WorldWideScience

Sample records for canada goose population

  1. Cackling Canada goose nesting populations, Yukon Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Number of potential territories, number of cackling Canada Goose nests, and percent occupancy of available territories from CCG plots on the Yukon Delta National...

  2. Plan for Establishment of a Breeding Canada Goose Population on the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines a plan on how to implement a program for the establishment of a breeding Canada Goose population on the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. It...

  3. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food (urban grass) and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the 2004 and 2005 nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in 2004 and 286 in 2005, only raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were identified as nest predators. Raccoons were responsible for 22-25% of depredated nests, but were rarely capable of depredating nests that were actively defended by a goose. Coyotes were responsible for 75-78% of all Canada goose nest depredation and were documented killing one adult goose and feeding on several others. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyote home ranges (95% Minimum Convex Polygon) were calculated for 19 coyotes to examine third order habitat selection related to goose nest abundance. A 100 m buffer (buffer habitat) was created and centered on each waterway edge and contained 90% of all nests. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection across seasons was compared using a repeated measures MANOVA. Habitat selection

  4. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  5. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  6. Canada goose behavior: Fall 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese use four divisions of the Mark Twin NWR: Louisa, Delair, Cannon, and Calhoun. There was a shortage of cultivated crops, corn and soybeans, on all...

  7. Limitations On Canada Goose Production at Fish springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We studied the western Canada goose (B. c. moffitti) population at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in western Utah from March to July in 1996 and 1997 to...

  8. Critical habitat recommendations for the Aleutian Canada goose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following recommendations concern the designation of critical habitat on Federal lands in Alaska for the Endangered Species, Aleutian Canada goose (Branta...

  9. Pacific Flyway management plan for the dusky Canada goose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan for the dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) is a revision of earlier plans adopted by the Pacific Flyway Council (1973, 1985,...

  10. Limnological regime shifts caused by climate warming and Lesser Snow Goose population expansion in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A; Farquharson, Nicole; Merritt, Gillian; Fooks, Sam; Medeiros, Andrew S; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Macrae, Merrin L; Sweetman, Jon N

    2015-01-01

    Shallow lakes are dominant features in subarctic and Arctic landscapes and are responsive to multiple stressors, which can lead to rapid changes in limnological regimes with consequences for aquatic resources. We address this theme in the coastal tundra region of Wapusk National Park, western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada), where climate has warmed during the past century and the Lesser Snow Goose (LSG; Chen caerulescens caerulescens) population has grown rapidly during the past ∽40 years. Integration of limnological and paleolimnological analyses documents profound responses of productivity, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat to warming at three ponds (“WAP 12”, “WAP 20”, and “WAP 21″), and to LSG disturbance at the two ponds located in an active nesting area (WAP 20, WAP 21). Based on multiparameter analysis of 210Pb-dated sediment records from all three ponds, a regime shift occurred between 1875 and 1900 CE marked by a transition from low productivity, turbid, and nutrient-poor conditions of the Little Ice Age to conditions of higher productivity, lower nitrogen availability, and the development of benthic biofilm habitat as a result of climate warming. Beginning in the mid-1970s, sediment records from WAP 20 and WAP 21 reveal a second regime shift characterized by accelerated productivity and increased nitrogen availability. Coupled with 3 years of limnological data, results suggest that increased productivity at WAP 20 and WAP 21 led to atmospheric CO2 invasion to meet algal photosynthetic demand. This limnological regime shift is attributed to an increase in the supply of catchment-derived nutrients from the arrival of LSG and their subsequent disturbance to the landscape. Collectively, findings discriminate the consequences of warming and LSG disturbance on tundra ponds from which we identify a suite of sensitive limnological and paleolimnological measures that can be utilized to inform aquatic ecosystem monitoring. PMID:25750718

  11. Acute copper toxicosis in the Canada goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B M; Winterfield, R W

    1975-01-01

    Acute copper toxicosis resulted in Canada geese, Branta canadensis, following ingestion of copper sulfate at about 600mg/kg from a small man-made pond on a game farm. The lesions were those associated with copper toxicosis in other avian species. The primary pathologic change was necrosis and sloughing of the proventriculus and gizzard. A greenish discoloration of the lungs also occurred. PMID:1156262

  12. 76 FR 44604 - Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... National Park Service Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental... (NPS) announces the availability of the Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose... draft Plan/DEIS evaluates the impacts of several management alternatives that address managing...

  13. Summary of Cackling Canada goose nesting plot data for the 1984 Yukon Delta NWR Flyway report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Forty sample plots ranging in size from 81311 acres total:7041 acres were located throughout the Yukon Delta CacklingCanada Goose CCG nesting range in areas...

  14. 1990 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  15. 1991 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  16. 1989 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  17. 1992 Canada goose production study: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a goose production study at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of this study were; 1) determine the...

  18. Environmental Assessment : Proposed cooperative state-managed Canada Goose Hunting Program on the Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Assessment for the proposed Canada Goose Hunting Program on Ottawa NWR provides descriptions of the program and the environment, summarizes the...

  19. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  20. Biology of nesting Aleutian Canada goose, summer 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1974 and 1975 breeding Aleutian Canada geese, Branta canadensis leucopareia, were studied at Buldir Island, western Aleutian Islands. Buldir is the only known...

  1. Dulbi River goose survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) and Canada goose (Branta canadensis) broods was conducted on 58 3/8 miles of the Dulbi River in Alaska. Four...

  2. The status of goose populations in East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Lei; Fox, Anthony David; Koyama, K;

    contraction of its wintering range has continued, making it extremely vulnerable. The almost exclusively Chinese wintering range of the Swan Goose (A. cygnoides) has been constricted to fewer and fewer sites, but counts suggest more than the previously estimated 75,000 individuals. The Taiga Bean Goose (A...

  3. Strontium-90 in Canada goose eggshells: Nonfatal monitoring for contamination in wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    90Sr was measured in eggshells from Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) that nested on Columbia River islands up- and downstream from deactivated plutonium production reactors on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. We also measured 90Sr in wing bones of goose carcasses. Background levels of 90Sr were based on eggshells collected on an island upstream of the reactors. A few eggshells collected from nests on a single island downstream of the reactors had slightly higher than background levels of 90Sr. This may have resulted from geese eating shoreline plants or crops irrigated with Columbia River water that contained 90Sr released into the river through groundwater seepage

  4. Critique of the Ohio Division of Wildlife U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Cooperative, Managed Canada Goose Hunt on the Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Managed Canada Goose Hunt on Ottawa NWR. Regulations, hunter selection, and results are discussed. A blind analysis is provided. Law...

  5. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Waterfowl: Dusky Canada Goose Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Six subspecies of Canada geese Branta canadensis winter in and around the lower Columbia River Valley. While the overall populations of 5 of these subspecies are...

  6. Outbreak of avian cholera on the wintering grounds of the Mississippi Valley Canada goose flock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, R.M.; Duncan, R.M.; Thornburg, D.

    1983-01-01

    Avian cholera is reported for the first time in Canada geese, Branta canadensis, of the Mississippi Valley population. The disease was detected in weekly surveillance transects and was responsible for the loss of about 850 geese during the winter of 1978-1979 at localized areas in southern Illinois. Necropsies performed on 480 geese that died at Union County Conservation Area and on 133 birds at Horseshoe Lake Conservation Area during January and February 1979 revealed that the majority of losses (64%) were caused by avian cholera. Lead poisoning was responsible for the death of 14% of the geese analyzed and the remaining 22%, most of which were decomposed, were undiagnosed. Lethal lead levels and Pasteurella multocida occurred concomitantly in a few instances.

  7. The Great Basin Canada goose in southcentral Washington: A 40-year nesting history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Gray, R.H.

    1991-04-01

    Overall, the nesting population of Great Basin Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State is doing well and appears to be increasing. The average annual total nests for the period 1981 through 1990 was 215 nests, which is slightly above the average reported for the period 1950 through 1970. The nesting population has shifted its nucleus from upriver islands (1--10) to the lower river islands (11--20) with over 70% of the present-day nesting occurring on Islands 17, 18, 19, 20. The annual percent-successful nests from 1981 through 1990 was 80%. This is above the 71% reported for 1950 to 1970, but is below the 82% reported for 1971 to 1980. Average annual clutch size for 1981 to 1990 was 6.05, which is above the 1971-to-1980 average of 5.6 and the 1950-to-70 average of 5.5. Next desertions for 1981 to 1990 averaged 8%. This rate is well below the 14% reported for 1950 to 1970. Predators were responsible for an annual predation rate of 9% from 1981 to 1990. This is below the 1950-to-1970 annual average predation rate of 14%. Flooding losses to nests were low during the 1980s, except for 1989 and 1990 when 6% and 9% of the total nests, respectively, were destroyed by flooding. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Aleutian Canada goose survey, Alaid/Nizki, May 18-May 27, 1982: Trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wisehart 1976 is the most successful method for reintroducing Canada geese, and 2 handreared goslings instead of oneyear old or older were included in the release....

  9. An evaluation of productivity and mortality factors influencing goose populations: A summary report of the 1984 waterfowl monitoring effort at Yukon Delta NWR, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results on an effort in 1983 to determine whether spring mortality was affecting the security of goose populations nesting on the...

  10. Effects of Canada goose herbivory on the tidal freshwater wetlands in Anacostia Park, 2009-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Cairn C.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Hammerschlag, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivory has played a major role in dictating vegetation abundance and species composition at Kingman Marsh in Anacostia Park, Washington, D.C., since restoration of this tidal freshwater wetland was initiated in 2000. The diverse and robust vegetative cover that developed in the first year post-reconstruction experienced significant decimation in the second year, after the protective fencing was removed, and remained suppressed throughout the five-year study period. In June 2009 a herbivory study was initiated to document the impacts of herbivory by resident and nonmigratory Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to vegetation at Kingman Marsh. Sixteen modules consisting of paired fenced plots and unfenced control plots were constructed. Eight of the modules were installed in vegetated portions of the restoration site that had been protected over time by pre-existing fencing, while the remaining eight modules were placed in portions of the site that had not been protected over time and were basically unvegetated at the start of the experiment. Exclosure fencing was sufficiently elevated from the substrate level to allow access to other herbivores such as fish and turtles, while hopefully excluding mature Canada geese. The study was designed with an initial exclosure elevation of 20 cm. This elevation was chosen based on the literature, as adequate to exclude mature Canada geese, while maximizing access to other herbivores such as fish and turtles. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the differences between paired fenced and unfenced control plots for a number of variables including total vegetative cover. Differences in total vegetative cover were not statistically significant for the baseline data collected in June 2009. By contrast, two months after the old protective fencing was removed from the initially-vegetated areas to allow Canada geese access to the unfenced control plots, total vegetative cover had declined dramatically in the

  11. Ecology of Aleutian Canada geese at Buldir Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....

  12. Goose survey, Arkansas, December 15 - 19, 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A table presents data gathered during the goose survey in Arkansas. Numbers of Canada Geese, Whitefronted Geese, and BlueSnow Geese are included.

  13. Optimal control of Atlantic population Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, C.E.; Runge, M.C.; Cooch, E.G.; Johnson, F.A.; Harvey, W.F., IV

    2007-01-01

    Management of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) can be a balance between providing sustained harvest opportunity while not allowing populations to become overabundant and cause damage. In this paper, we focus on the Atlantic population of Canada geese and use stochastic dynamic programming to determine the optimal harvest strategy over a range of plausible models for population dynamics. There is evidence to suggest that the population exhibits significant age structure, and it is possible to reconstruct age structure from surveys. Consequently the harvest strategy is a function of the age composition, as well as the abundance, of the population. The objective is to maximize harvest while maintaining the number of breeding adults in the population between specified upper and lower limits. In addition, the total harvest capacity is limited and there is uncertainty about the strength of density-dependence. We find that under a density-independent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at the highest acceptable abundance. However if harvest capacity is limited, then the optimal long-term breeding population size is lower than the highest acceptable level, to reduce the risk of the population growing to an unacceptably large size. Under the proposed density-dependent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at an intermediate level between the bounds on acceptable population size; limits to harvest capacity have little effect on the optimal long-term population size. It is clear that the strength of density-dependence and constraints on harvest significantly affect the optimal harvest strategy for this population. Model discrimination might be achieved in the long term, while continuing to meet management goals, by adopting an adaptive management strategy.

  14. Population, distribution and ecology of Aleutian Canada geese on their migration and wintering areas, 1980-1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The migration and wintering ground study of the Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was continued again in California in 1980-81 from October 10...

  15. Population, distribution and ecology of Aleutian Canada geese on their migration and wintering areas, 1983-84

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 10th annual wintering ground study of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 22 October 1983 to 11 May 1984....

  16. 1991 progress report and 1989-1991 preliminary final report : Fergus Falls/Alexandria experimental September Canada goose hunt

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The number of resident Canada geese in the Fergus Falls/Alexandria vicinity has increased to a level that has created nuisance problems. The growth of this flock...

  17. Genetic markers for rapid PCR-based identification of gull, Canada goose, duck, and chicken fecal contamination in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Hyatt C; Dick, Linda K; Gilpin, Brent; Samadpour, Mansour; Field, Katharine G

    2012-01-01

    Avian feces contaminate waterways but contribute fewer human pathogens than human sources. Rapid identification and quantification of avian contamination would therefore be useful to prevent overestimation of human health risk. We used subtractive hybridization of PCR-amplified gull fecal 16S RNA genes to identify avian-specific fecal rRNA gene sequences. The subtracters were rRNA genes amplified from human, dog, cat, cow, and pig feces. Recovered sequences were related to Enterobacteriaceae (47%), Helicobacter (26%), Catellicoccus (11%), Fusobacterium (11%), and Campylobacter (5%). Three PCR assays, designated GFB, GFC, and GFD, were based on recovered sequence fragments. Quantitative PCR assays for GFC and GFD were developed using SYBR green. GFC detected down to 0.1 mg gull feces/100 ml (corresponding to 2 gull enterococci most probable number [MPN]/100 ml). GFD detected down to 0.1 mg chicken feces/100 ml (corresponding to 13 Escherichia coli MPN/100 ml). GFB and GFC were 97% and 94% specific to gulls, respectively. GFC cross-reacted with 35% of sheep samples but occurred at about 100,000 times lower concentrations in sheep. GFD was 100% avian specific and occurred in gulls, geese, chickens, and ducks. In the United States, Canada, and New Zealand, the three markers differed in their geographic distributions but were found across the range tested. These assays detected four important bird groups contributing to fecal contamination of waterways: gulls, geese, ducks, and chickens. Marker distributions across North America and in New Zealand suggest that they will have broad applicability in other parts of the world as well. PMID:22081573

  18. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  19. Estimating goose populations at Izembek Lagoon with airborne electronic imaging devices: 1991 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Accurate estimates of population size during nesting, migration, andwintering are important for management of waterfowl. For this reason,aerial counts of black...

  20. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Managed Goose Hunt, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides an introduction to the Canada Goose Hunting Program at Ottawa NWR. Federal and state regulations are summarized, and hunter selection and...

  1. Arkansas: 1986 all goose survey: December 14 - 18, 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A table presents data gathered during the goose survey in Arkansas. Numbers of Canada Geese, Whitefronted Geese, and Snow Geese are included.

  2. [Arkansas annual winter goose survey: December 10 & 11, 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A table presents data gathered during the goose survey in Arkansas. Numbers of Canada Geese, Whitefronted Geese, resident geese, and BlueSnow Geese are included.

  3. [Arkansas annual winter goose survey: December 11 - 15, 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A table presents data gathered during the goose survey in Arkansas. Numbers of Canada Geese, Whitefronted Geese, resident geese, and BlueSnow Geese are included.

  4. 1985 goose survey: December 9 - 13, 1985: Arkansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A table presents data gathered during the goose survey in Arkansas. Numbers of Canada Geese, Whitefronted Geese, and Snow Geese are included.

  5. 1982 goose survey: December 13 - 17, 1982: Arkansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A table presents data gathered during the goose survey in Arkansas. Numbers of Canada Geese, Whitefronted Geese, and Snow Geese are included.

  6. 1983 goose survey: December 12 - 16, 1983: Arkansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A table presents data gathered during the goose survey in Arkansas. Numbers of Canada Geese, Whitefronted Geese, and Snow Geese are included.

  7. Arkansas: 1986 all goose survey: December 8 - 12, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A table presents data gathered during the goose survey in Arkansas. Numbers of Canada Geese, Whitefronted Geese, and Snow Geese are included.

  8. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Population control of resident Canada... Populations § 21.61 Population control of resident Canada geese. (a) Which Canada geese are covered by this regulation? This regulation addresses the population control of resident Canada geese, as defined in §...

  9. Study of the breeding ecology and behaviour of the Svalbard population of light-bellied brent goose Branta bernicla hrota

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Jesper; Bregnballe, Thomas; Mehlum, Fridtjof

    1989-01-01

    Nesting ecology and behaviour of the Light-bellied Brent Goose was studied on Lurøya and adjacent islands in the Tusenoyane group, SE Svalbard, from 13 June to 30 July 1987. On Lurøya 38 pairs attempted to nest, and in the whole study area 98 pairs. Estimated median data of laying of first egg was 10 June, and median hatching date 7 July. Mean clutch size in the middle of the incubation period was 4.0 eggs. On Lurtfya nesting success was 25.7%, hatching success 28.6%, and hatchi...

  10. Overlap in diet and distribution of two goose species suggests potential for competition at a common moulting area in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Levermann, Nette; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Inter-specific competition can occur where two or more species overlap in diet and/or spatial distribution. Such interactions might be most prevalent where a species invades areas previously occupied by another species. In West Greenland, the number of native Greenland White-fronted Geese has...... activity budgets and spatial distribution were obtained from observations of behaviour, and diet selection was determined through analyses of plant epidermal fragments in faecal samples that were subsequently genotyped to goose species. No differences in diet or spatial distribution of the two species were...... may reflect population fluctuations for reasons other than the increased presence of the Canada Goose....

  11. South Asian populations in Canada: migration and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Tamim, Hala

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian populations are the largest visible minority group in Canada; however, there is very little information on the mental health of these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian first-generation immigrant and second-generation Canadian-born populations. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2011 was used to calculate the estimated prevalence rates of the follow...

  12. Comparing population health in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet Nathalie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the paper is to compare population health in the United States (US and Canada. Although the two countries are very similar in many ways, there are potentially important differences in the levels of social and economic inequality and the organization and financing of and access to health care in the two countries. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health 2002/03. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall health-related quality of life (HRQL. Mean HUI3 scores were compared, adjusting for major determinants of health, including body mass index, smoking, education, gender, race, and income. In addition, estimates of life expectancy were compared. Finally, mean HUI3 scores by age and gender and Canadian and US life tables were used to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE. Results Life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. For those Conclusions The population of Canada appears to be substantially healthier than the US population with respect to life expectancy, HRQL, and HALE. Factors that account for the difference may include access to health care over the full life span (universal health insurance and lower levels of social and economic inequality, especially among the elderly.

  13. An evaluation of productivity and mortality factors influencing goose populations: A status report of the 1984 waterfowl monitoring effort at Kigigak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of an arctic nesting goose study conducted on Kigigak Island as part of a Refugewide waterfowl monitoring program. The goals of...

  14. Distributional effects of `general population' prescription drug programs in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Sule Alan; Thomas Crossley; Paul Grootendorst; Michael Veall

    2005-01-01

    Canadian household prescription drug expenditures are studied using the Statistics Canada Family Expenditure Survey masterfiles for periods that include the introduction of provincial `general population' prescription drug programs. Budget shares for non-senior households are examined over time using non-parametric regression, parametric `difference-in-difference' techniques, and quantile regression methods. The evidence suggests that while program effects are muted when there are high deduct...

  15. Annual mid-December goose survey - December 14 - 18, 1981: Arkansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A table presents data gathered during the goose survey in Arkansas. Numbers of Canada Geese, Whitefronted Geese, and Snow Geese are included.

  16. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  17. Micro-PIXE studies of char populations in northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-PIXE analysis of trace elements in otoliths has been used as the basis for several projects on char, a fish that is important for aboriginal subsistence fisheries in Arctic Canada. Life-history patterns were originally inferred from micro-PIXE line scans of Sr distribution. These were confirmed by superposition of Sr distribution patterns on optical images of otoliths of tag-recaptured fish. Char from various populations showed differentiation in otolith primordial Sr concentration; this enables us to differentiate biological stocks and, it is hoped, eventually to assign individuals from mixed-stock fisheries to their stock of origin. Zn oscillations also correlate with annular structure and provide additional temporally constrained information on fish habitat and behaviour

  18. Nowitna NWR goose surveys, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Both aerial and river float goose surveys were conducted on the Nowitna NWR in 1988 to document migration chronology and peak numbers and to index production....

  19. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site – Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-05-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  20. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada ranks ninth in the world in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Canada currently releases 1.9 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of fossil fuels, production and treatment of oil and natural gas, and cement manufacturing. Canadian carbon dioxide emissions doubled between 1956 and 1986, growing at an average rate of about 2.4 percent per year. They reached a peak in 1979 and have since fluctuated within 10 percent of that amount. Despite the significant increase in emissions, Canada's share of global carbon dioxide emissions has declined slightly since 1956. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks fourth among nations in carbon dioxide emissions, with about 4.1 tons in 1986. This rate compares with the U.S. average of 5 tons per capita emissions have grown by about 25 percent since 1956. Canada, though a relatively small source of greenhouse gases, has been deeply involved in finding ways to reduce the risk of climatic change. The nation fortunately possesses opportunities to reduce this risk by saving energy, developing nonfossil energy resources, and facilitating international cooperation for capturing these opportunities worldwide

  1. Assessing the role of culture in Korean goose mothers' lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chiyoung; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    Korean women who migrate to a foreign country with their children for the latter's education while their husbands stay in Korea as breadwinners are referred to as "goose mothers." The cultural beliefs that have contributed to the formation of this family form and the experiences of these women need to be explored within their cultural context. To understand this population, Confucianism as a cultural background and its influence on goose mothers' value systems, family systems, and view of self were explored. Based on the learning, their potential health issues are described and implications for culturally competent care are suggested. PMID:22802299

  2. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear research and development in Canada started in the 1940s as a responsibility of the federal government. An engineering design team was established at Chalk River, Ontario, to carry out research on heavy water moderated lattices. A zero-energy heavy water moderated research reactor, ZEEP, was built and achieved criticality in September 1945; it was in fact the first human-made operating reactor outside the USA. In 1947, the 20 MW heavy water moderated national research experimental reactor (NRX) started up. It served as one of the most valuable research reactors in the world, and provided the basis for Canada's development of the very successful CANDU series of pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) for power generation. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) was established in 1952 as a federal Crown Corporation. It has both a public and a commercial mandate. AECL has overall responsibility for Canada's nuclear research and development programme (its public mandate) as well as for the Canadian reactor design (CANDU), engineering and marketing programme (its commercial mandate). Nuclear energy in Canada is a $5 billion per-year industry, representing about 150 firms, 21 000 direct jobs and 10 000 indirect jobs, and ∼$1.2 billion in exports - the value to the country's economy is much higher than the research and development funding provided by the federal government. The CANDU nuclear reactor system was developed by AECL in close collaboration with the Canadian nuclear industry, and in particular with Ontario Hydro (now Ontario Power Generation). Currently, Canada operates 17 CANDU reactors, which contribute 16% of the country's current electricity consumption. There are also 12 CANDU reactors operating abroad (in Argentina, China, India, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Romania). AECL is now developing the 'third generation plus' Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000), and also has the leading role internationally in developing the Generation IV

  3. Invasive herbivory: resident Canada geese and the decline of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    While concern grows over the increasing numbers of exotic mute swans (Cygnus olor) on the Chesapeake Bay, less attention seems to be given to the highly familiar and native Canada goose (Branta canadensis) which has over time developed unprecedented nonmigratory, or resident, populations. Although nuisance flocks of Canada geese have been well advertised at city parks, athletic fields, and golf courses over the past three decades, recent expansion of populations to an estimated one million birds in the Atlantic Flyway, and to over 100,000 in Maryland, carries a threat of broader ecological consequences.

  4. Polar bear population status in southern Hudson Bay, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, Martyn E.; McDonald, Trent L.; Howe, Eric J.; Regehr, Eric V.; Richardson, Evan S.

