid containing phloxine B. PPE, as well as total protein and PC assays, was performed on lithium heparin plasma. Twenty days after arrival, all birds were similarly restrained, examined, and sampled. Pododermatitis lesions were identified on four geese that were excluded from statistical analysis. For each goose, THECs and PC values were sorted by value (lower or higher) independently from the day of sampling. A Wilcoxon signed rank test showed no significant differences between lower and higher values of THECs for any of the PPE fractions. Higher values of corticosterone were associated with higher values of prealbumin, but none of the other fractions were significantly different. A Spearman rank correlation coefficient showed that THECs and PC were not correlated; this suggested differences in kinetics between these stress markers. Results did not show significant alterations of electrophoresis patterns associated with stress as measured with THECs and PC. The results also highlight the complexity of precisely assessing acute and chronic stress in avian species.

  3. Effectiveness of Canada's tuberculosis surveillance strategy in identifying immigrants at risk of developing and transmitting tuberculosis: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Leyla; Heffernan, Courtney; Menzies, Dick; Long, Richard

    2017-10-01

    In Canada, tuberculosis disproportionately affects the foreign-born population. The national tuberculosis medical surveillance programme aims to prevent these cases. Individuals referred for further in-country surveillance (referrals) have a history of active tuberculosis or have features of old, healed tuberculosis on chest radiograph; those not referred (non-referrals) do not undergo surveillance. We aimed to examine the risk of transmission arising from referrals versus non-referrals. We did this population-based retrospective cohort study of foreign-born migrants (aged 15-64 years) to Alberta, Canada, between Jan 1, 2002, and Dec 31, 2013. We obtained information about year of arrival and country of citizenship from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, and data for tuberculosis cases and their contacts from the Alberta Tuberculosis Registry. The outcome of interest was culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. We compared the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and the odds of transmission among referrals versus non-referrals. By use of conventional and molecular epidemiological techniques, we defined transmission as either a secondary case or a tuberculin skin-test (TST) conversion among close contacts. We used multivariate logistic regression to determine the independent association between referral for tuberculosis surveillance and transmission. Between 2002 and 2013, there were 223 225 foreign-born migrants to Alberta, of whom 5500 (2%) were referrals and 217 657 (98%) were non-referrals. 3805 (69%) referrals and 115 226 (53%) non-referrals were from countries with a tuberculosis incidence of more than 150 per 100 000 populations, or sub-Saharan Africa. 234 foreign-born individuals were diagnosed with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis between Jan 1, 2004, and Dec 31, 2013. The incidence of culture-positive pulmonary disease was nine times higher in referrals (n=50) than all non-referrals (n=184; incidence rate ratio 9·1, 95% CI 6·7

  4. Decision-support model to explore the feasibility of using translocation to restore a woodland caribou population in Pukaskwa National Park, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Gonzales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou have declined dramatically in the past century. Without intervention the most southern population of caribou in eastern North America is expected to disappear within 20 years. Although translocations have reintroduced and reinforced some populations, approximately half of caribou translocation efforts fail. Translocations are resource intensive and risky, and multiple interrelated factors must be considered to assess their potential for success. Structured decision-making tools, such as Bayesian belief networks, provide objective methods to assess different wildlife management scenarios by identifying the key components and relationships in an ecosystem. They can also catalyze dialogue with stakeholders and provide a record of the complex thought processes used in reaching a decision. We developed a Bayesian belief network for a proposed translocation of woodland caribou into a national park on the northeastern coast of Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. We tested scenarios with favourable (e.g., good physical condition of adult caribou and unfavourable (e.g., high predator densities conditions with low, medium, and high numbers of translocated caribou. Under the current conditions at Pukaskwa National Park, augmenting the caribou population is unlikely to recover the species unless wolf densities remain low (<5.5/1000 km2 or if more than 300 animals could be translocated.

  5. The pathway to orthopaedic surgery: a population study of the role of access to primary care and availability of orthopaedic services in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canizares, Mayilee; Davis, Aileen M; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of access to primary care physicians (PCPs), geographic availability of orthopaedic surgeons, socioeconomic status (SES), proportion of older population (≥65 years) and proportion of rural population on orthopaedic surgeon office visits and orthopaedic surgery. Design Population multilevel study. Setting Ontario, Canada. Participants Ontario residents 18 years or older who had visits to orthopaedic surgeons or an orthopaedic surgery for musculoskeletal disorders in 2007/2008. Primary and secondary outcomes Office visits to orthopaedic surgeons and orthopaedic surgery. Results Access to PCPs and the index of geographic availability of orthopaedic surgeons, but not SES, were significantly associated with orthopaedic surgeon office visits. There was a significant interaction between access to PCPs and orthopaedic surgeon geographic availability for the rate of office visits, with access to PCPs being more important in areas of low geographic availability of orthopaedic surgeons. After controlling for office visits with orthopaedic surgeons, the index of geographic availability of orthopaedic surgeons was no longer significantly associated with orthopaedic surgery. Conclusions The findings suggest that, particularly, in areas with low access to PCPs or with fewer available orthopaedic surgeons, residents are less likely to have orthopaedic surgeon office visits and in turn are less likely to receive surgery. Efforts to address adequate access to orthopaedic surgery should also include improving and facilitating access to PCPs for referral, particularly in geographic areas with low orthopaedic surgeon availability. PMID:25082417

  6. Primary care visits due to injuries among the Aboriginal off-reserve population of British Columbia, Canada, 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Andrew; George, M Anne; Brussoni, Mariana; Lalonde, Christopher E; McCormick, Rod

    2015-11-19

    Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. This report describes variability in visits to primary care due to injury, among injury categories, time periods, geographies, and demographic groups. We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to practitioner payment and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. Within that population we identified those residing off-reserve according to postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of primary care visit due to injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of primary care visit due to injury in BC was 3172 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal off-reserve rate was 4291 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.41 (95 % confidence interval: 1.41 to 1.42). Northern and non-metropolitan HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total BC and Aboriginal off-reserve populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal off-reserve than among the total population. For all injuries combined, and for the categories of trauma, poisoning, and burn, between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more rapidly among the Aboriginal off-reserve population, so the gap between the Aboriginal off-reserve and total populations is narrowing, particularly among metropolitan residents. These findings corroborate our previous reports regarding hospitalizations due to injury, suggesting that our observations reflect real disparities and changes in the underlying incidence of injury, and are not merely artefacts related to health care utilization.

  7. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC 3D ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS OF MEDICAMENTOUS INDUCED PILOMOTOR REFLEX (“GOOSE BUMPS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schneider

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a current study at the University Hospital Dresden, Department of Neurology, the autonomous function of nerve fibres of the human skin is investigated. For this purpose, a specific medicament is applied on a small area of the skin of a test person which results in a local reaction (goose bumps. Based on the extent of the area, where the stimulation of the nerve fibres is visible, it can be concluded how the nerve function of the skin works. The aim of the investigation described in the paper is to generate 3D data of these goose bumps. Therefore, the paper analyses and compares different photogrammetric surface measurement techniques in regard to their suitability for the 3D acquisition of silicone imprints of the human skin. Furthermore, an appropriate processing procedure for analysing the recorded point cloud data is developed and presented. It was experimentally proven that by using (low-cost photogrammetric techniques medicamentous induced goose bumps can be acquired in three dimensions and can be analysed almost fully automatically from the perspective of medical research questions. The relative accuracy was determined with 1% (RMSE of the area resp. the volume of an individual goose bump.

  8. Bryophyte DNA sequences from faeces of an arctic herbivore, barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stech, M.; Kolvoort, E.; Loonen, M. J. J. E.; Vrieling, K.; Kruijer, J. D.

    We tested DNA extraction methods and PCR conditions for the amplification of bryophyte DNA from barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) faeces collected from Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Both the Qiagen stool kit and a silica-based extraction method received sufficient DNA from fresh and older droppings, as

  9. Design and analysis of goose-leg waterwheel next-G using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Retno; Maharani, Dhea; Permanasari, Avita Ayu

    2017-09-01

    The object of this study was to design and analysis an environmentally friendly technology in the form of a goose-leg waterwheel next-G from locally available materials and that was suitable for use in local condition with the view (i.e. free water flow) to increase national electricity supply to more remote areas. In order to further the objective, the waterwheel vanes are to be designed employing simulation through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to obtain a value of moment pressure and pressure. The simulation process was enacted in 3 stages: preprocessing, solving and postprocessing. Based on the results of the research using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), it is found that the moment pressure produced by the goose-leg waterwheel next-G with 8 feet is 207,446.41 Nm, this value is about six times greater than the moment pressure on the previous goose-leg waterwheel of 38,678.785 Nm. This study shows that the design of the foot blade construction opens and closes on a waterwheel such as the movement of a goose foot to increase the power of a waterwheel.

  10. Whole genome sequence of a goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus detected in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, Enikő; Lengyel, György; Dán, Adám; Farkas, Szilvia L; Bányai, Krisztián

    2014-06-01

    Goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) provoke haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of domestic geese. Outbreaks were detected in European countries and caused economic losses for goose keepers. Domestic ducks may be infected with GHPV without any signs typical for geese. The genomic organisation of some isolates was described but the gene functions and the pathomechanisms of the virus was not precisely defined. Here we describe the genome sequence and structure of GHPV of a goose from a Hungarian goose flock showing characteristics of the haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis. The GHPV genome investigated in this study was 5252 bp long and was very similar (99% nucleotide identity) to sequences deposited in the GenBank. All the whole GHPV genomes possess the same ORFs in length, including the VP1, VP2, VP3, ORF-X, t and T tumour antigens. Amino acid changes are detected mainly in the putative ORF-X region. Data about the GHPV genome imply a conserved genomic structure among isolates from different countries. Genomic and epidemiological studies may help vaccine development efforts and identify potential heterologous reservoirs of GHPV.

  11. Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic light-body type goose | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China is particularly rich in goose genetic resources. The systemic study of genetic diversity and origin of Chinese indigenous geese will provide important scientific basis for the conservation, utilization of resources and human history. The 521 bp control region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA from 13 lightbody type breeds ...

  12. Inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence creates goose habitat along the Arctic coast of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Ken D.; Flint, Paul L.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are permafrost. Increased storm surges or terrestrial subsidence would therefore expand the area subject to marine inundation. Since 1976, the distribution of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain has shifted from inland freshwater lakes to coastal marshes, such as those occupying the Smith River and Garry Creek estuaries. We hypothesized that the movement of geese from inland lakes was caused by an expansion of high quality goose forage in coastal areas. We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between 1948 and 2010 with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon. Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between 1948 and 1995, accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation. This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution. Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a 'tipping point' whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes.

  13. Physico-chemical analysis of eggs of native fowl, duck and goose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 135 eggs (50 chicken, 50 duck and 35 goose eggs) were collected from farmers' doors from adjoining rural areas of Bhubaneswar for egg quality traits and chemical analysis. The mean values of quality traits of egg weight, volume, albumin weight, yolk weight, shell weight, shell thickness, shape index, albumin ...

  14. Agouti signalling protein (ASIP) gene: molecular cloning, sequence characterisation and tissue distribution in domestic goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wang, C; Liu, Y; Liu, J; Wang, H Y; Liu, A F; He, D Q

    2016-06-01

    Agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) and is involved in the regulation of pigmentation in mammals. The objective of this study was to identify and characterise the ASIP gene in domestic goose. The goose ASIP cDNA consisted of a 44-nucleotide 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR), a 390-nucleotide open-reading frame (ORF) and a 45-nucleotide 3'-UTR. The length of goose ASIP genomic DNA was 6176 bp, including three coding exons and two introns. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the ORF encodes a protein of 130 amino-acid residues with a molecular weight of 14.88 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.73. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis showed that the amino-acid sequence of ASIP was conserved in vertebrates, especially in the avian species. RT-qPCR showed that the goose ASIP mRNA was differentially expressed in the pigment deposition tissues, including eye, foot, feather follicle, skin of the back, as well as in skin of the abdomen. The expression level of the ASIP gene in skin of the abdomen was higher than that in skin of the back. Those findings will contribute to further understanding the functions of the ASIP gene in geese plumage colouring.

  15. Validation of algorithms to determine incidence of Hirschsprung disease in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study using health administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr A

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Nasr,1,2 Katrina J Sullivan,1 Emily W Chan,1 Coralie A Wong,3 Eric I Benchimol2–5 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3Institute for Clinical Evaluative Science (ICES University of Ottawa, 4CHEO Inflammatory Bowel Disease Centre, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, 5School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Objective: Incidence rates of Hirschsprung disease (HD vary by geographical region, yet no recent population-based estimate exists for Canada. The objective of our study was to validate and use health administrative data from Ontario, Canada to describe trends in incidence of HD between 1991 and 2013.Study design: To identify children with HD we tested algorithms consisting of a combination of diagnostic, procedural, and intervention codes against the reference standard of abstracted clinical charts from a tertiary pediatric hospital. The algorithm with the highest positive predictive value (PPV that could maintain high sensitivity was applied to health administrative data from April 31, 1991 to March 31, 2014 (fiscal years 1991–2013 to determine annual incidence. Temporal trends were evaluated using Poisson regression, controlling for sex as a covariate.Results: The selected algorithm was highly sensitive (93.5% and specific (>99.9% with excellent predictive abilities (PPV 89.6% and negative predictive value >99.9%. Using the algorithm, a total of 679 patients diagnosed with HD were identified in Ontario between 1991 and 2013. The overall incidence during this time was 2.05 per 10,000 live births (or 1 in 4,868 live births. The incidence did not change significantly over time (odds ratio 0.998, 95% confidence interval 0.983–1.013, p = 0.80.Conclusion: Ontario health administrative data can be used to accurately identify cases of HD and describe

  16. Predictors of preoperative delays before radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in Quebec, Canada: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabiano; Dragomir, Alice; Kassouf, Wassim; Franco, Eduardo L; Aprikian, Armen

    2015-03-01

    To characterise and measure different components of preoperative delays experienced by patients with bladder cancer before radical cystectomy (RC) in the province of Quebec, Canada and to identify the predictors of long waiting times. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the data of patients who underwent RC for bladder cancer between 2000 and 2009 in Quebec. The cohort was obtained with the linkage of two provincial health databases: the Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec database (data on medical services dispensed to Quebec residents), and the Fichier des évenements démographiques de l'Institut de la statistique du Québec database (demographic data on births and deaths). For the entire cohort, we determined several components of delay from first medical visit related to bladder cancer symptoms until RC. Predictors of long delays were analysed using logistic regression. We analysed a total of 2778 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The median urologist referral delay was 32 days. The median delays between first urologist visit and RC and between transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) to RC were 90 days and 46 days, respectively. The median overall delay was 116 days. All components of delay progressively increased from the decade of the 1990s to the decade of the 2000s. Male gender was a protective factor for several components of delay, which suggests that gender-related variations may exist in the course of care for bladder cancer (odds ratio 0.67, 95% CI 0.50-0.89 for overall delay). Patient age and gender were associated with delayed urologist referral, delayed time to TURBT, and long overall waiting time. Factors related to the health system were associated with long cystoscopy delays. Median preoperative delays among patients with bladder cancer have been increasing and remain unacceptably long. Patient's age, gender and type of hospital facility were associated with long waiting times. © 2014 The Authors. BJU

  17. Use of residential wood heating in a context of climate change: a population survey in Québec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valois Pierre

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wood heating is recommended in several countries as a climate change (CC adaptation measure, mainly to increase the autonomy of households during power outages due to extreme climatic events. The aim of this study was to examine various perceptions and individual characteristics associated with wood heating through a survey about CC adaptations. Methods A telephone survey (n = 2,545 of adults living in the southern part of the province of Québec (Canada was conducted in the early fall season of 2005. The questionnaire used closed questions and measured the respondents' beliefs and current adaptations about CC. Calibration weighting was used to adjust the data analysis for the respondent's age and language under stratified sampling based on health regions. Results More than three out of four respondents had access to a single source of energy at home, which was mainly electricity; 22.2% combined two sources or more; 18.5% heated with wood occasionally or daily during the winter. The prevalence of wood heating was higher in the peripheral regions than in the more urban regions, where there was a higher proportion of respondents living in apartments. The prevalence was also higher with participants completely disagreeing (38.5% with the eventual prohibition of wood heating when there is smog in winter, compared to respondents somewhat disagreeing (24.2% or agreeing (somewhat: 17.5%; completely: 10.4% with the adoption of this strategy. It appears that the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, smog warnings in the media, or the belief in the human contribution to CC, did not influence significantly wood heating practices. Conclusion Increased residential wood heating could very well become a maladaptation to climate change, given its known consequences on winter smog and respiratory health. It would thus be appropriate to implement a long-term national program on improved and controlled residential wood

  18. Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides in predatory birds: Probabilistic characterisation of toxic liver concentrations and implications for predatory bird populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philippe J; Mineau, Pierre; Shore, Richard F; Champoux, Louise; Martin, Pamela A; Wilson, Laurie K; Fitzgerald, Guy; Elliott, John E

    2011-07-01

    Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) are widely used to control rodent pests but exposure and poisonings occur in non-target species, such as birds of prey. Liver residues are often analysed to detect exposure in birds found dead but their use to assess toxicity of SGARs is problematic. We analysed published data on hepatic rodenticide residues and associated symptoms of anticoagulant poisoning from 270 birds of prey using logistic regression to estimate the probability of toxicosis associated with different liver SGAR residues. We also evaluated exposure to SGARs on a national level in Canada by analysing 196 livers from great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found dead at locations across the country. Analysis of a broader sample of raptor species from Quebec also helped define the taxonomic breadth of contamination. Calculated probability curves suggest significant species differences in sensitivity to SGARs and significant likelihood of toxicosis below previously suggested concentrations of concern (red-tailed hawks and the liver residue levels were also higher. Using our probability estimates of effect, we estimate that a minimum of 11% of the sampled great horned owl population is at risk of being directly killed by SGARs. This is the first time the potential mortality impact of SGARs on a raptor population has been estimated. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analyzing the Potential Risk of Climate Change on Lyme Disease in Eastern Ontario, Canada Using Time Series Remotely Sensed Temperature Data and Tick Population Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of Lyme disease cases (Lyme borreliosis in Ontario, Canada has increased over the last decade, and that figure is projected to continue to increase. The northern limit of Lyme disease cases has also been progressing northward from the northeastern United States into southeastern Ontario. Several factors such as climate change, changes in host abundance, host and vector migration, or possibly a combination of these factors likely contribute to the emergence of Lyme disease cases in eastern Ontario. This study first determined areas of warming using time series remotely sensed temperature data within Ontario, then analyzed possible spatial-temporal changes in Lyme disease risk in eastern Ontario from 2000 to 2013 due to climate change using tick population modeling. The outputs of the model were validated by using tick surveillance data from 2002 to 2012. Our results indicated areas in Ontario where Lyme disease risk changed from unsustainable to sustainable for sustaining Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick populations. This study provides evidence that climate change has facilitated the northward expansion of black-legged tick populations’ geographic range over the past decade. The results demonstrate that remote sensing data can be used to increase the spatial detail for Lyme disease risk mapping and provide risk maps for better awareness of possible Lyme disease cases. Further studies are required to determine the contribution of host migration and abundance on changes in eastern Ontario’s Lyme disease risk.

  20. Herbivory by Canada Geese: Diet Selection and Effect on Lawns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Michael R

    1991-05-01

    Flocks of free-ranging Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) often are considered nuisances when they graze on lawns because they litter the sites with fecal material, and their grazing often is perceived to be detrimental to the turf. I tested whether goose grazing had changed the composition of grass species at 20 sites in Connecticut where geese were considered nuisances. At these sites Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) was less prevalent in areas grazed heavily by geese than in areas of the same lawn that received light grazing. At six sites where up to several hundred geese wait daily for food handouts, 46% of the ground was devoid of vegetation except for a moss. I examined the palatability of different grass species to Canada Geese by giving captive birds the opportunity to feed in plots of five cool-season turf-grass species. The birds spent more time feeding in plots of Kentucky bluegrass and less time feeding in plots of tall fescue (Festuca Araneidae cv. K-31) that would have been expected if the geese were grazing among plots at random. Time spent grazing in plots of colonial bent grass (Agrostis tenuis cv. Highland), perennial ryegrass (Lolium peatland), and red fescue (F. rubra) did not differ from the expected. Feeding preferences for grass species were negatively correlated with the ash content of the leaves and with the amount of force required to sever a specific leaf mass. Captive Canada Geese would not feed on common periwinkle (Inca minor), Japanese pachydermum (pachydermum terminals), or English ivy (headnotes helix). These results suggest that Canada Goose numbers can be reduced at sites where they are foraging on turf if lawns are replaced by an unpalatable ground cover, or, to a lesser extent, with a tough-leaf grass species such as tall fescue. © 1991 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Four major dietary patterns identified for a target-population of adults residing in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Liu, Lin; Roebothan, Barbara; Ryan, Ann; Colbourne, Jennifer; Baker, Natasha; Yan, Jing; Wang, Peizhong Peter

    2015-01-31

    Very limited nutritional epidemiological studies conducted to explore the unique dietary exposure in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). This study aims to identify and characterize major dietary patterns in the target-population from general adult NL residents and assess the associations with selected demographic factors. A total of 192 participants, aged 35-70 years, completed and returned a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and participated in a telephone interview to collect demographic information. Dietary patterns were identified by common factor analysis. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess determinants of the different food consumption patterns. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated for food scores of each pattern, total energy, and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. Factor analyses identified four dietary patterns, which were labeled as "Meat", "Vegetable/fruit", "Fish", and "Grain" patterns. In combination, the four dietary patterns explained 63% of the variance in dietary habits of the study population. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated an increasing trend of factor scores for Meat and Grain pattern with age. Male participants were found to be more likely to choose the Meat and Fish patterns. Current smokers and those married/living together tend to choose the Grain pattern. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed positive correlations between fat and cholesterol and the Meat pattern, fiber and the Vegetable/fruits pattern, protein and the Fish pattern, and carbohydrates and the Grain pattern. This study derived four dietary patterns and obtained their significant associations with specific demographic characteristics in this population. It identified one dietary consumption pattern (Fish) not yet seen in other studied populations. These findings will update the current dietary-health information published in this province, and contribute to further research into the association between

  2. Wild Mallards Have More “Goose-Like” Bills Than Their Ancestors: A Case of Anthropogenic Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderquist, Pär; Norrström, Joanna; Elmberg, Johan; Guillemain, Matthieu; Gunnarsson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Wild populations of the world’s most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started), present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males). Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more “goose-like” bills (wider, higher, and shorter) than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with ‘alien genes’ may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds. PMID:25514789

  3. The impact of antidepressant treatment on population health: synthesis of data from two national data sources in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott B

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In randomized, controlled trials, antidepressant medications have been shown to reduce the duration of major depressive episodes and to reduce the frequency of relapse during long-term treatment. The epidemiological impact of antidepressant use on episode duration and relapse frequency, however, has not been described. Methods Data from two Canadian general health surveys were used in this analysis: the National Population Health Survey (NPHS and the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS. The NPHS is a longitudinal study that collected data between 1994 and 2000. These longitudinal data allowed an approximation of episode incidence to be calculated. The cross-sectional CCHS allowed estimation of episode duration. The surveys used the same sampling frame and both incorporated a Short Form version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results Episodes occurring in antidepressant users lasted longer than those in non-users. The apparent incidence of major depressive episodes among those taking antidepressants was higher than that among respondents not taking antidepressants. Changes in duration and incidence over the data collection interval were not observed. Conclusions The most probable explanation for these results is confounding by indication and/or severity: members of the general population who are taking antidepressants probably have more highly recurrent and more severe mood disorders. In part, this may have been due to the use of a brief predictive diagnostic interview, which may be prone to detection of sub-clinical cases. Whereas antidepressant use increased considerably over the data-collection period, differences in episode incidence and duration over time were not observed. This suggests that the impact of antidepressant medications on population health may have been less than expected.

  4. Small mammal trapping baseline surveys Mother Goose Lake, Alaska Peninsula/Becharof NWR, Alaska, June-August, 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Small mammal trapping at Mother Goose Lake continued on the Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge for the fifth consecutive year. Live trapping was conducted...

  5. Small mammal trapping baseline surveys Mother Goose Lake, Alaska Peninsula/Becharof NWR, Alaska, June-August, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Small mammal trapping at Mother Goose Lake continued on the Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge for the sixth consecutive year. Live trapping was conducted...

  6. Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) Habitat Use Data, Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, 2012-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains one table of data from a two-year study of Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons frontalis) molting ecology conducted in the...

  7. Population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelder, Mark P; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0-9 years old) and older adults (55-74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases.

  8. The Population Level Cascade of Care for Hepatitis C in British Columbia, Canada: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Z; Kuo, Margot; Yu, Amanda; Alvarez, Maria; Wong, Stanley; Cook, Darrel; Wong, Jason; Grebely, Jason; Butt, Zahid A; Samji, Hasina; Ramji, Alnoor; Tyndall, Mark; Krajden, Mel

    2016-10-01

    Population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected people across the cascade of care identifies gaps in access and engagement in care and treatment. We characterized a population-level cascade of care for HCV in British Columbia (BC), Canada and identified factors associated with leakage at each stage. The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes 1.5million individuals tested for HCV, HIV, reported cases of hepatitis B, and active tuberculosis in BC from 1990 to 2013 linked to medical visits, hospitalizations, cancers, prescription drugs and mortality data. We defined six HCV cascade of care stages: 1) estimated population prevalence; 2) HCV diagnosed; 3) HCV RNA tested; 4) genotyped; 5) initiated treatment; and 6) achieved sustained virologic response (SVR). We estimated that 73,203 people were HCV antibody positive in BC in 2012 (undiagnosed: 18,301, 25%; diagnosed: 54,902, 75%). Of these, 56%(40,656) had HCV RNA testing; 34%(26,300) were genotyped; 12%( 8532 ) had received interferon-based therapy and 7%(5197) had SVR. Males, older birth cohorts, and HBV coinfected were less likely to undergo HCV RNA testing. Among those with chronic HCV infection, 32% had received liver-related care. Retention in liver care was more likely in those with HIV, cirrhosis, and drug/alcohol use and less likely in males and HBV coinfected. Although there are gaps in HCV RNA testing and genotyping after HCV diagnosis, the major gap in the cascade of care was low treatment initiation. People with comorbidities progressed through the cascade of testing and care but few received treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The public's viewpoint on the right to hastened death in Alberta, Canada: findings from a population survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna M; Birch, Stephen; MacLeod, Rod; Dhanji, Nurin; Osei-Waree, Jane; Cohen, Joachim

    2013-03-01

    A research study was conducted to determine public opinion in Alberta, a Canadian province, on the controversial topic of death hastening. Questions on the right to hastened death, end-of-life plans and end-of-life experiences were included in the Population Research Laboratory's annual 2010 health-care telephone survey, with 1203 adults providing results relatively representative of Albertans. Of all 1203, 72.6% said yes to the question: 'Should dying adults be able to request and get help from others to end their life early, in other words, this is a request for assisted suicide'? Among all who provided an answer, 36.8% indicated 'yes, every competent adult should have this right' and 40.6% indicated 'yes, but it should be allowed only in certain cases or situations'. Over 50% of respondents in all but one socio-demographic population sub-group (Religious-other) were supportive of the right to hastened death. However, multinomial regression analysis revealed that the experiences of deciding to euthanise a pet/animal and developing or planning to develop an advance directive predicted support, while self-reported religiosity predicted non-support. Finding majority public support for death hastening suggests that legalisation could potentially occur in the future; but with this policy first requiring a careful consideration of the model of assisted suicide or euthanasia that best protects people who are highly vulnerable to despair and suffering near the end of life. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. An assessment of ONRAB oral rabies vaccine persistence in free-ranging mammal populations in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, K G; Walpole, A A; Rosatte, R; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Donovan, D; Bachmann, P; Coulson, S; Beresford, A; Bruce, L; Kyle, C J

    2013-04-19

    ONRAB is a rabies glycoprotein recombinant human adenovirus type 5 oral vaccine developed for application in baits to control rabies in wildlife populations. Prior to widespread use of ONRAB, both the safety and effectiveness of this vaccine required investigation. While previous research has focused on field performance and the persistence and pathogenicity of ONRAB in captive animals, we sought to examine persistence and shedding of ONRAB in populations of free-ranging target and non-target mammals. We collected oral and rectal swab samples from 84 red foxes, 169 striped skunks, and 116 raccoons during 2007 and 2008 in areas where ONRAB vaccine baits were distributed. We also analyzed 930 tissue samples, 135 oral swab and 138 rectal swab samples from 155 non-target small mammals from 10 species captured during 2008 at sites treated with high densities of ONRAB vaccine baits. Samples were screened for the presence and quantity of ONRAB DNA using quantitative real-time PCR. None of the samples that we analyzed from target and non-target species contained quantities of ONRAB greater than 10(3)EU/mL of ONRAB DNA which is a limit that has previously been applied to assess viral shedding. This study builds on similar research and suggests that replication of ONRAB in animals is short-lived and the likelihood of horizontal transmission to other organisms is low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Yongbo; Randell, Edward; Pedram, Pardis; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans. To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study. A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses. Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), percent android fat (%AF), percent gynoid fat (%GF) and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, pcomposition in humans.

  12. Vaccination against 2009 pandemic H1N1 in a population dynamical model of Vancouver, Canada: timing is everything

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conway Jessica M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much remains unknown about the effect of timing and prioritization of vaccination against pandemic (pH1N1 2009 virus on health outcomes. We adapted a city-level contact network model to study different campaigns on influenza morbidity and mortality. Methods We modeled different distribution strategies initiated between July and November 2009 using a compartmental epidemic model that includes age structure and transmission network dynamics. The model represents the Greater Vancouver Regional District, a major North American city and surrounding suburbs with a population of 2 million, and is parameterized using data from the British Columbia Ministry of Health, published studies, and expert opinion. Outcomes are expressed as the number of infections and deaths averted due to vaccination. Results The model output was consistent with provincial surveillance data. Assuming a basic reproduction number = 1.4, an 8-week vaccination campaign initiated 2 weeks before the epidemic onset reduced morbidity and mortality by 79-91% and 80-87%, respectively, compared to no vaccination. Prioritizing children and parents for vaccination may have reduced transmission compared to actual practice, but the mortality benefit of this strategy appears highly sensitive to campaign timing. Modeling the actual late October start date resulted in modest reductions in morbidity and mortality (13-25% and 16-20%, respectively with little variation by prioritization scheme. Conclusion Delays in vaccine production due to technological or logistical barriers may reduce potential benefits of vaccination for pandemic influenza, and these temporal effects can outweigh any additional theoretical benefits from population targeting. Careful modeling may provide decision makers with estimates of these effects before the epidemic peak to guide production goals and inform policy. Integration of real-time surveillance data with mathematical models holds the promise of

  13. The direct healthcare costs associated with psychological distress and major depression: A population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Lebenbaum, Michael; Cheng, Joyce; de Oliveira, Claire; Kurdyak, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The objective of our study was to estimate direct healthcare costs incurred by a population-based sample of people with psychological distress or depression. We used the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey on Mental Health and Well Being and categorized individuals as having psychological distress using the Kessler-6, major depressive disorder (MDD) using DSM-IV criteria and a comparison group of participants without MDD or psychological distress. Costs in 2013 USD were estimated by linking individuals to health administrative databases and following them until March 31, 2013. Our sample consisted of 9,965 individuals, of whom 651 and 409 had psychological distress and MDD, respectively. Although the age-and-sex adjusted per-capita costs were similarly high among the psychologically distressed ($3,364, 95% CI: $2,791, $3,937) and those with MDD ($3,210, 95% CI: $2,413, $4,008) compared to the comparison group ($2,629, 95% CI: $2,312, $2,945), the population-wide excess costs for psychological distress ($441 million) were more than twice that for MDD ($210 million) as there was a greater number of people with psychological distress than depression. We found substantial healthcare costs associated with psychological distress and depression, suggesting that psychological distress and MDD have a high cost burden and there may be public health intervention opportunities to relieve distress. Further research examining how individuals with these conditions use the healthcare system may provide insight into the allocation of limited healthcare resources while maintaining high quality care. PMID:28873469

  14. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  15. Integrated spatial health assessment of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations from the St. Lawrence River (QC, Canada), part B: cellular and transcriptomic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Audrey; Landry, Catherine; Giraudo, Maeva; Douville, Mélanie; Brodeur, Philippe; Boily, Monique; Gagnon, Pierre; Houde, Magali

    2016-09-01

    Multi-biological level assessments have become great tools to evaluate the health of aquatic ecosystems. Using this approach, a complementary study was designed to evaluate the health of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) populations in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). In the present study, stress responses were compared at the transcriptomic, cellular, and tissue levels in yellow perch collected at six sites along the river: Lake St. François, Lake St. Louis (north and south), Beauregard Island and Lake St. Pierre (north and south). These results complement the physiological and chemical parameters as well as pathogen infection investigated in a companion paper published in the present issue. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) analyses indicated the presence of oxidative stress in fish collected in the southern part of Lake St. Louis and at the downstream sites of Lake St. Pierre. High lipid peroxidation levels were found in the muscle of yellow perch caught at Beauregard Island, located downstream of the Montreal's wastewater treatment plant, suggesting an impact of the municipal effluent on redox homeostasis. Transcriptomic results indicated the down-regulation of genes related to lipid, glucose, and retinoid in southern Lake St. Pierre as well as a decrease in retinoid storage. Overall, biochemical and molecular markers indicated that the health status of yellow perch followed a decreasing gradient from upstream to downstream of the St. Lawrence River. This gradient is representative of the cumulative negative impacts of human activities on water and habitat quality along the river.

  16. Food consumption and the risk of type 1 diabetes in children and youth: a population-based, case-control study in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Victoria S; Vanleeuwen, John A; Taylor, Jennifer; McKinney, Patricia A; Van Til, Linda

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the consumption of certain foods during the year prior to diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) was associated with the risk of developing T1D in children and youth residing in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Cases (n = 57) consisted of newly diagnosed patients with T1D during 2001 to 2004. Controls (n = 105) were randomly selected from the province's population, and matched to cases by age at diagnosis and sex. Food consumption in cases and controls was assessed using two previously validated food frequency questionnaires, and a survey was developed to collect information on potential environmental and genetic risk factors. The median age at diagnosis was nine years, and 67% of cases were male. After controlling for the matched variables and four significant environmental and genetic risk factors (family members with T1D, the number of infections during the first two years of life, place of residence, and father's education) in the final logistic regression model, the consumption of regular soft drinks (OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.21, 6.36) and eggs (OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.09, 5.75) were significant risk factors of T1D, when consumed once per week or more often. Diet may play a role in the development of T1D. However, further research is needed to confirm these observed associations.

  17. What is the comparative health status and associated risk factors for the Métis? A population-based study in Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Patricia J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Métis are descendants of early 17th century relationships between North American Indians and Europeans. This study's objectives were: (1 to compare the health status of the Métis people to all other residents of Manitoba, Canada; and (2 to analyze factors in predicting the likelihood of diabetes and related lower limb amputation. Methods Using de-identified administrative databases plus the Métis Population Database housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, age/sex-adjusted rates of mortality and disease were calculated for Métis (n = 73,016 and all other Manitobans (n = 1,104,672. Diseases included: hypertension, arthritis, diabetes, ischemic heart disease (age 19+; osteoporosis (age 50+; acute myocardial infarction (AMI and stroke (age 40+; total respiratory morbidity (TRM, all ages. Using logistic regression, predictors of diabetes (2004/05-2006/07 and diabetes-related lower-limb amputations (2002/03-2006/07 were analyzed. Results Disease rates were higher for Métis compared to all others: premature mortality before age 75 (4.0 vs. 3.3 per 1000, p Conclusion Despite universal healthcare, Métis' illness and mortality rates are mostly higher. Although elevated diabetes risk persists for the Métis even after adjusting for sociodemographic, healthcare and comorbidity variables, the risk of amputation for Métis appears more related to healthcare access rather than ethnicity.

  18. The impact of clinical, demographic and risk factors on rates of HIV transmission: a population-based phylogenetic analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Art F Y; Joy, Jeffrey B; Woods, Conan K; Shurgold, Susan; Colley, Guillaume; Brumme, Chanson J; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G; Harrigan, P Richard

    2015-03-15

    The diversification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is shaped by its transmission history. We therefore used a population based province wide HIV drug resistance database in British Columbia (BC), Canada, to evaluate the impact of clinical, demographic, and behavioral factors on rates of HIV transmission. We reconstructed molecular phylogenies from 27,296 anonymized bulk HIV pol sequences representing 7747 individuals in BC-about half the estimated HIV prevalence in BC. Infections were grouped into clusters based on phylogenetic distances, as a proxy for variation in transmission rates. Rates of cluster expansion were reconstructed from estimated dates of HIV seroconversion. Our criteria grouped 4431 individuals into 744 clusters largely separated with respect to risk factors, including large established clusters predominated by injection drug users and more-recently emerging clusters comprising men who have sex with men. The mean log10 viral load of an individual's phylogenetic neighborhood (composed of 5 other individuals with shortest phylogenetic distances) increased their odds of appearing in a cluster by >2-fold per log10 viruses per milliliter. Hotspots of ongoing HIV transmission can be characterized in near real time by the secondary analysis of HIV resistance genotypes, providing an important potential resource for targeting public health initiatives for HIV prevention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Tony; Roache, Cindy; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-06-02

    To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities.

  20. What is Pseudopotamilla reniformis (Sabellidae)? Comparisons of populations from Britain, Iceland and Canada with comments on Eudistylia and Schizobranchia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, Phyllis; Darbyshire, Teresa; Petersen, Mary E; Tovar-Hernández, María Ana

    2017-04-12

    A neotype of Amphitrite Müller (1771) is established and re-described, using material collected in 2001 from near the type locality on the southwest coast of Iceland. We examined material from Iceland, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, identified as Pseudopotamilla reniformis, showing scissiparity and commonly found in aggregations within kelp holdfasts or amongst encrusting fauna. By contrast, scissiparity has not been seen in a population recorded as P. reniformis from Wales (broadcast spawning is presumed, Chughtai & Knight-Jones 1988), which bores into limestone and that the present analysis shows to belong to a different species from P. reniformis. Sabella oculata Krøyer (1856, Norway) is a junior synonym of P. reniformis. Sabella aspersa Krøyer (1856, Greenland) and Sabella saxicava (Quatrefages, 1866, France) are re-instated and re-described in Pseudopotamilla. Pseudopotamilla saxicava (= Potamilla ehlersi Gravier, 1906) has a widespread distribution from Britain to the Arabian Gulf, Pseudopotamilla aspersa is found in Greenland and the distribution of P. reniformis is reduced to Iceland, northern Norway, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. The genera Eudistylia Bush and Schizobranchia Bush are discussed in relation to Pseudopotamilla.

  1. Asthma, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease amongst South Asian immigrants to Canada and their children: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric I Benchimol

    Full Text Available There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children.Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants.Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61 and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65. Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49, as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42. Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71 and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67 was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81 and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22.Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children.

  2. Asthma, Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease amongst South Asian Immigrants to Canada and Their Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Eric I.; Manuel, Douglas G.; To, Teresa; Mack, David R.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Croitoru, Kenneth; Mojaverian, Nassim; Wang, Xuesong; Quach, Pauline; Guttmann, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children. METHODS Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants. RESULTS Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61) and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65). Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49), as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42). Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71) and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67) was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81) and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22). CONCLUSION Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children. PMID:25849480

  3. Use of a Remote Car Starter in Relation to Smog and Climate Change Perceptions: A Population Survey in Québec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkacem Abdous

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote car starters encourage motorists to warm up their vehicles by idling the motor – thus increasing atmospheric pollutants, including several greenhouse gas (GHG with impacts on public health. This study about climate change (CC adaptation and mitigation actions examined perceptions on air pollution and climate change and individual characteristics associated with the use of a remote car starter. A telephone survey (n = 2,570; response rate: 70% of adults living in Québec (Canada measured the respondents’ beliefs and current behaviours regarding CC. Approximately 32.9% (daily car users and 27.4% (occasional users reported using a remote car starter during winter. The odds of the use of a remote car starter was higher in the less densely populated central (OR: 1.5 and peripheral regions (OR: 2.7 compared to the urban centers (ex. Montreal. The odds was also higher in population with a mother tongue other than English or French (OR: 2.6 and francophones than anglophones (OR: 2.1, women than men (OR: 1.5, daily drivers than occasional ones (OR: 1.2, and respondents who at least sometimes consulted temperature/humidity reports than those who consulted them less often (OR: 1.5. In multivariate analysis, the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, being aware of smog warnings, or the belief in the human contribution to CC did not significantly influence the use of a remote car starter. The use of remote car starters encourages idling which produces increased atmospheric pollution and GHG production and it should be more efficiently and vigorously managed by various activities. A five-minute daily reduction in idling is equivalent to reducing the total car emissions by 1.8%. This would constitute a “no-regrets” approach to CC as it can simultaneously reduce GHG, air pollution and their health impacts.

  4. Use of a remote car starter in relation to smog and climate change perceptions: a population survey in Québec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre; Valois, Pierre; Germain, Stéphane; Abdous, Belkacem

    2009-02-01

    Remote car starters encourage motorists to warm up their vehicles by idling the motor--thus increasing atmospheric pollutants, including several greenhouse gas (GHG) with impacts on public health. This study about climate change (CC) adaptation and mitigation actions examined perceptions on air pollution and climate change and individual characteristics associated with the use of a remote car starter. A telephone survey (n = 2,570; response rate: 70%) of adults living in Québec (Canada) measured the respondents' beliefs and current behaviours regarding CC. Approximately 32.9% (daily car users) and 27.4% (occasional users) reported using a remote car starter during winter. The odds of the use of a remote car starter was higher in the less densely populated central (OR: 1.5) and peripheral regions (OR: 2.7) compared to the urban centers (ex. Montreal). The odds was also higher in population with a mother tongue other than English or French (OR: 2.6) and francophones than anglophones (OR: 2.1), women than men (OR: 1.5), daily drivers than occasional ones (OR: 1.2), and respondents who at least sometimes consulted temperature/humidity reports than those who consulted them less often (OR: 1.5). In multivariate analysis, the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, being aware of smog warnings, or the belief in the human contribution to CC did not significantly influence the use of a remote car starter. The use of remote car starters encourages idling which produces increased atmospheric pollution and GHG production and it should be more efficiently and vigorously managed by various activities. A five-minute daily reduction in idling is equivalent to reducing the total car emissions by 1.8%. This would constitute a "no-regrets" approach to CC as it can simultaneously reduce GHG, air pollution and their health impacts.

  5. Breast cancer screening disparities among immigrant women by world region of origin: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kumar, Matthew; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-07-01

    Rates of mammography screening for breast cancer are disproportionately low in certain subgroups including low-income and immigrant women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in rates of appropriate breast cancer screening (i.e., screening mammography every 2 years) among Ontario immigrant women by world region of origin and explore the association between appropriate breast cancer screening among these women groups and individual and structural factors. A cohort of 183,332 screening-eligible immigrant women living in Ontario between 2010 and 2012 was created from linked databases and classified into eight world regions of origin. Appropriate screening rates were calculated for each region by age group and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and healthcare-related characteristics. The association between appropriate screening across the eight regions of origin and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and health-related characteristics was explored using multivariate Poisson regression. Screening varied by region of origin, with South Asian women (48.5%) having the lowest and Caribbean and Latin American women (63.7%) the highest cancer screening rates. Factors significantly associated with lower screening across the world regions of origin included living in the lowest income neighborhoods, having a refugee status, being a new immigrant, not having a regular physical examination, not being enrolled in a primary care patient enrollment model, having a male physician, and having an internationally trained physician. Multiple interventions entailing cross-sector collaboration, promotion of patient enrollment models, community engagement, comprehensive and intensive outreach to women, and knowledge translation and transfer to physicians should be considered to address screening disparities among immigrant population. Consideration should be given to design and delivery of culturally appropriate and easily accessible cancer screening programs

  6. VARIABILITY, HERITABILITY AND CORRELATIONS OF EGG SHAPE IN THE ZATORSKA GOOSE

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    Andrzej RABSZTYN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was aimed at the evaluation of inheritance of goose egg measurements, egg shape indices and egg weight as well as the relationship between these traits. The research was carried out in the flock of the Zatorska geese, belonging to the FAO registered genetic resources of poultry. Seven hundred sixty-one eggs from pedigree bred geese in their first to fourth reproduction seasons were included in the analysis. Average egg shape index was 68.8%, average shell surface area was 140.6 cm2. Egg weight of geese in different age was 165 g. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations estimated between the analysed traits of goose egg are presented.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of the goose (Anser cygnoides ovaries identify laying and broodiness phenotypes.

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    Qi Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The geese have strong broodiness and poor egg performance. These characteristics are the key issues that hinder the goose industry development. Yet little is known about the mechanisms responsible for follicle development due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to produce a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and to better understand the biological mechanisms of goose follicle development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analysis using short-read sequencing technology (Illumina. We obtained 67,315,996 short reads of 100 bp, which were assembled into 130,514 unique sequences by Trinity strategy (mean size = 753 bp. Based on BLAST results with known proteins, these analyses identified 52,642 sequences with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5. Assembled sequences were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology and clusters of orthologous group terms. In addition, we investigated the transcription changes during the goose laying/broodiness period using a tag-based digital gene expression (DGE system. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 4.2 million tags per sample and identified a large number of genes associated with follicle development and reproductive biology including cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme gene and dopamine beta-hydroxylas gene. We confirm the altered expression levels of the two genes using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The obtained goose transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that could promote better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying follicle development and productivity.

  8. Transcriptome profiling of the goose (Anser cygnoides) ovaries identify laying and broodiness phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Zhao, WenMing; Chen, Yang; Tong, YiYu; Rong, GuangHui; Huang, ZhengYang; Zhang, Yang; Chang, GuoBing; Wu, XinSheng; Chen, GuoHong

    2013-01-01

    The geese have strong broodiness and poor egg performance. These characteristics are the key issues that hinder the goose industry development. Yet little is known about the mechanisms responsible for follicle development due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to produce a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and to better understand the biological mechanisms of goose follicle development. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analysis using short-read sequencing technology (Illumina). We obtained 67,315,996 short reads of 100 bp, which were assembled into 130,514 unique sequences by Trinity strategy (mean size = 753 bp). Based on BLAST results with known proteins, these analyses identified 52,642 sequences with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5). Assembled sequences were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology and clusters of orthologous group terms. In addition, we investigated the transcription changes during the goose laying/broodiness period using a tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) system. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 4.2 million tags per sample and identified a large number of genes associated with follicle development and reproductive biology including cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme gene and dopamine beta-hydroxylas gene. We confirm the altered expression levels of the two genes using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The obtained goose transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that could promote better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying follicle development and productivity.

  9. Identification, Characterization, and Developmental Expression Pattern of Type III Interferon Receptor Gene in the Chinese Goose

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    Qin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferons, as the first line of defense against the viral infection, play an important role in innate immune responses. Type III interferon (IFN-λ was a newly identified member of IFN family, which plays IFN-like antiviral activity. Towards a better understanding of the type III interferon system in birds, type III interferon lambda receptor (IFNLR1 was first identified in the Chinese goose. In this paper, we had cloned 1952 bp for goose IFNLR1 (goIFNLR1, including an ORF of 1539 bp, encoding a 512-amino acid protein with a 20 aa predict signal peptide at its N terminal and a 23 aa transmembrane region. The predicted amino acid sequence of goIFNLR1 has 90%, 73%, and 34% identity with duck IFNLR1 (predicted sequence, chicken IFNLR1, and human IFNLR1, respectively. And the age-related tissue distribution of goIFNLR1 was identified by Real Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR, we found that the goIFNLR1 has a mainly expression in epithelium-rich tissues similar to other species’, such as small intestinal, lung, liver, and stomach. Moreover, a relatively high expression of goIFNLR1 was also observed in the secondary immune tissues (harderian gland and cecal tonsil. The identification and tissue distribution of goIFNLR1 will facilitate further study of the role of IFN-λ in goose antiviral defense.

  10. Retrieval of proximally migrated double J ureteric stents in children using goose neck snare

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    Sivasankar Jayakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Proximal migration of the ureteric double J stent is a rare but known complication. We describe three cases where a minimally invasive technique for retrieval of displaced double J stents using Amplatz™ goose-neck snare was successful. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of patients with displaced double J stent was carried out, in whom cystoscopy guided retrieval of double J stent was attempted with the help of Amplatz goose-neck snare under radiological control. Results: All three patients were under the age of 3 years. Two patients had migrated double J stent following pyeloplasty and in one patient the double J stent was displaced during a retrograde insertion of double J stent. In all cases, retrieval of displaced double J stent was successfully achieved using Amplatz goose-neck snare. There were no postoperative complications. Conclusion: Our method of retrieval of stent from renal pelvis is simple, safe and minimally invasive. This technique is a useful and safe alternative option for retrieval of proximally migrated double J stents in children.

  11. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Huanyu; Wei, Na; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chunyuan; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Liu, Dapeng; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2011-05-27

    Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. De novo transcriptomic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the Chinese goose: gene discovery and immune system pathway description.

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    Mansoor Tariq

    Full Text Available The Chinese goose is one of the most economically important poultry birds and is a natural reservoir for many avian viruses. However, the nature and regulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems of this waterfowl species are not completely understood due to limited information on the goose genome. Recently, transcriptome sequencing technology was applied in the genomic studies focused on novel gene discovery. Thus, this study described the transcriptome of the goose peripheral blood lymphocytes to identify immunity relevant genes.De novo transcriptome assembly of the goose peripheral blood lymphocytes was sequenced by Illumina-Solexa technology. In total, 211,198 unigenes were assembled from the 69.36 million cleaned reads. The average length, N50 size and the maximum length of the assembled unigenes were 687 bp, 1,298 bp and 18,992 bp, respectively. A total of 36,854 unigenes showed similarity by BLAST search against the NCBI non-redundant (Nr protein database. For functional classification, 163,161 unigenes were comprised of three Gene Ontology (Go categories and 67 subcategories. A total of 15,334 unigenes were annotated into 25 eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database annotated 39,585 unigenes into six biological functional groups and 308 pathways. Among the 2,757 unigenes that participated in the 15 immune system KEGG pathways, 125 of the most important immune relevant genes were summarized and analyzed by STRING analysis to identify gene interactions and relationships. Moreover, 10 genes were confirmed by PCR and analyzed. Of these 125 unigenes, 109 unigenes, approximately 87%, were not previously identified in the goose.This de novo transcriptome analysis could provide important Chinese goose sequence information and highlights the value of new gene discovery, pathways investigation and immune system gene identification, and comparison with other avian species as useful

  13. Characteristics of opioid-users whose death was related to opioid-toxicity: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Parvaz; Hildebrandt, Doris; Lauwers, Albert E; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the prescription opioid public health crisis has been illustrated by the dramatic increase in opioid-related deaths in North America. We aimed to identify patterns and characteristics amongst opioid-users whose cause of death was related to opioid toxicity. This was a population-based study of Ontarians between the years 2006 and 2008. All drug-related deaths which occurred during this time frame were reviewed at the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario, and opioid-related deaths were identified. Medical, toxicology, pathology, and police reports were comprehensively reviewed. Narratives, semi-quantitative, and quantitative variables were extracted, tabulated, and analyzed. Out of 2330 drug-related deaths in Ontario, 58% were attributed either in whole or in part, to opioids (n = 1359). Oxycodone was involved in approximately one-third of all opioid-related deaths. At least 7% of the entire cohort used opioids that were prescribed for friends and/or family, 19% inappropriately self-administered opioids (injection, inhalation, chewed patch), 3% were recently released from jail, and 5% had been switched from one opioid to another near the time of death. Accidental deaths were significantly associated with personal history of substance abuse, enrollment in methadone maintenance programs, cirrhosis, hepatitis, and cocaine use. Suicides were significantly associated with mental illness, previous suicide attempts, chronic pain, and a history of cancer. These results identify novel, susceptible groups of opioid-users whose cause of death was related to opioids in Ontario and provide the first evidence to assist in quantifying the contribution of opioid misuse and diversion amongst opioid-related mortality in Canada. Multifaceted prevention strategies need to be developed based on subpopulations of opioid users.

  14. Importance of ICD-10 coding directive change for acute gastroenteritis (unspecified) for rotavirus vaccine impact studies: illustration from a population-based cohort study from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah E; Deeks, Shelley L; Rosella, Laura C

    2015-09-15

    In Ontario, Canada, we conducted an evaluation of rotavirus (RV) vaccine on hospitalizations and Emergency Department (ED) visitations for acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In our original analysis, any one of the International Classification of Disease, Version 10 (ICD-10) codes was used for outcome ascertainment: RV-specific- (A08.0), viral- (A08.3, A08. 4, A08.5), and unspecified infectious- gastroenteritis (A09). Annual age-specific rates per 10,000 population were calculated. The average monthly rate of AGE hospitalization for children under age two increased from 0.82 per 10,000 from January 2003 to March 2009, to 2.35 over the period of April 2009 to March 31, 2013. Similar trends were found for ED consultations and in other age groups. A rise in events corresponding to the A09 code was found when the outcome definition was disaggregated by ICD-10 code. Documentation obtained from the World Health Organization confirmed that a change in directive for the classification of unspecified gastroenteritis occurred with the release of ICD-10 in April 2009. AGE events previously classified under the code K52.9, are now classified under code A09.9. Based on change in the classification of unspecified gastroenteritis we modified our outcome definition to also include unspecified non-infectious-gastroenteritis (K52.9). We recommend other investigators consider using both A09.9 and K52.9 ICD-10 codes for outcome ascertainment in future rotavirus vaccine impact studies to ensure that all unspecified cases of AGE are captured, especially if the study period spans 2009.

  15. Reported intake of selected micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland, Labrador and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuoyu; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Roebothan, Barbara; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Jinhui; Dicks, Elizabeth; Cotterchio, Michelle; Buehler, Sharon; Campbell, Peter T; McLaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2012-02-01

    The impact of micronutrient intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of selected micronutrients with risk of incident CRC in study participants from Newfoundland, Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON), Canada. We conducted a population-based study among 1760 case participants and 2481 age- and sex-matched control participants. Information on diet and other lifestyle factors were measured using a food frequency questionnaire and a personal history questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, controlling for covariables. Highest compared to lowest quartile intakes of certain micronutrients were associated with lower risk of CRC, including: calcium (from food and supplements (FS), OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.45-0.77, and from food only (FO): OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.59-0.97), vitamin C (FS:OR=0.67; 95%CI:0.51-0.88), vitamin D (FS: OR=0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.94, FO: OR=0.79, 95% CI=0.62-1.00), riboflavin (FS: OR=0.61; 95% CI=0.47-0.78, and folate (FS: OR=0.72; 95% CI=0.56-0.92). Higher risk of CRC was observed for iron intake (highest versus lowest quintiles: OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.01-1.78). This study presents evidence that dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, riboflavin and folate are associated with a lower risk of incident CRC and that dietary intake of iron may be associated with a higher risk of the disease.