    2007-01-01

    The Southern Hudson Bay (SH) population of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) resides in a seasonal sea ice environment and is the most southerly population in the species’ range. Therefore, SH polar bears may be among the first to show negative effects associated with climate warming and consequent loss of sea ice. Polar bears in the neighboring Western Hudson Bay (WH) population have declined significantly in body condition since the mid-1980s, and a recent study indicated that the size of the WH population declined by about 22% between 1987 and 2004. Similarly, SH bears have shown a significant decline in body condition since the mid-1980s, and an assessment of the current status of the SH population was therefore needed. We applied open population capture-recapture models to data collected from 1984-86 and 1999- 2005 to estimate population size and survival. The size of the SH population appears to be unchanged from the mid-1980s (1984-1986: 641, 95% CI = 401, 881) vs. 2003-2005: 681 (95% CI = 401, 961). Point estimates of survival for subadults and adult females were 94% (95% CI = 68%, 100%) in 1984-1985 to 89% (95% CI = 79%, 99%) in 2003-2005, but imprecision exhibited by overlap of the confidence intervals prevented us from unequivocally concluding that this 5% decline in survival was not a chance occurrence. Similarly, a decline of 7% in survival was estimated for subadult and adult males over the same time period (male survival estimates = 88% (95% CI = 77%, 100%) in 1984-1985; 81% (95% CI = 66%, 96%), but again we could not unequivocally conclude that this decline was not chance. There was weak evidence of lower survival of cubs, yearlings, and senescent adults in the recent time period. This, combined with the evidence of significant declines in body condition for all age and sex classes, which were greatest for pregnant females and subadults, suggests this population may be under increased stress at this time. However, we did not find any clear

  5. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  6. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison Howard; Gibbons Laurie; Zhou Jia; Pan Sai Yi; Wen Shi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal) and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk fact...

  7. Comparison of breast cancer survival in two populations: Ardabil, Iran and British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Babaei Masoud; Nouraie Mehdi; Ghorbani Anahita; Bashash Morteza; Bajdik Chris; Hislop T Gregory; Sadjadi Alireza; Malekzadeh Reza; Yavari Parvin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Patterns in survival can provide information about the burden and severity of cancer, help uncover gaps in systemic policy and program delivery, and support the planning of enhanced cancer control systems. The aim of this paper is to describe the one-year survival rates for breast cancer in two populations using population-based cancer registries: Ardabil, Iran, and British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods All newly diagnosed cases of female breast cancer were identified in ...

  8. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  9. A report on the Agassiz flock of Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the history of Canada goose production by the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) flock from 1955 to 1964. Attached is a nesting structure...

  10. Goose`s eggshell strength at compressive loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of the goose eggs behaviour under compressive loading between two plates using testing device TIRATEST. The influences of the loading orientation as well as the effect of compressive velocity are studied. 226 eggs from Landes geese were chosen for the experiment. Eggs have been loaded between their poles and in the equator plane. Five different compressive velocities (0.0167, 0.167, 0.334, 1.67 and 5 mm.s-1 were used. The increase in rupture force with loading rate was observed for loading in all direction (along main axes. Dependence of the rupture force on loading rate was quantifies and described. The highest rupture force was obtained when the eggs were loaded along their axes of symmetry (X-axis. Compression in the equator plane (along the Z-axis required the least compressive force to break the eggshells. The eggshell strength was described by the rupture force, specific rupture deformation and by the absorbed energy. The rupture force is highly dependent on compression speeds. The dependence of the rupture force on the compression velocity can be described by a power function. The same is valid for the rate dependence of the energy absorbed by the egg up to the fracture. The rate sensitivity of the Goose's eggshells strength is significantly higher than that reported for the hen's eggs

  11. National recovery strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, boreal population, in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Hervieux

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery planning for the boreal population of woodland caribou is a complex task, spanning eight Canadian provinces and territories. To accommodate unique situations across the country, recovery planning for this Species at Risk Act-listed threatened species is occurring at both provincial/ territorial and national levels. The national recovery strategy strives to identify nationally important issues and provide direction for provinces and territories as they plan and implement boreal caribou recovery within their jurisdictions. The national vision is to conserve and recover boreal caribou and their habitat across Canada. Specific goals are to: 1 Prevent extirpation of local boreal caribou populations from all existing caribou ranges; and 2 Maintain or enhance local boreal caribou populations at or to self-sustaining levels within all existing caribou ranges; and 3 Maintain or enhance boreal caribou habitat to support self-sustaining local populations. Nineteen broad national approaches are identified. These approaches include items relating to: habitat planning and management, caribou population monitoring and management, management of human-caused mortality, management of other wildlife species, consideration of government legislation and policy,promotion of stewardship and public outreach, and research. Specific outcomes are provided for each stated recovery approach. For more information on Canada's national recovery strategy for the boreal population of woodland caribou please see www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/recovery/default_e.cfm

  12. Canadian support for population stabilization. The Rome draft Plan of Action. Dr. Jean Augustine, MP (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Canada strongly believes in the central role to be played by the civil sector in the process leading to the World Food Summit. Dr. Augustine, Member of Parliament of Canada, described how the Canadian Government involved 350 national organizations over an eight-month period in the creation of the country's official position on food security. Canada has also negotiated with several other countries and international organizations on issues such as trade, human rights, the right to food, and follow-up to the Plan of Action. Dr. Augustine summarized Canada's 18 priorities for the World Food Summit. The priorities include human rights and good governance; poverty reduction; peace, security and conflict resolution; national responsibility for food security; national and global partnerships; nutrition and health; human resource development; gender equity; population stabilization; trade liberalization; agricultural adjustment to international markets; post-harvest marketing and food marketing; the role of the private sector; capacity building; environment and sustainable production; and research and technology transfer. PMID:12292041

  13. Goose Necropsy Report - Tallahatche NWR 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains USGS Wildlife Health Lab Report of snow goose mortalities adjacent to Tallahatchie NWR. Cause of death of 2 submitted animals was not attributed to...

  14. Goose Eggs Could Save Polar Bears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑敏

    2009-01-01

    Polar bears could avoid extinction despitemany starving to death in coming years, ac-cording to scientists and other observers whohave discovered that some of the bears havefound a new food source--goose and duckeggs.

  15. An Evaluation of the Pearsonian Type I Curve of Fertility for Aboriginal Populations in Canada, 1996 to 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Ravi B.P.; Loh, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    EnglishIn 2005, Statistics Canada published new projections of the Aboriginal populations (NorthAmerican Indians, Métis, and Inuit) in Canada, the provinces and territories from 2001 to2017. To derive the number of births in these projections, the age-specific fertility rates weresimulated by fitting the Pearsonian Type I curve using the projected fertility parameters: totalfertility rates, mean ages of fertility, and modal ages of fertility. For the base period 1996 to2001, the parameters we...

  16. 1986 Koyukuk NWR goose survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey to determine the number of whitefronted geese Anser albifrons and Canada geese Branta canadensis within the boundaries of the Koyukuk NWR was conducted...

  17. 1986 Dulbi Slough goose survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of whitefronted geese Anser albifrons and Canada geese Branta canadensis was conducted on 69.0 miles of Dulbi Slough in Alaska. Seven hundred and eighty...

  18. Diversity and convergence of population aging: evidence from China and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Légaré, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishTaking the diversity and the convergence of demographic transitions intoconsideration, it is hypothesized that population aging that occurs in developed countries anddeveloping countries will reflect diversity, but will also show some convergence. In order to testthis hypothesis, the present study compares the population aging experiences of China (1971-2050 andCanada (1911-2050 and places them within the context of the demographic transition. In this paper welearn how, as population ages, these two countries will, through two distinct pathways, arrive atsimilar age structures by the middle of the 21st century. Both the diversity and the convergence ofpopulation aging are shown in this comparative study.FrenchEn constatant la diversité et la convergence des transitions démographiques,nous faisons l'hypothèse que le processus du vieillissement démographiquecomporte également une certaine diversité et montrera une convergence, enparticulier, entre les pays développés et les pays en développement. Afin devérifier cette hypothèse, la présente étude compare les vieillissementsdémographiques en Chine (1971-2050 et au Canada (1911-2050, en lesmettant dans le contexte de la transition démographique. Cet article montre qu’àmesure que vieillit la population, comment ces deux pays arriveront par deuxvoies distinctes à une structure par âge similaire au milieu du XXIème siècle. Ladiversité et la convergence du vieillissement sont toutes deux illustrées danscette étude comparative.

  19. GOOSE: semantic search on internet connected sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Klamer; Bomhof, Freek; Burghouts, Gertjan; van Diggelen, Jurriaan; Hiemstra, Peter; van't Hof, Jaap; Kraaij, Wessel; Pasman, Huib; Smith, Arthur; Versloot, Corne; de Wit, Joost

    2013-05-01

    More and more sensors are getting Internet connected. Examples are cameras on cell phones, CCTV cameras for traffic control as well as dedicated security and defense sensor systems. Due to the steadily increasing data volume, human exploitation of all this sensor data is impossible for effective mission execution. Smart access to all sensor data acts as enabler for questions such as "Is there a person behind this building" or "Alert me when a vehicle approaches". The GOOSE concept has the ambition to provide the capability to search semantically for any relevant information within "all" (including imaging) sensor streams in the entire Internet of sensors. This is similar to the capability provided by presently available Internet search engines which enable the retrieval of information on "all" web pages on the Internet. In line with current Internet search engines any indexing services shall be utilized cross-domain. The two main challenge for GOOSE is the Semantic Gap and Scalability. The GOOSE architecture consists of five elements: (1) an online extraction of primitives on each sensor stream; (2) an indexing and search mechanism for these primitives; (3) a ontology based semantic matching module; (4) a top-down hypothesis verification mechanism and (5) a controlling man-machine interface. This paper reports on the initial GOOSE demonstrator, which consists of the MES multimedia analysis platform and the CORTEX action recognition module. It also provides an outlook into future GOOSE development.

  20. The morphological development of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of the migratory barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishop, CM; Butler, PJ; ElHaj, AJ; Egginton, S; Loonen, MJJE

    1996-01-01

    The masses of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of wild barnacle goose goslings, from a migratory population, were examined systematically during development and their values compared to those of pre-migratory geese. Pre-flight development was typified by approximately linear increases of body, leg,

  1. Aboriginal population of Canada: growth dynamics under conditions of encounter of civilisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuc, Anatole

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper endeavours to capture the broad configuration of demographicevolution of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada from the early contacts with Europeans to the present.The main stages thereof are identified and the underlying factors explored, against the historicalbackground of Aboriginal and European civilisations' encounter. While taking stock of the past, thepaper takes a glimpse into the future. It concludes with a review of demographically-driven policyissues that the First Nations are likely to confront as they step into the 21st Century.FrenchL'article vise à saisir les contours les plus significatifs de l'évolutiondémographique des populations autochtones depuis l'ouverture du Canada à lacolonisation européenne. Les principales étapes sont identifiées et les facteurssous-jacents explorés, dans la perspective des contacts des civilisationseuropéenne et autochtone. Tout en retraçant le passé, l'auteur jette un regard surl'avenir. L'exposé conclut avec un aperçu des questions politiques, engendréespar le développement démographique, que les premières nations de ce payspourraient être amenées à affronter à l'horizon du 21e siècle.

  2. Health Canada's approach to manage risks to populations at risk during a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach that Health Canada uses to manage risks to individuals and to populations who might be exposed to ionising radiation is based upon the risk management paradigm. The paradigm differs little between an emergency and a non-emergency situations. In both events, technical experts assess the risk by determining the exposure to the source of radiation. They usually calculate the radiation dose and then assess the potential for any health effects. The initial technical assessments often use scoping calculations. The calculations for children recognise that they are smaller and have different metabolic rates and different behaviour from adults. However, most rigorous quantitative models for dosimetry do not differentiate between children and adults. The risk assessments that were conducted to evaluate the contamination of Canadians who were in London during the Litvenenko poisoning are a good example to illustrate this general approach. The scoping risk assessment concluded that the risks to children and adults were low. No Canadian children were exposed to polonium during this event and, to date, there have been no radiation emergencies in Canada where children have been exposed to a significant source of radiation. Therefore, the comparisons between theory and practice are very limited and conclusions are drawn from international experience and other incidents or sources of radiation exposure such as radon and medical exposures. Published by Oxford Univ. Press on behalf of the Canadian Government. (authors)

  3. A harvest management strategy for Canada geese in the western Mississippi Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) harvest in the Mississippi Flyway became increasingly complex during the 1980s. A strategy for managing harvest was...

  4. Nature appropriation and associations with population health in Canada's largest cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainham, Daniel; Cantwell, Rory; Jason, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    Earth is a finite system with a limited supply of resources. As the human population grows, so does the appropriation of Earth's natural capital, thereby exacerbating environmental concerns such as biodiversity loss, increased pollution, deforestation and global warming. Such concerns will negatively impact human health although it is widely believed that improving socio-economic circumstances will help to ameliorate environmental impacts and improve health outcomes. However, this belief does not explicitly acknowledge the fact that improvements in socio-economic position are reliant on increased inputs from nature. Gains in population health, particularly through economic means, are disconnected from the appropriation of nature to create wealth so that health gains become unsustainable. The current study investigated the sustainability of human population health in Canada with regard to resource consumption or "ecological footprints" (i.e., the resources required to sustain a given population). Ecological footprints of the 20 largest Canadian cities, along with several important determinants of health such as income and education, were statistically compared with corresponding indicators of human population health outcomes. A significant positive relationship was found between ecological footprints and life expectancy, as well as a significant negative relationship between ecological footprints and the prevalence of high blood pressure. Results suggest that increased appropriation of nature is linked to improved health outcomes. To prevent environmental degradation from excessive appropriation of natural resources will require the development of health promotion strategies that are de-coupled from ever-increasing and unsustainable resource use. Efforts to promote population health should focus on health benefits achieved from a lifestyle based on significantly reduced consumption of natural resources. PMID:23531492

  5. Population Assessment of an Endangered Shorebird: the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus melodus in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Amirault

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Small, at-risk populations are those for which accurate demographic information is most crucial to conservation and recovery, but also where data collection is constrained by logistical challenges and small sample sizes. Migratory animals in particular may experience a wide range of threats to survival and reproduction throughout each annual cycle, and identification of life stages most critical to persistence may be especially difficult for these populations. The endangered eastern Canadian breeding population of Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus melodus was estimated at only 444 adults in 2005, and extensive effort has been invested in conservation activities, reproductive monitoring, and marking of individual birds, providing a comprehensive data set on population dynamics since 1998. We used these data to build a matrix projection model for two Piping Plover population segments that nest in eastern Canada in order to estimate both deterministic and stochastic rates of population growth (λd and λs, respectively. Annual population censuses suggested moderate growth in abundance between 1998–2003, but vital rate estimates indicated that this temporary growth may be replaced by declines in the long term, both in southern Nova Scotia (λd = 1.0043, λs = 0.9263 and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (λd = 0.9651, λs = 0.8214. Nonetheless, confidence intervals on λ estimates were relatively wide, highlighting remaining uncertainty in future population trajectories. Differences in projected growth between regions appear to be driven by low estimated juvenile post-fledging survival in the Gulf, but threats to juveniles of both population segments following departure from nesting beaches remain unidentified. Similarly, λ in both population segments was particularly sensitive to changes in adult survival as expected for most migratory birds, but very little is understood about the threats to Piping Plover survival during migration and overwintering

  6. 1985 Koyukuk NWR goose survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey of whitefronted geese and Canada geese within Koyukuk NWR and Kayiuh Flat Unit, Innoko NWR, July 16August 8, 1985, counting 5,857 plusminus 3,127 adult and...

  7. Using temporary dye marks to estimate ungulate population abundance in southwest Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy M. Hegel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the protocols of two mark-resight abundance surveys, using temporary dye-marks, for the Aishihik woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae populations (herds in the southwest Yukon Territory, Canada. We also provide recommendations based on experiences from these surveys for biologists and managers considering this approach. The Aishihik woodland caribou herd was the focus of intensive management in the 1990s aimed at recovering the herd. Following recovery activities, a target size of 2000 animals was determined and the Champagne-Aishihik Traditional Territory Community-Based Wildlife Management Plan recommended an estimate of the herd’s size be completed before the year 2013. We used an aerial mark-resight approach to estimate the herd’s size in March 2009. Caribou (n = 59 were marked from a helicopter with temporary dye, delivered via a CO2-powered rifle. Two independent resighting sessions were subsequently carried out via helicopter. The herd was estimated at 2044 animals (90% CI: 1768 – 2420 with an overall resighting rate of 0.47. The mean annual growth rate (λ of the herd from 1997 – 2009 was 1.05 (SE = 0.01. The Aishihik wood bison herd was estimated at 1151 (90% CI: 998 – 1355. Our study suggests that ungulates temporarily marked with dye can be successfully used to obtain statistically sound population estimates.

  8. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada.Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001, binge drinking (P < 0.001, obesity (P < 0.001 and diabetes (P < 0.001, and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029, and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001. Sex differences were also

  9. 50 CFR 21.26 - Special Canada goose permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., conditions contained in 50 CFR part 13, and conditions specified in paragraph (d) of this section. (c) How... are subject to the general conditions in 50 CFR part 13, the conditions elsewhere in this section, and..., but are not limited to, firearms, alpha-chloralose, traps, egg and nest manipulation and other...

  10. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

    1987-11-01

    Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

  11. Creating National Air Pollution Models for Population Exposure Assessment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setton, Eleanor; Cervantes, Alejandro; Poplawski, Karla; Deschenes, Steeve; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lamsal, Lok; Martin, Randall; Jerrett, Michael; Demers, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: Population exposure assessment methods that capture local-scale pollutant variability are needed for large-scale epidemiological studies and surveillance, policy, and regulatory purposes. Currently, such exposure methods are limited. Methods: We created 2006 national pollutant models for fine particulate matter [PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)], nitrogen dioxide (NO2), benzene, ethylbenzene, and 1,3-butadiene from routinely collected fixed-site monitoring data in Canada. In multiple regression models, we incorporated satellite estimates and geographic predictor variables to capture background and regional pollutant variation and used deterministic gradients to capture local-scale variation. The national NO2 and benzene models are evaluated with independent measurements from previous land use regression models that were conducted in seven Canadian cities. National models are applied to census block-face points, each of which represents the location of approximately 89 individuals, to produce estimates of population exposure. Results: The national NO2 model explained 73% of the variability in fixed-site monitor concentrations, PM2.5 46%, benzene 62%, ethylbenzene 67%, and 1,3-butadiene 68%. The NO2 model predicted, on average, 43% of the within-city variability in the independent NO2 data compared with 18% when using inverse distance weighting of fixed-site monitoring data. Benzene models performed poorly in predicting within-city benzene variability. Based on our national models, we estimated Canadian ambient annual average population-weighted exposures (in micrograms per cubic meter) of 8.39 for PM2.5, 23.37 for NO2, 1.04 for benzene, 0.63 for ethylbenzene, and 0.09 for 1,3-butadiene. Conclusions: The national pollutant models created here improve exposure assessment compared with traditional monitor-based approaches by capturing both regional and local-scale pollution variation. Applying national models to routinely collected

  12. Variations in the Life Cycle of Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in Wild Populations of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kricsfalusy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of a perennial herb Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in a variety of natural habitats in Saskatchewan, Canada, eight life stages (seed, seedling, juvenile, immature, vegetative, generative, subsenile, and senile are distinguished and characterized in detail. The species ontogenetic growth patterns are investigated. A. patens has a long life cycle that may last for several decades which leads to the formation of compact clumps. The distribution and age of clumps vary substantially in different environments with different levels of disturbance. The plant ontogeny includes the regular cycle with reproduction occurring through seeds. There is an optional subsenile vegetative disintegration at the end of the life span. The following variations in the life cycle of A. patens are identified: with slower development in young age, with an accelerated development, with omission of the generative stage, with retrogression to previous life stages in mature age, and with vegetative dormancy. The range of variations in the life cycle of A. patens may play an important role in maintaining population stability in different environmental conditions and management regimes.

  13. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  14. Can hunting of translocated nuisance Canada geese reduce local conflicts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevinski, R.A.; Malecki, R.A.; Curtis, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis) nest or reside in the temperate latitudes of North America. In past years, translocation-the capture and subsequent release of geese at distant locations-has been used to establish resident goose populations and to reduce nuisance problems. However, with new special hunting seasons designed to target resident Canada geese, we can now evaluate translocation as a management tool when hunting is allowed at release sites. We selected 2 study sites, representative of urban and suburban locations with nuisance resident geese, in central and western New York, USA. In June 2003, we translocated 80 neck-banded adult geese, 14 radiomarked adult females, and 83 juveniles 150 km east and southwest from urban and suburban problem sites in western New York to state-owned Wildlife Management Areas. At these same capture sites, we used 151 neck-banded adult geese, 12 radiomarked females, and 100 juveniles as controls to compare dispersal movements and harvest vulnerability to translocated geese. All observations (n = 45) of translocated radiomarked geese were hunting was permitted. Only 25 of 538 observations (4.6%) of radiomarked geese at control sites were in areas open to hunting. The remainder of observations occurred at nonhunting locations within 10 km of control sites. More translocated adult geese (23.8%) were harvested than control geese (6.6%; ??2 = 72.98, P = 0.0009). More translocated juvenile geese were harvested (22.9%) than juvenile controls (5.0%; ??2 = 72.30, P = 0.0005). Only 7 (8.8%) translocated adult geese returned to the original capture sites during Canada goose hunting seasons. Translocation of adult and juvenile geese in family groups may alleviate nuisance problems at conflict sites through increased harvest, reducing the number of birds returning in subsequent years.

  15. The CMS Higgs Boson Goose Game

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallo, Francesca Romana

    2015-01-01

    Building and operating the CMS Detector is a complicated endeavour! Now, more than 20 years after the detector was conceived, the CMS Bologna group proposes to follow the steps of this challenging project by playing The Higgs Boson Goose Game, illustrating CMS activities and goals.The concept of the game is inspired by the traditional Game of the Goose. The underlying idea is that the progress of building and operating a detector at the LHC is similar to the progress of the pawns on the game board it is fast at times, bringing rewards and satisfaction, while sometimes unexpected problems cause delays or even a step back requiring CMS scientists to use all of their skill and creativity to devise new solutions.

  16. The CMS "Higgs Boson Goose Game" Poster

    CERN Multimedia

    Davis, Siona Ruth

    Building and operating the CMS Detector is a complicated endeavour! Now, more than 20 years after the detector was conceived, the CMS Bologna group proposes to follow the steps of this challenging project by playing "The Higgs Boson Goose Game", illustrating CMS activities and goals. The concept of the game is inspired by the traditional "Game of the Goose". The underlying idea is that the progress of building and operating a detector at the LHC is similar to the progress of the pawns on the game board: it is fast at times, bringing rewards and satisfaction, while sometimes unexpected problems cause delays or even a step back requiring CMS scientists to use all of their skill and creativity to devise new solutions.

  17. TO WHAT EXTENT CAN ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTS BE ATTRIBUTED TO VIOLENCE EXPOSURE? A POPULATION-BASED STUDY FROM WESTERN CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Chen, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in Canada and globally. The purpose of our study was to calculate what proportion of adolescent suicide attempts could be prevented in the absence of verbal, physical and sexual violence. Using the province-wide 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (N=29,315) we calculated population-attributable fractions for each type of violence, as well as exposure to any violence, separately by gender, among adolescents age 12–19. W...

  18. Inter-temporal and Inter-Industry Effects of Population Ageing: A General Equilibrium Assessment for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Annabi, Nabil; Fougère, Maxime; Harvey, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the inter-industry and labour market occupational effects of population ageing in Canada, using a computable general equilibrium overlapping-generations model. The model is calibrated along a balanced-growth path, taking into account labour-augmenting (Harrod-neutral) technical progress. It also accounts for heterogeneity at the household level, using 25 occupation-specific earnings profiles. In addition to the impact of slower labour force growth, th...