  16. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Results Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. Conclusions The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities. PMID:23724920

  17. Characteristics of opioid-users whose death was related to opioid-toxicity: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaz Madadi

    Full Text Available The impact of the prescription opioid public health crisis has been illustrated by the dramatic increase in opioid-related deaths in North America. We aimed to identify patterns and characteristics amongst opioid-users whose cause of death was related to opioid toxicity.This was a population-based study of Ontarians between the years 2006 and 2008. All drug-related deaths which occurred during this time frame were reviewed at the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario, and opioid-related deaths were identified. Medical, toxicology, pathology, and police reports were comprehensively reviewed. Narratives, semi-quantitative, and quantitative variables were extracted, tabulated, and analyzed.Out of 2330 drug-related deaths in Ontario, 58% were attributed either in whole or in part, to opioids (n = 1359. Oxycodone was involved in approximately one-third of all opioid-related deaths. At least 7% of the entire cohort used opioids that were prescribed for friends and/or family, 19% inappropriately self-administered opioids (injection, inhalation, chewed patch, 3% were recently released from jail, and 5% had been switched from one opioid to another near the time of death. Accidental deaths were significantly associated with personal history of substance abuse, enrollment in methadone maintenance programs, cirrhosis, hepatitis, and cocaine use. Suicides were significantly associated with mental illness, previous suicide attempts, chronic pain, and a history of cancer.These results identify novel, susceptible groups of opioid-users whose cause of death was related to opioids in Ontario and provide the first evidence to assist in quantifying the contribution of opioid misuse and diversion amongst opioid-related mortality in Canada. Multifaceted prevention strategies need to be developed based on subpopulations of opioid users.

  18. A comparison of heavy metal levels in the kidneys of High Arctic and mainland caribou populations in the Northwest Territories of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, N C; Nagy, J A

    2000-02-10

    Aluminum, nickel, cadmium, mercury and lead levels were measured in the kidney tissue of Banks Island Peary caribou and barren-ground caribou, from the Bluenose herd, of the western Northwest Territories of Canada. Cadmium concentrations of Bluenose caribou were similar to those reported elsewhere for barren-ground caribou and showed a positive correlation with age. Cadmium concentrations of Peary caribou were significantly lower than those of Bluenose caribou regardless of age, were the lowest reported for caribou during winter, and did not show a positive correlation with age. Mercury levels, expressed on a wet weight basis, were similar to those reported for other barren-ground caribou. Mercury levels were significantly higher in Bluenose [mean 10.45 microg g(-1) (dry wt.); S.E.= 0.85; n = 20] than Peary [mean 5.43 microg g(-1) (dry wt.); S.E. = 0.31; n = 20] caribou. Aluminum concentrations for Bluenose and Peary caribou were similar [mean 1.48 microg g(-1) (dry wt.); S.E. = 0.17; n = 20 and mean 1.56 microg g(-1) (dry wt.); S.E.= 0.15; n = 20, respectively), but were considerably lower than those reported for barren-ground caribou elsewhere. Lead and nickel concentrations were low and similar between Bluenose, Peary and other reported barren-ground caribou populations. Higher cadmium and mercury concentrations in Bluenose caribou are consistent with the hypothesis that caribou with a high dietary lichen component have higher contaminant levels. It is unlikely that subsistence harvesters would consume enough kidney during a year to exceed the tolerable intake of cadmium recommended by the WHO.

  19. Current use of domperidone and co-prescribing of medications that increase its arrhythmogenic potential among older adults: a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Fernandez, Carlos; Stephenson, Anne L; Fischer, Hadas D; Wang, Xuesong; Mestre, Tiago; Hutson, Janine R; Pondal, Margarita; Lee, Douglas S; Rochon, Paula A; Marras, Connie

    2014-11-01

    Domperidone is commonly used to treat nausea and gastrointestinal disorders. Recent data suggests that it may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death, particularly in older people. Little is known about how it is used in contemporary practice. This study sought to characterize the population of older adults newly dispensed domperidone, describe dosages of domperidone used, and determine the frequency of co-prescribing domperidone with medications that may increase the arrhythmogenic potential of domperidone. This is a retrospective cohort study using administrative health database information from Ontario, Canada. Prescription medication records were obtained from the Ontario Drug Benefit Claims Database. Diagnostic codes were obtained from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan Database, the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database, and the same-day surgery database. Patients who received a new prescription for domperidone between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2010 were included. A total of 122,233 patients met inclusion criteria; 85 % were between 66 and 84 years old and 63 % were female. The mean estimated daily domperidone dose was 35 mg, and the estimated daily dose was <40 mg for 62 % of users. Strong or moderately strong cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4 inhibitors were co-prescribed for 4.3 and 10.7 % of users, while medications with a known risk or possible risk for torsades de pointes (TdP) were co-prescribed to 18.3 and 18.8 % of users. Older domperidone users were commonly co-prescribed drugs with the potential to increase the risk for TdP. These combinations should be avoided, as iatrogenic QT prolongation is a modifiable risk factor for TdP.

  20. Performance and Cost-Effectiveness of Computed Tomography Lung Cancer Screening Scenarios in a Population-Based Setting: A Microsimulation Modeling Analysis in Ontario, Canada.

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    Kevin Ten Haaf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST results indicate that computed tomography (CT lung cancer screening for current and former smokers with three annual screens can be cost-effective in a trial setting. However, the cost-effectiveness in a population-based setting with >3 screening rounds is uncertain. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening in a population-based setting in Ontario, Canada, and evaluate the effects of screening eligibility criteria.This study used microsimulation modeling informed by various data sources, including the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP, Ontario Cancer Registry, smoking behavior surveys, and the NLST. Persons, born between 1940 and 1969, were examined from a third-party health care payer perspective across a lifetime horizon. Starting in 2015, 576 CT screening scenarios were examined, varying by age to start and end screening, smoking eligibility criteria, and screening interval. Among the examined outcome measures were lung cancer deaths averted, life-years gained, percentage ever screened, costs (in 2015 Canadian dollars, and overdiagnosis. The results of the base-case analysis indicated that annual screening was more cost-effective than biennial screening. Scenarios with eligibility criteria that required as few as 20 pack-years were dominated by scenarios that required higher numbers of accumulated pack-years. In general, scenarios that applied stringent smoking eligibility criteria (i.e., requiring higher levels of accumulated smoking exposure were more cost-effective than scenarios with less stringent smoking eligibility criteria, with modest differences in life-years gained. Annual screening between ages 55-75 for persons who smoked ≥40 pack-years and who currently smoke or quit ≤10 y ago yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $41,136 Canadian dollars ($33,825 in May 1, 2015, United States dollars per life-year gained

  1. Performance and Cost-Effectiveness of Computed Tomography Lung Cancer Screening Scenarios in a Population-Based Setting: A Microsimulation Modeling Analysis in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Haaf, Kevin; Tammemägi, Martin C; Bondy, Susan J; van der Aalst, Carlijn M; Gu, Sumei; McGregor, S Elizabeth; Nicholas, Garth; de Koning, Harry J; Paszat, Lawrence F

    2017-02-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) results indicate that computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening for current and former smokers with three annual screens can be cost-effective in a trial setting. However, the cost-effectiveness in a population-based setting with >3 screening rounds is uncertain. Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening in a population-based setting in Ontario, Canada, and evaluate the effects of screening eligibility criteria. This study used microsimulation modeling informed by various data sources, including the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP), Ontario Cancer Registry, smoking behavior surveys, and the NLST. Persons, born between 1940 and 1969, were examined from a third-party health care payer perspective across a lifetime horizon. Starting in 2015, 576 CT screening scenarios were examined, varying by age to start and end screening, smoking eligibility criteria, and screening interval. Among the examined outcome measures were lung cancer deaths averted, life-years gained, percentage ever screened, costs (in 2015 Canadian dollars), and overdiagnosis. The results of the base-case analysis indicated that annual screening was more cost-effective than biennial screening. Scenarios with eligibility criteria that required as few as 20 pack-years were dominated by scenarios that required higher numbers of accumulated pack-years. In general, scenarios that applied stringent smoking eligibility criteria (i.e., requiring higher levels of accumulated smoking exposure) were more cost-effective than scenarios with less stringent smoking eligibility criteria, with modest differences in life-years gained. Annual screening between ages 55-75 for persons who smoked ≥40 pack-years and who currently smoke or quit ≤10 y ago yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $41,136 Canadian dollars ($33,825 in May 1, 2015, United States dollars) per life-year gained (compared to

  2. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Rodney W.; Leafloor, James O.; Douglas, David C.; Abraham, Kenneth F.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  3. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney W. Brook

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how climate change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first-year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  4. Infant mortality among the Canadian-born offspring of immigrants and non-immigrants in Canada: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Zoua M

    2016-01-01

    Adult immigrants in Canada have a survival advantage over their Canadian-born counterparts. It is unknown whether migrants are able to transmit their survival advantage to their Canadian-born children. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality between the Canadian-born population and 12 immigrant subgroups were compared using 1990-2005 linked birth-infant death records. Age-at-death specific mortality rates and rate differences were calculated by nativity status and maternal birthplace. A chi-square statistic was used to compare group differences in maternal sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate survival analysis was used to estimate the effect of maternal birthplace on neonatal and postneonatal mortality, net of maternal sociodemographic and infant characteristics. Overall, immigrants had lower rates of neonatal and postneonatal mortality than the Canadian-born population. But the adjusted risk of neonatal mortality was higher for Sub-Saharan African (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.32; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.66), Haitian (HR = 2.29, 95 % CI = 1.90, 2.76), non-Spanish Caribbean (HR = 1.38; 95 % CI = 1.01, 1.89), and Pakistani (HR = 1.87; 95 % CI = 1.31, 2.68) migrants relative to Canadian-born women. There were fewer significant disparities in postneonatal death, with higher adjusted risks of mortality observed for Pakistani (HR = 2.67, 95 % CI = 1.77, 4.02) and Haitian (HR = 1.41, 95 % CI = 1.02, 1.97) migrants only. Inequalities in infant mortality are more concentrated in the neonatal period. Contingent on surviving the first 27 days after birth, the infants of most immigrants (except those from Haiti and Pakistan) have the same chances of survival as the infants of Canadian-born women. Improvements in prenatal care and access to postpartum care may reduce disparities in infant mortality.

  5. Eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.G.; Roliff, W.A.; Sealey, R.; Palonen, P.A.

    1981-10-01

    Uncertainty of increased taxation of petroleum revenues proposed under the Canadian national energy program effected a minor slowdown of the rapid exploration in 1980. Total numbers of wells drilled in eastern Canada were: Ontario, 224; Quebec, 3; Nova Scotia, 1; and the Atlantic offshore, 13. Much of the Ontario drilling, 123 wells, was for development purposes. The success ratio on exploratory drilling in Ontario was 34.7, while all Quebec and Nova Scotia wells were dry. Production of oil and gas declined by 16.8% and 18.5% in New Brunswick. Oil production in Ontario increased by 1.2%. The increase in gas production of 14.3% to almost 443,535.5 x 10/sup 3/m/sup 3/ was due almost entirely to development of known fields underlying Lake Erie. The exploration of offshore eastern Canada continued at a stable rate, with 12 wells completed. Of these, 2 were in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 3 on the Grand Banks, 6 on the Labrador Shelf, and 1 in Davis Strait. All wells were abandoned or suspended at year end, although discoveries of hydrocarbon were made in Davis Strait and the Grand Banks. The early exploration stage, combined with record water depths, prevented any of these wells from being put into production, although testing will be continued on the most promising shows. Seismic exploration increased to approximately 30,000 km in the Atlantic offshore areas. In addition, 1,420.94 km was shot in Lake Erie. Onshore seismic exploration accounted for 1,078.67 km in Ontario, 350 km in Nova Scotia and 242.76 km in Quebec. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  6. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States); Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Newhouse, Michael [NJ Meadowlands Commission, One DeKorte Park Plaza, Lyndhurst, NJ 07071 (United States); Jeitner, Christian [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine. Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Mizrahi, David [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  7. Mexico-Canada Knowledge Translation Partnership | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  8. Multimorbidity and healthcare utilization among home care clients with dementia in Ontario, Canada: A retrospective analysis of a population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Mondor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For community-dwelling older persons with dementia, the presence of multimorbidity can create complex clinical challenges for both individuals and their physicians, and can contribute to poor outcomes. We quantified the associations between level of multimorbidity (chronic disease burden and risk of hospitalization and risk of emergency department (ED visit in a home care cohort with dementia and explored the role of continuity of physician care (COC in modifying these relationships.A retrospective cohort study using linked administrative and clinical data from Ontario, Canada, was conducted among 30,112 long-stay home care clients (mean age 83.0 ± 7.7 y with dementia in 2012. Multivariable Fine-Gray regression models were used to determine associations between level of multimorbidity and 1-y risk of hospitalization and 1-y risk of ED visit, accounting for multiple competing risks (death and long-term care placement. Interaction terms were used to assess potential effect modification by COC. Multimorbidity was highly prevalent, with 35% (n = 10,568 of the cohort having five or more chronic conditions. In multivariable analyses, risk of hospitalization and risk of ED visit increased monotonically with level of multimorbidity: sub-hazards were 88% greater (sub-hazard ratio [sHR] = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.72-2.05, p < 0.001 and 63% greater (sHR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.51-1.77, p < 0.001, respectively, among those with five or more conditions, relative to those with dementia alone or with dementia and one other condition. Low (versus high COC was associated with an increased risk of both hospitalization and ED visit in age- and sex-adjusted analyses only (sHR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.07-1.16, p < 0.001, for hospitalization; sHR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03-1.11, p = 0.001, for ED visit but did not modify associations between multimorbidity and outcomes (Wald test for interaction, p = 0.566 for hospitalization and p = 0.637 for ED visit. The main limitations of this study

  9. Remote population-based intervention for disruptive behavior at age four: study protocol for a randomized trial of Internet-assisted parent training (Strongest Families Finland-Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Patrick J; Sourander, Andre; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Ristkari, Terja; Cunningham, Charles; Huttunen, Jukka; Filbert, Katharine; Aromaa, Minna; Corkum, Penny; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Lampi, Katja; Penttinen, Anne; Sinokki, Atte; Unruh, Anita; Vuorio, Jenni; Watters, Carolyn

    2013-10-21

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent-child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child's sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using parental and daycare teacher measures

  10. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Huanyu; Wei, Na; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chunyuan; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Liu, Dapeng; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); Wang, Junwei, E-mail: jwwang@neau.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China)

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} All three capsid proteins can be expressed in insect cells in baculovirus expression system. {yields} All three recombinant proteins were spontaneously self-assemble into virus-like particles whose size and appearance were similar to those of native purified GPV virions. {yields} The immunogenicity of GPV-VLPs was better than commercial inactivated vaccine and attenuated vaccine. -- Abstract: Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs.

  11. Use and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioid Analgesics in the General Population of Canada and Correlations with Dispensing Levels in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Shield

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, harm from nonmedical prescription opioid analgesic (POA use (NMPOU has increased in recent years; however, there are limitations to the current estimates of NMPOU. The 2009 Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey presents an opportunity to produce more accurate estimates of NMPOU.

  12. Lipid oxidation and color changes of goose meat stored under vacuum and modified atmosphere conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkusz, A; Haraf, G; Okruszek, A; Werenska-Sudnik, M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the work was to investigate the color and lipid oxidation changes of goose breast meat packaged in vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) conditions consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2, and stored in refrigerated conditions at 4°C. Color stability was monitored by determining total heme pigments concentration; relative concentration of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and metmyoglobin; parameters of color L*, a*, b*, and sensory evaluation of the surface color. Lipid stability was measured by determining thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The samples were examined in 24 h after slaughter (unpacked muscles) and on d 4, 7, 9, 11 of storage (muscles packed in vacuum and in MA). Through the time of storage, samples packed in MA had higher TBARS values in comparison to the meat packed in vacuum. For samples packed in two types of atmospheres, the total pigments concentration decreased gradually within 11 d of storage. It was observed that relative metmyoglobin concentration increased whereas relative oxymyoglobin concentration decreased in total heme pigments in the MA stored muscle. The relative concentration of all three myoglobin forms sample packed in vacuum remained unchanged. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*) did not change for 11 d of storage for the vacuum packed meat. The value of the color parameter a* decreased and the value of the color parameters L* and b* increased in the samples packaged in MA. The data prove that if you store goose meat in MA (consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2) or vacuum, the unchanged surface color is preserved for 9 and 11 day, respectively.Vacuum appears to be a better method as regards the maintaining of lipid stability in goose meat. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Chenophila nanseni sp. n. (Acari: Syringophilidae parasitising the barnacle goose in Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoracki Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Chenophila nanseni sp. n., collected from covert quills of the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis (Anseriformes: Anatidae in Svalbard (Spitsbergen is described and female polymorphism is recorded in this species. In syringophilids this phenomenon was known only for representatives of the genus Stibarokris. The new species differs from the similar Ch. platyrhynchos by following features: in females of Ch. nanseni the anterior margin of the propodonotal shield is flat (vs. concave in Ch. platyrhynchos and the lengths of idiosomal setae si, f2 and ag3 in Ch. nanseni are distinctly shorter than in Ch. plathyrynchos.

  14. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Alaid and Nizki Islands, Near Island Group, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic foxes, introduced to Alaid and Nizki islands in 1911, 1920 and 1935, were removed from the two islands in 1975 and 1976 by means of shooting and trapping...

  15. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  16. [Red-breasted goose colonies on the Taimyr Peninsula: factors responsible for the proximity of goose nests to nests of peregrine falcons, rough-legged buzzards, and snowy owls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonov, S P; Novak, D E; Novak, A I; Egorova, N A; Korkina, S A; Osipov, D V; Natal'skaia, O V

    2009-01-01

    Red-breasted goose colonies have been studied near Medusa Bay (73 degrees 21' N, 80 degrees 32' E), on the northwestern Taimyr Peninsula, and along the Agapa River (70 degrees 11' N, 86 degrees 15' E) down to its mouth (70 degrees 26' N, 89 degrees 13' E), in the central Taimyr Peninsula. Red-breasted geese nesting near peregrine falcons are protected by the falcons from arctic foxes; however, they are sometimes attacked by the falcons themselves. In the colonies near peregrine falcon nests, the vast majority of goose nests were situated no farther than 100 m from the falcon nest. When food is abundant, falcons protect a larger area around their nest. The distance between the falcon nest and the surrounding goose nests is inversely related to the falcon's activity. In years of higher falcon activity, falcons prevent red-breasted geese from nesting as close to their nest as in years of lower falcon activity. Additional stimuli are required for red-breasted geese to form colonies near rough-legged buzzard nests. The distance between snowy owl nests and red-breasted goose nests was smaller when arctic foxes were abundant than when they were scarce.

  17. Immune-Related Gene Expression Patterns in GPV- or H9N2-Infected Goose Spleens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Goose parvovirus (GPV and avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA viruses, respectively, both of which can spread in goslings and cause a significant economic loss. To explore the comprehensive transcriptome of GPV- or H9N2-infected goose spleens and to understand the immune responses induced by a DNA virus (GPV or a RNA virus (H9N2, RNA-seq was performed on the spleens of goslings at the fifth day post infection. In the present study, 2604 and 2409 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the GPV- and H9N2-infected groups, respectively. Through KEGG pathway enrichment analyses, the up-regulated transcripts in the two virus-infected groups were mainly involved in immune-related pathways. In addition, the two virus-infected groups displayed similar expression patterns in the immune response pathways, including pattern-recognition receptor signaling pathways, the antigen processing and presentation pathway, the NF-κB signaling pathway and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, as well as cytokines. Furthermore, most of the immune-related genes, particularly TLR7, TRAF3, Mx, TRIM25, CD4, and CD8α, increased in response to GPV and H9N2 infection. However, the depression of NF-κB signaling may be a mechanism by which the viruses evade the host immune system or a strategy to achieve immune homeostasis.

  18. The alleged activity of active intellect: A wild goose chase or a puzzle to be solved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Kamińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trying to describe the activity of Aristotle’s active intellect, we will sooner or later realize that we cannot find its right description, because Aristotle did not provide for one. He left us with many irreconcilable statements and questions with no answers. In the famous text Aristotle’s Two Intellects: a Modest Proposal Victor Caston claims that Aristotle did not describe the activity, because there simply is no such activity and we should therefore identify nous poietikos with God, because God too does nothing. Trying to find this lacking description is like going on a wild goose chase – Caston argues. In my text I will show that his solution, albeit tempting, is in fact a kind of “dissolution” and that a wild goose chase, although for many doomed to failure, can be fruitful. I will do so by presenting three groups or clusters of views on active intellect which – I believe – are philosophically significant. Caston’s proposal will be one of them, but not the privileged one. These three types of interpretations will hopefully provide us with an imagery that will help us somewhat come to terms with Aristotle’s succinctness.

  19. "My goose child Martina": the multiple uses of geese in the writings of Konrad Lorenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, Tania

    2011-01-01

    In 1935, the graylag goose Martina (1935-?) hatched from an egg in the home of the zoologist Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989). Martina imprinted on Lorenz, slept in his bedroom, mated with the gander Martin, and flew off in 1937. Over the following decades, Konrad Lorenz helped to establish the discipline of ethology, received a share of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and continued to write about his famous goose Martina. This essay examines the different instantiations of the geese in general, and Martina in particular, in Lorenz's writings aimed at readerships that included prewar zoologists, National Socialist psychologists, and popular audiences from the 1930s to 1980s. By developing an animal with her own biography, Lorenz created an individual whose lived and rhetorical agency made her especially well suited to perform widely divergent aspects of his evolving science. While a significant literature in the history of science has explored the standardization and stabilization of animals in science, I show how Lorenz's creation of a highly protean and increasingly public Martina was co-constitutive of the establishment of the science and public persona.

  20. A Population-Based Evaluation of a Publicly Funded, School-Based HPV Vaccine Program in British Columbia, Canada: Parental Factors Associated with HPV Vaccine Receipt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gina; Anderson, Maureen; Marra, Fawziah; McNeil, Shelly; Pielak, Karen; Dawar, Meena; McIvor, Marilyn; Ehlen, Thomas; Dobson, Simon; Money, Deborah; Patrick, David M.; Naus, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Background Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. Methods and Findings All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008–June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1–67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1–89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1–87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a

  1. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ogilvie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1 of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7 consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9 consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%, advice from a physician (8.7%, and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%. The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%, preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%, and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%. In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having

  2. 78 FR 9355 - Influenza Viruses Containing the Hemagglutinin From the Goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 Influenza Viruses Containing the Hemagglutinin From the Goose/ Guangdong/1... from the public regarding whether highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses that contain a... concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) from the...

  3. The mechanistic basis of hemoglobin adaptation in the high-flying barheaded goose: insights from ancestral protein resurrection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Amit; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The bar-headed goose (‘BHG’, Anser indicus) is renowned for its trans-Himalayan migratory flights, and the elevated hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity of this species is thought to make a key contribution to its capacity for powered flight at elevations of ~9000 m. Here we revisit the molecular basis...

  4. Predator protection or similar habitat selection in red-breasted goose nesting associations : extremes along a continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, JL; Prop, J; Kokorev, Y; Black, JM

    We tested the predator protection and similar habitat hypotheses in relation to red-breasted goose, Branta ruficollis, nesting associations. Geese began laying 1-3 weeks after all associated species. In almost all cases they nested on the mainland only if raptors were also present and always

  5. Body size declines despite positive directional selection on heritable size traits in a barnacle goose population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, K; van der Jeugd, HP; van der Veen, IT; Forslund, P

    Analyses of more than 2000 marked barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) in the largest Baltic colony, Sweden, showed that structurally large females generally produced larger clutches and larger eggs, hatched their broods earlier in the season, and produced more and heavier-young than smaller females.

  6. Monitoring Emperor Goose Populations by Aerial Counts and the Fall Age Ratio - Fall 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2003, we photographed flocks of emperor geese (Chen canagica) during fall migration at lagoons along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula for the 19th...

  7. Monitoring emperor goose populations by aerial counts and fall age ratio - 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, we photographed flocks of emperor geese (Chen canagica) during fall migration at lagoons along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula for the 18th...

  8. Long-term Hydroclimate and Pacific Salmon Population Linkages Across a Headwater-to-Coast Continuum in Northern British Columbia, Canada: A Perspective From Multiple Tree-Ring Proxy Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, C.; Smith, D. J.; Edwards, T.; Prowse, T.

    2016-12-01

    Ongoing climate change is expected to have lasting impacts on the runoff behaviour of rivers in northern British Columbia, Canada. Of particular concern is the loss of mountain snowpack and greater rainfall totals altering hydrograph characteristics. Sustained deviations in seasonal streamflow will pose significant challenges for effective watershed management. These ongoing changes highlight the importance of improving our understanding of the long-term biophysical linkages between the storage and release of water and downstream freshwater ecosystems. Such integrated research is particularly relevant to fisheries management as fluctuations in populations of Pacific salmon represent a complex and management-relevant biophysical issue in northern Canada. Unfortunately, hydroclimate and salmon productivity records in this region are sparse and of short duration, constraining our understanding of the impact of climate-induced hydrologic changes and biological responses to the last century. Proxy records derived from tree-rings provide annually or seasonally resolved data and have played a prominent role in attempts to establish how hydroclimate has varied in the past. The objective of my doctoral research is to reconstruct the prehistoric hydroclimate and salmon population trends in the Skeena, Nass and Stikine Watersheds using multiple tree-ring proxies to investigate the long-term biophysical linkages extending across a headwater-to-coast continuum in northern British Columbia, Canada. Ring-width, wood density and stable isotope chronologies using a number of mid-to high-elevation tree species will be constructed across each basin and sub-basin area for the purposes of reconstrucing the predominent temperature and precipiation signature that influence streamflow. Preliminary tree-ring δ18O and δ13C-isotope results indicate a strong negative association with mean monthly relative humidity values, suggesting a physiological control by moisture loss. The results of

  9. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Differentially Expressed Transcripts of Immune-Related Genes in Spleen of Gosling and Adult Goose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anqi Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goose (Anser cygnoides, having high nutritional value, high-quality feathers and high economic benefit, is an economically important poultry species. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the higher susceptibility to pathogens in goslings than in adult geese remains poorly understood. In this study, the histological sections of spleen tissue from a two-week-old gosling and an adult goose, respectively, were subjected to comparative analysis. The spleen of gosling was mainly composed of mesenchyma, accompanied by scattered lymphocytes, whereas the spleen parenchyma was well developed in the adult goose. To investigate goose immune-related genes, we performed deep transcriptome and gene expression analyses of the spleen samples using paired-end sequencing technology (Illumina. In total, 50,390 unigenes were assembled using Trinity software and TGICL software. Moreover, these assembled unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions and gene ontology (GO analysis was performed. Through Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG analysis, we investigated 558 important immune-relevant unigenes and 23 predicted cytokines. In addition, 22 immune-related genes with differential expression between gosling and adult goose were identified, among which the three genes showing largest differences in expression were immunoglobulin alpha heavy chain (IgH, mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 isoform X1 (MASP1 and C–X–C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4. Finally, of these 22 differentially expressed immune-related genes, seven genes, including tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 13B (TNFRSF13B, C-C motif chemokine 4-like (CCL4, CXCR4, interleukin 2 receptor alpha (IL2RA, MHC class I heavy chain (MHCIα, transporter of antigen processing 2 (TAP2, IgH, were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. The expression levels of all the candidate unigenes were up-regulated in adult geese other than that of TNFRSF13B. The

  10. Aging in a Multicultural Canada: A Graphic Overview = Le Vieillissement dans un Canada Multiculturel: Apercu Graphique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Secretary of State, Ottawa (Ontario). Multiculturalism Directorate.

    This document, in English and French, provides a graphic overview of statistical data on aging and ethnicity in Canada. Most of the information was drawn from 1981 and 1986 census figures and immigration statistics. Part 1, "Multicultural Canada," provides background information on the multicultural nature of the population. One map and…

  11. Radiation Protection in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, P. M.

    1964-01-01

    The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the last of a three-part series. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. A radioactive fallout study program has been established involving the systematic collection of air and precipitation samples from 24 locations, soil samples from 23 locations, fresh-milk samples from 16 locations, wheat samples from nine areas and human-bone specimens from various hospitals throughout Canada. A whole-body-counting facility and a special study of fallout in Northern areas have also been initiated. For any age group, the highest average strontium-90 concentration in human bone so far reported has been less than four picocuries per gram of calcium compared with the maximum permissible level of 67 derived from the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations. By the end of 1963 a general downward trend of levels of radioactivity detected in other parts of the program has been observed. Programs to assess the contribution to the radiation exposure of members of the population from medical x-rays, nuclear reactor operations and natural background-radiation sources have also been described. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in Canadian public hospitals has been estimated to be 25.8 mrem. Results from the reactor-environment monitoring programs have not suggested the presence of radioactivity beyond that contributed from fallout. PMID:14143681

  12. Depressive symptoms, diet quality, physical activity, and body composition among populations in Nova Scotia, Canada: report from the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhijie M; Parker, Louise; Dummer, Trevor J B

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between depressive symptoms and diet quality, physical activity, and body composition among Nova Scotians. 4511 men and women aged 35-69 years were recruited to the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow's Health study from 2009 through 2010 in Nova Scotia, Canada. Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Anthropometric indexes and body composition were measured. Current antidepressant use, habitual diet intake, physical activity, and potential confounders were collected through questionnaires. In multivariable regression analyses, depressive symptoms were positively associated with all obese indexes after controlling for potential confounders (all P for trendobesity and abdominal obesity (OR 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], (1.50, 2.25) and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.30, 1.87) for obesity and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.20, 1.77) and 1.88 (95% CI, 1.58, 2.24) for abdominal obesity, respectively). Depressed individuals were less likely to have a high quality diet or engage in high levels of physical activity compared with their non-depressed counterparts. Depressive symptoms are associated with higher levels of obesity, poor diet, and physical inactivity among Nova Scotians in Canada. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Small mammal trapping mark/recapture baseline surveys at Mother Goose Lake, Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, June-August 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A small mammal trapping project was continued for the third year at Mother Goose Lake on the Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge. A 100 trap grid was set up in...

  14. Study Canada: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    The document presents the first of five units on Canada developed for classroom use in American secondary schools. This unit, an overview of Canada, offers a sequence of information sheets for students and class activity suggestions for teachers which use a comparative approach stressing an understanding of Canada from the viewpoints of both…

  15. Genetic-economic evaluation of traits in a goose meat enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, B A; Pasternak, H

    1999-05-01

    1. Goose can be considered as an additional and inexpensive meat source, provided that the marketing age does not exceed 8 weeks. Using the ability of geese to eat grass may reduce the intake of concentrated food up to 30%. 2. According to an equation developed, growth rate accounts for about 58% of the annual breeding gains, egg number 28%, feather yield 10%, fertility and mortality about 2%. These values are about the same for a wide range of food prices. 3. Employing realistic values for expected annual genetic gains reveals that the customary practice of keeping breeders for 5 to 6 years should be replaced by a much shorter cycle of 3 years because the economic gain from the shorter generation interval of selection exceeds the replacement costs.

  16. [Brant goose colonies near snowy owls: internest distances in relation to lemming and arctic fox abundance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonov, S P; Volkov, A E; Willems, F; van Kleef, H; Klaassen, R H G; Nowak, D J; Nowak, A I; Bublichenko, A G

    2008-01-01

    Brant goose colonies around snowy owl nests have been studied near Meduza Bay (73 degrees 21' N, 80 degrees 32' E) and in the lower reaches of the Uboinaya River (73 degrees 37' N, 82 degrees 10' E), the northwestern Taimyr Peninsula, from 1999 to 2006. All brant nests within 680 m from an owl nest have been regarded as an individual colony. The results show that the area of the colony is always larger than the guarded area around the owl nest. In years of high abundance of lemmings, brant geese nest generally closer to the owl nest than in years of high abundance. When arctic foxes are abundant, however, brant geese nest significantly closer to owls than when the foxes are scarce, irrespective of lemming abundance. The mechanism of brant colony formation around owl nests is based on a number of stimuli.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of bean goose (Anser fabalis and implications for anseriformes taxonomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA plays an important role in living organisms, and has been used as a powerful molecular marker in a variety of evolutionary studies. In this study, we determined the complete mtDNA of Bean goose (Anser fabalis, which is 16,688 bp long and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region. The arrangement is similar to that of typical Anseriform species. All protein-coding genes, except for Cyt b, ND5, COI, and COII, start with an ATG codon. The ATG start codon is also generally observed in the 12 other Anseriform species, including 2 Anser species, with sequenced mitochondrial genomes. TAA is the most frequent stop codon, one of three-TAA, TAG, and T- -commonly observed in Anseriformes. All tRNAs could be folded into canonical cloverleaf secondary structures except for tRNA(Ser(AGY and tRNA(Leu(CUN, which are missing the dihydrouridine (DHU arm. The control region of Bean goose mtDNA, with some conserved sequence boxes, such as F, E, D, and C, identified in its central domain. Phylogenetic analysis of complete mtDNA data for 13 Anseriform species supports the classification of them into four major branches: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. Phylogenetic analyses were also conducted on 36 Anseriform birds using combined Cyt b, ND2, and COI sequences. The results clearly support the genus Somateria as an independent lineage classified in its own tribe, the Somaterini. Recovered topologies from both complete mtDNA and combined DNA sequences strongly indicate that Dendrocygninae is an independent subfamily within the family Anatidae and Anseranatidae represents an independent family. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that combining ND2, Cyt b, and COI sequence data is a workable solution at present for resolving phylogenetic relationships among Anseriform species in the absence of sufficient complete mtDNA data.

  18. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and associations for symptom-based Rome IV functional dyspepsia in adults in the USA, Canada, and the UK: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Palsson, Olafur S; Törnblom, Hans; Sperber, Ami D; Whitehead, William E; Simrén, Magnus

    2018-01-29

    The population prevalence, clinical characteristics, and associations for Rome IV functional dyspepsia are not known. Following the publication of the Rome IV criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders, we aimed to assess the prevalence, characteristics, and associations for symptom-based Rome IV functional dyspepsia in adults across the USA, Canada, and the UK. We sent an internet-based cross-sectional health survey to adults in the general population of three English-speaking countries: the USA, Canada, and the UK. We used quota-based sampling to generate demographically balanced and population-representative samples. Individuals were invited to complete an online questionnaire on general health, without mention that the purpose of this survey was to examine gastrointestinal symptoms. We excluded participants who failed two attention-test questions or were excessively inconsistent on the three gastrointestinal questions that were presented twice in the survey for this particular purpose. The survey enquired about demographics, health-care visits, medications, somatisation, quality of life, and symptom-based criteria for Rome IV functional dyspepsia as well as for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional heartburn. We made subsequent comparisons between participants with Rome IV functional dyspepsia and controls without dyspepsia. The primary objective was to identify participants who fulfilled symptom-based criteria for Rome IV functional dyspepsia and categorise them into postprandial distress syndrome, epigastric pain syndrome, or overlapping subtypes. 6300 general population adults completed the health survey; 2100 each from the USA, Canada, and the UK. 369 responses were deemed inconsistent, leaving data for 5931 adults. Rome IV functional dyspepsia was significantly more prevalent in the USA (232 [12%] of 1949) than in Canada (167 [8%] of 1988) and the UK (152 [8%] of 1994; p<0·0001). The subtype distribution was 61% postprandial distress

  19. The Beginning Farmers’ Problem In Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliot, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about beginning farmers in Canada derive from trends in data that show that the population of farmers and the number of young farmers are declining. This paper discusses and analyses issues regarding the constraints and opportunities beginning farmers in Canada face. The discussion covers whether issues peculiar to beginning farmers are, from an economic policy point of view, a source of concern and whether there are motives for government intervention. The main conclusions are 1) th...

  20. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  1. An investigation of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia typhi, and Seoul hantavirus in rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada: is pathogen presence a reflection of global and local rat population structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Wood, Heidi; DiBernardo, Antonia; Lindsay, Robbin; Bidulka, Julie; Tang, Patrick; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David

    2015-01-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are reservoirs for variety of zoonotic pathogens. Many of these pathogens, including Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), are thought to be endemic in rat populations worldwide; however, past field research has found these organisms to be absent in certain rat populations. Rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada, were tested for exposure to and/or infection with SEOV and R. typhi (using serology and PCR), as well as Bartonella spp. (using culture and sequencing). Approximately 25% of 404 rats tested were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, which demonstrated significant geographic clustering within the study area. Infection was associated with both season and sexual maturity. Seroreactivity against R. typhi and SEOV was observed in 0.36% and 1.45% of 553 rats tested, respectively, although PCR screening results for these pathogens were negative, suggesting that they are not endemic in the study population. Overall, these results suggest that the geographic distribution of rat-associated zoonoses, including R. typhi, SEOV, and Bartonella spp., is less ubiquitous than previously appreciated, and is likely dependent on patterns of dispersion and establishment of the rat reservoir host. Further study on global and local Rattus spp. population structures may help to elucidate the ecology of zoonotic organisms in these species.

  2. Double enzymatic hydrolysis preparation of heme from goose blood and microencapsulation to promote its stability and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baowei; Cheng, Fansheng; Gao, Shun; Ge, Wenhua; Zhang, Mingai

    2017-02-15

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. This deficiency could be solved by preparing stable, edible, and absorbable iron food ingredients using environmentally friendly methods. This study investigated enzymatic hydrolysis and microencapsulation process of goose blood. The physicochemical properties, stabilities of the microencapsulated goose blood hydrolysate (MGBH) and a supplement for rats with IDA were also evaluated. The results showed that the synergetic hydrolytic action of neutrase and alkaline protease significantly increased the heme-releasing efficiency. The heme was then microencapsulated using sodium caseinate, maltodextrin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the edible wall material, and the encapsulation efficiency of the product reached 98.64%. Meanwhile, favorable thermal, storage and light stabilities were observed for the microencapsulation. It was found that MGBH can significantly improve the body weight and hematological parameters of IDA Wistar rat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Elemental microchemistry, fatty acid profile and geometric morphometrics signatures of goose barnacles (Pollicipes pollicipes reveal their place of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Albuquerque

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seafood plays an important role in the socioeconomic, gastronomy and cultural heritage of Portuguese coastal communities. In the Iberian Peninsula, the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the intertidal biological resource most heavily exploited by man, resulting on overexploitation of stocks. In the MPA of BNR P.pollicipes harvesting is however strictly regulated, making it a good example of marine resources management. Analytical methods able to identify the origin of goose barnacle would be an important tool to help the management of the trade. For such purpose, we investigated whether P. pollicipes have site-specific differences based on its elemental microchemistry (EM, fatty acid profile (FA and capitulum shape (CS. The analysis was performed on specimens collected from 3 sites in the BNR and 7 along a 300 km stretch of the Portuguese coast. For each individual we analysed the largest lateral shell for EM using ICP-MS, the FA content of the muscle using GC-FID, and the CS using geometric morphometrics. Discriminant function analyses (DFA for both EM and FA separately provided a high reclassification success (77.6% and 99% respectively, of cross-validated cases correctly classified, while for EM combined with FA allowed for a 100% reclassification success. DFA analysis based only on CS, revealed a low classification success (29.6%. These results show that EM and FA signatures can be a powerful tool to infer goose barnacles origin. Such “fingerprinting” approach can be used to track and identify goose barnacles origin, helping in establishing an origin certificate and increasing the potential value of biological resources from Portuguese MPAs.

  4. Immunologic cross-reactivity between Muscovy duck parvovirus and goose parvovirus on the basis of epitope prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through bioinformatic prediction, between Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV and goose parvovirus (GPV, there were one epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE on non-structural protein and three epitopes AA426-430 (SQDLD, 540-544 (DPYRS, 685-691 (KENSKRW on structural protein might cross-react with each other. Furthermore, the four epitops were expressed in Escherichia coli. All the four recombinant proteins could react with GPV-antisera and MDPV-antisera in Western blot.

  5. Zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. and prevalence of intestinal parasites in young dogs from different populations on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehlinger, Fabienne D; Greenwood, Spencer J; McClure, J Trenton; Conboy, Gary; O'Handley, Ryan; Barkema, Herman W

    2013-09-23

    The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites was determined in dogs Prince Edward Island, Canada. Fecal samples were collected from the local animal shelter (n=62), private veterinary clinics (n=78) and a pet store (n=69). Intestinal parasites isolated included G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Toxocara canis, Isospora spp. and Uncinaria stenocephala. To estimate the zoonotic risk associated with these infections, genotypes of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were determined using 16S rRNA and Hsp70 gene sequencing, respectively. Dogs from the pet store had the highest prevalence of intestinal parasites (78%, 95% CI: 68-88%), followed by the private veterinary clinics (49%, 95% CI: 37-60%), and the local animal shelter (34%, 95% CI: 22-46%). The majority G. duodenalis belonged to host-adapted assemblages D (47%, 95% CI: 31-64%) and C (26%, 95% CI: 13-43%), respectively. Zoonotic assemblages A and B were isolated alone or in mixed infections from 16% (95% CI: 6-31%) of G. duodenalis-positive dogs. All Cryptosporidium spp. were the host-adapted C. canis. While host-adapted, non-zoonotic G. duodenalis genotypes were more common, the presence of G. duodenalis assemblages A and B, T. canis, and U. stenocephala suggests that these dogs may present a zoonotic risk. The zoonotic risk from Cryptosporidium-infected dogs was minimal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; George, M Anne; Jin, Andrew; Lalonde, Christopher E; McCormick, Rod

    2016-05-13

    Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC) are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i) Aboriginal and total populations; ii) populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii) Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC's universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. "On-reserve" residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs) were classified as "metropolitan" if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0), but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86). For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0); 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1.2). Time trends indicated decreasing disparities, with

  7. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i Aboriginal and total populations; ii populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. Methods We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC’s universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. “On-reserve” residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs were classified as “metropolitan” if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Results Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0, but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86. For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0; 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1

  8. Cross-Species Antiviral Activity of Goose Interferons against Duck Plague Virus Is Related to Its Positive Self-Feedback Regulation and Subsequent Interferon Stimulated Genes Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interferons are a group of antiviral cytokines acting as the first line of defense in the antiviral immunity. Here, we describe the antiviral activity of goose type I interferon (IFNα and type II interferon (IFNγ against duck plague virus (DPV. Recombinant goose IFNα and IFNγ proteins of approximately 20 kDa and 18 kDa, respectively, were expressed. Following DPV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP infection of duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs with IFNα and IFNγ pre-treatment, the number of viral gene copies decreased more than 100-fold, with viral titers dropping approximately 100-fold. Compared to the control, DPV-EGFP cell positivity was decreased by goose IFNα and IFNγ at 36 hpi (3.89%; 0.79% and 48 hpi (17.05%; 5.58%. In accordance with interferon-stimulated genes being the “workhorse” of IFN activity, the expression of duck myxovirus resistance (Mx and oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001 by IFN treatment for 24 h. Interestingly, duck cells and goose cells showed a similar trend of increased ISG expression after goose IFNα and IFNγ pretreatment. Another interesting observation is that the positive feedback regulation of type I IFN and type II IFN by goose IFNα and IFNγ was confirmed in waterfowl for the first time. These results suggest that the antiviral activities of goose IFNα and IFNγ can likely be attributed to the potency with which downstream genes are induced by interferon. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the functional significance of the interferon antiviral system in aquatic birds and to the development of interferon-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against viral disease.

  9. Relationships between intertidal clam population and health status of the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria in the St. Lawrence Estuary and Saguenay Fjord (Québec, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, F; Blaise, C; Pellerin, J; Fournier, M; Durand, M J; Talbot, A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of anthropogenic activity on the health status of intertidal clam populations of the Saguenay Fjord and the St. Lawrence Estuary (Québec, Canada). Clams were collected during low tide at sites subject to direct contamination and at sites far from human activity. Clams were analyzed for tributyltin and dibutyltin total levels and toxic stress (glutathione S-transferase, gonadal lipid peroxidation and DNA strand breaks), immunocompetence (phagocytic activity, hemocyte count and viability), reproduction (gonado-somatic index, gamete maturation, and vitellogenin-like proteins), energy status (temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport, and gonad lipids), and individual status (age, condition factor, and growth index). These responses were compared against population characteristics such as live clam density, number of empty shells, and sex ratio. The results show that clam density decreased with distance from the estuary (high salinity level) to upstream of the fjord (low salinity). There was no clear relationship between the number of empty shells and distance or site quality. Clam density values corrected against distance were significantly correlated with hemocyte viability, phagocytic activity, mitochondrial electron transport (MET), DNA damage in gonad, and temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport activity. A canonical analysis of the various groups of biomarkers revealed that population metrics were more strongly related with immunocompetence, followed by energy status and temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport activity. However, toxic stress biomarkers were strongly associated with energy status and reproduction. This was further confirmed by non-linear modeling using adaptive artificial neural networks (genetic selection and back propagation learning paradigms), where the following parameters were able to predict population parameters with salinity), where

  10. Neighbourhood immigration, health care utilization and outcomes in patients with diabetes living in the Montreal metropolitan area (Canada): a population health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Alain; Courteau, Josiane; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Bergeron, Patrick; Cohen, Alan A; Niyonsenga, Théophile

    2015-04-09

    Understanding health care utilization by neighbourhood is essential for optimal allocation of resources, but links between neighbourhood immigration and health have rarely been explored. Our objective was to understand how immigrant composition of neighbourhoods relates to health outcomes and health care utilization of individuals living with diabetes. This is a secondary analysis of administrative data using a retrospective cohort of 111,556 patients living with diabetes without previous cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and living in the metropolitan region of Montreal (Canada). A score for immigration was calculated at the neighbourhood level using a principal component analysis with six neighbourhood-level variables (% of people with maternal language other than French or English, % of people who do not speak French or English, % of immigrants with different times since immigration (immigration scores, those living in neighbourhoods with high immigration scores were less likely to die, to suffer a CVD event, to frequently visit general practitioners, but more likely to visit emergency departments or a specialist and to use an antidiabetic drug. These differences remained after controlling for patient-level variables such as age, sex, and comorbidities, as well as for neighbourhood attributes like material and social deprivation or living in the urban core. In this study, patients with diabetes living in neighbourhoods with high immigration scores had different health outcomes and health care utilizations compared to those living in neighbourhoods with low immigration scores. Although we cannot disentangle the individual versus the area-based effect of immigration, these results may have an important impact for health care planning.

  11. Extra-pair copulation in the greater white-fronted goose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.

    1989-01-01

    Controlled experiments and quantitative field studies with both captive and wild waterfowl (Family Anatidae) have demonstrated that extra-pair copulations (EPCs, both forced and unforced) may be a viable alternative reproductive strategy for males (Mineau and Cooke 1979; Burns et al. 1980; Cheng et al. 1982, 1983; Afron 1985; Evarts and Williams 1987). In a review of EPCs in waterfowl, McKinney et al. (1983) stressed the need for additional information on the extent of such behavior in seemingly monogamous species of birds. Such information would increase our understanding of the extent of mixed reproductive strategies as formally hypothesized by Trivers (1972). Extra-pair copulations have been reported for only three of 22 (14%) species of geese and swans (Tribe Anserini), but are known to occur in 37 of 122 (30%) of the remaining species of waterfowl (McKinney et al. 1983, 1984; Welsh 1988). Socioecological differences between Anserini and most other anatids may provide insight into the evolution of extra-pair copulatory behavior, as male Anserini (unlike most other Anatidae) provide extensive parental care and maintain long-term pair bonds (Owen 1980, p. 76). Cuckolded male Anserini thus stand to lose more in the form of reproductive investment than other male anatids, which may invest less in a given clutch and generally have short-term pair bonds.I describe here an observation of extra-pair copulation in wild Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis). The observation is significant not only because it augments our meager documentation of this behavior within the Anserini, but it is the first observation of such behavior in a noncolonial goose (Mineau and Cooke 1979, McKinney et al. 1983). The occurrence of EPC behavior in a dispersal-nesting goose is important, as proximity to potential mates has been hypothesized as a factor possibly selecting for EPC behavior in geese (McKinney et al. 1983) and other species of monogamous birds (Gladstone 1979

  12. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; Van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  13. Burr holes, bone flaps, and goose quills: Dr Frank Turnbull, Vancouver's first neurosurgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Vincent C

    2017-01-01

    Dr Frank Turnbull was a pioneer neurosurgeon - the first neurosurgeon in Vancouver, Canada. He started his practice in 1933 after spending time during a neurosurgical 'residency' with Dr Kenneth Mackenzie, Canada's first neurosurgeon. Dr Turnbull practiced at a time when the perception of his speciality was dim, and the resources available to him were limited. However, Dr Turnbull overcame these obstacles, and two World Wars to help change the landscape of neurosurgery in the northwest Canada, and his career achievements also extend into medical politics and medical education. This paper documents the life and adventures of Dr Frank Turnbull, pioneer neurosurgeon.

  14. Worker compensation injuries among the Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: incidence, annual trends, and ecological analysis of risk markers, 1987-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Andrew; George, M Anne; Brussoni, Mariana; Lalonde, Christopher E

    2014-07-10

    Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population, but information is scarce regarding variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. Our project helps fill these gaps. This report focuses on workplace injuries. We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to worker compensation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of worker compensation injury, adjusted for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We assessed annual trend by regressing SRR as a linear function of year. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with community SRR of injury by multivariable linear regression. During the period 1987-2010, the crude rate of worker compensation injury in BC was 146.6 per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 146.4 to 146.9 per 10,000). The Aboriginal rate was 115.6 per 10,000 (95% CI: 114.4 to 116.8 per 10,000) and SRR was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.87 to 0.89). Among those living on reserves SRR was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.80). HSDA SRRs were highly variable, within both total and Aboriginal populations. Aboriginal males under 35 and females under 40 years of age had lower SRRs, but older Aboriginal females had higher SRRs. SRRs are declining, but more slowly for the Aboriginal population. The Aboriginal population was initially at lower risk than the total population, but parity was reached in 2006. These community characteristics independently predicted injury risk: crowded housing, proportion of population who identified as Aboriginal, and

  15. Long-term time trends in incidence, survival and mortality of lymphomas by subtype among adults in Manitoba, Canada: a population-based study using cancer registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xibiao; Mahmud, Salaheddin; Skrabek, Pamela; Lix, Lisa; Johnston, James B

    2017-07-17

    To examine 30-year time trends in incidence, survival and mortality of lymphomas by subtype in Manitoba, Canada. Lymphoma cases diagnosed between 1984 and 2013 were classified according to the 2008 WHO classification system for lymphoid neoplasms. Death data (1984-2014) were obtained from the Manitoba Vital Statistics Agency. To examine time trends in incidence and mortality, we used joinpoint regression to estimate annual percentage change and average annual percentage change. Age-period-cohort modelling was conducted to measure the effects of age, period and cohort on incidence and mortality time trends. We estimated age-specific and standardised 5-year relative survival and used Poisson regression model to test time trends in relative survival. Total Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) incidence in men and women was stable during the study period. Age-standardised total non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) incidence increased by 4% annually until around 2000, and the trend varied by sex and NHL subtype. Total HL mortality continuously declined (by 2.5% annually in men and by 2.7% annually in women), while total NHL mortality increased (by 4.4% annually in men until 1998 and by 3.2% annually in women until 2001) and then declined (by 3.6% annually in men and by 2.5% annually in women). Age-standardised 5-year relative survival for HL improved from 72.6% in 1984-1993 to 85.8% in 2004-2013, and for NHL from 57.0% in 1984-1993 to 67.5% in 2004-2013. Survival improvement was also noted for NHL subtypes, although the extent varied, with the greatest improvement for follicular lymphoma (from 65.3% in 1984-1993 to 87.6% in 2004-2013). Time trends were generally consistent with those reported in other jurisdictions in total HL and NHL incidence, but were unique in incidence for HL and for NHL subtypes chronic/small lymphocytic leukaemia/lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Survival improvements and mortality reductions were seen for HL and NHL in both sexes.

  16. Performance and Cost-Effectiveness of Computed Tomography Lung Cancer Screening Scenarios in a Population-Based Setting: A Microsimulation Modeling Analysis in Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. ten Haaf (Kevin); M.C. Tammemagi (Martin); Bondy, S.J. (Susan J.); C.M. van der Aalst (Carlijn); Gu, S. (Sumei); McGregor, S.E. (S. Elizabeth); Nicholas, G. (Garth); H.J. de Koning (Harry); L.F. Paszat (Lawrence F.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) results indicate that computed tomography (CT) lung cancer screening for current and former smokers with three annual screens can be cost-effective in a trial setting. However, the cost-effectiveness in a population-based setting with

  17. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Resident Dark Goose (RDG) Banding Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The lower Columbia River Valley supports a large number of Canada and cackling geese, with many subspecies intermixing in fall and winter. During hunting season,...

  18. Population carbon budgets and the importance of the amphipod corophium volutator in the carbon transfer on a cumberland basin mudflat, upper bay of fundy, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C. M.

    The importance of Corophium volutator in the carbon flux between microalgal primary producers and other trophic levels was evaluated from population carbon budgets. In all but 4 of 39 population carbon budgets the estimated consumption was sufficient to meet the demands of production and respiration combined. A carbon budget constructed for the period from May to September 1979 revealed that Corophium production accounted for 40% of the consumption, respiration for 25% and the remainder by difference was attributed to faecal waste. Consumption was equivalent to 27% of the "net" epibenthic microalgal primary production over the same time period. Marked temporal changes in Corophium abundance appear to influence rates of benthic microalgal primary production during summer. Concurrently, an approximate 20-fold increase in Corophium biomass provides a significant food resource for birds and fishes. This implies that Corophium occupies a key link in processes of carbon flux on mudflats in the upper reaches of the Bay of Fundy.