  19. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shiv Kumar; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Kwok, Oliver C H; Dudley, Mike; Jiang, Tiantian; Su, Chunlei; Hill, Dolores; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-05-01

    Wild birds are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis because they can serve as reservoir hosts, and vectors of zoonotic pathogens including Toxoplasma gondii. Canada goose (Branta canadensis) is the most widespread geese in North America. Little is known concerning T. gondii infection in both migratory, and local resident populations of Canada geese. Here, we evaluated the seroprevalence, isolation, and genetic characterization of viable T. gondii isolates from a migratory population of Canada geese. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 12 of 169 Canada geese using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25). The hearts of 12 seropositive geese were bioassayed in mice for isolation of T. gondii. Viable parasites were isolated from eight. One isolate was obtained from a seropositive goose by both bioassays in mice, and in a cat; the cat fed infected heart excreted T. gondii oocysts. Additionally, one isolate was obtained from a pool of four seronegative (<1:25) geese by bioassay in a cat. The T. gondii isolates were further propagated in cell culture, and DNA extracted from cell culture-derived tachyzoites were characterized using 10 polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) genetic markers (SAG1, 5' and 3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). The results revealed five different genotypes. ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1 (type II) in one isolate, genotype #2 (type III) in four isolates, genotype #4 in two isolates, and two new genotypes (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #266 in one isolate and #267 in one isolate) were identified. These results indicate genetic diversity of T. gondii strains in the Canada geese, and this migratory bird might provide a mechanism of T. gondii transmission at great distances from where an infection was acquired. PMID:26796021

  20. An Evaluation of the Pearsonian Type I Curve of Fertility for Aboriginal Populations in Canada, 1996 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma, Ravi B.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishIn 2005, Statistics Canada published new projections of the Aboriginal populations (NorthAmerican Indians, Métis, and Inuit in Canada, the provinces and territories from 2001 to2017. To derive the number of births in these projections, the age-specific fertility rates weresimulated by fitting the Pearsonian Type I curve using the projected fertility parameters: totalfertility rates, mean ages of fertility, and modal ages of fertility. For the base period 1996 to2001, the parameters were estimated from the age-specific fertility rates derived from the 2001Census, using the “own-children method.” This paper evaluates the goodness of fit betweenthe age-specific fertility rates developed by the Type I curve and the estimated age-specificfertility rates for Aboriginal identity groups for the period 1996 to 2001 for Canada and forhigh and low fertility regions. Tests of validity of the Type I curve indicate that this method isappropriate for estimating/projecting the number of births for the Aboriginal populations.Key Words: Aboriginal populations, North American Indians, Métis, Inuit, own-childrenmethod, Pearsonian type I curve.FrenchEn 2005, Statistique Canada publiait de nouvelles projections des populations autochtones(Indiens de l’Amérique du Nord, Métis et Inuit au Canada, les provinces et les territoires de2001 à 2017. Afin de calculer le nombre de naissances dans ces projections, les taux de féconditépar âge ont été simulés en ajustant la courbe de Type I de Pearson selon les paramètresde fécondité projetés: l’indice synthétique de fécondité, l’âge moyen à l’accouchement et l’âgemodal à l’accouchement. Pour la période de base de 1996 à 2001, ces paramètres ont étéestimés selon les taux de fécondité par âge générés par la méthode du « décompte des enfantsau foyer » avec les données des enfants âgés de 0 à 4 ans et les femmes dans le groupe d’âgede 15 à 49 ans provenant du

  1. GOOSE: Semantic search on Internet connected sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Schutte, K.; Bomhof, F.W.; Burghouts, G.J.; Diggelen, J. van; Hiemstra, P.; Hof, J. van 't; Kraaij, W.; Pasman, K.H.W.; Smith, A.J.E.; Versloot, C.A.; Wit, J.J. de

    2013-01-01

    More and more sensors are getting Internet connected. Examples are cameras on cell phones, CCTV cameras for traffic control as well as dedicated security and defense sensor systems. Due to the steadily increasing data volume, human exploitation of all this sensor data is impossible for effective mission execution. Smart access to all sensor data acts as enabler for questions such as “Is there a person behind this building” or “Alert me when a vehicle approaches”. The GOOSE concept has the amb...

  2. Aboriginal population of Canada: growth dynamics under conditions of encounter of civilisations

    OpenAIRE

    Romaniuc, Anatole

    2003-01-01

    EnglishThis paper endeavours to capture the broad configuration of demographicevolution of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada from the early contacts with Europeans to the present.The main stages thereof are identified and the underlying factors explored, against the historicalbackground of Aboriginal and European civilisations' encounter. While taking stock of the past, thepaper takes a glimpse into the future. It concludes with a review of demographically-driven policyissues that the First Na...

  3. Estimation of Coast-Wide Population Trends of Marbled Murrelets in Canada Using a Bayesian Hierarchical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Douglas F; Drever, Mark C; McAllister, Murdoch K; Schroeder, Bernard K; Lindsay, David J; Faust, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Species at risk with secretive breeding behaviours, low densities, and wide geographic range pose a significant challenge to conservation actions because population trends are difficult to detect. Such is the case with the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), a seabird listed as 'Threatened' by the Species at Risk Act in Canada largely due to the loss of its old growth forest nesting habitat. We report the first estimates of population trend of Marbled Murrelets in Canada derived from a monitoring program that uses marine radar to detect birds as they enter forest watersheds during 923 dawn surveys at 58 radar monitoring stations within the six Marbled Murrelet Conservation Regions on coastal British Columbia, Canada, 1996-2013. Temporal trends in radar counts were analyzed with a hierarchical Bayesian multivariate modeling approach that controlled for variation in tilt of the radar unit and day of year, included year-specific deviations from the overall trend ('year effects'), and allowed for trends to be estimated at three spatial scales. A negative overall trend of -1.6%/yr (95% credibility interval: -3.2%, 0.01%) indicated moderate evidence for a coast-wide decline, although trends varied strongly among the six conservation regions. Negative annual trends were detected in East Vancouver Island (-9%/yr) and South Mainland Coast (-3%/yr) Conservation Regions. Over a quarter of the year effects were significantly different from zero, and the estimated standard deviation in common-shared year effects between sites within each region was about 50% per year. This large common-shared interannual variation in counts may have been caused by regional movements of birds related to changes in marine conditions that affect the availability of prey. PMID:26258803

  4. Sampling 'hard-to-reach' populations in health research: yield from a study targeting Americans living in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noseworthy Tom W

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some populations targeted in survey research can be hard to reach, either because of lack of contact information, or non-existent databases to inform sampling. Here, we present a methodological "case-report" of the yield of a multi-step survey study assessing views on health care among American emigres to Canada, a hard-to-reach population. Methods To sample this hard-to-reach population, we held a live media conference, supplemented by a nation-wide media release announcing the study. We prepared an 'op-ed' piece describing the study and how to participate. We paid for advertisements in 6 newspapers. We sent the survey information to targeted organizations. And lastly, we asked those who completed the web survey to send the information to others. We use descriptive statistics to document the method's yield. Results The combined media strategies led to 4 television news interviews, 10 newspaper stories, 1 editorial and 2 radio interviews. 458 unique individuals accessed the on-line survey, among whom 310 eligible subjects provided responses to the key study questions. Fifty-six percent reported that they became aware of the survey via media outlets, 26% by word of mouth, and 9% through both the media and word of mouth. Conclusion Our multi-step communication method yielded a sufficient sample of Americans living in Canada. This combination of paid and unpaid media exposure can be considered by others as a unique methodological approach to identifying and sampling hard-to-reach populations.

  5. Migratory bird national resource plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management plans for regional and subspecific populations of Tundra Swans, Trumpeter Swans, White-fronted Goose, Snow Goose, Brant, Canada Goose, Wood Duck, Black...

  6. Changing distribution and abundance of Swan Goose Anser cygnoides in the Yangtze River floodplain: the likely loss of a very important wintering site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Cao, L.; Barter, M.; Fox, A.D.; Zhao, M.; Meng, F.; Shi, H.; Jiang, Y.; Zhu, W.

    2011-01-01

    Virtually the entire population of the globally ‘Vulnerable’ Swan Goose Anser cygnoides winters in the Yangtze floodplain. Historically, the species was widely distributed throughout the floodplain but now approximately 95% of the population is confined to three closely-situated wetlands in Anhui an

  7. Goose banding, Koyukuk and north slope Alaska, 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Goose drive trapping and banding was successfully conducted in the Galena and North Slope areas of Alaska in 1978. This was the fourth year of a five consecutive...

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Xupu goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qian; Cao, Rong; Jiang, Gui-Tao; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Guan-Bo; Dai, Qiu-Zhong; Zhang, Shi-Rui; Hou, De-Xing; He, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Xupu goose is one of the famous native breed in China. In this work we reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xupu goose in Hunan Province for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,742 bp, with the base composition of 30.21% for A, 22.70% for T, 32.02% for C, 15.08% for G, in the order C > A > T > G feature occurring in the Xupu goose. And it is made up of two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop region). The characteristics of the mitochondrial genome were analyzed and discussed in detail. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Xupu goose will be useful for the phylogenetics of poultry, and be available as basic data for the genetics and breeding. PMID:24938098

  9. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1987-08-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council calls for wildlife mitigation at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River System. Beginning April, 1984, the Bonneville Power Administration funded a study of the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr Dams on the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffittii) inhabitating the Flathead Valley of northwest Montana. The study was conducted by personnel of the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP), to: (1) identify the size and productivity of this population, (2) identify current habitat conditions and losses of nesting and brood-rearing areas, (3) describe the effects of water level fluctuations on nesting and brood-rearing, and (4) identify mitigation alternatives to offset these effects. Annual pair and nest surveys were used to document the location and fate of goose nests. The number of known nesting attempts varied from 44 in 1984 to 108 in 1985, to 136 in 1986 and 134 in 1987. Fifty-four percent of the annual meeting nesting effort took place on elevated sites which were secure from the flooding and dewatering effects of fluctuating water levels. An average of 15 nests were found on stumps in the remnant Flathead River delta, however, an area strongly influenced by the operation of Kerr Dam. Annual nest losses to flooding and predation attributable to fluctuations caused by the dam were recorded. 53 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  10. Clinically relevant depression in old age: An international study with populations from Canada, Latin America and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylli, Alban; Miszkurka, Malgorzata; Phillips, Susan P; Guralnik, Jack; Deshpande, Nandini; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-07-30

    Our aim is to assess cross-national variations in prevalence of clinically relevant depression and to examine the relationships of social and health factors with depression in five diverse populations of older adults, from Canada, Brazil, Colombia and Albania. We used the data from the International Mobility in Aging Study. Clinically relevant depression was defined as a score of ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Scale (CES-D). Poisson regressions with robust covariance correction were used to estimate prevalence ratios associated with potential risk factors. Prevalence of clinically relevant depression across research sites varied widely, being consistently higher in women than in men. It was lowest in men from Brazil (6.3%) and highest in women from Albania (46.6%). Low education and insufficient income, living alone, multiple chronic conditions, and poor physical performance were all significantly associated with depression prevalence. Poor physical performance was more strongly associated with depression in men than in women. Similar factors are associated with clinically relevant depression among men and women and across research sites. The large variation in depression prevalence population rates is unexplained by the classical individual factors considered in the study suggesting the impact of country characteristics on depression among older populations. PMID:27183110

  11. Population fragmentation and inter-ecosystem movements of grizzly bears in Western Canada and the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, M.F.; Paetkau, David; McLellan, B.N.; Stenhouse, G.B.; Kendall, K.C.; Mace, R.D.; Kasworm, W.F.; Servheen, C.; Lausen, C.L.; Gibeau, M.L.; Wakkinen, W.L.; Haroldson, M.A.; Mowat, G.; Apps, C.D.; Ciarniello, L.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.; Boyce, M.S.; Schwartz, C.C.; Strobeck, C.

    2012-01-01

    Population fragmentation compromises population viability, reduces a species ability to respond to climate change, and ultimately may reduce biodiversity. We studied the current state and potential causes of fragmentation in grizzly bears over approximately 1,000,000 km 2 of western Canada, the northern United States (US), and southeast Alaska. We compiled much of our data from projects undertaken with a variety of research objectives including population estimation and trend, landscape fragmentation, habitat selection, vital rates, and response to human development. Our primary analytical techniques stemmed from genetic analysis of 3,134 bears, supplemented with radiotelemetry data from 792 bears. We used 15 locus microsatellite data coupled withmeasures of genetic distance, isolation-by-distance (IBD) analysis, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), linear multiple regression, multi-factorial correspondence analysis (to identify population divisions or fractures with no a priori assumption of group membership), and population-assignment methods to detect individual migrants between immediately adjacent areas. These data corroborated observations of inter-area movements from our telemetry database. In northern areas, we found a spatial genetic pattern of IBD, although there was evidence of natural fragmentation from the rugged heavily glaciated coast mountains of British Columbia (BC) and the Yukon. These results contrasted with the spatial pattern of fragmentation in more southern parts of their distribution. Near the Canada-US border area, we found extensive fragmentation that corresponded to settled mountain valleys andmajor highways. Genetic distances across developed valleys were elevated relative to those across undeveloped valleys in central and northern BC. In disturbed areas, most inter-area movements detected were made by male bears, with few female migrants identified. North-south movements within mountain ranges (Mts) and across BC Highway 3 were more common

  12. The Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy: implementation of a population-based osteoporosis action plan in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglal, S B; Hawker, G; Cameron, C; Canavan, J; Beaton, D; Bogoch, E; Jain, R; Papaioannou, A

    2010-06-01

    In the last decade, there have been a number of action plans published to highlight the importance of preventing osteoporosis and related fractures. In the province of Ontario Canada, the Ministry of Health provided funding for the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy. The goal is to reduce morbidity, mortality, and costs from osteoporosis and related fractures through an integrated and comprehensive approach aimed at health promotion and disease management. This paper describes the components of the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy and progress on implementation efforts as of March 2009. There are five main components: health promotion; bone mineral density testing, access, and quality; postfracture care; professional education; and research and evaluation. Responsibility for implementation of the initiatives within the components is shared across a number of professional and patient organizations and academic teaching hospitals with osteoporosis researchers. The lessons learned from each phase of the development, implementation, and evaluation of the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy provides a tremendous opportunity to inform other jurisdictions embarking on implementing similar large-scale bone health initiatives. PMID:20309525

  13. Is accessing dental care becoming more difficult? Evidence from Canada's middle-income population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel Ramraj

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore trends in access to dental care among middle-income Canadians. METHODS: A secondary data analysis of six Canadian surveys that collected information on dental insurance coverage, cost-barriers to dental care, and out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care was conducted for select years from 1978 to 2009. Descriptive analyses were used to outline and compare trends among middle-income Canadians with other levels of income as well as national averages. RESULTS: By 2009, middle-income Canadians had the lowest levels of dental insurance coverage (48.7% compared to all other income groups. They reported the greatest increase in cost-barriers to dental care, from 12.6% in 1996 to 34.1% by 2009. Middle-income Canadians had the largest rise in out-of-pocket expenditures for dental care since 1978. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that affordability issues in accessing dental care are no longer just a problem for the lowest income groups in Canada, but are now impacting middle-income earners as a consequence of their lack of, or decreased access to, comprehensive dental insurance.

  14. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  15. Polar bear population status in the northern Beaufort Sea, Canada, 1971-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, I.; McDonald, T.L.; Richardson, E.S.; Regehr, E.V.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the northern Beaufort Sea (NB) population occur on the perimeter of the polar basin adjacent to the northwestern islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sea ice converges on the islands through most of the year. We used open-population capture–recapture models to estimate population size and vital rates of polar bears between 1971 and 2006 to: (1) assess relationships between survival, sex and age, and time period; (2) evaluate the long-term importance of sea ice quality and availability in relation to climate warming; and (3) note future management and conservation concerns. The highest-ranking models suggested that survival of polar bears varied by age class and with changes in the sea ice habitat. Model-averaged estimates of survival (which include harvest mortality) for senescent adults ranged from 0.37 to 0.62, from 0.22 to 0.68 for cubs of the year (COY) and yearlings, and from 0.77 to 0.92 for 2–4 year-olds and adults. Horvtiz-Thompson (HT) estimates of population size were not significantly different among the decades of our study. The population size estimated for the 2000s was 980 ± 155 (mean and 95% CI). These estimates apply primarily to that segment of the NB population residing west and south of Banks Island. The NB polar bear population appears to have been stable or possibly increasing slightly during the period of our study. This suggests that ice conditions have remained suitable and similar for feeding in summer and fall during most years and that the traditional and legal Inuvialuit harvest has not exceeded sustainable levels. However, the amount of ice remaining in the study area at the end of summer, and the proportion that continues to lie over the biologically productive continental shelf (polar bear population in the northern Beaufort Sea will eventually decline. Management and conservation practices for polar bears in relation to both aboriginal harvesting and offshore industrial activity will need

  16. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Bone Mineral Status in a Population of Newcomer Children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gushulak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low levels of circulating vitamin D are more likely to be found in those with darker skin pigmentation, who live in areas of high latitude, and who wear more clothing. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in newcomer immigrant and refugee children. Methods: We evaluated circulating vitamin D status of immigrant children at the national level. Subsequently, we investigated vitamin D intake, circulating vitamin D status, and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC in newcomer children living in Saskatchewan. Results: In the sample of newcomer children in Saskatchewan, the prevalence of inadequacy in calcium and vitamin D intakes was 76% and 89.4%, respectively. Vitamin D intake from food/supplement was significantly higher in immigrants compared to refugees, which accords with the significant difference in serum status. Circulating vitamin D status indicated that 29% of participants were deficient and another 44% had inadequate levels of serum 25(OHD for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake, sex, region of origin, and length of stay in Canada were significant predictors of serum vitamin D status. Results for TBBMC revealed that 38.6% were found to have low TBBMC compared to estimated values for age, sex, and ethnicity. In the regression model, after controlling for possible confounders, children who were taller and had greater circulating vitamin D also had greater TBBMC. Nationally, immigrant children, particularly girls, have significantly lower plasma 25(OHD than non-immigrant children. Interpretation: Newcomer immigrant and refugee children are at a high risk of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, which may have serious negative consequences for their health.

  17. Molecular analysis of the immunoglobulin genes in goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian; Wu, Kun; Yuan, Xiaoli; Shao, Shuai; Wang, WenYuan; Wei, Si; Cao, Gengsheng

    2016-07-01

    Immunoglobulins play an important role in adaptive immune system as defense molecules against pathogens. However, our knowledge on avian immunoglobulin genes has been limited to a few species. In this study, we analyzed goose (Anser cygnoides orientalis) immunoglobulin genes. Three IgH classes including IgM, IgA, IgY and λ light chain were identified. The IgM and IgA heavy chain constant regions are characteristically similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. In addition to the classic Ig isotypes, we also detected a transcript that encoded a truncated form of IgY (IgY(ΔFc)) in goose. Similar to duck, the IgY(ΔFc) in goose was generated by using different transcriptional termination signal of the same υ gene. Limited variability and only one leader peptide were observed in VH and VL domains, which suggested that gene conversion was the primary mechanism involved in goose antibody diversity. Our study provides more insights into the immunoglobulin genes in goose that had not been fully explored before. PMID:26921669

  18. Breast cancer survival and stage at diagnosis in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK, 2000-2007: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, S.; Maringe, C; Butler, J.; Rachet, B; Barrett-Lee, P; Bergh, J; Boyages, J.; P. Christiansen; Lee, M.; Wärnberg, F; Allemani, C; Engholm, G; Fornander, T.; Gjerstorff, M L; Johannesen, T. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We investigate whether differences in breast cancer survival in six high-income countries can be explained by differences in stage at diagnosis using routine data from population-based cancer registries. Methods: We analysed the data on 257 362 women diagnosed with breast cancer during 2000–7 and registered in 13 population-based cancer registries in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK. Flexible parametric hazard models were used to estimate net survival and the ...

  19. Population ecology of polar bears in Davis Strait, Canada and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the sea ice habitat of polar bears was understood to be variable, but environmental variability was considered to be cyclic or random, rather than progressive. Harvested populations were believed to be at levels where density effects were considered not significant. However, because we now understand that polar bear demography can also be influenced by progressive change in the environment, and some populations have increased to greater densities than historically lower numbers, a broader suite of factors should be considered in demographic studies and management. We analyzed 35 years of capture and harvest data from the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulation in Davis Strait, including data from a new study (2005–2007), to quantify its current demography. We estimated the population size in 2007 to be 2,158 ± 180 (SE), a likely increase from the 1970s. We detected variation in survival, reproductive rates, and age-structure of polar bears from geographic sub-regions. Survival and reproduction of bears in southern Davis Strait was greater than in the north and tied to a concurrent dramatic increase in breeding harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) in Labrador. The most supported survival models contained geographic and temporal variables. Harp seal abundance was significantly related to polar bear survival. Our estimates of declining harvest recovery rate, and increasing total survival, suggest that the rate of harvest declined over time. Low recruitment rates, average adult survival rates, and high population density, in an environment of high prey density, but deteriorating and variable ice conditions, currently characterize the Davis Strait polar bears. Low reproductive rates may reflect negative effects of greater densities or worsening ice conditions.

  20. Reciprocal integration: creating socially connected communities to improve the settlement and health of Canada's immigrant populations

    OpenAIRE

    Searson, Laura-Jean Drennan

    2010-01-01

    Great social, economic, and health disparities exist between immigrants and non-immigrants. One approach to eliminating these disparities is reciprocal integration whereby the responsibility for settlement is shared among immigrants and communities. I have developed the Reciprocal Integration Model to detail the responsibilities of governments, individuals, and communities in bridging immigrant and non-immigrant populations. Kelowna, British Columbia and Moncton, New Brunswick were examine...

  1. Histological Studies on Pancreas of Goose (Anser Albifrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mobini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Histological and histochemical studies on the pancreas of goose (Anser albifrons were carried out using special staining and light microscope. The pancreas in goose is serous tubuloacinar gland having exocrine and endocrine part. Smooth muscle fibres were absent in capsule of pancreas. Acinar cells have bizonal shape. Intralobular ducts, Interlobular and main excretory ducts were present within parenchyma. The intralobular ducts were lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium reach interlobular ducts lined with low columnar epithelium. The main excretory ducts were lined by simple to stratified columnar epithelium. The glands inside the connective tissue of the ducts and basophilic staining on the apical surface of pancreatic duct system were found from the interlobular ducts to the main excretory ducts. The endocrine part was consisted of various shapes and sizes of alpha and beta islets. Mixed islets were not observed in the goose pancreas. Parasympathetic ganglia were observed in the exocrine pancreas. No significant differences were noted between males and females.

  2. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the recent increase in obstetric acute renal failure in Canada: population based retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabadi, Azar; Liu, Shiliang; Bartholomew, Sharon; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Magee, Laura A.; Kramer, Michael S; Liston, Robert M; Joseph, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether changes in postpartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, or other risk factors explain the increase in obstetric acute renal failure in Canada. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Canada (excluding the province of Quebec). Participants All hospital deliveries from 2003 to 2010 (n=2 193 425). Main outcome measures Obstetric acute renal failure identified by ICD-10 diagnostic codes. Methods Information on all hospital deliveries in Canada (excl...

  3. Preterm birth in the Inuit and First Nations populations of Québec, Canada, 1981–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Auger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate preterm birth (PTB for Inuit and First Nations vs. non-Indigenous populations in the province of Québec, Canada. Study design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: We evaluated singleton live births for Québec residents, 1981–2008 (n = 2,310,466. Municipality of residence (Inuit-inhabited, First Nations-inhabited, rest of Québec and language (Inuit, First Nations, French/English were used to identify Inuit and First Nations births. The outcome was PTB (<37 completed weeks. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to estimate hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of PTB, adjusting for maternal age, education, marital status, parity and birth year. Results: PTB rates were higher for Inuit language speakers in Inuit-inhabited areas and the rest of Québec compared with French/English speakers in the rest of Québec, and disparities persisted over time. Relative to French/English speakers in the rest of Québec, Inuit language speakers in the rest of Québec had the highest risk of PTB (HR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.62–2.41. The risk was also elevated for Inuit language speakers in Inuit-inhabited areas, though to a lesser extent (HR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18–1.41. In contrast, First Nations language speakers in First Nations-inhabited areas and the rest of Québec had similar or lower risks of PTB relative to French/English speakers in the rest of Québec. Conclusions: Inuit populations, especially those outside Inuit-inhabited areas, have persistently elevated risks of PTB, indicating a need for strategies to prevent PTB in this population.