  19. Using the Johns Hopkins' Aggregated Diagnosis Groups (ADGs) to predict 1-year mortality in population-based cohorts of patients with diabetes in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, P C; Shah, B R; Newman, A; Anderson, G M

    2012-09-01

    There are limited validated methods to ascertain comorbidities for risk adjustment in ambulatory populations of patients with diabetes using administrative health-care databases. The objective was to examine the ability of the Johns Hopkins' Aggregated Diagnosis Groups to predict mortality in population-based ambulatory samples of both incident and prevalent subjects with diabetes. Retrospective cohorts constructed using population-based administrative data. The incident cohort consisted of all 346,297 subjects diagnosed with diabetes between 1 April 2004 and 31 March 2008. The prevalent cohort consisted of all 879,849 subjects with pre-existing diabetes on 1 January, 2007. The outcome was death within 1 year of the subject's index date. A logistic regression model consisting of age, sex and indicator variables for 22 of the 32 Johns Hopkins' Aggregated Diagnosis Group categories had excellent discrimination for predicting mortality in incident diabetes patients: the c-statistic was 0.87 in an independent validation sample. A similar model had excellent discrimination for predicting mortality in prevalent diabetes patients: the c-statistic was 0.84 in an independent validation sample. Both models demonstrated very good calibration, denoting good agreement between observed and predicted mortality across the range of predicted mortality in which the large majority of subjects lay. For comparative purposes, regression models incorporating the Charlson comorbidity index, age and sex, age and sex, and age alone had poorer discrimination than the model that incorporated the Johns Hopkins' Aggregated Diagnosis Groups. Logistical regression models using age, sex and the John Hopkins' Aggregated Diagnosis Groups were able to accurately predict 1-year mortality in population-based samples of patients with diabetes. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  20. Protocol for establishing an infant feeding database linkable with population-based administrative data: a prospective cohort study in Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Nathan Christopher; Warda, Lynne; Kummer, Leslie; Chateau, Joanne; Heaman, Maureen; Green, Chris; Katz, Alan; Paul, Julia; Perchuk, Carolyn; Girard, Darlene; Larocque, Lorraine; Enns, Jennifer Emily; Shaw, Souradet

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Breast feeding is associated with many health benefits for mothers and infants. But despite extensive public health efforts to promote breast feeding, many mothers do not achieve their own breastfeeding goals; and, inequities in breastfeeding rates persist between high and low-income mother–infant dyads. Developing targeted programme to support breastfeeding dyads and reduce inequities between mothers of different socioeconomic status are a priority for public health practitioners and health policy decision-makers; however, many jurisdictions lack the timely and comprehensive population-level data on infant-feeding practices required to monitor trends in breastfeeding initiation and duration. This protocol describes the establishment of a population-based infant-feeding database in the Canadian province of Manitoba, providing opportunities to develop and evaluate breastfeeding support programme. Methods and analysis Routinely collected administrative health data on mothers’ infant-feeding practices will be captured during regular vaccination visits using the Teleform fax tool, which converts handwritten information to an electronic format. The infant-feeding data will be linked to the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository, a comprehensive collection of population-based information spanning health, education and social services domains. The linkage will allow us to answer research questions about infant-feeding practices and to evaluate how effective current initiatives promoting breast feeding are. Ethics and dissemination Approvals have been granted by the Health Research Ethics Board at the University of Manitoba. Our integrative knowledge translation approach will involve disseminating findings through government and community briefings, presenting at academic conferences and publishing in scientific journals. PMID:29061626

  1. Protocol for establishing an infant feeding database linkable with population-based administrative data: a prospective cohort study in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Nathan Christopher; Warda, Lynne; Kummer, Leslie; Chateau, Joanne; Heaman, Maureen; Green, Chris; Katz, Alan; Paul, Julia; Perchuk, Carolyn; Girard, Darlene; Larocque, Lorraine; Enns, Jennifer Emily; Shaw, Souradet

    2017-10-22

    Breast feeding is associated with many health benefits for mothers and infants. But despite extensive public health efforts to promote breast feeding, many mothers do not achieve their own breastfeeding goals; and, inequities in breastfeeding rates persist between high and low-income mother-infant dyads. Developing targeted programme to support breastfeeding dyads and reduce inequities between mothers of different socioeconomic status are a priority for public health practitioners and health policy decision-makers; however, many jurisdictions lack the timely and comprehensive population-level data on infant-feeding practices required to monitor trends in breastfeeding initiation and duration. This protocol describes the establishment of a population-based infant-feeding database in the Canadian province of Manitoba, providing opportunities to develop and evaluate breastfeeding support programme. Routinely collected administrative health data on mothers' infant-feeding practices will be captured during regular vaccination visits using the Teleform fax tool, which converts handwritten information to an electronic format. The infant-feeding data will be linked to the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository, a comprehensive collection of population-based information spanning health, education and social services domains. The linkage will allow us to answer research questions about infant-feeding practices and to evaluate how effective current initiatives promoting breast feeding are. Approvals have been granted by the Health Research Ethics Board at the University of Manitoba. Our integrative knowledge translation approach will involve disseminating findings through government and community briefings, presenting at academic conferences and publishing in scientific journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Establishing Smoke-Free Homes in the Indigenous Populations of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Leah; Campbell, Sandy; Bohanna, India; Gould, Gillian S; Robertson, Jan; Clough, Alan R

    2017-11-14

    A smoke-free home can have multiple benefits by reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), supporting quit attempts among active smokers, and discouraging adolescents from taking up smoking. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature on the establishment of smoke-free homes in Indigenous populations and identify the supporting influences and barriers, using the Social Cognitive Theory lens. A search of the Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration and PyscINFO databases and manual searches of relevant peer-reviewed literature was completed, focusing on Indigenous populations in developed economies of North America and Oceania. Of 2567 articles identified, 15 studies were included. Ten studies included Indigenous participants only, and of these just three focused entirely on SHS in the home. Knowledge of the harms associated with SHS was the most common theme represented in all the studies. This knowledge fueled parents' motivation to protect their children from SHS by establishing smoke-free homes. Individuals who approached implementation with confidence, coupled with clear communication about smoke-free home rules were more successful. Barriers included challenges for families with multiple smokers living in the same dwelling. There is limited research regarding managing smoking behaviors in the home among Indigenous populations, even though this approach is a successful catalyst for smoking prevention and cessation. Research to understand the influences that support the establishment of smoke-free homes is required for better-informed intervention studies.

  3. Place matters: A longitudinal analysis measuring the association between neighbourhood walkability and walking by age group and population center size in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Rania; Steinmetz-Wood, Madeleine; Kestens, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the influence of walkability on walking behaviour and assessed whether associations varied according to life-stage and population center (PC) size. Walkability scores were obtained for the six-digit postal codes of residential neighbourhoods of 11,200 Canadians, who participated in biennial assessments of the National Population Health Survey from 1994 to 2010. Participants were stratified by age-group. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to estimate the influence of cumulative exposure to neighborhood walkability on utilitarian and exercise walking by PC size and life-stage. Associations of neighbourhood walkability with utilitarian and exercise walking varied according to age-group and PC size. Exposure to high walkable neighborhoods was associated with utilitarian walking in younger and older adults in all PC sizes, except for older adults living in a medium PC. Living in a highly walkable neighborhood in a large PC was associated with walking for exercise in younger (OR: 1.42; 95%CI: 1.20-1.67) and older adults (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.51-2.89). Living in highly walkable neighbourhood in a medium PC was associated with walking for exercise in older adults (OR: 1.62; 95%CI: 1.15-2.29). These results emphasize the need to consider the size and nature of every community, and the age-group of a population when implementing strategies to promote walking.

  4. Establishing Smoke-Free Homes in the Indigenous Populations of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Stevenson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A smoke-free home can have multiple benefits by reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS, supporting quit attempts among active smokers, and discouraging adolescents from taking up smoking. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature on the establishment of smoke-free homes in Indigenous populations and identify the supporting influences and barriers, using the Social Cognitive Theory lens. A search of the Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration and PyscINFO databases and manual searches of relevant peer-reviewed literature was completed, focusing on Indigenous populations in developed economies of North America and Oceania. Of 2567 articles identified, 15 studies were included. Ten studies included Indigenous participants only, and of these just three focused entirely on SHS in the home. Knowledge of the harms associated with SHS was the most common theme represented in all the studies. This knowledge fueled parents’ motivation to protect their children from SHS by establishing smoke-free homes. Individuals who approached implementation with confidence, coupled with clear communication about smoke-free home rules were more successful. Barriers included challenges for families with multiple smokers living in the same dwelling. There is limited research regarding managing smoking behaviors in the home among Indigenous populations, even though this approach is a successful catalyst for smoking prevention and cessation. Research to understand the influences that support the establishment of smoke-free homes is required for better-informed intervention studies.

  5. Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  6. Inaugural recipients of the Hopper-Bhatia Canada Fund | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-31

    Jan 31, 2018 ... Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and ...

  7. Ecology of Canada lynx in southern boreal forests [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith B. Aubry; Gary M. Koehler; John R. Squires

    2000-01-01

    Canada lynx occur throughout boreal forests of North America, but ecological conditions in southern regions differ in many respects from those in Canada and Alaska. To evaluate the extent to which lynx ecology and population biology may differ between these regions, we review existing information from southern boreal forests and compare our findings to...

  8. Assessing the validity of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in the adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Roebothan, Barbara; Ryan, Ann; Tucker, Christina Sandra; Colbourne, Jennifer; Baker, Natasha; Cotterchio, Michelle; Yi, Yanqing; Sun, Guang

    2013-04-16

    The Food- Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is a dietary assessment tool frequently used in large-scale nutritional epidemiology studies. The goal of the present study is to validate a self-administered version of the Hawaii FFQ modified for use in the general adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Over a one year period, 195 randomly selected adults completed four 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDRs) by telephone and one subsequent self-administered FFQ. Estimates of energy and nutrients derived from the 24-HDRs and FFQs were compared (protein, carbohydrate, fibre, fat, vitamin A, carotene, vitamin D, and calcium). Data were analyzed using the Pearson's correlation coefficients, cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots. The mean nutrient intake values of the 24-HDRs were lower than those of the FFQs, except for protein in men. Sex and energy-adjusted de-attenuated Pearson correlation coefficients for each nutrient varied from 0.13 to 0.61. Except for protein in men, all correlations were statistically significant with p < 0.05. Cross-classification analysis revealed that on average, 74% women and 78% men were classified in the same or adjacent quartile of nutrient intake when comparing data from the FFQ and 24-HDRs. Bland-Altman plots showed no serious systematic bias between the administration of the two instruments over the range of mean intakes. This 169-item FFQ developed specifically for the adult NL population had moderate relative validity and therefore can be used in studies to assess food consumption in the general adult population of NL. This tool can be used to classify individual energy and nutrient intakes into quartiles, which is useful in examining relationships between diet and chronic disease.

  9. Site selection and nest survival of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) on the Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming

    2014-01-01

    Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.

  10. The health care cost of dying: a population-based retrospective cohort study of the last year of life in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tanuseputro

    Full Text Available Coordinated and appropriate health care across sectors is an ongoing challenge, especially at the end-of-life. Population-level data on end-of-life health care use and cost, however, are seldom reported across a comprehensive array of sectors. Such data will identify the level of care being provided and areas where care can be optimized.This retrospective cohort study identified all deaths in Ontario from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2013. Using population-based health administrative databases, we examined health care use and cost in the last year of life.Among 264,755 decedents, the average health care cost in the last year of life was $53,661 (Quartile 1-Quartile 3: $19,568-$66,875. The total captured annual cost of $4.7 billion represents approximately 10% of all government-funded health care. Inpatient care, incurred by 75% of decedents, contributed 42.9% of total costs ($30,872 per user. Physician services, medications/devices, laboratories, and emergency rooms combined to less than 20% of total cost. About one-quarter used long-term-care and 60% used home care ($34,381 and $7,347 per user, respectively. Total cost did not vary by sex or neighborhood income quintile, but were less among rural residents. Costs rose sharply in the last 120 days prior to death, predominantly for inpatient care.This analysis adds new information about the breadth of end-of-life health care, which consumes a large proportion of Ontario's health care budget. The cost of inpatient care and long-term care are substantial. Introducing interventions that reduce or delay institutional care will likely reduce costs incurred at the end of life.

  11. The health care cost of dying: a population-based retrospective cohort study of the last year of life in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuseputro, Peter; Wodchis, Walter P; Fowler, Rob; Walker, Peter; Bai, Yu Qing; Bronskill, Sue E; Manuel, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Coordinated and appropriate health care across sectors is an ongoing challenge, especially at the end-of-life. Population-level data on end-of-life health care use and cost, however, are seldom reported across a comprehensive array of sectors. Such data will identify the level of care being provided and areas where care can be optimized. This retrospective cohort study identified all deaths in Ontario from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2013. Using population-based health administrative databases, we examined health care use and cost in the last year of life. Among 264,755 decedents, the average health care cost in the last year of life was $53,661 (Quartile 1-Quartile 3: $19,568-$66,875). The total captured annual cost of $4.7 billion represents approximately 10% of all government-funded health care. Inpatient care, incurred by 75% of decedents, contributed 42.9% of total costs ($30,872 per user). Physician services, medications/devices, laboratories, and emergency rooms combined to less than 20% of total cost. About one-quarter used long-term-care and 60% used home care ($34,381 and $7,347 per user, respectively). Total cost did not vary by sex or neighborhood income quintile, but were less among rural residents. Costs rose sharply in the last 120 days prior to death, predominantly for inpatient care. This analysis adds new information about the breadth of end-of-life health care, which consumes a large proportion of Ontario's health care budget. The cost of inpatient care and long-term care are substantial. Introducing interventions that reduce or delay institutional care will likely reduce costs incurred at the end of life.

  12. Costs for Childhood and Adolescent Cancer, 90 Days Prediagnosis and 1 Year Postdiagnosis: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Claire; Bremner, Karen E; Liu, Ning; Greenberg, Mark L; Nathan, Paul C; McBride, Mary L; Krahn, Murray D

    2017-03-01

    Childhood and adolescent cancers are uncommon, but they have important economic and health impacts on patients, families, and health care systems. Few studies have measured the economic burden of care for childhood and adolescent cancers. To estimate costs of cancer care in population-based cohorts of children and adolescents from the public payer perspective. We identified patients with cancer, aged 91 days to 19 years, diagnosed from 1995 to 2009 using cancer registry data, and matched each to three noncancer controls. Using linked administrative health care records, we estimated total and net resource-specific costs (in 2012 Canadian dollars) during 90 days prediagnosis and 1 year postdiagnosis. Children (≤14 years old) numbered 4,396: 36% had leukemia, 21% central nervous system tumors, 10% lymphoma, and 33% other cancers. Adolescents (15-19 years old) numbered 2,329: 28.9% had lymphoma. Bone and soft tissue sarcoma, germ cell tumor, and thyroid carcinoma each comprised 12% to 13%. Mean net prediagnosis costs were $5,810 and $1,127 and mean net postdiagnosis costs were $136,413 and $62,326 for children and adolescents, respectively; the highest were for leukemia ($157,764 for children and $172,034 for adolescents). In both cohorts, costs were much higher for patients who died within 1 year of diagnosis. Inpatient hospitalization represented 69% to 74% of postdiagnosis costs. Treating children with cancer is costly, more costly than treating adolescents or adults. Substantial survival gains in children mean that treatment may still be very cost-effective. Comprehensive age-specific population-based cost estimates are essential to reliably assess the cost-effectiveness of cancer care for children and adolescents, and measure health system performance. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Initial arctic fox eradication program on Amukta Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recent discovery of a second wild breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) on Chagulak Island suggested the...

  14. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  15. Does access to end-of-life homecare nursing differ by province and community size?: A population-based cohort study of cancer decedents across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Hsien; Arora, Anish; Barbera, Lisa; McGrail, Kim; Lawson, Beverley; Burge, Fred; Sutradhar, Rinku

    2017-12-13

    Studies have demonstrated the strong association between increased end-of-life homecare nursing use and reduced acute care utilization. However, little research has described the utilization patterns of end-of-life homecare nursing and how this differs by region and community size. A retrospective population-based cohort study of cancer decedents from Ontario, British Columbia, and Nova Scotia was conducted between 2004 and 2009. Provinces linked administrative databases which provide data about homecare nursing use for the last 6 months of life for each cancer decedent. Among weekly users of homecare nursing in their last six months of life, we describe the proportion of patients receiving end-of-life homecare nursing by province and community size. Our cohort included 83,746 cancer decedents across 3 provinces. Patients receiving end-of-life nursing among homecare nursing users increased from weeks -26 to -1 before death by: 78% to 93% in British Columbia, 40% to 81% in Ontario, and 52% to 91% in Nova Scotia. In all 3 provinces, the smallest community size had the lowest proportion of patients using end-of-life nursing compared to the second largest community size, which had the highest proportion. Differences in end-of-life homecare nursing use are much larger between provinces than between community sizes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Population-Level Evaluation of School-Based Interventions to Prevent Problem Substance Use among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Adolescents in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Homma, Yuko; Poon, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether students’ odds of recent substance use were lower in the presence of GSAs or explicit anti-homophobia policy that had been established at their school recently, or at least three years prior. Methods We analyzed a population-based sample of students in grades 8 through 12 from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey of 2008 (weighted N = 21,708). We used multi-nomial logistic regressions to test the hypothesized effects of GSAs and policies on substance use outcomes for LGB and 100% heterosexual students separately. Results Results indicated that GSAs and anti-homophobic bullying policies were linked to significantly lower odds of some but not all types of recent risky alcohol use, and past-year harms from alcohol or drug use, for LGB adolescents, but these were predominantly among girls, and almost exclusively in schools where the policies or GSAs had been established for at least three years. Conclusions Our findings suggest that these school-based strategies (GSAs and anti-homophobia policies) to reduce homophobia and foster school inclusion may be beneficial in reducing problem alcohol use among all students, not just sexual minority students. PMID:23850517

  17. Population-level evaluation of school-based interventions to prevent problem substance use among gay, lesbian and bisexual adolescents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Homma, Yuko; Poon, Colleen

    2013-12-01

    This study examined whether students' odds of recent substance use were lower in the presence of gay-straight alliances or explicit anti-homophobia policy that had been established at their school recently, or at least 3 years prior. We analyzed a population-based sample of students in grades 8 through 12 from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey of 2008 (weighted N=21,708). We used multi-nomial logistic regressions to test the hypothesized effects of gay-straight alliances and policies on substance use outcomes for lesbian, gay and bisexual students, and heterosexual students separately. Results indicated that gay-straight alliances and anti-homophobic bullying policies were linked to significantly lower odds of some but not all types of recent risky alcohol use, and past-year harms from alcohol or drug use, but almost exclusively in schools where the policies or gay-straight alliances had been established for at least 3 years; and among lesbian, gay and bisexual adolescents, only for girls. Our findings suggest that these school-based strategies (gay-straight alliances and anti-homophobia policies) to reduce homophobia and foster school inclusion may be beneficial in reducing problem alcohol use among all students, not just sexual minority students. © 2013.

  18. A Comparison of the Composition and Diversity of Tree Populations along a Hydrological Gradient in Floodplains (Southern Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Berthelot

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the current climate changes, it is essential to understand the mechanisms that govern floods and flow regimes and their effects on the dynamics of riparian forests. The aim is to assess the effects of new hydrological conditions (increase in flood frequency on forest stands subject to frequent floods. The sampling sites (total of 94 quadrats are located in riverine woodlands, and the choice of location corresponds to the boundaries of the flood-risk zones established by official government maps. Our study shows that there are significant differences in the composition and diversity of forest communities following differences in the flood recurrence zones. In the active floodplains (i.e., recurrence interval of 0–20 years, the tree population stands are clearly distinguished from other intermediate flood zones (interval of 20–100 years. Differences are also noted in the structure of the communities, in particular in the frequent flood zones, which are characterized by a low renewal rate, low density and less-diversified forest stands. The frequent floods risk forest stand rejuvenation and creating decline as a result of increased tree mortality and the low renewal rate. With the expected increases in the number of flood events in the coming decades, there may be greater tree mortality and a gradual disappearance of the forest communities.

  19. Concordance between self-report and a survey-based algorithm for classification of type 1 and type 2 diabetes using the 2011 population-based Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada (SLCDC)-Diabetes component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edward; Vanderloo, Saskia E; Geiss, Linda; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2013-08-01

    There are 2 major forms of diabetes mellitus: types 1 and 2. A major limitation of most current population-based diabetes surveillance systems is the classification of diabetes types. Our objective was to examine the concordance of self-reported diabetes type with a previously developed classification algorithm, using a nationally representative survey sample. Self-reported data were available from 2544 adults with self-reported diabetes, aged ≥20 years and older, who responded to the diabetes component of the 2011 Survey of Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada. We examined the concordance of self-reported diabetes type with an algorithm based on self-reported, but objective, respondent characteristics, such as age of diagnosis and treatment patterns. Concordance was measured using kappa coefficients. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using the algorithm as the reference "standard." Approximately 11% of the estimated population did not self-report diabetes type; almost all of these respondents would be classified as having type 2 diabetes by the algorithm. Of those self-reporting diabetes type, we found moderate overall agreement between the algorithm and self-reported type (kappa, 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.53). Perfect agreement was noted in the youngest age group (kappa, 1.0; 95% CI, 1.0-1.0) but agreement was poor for the oldest age group (kappa, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.20). An algorithm based on self-reported, objective characteristics related to diabetes diagnosis and treatment patterns may have the potential to overcome limitations of simple self-report diabetes type for the classification of diabetes type in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Social vulnerability from a social ecology perspective: a cohort study of older adults from the National Population Health Survey of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous social factors, generally studied in isolation, have been associated with older adults’ health. Even so, older people’s social circumstances are complex and an approach which embraces this complexity is desirable. Here we investigate many social factors in relation to one another and to survival among older adults using a social ecology perspective to measure social vulnerability among older adults. Methods 2740 adults aged 65 and older were followed for ten years in the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS). Twenty-three individual-level social variables were drawn from the 1994 NPHS and five Enumeration Area (EA)-level variables were abstracted from the 1996 Canadian Census using postal code linkage. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify dimensions of social vulnerability. All social variables were summed to create a social vulnerability index which was studied in relation to ten-year mortality. Results The PCA was limited by low variance (47%) explained by emergent factors. Seven dimensions of social vulnerability emerged in the most robust, yet limited, model: social support, engagement, living situation, self-esteem, sense of control, relations with others and contextual socio-economic status. These dimensions showed complex inter-relationships and were situated within a social ecology framework, considering spheres of influence from the individual through to group, neighbourhood and broader societal levels. Adjusting for age, sex, and frailty, increasing social vulnerability measured using the cumulative social vulnerability index was associated with increased risk of mortality over ten years in a Cox regression model (HR 1.04, 95% CI:1.01-1.07, p = 0.01). Conclusions Social vulnerability has important independent influence on older adults’ health though relationships between contributing variables are complex and do not lend themselves well to fragmentation into a small number of discrete factors. A

  1. Genetic variants in vitamin d pathway genes and risk of pancreas cancer; results from a population-based case-control study in ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Anderson

    Full Text Available Recent studies of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD levels and pancreas cancer have suggested a potential role of the vitamin D pathway in the etiology of this fatal disease. Variants in vitamin-D related genes are known to affect 25(OHD levels and function and it is unknown if these variants may influence pancreatic cancer risk. The association between 87 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 11 genes was evaluated within the Ontario Pancreas Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study. Pancreatic cancer cases with pathology confirmed adenocarcinoma were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry (n = 628 and controls were identified through random digit dialing (n = 1193. Age and sex adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. SNPs in the CYP24A1, CYP2R1, calcium sensing receptor (CASR, vitamin D binding protein (GC, retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRA and megalin (LRP2 genes were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. For example, pancreas cancer risk was inversely associated with CYP2R1 rs10741657 (AA versus GG, OR = 0.70; 95%CI: 0.51-0.95 and positively with CYP24A1 rs6127119 (TT versus CC. OR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.28-2.94. None of the associations were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Vitamin D pathway gene variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk and future studies are needed to understand the possible role of vitamin D in tumorigenesis and may have implications for cancer-prevention strategies.

  2. Association of Child Abuse Exposure With Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Plans, and Suicide Attempts in Military Personnel and the General Population in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Zamorski, Mark A; Turner, Sarah; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence indicates a high prevalence of child abuse exposure in modern US veterans, which may explain in part their higher likelihood of suicide relative to civilians. However, the relationship between child abuse exposure and suicide-related outcomes in military personnel relative to civilians is unknown. Furthermore, the associations among deployment-related trauma, child abuse exposure, and suicide-related outcomes in military personnel have not been examined. To determine whether child abuse exposure is more prevalent in Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) personnel compared with the Canadian general population (CGP); to compare the association between child abuse exposure and suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts among the CAF and CGP; and to determine whether child abuse exposure has an additive or interaction effect on the association of deployment-related trauma and past-year suicidal ideation and suicide plans among Regular Forces personnel. Data were collected from the following 2 nationally representative data sets: the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) for the CAF (8161 respondents; response rate, 79.8%) and the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH) for the CGP (23,395 respondents; response rate, 68.9% [of these, 15,981 age-matched participants were drawn]). Data were collected from April 15 to August 31, 2013, for the CFMHS and January 2 to December 31, 2012, for the CCHS-MH. Data were analyzed from October 2014 to October 22, 2015. Statistical weights were applied to both data sets. Child abuse exposure, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence, and deployment-related trauma were assessed in relation to suicide-related outcomes. Data were analyzed from 24 142 respondents aged 18 to 60 years (Regular Forces, 86.1% male and 13.9% female; Reserve Forces, 90.6% male and 8.9% female; and CGP, 49.9% male and 50.1% female). Any child abuse exposure was higher in

  3. The Regulation of Lipid Deposition by Insulin in Goose Liver Cells Is Mediated by the PI3K-AKT-mTOR Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunchun; Wei, Shouhai; He, Fang; Liu, Dandan; Wan, Huofu; Liu, Hehe; Li, Liang; Xu, Hongyong; Du, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that the fatty liver formations observed in overfed geese are accompanied by the activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and an increase in plasma insulin concentrations. Recent studies have suggested a crucial role for the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in regulating lipid metabolism; therefore, we hypothesized that insulin affects goose hepatocellular lipid metabolism through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. Goose primary hepatocytes were isolated and treated with serum-free media supplemented with PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway inhibitors (LY294002, rapamycin, and NVP-BEZ235, respectively) and 50 or 150 nmol/L insulin. Insulin induced strong effects on lipid accumulation as well as the mRNA and protein levels of genes involved in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion in primary goose hepatocytes. The stimulatory effect of insulin on lipogenesis was significantly decreased by treatment with PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors. These inhibitors also rescued the insulin-induced down-regulation of fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. These findings suggest that the stimulatory effect of insulin on lipid deposition is mediated by PI3K-Akt-mTOR regulation of lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion in goose hepatocytes.

  4. The Regulation of Lipid Deposition by Insulin in Goose Liver Cells Is Mediated by the PI3K-AKT-mTOR Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunchun Han

    Full Text Available We previously showed that the fatty liver formations observed in overfed geese are accompanied by the activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and an increase in plasma insulin concentrations. Recent studies have suggested a crucial role for the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in regulating lipid metabolism; therefore, we hypothesized that insulin affects goose hepatocellular lipid metabolism through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway.Goose primary hepatocytes were isolated and treated with serum-free media supplemented with PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway inhibitors (LY294002, rapamycin, and NVP-BEZ235, respectively and 50 or 150 nmol/L insulin.Insulin induced strong effects on lipid accumulation as well as the mRNA and protein levels of genes involved in lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion in primary goose hepatocytes. The stimulatory effect of insulin on lipogenesis was significantly decreased by treatment with PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors. These inhibitors also rescued the insulin-induced down-regulation of fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion.These findings suggest that the stimulatory effect of insulin on lipid deposition is mediated by PI3K-Akt-mTOR regulation of lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion in goose hepatocytes.

  5. Year-round itinerary of a GPS-tracked Brent Goose Branta b. bernicla that visited the Bassin d' Arcachon, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, A.M.; Ebbinge, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    The year-round itinerary for a Dark-bellied Brent Goose Branta b. bernicla is described for a bird fitted with a GPS tracking device at Terschelling Island, the Netherlands, in spring 2012. Spring migration commenced when the bird left the Dutch Wadden Sea on 27 May and continued until it reached

  6. Year-round itinerary of a GPS-tracked Brent Goose Branta b. bernicla that visited the Bassin d’Arcachon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, A.M.; Ebbinge, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    The year-round itinerary for a Dark-bellied Brent Goose Branta b. bernicla is described for a bird fitted with a GPS tracking device at Terschelling Island, the Netherlands, in spring 2012. Spring migration commenced when the bird left the Dutch Wadden Sea on 27 May and continued until it reached

  7. Development and validation of a SYBR Green real-time PCR assay for rapid and quantitative detection of goose interferons and proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Qi, Yulin; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-10-01

    Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) based on SYBR-Green I binding is a quick, reliable, and easy method for analyzing small amounts of mRNA. Viral pathogens are recognized at the time of infection by pattern recognition receptors; thus, the inflammatory cytokines (IL1β, IL6, and IL18) and antiviral cytokines (IFNα, IFNγ) are secreted by innate immune cells and induced to respond to the pathogens. The objective of this study was to develop an effective and sensitive RT-qPCR assay for the rapid and accurate quantification of goose cytokines: IFNα, IFNγ, IL1β, IL6, and IL18. Subsequently, the established methods were employed to detect the immune response in agonist-stimulated goose spleen cells in vitro. These data indicated that the established RT-qPCR is a reliable method for determining relative gene expression. The results revealed that Imiquimod led to the significant upregulation of goose IFNα (P < 0.01), IFNγ (P < 0.01), IL1β (P < 0.01), IL6 (P < 0.01), and IL18 (P < 0.05). The established methods are important for scientific research and clinical applications, which require rapid and accurate results in a short period of time. The technique can potentially be used in the further research of goose molecular immunology, which will help us understand the interactions between hosts and pathogens. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace....... This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures....

  9. Nondisclosure prosecutions and population health outcomes: examining HIV testing, HIV diagnoses, and the attitudes of men who have sex with men following nondisclosure prosecution media releases in Ottawa, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During the past decade, the intersection of HIV and criminal law has become increasingly discussed. The majority of studies to date have approached this topic from a sociological or legal perspective. As a result, the potential effect of nondisclosure prosecutions on population health and HIV prevention work remains mostly unknown. Methods A descriptive quantitative-qualitative study was undertaken to examine HIV testing, HIV diagnoses, and the attitudes of men who have sex with men following regional media releases about a local nondisclosure prosecution. As part of this study, first, we reviewed the trends in HIV testing and HIV diagnoses from 2008 through 2011 in Ottawa, Canada. Second, we explored the attitudes and beliefs of local MSM about HIV, HIV prevention, HIV serostatus disclosure, nondisclosure prosecutions, and public health. Results Quantitatively, the findings of this study revealed that, in comparison to the period preceding the media releases about a local nondisclosure prosecution, HIV testing and HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men did not significantly change after the media releases of interest. Qualitatively, a subgroup of 27 men who have sex with men (12 HIV-positive, 15 HIV-negative) noted their beliefs that the local public health department openly shares information about people living with HIV with the police. Moreover, some HIV-positive participants stated that this perceived association between the local public health department and police services caused them to not access public health department services, notwithstanding their desires to seek assistance in maintaining safer sexual practices. Conclusions Nondisclosure prosecutions likely undermine HIV prevention efforts. PMID:23369031

  10. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  11. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... ​This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system. Published by the Centre for International Governance Innovation, Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

  12. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  13. Suicide in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    1998-01-01

    ... provides long-awaited information that focuses specifically on Canada. It addresses suicide as a multidimensional problem with biological, psychological, cultural, sociological, personal, and philosophical aspects. The contributions integrate both critical analysis and personal experience. There are accounts from Inuit elders, fr...

  14. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  15. Acid precipitation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. W. Summers; D. M. Whelpdale

    1976-01-01

    The total annual emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in Canada are estimated to be 7.2 x 106 tons and 1.4 x 106 tons, respectively. These figures represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the estimated worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Nearly two-thirds of the Canadian SO2 emissions come from...

  16. Forest insect pests in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The papers presented in this book cover the range of forest insect pest management activities in Canada. The first section contains papers on the current status of insect pests by region, including data on insect populations and extent of defoliation caused by the insect. The next section covers pest management technology, including the use of insecticides, insect viruses, fungal pathogens, growth regulators, antifeedants, pheromones, natural predators, and aerial spraying. The third section contains papers on the application of technology and equipment for forest pest control, and includes papers on the impacts of insecticides on the forest environment. The fourth section describes operational control programs by province. The final paper presents future strategies for the management of forest pests. An author index is included.

  17. Marine mammal and other data from the TURBO GOOSE as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 30 July 1976 to 31 July 1976 (NODC Accession 7800534)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine mammal and other data were collected from the TURBO GOOSE from 30 July 1976 to 31 July 1976. Data were collected by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game as...

  18. Response of Canada geese to a turf application of diazinon AG500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, R J; Brewer, L W; Hitchcock, R R

    1993-07-01

    We investigated the effects of a turf application of the insecticide diazinon AG500 on Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on a golf course in coastal Washington (USA). On both 19 and 26 March 1987, 1 ha of turf on a golf course located in Birch Bay, Washington was treated with diazinon AG500 at a target application rate of 2.2 kg active ingredient per hectare (AI/ha). Treated areas were then irrigated with 6 mm water. Grass and water samples were collected from three different sites one day before and 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after each application. Diazinon residues > or = 20 ppm were found in golf course grasses for one week after each application. Diazinon residues in study area ponds and creeks were > or = 17 ppb. Samples from two irrigation puddles one day post-application had 1.00 and 0.20 ppm of diazinon, respectively. Numbers of geese present declined following diazinon application; however, no goose mortality was observed. Geese spent 422 and 538 min feeding on the treated areas after the first and second diazinon applications, respectively. One goose feeding in treated areas demonstrated signs of poisoning (lethargy, ataxia) for several hours. Two other geese feeding in the treated areas may have been slightly intoxicated. During carcass searches, three American wigeon (Anas americana) carcasses were found. Based on brain cholinesterase (ChE) levels and gastrointestinal (GI) tract residues of diazinon present, we concluded that these wigeon died from diazinon poisoning. Numerous songbirds (Passeriformes) also fed on the treated turf but no apparent response to the insecticide was observed.

  19. Morphological and morphometric specializations of the lung of the Andean goose, Chloephaga melanoptera: A lifelong high-altitude resident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N Maina

    Full Text Available High altitude flight in rarefied, extremely cold and hypoxic air is a very challenging activity. Only a few species of birds can achieve it. Hitherto, the structure of the lungs of such birds has not been studied. This is because of the rarity of such species and the challenges of preparing well-fixed lung tissue. Here, it was posited that in addition to the now proven physiological adaptations, high altitude flying birds will also have acquired pulmonary structural adaptations that enable them to obtain the large amounts of oxygen (O2 needed for flight at high elevation, an environment where O2 levels are very low. The Andean goose (Chloephaga melanoptera normally resides at altitudes above 3000 meters and flies to elevations as high as 6000 meters where O2 becomes limiting. In this study, its lung was morphologically- and morphometrically investigated. It was found that structurally the lungs are exceptionally specialized for gas exchange. Atypically, the infundibulae are well-vascularized. The mass-specific volume of the lung (42.8 cm3.kg-1, the mass-specific respiratory surface area of the blood-gas (tissue barrier (96.5 cm2.g-1 and the mass-specific volume of the pulmonary capillary blood (7.44 cm3.kg-1 were some of the highest values so far reported in birds. The pulmonary structural specializations have generated a mass-specific total (overall pulmonary morphometric diffusing capacity of the lung for oxygen (DLo2 of 0.119 mlO2.sec-1.mbar-1.kg-1, a value that is among some of the highest ones in birds that have been studied. The adaptations of the lung of the Andean goose possibly produce the high O2 conductance needed to live and fly at high altitude.

  20. Molecular characterization of a novel Muscovy duck parvovirus isolate: evidence of recombination between classical MDPV and goose parvovirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Ling, Jueyi; Wang, Zhixian; Huang, Yu; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2017-11-09

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) and Goose parvovirus (GPV) are important etiological agents for Muscovy duck parvoviral disease and Derzsy's disease, respectively; both of which can cause substantial economic losses in waterfowl industry. In contrast to GPV, the complete genomic sequence data of MDPV isolates are still limited and their phylogenetic relationships largely remain unknown. In this study, the entire genome of a pathogenic MDPV strain ZW, which was isolated from a deceased Muscovy duckling in 2006 in China, was cloned, sequenced, and compared with that of other classical MDPV and GPV strains. The genome of strain ZW comprises of 5071 nucleotides; this genome was shorter than that of the pathogenic MDPV strain YY (5075 nt). All the four deleted nucleotides produced in strain ZW are located at the base-pairing positions in the palindromic stem of inverted terminal repeats (ITR) without influencing the formation of a hairpin structure. Recombination analysis revealed that strain ZW originated from genetic recombination between the classical MDPV and GPV strain. The YY strain of MDPV acts as the major parent, whereas the virulent strains YZ99-6 and B and the vaccine strain SYG61v of GPV act as the minor parents in varying degrees. Two recombination sites were detected in strain ZW, with the small recombination site surrounding the P9 promoter, and the large recombination site situated in the middle of the VP3 gene. The SYG61V strain is a vaccine strain used for preventing goose parvoviral disease. This strain was found to be solely involved in the recombination event detected in the P9 promoter region. Phylogenetic analyses between strain ZW and other classical strains of MDPV and GPV were performed. The results supported the in silico recombination analysis conclusion. MDPV Strain ZW is a novel recombinant parvovirus, and the bulk of its genome originates from the classical MDPV strain. Two virulent strains and a vaccine strain of GPV were involved in the

  1. Access to internet in rural and remote Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Leanne M; Ronquillo, Charlene; Dick, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Canada is the second largest landmass country in the world, but has one of the lowest population densities. As of 2011, approximately 19% of the Canadian population lives in rural, or remote communities. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in rural and urban access to the Internet and device use in Canada, and to explore differences in access to broadband between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada. In general rural-dwellers had lower levels of Internet access and despite efforts to increase access to high speed Internet, Aboriginal communities in some regions have limited access. Future research should explore computer and health literacy in the context of rural and remote communities in Canada.

  2. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuoyu; Liu, Lin; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Roebothan, Barbara; Zhao, Jin; Dicks, Elizabeth; Cotterchio, Michelle; Buehler, Sharon; Campbell, Peter T; McLaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2012-03-26

    Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON), Canada. Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760) were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000) and NL (1999-2003). Controls (n = 2481) were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ), personal history questionnaire (PHQ), and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile), whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile), carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile) and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile). Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.

  3. Description du fardeau de la dépression sur la santé de la population au Canada : utilisation de l’espérance de vie ajustée en fonction de la santé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steensma

    2016-01-01

    EVAS à 20 ans était de 42,0 ans (IC à 95 % : 40,2 à 43,8, contre 57,0 ans (IC à 95 % : 56,8 à 57,2 chez les femmes n’ayant pas vécu récemment d’épisode de dépression majeure. Au sein de la population masculine canadienne, l’EVAS à 20 ans était de 39,0 ans (IC à 95 % : 36,5 à 41,5 chez ceux qui avaient connu récemment un épisode de dépression majeure, contre 53,8 ans (IC à 95 % : 53,6 à 54,0 chez ceux n’ayant pas connu récemment d’épisode de dépression majeure. La différence de 15 ans dans l’EVAS des femmes avec et sans épisode récent de dépression majeure peut se décomposer en 12,3 ans attribuables à l’écart de la QVLS et 2,7 ans à l’écart observé en matière de mortalité. Les 14,8 années de moins d’EVAS chez les hommes ayant souffert de dépression correspondent à un écart de la QVLS de 13 ans et à un écart de mortalité de 1,8 an. Conclusion : La population canadienne adulte atteinte de dépression au Canada avait une espérance de vie en santé considérablement plus faible que celle ne souffrant pas de dépression, chez les hommes comme chez les femmes. Si la majeure partie de cet écart s’explique par des niveaux moins élevés de la QVLS, la mortalité prématurée joue également un rôle.

  4. Insights into the physician assistant profession in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Danielle; Shrichand, Arun

    2016-07-01

    Physician assistants (PAs) have been used for decades in the Canadian military. Now, PAs are being introduced in various clinical settings to provide patient care for the general population. This article reviews major developments in the PA profession across Canada over the last decade. Nearly 541 PAs are employed in Canada or work for a Canadian agency. Growing evidence demonstrates the positive effect of PAs; however, key issues challenge the extent to which the PA movement will continue to build momentum.

  5. L'entrepreneuriat au Canada dans le contexte mondial | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 nov. 2014 ... Également selon le rapport, au Canada, les immigrants de première génération se lancent en affaires dans une proportion plus élevée que le reste de la population, et les femmes participent davantage à l'activité entrepreneuriale que dans les autres pays du G7. En outre, au Canada, contrairement à ce ...

  6. Health Consequences to Immigrant Family Caregivers in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhee Vajracharya Suwal

    2010-12-01

    Immigrant family caregivers were three times more likely than non-immigrants to report a health consequence. Reciprocity played a big role in this outcome. Given the fact that an increasing number of culturally diverse immigrants enter Canada every year and that the immigrant population is aging, more caregivers will be in demand. Policy makers need to find ways to keep immigrant caregivers healthy so that quality care can be given to immigrant older adults and also for maintaining an overall healthy Canada.

  7. L'entrepreneuriat au Canada dans le contexte mondial | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Également selon le rapport, au Canada, les immigrants de première génération se lancent en affaires dans une proportion plus élevée que le reste de la population, et les femmes participent davantage à l'activité entrepreneuriale que dans les autres pays du G7. En outre, au Canada, contrairement à ce que l'on observe ...

  8. Ethnic identity of older Chinese in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2012-06-01

    In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.

  9. Alcohol use among immigrants in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agic, Branka; Mann, Robert E; Tuck, Andrew; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Bondy, Susan; Simich, Laura; Ilie, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    This study examined prevalence of alcohol consumption among immigrants and the Canadian-born populations of Ontario by ethnic origin, and the association between ethnicity, country of birth, age at arrival, length of residence in Canada and drinking measures. Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a cross-sectional survey of Ontario adults, conducted between January 2005 and December 2010 (n = 13,557). The prevalence of alcohol consumption and risk drinking was generally lower among foreign-born than Canadian-born respondents, but significant variations across ethnic groups were found. In general, foreign-born respondents of European descent reported higher rates of alcohol use and risk drinking than foreign-born respondents from other ethnic groups. We also observed that ethnicity effects varied by whether or not respondents were born in Canada, and by the age at which they arrived in Canada. While previous studies generally found an increase in immigrants' alcohol consumption with years in Canada, our data suggest that longer duration of residence may have either positive or negative effects on immigrants' alcohol use, depending on the country of origin/traditional drinking pattern. More research is needed to explore determinants of alcohol use and risk drinking among immigrants and to identify those groups at highest risk. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Evolving Perspectives on Lyme Borreliosis in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, JLH; Middelveen, MJ; Klein, D; Sperling, FAH

    2012-01-01

    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:23091570

  11. Midwifery education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle M; Hutton, Eileen K; McNiven, Patricia S

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a special series on midwifery education and describes the approach to midwifery education in Canada We begin with an overview of the model of midwifery practice introduced in Canada in the 1990s. We describe the model of midwifery education developed and report how it is implemented, with particular attention to the two longest established programs. Midwifery education programs in Ontario and British Columbia. Midwifery education programs in Canada are offered at the undergraduate baccalaureate level at universities and are typically four years in length. Programs are competence-based and follow a spiral curriculum. The first semesters focus on on core sciences, social sciences and introduction to midwifery concepts. Students spend fifty percent of the program in clinical practices with community-based midwives. Innovative education models enable students to be placed in distant placements and help to align theoretical and practice components. Clinically active faculty adds to the credibility of teaching but bring its own challenges for midwifery educators. The Canadian model of midwifery education has been very effective with low attrition rates and high demand for the number of places available. Further program expansion is warranted but is contingent on the growth of clinical placements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Propagation of Aleutian Canada geese on Amchitka Island, Alaska, 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The methods of propagation on Amchitka Island were changed from past years in that artificial incubation and rearing were abandoned in favor of more natural goose...

  13. Case study analysis of legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric potential at Goose River, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The case study is an analysis of the legal, institutional, and financial incentives and obstacles to the development of the hydroelectric potential on the Goose River in Maine. The Goose River project concerns development by a private developer, Maine Hydro-Electric Development Corporation. The project is comprised of a five-dam system, with the first dam located at Swan Lake and the fifth dam about one mile from the sea. It will utilize the 7500 acre-feet of storage capacity of Swan Lake to run the four downstream power stations. The system is designed to generate 430 kWs of total capacity which would be sold to Central Maine Power, the local investor-owned public utility.

  14. Canada Among Nations 2013, Canada-Africa Relations: Looking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    19 août 2013 ... Depuis 1984, la collection Canada Among Nations invite d'éminents chercheurs et praticiens du Canada et de l'étranger à évaluer ensemble la politique étrangère du Canada. Préparé par la Norman Paterson School of International Affairs (NPSIA) de l'Université Carleton, le numéro de 2013 est le premier ...

  15. Two maternal origins of Chinese domestic light-body type goose

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... The average haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (Pi) of domestic geese were 0.2153 and. 0.00046, respectively. The 13 light-body type breeds had bigger nucleotide variance value among populations than the value within populations and all the breeds did not exist population expansion.

  16. Climate change and the increasing impact of polar bears on bird populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouke eProp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is becoming warmer at a high rate, and contractions in the extent of sea ice are currently changing the habitats of marine top-predators dependent on ice. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus depend on sea ice for hunting seals. For these top-predators, longer ice-free seasons are hypothesized to force the bears to hunt for alternative terrestrial food, such as eggs from colonial breeding birds. We analyzed time-series of polar bear observations at four locations on Spitsbergen (Svalbard and one in east Greenland. Summer occurrence of polar bears, measured as the probability of encountering bears and the number of days with bear presence, has increased significantly from the 1970/80s to the present. The shifts in polar bear occurrence coincided with trends for shorter sea ice seasons and less sea ice during the spring in the study area. This resulted in a strong inverse relationship between the probability of bear encounters on land and the length of the sea ice season. Within ten years after their first appearance on land, polar bears had advanced their arrival dates by almost 30 days. Direct observations of nest predation showed that polar bears may severely affect reproductive success of the barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis, common eider (Somateria mollissima and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus. Nest predation was strongest in years when the polar bears arrived well before hatch, with more than 90% of all nests being predated. The results are similar to findings from Canada, and large-scale processes, such as climate and subsequent habitat changes, are pinpointed as the most likely drivers in various parts of the Arctic. We suggest that the increasing, earlier appearance of bears on land in summer reflects behavioral adaptations by a small segment of the population to cope with a reduced hunting range on sea ice. This exemplifies how behavioral adaptations may contribute to the cascading effects of climate change.

  17. Clinical neuropsychology practice and training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura A; Guger, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper provides information about professional neuropsychology issues in Canada and is part of a special issue addressing international perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology. Information was gathered from literature searches and personal communication with other neuropsychologists in Canada. Canada has a rich neuropsychological history. Neuropsychologists typically have doctoral-level education including relevant coursework and supervised practical experience. Licensure requirements vary across the 10 provinces and there are regional differences in salary. While training at the graduate and internship level mirrors that of our American colleagues, completion of a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology is not required to obtain employment in many settings and there are few postdoctoral training programs in this country. The majority of neuropsychologists are employed in institutional settings (e.g. hospitals, universities, rehabilitation facilities), with a growing number entering private practice or other settings. There are challenges in providing neuropsychological services to the diverse Canadian population and a need for assessment measures and normative data in multiple languages. Canadian neuropsychologists face important challenges in defining ourselves as distinct from other professions and other psychologists, in maintaining funding for high-quality training and research, in establishing neuropsychology-specific training and practice standards at the provincial or national level, and ensuring the clinical care that we provide is efficient and effective in meeting the needs of our patient populations and consumers, both within and outside of the publically funded health care system.

  18. Progress against major depression in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B

    2002-10-01

    Generally, public health strategies for major depression have focused on case-finding, public and professional education, and disease-management strategies. In principle, increased rates of treatment utilization and improved treatment outcomes should lead to improved mental health at the population level. Progress of this sort, however, has been difficult to confirm. The National Population Health Survey (NPHS) is a large-scale longitudinal study of a representative sample drawn from the Canadian population. To date, Statistics Canada has released data from 3 NPHS cycles: 1994-1995, 1996-1997, and 1998-1999. Treatment utilization and major depression measures were employed in the NPHS survey, providing a unique source of longitudinal Canadian data. In this study, major depression point prevalence (defined using a predictive instrument for annual major depressive episode [MDE] prevalence and responses from a distress scale) and associated treatment utilization were evaluated over time. Between 1994-1995 and 1995-1996, the proportion of persons with depression receiving antidepressant treatment increased dramatically, from 18.2% (12.3% to 22.1%) in 1994-1995 to 32.6% (23.0% to 42.2%) in 1998-1999. Point prevalence of major depression was 2.4%, 1.8%, and 1.9% in the 3 NPHS iterations. Data from the NPHS suggest public health progress against major depression in Canada. More people with major depression in Canada are receiving treatment, and these changes may have been associated with improved population health status. However, both random variation and extraneous societal factors could account for the observed trends in prevalence. It is impossible to relate changes in utilization directly to population health status using the NPHS data.

  19. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of ovarian and luteal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, Kerry V; Wielebnowski, Nadja C; Shenk, Tanya M; Vashon, Jennifer H; Squires, John R; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2010-12-01

    Canada lynx face some unique breeding restrictions, which may have implications for population viability and captive management. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of basic reproductive physiology in Canada lynx. Using fecal hormone metabolite analysis, we established normative patterns of fecal estrogen (fE) and progestagen (fP) expression in captive and wild female Canada lynx. Our results indicate that Canada lynx have persistent corpora lutea, which underlie their uncharacteristic fP profiles compared to other felids. Thus, fP are not useful for diagnosing pregnancy in Canada lynx. We also found that Canada lynx are capable of ovulating spontaneously. Captive females had higher concentrations of fE and fP than wild females. Both populations exhibit a seasonal increase in ovarian activity (as measured by fE) between February and April. Finally, there was evidence of ovarian suppression when females were housed together. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biosafety Recommendations for Work with Influenza Viruses Containing a Hemagglutinin from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, Denise; Smith, Jacinta; Weyant, Robbin

    2013-06-28

    The CDC and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) manual describes biosafety recommendations for work involving highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) (US Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], CDC. Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories, 5th ed. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2009. HHS publication no. [CDC] 21-1112. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5). The U.S. Department of Agriculture Guidelines for Avian Influenza Viruses builds on the BMBL manual and provides additional biosafety and biocontainment guidelines for laboratories working with HPAI (US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Agricultural Select Agent Program. Guidelines for avian influenza viruses. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture; 2011. Available at http://www.selectagents.gov/Guidelines_for_Avian_Influenza_Viruses.html). The recommendations in this report, which are intended for laboratories in the United States, outline the essential baseline biosafety measures for working with the subset of influenza viruses that contain a hemagglutinin (HA) from the HPAI influenza A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 lineage, including reassortant influenza viruses created in a laboratory setting. All H5N1 influenza virus clades known to infect humans to date have been derived from this lineage (WHO/OIE/FAO H5N1 Evolution Working Group. Continued evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza A [H5N1]: updated nomenclature. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2012;6:1-5). In 2009, the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant or Synthetic Nucleic Acid Molecules were amended to include specific biosafety and biocontainment recommendations for laboratories working with Recombinant Risk Group 3 influenza viruses, including HPAI H5N1 influenza viruses within the Goose/Guangdong/1/96-like H5 lineage. In February 2013, the NIH guidelines were further revised to provide additional

  2. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Haese

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000. Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50. Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8, or no-treatment (n=8, developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral

  3. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in Goose Feces from State Parks in Northeast Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapaliya, Dipendra; Dalman, Mark; Kadariya, Jhalka; Little, Katie; Mansell, Victoria; Taha, Mohammed Y; Grenier, Dylan; Smith, Tara C

    2017-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can colonize a range of species. Although numerous studies have isolated pathogenic bacteria from wild birds, very little is known regarding S. aureus and their potential to spread methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. The objective of this study was to determine the presence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in geese fecal samples collected from ten state parks across Northeast Ohio (NEO). A total of 182 fecal samples from Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were collected in April 2015. Isolates were characterized using multi-locus sequence (MLST) and spa typing, as well as PCR to detect the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), mecA, and scn genes. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done via Vitek-2 system. The overall contamination by S. aureus in fecal samples was 7.1% (13/182); 7/182 (3.8%) were MRSA and 6/182 (3.3%) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). One isolate was positive for PVL. A total of eight different spa types were observed. MLST included ST5, ST8, ST291, ST298, and ST2111. One (7.7%) MSSA isolate was multi-drug resistant. The S. aureus contamination in NEO state parks ranged from 0% (park 1, 4, 8, 9) to 35% (7/20) (park 5). Parks 2, 3, 6, and 7 had 5% (1/20) positive. The results of this study indicate that the feces of geese collected at various state parks in NEO may harbor S. aureus.

  4. Status and conservation of the ruddy-headed goose Chloephaga rubidiceps Sclater (Aves, Anatidae in its wintering grounds (Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina Estado y conservación del cauquén colorado Chloephaga rubidiceps Sclater (Aves, Anatidae en su zona de invernada (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL E BLANCO

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The mainland population of the ruddy-headed goose (Chloephaga rubidiceps breeds in southern Patagonia and winters in the south of Buenos Aires province (Argentina, with a recent estimated size at around 900 individuals. This population is considered "in danger of extinction", while the Malvinas (Falkland Islands population is in well conservation status, with an estimated size of 40,000 birds. The aim of this work is to contribute with updated information about the ruddy-headed goose's population wintering in southern Buenos Aires province. The specific objectives were to better delimit its wintering area, to look for sites with large numbers, to study its habitat used, and to identify main threats to the species. Two intensive surveys were conducted during the austral winter of 1999. The results: (1 confirm the low abundance of the ruddy-headed goose supporting its critical conservation status, (2 corroborate its very restricted distribution, with more than 80 % of sightings concentrated in an area of 13,000 ha in southern Buenos Aires province, and (3 suggest that changes in the species' habitat use during the wintering season appear to be a response to changes in habitat availability, resulting from the growth of crops and pastures. The overlap between the species wintering distribution and the main wheat cropping areas of Argentina results in serious threats to this goose. Management actions are discussed to contribute to the conservation of this endangered species.La población continental del Cauquén colorado (Chloephaga rubidiceps cría en el sur de la Patagonia e inverna en el sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina, con un tamaño poblacional estimado recientemente en alrededor de 900 individuos. Esta población está considerada "en peligro de extinción", mientras la población de las Islas Malvinas se mantiene en buen estado de conservación, con un tamaño estimado en 40.000 individuos. La meta de este trabajo es

  5. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  6. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    61 Access to Medicines ...and Mexico . Canada claims the rule is a non-tariff barrier that has led to a steep drop in beef and hog shipments to U.S. processors...concern about trade in pirated and counterfeit goods in Canada, as well as weak enforcement and relatively lax penalties

  7. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Resident Dark Goose (RDG) Mark-Resight Survey Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The lower Columbia River Valley supports a large number of Canada and cackling geese, with many subspecies intermixing in fall and winter. During hunting season,...