  4. An ephemeral sexual population of Phytophthora infestans in the Northeastern United States and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Danies

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease, has been reported in North America since the mid-nineteenth century. In the United States the lack of or very limited sexual reproduction has resulted in largely clonal populations of P. infestans. In 2010 and 2011, but not in 2012 or 2013, 20 rare and diverse genotypes of P. infestans were detected in a region that centered around central New York State. The ratio of A1 to A2 mating types among these genotypes was close to the 50∶50 ratio expected for sexual recombination. These genotypes were diverse at the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase locus, differed in their microsatellite profiles, showed different banding patterns in a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay using a moderately repetitive and highly polymorphic probe (RG57, were polymorphic for four different nuclear genes and differed in their sensitivity to the systemic fungicide mefenoxam. The null hypothesis of linkage equilibrium was not rejected, which suggests the population could be sexual. These new genotypes were monomorphic in their mitochondrial haplotype that was the same as US-22. Through parentage exclusion testing using microsatellite data and sequences of four nuclear genes, recent dominant lineages US-8, US-11, US-23, and US-24 were excluded as possible parents for these genotypes. Further analyses indicated that US-22 could not be eliminated as a possible parent for 14 of the 20 genotypes. We conclude that US-22 could be a parent of some, but not all, of the new genotypes found in 2010 and 2011. There were at least two other parents for this population and the genotypic characteristics of the other parents were identified.

  5. Bay-scale population structure in coastal Atlantic cod in Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Wroblewski, J.S.; Taggart, C.T.; Smedbol, R.K.; Cook, D.; Goddard, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    Polymorphisms at five microsatellite DNA loci provide evidence that Atlantic cod Gadus morhua inhabiting Gilbert Bay, Labrador are genetically distinguishable from offshore cod on the north- east Newfoundland shelf and from inshore cod in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Antifreeze activity in the blood...... population structure suggest that important barriers to gene flow exist among five components that include two inshore (Gilbert and Trinity Bay) and three offshore cod aggregations on the north-east Newfoundland Shelf and the Grand Bank. D-A and D-SW estimates of genetic distance that involve Gilbert Bay cod...

  6. Demography of a breeding population of whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Johanna

    I used a GIS raster layer of an area in the Churchill, Manitoba region to investigate the effect of breeding habitat on demography and density of Whimbrel from 2010 through 2013. Program MARK was used to quantify adult and daily nest survival. Apparent annual survival of 0.73 +/- 0.06 SE (95% CI = 0.60-0.83) did not significantly differ between sexes or habitats and was lower than expected based on longevity records and estimates for other large-bodied shorebirds. Nest success, corrected for exposure days, was highly variable, ranging from a low of 3% (95% CI = 0-12%) in 2011 to a high of 71% (95% CI = 54-83%) in 2013. The highest rate of nest survival occurred in the spring with the warmest mean temperature. I developed a generalized linear model (GLM) with a negative-binomial distribution from random plots that were surveyed for abundance to extrapolate a local breeding population size of 410 +/- 230 SE and density of 3.2 birds per square km +/- 1.8 SE. The result of my study suggests that other aspects of habitat not captured by the land cover categories may be more important to population dynamics.

  7. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1986-04-01

    Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River causes sporadic water level fluctuations along the main stem Flathead River. Changes in chronology of seasonal water level fluctuations and substantial habitat losses have occurred as a result of construction and operation of Kerr Dam, which regulates Flathead Lake. These fluctuations may impact goose populations through flooding and erosion of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and increased susceptibility of nests and young to predation. The number, location, and success of goose nests were determined through pair surveys and nest searches. Our 1985 pair count data indicated that 95 to 143 nests may have been present. Hatching success for 1985 nests (55%) was low compared to long-term averages for the region. Predation was the predominant cause of ground nest failure (25 nests); we documented 2 nest failures due to flooding. The maximum gosling count in the study area for 1985 was 197. Six key brood-rearing areas were identified. Most (80%) sites were located in the herbaceous or pasture cover type and the riparian bench landform. Analysis of aerial photographs taken prior to construction of Kerr Dam documented the loss of 1859 acres of habitat along the north shore of Flathead Lake. Losses were attributed to inundation and to continuing erosion due to operation of Kerr Dam. Lake and river water level regimes were compared with the chronology of important periods in the nesting cycle. Low lake levels in May and early June coincide with the breed-rearing period. Mudflats are heavily used by broods, but their effect on survival must still be documented. Preliminary recommendations to protect and enhance Canada goose habitat and production are being developed.

  8. Making Our Health and Care Systems Fit for an Ageing Population: Considerations for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Melissa K.; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    A report from the United Kingdom on making health and care systems fit for an ageing population proposes a range of interventions to make care better for older adults, especially those who are frail. Here, we discuss the proposed shift for the acute care hospital to other models of care. The key for these models of care requires a fundamental shift to care that addresses the full range of an individual’s needs, rather than being based around single diseases. How this might apply in the Canadian context is considered. We emphasize strategies to keep people out of hospital but still receive needed care, make acute hospital care less hazardous, and improve the interface between acute and long-term care. PMID:25452826

  9. Stimulants and Cannabis Use Among a Marginalized Population in British Columbia, Canada: Role of Trauma and Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Werker, Gregory R; Schuetz, Christian; Krausz, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    High rates of substance use, especially cannabis and stimulant use, have been associated with homelessness, exposure to trauma, and involvement with the criminal justice system. This study explored differences in substance use (cannabis vs. stimulants) and associations with trauma and incarceration among a homeless population. Data were derived from the BC Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada. Measures included sociodemographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Stimulant users were more likely to be female (43%), using multiple substances (3.2), and engaging in survival sex (14%). Cannabis users had higher rates of lifetime psychotic disorders (32%). Among the incarcerated, cannabis users had been subjected to greater emotional neglect (p < .05) and one in two cannabis users had a history of lifetime depressive disorders (p < .05). Childhood physical abuse and Caucasian ethnicity were also associated with greater crack cocaine use. One explanation for the results is that a history of childhood abuse may lead to a developmental cascade of depressive symptoms and other psychopathology, increasing the chances of cannabis dependence and the development of psychosis. PMID:25028364

  10. The prognostic effect of ethnicity for gastric and esophageal cancer: the population-based experience in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric and esophageal cancers are among the most lethal human malignancies. Their epidemiology is geographically diverse. This study compares the survival of gastric and esophageal cancer patients among several ethnic groups including Chinese, South Asians, Iranians and Others in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data were obtained from the population-based BC Cancer Registry for patients diagnosed with invasive esophageal and gastric cancer between 1984 and 2006. The ethnicity of patients was estimated according to their names and categorized as Chinese, South Asian, Iranian or Other. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of ethnicity adjusted for patient sex and age, disease histology, tumor location, disease stage and treatment. The survival of gastric cancer patients was significantly different among ethnic groups. Chinese patients showed better survival compared to others in univariate and multivariate analysis. The survival of esophageal cancer patients was significantly different among ethnic groups when the data was analyzed by a univariate test (p = 0.029), but not in the Cox multivariate model adjusted for other patient and prognostic factors. Ethnicity may represent underlying genetic factors. Such factors could influence host-tumor interactions by altering the tumor's etiology and therefore its chance of spreading. Alternatively, genetic factors may determine response to treatments. Finally, ethnicity may represent non-genetic factors that affect survival. Differences in survival by ethnicity support the importance of ethnicity as a prognostic factor, and may provide clues for the future identification of genetic or lifestyle factors that underlie these observations

  11. A population based time series analysis of asthma hospitalisations in Ontario, Canada: 1988 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upshur Ross EG

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a common yet incompletely understood health problem associated with a high morbidity burden. A wide variety of seasonally variable environmental stimuli such as viruses and air pollution are believed to influence asthma morbidity. This study set out to examine the seasonal patterns of asthma hospitalisations in relation to age and gender for the province of Ontario over a period of 12 years. Methods A retrospective, population-based study design was used to assess temporal patterns in hospitalisations for asthma from April 1, 1988 to March 31, 2000. Approximately 14 million residents of Ontario eligible for universal healthcare coverage during this time were included for analysis. Time series analyses were conducted on monthly aggregations of hospitalisations. Results There is strong evidence of an autumn peak and summer trough seasonal pattern occurring every year over the 12-year period (Fisher-Kappa (FK = 23.93, p > 0.01; Bartlett Kolmogorov Smirnov (BKS = 0.459, p Conclusions A clear and consistent seasonal pattern was observed in this study for asthma hospitalisations. These findings have important implications for the development of effective management and prevention strategies.

  12. An Ecological Study of Gray Goose Marsh, Alviso California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The area of our study is located in the heart of the 300m wide strip of land just north of Triangle Marsh, known as Gray Goose Marsh. This land used to be part of...

  13. Effects of mining on reindeer/caribou populations and indigenous livelihoods : community-based monitoring by Sami reindeer herders in Sweden and First Nations in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Thora Martina; Sandström, Per; Cuciurean, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of human disturbances associated with mine development in the Arctic on habitat and populations of reindeer/caribou (both Rangifer tarandus), and implications for reindeer husbandry and caribou hunting of indigenous Sami people in Sweden and First Nations in Canada. Through three case studies, we illustrate how Cree and Naskapi communities develop commu- nity-based geospatial information tools to collect field data on caribou migration and habitat changes, and ...

  14. Importance of ICD-10 coding directive change for acute gastroenteritis (unspecified) for rotavirus vaccine impact studies: illustration from a population-based cohort study from Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Sarah E.; Shelley L Deeks; Rosella, Laura C

    2015-01-01

    Background In Ontario, Canada, we conducted an evaluation of rotavirus (RV) vaccine on hospitalizations and Emergency Department (ED) visitations for acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In our original analysis, any one of the International Classification of Disease, Version 10 (ICD-10) codes was used for outcome ascertainment: RV-specific- (A08.0), viral- (A08.3, A08. 4, A08.5), and unspecified infectious- gastroenteritis (A09). Annual age-specific rates per 10,000 population were calculated. Findi...

  15. Population structure and drug resistance patterns of emerging non-PCV-13 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 22F, 15A, and 8 isolated from adults in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Venkata R; Deng, Xianding; Teatero, Sarah; Memari, Nader; Athey, Taryn; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has led to the emergence of non-vaccine serotypes, which contributed to invasive pneumococcal disease in Canada and worldwide. A significant increase in the prevalence of non-13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13)-included serotypes 22F, 15A, and 8 was observed from 2009 to 2013 in Ontario (all p valuesStreptococcus pneumoniae population structures and dynamics, and its utility in molecular surveillance. PMID:27071529

  16. Have geographical influences and changing abundance led to sub-population structure in the Ahiak caribou herd, Nunavut, Canada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} We examined the premise that changing abundance and environmental conditions influence the seasonal dispersion and distribution of migratory tundra caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus. The Ahiak herd’s (north-central Nunavut Territory, Canada calving shifted from dispersed on islands to gregarious calving on the mainland coast. As abundance further increased, the calving ground elongated east and west such that we proposed a longitudinal climate gradient. As well, the calving ground’s east and west ends are different distances from the tree-line, which dips south closer to Hudson Bay. We proposed that whether caribou winter on the tundra or within boreal forest and the different climate across the long calving ground could contribute to differential survival and productivity such that sub-population structure would result. At the scale of the individual cows (identified through satellite-collars, we did not find inter-annual spatial fidelity to either the western or eastern parts of the calving ground. At the population scale (aerial surveys of calving distribution, we also did not find discontinuities in calving distribution. The spatial association of individual cows during calving compared with their association during the rut was inconsistent among years, but overall, cows that calve together

  17. Distribution, abundance and productivity of fall staging lesser snow geese on coastal habitats of northeast Alaska and northwest Canada, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fall staging of the western arctic lesser snow goose population was I. monitored on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Yukon Territory...

  18. Detection and characterization of a distinct bornavirus lineage from healthy Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Susan; Covaleda, Lina; Jianhua, Guo; Swafford, Seth; Baroch, John; Ferro, Pamela J; Lupiani, Blanca; Heatley, Jill; Tizard, Ian

    2011-11-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV), identified in 2008, infect captive parrots and macaws worldwide. The natural reservoirs of these viruses are unknown. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to screen oropharyngeal/cloacal swab and brain samples from wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) for ABV. Approximately 2.9% of swab samples were positive for bornavirus sequences. Fifty-two percent of brain samples from 2 urban flocks also tested positive, and brain isolates were cultured in duck embryo fibroblasts. Phylogenetic analyses placed goose isolates in an independent cluster, and more notably, important regulatory sequences present in Borna disease virus but lacking in psittacine ABVs were present in goose isolates. PMID:21900161

  19. Detection and Characterization of a Distinct Bornavirus Lineage from Healthy Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Susan; Covaleda, Lina; Jianhua, Guo; Swafford, Seth; Baroch, John; Ferro, Pamela J.; Lupiani, Blanca; Heatley, Jill; Tizard, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV), identified in 2008, infect captive parrots and macaws worldwide. The natural reservoirs of these viruses are unknown. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to screen oropharyngeal/cloacal swab and brain samples from wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) for ABV. Approximately 2.9% of swab samples were positive for bornavirus sequences. Fifty-two percent of brain samples from 2 urban flocks also tested positive, and brain isolates were cultured in duck embryo fibroblasts. Phylogenetic analyses placed goose isolates in an independent cluster, and more notably, important regulatory sequences present in Borna disease virus but lacking in psittacine ABVs were present in goose isolates. PMID:21900161

  20. Analysis of population development and effectiveness of mnagement in resident greylag geese Anser anser in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Turnhout, van C.; Willems, F.; Voslamber, B.

    2010-01-01

    The resident Greylag goose population in the Netherlands has strongly increased in number which led to conflict with agricultural interests, public concern on goose hunting and legal debate on the need to regulate geese. Such a debate can be facilitated by insight in population development and the e

  1. A new cause of spoilage in goose sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacumin, Lucilla; Manzano, Marisa; Panseri, Sara; Chiesa, Luca; Comi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the microorganisms present and to investigate their metabolites that cause spoilage of many goose sausages produced in Friuli, a northeast region of Italy. The defect was observed by sensorial analysis using the "needle probing" technique; the spoiled sausages were unsafe and not marketable. Despite the addition of starter, the microorganisms, particularly enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae, grew during ripening and produced a large amount of biogenic amines; therefore, these sausages represented a risk to consumers. The production of those compounds was confirmed in vitro. Furthermore, a second cause of spoilage was attributed to moulds that grew during ripening; the fungi grew between the meat and casing, producing a large amount of total volatile nitrogen, and consequently an ammonia smell was present either in the ripening area or in the sausages. This is the first description of this type of defect in goose sausages. PMID:27217359

  2. Microsatellite analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Asian Longhorned Beetles from an Invasive Population in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Longhorned Beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) were discovered in Ontario, Canada in 2003 at a commercial warehouse site, where they likely arrived on solid wood packing materials from China. Trees in the area were heavily scarred with oviposition sites, and larvae and adult beetle...

  3. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  4. Benzodiazepine Use, Misuse, and Harm at the Population Level in Canada: A Comprehensive Narrative Review of Data and Developments Since 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Yoko; Wilson, Emily; Goldner, Elliot M; Fischer, Benedikt

    2016-07-01

    Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed psycho-pharmaceuticals (e.g., for anxiety, tension, and insomnia); they are generally considered safe but have potential adverse effects. Benzodiazepine use in Canada versus internationally is comparably high, yet no recent comprehensive review of use, misuse, or related (e.g., morbidity, mortality) harm at the population level exists; the present review aimed to fill this gap. We searched four key scientific literature databases (Medline, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, and Web of Science) with relevant search terms, and collected relevant "gray literature" (e.g., survey, monitoring, government reports) data published in 1995-2015. Two reviewers conducted data screening and extraction; results were categorized and narratively summarized by key sub-topics. Levels of benzodiazepine use in the general population have been relatively stable in recent years; medical use is generally highest among older adults. Rates of non-medical use are fairly low in general but higher in marginalized (e.g., street drug use) populations; high and/or inappropriate prescribing appears common in older adults. Benzodiazepines are associated with various morbidity outcomes (e.g., accidents/injuries, cognitive decline, sleep disturbances, or psychiatric issues), again commonly observed in older adults; moreover, benzodiazepines are identified as a contributing factor in suicides and poisoning deaths. Overall there is a substantial benzodiazepine-related health problem burden-although lower than that for other psycho-medications (e.g., opioids)-in Canada, mainly as a result of overuse and/or morbidity. National benzodiazepine prescription guidelines are lacking, and few evaluated interventions to reduce benzodiazepine-related problems exist. There is a clear need for reducing inappropriate benzodiazepine use and related harm in Canada through improved evidence-based practice as well as monitoring and control. PMID:27056579

  5. Spatial patterns of goose grubbing suggest elevated grubbing in dry habitats linked to early snowmelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åshild Ø. Pedersen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The western Palaearctic tundra is a breeding habitat for large populations of European geese. After their arrival in spring, pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus forage extensively on below-ground plant parts, using a feeding technique called grubbing that has substantial impact on the tundra vegetation. Previous studies have shown a high frequency of grubbing in lowland fen vegetation. In the present study, we examined the occurrence of grubbing in other habitat types on Spitsbergen, in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Goose grubbing was surveyed along 19 altitudinal transects, going from the valley bottom to altitudes dominated by scree. Grubbing was more frequent in the wet habitat type at low altitudes compared to the drier habitat type at higher altitudes. For the dry habitat type, a higher frequency of grubbing was found in study plots with a south-east facing exposure where snowmelt is expected to be early. This suggests that pink-footed geese primarily use dry vegetation types for grubbing when they are snow-free in early spring and the availability of snow-free patches of the preferred wet vegetation types in the lowlands is limited. Dry vegetation types have poorer recovery rates from disturbance than wet ones. Sites with early snowmelt and dry vegetation types may therefore be at greater risk of long-term habitat degradation. We conclude that the high growth rate of the Svalbard-breeding pink-footed goose population suggests that increasing impacts of grubbing can be expected and argue that a responsible monitoring of the effects on the tundra ecosystem is crucial.

  6. Use of residential wood heating in a context of climate change: a population survey in Québec (Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Valois Pierre; Gosselin Pierre; Bélanger Diane; Abdous Belkacem

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Wood heating is recommended in several countries as a climate change (CC) adaptation measure, mainly to increase the autonomy of households during power outages due to extreme climatic events. The aim of this study was to examine various perceptions and individual characteristics associated with wood heating through a survey about CC adaptations. Methods A telephone survey (n = 2,545) of adults living in the southern part of the province of Québec (Canada) was conducted in...

  7. Measuring the Population Impact of Introducing Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Alexander V; Rodrigues, George B; Palma, David A; Senan, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies increasingly argue for the growing equipoise of using stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) in high-risk patient subgroups of stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This model adds to this literature by considering cost-effectiveness and the implications of both health and cost on a publicly funded health care system at the national level. The use of SABR for NSCLC in Canada is projected to result in significant cost savings and survival gains.

  8. Have geographical influences and changing abundance led to sub-population structure in the Ahiak caribou herd, Nunavut, Canada?

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Gunn; Kim G. Poole; Jack Wierzchowski; Nishi, John S.; Jan Adamczewski; Don Russell; Adrian D'Hont

    2013-01-01

    We examined the premise that changing abundance and environmental conditions influence the seasonal dispersion and distribution of migratory tundra caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). The Ahiak herd’s (north-central Nunavut Territory, Canada) calving shifted from dispersed on islands to gregarious calving on the mainland coast. As abundance further increased, the calving ground elongated east and west such that we proposed a longitudinal climate gradient. As well, the calving ground’s ...

  9. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: A re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970's in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14 000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a log-normal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 11.2 Bq m-3 and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.9. Based on the information from that survey, it was estimated that ∼10 % of lung cancers in Canada resulted from indoor radon exposure. To gain a better understanding of radon concentrations in homes across the country, a national residential radon survey was launched in April 2009. In the recent survey, long-term (3 month or longer) indoor radon measurements were made in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada. The observed radon concentrations follow, as expected, a log-normal distribution with a GM of 41.9 Bq m-3 and a GSD of 2.8. Based on the more accurate radon distribution characteristics obtained from the recent cross-Canada radon survey, a re-assessment of Canadian population risk for radon induced lung cancer was undertaken. The theoretical estimates show that 16 % of lung cancer deaths among Canadians are attributable to indoor radon exposure. These results strongly suggest the ongoing need for the Canadian National Radon Program. In particular, there is a need for a focus on education and awareness by all levels of government, and in partnership with key stakeholders, to encourage Canadians to take action to reduce the risk from indoor radon exposure. (authors)

  10. Spring snow goose hunting influences body composition of waterfowl staging in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A spring hunt was instituted in North America to reduce abundance of snow geese (Chen caerulescens) by increasing mortality of adults directly, yet disturbance from hunting activities can indirectly influence body condition and ultimately, reproductive success. We estimated effects of hunting disturbance by comparing body composition of snow geese and non-target species, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) and northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected in portions of south-central Nebraska that were open (eastern Rainwater Basin, ERB) and closed (western Rainwater Basin, WRB; and central Platte River Valley, CPRV) to snow goose hunting during springs 1998 and 1999. Lipid content of 170 snow geese was 25% (57 g) less in areas open to hunting compared to areas closed during hunting season but similar in all areas after hunting was concluded in the ERB. Protein content of snow geese was 3% (14 g) less in the region open to hunting. Greater white-fronted geese had 24% (76 g; n = 129) less lipids in the hunted portion of the study area during hunting season, and this difference persisted after conclusion of hunting season. We found little difference in lipid or protein content of northern pintails in relation to spring hunting. Indirect effects of spring hunting may be considered a collateral benefit regarding efforts to reduce overabundant snow goose populations. Disrupted nutrient storage observed in greater white-fronted geese represents an unintended consequence of spring hunting that has potential to adversely affect reproduction for this and other species of waterbirds staging in the region.

  11. A demographic model for small area population projections: an application to the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlos S. Kanaroglou; Hanna F Maoh; Bruce Newbold; Scott, Darren M; Antonio Paez

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a demographic model capable of projecting the spatial distribution of population by age and sex for small areas such as census tracts. The proposed modeling framework makes use of two components: the Rogers multiregional population projection model and the aggregate spatial multinomial logit (ASMNL) model. The Rogers model utilizes cohort vital statistics on fertility, mortality, and migration to project the progression of population by age and sex at ...

  12. Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Söderquist

    Full Text Available Wild populations of the world's most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started, present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males. Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more "goose-like" bills (wider, higher, and shorter than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with 'alien genes' may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  13. Linking mechanistic toxicology to population models in forecasting recovery from chemical stress: A case study from Jackfish Bay, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) common at Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) is loss of fish and wildlife populations. Consequently, recovery of populations after stressor mitigation serves as a basis for evaluating remediation success. We describe a framework that can be a...

  14. The Possibility of Using Goose Meat in the Production of Salami

    OpenAIRE

    Güner, Ahmet; DOĞRUER, Yusuf; UÇAR, Gürkan; YÖRÜK, Hilal Duygu

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare some quality characteristics of goose-meat salami with those of turkey- and chicken-meat salami in order to determine its suitability for consumption and to able to use goose meat for meat product technology. The pH values of experimental samples were highest in the goose-meat salami and lowest in the turkey-meat salami. Moisture rates of samples produced with a mixture of two kinds of poultry meat were lower than those of the others. Salmonella, ...

  15. Decision-support model to explore the feasibility of using translocation to restore a woodland caribou population in Pukaskwa National Park, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Gonzales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou have declined dramatically in the past century. Without intervention the most southern population of caribou in eastern North America is expected to disappear within 20 years. Although translocations have reintroduced and reinforced some populations, approximately half of caribou translocation efforts fail. Translocations are resource intensive and risky, and multiple interrelated factors must be considered to assess their potential for success. Structured decision-making tools, such as Bayesian belief networks, provide objective methods to assess different wildlife management scenarios by identifying the key components and relationships in an ecosystem. They can also catalyze dialogue with stakeholders and provide a record of the complex thought processes used in reaching a decision. We developed a Bayesian belief network for a proposed translocation of woodland caribou into a national park on the northeastern coast of Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. We tested scenarios with favourable (e.g., good physical condition of adult caribou and unfavourable (e.g., high predator densities conditions with low, medium, and high numbers of translocated caribou. Under the current conditions at Pukaskwa National Park, augmenting the caribou population is unlikely to recover the species unless wolf densities remain low (<5.5/1000 km2 or if more than 300 animals could be translocated.

  16. Estimating the mercury exposure dose in a population of migratory bird hunters in the St. Lawrence River region, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Lawrence River hunters (Quebec, Canada) are exposed to the pollutants, especially mercury, that contaminate birds and fish. However, the health risks of this have remained unclear because of a lack of information about the hunters' duck, geese, and sportfish consumption habits. A nutritional survey was set up to characterize waterfowl and sportfish consumption in St. Lawrence River duck hunters and to estimate their daily exposure to mercury. During the winter of 2000, 512 hunters selected from the Canadian Wildlife Service database completed a self-administered questionnaire. Daily exposure to contaminants was measured using data from the Canadian Wildlife Service (waterfowl) and available data on St. Lawrence River sportfish. The annual average consumption was 7.5 meals of ducks and geese and 8.7 meals of sportfish. The daily exposure to mercury related to waterfowl consumption was below the Canadian tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.47 μg/kg body wt/day for all participants. The daily mercury intake associated with fish consumption was greater than the TDI in 2 duck hunters. The daily exposure to mercury was higher than the TDI in 4 participants when both waterfowl and fish consumption were combined. Our results suggest that fish consumption (especially freshwater fish) represents the main source of exposure to pollutants in duck hunters

  17. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants...

  18. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 26 May and 24 June 1984 two personnel were stationed at the base camp cabin in Aga Cove along the eastern shore of Agattu Island. Working from the base...

  19. Aleutian Canada goose surveys in Near Islands (Agattu and Nizki): Preliminary report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three observers disembarked the 86' charter vessel Western Pacific near the east end of Nizki Island 23 May 1983. The goal of the field camp was to observe Aleutian...

  20. Executive summary: Limitations on Canada goose production at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses limitations on gosling production at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The study had the following objectives; examine the effects of...

  1. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  2. A study of goose and brant nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Species compositions, inter-specifies relationships, nesting, hatching success, aviation predation, human predation and other variables related to goose and brant...

  3. [Environmental Assessment for Implementation of a Light Goose Hunting Plan for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is proposing to implement a light goose hunting plan on Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge. This plan discusses the following;...

  4. Implementing low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer in Canada: implications of alternative at-risk populations, screening frequency, and duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W.K.; Flanagan, W.M.; Miller, A.B.; Goffin, J.R.; Memon, S.; Fitzgerald, N.; Wolfson, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-dose computed tomography (ldct) screening has been shown to reduce mortality from lung cancer; however, the optimal screening duration and “at risk” population are not known. Methods The Cancer Risk Management Model developed by Statistics Canada for the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer includes a lung screening module based on data from the U.S. National Lung Screening Trial (nlst). The base-case scenario reproduces nlst outcomes with high fidelity. The impact in Canada of annual screening on the number of incident cases and life-years gained, with a wider range of age and smoking history eligibility criteria and varied participation rates, was modelled to show the magnitude of clinical benefit nationally and by province. Life-years gained, costs (discounted and undiscounted), and resource requirements were also estimated. Results In 2014, 1.4 million Canadians were eligible for screening according to nlst criteria. Over 10 years, screening would detect 12,500 more lung cancers than the expected 268,300 and would gain 9200 life-years. The computed tomography imaging requirement of 24,000–30,000 at program initiation would rise to between 87,000 and 113,000 by the 5th year of an annual nlst-like screening program. Costs would increase from approximately $75 million to $128 million at 10 years, and the cumulative cost nationally over 10 years would approach $1 billion, partially offset by a reduction in the costs of managing advanced lung cancer. Conclusions Modelling various ways in which ldct might be implemented provides decision-makers with estimates of the effect on clinical benefit and on resource needs that clinical trial results are unable to provide.

  5. Varroa destructor est le principal responsable de la mort et de la réduction des populations de colonies d'abeilles (Apis mellifera) après hivernation en Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán-Novoa, Ernesto; Eccles, Leslie; Calvete, Yireli; Mcgowan, Janine; Kelly, Paul G.; Correa-Benítez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    International audience The relative effect of parasite levels, bee population size, and food reserves on winter mortality and post winter populations of honey bee colonies was estimated. More than 400 colonies were monitored throughout three seasons in Ontario, Canada. Most of the colonies were infested with varroa mites during the fall (75.7%), but only 27.9% and 6.1% tested positive to nosema disease and tracheal mites, respectively. Winter colony mortality was 27.2%, and when examined a...

  6. Use of residential wood heating in a context of climate change: a population survey in Québec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valois Pierre

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wood heating is recommended in several countries as a climate change (CC adaptation measure, mainly to increase the autonomy of households during power outages due to extreme climatic events. The aim of this study was to examine various perceptions and individual characteristics associated with wood heating through a survey about CC adaptations. Methods A telephone survey (n = 2,545 of adults living in the southern part of the province of Québec (Canada was conducted in the early fall season of 2005. The questionnaire used closed questions and measured the respondents' beliefs and current adaptations about CC. Calibration weighting was used to adjust the data analysis for the respondent's age and language under stratified sampling based on health regions. Results More than three out of four respondents had access to a single source of energy at home, which was mainly electricity; 22.2% combined two sources or more; 18.5% heated with wood occasionally or daily during the winter. The prevalence of wood heating was higher in the peripheral regions than in the more urban regions, where there was a higher proportion of respondents living in apartments. The prevalence was also higher with participants completely disagreeing (38.5% with the eventual prohibition of wood heating when there is smog in winter, compared to respondents somewhat disagreeing (24.2% or agreeing (somewhat: 17.5%; completely: 10.4% with the adoption of this strategy. It appears that the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, smog warnings in the media, or the belief in the human contribution to CC, did not influence significantly wood heating practices. Conclusion Increased residential wood heating could very well become a maladaptation to climate change, given its known consequences on winter smog and respiratory health. It would thus be appropriate to implement a long-term national program on improved and controlled residential wood

  7. Four major dietary patterns identified for a target-population of adults residing in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhi; Liu, Lin; Roebothan, Barbara; Ryan, Ann; Colbourne, Jennifer; Baker, Natasha; Yan, Jing; Wang, Peizhong Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Very limited nutritional epidemiological studies conducted to explore the unique dietary exposure in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). This study aims to identify and characterize major dietary patterns in the target-population from general adult NL residents and assess the associations with selected demographic factors. Methods A total of 192 participants, aged 35–70 years, completed and returned a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and participated in a telephone interview to colle...

  8. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Resident Dark Goose (RDG) Mark-Resight Survey Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — JBH supports thousands of wintering cackling and Canada geese. Bag limits and special hunts rely heavily on population estimates, especially for controversial...

  9. 浙东白鹅生长曲线及拟合分析%Analyze on Growth Curve Fitting of Zhejiang White Goose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华莉; 周兵; 王惠影; 刘毅; 胡耀东; 朱庆; 何大乾

    2011-01-01

    The growth curves of Zhejiang White goose from 0 to 8 weeks old were analyzed and fitted with three kinds nonlinear model(Logistic, Gompertz, Von Bertalanffy).The results showed that the males and females had the same growth state before 3 weeks old, and then the males got a higher growth rate than females until the end of the observation.The growth curves were appropriately fitted with three models (R2>0.99), but the best model fitted the growth curve of different goose population was different, in general, the Gompertz model had the best effect on fitting with the growth curves of goose, the forecasting results Gompertz model of the final weight, the inflection point week old, and maximal growth per week all were better than that of the other two models.Further analysis indicated that the parameters of fitting curves represent inflection point weight in males both were higher than those in females, there was no significant difference found in inflection point week old between males and females.This paper would provide the message for growth rules in different sexual of Zhejiang White goose, and their nutrient and environmental needs,-and also provide guide for extensive raising Zhejiang White goose.%运用Logistic、Gompertz和Von Bertalanffy 3种非线性模型对浙东白鹅0~8周龄的生长曲线进行分析及拟合比较.结果表明,浙东白鹅公、母鹅在3周龄前生长曲线基本一致,之后一直到8周龄公鹅明显高于母鹅;3种曲线模型拟合度均达到0.99以上,其中Gompertz曲线模型在拟合度和预测极限生长量拐点周龄和最大周增重等方面相对较好.进一步分析结果表明,浙东白鹅公鹅的拐点体重高于母鹅,拐点周龄性别间差异不大.本研究对不同性别浙东白鹅的生长模式及其对营养环境的需求进行了初步探讨,为开展浙东白鹅的规模化养殖提供参考.

  10. Wing-dimorphism and population expansion of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798 at small and large scales in central Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Bourassa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A study spanning ten years revealed changes in wing-morph ratios corroborating the hypothesis that the wing-dimorphic introduced carabid, Pterostichus melanarius Ill., is spreading through flight, from the city of Edmonton, Canada and establishing populations in natural aspen forest of more rural areas 45-50 km to the East. Comparison of wing-morph ratios between P. melanarius and the native wing dimorphic species Agonum retractum LeConte suggests that the spatial variation in ratios for P. melanarius does not reflect underlying environmental variation, but instead the action of selective forces on this wing-dimorphic species. About ten years after its earliest detection in some rural sites the frequency of macropterous individuals in P. melanarius has decreased c. five-fold, but it is still above the level seen in European populations in which the two wing-morphs are thought to exist in equilibrium. P. melanarius is expanding its range in native aspen forest much faster than three other introduced species Clivina fossor L., Carabus granulatus O.F. Müller and Clivina fossor L also encountered in this study. The two Carabus species are flightless, but C. fossor can be dimorphic. Although these four non-native ground beetle species comprise >85% of the carabids collected at sites in urban Edmonton, activity-density of native carabids was similar across the urban-rural gradient, suggesting little direct impact of introduced species on the local abundance of native species. In a second study conducted at a smaller scale near George Lake, Alberta, macropterous individuals of P. melanarius have penetrated furthest and most rapidly into native aspen forest. Furthermore, the percentage of micropterous individuals has increased markedly in areas first colonized a decade previously. Overall, these studies support the idea that macropterous beetles in wing-d dimorphic species are important vanguards for early colonization of unexploited territory, but

  11. The public's viewpoint on the right to hastened death in Alberta, Canada: findings from a population survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donna M; Birch, Stephen; MacLeod, Rod; Dhanji, Nurin; Osei-Waree, Jane; Cohen, Joachim

    2013-03-01

    A research study was conducted to determine public opinion in Alberta, a Canadian province, on the controversial topic of death hastening. Questions on the right to hastened death, end-of-life plans and end-of-life experiences were included in the Population Research Laboratory's annual 2010 health-care telephone survey, with 1203 adults providing results relatively representative of Albertans. Of all 1203, 72.6% said yes to the question: 'Should dying adults be able to request and get help from others to end their life early, in other words, this is a request for assisted suicide'? Among all who provided an answer, 36.8% indicated 'yes, every competent adult should have this right' and 40.6% indicated 'yes, but it should be allowed only in certain cases or situations'. Over 50% of respondents in all but one socio-demographic population sub-group (Religious-other) were supportive of the right to hastened death. However, multinomial regression analysis revealed that the experiences of deciding to euthanise a pet/animal and developing or planning to develop an advance directive predicted support, while self-reported religiosity predicted non-support. Finding majority public support for death hastening suggests that legalisation could potentially occur in the future; but with this policy first requiring a careful consideration of the model of assisted suicide or euthanasia that best protects people who are highly vulnerable to despair and suffering near the end of life. PMID:23216960

  12. Vaccination against 2009 pandemic H1N1 in a population dynamical model of Vancouver, Canada: timing is everything

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conway Jessica M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much remains unknown about the effect of timing and prioritization of vaccination against pandemic (pH1N1 2009 virus on health outcomes. We adapted a city-level contact network model to study different campaigns on influenza morbidity and mortality. Methods We modeled different distribution strategies initiated between July and November 2009 using a compartmental epidemic model that includes age structure and transmission network dynamics. The model represents the Greater Vancouver Regional District, a major North American city and surrounding suburbs with a population of 2 million, and is parameterized using data from the British Columbia Ministry of Health, published studies, and expert opinion. Outcomes are expressed as the number of infections and deaths averted due to vaccination. Results The model output was consistent with provincial surveillance data. Assuming a basic reproduction number = 1.4, an 8-week vaccination campaign initiated 2 weeks before the epidemic onset reduced morbidity and mortality by 79-91% and 80-87%, respectively, compared to no vaccination. Prioritizing children and parents for vaccination may have reduced transmission compared to actual practice, but the mortality benefit of this strategy appears highly sensitive to campaign timing. Modeling the actual late October start date resulted in modest reductions in morbidity and mortality (13-25% and 16-20%, respectively with little variation by prioritization scheme. Conclusion Delays in vaccine production due to technological or logistical barriers may reduce potential benefits of vaccination for pandemic influenza, and these temporal effects can outweigh any additional theoretical benefits from population targeting. Careful modeling may provide decision makers with estimates of these effects before the epidemic peak to guide production goals and inform policy. Integration of real-time surveillance data with mathematical models holds the promise of

  13. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  14. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happ...... Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace...... not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils...

  15. Fall migration goose and swan observation in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper summarizes the observations of migratory geese and swan in Alaska during the fall of 1965. Whistling Swans, Canada Geese, Black Brant, Emperor Geese, and...

  16. Use of a Remote Car Starter in Relation to Smog and Climate Change Perceptions: A Population Survey in Québec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkacem Abdous

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote car starters encourage motorists to warm up their vehicles by idling the motor – thus increasing atmospheric pollutants, including several greenhouse gas (GHG with impacts on public health. This study about climate change (CC adaptation and mitigation actions examined perceptions on air pollution and climate change and individual characteristics associated with the use of a remote car starter. A telephone survey (n = 2,570; response rate: 70% of adults living in Québec (Canada measured the respondents’ beliefs and current behaviours regarding CC. Approximately 32.9% (daily car users and 27.4% (occasional users reported using a remote car starter during winter. The odds of the use of a remote car starter was higher in the less densely populated central (OR: 1.5 and peripheral regions (OR: 2.7 compared to the urban centers (ex. Montreal. The odds was also higher in population with a mother tongue other than English or French (OR: 2.6 and francophones than anglophones (OR: 2.1, women than men (OR: 1.5, daily drivers than occasional ones (OR: 1.2, and respondents who at least sometimes consulted temperature/humidity reports than those who consulted them less often (OR: 1.5. In multivariate analysis, the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, being aware of smog warnings, or the belief in the human contribution to CC did not significantly influence the use of a remote car starter. The use of remote car starters encourages idling which produces increased atmospheric pollution and GHG production and it should be more efficiently and vigorously managed by various activities. A five-minute daily reduction in idling is equivalent to reducing the total car emissions by 1.8%. This would constitute a “no-regrets” approach to CC as it can simultaneously reduce GHG, air pollution and their health impacts.

  17. Health service utilisation for anogenital warts in Ontario, Canada prior to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme introduction: a retrospective longitudinal population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Fiona M; Rosella, Laura C; Dunn, Sheila; Wilson, Sarah E; Chen, Cynthia; Deeks, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trends in occurrence of anogenital warts (AGWs) can provide early evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme impact on preventing HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions. The objective of this study was to provide a baseline of AGW epidemiology in Ontario prior to the introduction of the publicly-funded school-based HPV vaccination programme in September 2007. Setting and participants As a retrospective longitudinal population-based study, we used health administrative data as a proxy to estimate incident AGWs and total health service utilisation (HSU) for AGWs for all Ontario residents 15 years and older with valid health cards between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2007. Outcome measures The outcome of interest was AGW healthcare utilisation identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnostic code for AGWs, as well as an algorithm for identifying AGW physician office visits in a database with a unique system of diagnostic and procedural codes. An AGW case was considered incident if preceded by 12 months without HSU for AGWs. Time trends by age group and sex were analysed. Results Between fiscal years 2003 and 2006, we identified 123 247 health service visits for AGWs by 51 436 Ontario residents 15 years and older. Incident AGWs peaked in females and males in the 21–23 year age group, at 3.74 per 1000 and 2.81 per 1000, respectively. HSU for AGWs peaked in females and males within the 21–23 year age group, at 9.34 per 1000 and 7.22 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of AGW incidence and HSU in Ontario. The sex and age distribution of individuals with incident and prevalent AGWs in Ontario was similar to that of other provinces before HPV vaccine programme implementation in Canada. PMID:26966057

  18. Asthma, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease amongst South Asian immigrants to Canada and their children: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric I Benchimol

    Full Text Available There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children.Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants.Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61 and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65. Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49, as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42. Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71 and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67 was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81 and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22.Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children.

  19. Breast cancer screening disparities among immigrant women by world region of origin: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kumar, Matthew; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-07-01

    Rates of mammography screening for breast cancer are disproportionately low in certain subgroups including low-income and immigrant women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in rates of appropriate breast cancer screening (i.e., screening mammography every 2 years) among Ontario immigrant women by world region of origin and explore the association between appropriate breast cancer screening among these women groups and individual and structural factors. A cohort of 183,332 screening-eligible immigrant women living in Ontario between 2010 and 2012 was created from linked databases and classified into eight world regions of origin. Appropriate screening rates were calculated for each region by age group and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and healthcare-related characteristics. The association between appropriate screening across the eight regions of origin and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and health-related characteristics was explored using multivariate Poisson regression. Screening varied by region of origin, with South Asian women (48.5%) having the lowest and Caribbean and Latin American women (63.7%) the highest cancer screening rates. Factors significantly associated with lower screening across the world regions of origin included living in the lowest income neighborhoods, having a refugee status, being a new immigrant, not having a regular physical examination, not being enrolled in a primary care patient enrollment model, having a male physician, and having an internationally trained physician. Multiple interventions entailing cross-sector collaboration, promotion of patient enrollment models, community engagement, comprehensive and intensive outreach to women, and knowledge translation and transfer to physicians should be considered to address screening disparities among immigrant population. Consideration should be given to design and delivery of culturally appropriate and easily accessible cancer screening programs

  20. Population size and production of geese and eiders nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska in 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual assessment of nesting populations of geese on the YukonKuskokwim DeltaYKD provides information for biologists, participants in cooperative goose...

  1. Individual-area relationship best explains goose species density in wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    Full Text Available Explaining and predicting animal distributions is one of the fundamental objectives in ecology and conservation biology. Animal habitat selection can be regulated by top-down and bottom-up processes, and is mediated by species interactions. Species varying in body size respond differently to top-down and bottom-up determinants, and hence understanding these allometric responses to those determinants is important for conservation. In this study, using two differently sized goose species wintering in the Yangtze floodplain, we tested the predictions derived from three different hypotheses (individual-area relationship, food resource and disturbance hypothesis to explain the spatial and temporal variation in densities of two goose species. Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, we demonstrated that goose density was positive correlated with patch area size, suggesting that the individual area-relationship best predicts differences in goose densities. Moreover, the other predictions, related to food availability and disturbance, were not significant. Buffalo grazing probably facilitated greater white-fronted geese, as the number of buffalos was positively correlated to the density of this species. We concluded that patch area size is the most important factor determining the density of goose species in our study area. Patch area size is directly determined by water levels in the Yangtze floodplain, and hence modifying the hydrological regimes can enlarge the capacity of these wetlands for migratory birds.

  2. GOOSE Version 1.4: A powerful object-oriented simulation environment for developing reactor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype software package for a fully interactive Generalized Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (GOOSE) is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dynamic models are easily constructed and tested; fully interactive capabilities allow the user to alter model parameters and complexity without recompilation. This environment provides assess to powerful tools such as numerical integration packages, graphical displays, and online help. In GOOSE, portability has been achieved by creating the environment in Objective-C1, which is supported by a variety of platforms including UNIX and DOS. GOOSE Version 1.4 introduces new enhancements like the capability of creating ''initial,'' ''dynamic,'' and ''digital'' methods. The object-oriented approach to simulation used in GOOSE combines the concept of modularity with the additional features of allowing precompilation, optimization, testing, and validation of individual modules. Once a library of classes has been defined and compiled, models can be built and modified without recompilation. GOOSE Version 1.4 is primarily command-line driven

  3. Mortality from myocardial infarction following postlumpectomy radiotherapy for breast cancer: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the risk of mortality from myocardial infarction (MI) after left-sided postlumpectomy radiotherapy (RT) to the risk after right-sided postlumpectomy RT. Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study of cases of invasive female breast cancer in Ontario, diagnosed between January 1, 1982 and December 31, 1987 (n = 25,570). Records of the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) were linked to hospital procedure and discharge abstracts and to RT records from Ontario cancer centers. A case was labelled as lumpectomy if this was the maximum breast surgery within 4 months of diagnosis. Postlumpectomy RT occurred up to 1 year postdiagnosis. Laterality was assigned from the laterality descriptor of the RT records. A case was labelled as having had a fatal MI if ICD code 410 (myocardial infarction) was recorded as the cause of death in the OCR. We used logistic regression to compare the likelihood of utilization of : 1. Dose per fraction > 2.00 Gy; 2. cobalt vs. linac; and 3. boost RT. We used life table analysis and the log rank test comparing the time to fatal MI from diagnosis of breast cancer between women who received left-sided postlumpectomy RT and women who received right-sided. We used Cox proportional hazards models to study the relative risk for left-sided cases overall, and stratified by age, RT characteristics, and among conditional survival cohorts. Results: Postlumpectomy RT was received by 1,555 left-sided and 1,451 right-sided cases. With follow-up to December 31, 1995, 2% of women with left-sided RT had a fatal MI compared to 1% of women with right-sided RT. Comparison of the time to failure between women who had left-sided RT and women who had right-sided RT showed the left-sided RT group to be associated with a higher risk of fatal MI (p = 0.02). Adjusting for age at diagnosis, the relative risk for fatal MI with left-sided postlumpectomy RT was 2.10 (1.11, 3.95). Conclusion: Among women who received postlumpectomy RT for breast cancer

  4. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and the Methodology for Mitigation and Enhancement in the Flathead Drainage, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.

    1985-01-01

    The lower Flathead System Canada Goose Study was initiated to determine population trends and the effects of water level fluctuations on nest and brood habitat on the southern half of Flathead Lake and the lower Flathead River as a result of the operations of Kerr Dam. This report presents data collected during the 1984 field season as part of an ongoing project. Geese used Pablo, Kicking Horse, Ninepipe Reservoirs heavily during late summer and fall. Use of the river by geese was high during the winter, when the reservoirs were frozen, and during the breeding period. Most breeding geese left the river after broods fledged. Thirteen percent of the artificial tree nest structures on the river were used by nesting geese. Goose nest initiation on the river peaked the last week in March through the first week in April, and hatching peaked the first week in May. Predation was the most significant cause of nest loss on the river, and nest loss by flooding was not observed. Avian predation was the single largest factor contributing to nest loss on the lake. Habitat use was studied in 4 brood areas on the river and 8 brood areas on the lake, and available habitat was assessed for 2 portions of both the lake and the river. Brood habitat use was significantly different from the available habitat in all areas studied. On the lower river, broods used wheat fields, gravel bars, and shrub habitats. On the upper river, coniferous forest and shrub habitats were preferred. On the West Bay of the lake, brood areas consisted primarily of lawns and tall herbaceous habitat, while on the South Bay, marshes dominated the brood areas studied. Water levels on the river and lake affect both accessibility of these areas to brooding geese, and the ecology of the habitats preferred by geese. 43 refs., 24 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. A molecular tool for detection and tracking of a potential indigenous Beauveria bassiana strain for managing emerald ash borer populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George

    2014-10-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive species from Asia. Beauveria bassiana strain L49-1AA is being tested for the control of emerald ash borer in Canada, using an autocontamination trapping system. We have developed a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to screen B. bassiana strain, L49-1AA from other Beauveria species by targeting the inter-strain genetic differences in 5' end of EF1-α gene of the genus Beauveria. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site, T→C was identified only in L49-1AA and was used to develop a simplified allele discrimination polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on a modified allelic inhibition of displacement activity (AIDA) approach for distinguishing B. bassiana L49-1AA from all background Beauveria isolates. The SNP site was employed to design inner primers but with a deliberate mismatch introduced at the 3' antepenultimate from the mutation site in order to maximize specificity and detection efficiency. Amplification was specific to L49-1AA without cross-reaction with DNA from other Beauveria strains. In addition, the designed primers were also tested against environmental samples in L49-1AA released plots and observed to be highly efficient in detecting and discriminating the target strain, L49-1AA from both pure and crude DNA samples. This new method can potentially allow for more discriminatory tracking and monitoring of released L49-1AA in our autocontamination and dissemination projects for managing EAB populations. Additionally, the modified-AIDA format has potential as a tool for simultaneously identifying and differentiating closely related Beauveria species, strains/isolates as well as general classification of other pathogens or organisms. PMID:25110340

  6. Characteristics of opioid-users whose death was related to opioid-toxicity: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaz Madadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of the prescription opioid public health crisis has been illustrated by the dramatic increase in opioid-related deaths in North America. We aimed to identify patterns and characteristics amongst opioid-users whose cause of death was related to opioid toxicity. METHODS: This was a population-based study of Ontarians between the years 2006 and 2008. All drug-related deaths which occurred during this time frame were reviewed at the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario, and opioid-related deaths were identified. Medical, toxicology, pathology, and police reports were comprehensively reviewed. Narratives, semi-quantitative, and quantitative variables were extracted, tabulated, and analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 2330 drug-related deaths in Ontario, 58% were attributed either in whole or in part, to opioids (n = 1359. Oxycodone was involved in approximately one-third of all opioid-related deaths. At least 7% of the entire cohort used opioids that were prescribed for friends and/or family, 19% inappropriately self-administered opioids (injection, inhalation, chewed patch, 3% were recently released from jail, and 5% had been switched from one opioid to another near the time of death. Accidental deaths were significantly associated with personal history of substance abuse, enrollment in methadone maintenance programs, cirrhosis, hepatitis, and cocaine use. Suicides were significantly associated with mental illness, previous suicide attempts, chronic pain, and a history of cancer. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSION: These results identify novel, susceptible groups of opioid-users whose cause of death was related to opioids in Ontario and provide the first evidence to assist in quantifying the contribution of opioid misuse and diversion amongst opioid-related mortality in Canada. Multifaceted prevention strategies need to be developed based on subpopulations of opioid users.