  8. Trends in high-dose opioid prescribing in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Paterson, J Michael; Dhalla, Irfan A; Juurlink, David N

    2014-09-01

    To describe trends in rates of prescribing of high-dose opioid formulations and variations in opioid product selection across Canada. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Canada. Retail pharmacies dispensing opioids between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. Opioid dispensing rates, reported as the number of units dispensed per 1000 population, stratified by province and opioid type. The rate of dispensing high-dose opioid formulations increased 23.0%, from 781 units per 1000 population in 2006 to 961 units per 1000 population in 2011. Although these rates remained relatively stable in Alberta (6.3% increase) and British Columbia (8.4% increase), rates in Newfoundland and Labrador (84.7% increase) and Saskatchewan (54.0% increase) rose substantially. Ontario exhibited the highest annual rate of high-dose oxycodone and fentanyl dispensing (756 tablets and 112 patches per 1000 population, respectively), while Alberta's rate of high-dose morphine dispensing was the highest in Canada (347 units per 1000 population). Two of the highest rates of high-dose hydromorphone dispensing were found in Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia (258 and 369 units per 1000 population, respectively). Conversely, Quebec had the lowest rate of high-dose oxycodone and morphine dispensing (98 and 53 units per 1000 population, respectively). We found marked interprovincial variation in the dispensing of high-dose opioid formulations in Canada, emphasizing the need to understand the reasons for these differences, and to consider developing a national strategy to address opioid prescribing. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  9. Botulismo tipo C em ganso ocorrido em Minas Gerais, Brasil Type C botulism in a goose at Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulismo é uma intoxicação causada pela ingestão das toxinas produzidas pelo Clostridium botulinum, que acomete mamíferos e aves, caracterizando-se por um quadro de paralisia flácida. Neste trabalho, é descrito um caso de botulismo em ganso, ocorrido no município de Santa Luzia, região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Ao exame clínico, o animal apresentava-se com um quadro de paralisia flácida dos músculos do pescoço, das pernas e asas, além de apresentar ainda desprendimento de penas. A necropsia não revelou lesões significativas. Foi colhido o soro do animal e submetido ao teste de soroneutralização em camundongo, que identificou a toxina de C. botulinum tipo C.Botulism is an intoxication caused by the ingestion of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, that affects mammals and birds, characterized by a flaceid paralysis. This report describes a case of botulism in a goose in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Clinical examinations showed dropping feathers and flaccid paralysis involving the muscles of the wings, legs and neck. post-mortem examination showed no significant gross or macroscopic lesions C. botulinum type C toxin was demonstrated in the serum of the affected animal through serum neutralization test in mice.

  10. Strontium isotope systematics of mixing groundwater and oil-field brine at Goose Lake in northeastern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Preston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater, surface water, and soil in the Goose Lake oil field in northeastern Montana have been affected by Cl−-rich oil-field brines during long-term petroleum production. Ongoing multidisciplinary geochemical and geophysical studies have identified the degree and local extent of interaction between brine and groundwater. Fourteen samples representing groundwater, surface water, and brine were collected for Sr isotope analyses to evaluate the usefulness of 87Sr/86Sr in detecting small amounts of brine. Differences in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr are optimal at this site for the experiment. Strontium concentrations range from 0.13 to 36.9 mg/L, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.71097 to 0.70828. The local brine has 168 mg/L Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70802. Mixing relationships are evident in the data set and illustrate the sensitivity of Sr in detecting small amounts of brine in groundwater. The location of data points on a Sr isotope-concentration plot is readily explained by an evaporation-mixing model. The model is supported by the variation in concentrations of most of the other solutes.

  11. A simple and rapid method for detection of Goose Parvovirus in the field by loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MingShu Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Goose parvovirus (GPV is a Dependovirus associated with latent infection and mortality in geese. Currently, in a worldwide scale, GPV severely affects geese production. The objective of this study is to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for the sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive detection of GPV in the field. Results A set of six specific primers was designed by targeting the GPV VP3 DNA. With Bst DNA polymerase large fragment, the target DNA could be amplified at 65°C as early as 20 min of incubation in a simple water bath. A positive reaction was identified through the detection of the LAMP product by color change visible to the naked eye. The detection limit of the assay was 28 copies/μl of plasmid pVP3, and with equal sensitivity and specificity to fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR (FQ-PCR. Conclusions The high sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity, as well as the high throughput, make this method suitable for specific detection of GPV infection in both field conditions and laboratory settings. The utilization of complicated equipment and conduct of technical training on the GPV LAMP were not necessary.

  12. Sources of child maltreatment information in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, D A; Hovdestad, W E; Tonmyr, L

    2013-02-01

    Interest in understanding the problem of child maltreatment is widely shared by governments, organizations of physicians, and others. Our objective was to describe and discuss sources of information in Canada that could be used to help understand the nature and scope of the problem, either within any province or territory, or across all of Canada. A series of web searches and a focused literature review were conducted to identify sources of child maltreatment information. Government departments responsible for child welfare were also contacted on an as-needed basis in order to identify additional sources. Identified sources included: child welfare administrative provincial/territorial data and reports based on those data, other child welfare information, surveys of child protection workers and shelter workers, mortality/morbidity data, police data, direct surveys of children and their parents, and the 2011 Canadian census. Each type of source had strengths and limitations in terms of how it could describe the nature and scope of the problem of child maltreatment. Increased use of morbidity and mortality data, data linking, expanding existing databases, and increasing the use of general population surveys could expand understanding of child maltreatment in Canada.

  13. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  14. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Langlois, Kellie A; Kohen, Dafna E

    2013-01-01

    Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2-5 years (n=1,234). Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2-5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p0.05). The majority (81%) of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size), living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  15. Patterns of ovarian and luteal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry V. Fanson; Nadja C. Wielebnowski; Tanya M. Shenk; Jennifer H. Vashon; John R. Squires; Jeffrey R. Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Canada lynx face some unique breeding restrictions, which may have implications for population viability and captive management. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of basic reproductive physiology in Canada lynx. Using fecal hormone metabolite analysis, we established normative patterns of fecal estrogen (fE) and progestagen (fP)...

  16. Canadian Medical Education Statistics, 1980/81 = Statistiques Relatives a l'enseignement Medical au Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Data for 1980-1981 pertaining to medical education in Canada are presented. Information about Canadian medical schools, population of Canada by province and distribution of medical school openings, tuition, payment scales for post-M.D. clinical trainees, clinical clerkship stipends, and numbers of Canadian medical schools offering instruction in…

  17. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married and common-law couples with a female partner aged 18–44. The three definitions of the risk of conception were derived sequentially starting with birth control use in the previous 12 months, adding reported sexual intercourse in the previous 12 months, then pregnancy intent. Prevalence and odds ratios of current infertility were estimated by selected characteristics. RESULTS Estimates of the prevalence of current infertility ranged from 11.5% (95% CI 10.2, 12.9) to 15.7% (95% CI 14.2, 17.4). Each estimate represented an increase in current infertility prevalence in Canada when compared with previous national estimates. Couples with lower parity (0 or 1 child) had significantly higher odds of experiencing current infertility when the female partner was aged 35–44 years versus 18–34 years. Lower odds of experiencing current infertility were observed for multiparous couples regardless of age group of the female partner, when compared with nulliparous couples. CONCLUSIONS The present study suggests that the prevalence of current infertility has increased since the last time it was measured in Canada, and is associated with the age of the female partner and parity. PMID:22258658

  18. Analysis of tropospheric aerosol number density for aerosols of 0.2- to 3-micrometers diameter: Central and northeastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Barrick, John D.; Hudgins, Charles H.; Bagwell, Donald R.; Blake, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment conducted during the summer of 1990 focused on the distribution of trace species in central and northeastern Canada (altitudes less than 6 km) and the importance of surface sources/sinks, local emissions, distant transport, tropospheric/stratospheric exchange. Aircraft flights were based from North Bay, Ontario, and Goose Bay, Labrador, Canada. As part of the aircraft measurements, aerosol number density (0.2- to 3-micrometers diameter) was measured using an optical laser technique. Results show that summertime aerosol budgets of central and northeastern Canada can be significantly impacted by the transport of pollutants from distant source regions. Biomass burning in Alaska and western and central Canada exerts major influences on regional aerosol budgets. Urban emissions transported from the U.S./Canadian border regions are also important. Aerosol enhancements (mixed layer and free troposphere) were most prevalent in air with carbon monoxide mixing ratios greater than 110 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). When data were grouped as to the source of the air (5-day back trajectories) either north or south of the polar jet, aerosol number density in the mixed layer showed a tendency to be enhanced for air south of the jet relative to north of the jet. However, this difference was not observed for measurements at the higher altitudes (4 to 6 km). For some flights, mixed layer aerosol number densities were greater than 100 higher than free-tropospheric values (3- to 6-km altitude). The majority of the observed mixed layer enhancement was associated with transport of effluent-rich air into the Canadian regions. Aerosol emissions from natural Canadian ecosystems were relatively small when compared to transport.

  19. Caribbean immigrants in Britain and Canada: socio-economic adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A H

    1988-12-01

    This paper compares the socioeconomic experiences of Caribbean immigration in Britain and Canada and shows how differing immigration trends together with changing economic circumstances influenced the process of integration. Caribbean immigrants in Canada are more recent arrivals than those in Britain and, in 1981, were still experiencing initial adjustment problems aggravated by an economy in which unemployment is still high. Unlike Britain, which has a large population born in that country of West Indian parentage, the "2nd generation" in Canada is small and mostly still in school. Despite higher levels of education and qualifications than their counterparts in Britain, Caribbean immigrants in Canada faced similar problems. Males were relatively more concentrated in manufacturing industries in Canada and in transportation in Britain, sectors which were undergoing significant structural change and experiencing high levels of unemployment. Earned income was below average in both countries but there were interesting gender differences. Caribbean women experienced the same "earnings gap", relative to men, that characterized most women in the labor force. However, Caribbean women were relatively more successful than men, as measured by unemployment rates and earned incomes. This appears to be due to their qualifications in nursing and other service occupations that continued to expand, and to be in demand in the 1970s and 1980s, when other occupations were declining in response to technological change and "post-industrial" developments. In both countries there were residual disadvantages, faced by Caribbean men and women, which cannot be statistically explained by factors such as age, education, period of immigration, or structural changes in the economy. These can be attributed, at least in part, to the institutionalized prejudice and discrimination against racial minorities which is prevalent in both societies. In absolute terms Caribbean immigrants in Canada are

  20. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1985-02-01

    Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River causes sporadic level fluctuations along the main stem Flathead River. Seasonal water level fluctuations and substantial habitat losses have occurred as a result of construction and operation of Kerr Dam, which regulates Flathead Lake. These fluctuations may impact goose populations through flooding or erosion of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and increased susceptibility of nests and young to predation. The number, location, and success of goose nests were determined through pair surveys and nest searches. Counts of indicated pairs suggest there were 73-125 occupied nests in the study area; 44 were located in 1984. Twenty were island ground nests, 19 were tree nests, and 5 were on man-made structures. Hatching success was 76 percent. Sixty-one percent of all nests were in deciduous forest habitat; 87 percent were on riparian bench or island landforms. Seventy-four percent of all nests were within 5 m of the seasonal high water mark (HWM) and 85 percent of ground nests were 1 m or less above the HWM. Production, habitat use, and distribution of broods were documented through aerial, boat, ground, and observation tower surveys. 28 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Understanding Aggressive Girls in Canada: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Sibylle; Nicholson, Diana

    This review of the literature on aggression and violence in girls, especially girls in Canada, begins with data showing increasing rates of assault and other violent crimes by Canadian girls, although the rate for girls continues to be much less than for boys (a fact possibly responsible for the small amount of research on this population). The…

  2. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    stopped, in traversing the two countries’ 5,500- mile border. About 70% of U.S.-Canada merchandise trade crosses the border by truck; many of these...concern about trade in pirated and counterfeit goods in Canada, as well as weak enforcement and relatively lax penalties...pirated and counterfeit goods by customs agents without a court order. The government introduced a new Copyright Modernization Act (C-32) in June 2010

  3. Canada and the green economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuszewski, Judy; Crowther, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has a complex relationship with the global efforts to move to a green economy. Its policymakers and business leaders need to balance the country’s vast natural resources and the economic growth that they can foster, with the need to develop in a low-carbon, resource-efficient and socially inclusive manner. This report explores what the green economy means to Canada, with a particular focus on Canadian companies and the accountancy profession. Publisher PDF

  4. Development of goose- and duck-specific DNA markers to determine sources of Escherichia coli in waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew J; Yan, Tao; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2006-06-01

    The contamination of waterways with fecal material is a persistent threat to public health. Identification of the sources of fecal contamination is a vital component for abatement strategies and for determination of total maximum daily loads. While phenotypic and genotypic techniques have been used to determine potential sources of fecal bacteria in surface waters, most methods require construction of large known-source libraries, and they often fail to adequately differentiate among environmental isolates originating from different animal sources. In this study, we used pooled genomic tester and driver DNAs in suppression subtractive hybridizations to enrich for host source-specific DNA markers for Escherichia coli originating from locally isolated geese. Seven markers were identified. When used as probes in colony hybridization studies, the combined marker DNAs identified 76% of the goose isolates tested and cross-hybridized, on average, with 5% of the human E. coli strains and with less than 10% of the strains obtained from other animal hosts. In addition, the combined probes identified 73% of the duck isolates examined, suggesting that they may be useful for determining the contribution of waterfowl to fecal contamination. However, the hybridization probes reacted mainly with E. coli isolates obtained from geese in the upper midwestern United States, indicating that there is regional specificity of the markers identified. Coupled with high-throughput, automated macro- and microarray screening, these markers may provide a quantitative, cost-effective, and accurate library-independent method for determining the sources of genetically diverse E. coli strains for use in source-tracking studies. However, future efforts to generate DNA markers specific for E. coli must include isolates obtained from geographically diverse animal hosts.

  5. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  6. An ethnographic investigation of the maternity healthcare experience of immigrants in rural and urban Alberta, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higginbottom, Gina M; Safipour, Jalal; Yohani, Sophie; O'Brien, Beverly; Mumtaz, Zubia; Paton, Patricia; Chiu, Yvonne; Barolia, Rubina

    2016-01-01

    Canada is among the top immigrant-receiving nations in the world. Immigrant populations may face structural and individual barriers in the access to and navigation of healthcare services in a new country...

  7. Capturing, banding, and transplanting of Aleutian Canada geese, Buldir and Agattu Islands, Alaska, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to capture 100 Aleutian Canada geese and transplant to Agattu Island to continue efforts to re-establish a nesting population on...

  8. Telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird, the barnacle goose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliny Angela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories of ageing predict a trade-off between metabolism, reproduction, and maintenance. Species with low investment in early reproduction are thus expected to be able to evolve more efficient maintenance and repair mechanisms, allowing for a longer potential life span (intrinsic longevity. The erosion of telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of linear chromosomes, plays an important role in cellular and organismal senescence, signalling the onset of age-related disease due to accumulation of unrepaired somatic damage. Using extensive longitudinal data from a long-term study of a natural population of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis, we investigated individual rates of telomere length changes over two years in 34 birds between 0 and 22 years of age, covering almost 80% of the species’ lifespan. Results We show that telomeres in this long-lived bird are very well maintained, as theoretically expected, with an average loss rate of only 5 base pairs per year among adults. We thus found no significant relationship between change in telomere length and age. However, telomeres tended to shorten at a faster pace in juveniles compared to adults. For the first time, we demonstrate a faster telomere attrition rate in females compared to males. We found no correlation between telomere loss rate and adult survival or change in body mass. Conclusions Our results add further support for a link between longevity and telomere maintenance, and highlight the complexities of telomere dynamics in natural populations.

  9. Telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird, the barnacle goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliny, Angela; Larsson, Kjell; Blomqvist, Donald

    2012-12-31

    Theories of ageing predict a trade-off between metabolism, reproduction, and maintenance. Species with low investment in early reproduction are thus expected to be able to evolve more efficient maintenance and repair mechanisms, allowing for a longer potential life span (intrinsic longevity). The erosion of telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of linear chromosomes, plays an important role in cellular and organismal senescence, signalling the onset of age-related disease due to accumulation of unrepaired somatic damage. Using extensive longitudinal data from a long-term study of a natural population of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis, we investigated individual rates of telomere length changes over two years in 34 birds between 0 and 22 years of age, covering almost 80% of the species' lifespan. We show that telomeres in this long-lived bird are very well maintained, as theoretically expected, with an average loss rate of only 5 base pairs per year among adults. We thus found no significant relationship between change in telomere length and age. However, telomeres tended to shorten at a faster pace in juveniles compared to adults. For the first time, we demonstrate a faster telomere attrition rate in females compared to males. We found no correlation between telomere loss rate and adult survival or change in body mass. Our results add further support for a link between longevity and telomere maintenance, and highlight the complexities of telomere dynamics in natural populations.

  10. Dynamics of immigrants' health: Evidence from Canada, 1994-95 to 2002-03. Summary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkins, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary of: Ng, Edward, Russell Wilkins, François Gendron, and Jean-Marie Berthelot.2005. "Dynamics of immigrants' health in Canada: evidence from the NationalPopulation Health Survey." Healthy today, healthy tomorrow? Findings fromthe National Population Health Survey. Ottawa: Statistics Canada catalogue 82-618; 2:1-11. Available free at: http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/82-618-MIE/82-618-MIE2005002.htm.

  11. Croatian Language Maintenance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Petrović

    2017-01-01

    factors to be examined concern the absolute number of community members, their geographical distribution, the number of Croatian language speakers, and the number of those with Croatian as their mother tongue. According to the 2011 census, there were 114 880 Canadians of Croatian origin, representing an increase of 3.5% over 2006. In 2006, 110 880 Canadian residents reported Croatian ancestry, representing a percentage change of 12.5% from 2001. In 2001, there were 97 050 Canadians who self-identified as being of Croatian origin, representing a percentage change of 13% from 1996, when there were 84 495 Canadians of Croatian origin. Furthermore, census data show that the percentage of Canadians of Croatian origin reporting multiple ethnicity increased over the period; in 1996, there were 65.5% single ethnic origin responses, compared to 60% in 2001, 50.9% in 2006, and only 45.1% in 2011. In terms of geographical distribution of members of Croatian community in Canada, almost two thirds of all Canadians of Croatian descent (74 020 live in the province Ontario, with significant numbers also in British Columbia (19 855 and Alberta (10 055. The largest Croatian community is in the Toronto area, where 35 115 Croatians live, with significant numbers also in Vancouver (13 025 and Hamilton (11 640. The census data presented here indicate that demographic factors that positively influence Croatian language maintenance are the size of the linguistic group and geographic concentration of the group. More precisely, the absolute number of people of Croatian descent living in Canada is on the rise and the population of Croatian origin is mostly concentrated in the province of Ontario and in major urban centers in other provinces. On the other hand, the rise in the percentage of Canadians of Croatian descent reporting more than one ancestry could be viewed as a factor that negatively affects Croatian language maintenance. It is provided by the evidence of gradually changing marriage

  12. Mental health of Latin Americans in Canada: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginieniewicz, Jorge; McKenzie, Kwame

    2014-05-01

    Latin Americans represent one of the fastest-growing immigrant populations in Canada. But very little is known about their mental health. This paper reviews the literature on the mental health of Latin American immigrants to Canada. The paper also identifies potential areas to expand the research agenda. Twenty-five papers were identified by a comprehensive electronic search undertaken in medical- and humanities-related databases. s are reported in three sections: (1) the rates of mental illness; (2) the risk factors that affect mental health; and (3) the access and barriers to care and services. Findings indicate that despite the diversity of immigration from Latin America to Canada, much of the information on mental health focuses on Central American refugees. The most frequently examined risk factor is displacement as a consequence of political persecution and torture in the home country. Access to mental health services in this population seems to be limited by cultural differences and language barriers. New research on this topic should reflect the growing diversity and heterogeneity of the Latin American population in Canada.

  13. Immigrant Status and Secondary School Performance as Determinants of Post-Secondary Participation: A Comparison of Canada and Switzerland. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 77

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Garnett

    2012-01-01

    This working paper seeks to explore the reasons why educational attainment in the immigrant population varies between North America and Europe. Specifically, the examples of Canada and Switzerland are used as Canada has an immigrant population with a typically higher rate of post-secondary education than that of the domestic population, while in…

  14. Glucose-induced lipid deposition in goose primary hepatocytes is dependent on the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chunchun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that fatty liver formation in overfed geese was accompanied by PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway activation and changes in plasma glucose concentrations. Here, we show that glucose acts in goose hepatocellular lipid metabolism through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. We observed that glucose increased lipogenesis, decreased fatty acid oxidation and increased very low density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. Co-treatment with glucose and inhibitors of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway (LY294002, rapamycin, NVP-BEZ235 decreased the levels of factors involved in lipogenesis and increased the levels of factors involved in fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. These findings show that inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway decreased glucose-induced lipogenesis, inhibited the downregulation of fatty acid oxidation by glucose and increased the upregulation of VLDL-TG assembly and secretion by glucose. The results presented herein provide further support for the role of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in lipid metabolism as we showed that in goose primary hepatocytes, glucose acts through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR-dependent pathway to stimulate lipid deposition by increasing lipogenesis and decreasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion.

  15. Molecular identification and immunological characteristics of goose suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) in vitro and vivo following DTMUV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Shun; Zhang, Jingyue; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2017-05-01

    Purpose suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) is inducible feedback inhibitors of cytokine signaling and involved in viral infection through regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we firstly cloned SOCS-1 (goSOCS-1) from duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) infected goose. The full-length sequence of goSOCS-1 ORF is 624bp and encoded 108 amino acids. Structurally, the mainly functional regions (KIR, SH2, SOCS-box) were conserved between avian and mammalian. The tissues distribution data showed SOCS-1 highly expressed in immune related tissues (SP, LU, HG) of both gosling and adult goose. Moreover, the goSOCS-1 transcripts were induced by goIFNs in GEFs and by TLR ligands in PBMCs. Notably, upon DTMUV infection, highly expression level of goSOCS-1 was detected in vitro and in vivo with high viral load. Our results indicated that goSOCS-1 might involve in both innate and adaptive antiviral immunity of waterfowl. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting the need for vascular surgeons in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Shamim; Jetty, Prasad; Petrcich, William; Hajjar, George; Hill, Andrew; Kubelik, Dalibor; Nagpal, Sudhir; Brandys, Tim

    2017-03-01

    With the introduction of direct entry (0+5) residency programs in addition to the traditional (5+2) programs, the number of vascular surgery graduates across Canada is expected to increase significantly during the next 5 to 10 years. Society's need for these newly qualified surgeons is unclear. This study evaluated the predicted requirement for vascular surgeons across Canada to 2021. A program director survey was also performed to evaluate program directors' perceptions of the 0+5 residency program, the expected number of new trainees, and faculty recruitment and retirement. The estimated and projected Canadian population numbers for each year between 2013 and 2021 were determined by the Canadian Socio-economic Information and Management System (CANSIM), Statistics Canada's key socioeconomic database. The number of vascular surgery procedures performed from 2008 to 2012 stratified by age, gender, and province was obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database. The future need for vascular surgeons was calculated by two validated methods: (1) population analysis and (2) workload analysis. In addition, a 12-question survey was sent to each vascular surgery program director in Canada. The estimated Canadian population in 2013 was 35.15 million, and there were 212 vascular surgeons performing a total of 98,339 procedures. The projected Canadian population by 2021 is expected to be 38.41 million, a 9.2% increase from 2013; however, the expected growth rate in the age group 60+ years, who are more likely to require vascular procedures, is expected to be 30% vs 3.4% in the age group Canada by 2021; however, using workload analysis modeling (which accounts for the more rapid growth and larger proportion of procedures performed in the 60+ age group), there will be a deficit of 11 vascular surgeons by 2021. Program directors in Canada have a positive outlook on graduating 0+5 residents' skill, and the majority of programs will be

  17. Canada 2050 : four long-term scenarios for Canada's energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Energy Sector of Natural Resources Canada initiated the Energy Technology Futures project in 1998 to develop a set of viable scenarios of what Canada's energy system could potentially look like in 30 to 50 years. The objective was to see what the effect of new technologies might have on our ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Three independent drivers were used for developing the scenarios. These included: environmental etiquette, markets and the pace of innovation. The first scenario looked at a world in which greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increased in all areas of the economy along with Canada's population and economic activity. The second scenario looked at a world where GHG emissions initially exhibited a downward trend to 2020. The third scenario looked at a world where GHG emissions decreased as new efficient technologies replaced GHG intensive processes. And finally, the last scenario looked at a world where GHG emissions were substantially reduced in all areas of the economy. The study clearly demonstrated that more work is needed to develop longer-term perspectives on the issue of climate change. In addition, there will be a need for long-term policy, program development and investment into science and technology. figs.

  18. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  19. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Langlois, Kellie A.; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234). Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (psweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05). The majority (81%) of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size), living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada. PMID:23620871

  20. Modeling the cardiac surgery workforce in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderby, Sonia A; Carter, Michael W; Latham, Timothy; Ouzounian, Maral; Hassan, Ansar; Tang, Gilbert H; Teng, Carolyn J; Kingsbury, Kori; Feindel, Christopher M

    2010-08-01

    Limited employment opportunities for recently trained cardiac surgeons are deterring medical students from entering cardiac surgery residency programs. Given the lengthy training period and the aging of both the general population and currently practicing cardiac surgeons, this reduced enrollment raises concerns about the adequacy of the future cardiac surgery workforce. A workforce model was developed to explore the future need for cardiac surgeons in Canada. A novel system dynamics model was developed to simulate the supply and demand for cardiac surgery in Canada between 2008 and 2030 to identify whether an excess or shortage of surgeons would exist. Several different scenarios were examined, including varying surgeon productivity, revascularization rates, and residency enrollment rates. The simulation results of various scenarios are presented. In the base case, a surgeon shortage is expected to develop by 2025, although this depends on surgeons' response to demand-supply gap changes. An alternative scenario in which residency enrollment directly relates to the presence of unemployed surgeons also projects substantial shortages after 2021. The model results indicate that if residency enrollment rates remain at the 2009 level an alarming shortage may develop soon, possibly reaching almost 50% of the Canadian cardiac surgical workforce. These workforce model results project an eventual cardiac surgeon shortage in Canada. This study highlights the possibility of a crisis in cardiac surgery and emphasizes the urgency with which enrollment into cardiac surgery training programs and the employability of recently trained cardiac surgery graduates need to be addressed. Copyright 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Canada Among Nations 2013, Canada-Africa Relations : Looking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    expansion la plus rapide dans le monde et un virage vers une bonne ... Le CRDI, l'Israel Science Foundation, la Fondation Azrieli et les Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada annoncent l'appel de propositions pour la ...

  2. Recovery in Canada: toward social equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piat, Myra; Sabetti, Judith

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews evolution of the recovery paradigm in Canadian mental health. We first trace the origins and development of the recovery concept through the literature, followed by an examination of how the recovery concept has been implemented in national and provincial mental health policy since publication of the 2006 Kirby Commission Report. Based on consultations with Canadian policymakers, and an examination of available policy documents, we explore how the dual theme of 'recovery' and 'well-being', adopted by the Mental Health Commission of Canada in its 2009 strategy: Toward Recovery and Well-being - A Framework For a Mental Health Strategy has subsequently played out in mental health policymaking at the provincial level. Findings reveal mixed support for recovery as a guiding principle for mental health reform in Canada. While policies in some provinces reflect widespread support for recovery, and strong identification with the aspirations of the consumer movement; other provinces have shifted to population-based, wellness paradigms that privilege evidence-based services and professional expertise. The recognition of social equality for people who experience mental illness emerges as an important value in Canadian mental health policy, cutting across the conceptual divide between recovery and well-being.