  7. Supplementing dietary sugar promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-independent insulin resistance and fatty liver in goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tuoyu; Zhao, Xing; Xia, Lili; Liu, Long; Li, Fuyuan; Yang, Biao; Wang, Qianqian; Montgomery, Sean; Cui, Hengmi; Gong, Daoqing

    2016-08-01

    It is known that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) contributes to insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mammals. However, we recently demonstrated that overfeeding with a traditional diet (mainly consisting of cooked maize) does not induce ERS in goose. As cellular studies show that high glucose and palmitate can trigger ERS in mammalian cells, we hypothesized that supplementing sugar to the traditional diet could induce ERS, thus promoting insulin resistance and fatty liver. To test the hypothesis, we first treated goose primary hepatocytes with high glucose (25 mM and 50 mM) and palmitate (0.5 mM) supplemented with or without 0.25 mM oleate. Data indicated that, as in mammalian cells, high glucose and palmitate indeed induced ERS in goose primary hepatocytes, and palmitate-induced ERS was suppressed by supplemental 0.25 mM oleate. We then tested the hypothesis with an in vivo study, in which Landes geese overfed with traditional or novel diets (i.e., the traditional diet supplemented with sugar) were compared with control geese (normally fed with cooked maize) for ERS, IR and fatty liver. The differences in glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and postprandial blood glucose between the geese overfed with traditional and novel diets suggested that supplementing dietary sugar promoted IR. This promotion was accompanied with an increasing trend of liver weight and abdominal fat weight relative to body weight. Surprisingly, compared to overfeeding with the traditional diet, overfeeding with the novel diet did not induce ERS, even further suppressed ERS in goose fatty liver. Together, our findings suggest that supplementing dietary sugar promotes ERS-independent IR and fatty liver in goose. It is intriguing to discover the factor(s) protecting goose liver from ERS as well as the non-ERS mechanism underlying IR. PMID:27246737

  8. A Vocal-Based Analytical Method for Goose Behaviour Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Karstoft

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since human-wildlife conflicts are increasing, the development of cost-effective methods for reducing damage or conflict levels is important in wildlife management. A wide range of devices to detect and deter animals causing conflict are used for this purpose, although their effectiveness is often highly variable, due to habituation to disruptive or disturbing stimuli. Automated recognition of behaviours could form a critical component of a system capable of altering the disruptive stimuli to avoid this. In this paper we present a novel method to automatically recognise goose behaviour based on vocalisations from flocks of free-living barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis. The geese were observed and recorded in a natural environment, using a shielded shotgun microphone. The classification used Support Vector Machines (SVMs, which had been trained with labeled data. Greenwood Function Cepstral Coefficients (GFCC were used as features for the pattern recognition algorithm, as they can be adjusted to the hearing capabilities of different species. Three behaviours are classified based in this approach, and the method achieves a good recognition of foraging behaviour (86–97% sensitivity, 89–98% precision and a reasonable recognition of flushing (79–86%, 66–80% and landing behaviour(73–91%, 79–92%. The Support Vector Machine has proven to be a robust classifier for this kind of classification, as generality and non-linearcapabilities are important. We conclude that vocalisations can be used to automatically detect behaviour of conflict wildlife species, and as such, may be used as an integrated part of awildlife management system.

  9. A vocal-based analytical method for goose behaviour recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Kim Arild; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Karstoft, Henrik; Green, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Since human-wildlife conflicts are increasing, the development of cost-effective methods for reducing damage or conflict levels is important in wildlife management. A wide range of devices to detect and deter animals causing conflict are used for this purpose, although their effectiveness is often highly variable, due to habituation to disruptive or disturbing stimuli. Automated recognition of behaviours could form a critical component of a system capable of altering the disruptive stimuli to avoid this. In this paper we present a novel method to automatically recognise goose behaviour based on vocalisations from flocks of free-living barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis). The geese were observed and recorded in a natural environment, using a shielded shotgun microphone. The classification used Support Vector Machines (SVMs), which had been trained with labeled data. Greenwood Function Cepstral Coefficients (GFCC) were used as features for the pattern recognition algorithm, as they can be adjusted to the hearing capabilities of different species. Three behaviours are classified based in this approach, and the method achieves a good recognition of foraging behaviour (86-97% sensitivity, 89-98% precision) and a reasonable recognition of flushing (79-86%, 66-80%) and landing behaviour(73-91%, 79-92%). The Support Vector Machine has proven to be a robust classifier for this kind of classification, as generality and non-linear capabilities are important. We conclude that vocalisations can be used to automatically detect behaviour of conflict wildlife species, and as such, may be used as an integrated part of a wildlife management system. PMID:22737037

  10. Effects of the light goose conservation order on non-target waterfowl distribution during spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Andrew J.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Vrtiska, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Light Goose Conservation Order (LGCO) was initiated in 1999 to reduce mid-continent populations of light geese (lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens and Ross's geese C. rossi). However, concern about potential for LGCO activities (i.e. hunting activities) to negatively impact non-target waterfowl species during spring migration in the Rainwater Basin (RWB) of Nebraska prompted agency personnel to limit the number of hunt days each week and close multiple public wetlands to LGCO activities entirely. To evaluate the effects of the LGCO in the RWB, we quantified waterfowl density at wetlands open and closed to LGCO hunting and recorded all hunter encounters during springs 2011 and 2012. We encountered a total of 70 hunting parties on 22 study wetlands, with over 90% of these encounters occurring during early season when the majority of waterfowl used the RWB region. We detected greater overall densities of dabbling ducks Anas spp., as well as for mallards A. platyrhynchos and northern pintails A. acuta on wetlands closed to the LGCO. We detected no effects of hunt day in the analyses of dabbling duck densities. We detected no differences in mean weekly dabbling duck densities among wetlands open to hunting, regardless of weekly or cumulative hunting encounter frequency throughout early season. Additionally, hunting category was not a predictor for the presence of greater white-fronted geese Anser albifronsin a logistic regression model. Given that dabbling duck densities were greater on wetlands closed to hunting, providing wetlands free from hunting disturbance as refugia during the LGCO remains an important management strategy at migration stopover sites. However, given that we did not detect an effect of hunt day or hunting frequency on dabbling duck density, our results suggest increased hunting frequency at sites already open to hunting would likely have minimal impacts on the distribution of non-target waterfowl species using the region for spring

  11. Identification of protective components that prevent the exacerbation of goose fatty liver: Characterization, expression and regulation of adiponectin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tuoyu; Yang, Biao; Li, Fuyuan; Xia, Lili; Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Xing; Gong, Daoqing

    2016-01-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver is a natural process in goose, which prepares goose for long-distance migration. In contrast to mammalian fatty liver that usually progresses into an irreversible status, steatohepatitis, goose fatty liver can return to normal without obvious pathological damage, suggesting a protective system exists in goose liver. This study was to identify the components of this system. We first focused on goose adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (Adipor1/2) as they have ceramidase activity, and can cleave ceramide, a group of proinflammatory signaling lipid species. Quantitative analysis indicated that tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfα), a key proinflammatory cytokine, was down-regulated in goose fatty liver by overfeeding. This inhibition of Tnfα was accompanied with reduced adiponectin and increased Adipor1/2 in the adipose tissues and in the livers of the overfed geese, respectively. To investigate the regulation of goose Adipor2 in the context of fatty liver, we treated goose primary hepatocytes with fatty liver associated factors. Data indicated that Adipor2 was upregulated by glucose and oleate but not palmitate. Its expression was even suppressed by high level of insulin. The regulation of Adipor1 by these factors was quite similar to that of Adipor2 except that glucose did not induce Adipor1. Together, these findings suggest the upregulation of Adipor1/2 may, at least partially, contribute to the inhibition of inflammation in goose fatty liver, and the expression of Adipor1/2 can be regulated by fatty liver-associated factors. PMID:26804769

  12. Agouti signalling protein (ASIP) gene: molecular cloning, sequence characterisation and tissue distribution in domestic goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wang, C; Liu, Y; Liu, J; Wang, H Y; Liu, A F; He, D Q

    2016-06-01

    Agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) and is involved in the regulation of pigmentation in mammals. The objective of this study was to identify and characterise the ASIP gene in domestic goose. The goose ASIP cDNA consisted of a 44-nucleotide 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR), a 390-nucleotide open-reading frame (ORF) and a 45-nucleotide 3'-UTR. The length of goose ASIP genomic DNA was 6176 bp, including three coding exons and two introns. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the ORF encodes a protein of 130 amino-acid residues with a molecular weight of 14.88 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.73. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis showed that the amino-acid sequence of ASIP was conserved in vertebrates, especially in the avian species. RT-qPCR showed that the goose ASIP mRNA was differentially expressed in the pigment deposition tissues, including eye, foot, feather follicle, skin of the back, as well as in skin of the abdomen. The expression level of the ASIP gene in skin of the abdomen was higher than that in skin of the back. Those findings will contribute to further understanding the functions of the ASIP gene in geese plumage colouring. PMID:26750999

  13. Photogrammetric 3d Acquisition and Analysis of Medicamentous Induced Pilomotor Reflex ("goose Bumps")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D.; Hecht, A.

    2016-06-01

    In a current study at the University Hospital Dresden, Department of Neurology, the autonomous function of nerve fibres of the human skin is investigated. For this purpose, a specific medicament is applied on a small area of the skin of a test person which results in a local reaction (goose bumps). Based on the extent of the area, where the stimulation of the nerve fibres is visible, it can be concluded how the nerve function of the skin works. The aim of the investigation described in the paper is to generate 3D data of these goose bumps. Therefore, the paper analyses and compares different photogrammetric surface measurement techniques in regard to their suitability for the 3D acquisition of silicone imprints of the human skin. Furthermore, an appropriate processing procedure for analysing the recorded point cloud data is developed and presented. It was experimentally proven that by using (low-cost) photogrammetric techniques medicamentous induced goose bumps can be acquired in three dimensions and can be analysed almost fully automatically from the perspective of medical research questions. The relative accuracy was determined with 1% (RMSE) of the area resp. the volume of an individual goose bump.

  14. Immigration and Crime: Evidence from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haimin

    2014-01-01

    There is growing belief in many developed countries, including Canada, that the large influx of the foreign-born population increases crime. Despite the heated public discussion, the immigrant-crime relationship is understudied in the literature. This paper identifies the causal linkages between immigration and crime using panel data constructed from the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and the master files of the Census of Canada. This paper distinguishes immigrants by their years in Canada an...

  15. Use and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioid Analgesics in the General Population of Canada and Correlations with Dispensing Levels in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Shield

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, harm from nonmedical prescription opioid analgesic (POA use (NMPOU has increased in recent years; however, there are limitations to the current estimates of NMPOU. The 2009 Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey presents an opportunity to produce more accurate estimates of NMPOU.

  16. Genome and metagenome analyses reveal adaptive evolution of the host and interaction with the gut microbiota in the goose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guangliang; Zhao, Xianzhi; Li, Qin; He, Chuan; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Shuyun; Ding, Jinmei; Ye, Weixing; Wang, Jun; Chen, Ye; Wang, Haiwei; Li, Jing; Luo, Yi; Su, Jian; Huang, Yong; Liu, Zuohua; Dai, Ronghua; Shi, Yixiang; Meng, He; Wang, Qigui

    2016-01-01

    The goose is an economically important waterfowl that exhibits unique characteristics and abilities, such as liver fat deposition and fibre digestion. Here, we report de novo whole-genome assemblies for the goose and swan goose and describe the evolutionary relationships among 7 bird species, including domestic and wild geese, which diverged approximately 3.4~6.3 million years ago (Mya). In contrast to chickens as a proximal species, the expanded and rapidly evolving genes found in the goose genome are mainly involved in metabolism, including energy, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Further integrated analysis of the host genome and gut metagenome indicated that the most widely shared functional enrichment of genes occurs for functions such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, propanoate metabolism and the citrate cycle. We speculate that the unique physiological abilities of geese benefit from the adaptive evolution of the host genome and symbiotic interactions with gut microbes. PMID:27608918

  17. Use of a Remote Car Starter in Relation to Smog and Climate Change Perceptions: A Population Survey in Québec (Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Belkacem Abdous; Pierre Gosselin; Stéphane Germain; Pierre Valois; Diane Bélanger

    2009-01-01

    Remote car starters encourage motorists to warm up their vehicles by idling the motor – thus increasing atmospheric pollutants, including several greenhouse gas (GHG) with impacts on public health. This study about climate change (CC) adaptation and mitigation actions examined perceptions on air pollution and climate change and individual characteristics associated with the use of a remote car starter. A telephone survey (n = 2,570; response rate: 70%) of adults living in Québec (Canada) meas...

  18. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    OpenAIRE

    Gina Ogilvie; Maureen Anderson; Fawziah Marra; Shelly McNeil; Karen Pielak; Meena Dawar; Marilyn McIvor; Thomas Ehlen; Simon Dobson; Deborah Money; David M Patrick; Monika Naus

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during...

  19. Characterization of HSP70 and its expression in tissue: correlation with physiological and immune indices in goose (Anser cygnoides) serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W W; Xiao, X; Gan, J K; Zhang, X Q; Kong, L N; Luo, Q B

    2015-01-01

    We cloned the goose heat shock protein 70 gene (HSP70), to determine its sequence variation and elucidate its mRNA expression. We designed primers to amplify the entire goose HSP70 sequence. We used 10 commercial Wuzong goslings in a heat-stress experiment. We collected tissue samples for RNA extraction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We analyzed the variation in expression of goose HSP70 before and after heat stress. We constructed a DNA pool from six different species, for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) screening. We detected 18 SNPs and selected three of these SNPs for correlation analysis with biological and immune traits in 200 Wuzong geese. We showed that T+237C was significantly correlated with the serum corticosterone level, whereas T+1122C was significantly correlated with the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Goose HSP70 contained no introns. The results of qRT-PCR analysis revealed significant gender differences in the expression of goose HSP70 at 40°C but not at 25°C; moreover, in general, expression was significantly higher at 40°C than at 25°C. With the exception of the leg muscle and cerebellum, HSP70 expression was significantly higher in male geese than in female geese. Our results indicate that goose HSP70 plays an important role in response to severe heat stress. PMID:26505377

  20. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  1. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  2. Are Glands Present in Goose Pancreatic Ducts? A Light Microscope Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulmez N

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to investigate the histological structure of goose pancreatic ducts. DESIGN: Tissue samples from the lobes and ducts of the pancreas were dissected under deep ether anesthesia. INTERVENTIONS: Sections were stained using Crossmon's connective tissue method for general observations and Gomori's method for pancreatic islet cells. RESULTS: The glands were found intermittently inside the connective tissue of the ducts starting from the interlobular ducts to the point where the pancreas emptied its contents into the duodenum as well as inside the muscular layer of the pancreatic ducts. Those glands contained centro-acinar cells and also had the same staining features as the acinus. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this was the first report of the presence of glands in the ducts of goose pancreas.

  3. Role of leptin in the regulation of sterol/steroid biosynthesis in goose granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenqiang; Gan, Chao; Wen, Rui; Xiao, Qihai; Gou, Hua; Liu, Hehe; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Liang; Wang, Jiwen

    2014-09-15

    Leptin is critical for reproductive endocrinology. The aim of this study is to assess the expression patterns of leptin receptor (Lepr) during ovarian follicle development and to reveal the mechanism by which leptin affects steroid hormone secretion in goose granulosa cells. Transcripts of Lepr were ubiquitous in all tested tissues, with pituitary and adrenal glands being the predominant sites. Goose ovarian follicles were divided into several groups by diameter including prehierarchical (4 to 6, 6 to 8, and 8 to 10 mm) and hierarchical (F5-F1) follicles. Lepr gene expression was significantly higher in granulosa cells than in theca cells from follicles of 4 to 8 mm in diameter. Expression of Lepr in granulosa cells decreased gradually as follicles developed, with fluctuating expression in F5 and F3 follicles. Lepr mRNA in theca cells underwent a slight decrease from the 6- to 8-mm cohorts to F5 follicle and then exhibited a transient increase and declined later. In vitro experiments in cultured goose granulosa cells showed that estradiol release was significantly stimulated, whereas progesterone increased slightly and testosterone decreased dramatically after leptin treatment. In accordance with the data for steroids, expression of Lepr, Srebp1, Cyp51, StAR, and Cyp19a1 were induced by the addition of leptin, and the concomitant changes in Hmgcs1, Dhcr24, Cyp11a1, 17β-hsd, Cyp17, and 3β-hsd gene expression were seen. These results suggested that leptin is involved in the development of goose ovarian follicles, and leptin's effect on steroid hormone secretion could be due to altered sterol/steroidogenic gene expression via interaction with its receptor. PMID:25016410

  4. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M

    2016-01-01

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual's origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling. PMID:27292413

  5. De novo transcriptomic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the Chinese goose: gene discovery and immune system pathway description.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Tariq

    Full Text Available The Chinese goose is one of the most economically important poultry birds and is a natural reservoir for many avian viruses. However, the nature and regulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems of this waterfowl species are not completely understood due to limited information on the goose genome. Recently, transcriptome sequencing technology was applied in the genomic studies focused on novel gene discovery. Thus, this study described the transcriptome of the goose peripheral blood lymphocytes to identify immunity relevant genes.De novo transcriptome assembly of the goose peripheral blood lymphocytes was sequenced by Illumina-Solexa technology. In total, 211,198 unigenes were assembled from the 69.36 million cleaned reads. The average length, N50 size and the maximum length of the assembled unigenes were 687 bp, 1,298 bp and 18,992 bp, respectively. A total of 36,854 unigenes showed similarity by BLAST search against the NCBI non-redundant (Nr protein database. For functional classification, 163,161 unigenes were comprised of three Gene Ontology (Go categories and 67 subcategories. A total of 15,334 unigenes were annotated into 25 eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database annotated 39,585 unigenes into six biological functional groups and 308 pathways. Among the 2,757 unigenes that participated in the 15 immune system KEGG pathways, 125 of the most important immune relevant genes were summarized and analyzed by STRING analysis to identify gene interactions and relationships. Moreover, 10 genes were confirmed by PCR and analyzed. Of these 125 unigenes, 109 unigenes, approximately 87%, were not previously identified in the goose.This de novo transcriptome analysis could provide important Chinese goose sequence information and highlights the value of new gene discovery, pathways investigation and immune system gene identification, and comparison with other avian species as useful

  6. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30 μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  7. Re: Making Health and Care Systems Fit for and Ageing Population. Why We Wrote It, Who We Wrote It For, and How Relevant It Might Be to Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David

    2014-01-01

    In response to the commentary(1) in this month’s Canadian Geriatrics Journal by Andrew and Rockwood on the recent paper I co-wrote with King’s Fund colleagues—“Making Health and Care Systems Fit for an Ageing Population”(2)—I wanted to pen a very personal response, not least because of my visits to health systems in Ontario and Alberta and conversations with many Canadian colleagues that are fresh in my mind. The paper was certainly the most important and influential thing I have written, and was an attempt to weave all the elements of good practice in health care for older people into one overarching narrative. Whilst its biggest target audience is UK health services, I hope it has some relevance to Canada and might stimulate some constructive conversations. PMID:25452827

  8. Analyzing tree cores to detect petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at a former landfill site in the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, eastern Canadian subarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonkwe, Merline L D; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the feasibility of analyzing tree cores to detect benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m, p, o-xylene (BTEX) compounds and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater in eastern Canada subarctic environments, using a former landfill site in the remote community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at the landfill site is the result of environmentally unsound pre-1990s disposal of households and industrial solid wastes. Tree cores were taken from trembling aspen, black spruce, and white birch and analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX compounds were detected in tree cores, corroborating known groundwater contamination. A zone of anomalously high concentrations of total BTEX constituents was identified and recommended for monitoring by groundwater wells. Tree cores collected outside the landfill site at a local control area suggest the migration of contaminants off-site. Tree species exhibit different concentrations of BTEX constituents, indicating selective uptake and accumulation. Toluene in wood exhibited the highest concentrations, which may also be due to endogenous production. Meanwhile, MTBE was not found in the tree cores and is considered to be absent in the groundwater. The results demonstrate that tree-core analysis can be useful for detecting anomalous concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX compounds, in subarctic sites with shallow unconfined aquifers and permeable soils. This method can therefore aid in the proper management of contamination during landfill operations and after site closures. PMID:27151238

  9. Loss of genetic integrity in wild lake trout populations following stocking: insights from an exhaustive study of 72 lakes from Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiquette, Eliane; Perrier, Charles; Thibault, Isabel; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-06-01

    Stocking represents the most important management tool worldwide to increase and sustain commercial and recreational fisheries in a context of overexploitation. Genetic impacts of this practice have been investigated in many studies, which examined population and individual admixture, but few have investigated determinants of these processes. Here, we addressed these questions from the genotyping at 19 microsatellite loci of 3341 adult lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from 72 unstocked and stocked lakes. Results showed an increase in genetic diversity and a twofold decrease in the extent of genetic differentiation among stocked populations when compared to unstocked. Stocked populations were characterized by significant admixture at both population and individual levels. Moreover, levels of admixture in stocked populations were strongly correlated with stocking intensity and a threshold value of total homogenization between source and stocked populations was identified. Our results also suggest that under certain scenarios, the genetic impacts of stocking could be of short duration. Overall, our study emphasizes the important alteration of the genetic integrity of stocked populations and the need to better understand determinants of admixture to optimize stocking strategies and to conserve the genetic integrity of wild populations. PMID:25067947

  10. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Alaid and Nizki Islands, Near Island Group, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic foxes, introduced to Alaid and Nizki islands in 1911, 1920 and 1935, were removed from the two islands in 1975 and 1976 by means of shooting and trapping...

  11. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. During 1986 the program was strongly influenced by radioactive fallout on Canada resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986 in the Soviet Ukraine. The Environmental Radiation Hazards Division (ERHD) increased its frequency of analyses of environmental samples immediately following the accident. Interim screening limits for foodstuffs were developed. A measurement program for radioactivity in domestic and imported foods was implemented. The ERHD measurement program was supplemented by additional measurements conducted by many other private and government laboratories. Radiation doses to Canadian from Chernobyl fallout were extremely low with no group in the population receiving more than 10 microsieverts

  12. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → All three capsid proteins can be expressed in insect cells in baculovirus expression system. → All three recombinant proteins were spontaneously self-assemble into virus-like particles whose size and appearance were similar to those of native purified GPV virions. → The immunogenicity of GPV-VLPs was better than commercial inactivated vaccine and attenuated vaccine. -- Abstract: Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs.

  13. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Huanyu; Wei, Na; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chunyuan; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Liu, Dapeng; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); Wang, Junwei, E-mail: jwwang@neau.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China)

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} All three capsid proteins can be expressed in insect cells in baculovirus expression system. {yields} All three recombinant proteins were spontaneously self-assemble into virus-like particles whose size and appearance were similar to those of native purified GPV virions. {yields} The immunogenicity of GPV-VLPs was better than commercial inactivated vaccine and attenuated vaccine. -- Abstract: Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs.

  14. Monitoring emperor goose populations by aerial counts and fall age ratio

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1995, we photographed flocks of emperor geese Chen canagica during fall migration at lagoons along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula for the 11th...

  15. Decision-support model to explore the feasibility of using translocation to restore a woodland caribou population in Pukaskwa National Park, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Emily K. Gonzales; Patrick Nantel; Arthur R. Rodgers; Martha L. Allen; Christine C. Drake

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) have declined dramatically in the past century. Without intervention the most southern population of caribou in eastern North America is expected to disappear within 20 years. Although translocations have reintroduced and reinforced some populations, approximately half of caribou translocation efforts fail. Translocations are resource intensive and risky, and multiple interrelated factors must be considered to asse...

  16. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married a...

  17. Community-based outbreaks in vulnerable populations of invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 5 and 8 in Calgary, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto G Vanderkooi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD typically occur within institutions. Beginning in 2005, we detected an increase in serotype (ST 5 and ST8 IPD cases, predominantly in homeless persons living in an open community. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CASPER (Calgary Area S. pneumoniae Epidemiology Research surveillance study of all IPD (sterile site isolates in our region (pop ~1,100,000. Interviews and chart reviews of all cases and all isolates phenotypically analyzed and selected isolated tested by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: During 2005-2007, 162 cases of ST5 IPD and 45 cases of ST8 IPD were identified. The isolates demonstrated phenotypic and genotypic clonality. The ST5 isolates were sequence type (ST 289 and demonstrated intermediate susceptibility to TMP-SMX. The ST8 isolates were predominantly ST1268, with a susceptible antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Individuals with ST5 IPD were more likely to be middle aged (OR 2.6, homeless (OR 4.4, using illicit drugs(OR 4.8, and asthmatic(OR 2.6. Those with ST8 were more likely to be male (OR 4.4, homeless (OR 2.6, aboriginal (OR7.3, and a current smoker (OR 2.5. Overlapping outbreaks of ST5 and ST8 IPD occurred in an open community in Calgary, Canada and homelessness was a predominant risk factor. Homelessness represents a unique community in which pneumococcal outbreaks can occur.

  18. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  19. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Resident Dark Goose Nest Survey Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the 1960s the USFWS and WDFW attempted to translocate Dusky Canada geese to the lower islands of the Lewis and Clark NWR. The attempt formed a Western Canada...

  20. Chenophila nanseni sp. n. (Acari: Syringophilidae parasitising the barnacle goose in Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoracki Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Chenophila nanseni sp. n., collected from covert quills of the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis (Anseriformes: Anatidae in Svalbard (Spitsbergen is described and female polymorphism is recorded in this species. In syringophilids this phenomenon was known only for representatives of the genus Stibarokris. The new species differs from the similar Ch. platyrhynchos by following features: in females of Ch. nanseni the anterior margin of the propodonotal shield is flat (vs. concave in Ch. platyrhynchos and the lengths of idiosomal setae si, f2 and ag3 in Ch. nanseni are distinctly shorter than in Ch. plathyrynchos.

  1. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes in Huoyan Goose Ovaries between the Laying Period and Ceased Period

    OpenAIRE

    Xinhong Luan; Dawei Liu; Zhongzan Cao; Lina Luo; Mei Liu; Ming Gao; Xiaoying Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The Huoyan goose is famous for its high egg-laying performance and is listed as a nationally protected domestic animal by the Chinese government. To elucidate the key regulatory genes involved in Huoyan goose egg laying, RNA from ovarian tissue during the ceased and laying periods was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. More than 12 million reads were produced in ceased and laying libraries that included 11,896,423 and 12,534,799 clean reads, respectively. More than 2...

  2. Monitoring the impact of the Gordon C. Leitch oil spill on the breeding bird populations of the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve, (QC) Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a monitoring study of the impact of a 1999 oil spill on the breeding bird population in the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec, are discussed. The common eider, the black guillemot and the bald eagle were the three species studied by observing and comparing the status of these bird populations on islands located inside and outside of the contaminated area. Data from before and after the oil spill were compared. Results show that an estimated 211 to 777 breeding birds have died as a result of the oil spill, however, the overall impact on the reproductive potential of the breeding bird population was insignificant. Various protective measures to mitigate the effects of future oil spills are proposed. 38 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  3. HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA POPULATIONS FROM A MINING REGION IN NORTHERN ONTARIO (CANADA: EFFECT OF SOIL LIMING AND ANALYSIS OF GENETIC VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamic of metals in soil and plants and population diversity in Northern Ontario is essential in determining progress toward ecosystem sustainability in reclaimed sites. The objectives of the present study were to assess the levels of metal content in soils and their accumulation in red oak plants from limed and unlimed sites. Genetic variation in red oak populations from the Northern Ontario region was also analyzed. The levels of soil acidity was lower in limed areas compared to un limed sites, an indication of the prolonged beneficial effect of liming 20 to 30 years ago on soil toxicity. The levels of total metals were very high for most elements, but the proportion of metals that were bio available and readily available to plants was very small. The enrichment factors were16.78, 4.98 and 2.94 for total arsenic, copper and nickel, respectively. The Translocation Factor (TF values for available metals from soil to branches were high. There was more metal accumulation in leaves compared to branches. The degrees of genetic variability in red oak populations from limed and unlimed areas were compared using ISSR markers. The levels of polymorphic loci were moderate to high ranging from 44 to 65%. There were no significant differences in polymorphisms between areas that were limed and unlimed. Overall the red oak populations in stressed areas in Northern Ontario are sustainable.

  4. Using 137Cs as a tool for the assessment and the management of erosion/sedimentation risks in view of the restoration of the Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) fish population in the Boyer River basin (Quebec, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boyer River (Quebec, Canada) drains a 217 km2 watershed that is under cultivation at 60%. The last 2 km of the river bed has always been used as a spawning ground by Rainbow Smelts (Osmerus mordax). This fish population, which plays an important ecological role in the St. Lawrence River estuary, has dramatically declined over the last decades. Siltation and excessive algal growth in the spawning area were identified as the most probable causes of the fish population decline; suggesting that soil erosion, nutrient and sediment transport are major factors underlying the environmental problem. In this context, 137Cs provides an effective tool for investigating the magnitude and spatial distribution of long-term soil redistribution taking place in the watershed. Sampling of cultivated fields, riverbanks, bottom sediments and forested sites were thus undertaken to help understand the erosive behaviour of the watershed. Results obtained so far suggest in-field erosion rates of up to 13 t ha-1 yr-1 with net outputs reaching 11 t ha-1 yr-1. These results agree well with estimates obtained from the USLE. The 137Cs data indicate that fields located in the upstream half of the basin produce smaller sediment loadings than those in the downstream portion, despite higher soil erodibilities and more frequent use for annual crops. They also suggest that more than 75% of the sediment deposited in the spawning area originates from cultivated fields, and less than 25% from streambanks. (author)

  5. Molecular Analysis of Hemagglutinin Gene of a Goose Origin Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hualan; Yu Kangzhen; Bu Zhigao

    2000-01-01

    The hemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza virus (AIV) plays a key role in determining the pathogenicity, cell receptor-binding property and host range of the virus. A goose origin AIV A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1) (GD/96) was confirmed as a highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) by the tests of intravenous pathogenic index (IVPI) and the assay of plaque formation. The sequence results of the HA gene cDNA of the isolate reveal that there is an insertion of 6 basic amino acids ( R-R-R-K-K-R-) in the cleavage site between the HA1 and HA2, which is the characterization of the H5 subtype HPAIV. When compared with the lethal A/Hongkong/156/97 (H5N1) (HK/97), there is a homology of 98% at the nucleotide level and 98. 2% at the amino acid level. Furthermore, no difference of nucleotides related to all of the 6 potential glycosylation sites, the 2 receptor-binding sites and the basic amino acid insert within the HA existed between GD/96 and HK/97. These results imply that the GD/96 and HK/97 have a closely related common ancestor and share the same biological properties decided by the HA.

  6. Glaucous gull predation of goslings on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, T.D.; Stehn, R.A.; Scribner, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta frequently prey on juvenile waterfowl. We collected 434 Glaucous Gulls from late June to early August 1994 to examine diet. Identification of undigested prey tissue, based on DNA microsatellite loci, showed three species of goslings in gull stomachs: Emperor Goose (Chen canagica), White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), and Cackling Canada Goose (Branta canadensis minima). Gulls that nested inland and were collected > 1.6 km from the coast accounted for approximately 70% of the total gull predation on Emperor and Canada Geese, and 96% on White-fronted Geese. Our stratified sample of gull stomachs and aerial survey estimates of population size and distribution of gulls and juvenile geese enabled extrapolation of species-specific predation rates to the entire Y-K Delta. We estimated that a minimum of 21 000 Emperor Goose, 34 000 Canada Goose, and 16 000 White-fronted Goose goslings were consumed by 12 600 Glaucous Gulls during the brood-rearing period on the Y-K Delta in 1994. Minimum estimated take by gulls represented 33% of Cackling Canada Goose, 47% of Emperor Goose, and 39% of White-fronted Goose eggs estimated to have hatched in the same area as gull collections. Gulls selected the three species of geese approximately in proportion to their abundance. Although gull predation caused significant gosling mortality, its role in regulating goose populations on Y-K Delta remains unresolved.

  7. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. PMID:23628429

  8. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: a re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey

    OpenAIRE

    J. Chen; Moir, D.; Whyte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970s in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14 000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a log–normal distribution with a geometr...

  9. 77 FR 37035 - Goose River Hydro, Inc.; Independence Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Goose River Hydro, Inc.; Independence Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for..., Inc. (transferor) and Independence Hydro, LLC (transferee) filed an application for the transfer of..., Independence Hydro, LLC, 220 Maine Mall Road, South Portland, ME 01406, (207) 274-0001. FERC Contact:...

  10. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Parent-Child Mother Goose Program in Relation to Children's Language and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrett, Gill; White, Roxanne; Spreckley, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess changes in children's language skills and parenting stress following participation in the Parent-Child Mother Goose Program (PCMGP). The intervention group consisted of 29 parents (age range 24 to 43 years, "M" = 33.5, SD = 4.1) and 30 children (18 females and 12 males) with ages ranging from 1 to 46 months…

  11. Predator protection or similar habitat selection in red-breasted goose nesting associations : extremes along a continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, JL; Prop, J; Kokorev, Y; Black, JM

    2003-01-01

    We tested the predator protection and similar habitat hypotheses in relation to red-breasted goose, Branta ruficollis, nesting associations. Geese began laying 1-3 weeks after all associated species. In almost all cases they nested on the mainland only if raptors were also present and always followe

  12. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  13. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    The issue of productivity growth in Canada has received considerable attention reflecting its marked slowdown since the early 1970s and concerns about its implications for Canadian competitiveness. To better understand productivity developments in Canada, it is useful to decompose total factor productivity (TFP) into investment-specific productivity change (ISP) and technologically neutral productivity change (TNP). The gap in manufacturing productivity growth between Canada and the United St...

  14. Isolation and partial characterization of the gene for goose fatty acid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, K; Goodridge, A G

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase is regulated by diet and hormones, with regulation being primarily transcriptional. In chick embryo hepatocytes in culture, triiodothyronine stimulates accumulation of enzyme and transcription of the gene. Since the 5'-flanking region of this gene is likely involved in hormonal regulation of its expression, we have isolated and partially characterized an avian fatty acid synthase gene. A genomic DNA library was constructed in a cosmid vector and screened with cDNA clones that contained sequence complementary to the 3' end of goose fatty acid synthase mRNA. A genomic clone (approximately 35 kilobase pairs (kb] was isolated, and a 6.5-kb EcoRI fragment thereof contained DNA complementary to the 3' noncoding region of fatty acid synthase mRNA. Additional cosmid libraries were screened with 5' fragments of previously isolated genomic clones, resulting in the isolation of five overlapping cosmid DNAs. The entire region of cloned DNA spans approximately 105 kb. Exon-containing fragments were identified by hybridization with end-labeled poly(A)+ RNA and by hybridization of labeled exon-containing genomic DNA fragments to fatty acid synthase mRNA. A new set of cDNA clones spanning approximately 3.2 kb was isolated from a lambda-ZAP goose liver cDNA library using the 5'-most exon-containing fragment of the 5'-most genomic DNA clone. This region of mRNA contains a 5'-untranslated sequence and a continuous open reading frame which includes a region that codes for the essential cysteine of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain. The entire fatty acid synthase gene spans about 50 kb. The 5' 15 kb of the gene contain 7 exons. S1 nuclease and primer extension analyses were used to identify a single site for initiation of transcription, 174 nucleotides upstream from the putative translation initiation codon. Putative "TATA" and "CCAAT" boxes are located 28 and 60 base pairs (bp), respectively, upstream of the site of initiation of transcription. The 5'-flanking 597

  15. A Comparison of the Composition and Diversity of Tree Populations along a Hydrological Gradient in Floodplains (Southern Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Berthelot

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the current climate changes, it is essential to understand the mechanisms that govern floods and flow regimes and their effects on the dynamics of riparian forests. The aim is to assess the effects of new hydrological conditions (increase in flood frequency on forest stands subject to frequent floods. The sampling sites (total of 94 quadrats are located in riverine woodlands, and the choice of location corresponds to the boundaries of the flood-risk zones established by official government maps. Our study shows that there are significant differences in the composition and diversity of forest communities following differences in the flood recurrence zones. In the active floodplains (i.e., recurrence interval of 0–20 years, the tree population stands are clearly distinguished from other intermediate flood zones (interval of 20–100 years. Differences are also noted in the structure of the communities, in particular in the frequent flood zones, which are characterized by a low renewal rate, low density and less-diversified forest stands. The frequent floods risk forest stand rejuvenation and creating decline as a result of increased tree mortality and the low renewal rate. With the expected increases in the number of flood events in the coming decades, there may be greater tree mortality and a gradual disappearance of the forest communities.

  16. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  17. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  18. Incremental health care costs for chronic pain in Ontario, Canada: a population-based matched cohort study of adolescents and adults using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Mary-Ellen; Taddio, Anna; Katz, Joel; Shah, Vibhuti; Krahn, Murray

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the economic burden of chronic pain and how chronic pain affects health care utilization. We aimed to estimate the annual per-person incremental medical cost and health care utilization for chronic pain in the Ontario population from the perspective of the public payer. We performed a retrospective cohort study using Ontario health care databases and the electronically linked Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) from 2000 to 2011. We identified subjects aged ≥12 years from the CCHS with chronic pain and closely matched them to individuals without pain using propensity score matching methods. We used linked data to determine mean 1-year per-person health care costs and utilization for each group and mean incremental cost for chronic pain. All costs are reported in 2014 Canadian dollars. After matching, we had 19,138 pairs of CCHS respondents with and without chronic pain. The average age was 55 years (SD = 18) and 61% were female. The incremental cost to manage chronic pain was $1742 per person (95% confidence interval [CI], $1488-$2020), 51% more than the control group. The largest contributor to the incremental cost was hospitalization ($514; 95% CI, $364-$683). Incremental costs were the highest in those with severe pain ($3960; 95% CI, $3186-$4680) and in those with most activity limitation ($4365; 95% CI, $3631-$5147). The per-person cost to manage chronic pain is substantial and more than 50% higher than a comparable patient without chronic pain. Costs are higher in people with more severe pain and activity limitations. PMID:26989805

  19. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  20. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  1. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  2. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and asessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1980 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format is used with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  3. 采用微卫星DNA标记分析我国2个地方鹅种异地保种效果%Conservation Efficiency of Local Goose Breeds in Allopatrty Farm as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬; 陈阳; 荣光辉; 段修军; 李欣钰; 徐琪; 陈国宏

    2012-01-01

    本研究以10对荧光标记微卫星引物分析了我国2个地方鹅种(狮头鹅和皖西白鹅)原产地与基因库(泰州)共4个群体的保种效果.检测判定了狮头鹅和皖西白鹅共240个个体的基因型,通过计算4个群体的优势等位基因频率(Pi)、期望杂合度(He)、多态信息含量(PIC)、群体内近交系数(Fis)分析了狮头鹅和皖西白鹅群体内和群体间的遗传变异,采用配对试验均数差异t检验比较了基因库保种群体与原产地群体的遗传差异,基因库保种群体与原产地群体间的Pi无显著差异(P>0.05);He、PIC均略高于原产地群体,但差异均不显著(P>0.05);Fis低于原产地群体,差异不显著(P>0.05).结果说明,基因库较好地保存了这2个品种并在一定程度上丰富了品种的遗传多样性,表明对我国地方鹅种采取异地小群保种的方法是可行的.%Ten fluorescence labeling microsatellite markers were used to analyze the conservation efficiency of two local goose breeds (Shitou goose and Wanxi goose) containing 4 populations between the gene pool (Taizhou) and the place of origin. The genotypes of 240 individuals were detected and the genetic variation between populations of these two breeds were analysed by computing the advantage allele frequencies, expected heterozygosity, polymorphism information content (PIC)and population inbreeding coefficients (Fis).The genetic variations between the gene pool populations and the original ones by using paired experiment mean t test. The advantage Pi of these two breeds were not significantly different in the four populations (Pst=0.197, PWX =0.219);He,PIC were slightly higher than the original populations,but the differences were also not significant (Phe=0.063, PPIC =0.144,Phe=0.230, PpIC=0.195 );Fis were lower than the original populations but the differences were not significant(PST=0.111, PWX=0.130). The results showed that these two breeds were preserved perfectly in the gene

  4. Canada vs. the OECD: an environmental comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's environmental performance is compared to the 28 other nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Twenty-five environmental indicators in ten categories are examined. These are: air, water, energy, biodiversity, waste, climate change, ozone depletion, agriculture, transportation and miscellaneous. Results show Canada with the poorest environmental record of all OECD countries, except the United States. The statistical information, compiled from data verified and published by the OECD, shows Canada among the worst three countries on nine indicators (per capita GHG emissions, CO and VOCs emissions, water consumption, energy consumption, energy efficiency, volume of timber logged, generation of nuclear waste, and the highest amount of energy consumed per unit of GDP). Tracking Canada's energy performance over the past two decades reveals that the situation is worsening in terms of water and energy consumption, production of nuclear and hazardous waste, greenhouse gas emissions, the number of endangered species, decline of fish populations, commercial fertilizer use, timber logging, number of motor vehicles, kilometres travelled by road, higher population and lower official development assistance (foreign aid). On the positive side, Canada's environmental performance was found to be poor but improving on ten indicators, including reduced air pollution, improved sewage treatment, reduced municipal waste, increased recycling, improved energy efficiency, decreased production of ozone-depleting substances and an increase in parks and protected areas

  5. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  6. Elemental microchemistry, fatty acid profile and geometric morphometrics signatures of goose barnacles (Pollicipes pollicipes reveal their place of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Albuquerque

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seafood plays an important role in the socioeconomic, gastronomy and cultural heritage of Portuguese coastal communities. In the Iberian Peninsula, the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the intertidal biological resource most heavily exploited by man, resulting on overexploitation of stocks. In the MPA of BNR P.pollicipes harvesting is however strictly regulated, making it a good example of marine resources management. Analytical methods able to identify the origin of goose barnacle would be an important tool to help the management of the trade. For such purpose, we investigated whether P. pollicipes have site-specific differences based on its elemental microchemistry (EM, fatty acid profile (FA and capitulum shape (CS. The analysis was performed on specimens collected from 3 sites in the BNR and 7 along a 300 km stretch of the Portuguese coast. For each individual we analysed the largest lateral shell for EM using ICP-MS, the FA content of the muscle using GC-FID, and the CS using geometric morphometrics. Discriminant function analyses (DFA for both EM and FA separately provided a high reclassification success (77.6% and 99% respectively, of cross-validated cases correctly classified, while for EM combined with FA allowed for a 100% reclassification success. DFA analysis based only on CS, revealed a low classification success (29.6%. These results show that EM and FA signatures can be a powerful tool to infer goose barnacles origin. Such “fingerprinting” approach can be used to track and identify goose barnacles origin, helping in establishing an origin certificate and increasing the potential value of biological resources from Portuguese MPAs.

  7. Natural background radiation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published airborne gamma ray survey data from 33 areas of Canada were used to compile information on the average ground level exposure from natural radiation. The exposures at ground level were calculated from the surface concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. The highest levels of radioactivity were found in northern Canada and were generally related to granitic rocks; the lowest levels with the Athabasca sandstone. Summer outdoor exposure rates have a population-weighted average of 3.7 +- 2.3 μR.h-1, of which 48 percent orginated from potassium, 43 percent from the thorium series and 9 percent from the uranium series. This low level of radioactivity, compared to worldwide data, has resulted from erosion of a geologically old continental crust in which radioactivity decreases with depth. When seasonal variations of soil moisture and snow cover are considered, the annual population-weighted average outdoor exposure rate decreases to 2.8 +- 1.7 μR.h-1 corresponding to an annual outdoor dose-equivalent of 150 +- 90 μSV. Factors increasing the annual outdoor dose-equivalent are cosmic radiation (320 +- 30 μSV) and the internal radioactivity of the body (190 μSV). Using the ratio between indoor and outdoor values for worldwide published data, the average annual Canadian whole-body dose-equivalent from all sources of natural radiation is estimated to be 690 +-130 μSV

  8. Canada's Neutron Beam Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the current and planned activities of Canada's Neutron Beam Laboratory which is managed by the National Research Council of Canada. In 1994, Professor Bertram Brockhouse shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for his pioneering work carried out in this laboratory. He developed neutron scattering as a powerful and versatile tool for investigating materials at the level of molecules and nano structures. The neutron source for this work is Canada's NRU reactor located at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. This neutron source is also used for the production of medical isotopes, testing of components for the nuclear power stations and neutron scattering experiments on materials

  9. Physics Teaching in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Ernie; Hirsch, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of physics teaching in Canada. Responds to questions involving the curriculum, efforts to promote gender equity, teaching methods, high school physics teachers, physics teaching organizations, and educational trends. (27 references) (MDH)

  10. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  11. Transcriptome profiling identifies differentially expressed genes in Huoyan goose ovaries between the laying period and ceased period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Luan

    Full Text Available The Huoyan goose is famous for its high egg-laying performance and is listed as a nationally protected domestic animal by the Chinese government. To elucidate the key regulatory genes involved in Huoyan goose egg laying, RNA from ovarian tissue during the ceased and laying periods was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. More than 12 million reads were produced in ceased and laying libraries that included 11,896,423 and 12,534,799 clean reads, respectively. More than 20% of the reads were matched to the reference genome, and 23% of the reads were matched to reference genes. Genes with a false discovery rate (FDR ≤0.001 and log2ratio ≧1 or ≤-1 were characterized as differentially expressed, and 344 up-regulated and 344 down-regulated genes were classified into functional categories. Twelve genes that are mainly involved in pathways for reproduction regulation, such as steroid hormone biosynthesis, GnRH signaling pathways, oocyte meiosis, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, steroid biosynthesis, calcium signaling pathways, and G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway were selected for validation by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis, the qRT-PCR results are consistent with the general expression patterns of those genes from the Illumina sequencing. These data provide comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that might increase our understanding of the Huoyan goose's reproductive biology.

  12. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  13. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper reviews the factors that may explain high and persistent unemployment in Canada, with particular emphasis on the role that a decline in the relative cost of capital may have had on trend unemployment. The analysis suggests that in Canada a declining trend in the cost of capital, associated with technological changes and innovations, has been an important factor in explaining the rise and persistence of unemployment. The paper also analyzes recent trends in personal ...

  14. Child Poverty in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Crossley; Lori Curtis

    2003-01-01

    A 1989 all-party motion of parliament called for the elimination of child poverty in Canada by the year 2000. Despite a series of policy initiatives, recent reports suggest that the child poverty rate may now be comparable to that in 1989. The apparent persistence of child poverty in Canada might reflect socioeconomic developments, or something about the way that child poverty is measured. Using micro data covering the period 1986 to 2000 we find little support for these explanations.

  15. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  16. Poisoning of Canada geese in Texas by parathion sprayed for control of Russian wheat aphid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Juenger, Gary; Roffe, Thomas J.; Smith, Milton R.; Irwin, Roy J.