  3. Bringing home the right to food in Canada: challenges and possibilities for achieving food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Karen; Riches, Graham; Ostry, Aleck; Buckingham, Don; MacRae, Rod

    2007-06-01

    We offer a critique of Canada's approach to domestic food security with respect to international agreements, justiciability and case law, the breakdown of the public safety net, the institutionalisation of charitable approaches to food insecurity, and the need for 'joined-up' food and nutrition policies. We examined Canada's commitments to the right to food, as well as Canadian policies, case law and social trends, in order to assess Canada's performance with respect to the human right to food. We found that while Canada has been a leader in signing international human rights agreements, including those relating to the right to food, domestic action has lagged and food insecurity increased. We provide recommendations for policy changes that could deal with complex issues of state accountability, social safety nets and vulnerable populations, and joined-up policy frameworks that could help realise the right to adequate food in Canada and other developed nations.

  4. Survey of recreational fishing in Canada, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 Survey of Recreational Fishing in Canada collected information about recreational fishing activities to assess the economic and social importance of recreational fisheries to Canada's provinces and territories...

  5. A National Palliative Care Strategy for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, R. Sean

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify barrier to achieving universal access to high quality palliative care in Canada, review published national strategies and frameworks to promote palliative care, examine key aspects that have been linked to successful outcomes, and make recommendations for Canada.

  6. Building better health care leadership for Canada: implementing evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denis, Jean-Louis; Sullivan, Terrence James

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund for our publishing activities. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Building better health care leadership for Canada: imple...

  7. canada's “thousand talent program”i: how canada research chair ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-24

    Oct 24, 2013 ... richer explanation of brain circulation, using the case study of Chinese holders of Canada Research Chairs. (CRC). Canada suffered brain drain in the 1990s, in particular to the United States. The Canada. Research Chair Program (CRCP), launched in 2000 by the Government of Canada, signalled the ...

  8. Comparing pyloromyotomy outcomes across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ednie, Alexander C; Amram, Ofer; Schuurman, Nadine; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2017-05-01

    Changing patterns of referral and management of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) in North America have recently been described. Comfort with perioperative management, anesthesia, and corrective surgery have been cited as reasons for these changes. Our primary objective was to assess pyloromyotomy outcomes between different hospital types across Canada. The secondary objective was to geospatially map all pyloromyotomies to identify regions of higher HPS incidence across Canada. Data of all pyloromyotomies done between 2011 and 2013 were acquired from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Complication rates and length of hospital stay (LOS) were analyzed. Postal codes for each patient were used to geospatially map regions of higher HPS incidence. A total of 1261 pyloromyotomies were assessed. There was no difference in LOS or complication rates between different hospital types or surgeon group. Open pyloromyotomies were done in 75% of the cases. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified across Canada. This study found no difference in complication rate or LOS stay between hospital type and surgeon type across Canada. This may reflect a previously identified referral trend in the United States towards pediatric centers. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified, and may aid in identifying genetic elements causing HPS. 2c. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Computerized Library Networking in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Roderick M.; Islam, Mazharul

    1979-01-01

    Reviews a study which examined computerized bibliographic centers in Canada identifying three types: (1) library processing facility; (2) library network user group; and (3) information retrieval facility. The study also reported on ways to promote a computerized library network with emphasis on national location service. (CWM)

  10. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  11. Compute Canada: Advancing Computational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan

    2012-02-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) is redefining the way that research is done. Compute Canada's HPC infrastructure provides a national platform that enables Canadian researchers to compete on an international scale, attracts top talent to Canadian universities and broadens the scope of research.

  12. Unique Measles Virus in Canada

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, discusses a measles outbreak in Canada.  Created: 8/24/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  13. Phylogeography of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, K.T.; Talbot, S.L.; Pearce, J.M.; Pierson, Barbara J.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    Using molecular genetic markers that differ in mode of inheritance and rate of evolution, we examined levels and partitioning of genetic variation for seven nominal subspecies (11 breeding populations) of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America. Gene trees constructed from mtDNA control region sequence data show that subspecies of Canada Geese do not have distinct mtDNA. Large- and small-bodied forms of Canada Geese were highly diverged (0. 077 average sequence divergence) and represent monophyletic groups. A majority (65%) of 20 haplotypes resolved were observed in single breeding locales. However, within both large- and small-bodied forms certain haplotypes occurred across multiple subspecies. Population trees for both nuclear (microsatellites) and mitochondrial markers were generally concordant and provide resolution of population and subspecific relationships indicating incomplete lineage sorting. All populations and subspecies were genetically diverged, but to varying degrees. Analyses of molecular variance, nested-clade and coalescence-based analyses of mtDNA suggest that both historical (past fragmentation) and contemporary forces have been important in shaping current spatial genetic distributions. Gene flow appears to be ongoing though at different rates, even among currently recognized subspecies. The efficacy of current subspecific taxonomy is discussed in light of hypothesized historical vicariance and current demographic trends of management and conservation concern.

  14. Status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike O Hammill

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals are associated with small islets, reefs and rocks exposed at low tide and estuarine habitats throughout eastern Canada. Evidence of harvesting by indigenous people has been found in pre-European contact archaeological excavations. A bounty harvest as well as subsistence and commercial hunting probably lead to a decline in the population from 1949 to the early 1970s. The bounty was removed in 1976, and harbour seals, in the southern parts of their range have been protected since then. There is little information available on total abundance and current population trend. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA research has shown separation between Northeast and Northwest Atlantic harbour seals. Within Canada, the subspecies Phoca vitulina concolor shows some population sub-structure with three distinct units that could be separated into Hudson Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence and Sable Island. Urban development resulting in habitat degradation is probably the most important factor affecting harbour seal populations in AtlanticCanada, although other factors such as incidental catches in commercial fisheries and competition with grey seals may also be important.

  15. Exploring Individual and School-Related Factors and Environmental Literacy: Comparing U.S. and Canada Using PISA 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Emily; Shi, Qingmin

    2014-01-01

    Questions remain about how to best prepare students to be environmentally literate. Although Canada and U.S. share similarities in education systems, diversity in student population, and historical roots in formalizing environmental education, Canada is one of the top performing countries in international science assessments while U.S. matches…

  16. Study on lipolysis-oxidation and volatile flavour compounds of dry-cured goose with different curing salt content during production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Wang; Ya-Ting, Jiang; Jin-Xuan, Cao; Yin-Ji, Chen; Yang-Ying, Sun; Xiao-Qun, Zeng; Dao-Dong, Pan; Chang-Rong, Ou; Ning, Gan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dry-curing salt content (4% low salt (LS), 8% high salt (HS)) on lipolysis, lipid oxidation and volatile compounds in dry-cured goose was investigated in our study. The activities of acid lipase and neutral lipase increased during dry-curing, while phospholipase reached its maximum at the end of marinating. Lipoxygenase (LOX) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values increased during dry-curing and marinating then decreased during dry-ripening. Total free fatty acids (TFFA) increased at dry-curing and dry-ripening points and decreased during marinating. Total peak area of lipids derived volatile compounds (TPALDVC) and total peak area increased during entire stages. Compared to LS, HS group has higher lipolytic and LOX activities, TBARS, TFFA, unsaturated fatty acids and TPALDVC. The higher TPALDVC in HS could be attributed to higher lipid hydrolysis and oxidation during processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diurnal variation in the behaviour of the Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) during the spring stopover in Trøndelag, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudzinska, Magda Ewa; Madsen, Jesper; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    behaviour at a staging site and assess the extent to which behavioural patterns are attributable to physiological factors (digestibility of the food) and environmental conditions (flock size, type and frequency of disturbance and distance to roost). We found that feeding activity peaked at mid-day, whereas...... the birds were most alert in the morning and afternoon. The behaviour of Pink-footed Goose also varied with habitat type, disturbance level and distance to roost. The diurnal variation in feeding activity differed from behaviour reported for geese on the wintering grounds, indicating that the birds have...... different energetic and nutrient demands when at spring staging sites. Seasonal changes in habitat availability as well as density dependence may also affect the birds’ behavioural patterns. A sporadic, unpredictable disturbance reduced the proportion of geese feeding to a greater extent than a predictable...

  18. Immunomorphologic Manifestations in Mice Liver Infected with Influenza A/H5N1, A/Goose/Krasnoozerskoye/627/05 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana V. Potapova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1 viruses can infect mammals, including humans, causing severe systemic disease with the inhibition of the immune system and a high mortality rate. In conditions of lymphoid tissue depletion, the liver plays an important role in host defence against viruses. The changes in mice liver infected with HPAI H5N1 virus A/goose/Krasnoozerskoye/627/05 have been studied. It has been shown that the virus persistence in the liver leads to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and intracellular proteases (lysozyme, cathepsin D, and myeloperoxidase by Kupffer cells. Defective antiviral response exacerbates destructive processes in the liver accelerating the development of liver failure.

  19. The benefits of being big: effects of body size on energy budgets of three wintering goose species grazing Carex beds in the Yangtze River Floodplain, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Meijuan

    2013-01-01

    partitioning in the distribution of closely related species. By estimating daily energy expenditure (based on observed activity budgets) and energy intake (using the indigestible marker method in food and faeces), we compared the field energy budgets of three wintering herbivorous goose species differing...... in body size feeding on the same Carex meadows. Throughout the winter, the larger Bean Geese Anser fabalis serrirostris and Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons maintained positive energy budgets grazing lower quality Carex, in contrast to the smaller Lesser White-fronted Geese Anser erythropus......Herbivores of different body size vary in food selection because of their different metabolic requirements and abilities to harvest and digest food. Compared with smaller grazers, larger ones require higher food quantity but can tolerate poorer quality. This divergence may also explain habitat...

  20. Using IEC 61850 GOOSE Service for Adaptive ANSI 67/67N Protection in Ring Main Systems with Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Silos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids are electricity networks that use digital technology to co-ordinate the needs and capabilities of all generators, grid operators, end users and electricity market stakeholders in such a way that it can optimize asset utilization and operation while maintaining system reliability, resilience and stability. However, Smart Grids are increasingly proposing a much more distributed architecture with the integration of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs that demand different control and protection schemes. In that sense, the implementation of standards such as IEC 61850 and the integration with Ethernet-based communication networks provide novel tools to manage DER efficiently. This paper analyses the potential usage and benefits of ANSI 67/67N protection in combination with Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE communication service, from the standard 61850 of the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC, for providing adaptive network protection, specifying the configuration and implementation and exposing the obtained results.

  1. Goose Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting geese and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Swan...

  2. Comparative analysis of the gastrointestinal microbial communities of bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) in different breeding patterns by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Cao, Jian; Li, Ji-Rong; Yang, Fang; Li, Zhuo; Li, Lai-Xing

    2016-01-01

    The bar-headed goose is currently one of the most popular species for rare birds breeding in China. However, bar-headed geese in captivity display a reduced reproductive rate. The gut microbiome has been shown to influence host factors such as nutrient and energy metabolism, immune homeostasis and reproduction. It is therefore of great scientific and agriculture value to analyze the microbial communities associated with bar-headed geese in order to improve their reproductive rate. Here we describe the first comparative study of the gut microbial communities of bar-headed geese in three different breeding pattern groups by 16SrRNA sequences using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The results showed that Firmicutes predominated (58.33%) among wild bar-headed geese followed by Proteobacteria (30.67%), Actinobacteria (7.33%) and Bacteroidetes (3.33%). In semi-artificial breeding group, Firmicutes was also the most abundant bacteria (62.00%), followed by Bacteroidetes (28.67%), Proteobacteria (4.20%), Actinobacteria (3.27%) and Fusobacteria (1.51%). The microbial communities of artificial breeding group were dominated by Firmicutes (60.67%), Fusobacteria (29.67%) and Proteobacteria (9.33%). Wild bar-headed geese had a significant higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while semi-artificial breeding bar-headed geese had significantly more Bacteroidetes. The semi-artificial breeding group had the highest microbial community diversity and richness, followed by wild group, and then the artificial breeding group. The marked differences of genus level group-specific microbes create a baseline for future bar-headed goose microbiology research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Declines in outpatient antimicrobial use in Canada (1995-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Finley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With rising reports of antimicrobial resistance in outpatient communities, surveillance of antimicrobial use is imperative for supporting stewardship programs. The primary objective of this article is to assess the levels of antimicrobial use in Canada over time. METHODS: Canadian antimicrobial use data from 1995 to 2010 were acquired and assessed by four metrics: population-adjusted prescriptions, Defined Daily Doses, spending on antimicrobials (inflation-adjusted, and average Defined Daily Doses per prescription. Linear mixed models were built to assess significant differences among years and antimicrobial groups, and to account for repeated measurements over time. Measures were also compared to published reports from European countries. RESULTS: Temporal trends in antimicrobial use in Canada vary by metric and antimicrobial grouping. Overall reductions were seen for inflation-adjusted spending, population-adjusted prescription rates and Defined Daily Doses, and increases were observed for the average number of Defined Daily Doses per prescription. The population-adjusted prescription and Defined Daily Doses values for 2009 were comparable to those reported by many European countries, while the average Defined Daily Dose per prescription for Canada ranked high. A significant reduction in the use of broad spectrum penicillins occurred between 1995 and 2004, coupled with increases in macrolide and quinolone use, suggesting that replacement of antimicrobial drugs may occur as new products arrive on the market. CONCLUSIONS: There have been modest decreases of antimicrobial use in Canada over the past 15 years. However, continued surveillance of antimicrobial use coupled with data detailing antimicrobial resistance within bacterial pathogens affecting human populations is critical for targeting interventions and maintaining the effectiveness of these products for future generations.

  4. Intergenerational Transfers, Population Aging and Social Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  5. An ethnographic investigation of the maternity healthcare experience of immigrants in rural and urban Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Higginbottom, Gina M; Safipour, Jalal; Yohani, Sophie; O?Brien, Beverly; Mumtaz, Zubia; Paton, Patricia; Chiu, Yvonne; Barolia, Rubina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Canada is among the top immigrant-receiving nations in the world. Immigrant populations may face structural and individual barriers in the access to and navigation of healthcare services in a new country. The aims of the study were to (1) generate new understanding of the processes that perpetuate immigrant disadvantages in maternity healthcare, and (2) devise potential interventions that might improve maternity experiences and outcomes for immigrant women in Canada.\\ud \\ud Method...

  6. Winter distribution, movements, and annual survival of radiomarked Vancouver Canada geese in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Hodges, John I.; Conant, Bruce P.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Groves, Debbie J.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Pacific Flyway Canada geese (Branta canadensis) requires information on winter distribution of different populations. Recoveries of tarsus bands from Vancouver Canada geese (B. canadensis fulva) marked in southeast Alaska, USA, ≥4 decades ago suggested that ≥83% of the population was non-migratory and that annual adult survival was high (Ŝ = 0.836). However, recovery distribution of tarsus bands was potentially biased due to geographic differences in harvest intensity in the Pacific Flyway. Also, winter distribution of Vancouver Canada geese could have shifted since the 1960s, as has occurred for some other populations of Canada geese. Because winter distribution and annual survival of this population had not recently been evaluated, we surgically implanted very high frequency radiotransmitters in 166 adult female Canada geese in southeast Alaska. We captured Vancouver Canada geese during molt at 2 sites where adults with goslings were present (breeding areas) and 2 sites where we observed nonbreeding birds only. During winter radiotracking flights in southeast Alaska, we detected 98% of 85 females marked at breeding areas and 83% of 70 females marked at nonbreeding sites, excluding 11 females that died prior to the onset of winter radiotracking. We detected no radiomarked females in coastal British Columbia, or western Washington and Oregon, USA. Most (70%) females moved ≤30 km between November and March. Our model-averaged estimate of annual survival (Ŝ = 0.844, SE = 0.050) was similar to the estimate of annual survival of geese marked from 1956 to 1960. Likely populations in the Pacific Flyway. Because annual survival of adult Vancouver Canada geese was high and showed evidence of long-term consistency, managers should examine how reproductive success and recruitment may affect the population.

  7. Pharmacy information systems in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jeff; Jennings, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Canada Health Infoway is to provide at least 50% of all Canadians with an electronic health record (EHR) by 2010. The goal of the Infoway Drug Information Systems Program is to develop an interoperable drug information system that will keep each patient's medication history: prescribed and dispensed drugs, allergies, ongoing drug treatment, etc. Drug and drug-interaction checks will be performed automatically and added to the patients' drug profiles. Physicians and pharmacists will be supplied with data to support appropriate and accurate prescribing and dispensing, thereby avoiding adverse drug interactions and drug-related deaths [1]. This paper describes Canadian developments in pharmacy eHealth. It presents the results of the Pharmacy Informatics Pharmacy Special Networks (PSN) survey about computer systems used in hospital pharmacies across Canada including information concerning Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems deployed; which may reduce the number of errors in orders.

  8. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    recapture analysis with model estimates. The utility of combining sources of information into analysis of populations was the explicit subject of the other two papers. Gauthier & Lebreton (2004 draw on a long–term study of an Arctic–breeding Goose population, where both extensive mark–recapture, ring recovery, and census data are available. The primary goal is to use these various sources of information to to evaluate the effect of increased harvests on dynamics of the population. A number of methods are compared; most notably they describe an approach based on the Kalman filter which allows for different sources of information to be used in the same model, that is demographic data (i.e. transition matrix and census data (i.e. annual survey. They note that one advantage of this approach is that it attempts to minimize both uncertainties associated with the survey and demographic parameters based on the variance of each estimate. The final paper, by Brooks, King and Morgan (Brooks et al., 2004 extends the notion of the combining information in a common model further. They present a Bayesian analysis of joint ring–recovery and census data using a state–space model allowing for the fact that not all members of the population are directly observable. They then impose a Leslie–matrix–based model on the true population counts describing the natural birth–death and age transition processes. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC approach (which eliminates the need for some of the standard assumption often invoked in use of a Kalman filter, Brooks and colleagues describe methods to combine information, including potentially relevant covariates that might explain some of the variation, within a larger framework that allows for discrimination (selection amongst alternative models. We submit that all of the papers presented in this session indicate clearly significant interest in approaches for combining data and modeling approaches. The Bayesian framework appears a natural

  9. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    2008 budget seeks to ensure continuity through the Canada First Defence Strategy , which will provide for yearly increases of 2% beginning in 2011-12...Minister Harper of permitting Canada’s Afghanistan strategy “to be defined by Washington.” He stated that “once [Canada’s] military mission ends in...56 RBC Financial Group, Daily Forex Fundamentals, February 27, 2009. [ http

  10. Can Canada Avoid Arctic Militarization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    global market and the evolution of new fracking technology for the extraction of shale hydrocarbons, the development of the Canadian Arctic might not...Powers and Prospects in Canada’s North, ed. Abele Frances (Montréal: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 2009), 378. 167Richard Spencer, “ Fracking ...Boom Frees the US from Old Oil Alliances,” The Telegraph, December 13, 2013, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/energy/oil/10476647/ Fracking -boom-frees

  11. Canada: expanding nuclear fuel exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paehlke, R.

    1978-01-01

    Uranium is soon to be a very big business in Canada and most of the expansion is bound for export markets. The expansions that are planned are both in uranium mining and in fuel processing. Almost all environmental problems associated with the nuclear fuel cycle thus far in Canada have been associated with these two phases of the cycle: mining and processing. The water in Elliot Lake has been found to have high concentrations of radium and the drinking water of Serpent River, Ontario--downwater from Elliot Lake--has been found to be contaminated by excess radioactivity. Buildings in both Port Hope, Ontario, and Uranium City, Saskatchewan (near Eldorado's Saskatchewan minesite), have excess radiation counts attributable to radon and radon daughter gases. Several aspects of the expansion are currently undergoing environmental impact assessment. Far and away the most careful and balanced inquiry is the Saskatchewan government-appointed inquiry under Mr. Justice E. D. Bayda of the Saskatchewan Appeals Court. This inquiry is, in the first instance, examining a proposal by Amok Ltee., a consortium of a French multinational and the French government, to develop a $135 million uranium mine and mill at Cluff Lake in the northern portion of Saskatchewan. But the inquiry is considering all aspects and implications of the full nuclear fuel cycle. The second stage of the uranium boom in Canada centers on processing. Here two major new plants are proposed by Eldorado Nuclear: one at Port Granby, Ontario; the second at Varman, Saskatchewan. Several massive nuclear power stations are planned east of Toronto, but nuclear opposition is growing in Canada. (MCW)

  12. Women in Physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  13. A Synthesis of Human-related Avian Mortality in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Calvert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many human activities in Canada kill wild birds, yet the relative magnitude of mortality from different sources and the consequent effects on bird populations have not been systematically evaluated. We synthesize recent estimates of avian mortality in Canada from a range of industrial and other human activities, to provide context for the estimates from individual sources presented in this special feature. We assessed the geographic, seasonal, and taxonomic variation in the magnitude of national-scale mortality and in population-level effects on species or groups across Canada, by combining these estimates into a stochastic model of stage-specific mortality. The range of estimates of avian mortality from each source covers several orders of magnitude, and, numerically, landbirds were the most affected group. In total, we estimate that approximately 269 million birds and 2 million nests are destroyed annually in Canada, the equivalent of over 186 million breeding individuals. Combined, cat predation and collisions with windows, vehicles, and transmission lines caused > 95% of all mortality; the highest industrial causes of mortality were the electrical power and agriculture sectors. Other mortality sources such as fisheries bycatch can have important local or species-specific impacts, but are relatively small at a national scale. Mortality rates differed across species and families within major bird groups, highlighting that mortality is not simply proportional to abundance. We also found that mortality is not evenly spread across the country; the largest mortality sources are coincident with human population distribution, while industrial sources are concentrated in southern Ontario, Alberta, and southwestern British Columbia. Many species are therefore likely to be vulnerable to cumulative effects of multiple human-related impacts. This assessment also confirms the high uncertainty in estimating human-related avian mortality in terms of species

  14. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

  15. Trends in alcohol-impaired driving in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlaar, Ward; Robertson, Robyn; Marcoux, Kyla; Mayhew, Daniel; Brown, Steve; Boase, Paul

    2012-09-01

    While a general decreasing trend in the number of persons killed in a traffic crash involving a drinking driver has occurred in Canada since the 1980s, it is evident that much of this decrease occurred in the 1990s. Since 2002, less progress has been made as the number of persons killed in crashes involving drinking drivers remains high. To better understand the current situation, this paper describes trends in drinking and driving in Canada from 1998 to 2011 using multiple indicators based on data collected for the Traffic Injury Research Foundation's (TIRF) Road Safety Monitor (RSM), the National Opinion Poll on Drinking and Driving, and trends in alcohol-related crashes based on data collected for TIRF's national Fatality Database in Canada. There has been a continued and consistent decrease in the number of fatalities involving a drinking driver in Canada. This remains true when looking at the number of fatalities involving a drinking driver per 100,000 population and per 100,000 licensed drivers. This decreasing trend is also still apparent when considering the percentage of persons killed in a traffic crash in Canada involving a drinking driver although less pronounced. Data from the RSM further show that the percentage of those who reported driving after they thought they were over the legal limit has also declined. However, regardless of the apparent decreasing trend in drinking driving fatalities and behaviour, reductions have been relatively modest, and fatalities in crashes involving drivers who have consumed alcohol remain high at unacceptable levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Industrial wind turbine post-construction bird and bat monitoring: A policy framework for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisé, Jason; Walker, Tony R

    2017-10-01

    Electricity generation from wind energy has proliferated throughout North America and will continue to grow. Given Canada's expected increase in wind energy capacity, consideration of the potential adverse impacts to bird and bat populations is prudent given their sensitivity to these projects. The province of Ontario, Canada is currently the leading jurisdiction for wind energy development, and for provincial guidance on pre- and post-construction monitoring. With uniform monitoring guidance in Ontario, wind energy proponents, and third-party consultants, have developed post-construction monitoring protocols that meet provincial guidance, while also providing standardized reporting. In Atlantic Canada, post-construction guidelines vary between provinces, depending mostly on guidance from the Environment Canada Canadian Wildlife Service and relevant provincial agencies. To ensure quality post-construction monitoring results in Atlantic Canada and other provinces, it is imperative that all Canadian provinces adopt similar approaches to those employed in Ontario. This paper reviews major causes of bird and bat mortalities; reviews Canadian federal and Ontario provincial bird and bat monitoring guidelines to elucidate gaps between environmental assessment (EA) theory and application; summarizes post-construction monitoring protocols from eight bird and bat post-construction monitoring programs used in Ontario; and, proposes recommendations to support future wind development opportunities across Canada and specifically in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The economic benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Hans; Koot, Jacqueline; Andres, Ellie

    2017-06-16

    The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of the population that meets or exceeds Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommendations regarding the number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables (F/V), to assess trends in this proportion between 2000 and 2013, to estimate the annual economic burden attributable to inadequate F/V consumption within the context of other important risk factors, and to estimate the short- and long-term costs that could be avoided if modest improvements were made to F/V consumption in Canada. We used a previously developed methodology based on population-attributable fractions and a prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach to estimate the economic burden associated with low F/V consumption. Over three quarters of Canadians are not meeting CFG recommendations regarding the number of daily servings of F/V, leading to an annual economic burden of $4.39 billion. If a 1% relative increase in F/V consumption occurred annually between 2013 and 2036, the cumulative reduction in economic burden over the 23-year period would reach $8.4 billion. Consumption levels of F/V, and the resulting economic burden, varied by sex, age and province. A significant majority of Canadians are not consuming the recommended daily servings of F/V, with important consequences to their health and the Canadian economy. Programs and policies are required to encourage F/V consumption in Canada.

  18. Value for money: an evaluation of health spending in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariste, Ruolz; Di Matteo, Livio

    2017-01-03

    The long-term increase in international health spending sparked concerns about sustainability of health care systems but also the impact of such spending and the value for money from health spending. The period since 1975 has witnessed an increase in per capita health spending in Canada along with improvements in health outcomes. This paper is an economic evaluation of health spending in Canada-an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of aggregate health spending. Estimates of the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) are made for the whole 1980-2012 period and for four sub-periods of time-1980-1989; 1989-1998; 1998-2007 and 2007-2012. This is done for both the general population as well as Canadian seniors. Under a medium contribution of health spending to life expectancy scenario for the 1980-2012 period, the costs per QALY gained averaged $16,977 and $14,968, respectively for the general population and the seniors. This suggests that the Canadian health system produces relatively good value for money, especially for the seniors. After applying separate adjustments to match total health spending in the US and NHS health spending in the UK, we found that costs per QALY gained in Canada were generally lower than those found for the US, but not for the UK.

  19. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Canada CRS-8 20 “Spend More On Military, U.S. Envoy Urges Ottawa.” Toronto Star. Feb. 25, 2004. 21 “Canada’s Flying Coffins .” Peter Newman...introduction of alien species of aquatic life may disturb the ecological balance and endanger fishing in Lake Winnipeg, into which the Red River empties...have been under review. The two countries have continued the long-standing debate over the ecological impact of possible development in Alaska’s

  20. The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Papp

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. across Canada. Generalized linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that risk of AIV infection was higher in hatch-year birds compared to adults, and was positively associated with a high proportion of hatch-year birds in the population. Males were more likely to be infected than females in British Columbia and in Eastern Provinces of Canada, but more complex relationships among age and sex cohorts were found in the Prairie Provinces. A species effect was apparent in Eastern Canada and British Columbia, where teal (A. discors and/or A. carolinensis were less likely to be infected than mallards (A. platyrhynchos. Risk of AIV infection increased with the density of the breeding population, in both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces, and lower temperatures preceding sampling were associated with a higher probability of AIV infection in Eastern Canada. Our results provide new insights into the ecological and demographic factors associated with AIV infection in waterfowl.