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 200 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) died at a playa lake in the Texas Panhandle shortly after a winter wheat field in the basin adjacent to the lake was treated with parathion to control newly invading Russian wheat aphids (Diuraphis noxia). No evidence of infectious disease was diagnosed during necropsies of geese. Brain ChE activities were depressed up to 77% below normal. Parathion residues in GI tract contents of geese ranged from 4 to 34 ppm. Based on this evidence, parathion was responsible for the goose mortalities. Parathion applications to winter wheat will undoubtedly increase if parathion is applied for control of both Russian wheat aphids and greenbugs (Schizaphis graminum). Geese may potentially be exposed to widespread applications of parathion from fall to spring, essentially their entire wintering period.

  17. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Resident Dark Goose (RDG) Banding Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the 1960s the USFWS and WDFW attempted to translocate Dusky Canada geese to the lower islands of the Lewis and Clark NWR. The birds hybridized with Western...

  18. Initial arctic fox eradication program on Amukta Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recent discovery of a second wild breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) on Chagulak Island suggested the...

  19. Effect of Euchsaena mexicana Schrad Diets on Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Metabolism for Wulong Goose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-wei; WU Xiao-ping; WANG Lei; LIU Guang-lei; JIA Xiao-hui; ZHANG Ming-ai; GE Wen-hua; ZHANG Ting-rong; ZHU Xin-chan

    2005-01-01

    One trial was conducted to study nutrition digestibility of Euchsaena mexicana Schrad (EMC) diets for Wulong Goose.Thirty-two geese of 9 months old were selected and divided into four groups randomly, with eight geese in each group.Four groups were fed with the isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets of different EMC contents (12, 19, 25 and 31%),respectively. The results showed that, as dietary EMC increased, dry matter (DM) digestibility was decreased significantly,meanwhile the digestibility of crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) increased significantly (P<0.05). The ratio of apparent essential amino acid (EAA) digestibility (except Leu) among the four groups had significant difference (P<0.01). the content of NH3-N in feces dropped (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in net protein utilization (NPU), N apparent digestibility, N deposition and Ca apparent digestibility in different groups (P>0.05). The apparent digestibility of P in different groups elevated, while there was significant difference between group D and A (P<0.01), and there was significant difference between group D and B (P<0.05).

  20. Fish monitoring project -- Oregon: Smolt monitoring activities at Little Goose Dam in 1996. Annual Report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The juvenile fish facility at Little Goose Dam is operated seasonally to collect and bypass downstream migrating smolts and keep them from passing through the turbine blades. Fish are diverted from turbines by traveling screens as they sound in the forebay to pass the dam. A small percentage of the passing fish are sampled on a daily basis to provide information on fish condition, species composition, migration timing, and size distribution. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife personnel perform daily fish sampling and data collection. Physical operation of the facility is the responsibility of the US Army Corps of Engineers. Data is reported to the Fish Passage Center daily by means of electronic data transfer. Funding for this project was provided through the Smolt Monitoring Program administered by the Fish Passage Center. Overall, the number of fish collected and sampled in 1996 was a reduction from the previous years of operation. The 1996 migration season was characterized by higher than average flows and greater spill frequency at the dam. It was the first year that coho salmon were obtained in the sample. The predominant species collected was steelhead with hatchery fish outnumbering wild fish by a ratio of 8:1. An increased emphasis was placed on gas bubble trauma examination and a routine, consistent effort was implemented using a protocol established by the Fish Passage Center. The objective of the gas bubble trauma (GBT) examinations was to document the relative incidence of symptoms throughout the migration season

  1. Effect of the loading rate on compressive properties of goose eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedomová, Š.; Kumbár, V.; Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2016), s. 223-233. ISSN 0092-0606 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : goose egg * compression * rupture force * deformation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.286, year: 2014 http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/770/art%253A10.1007%252Fs10867-015-9403-2.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2Fs10867-015-9403-2&token2=exp=1460539397~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F770%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252Fs10867-015-9403-2.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Farticle%252F10.1007%252Fs10867-015-9403-2*~hmac=fd2b9956908d60e519ce45c412eaf5c228f6f96333e62a06285950a2123f7739

  2. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhuoyu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL and Ontario (ON, Canada. Methods Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000 and NL (1999-2003. Controls (n = 2481 were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ, personal history questionnaire (PHQ, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Results Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile, whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile, carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile. Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. Conclusion This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.

  3. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON), Canada. Methods Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760) were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000) and NL (1999-2003). Controls (n = 2481) were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ), personal history questionnaire (PHQ), and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Results Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile), whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile), carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile) and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile). Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. Conclusion This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease. PMID:22449145

  4. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.)

  5. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1973-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. This report summarizes the results obtained during 1973-1976 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides. During this period, all radioactivity levels were below the maximum permissible limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (Auth)

  6. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

    1988-01-01

    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  7. Update on Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, John Webster

    1994-01-01

    Gift planning is increasing in Canada's colleges and universities to offset effects of retrenchment. New annuity vehicles and the emergence of university Crown Foundations offer tax breaks that support private giving to institutions. In addition, a simplified process for gifts is anticipated. (MSE)

  8. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  9. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  10. Nuclear technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed

  11. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  12. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  13. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  14. Site selection and nest survival of the Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) on the Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Spragens, Kyle A.; Xiao, Xiamgming

    2014-01-01

    Waterbirds breeding on the Mongolian Plateau in Central Asia must find suitable wetland areas for nesting in a semiarid region characterized by highly variable water conditions. The first systematic nesting study of a waterbird dependent on this region for breeding was conducted on the Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus). The purpose of this study was to document Bar-headed Goose nesting locations, characterize nests and nesting strategies, and estimate daily nest survival (n = 235 nests) from eight areas of west-central Mongolia across three summers (2009–2011) using a modified Mayfield estimator. Bar-headed Goose daily nest survival ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, with a 3-year average nest success of 42.6% during incubation. Bar-headed Geese were found to primarily nest on isolated pond and lake islands as previously reported, but were also documented regularly, though less frequently, along rocky cliffs in several regions of west-central Mongolia. Daily nest survival was higher for cliff nests than for island nests. Information-theoretic models indicated that nest survival decreased with nest age and varied annually with changing environmental conditions. Results of this study suggest that while Bar-headed Geese primarily rely on nesting island sites these sites may be more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance and predation events influenced by seasonal variation in environmental conditions, and that higher daily nest survival values documented for the less frequent cliff nest strategy may provide an important alternative strategy during poor island nest success years. Thus, conservation efforts for this and other waterbird species in the semiarid region should be focused on conserving nesting islands and protecting them from disturbance in areas of high livestock densities experiencing a rapidly warming climate.

  15. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  16. A preliminary radon map for Canada according to health region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent publications of the combined analyses of residential radon studies in Europe and North America have shown that there is a significant risk of lung cancer at residential radon levels. In order to assess the population risk due to radon, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of indoor radon levels is essential. Here a preliminary radon map for Canada is presented, based on historical radon measurements collected in 6016 locations across Canada with the health region as the basic geographic units. (authors)

  17. Canada country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrill, Cheryl [Bruce Power, 3394 County Road 20 - RRH2, N0G 2T0 Tiverton ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility

  18. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  19. A Novel Mycoplasma sp. Associated with Phallus Disease in Goose Breeders: Pathological and Bacteriological Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaccini, S; Ferguson-Noel, N M; Chin, R P; Santoro, T; Black, P; Bland, M; Bickford, A A; Sentíes-Cué, C G

    2016-06-01

    In April 2014, poor fertility in a major commercial goose breeder operation in California triggered the submission of six live affected Toulouse ganders ( Anser anser ) to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, Turlock branch (University of California-Davis). Toulouse were principally affected among all breeds, and their egg fertility dropped from 65.7% to less than 33.9% in the first 40 days of the 2014 breeding season. The flock consisted of 410 adult birds, 90 males and 320 females, between 2 and 5 yr of age. Inspection of the flock revealed that 44.4% of the Toulouse ganders had severe phallic deformities that prevented them from mating. At postmortem examination, severe yellowish fibrocaseous exudate disrupted the architecture of the phallus and occasionally produced fistulating tracts through the wall of the organ. Microscopically, multifocal lymphoid nodules were noted in the mucosa and submucosa of the phallus and were associated with extensive granulomatous reaction, intralesional bacteria, and spermatozoa. Mycoplasma spp. were isolated from the phallus of affected and nonaffected birds, and PCR protocols targeting the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer regions and the RNA polymerase beta subunit gene were performed to identify the isolates. Three distinct species were identified on sequencing and analysis using the National Center for Biotechnology Information basic local alignment search tool: Mycoplasma cloacale , Mycoplasma anseris , and an unknown novel Mycoplasma sp. Additionally, Pasteurella multocida , in combination with other bacteria, was also isolated from the phallic lesions and identified as serotype 3 with a DNA profile of 1511 (National Veterinary Service Laboratory). This is the first report of these Mycoplasma spp. and other bacteria associated with reproductive disease in ganders in the United States. PMID:27309284

  20. Two goose-type lysozymes in Mytilus galloprovincialis: possible function diversification and adaptive evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available Two goose-type lysozymes (designated as MGgLYZ1 and MGgLYZ2 were identified from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. MGgLYZ1 mRNA was widely expressed in the examined tissues and responded sensitively to bacterial challenge in hemocytes, while MGgLYZ2 mRNA was predominately expressed and performed its functions in hepatopancreas. However, immunolocalization analysis showed that both these lysozymes were expressed in all examined tissues with the exception of adductor muscle. Recombinant MGgLYZ1 and MGgLYZ2 could inhibit the growth of several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and they both showed the highest activity against Pseudomonas putida with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 0.95-1.91 µM and 1.20-2.40 µM, respectively. Protein sequences analysis revealed that MGgLYZ2 had lower isoelectric point and less protease cutting sites than MGgLYZ1. Recombinant MGgLYZ2 exhibited relative high activity at acidic pH of 4-5, while MGgLYZ1 have an optimum pH of 6. These results indicated MGgLYZ2 adapted to acidic environment and perhaps play an important role in digestion. Genomic structure analysis suggested that both MGgLYZ1 and MGgLYZ2 genes are composed of six exons with same length and five introns, indicating these genes were conserved and might originate from gene duplication during the evolution. Selection pressure analysis showed that MGgLYZ1 was under nearly neutral selection while MGgLYZ2 evolved under positive selection pressure with three positively selected amino acid residues (Y(102, L(200 and S(202 detected in the mature peptide. All these findings suggested MGgLYZ2 perhaps served as a digestive lysozyme under positive selection pressure during the evolution while MGgLYZ1 was mainly involved in innate immune responses.

  1. Teacher Diversity in Canada: Leaky Pipelines, Bottlenecks, and Glass Ceilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James; Pollock, Katina; Antonelli, Fab

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the racial diversity of the teacher population in Canada. In particular, we compare the number of teachers of colour in Canadian elementary and secondary schools from the 2001 and 2006 Census data with the diversity of the student and general populations. We also explore ways to understand the gap between the proportion of…

  2. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  3. Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Foodborne Botulism in Canada, 1985–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Leclair, Daniel; Fung, Joe; Isaac-Renton, Judith L.; Proulx, Jean-Francois; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Ellis, Andrea; Ashton, Edie; Bekal, Sadjia; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Blanchfield, Burke; Austin, John W.

    2013-01-01

    During 1985–2005, a total of 91 laboratory-confirmed outbreaks of foodborne botulism occurred in Canada; these outbreaks involved 205 cases and 11 deaths. Of the outbreaks, 75 (86.2%) were caused by Clostridium botulinum type E, followed by types A (7, 8.1%) and B (5, 5.7%). Approximately 85% of the outbreaks occurred in Alaska Native communities, particularly the Inuit of Nunavik in northern Quebec and the First Nations population of the Pacific coast of British Columbia. These populations w...

  5. Nuclear insurance in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many years ago, a group of insurance companies founded an organization offering nuclear insurance, called Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada. The passage of Order-in-Council P.C. 1960-555 gave Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. the power to indemnify suppliers, contractors, etc. against liability claims. The situation has remained essentially unchanged. In 1970 Parliament passed the Nuclear Liability Act, but it has never been proclaimed. The act sets mandatory levels of nuclear insurance as high as $75 million for firms involved in nuclear activity. It is expected that agreement between the insurers and government will be reached later this year (1976), so that the act can be proclaimed. (N.D.H.)

  6. Canada's medical isotope strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper details Canada's medical isotope strategy and the role of the Canadian Government in the security of the isotope supply chain. The government's role is to promote health and safety of Canadians, establish appropriate regulatory framework, allow the markets to work, facilitate international collaboration, fund high-risk early stage research and development, encourage private sector investment in innovation and support and respect environmental and non-proliferation goals.

  7. Illuminating Our World: An Essay on the Unraveling of the Species Problem, with Assistance from a Barnacle and a Goose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Buckeridge

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to plan for the future, we must understand the past. This paper investigates the manner in which both naturalists and the wider community view one of the most intriguing of all questions: what makes a species special? Consideration is given to the essentialist view—a rigid perspective and ancient, Aristotelian perspective—that all organisms are fixed in form and nature. In the middle of the 19th century, Charles Darwin changed this by showing that species are indeed mutable, even humans. Advances in genetics have reinforced the unbroken continuum between taxa, a feature long understood by palaeontologists; but irrespective of this, we have persisted in utilizing the ‘species concept’—a mechanism employed primarily to understand and to manipulate the world around us. The vehicles used to illustrate this journey in perception are the barnacle goose (a bird, and the goose barnacle (a crustacean. The journey of these two has been entwined since antiquity—in folklore, religion, diet and even science.

  8. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  9. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  10. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. PMID:25308235

  12. Climate change and the increasing impact of polar bears on bird populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouke eProp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is becoming warmer at a high rate, and contractions in the extent of sea ice are currently changing the habitats of marine top-predators dependent on ice. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus depend on sea ice for hunting seals. For these top-predators, longer ice-free seasons are hypothesized to force the bears to hunt for alternative terrestrial food, such as eggs from colonial breeding birds. We analyzed time-series of polar bear observations at four locations on Spitsbergen (Svalbard and one in east Greenland. Summer occurrence of polar bears, measured as the probability of encountering bears and the number of days with bear presence, has increased significantly from the 1970/80s to the present. The shifts in polar bear occurrence coincided with trends for shorter sea ice seasons and less sea ice during the spring in the study area. This resulted in a strong inverse relationship between the probability of bear encounters on land and the length of the sea ice season. Within ten years after their first appearance on land, polar bears had advanced their arrival dates by almost 30 days. Direct observations of nest predation showed that polar bears may severely affect reproductive success of the barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis, common eider (Somateria mollissima and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus. Nest predation was strongest in years when the polar bears arrived well before hatch, with more than 90% of all nests being predated. The results are similar to findings from Canada, and large-scale processes, such as climate and subsequent habitat changes, are pinpointed as the most likely drivers in various parts of the Arctic. We suggest that the increasing, earlier appearance of bears on land in summer reflects behavioral adaptations by a small segment of the population to cope with a reduced hunting range on sea ice. This exemplifies how behavioral adaptations may contribute to the cascading effects of climate change.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium BHG1.1, a Strain Isolated from Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) Feces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Zheng, Si-Si; Sun, Hao; Cao, Jian; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xue-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium is a soil-inhabiting Gram-positive bacterium that is routinely used in industrial applications for recombinant protein production and bioremediation. Studies involving Bacillus megaterium isolated from waterfowl are scarce. Here, we report a 6.26-Mbp draft genome sequence of Bacillus megaterium BHG1.1, which was isolated from feces of a bar-headed goose. PMID:27174262

  14. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in Canada: Recommendations for testing and management

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Susan; Bienzle, Dorothee; Carioto, Lisa; Chisholm, Hugh; O’Brien, Elizabeth; Scherk, Margie

    2011-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious disease agents of cats in Canada. Seroprevalence data for FeLV and FIV in various populations of Canadian cats are reviewed and recommendations for testing and management of infections by these viruses in cats in Canada are presented. Retrovirus testing in Canada is infrequent in comparison with the United States, and efforts should be focused on reducing physical and other barriers to tes...

  15. Declining sex ratios in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, B. B.; Brant, R; Seidel, J E; Jarrell, J F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends in the proportion of annual live births that were male in Canada and to compare the trends with those in the United States. DESIGN: Analysis of census data. SETTING: Canada as a whole and 4 main regions (West, Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic). SUBJECTS: All live births from 1930 to 1990. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sex ratio (expressed as the proportion of total live births that were male [male proportion]) overall and by region. RESULTS: The male proportion in Canada decr...

  16. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  17. Propagation of Aleutian Canada geese on Amchitka Island, Alaska, 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The methods of propagation on Amchitka Island were changed from past years in that artificial incubation and rearing were abandoned in favor of more natural goose...

  18. Canada's disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept for the safe and permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes from Canada's CANDU reactors has been developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). The waste would be placed in an engineered disposal vault 500 to 1000 m below the surface in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The multiple barriers to retain the waste and retard the release of radioactivity would be the waste form, the containers, buffer and backfill, and the rock overlying the vault. Numerous research programmes have been carried out to develop the technology for the concept. These include work on materials corrosion and failure mechanisms to assess the performance of the used fuel containers. Predictive modelling has shown that more than 97% of ASTM Grade 2 titanium containers will retain their integrity, even under pessimistic assumptions, for 1200-6000 years after emplacement, and even longer times may be achieved with other grades of titanium or copper. Other research has been aimed at vault sealing, at site characterization for an underground research laboratory and at the development of a methodology for assessing radiological and environmental effects after closure of the facility. A review of the safety and environmental impacts of the concept is now being carried out by an independent panel appointed by the government. (2 figures, 3 references) (UK)

  19. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  20. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  1. Development of a restriction length polymorphism combined with direct PCR technique to differentiate goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    WAN, Chun-He; CHEN, Hong-Mei; FU, Qiu-Ling; SHI, Shao-Hua; FU, Guang-Hua; CHENG, Long-Fei; CHEN, Cui-Teng; HUANG, Yu; HU, Kai-Hui

    2016-01-01

    A restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with direct PCR technique to differentiate goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses (GPV and MDPV) was developed based on comparison of the NS gene of GPV and MDPV. Both GPV and MDPV genomic DNA can be amplified with 641 bp using the specific PCR primers. The PCR fragments can be cut into 463 bp and 178 bp only in the case of MDPV-derived PCR products, whereas the GPV-derived PCR products cannot. The method established in this study can be used to differentiate GPV and MDPV with high specificity and precision, by using a direct PCR kit and QuickCut enzyme, as quickly as conventional PCR. PMID:26854108

  2. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs

  3. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  4. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  5. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  6. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, April - June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare determines levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assesses the resulting population exposures. In this Report, the results for the second quarter of 1977 from the analyses of air, water vapour, drinking water and milk for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format used in the last quarterly report has been retained with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this quarter are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection. (auth)

  7. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U3O8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  8. Gambling households in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  9. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Immigration, Generational Status and Health Literacy in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edward; Omariba, D. Walter R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Immigrants, a fast-growing population in Canada, score below the national average in health literacy, but the reasons behind the low scores are largely unknown. Also, there is a need to understand the long-term impact of immigration by examining health literacy by generational status. Objective: To examine health literacy differentials…

  11. Probing the Future of Mandatory Retirement in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbott, Peter; Kerr, Don; Beaujot, Roderic

    2006-01-01

    The future of mandatory retirement is at least partly driven by changing demographics. In Canada, these demographics include slowing population growth, rapid aging, declining rates of labour force participation, and slowing labour force growth. After reviewing the demographic trends and considering alternate scenarios in labour force…

  12. Capturing, banding, and transplanting of Aleutian Canada geese, Buldir and Agattu Islands, Alaska, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to capture 100 Aleutian Canada geese and transplant to Agattu Island to continue efforts to reestablish a nesting population on...

  13. Canada No. 1 in business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has for the fifth time in a row been chosen the best industrialized country in the world in which to initiate and run a business. The Norwegian interest in Canada has grown strongly the last years and Norwegian companies have invested over 20 billion NOK there. Canada is the perfect gateway to the large markets in the USA. Norway is currently Canada's 15th largest trading partner. In addition to low costs and strategic location, Canada has the most highly educated workforce in the world. A company on the Canadian side of the US border has the same access to the American market as a US-based company. There is even a Norwegian company in Canada that exports 100 per cent of its products across the border to the USA. The trade between the USA and Canada is more extensive than between the USA and all the EU countries together. Furthermore, Canadian companies concentrating on research and education are given a generous tax credit

  14. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  15. Dynamics of immigrants' health: Evidence from Canada, 1994-95 to 2002-03. Summary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkins, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary of: Ng, Edward, Russell Wilkins, François Gendron, and Jean-Marie Berthelot.2005. "Dynamics of immigrants' health in Canada: evidence from the NationalPopulation Health Survey." Healthy today, healthy tomorrow? Findings fromthe National Population Health Survey. Ottawa: Statistics Canada catalogue 82-618; 2:1-11. Available free at: http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/82-618-MIE/82-618-MIE2005002.htm.

  16. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) in the hypothalamus of Huoyan goose during different stages of the egg-laying cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhongzan; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Mei; Gao, Ming; Chen, Zimo; Xing, Zhe; Zhang, Xiaoying; Yin, Yunhou; Luan, Xinhong

    2016-01-10

    Neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) is one of the most active members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like family, which bind to the ErbB tyrosine kinase receptor and play many roles in modulation of synaptic activity, synaptogenesis, GABAergic neurotransmission, neurotransmitter receptor expression and the hormonal control of neuroendocrine reproductive development. In this study, we cloned and characterized the cDNA of goose Nrg1 originating from hypothalamus tissues of Huoyan goose using RACE method, investigated the mRNA expression profiles during different stages of the egg-laying cycle by real-time PCR. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analyses of the deduced amino acid sequence were conducted using bioinformatics tools. We also determined the profiles of blood serum progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH content during different egg-laying stages using radioimmunoassay. The cDNA of Nrg1 is consisted of 2061bp open reading frame encoding 686 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of goose Nrg1 contains one EGF domain from amino acid residues 224 to 265 and shows a closer genetic relationship to the avian species than to other mammal species. The expression level of Nrg1 mRNA increased from the pre-laying period to the peak-laying period, reached its peak in the peak-laying period, and then decreased in the ceased period. The concentrations of FSH and estradiol in blood serum have the similar changing trend. These results might suggest a potential correlation between Nrg1/ErbB signaling network with the reproductive neuroendocrine of Huoyan goose. PMID:26407867

  17. High-throughput sequencing reveals the core gut microbiome of Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) in different wintering areas in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Cao, Jian; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xuelian; Zheng, Sisi; Sharshov, Kirill; Li, Laixing

    2016-04-01

    Elucidating the spatial dynamic and core gut microbiome related to wild bar-headed goose is of crucial importance for probiotics development that may meet the demands of bar-headed goose artificial breeding industries and accelerate the domestication of this species. However, the core microbial communities in the wild bar-headed geese remain totally unknown. Here, for the first time, we present a comprehensive survey of bar-headed geese gut microbial communities by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology using nine individuals from three distinct wintering locations in Tibet. A total of 236,676 sequences were analyzed, and 607 OTUs were identified. We show that the gut microbial communities of bar-headed geese have representatives of 14 phyla and are dominated by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The additive abundance of these four most dominant phyla was above 96% across all the samples. At the genus level, the sequences represented 150 genera. A set of 19 genera were present in all samples and considered as core gut microbiome. The top seven most abundant core genera were distributed in that four dominant phyla. Among them, four genera (Lactococcus, Bacillus, Solibacillus, and Streptococcus) belonged to Firmicutes, while for other three phyla, each containing one genus, such as Proteobacteria (genus Pseudomonas), Actinobacteria (genus Arthrobacter), and Bacteroidetes (genus Bacteroides). This broad survey represents the most in-depth assessment, to date, of the gut microbes that associated with bar-headed geese. These data create a baseline for future bar-headed goose microbiology research, and make an original contribution to probiotics development for bar-headed goose artificial breeding industries. PMID:26842811

  18. Treating goose foot bursitis by knife acupuncture plus ozone%小针刀配合臭氧治疗鹅足滑囊炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨小针刀配合臭氧治疗鹅足滑囊炎的疗效。方法:临床收集60例确诊为鹅足滑囊炎的患者,给予小针刀及臭氧治疗1~3次,观察疗效。结果:60例中临床控制13例,显效38例,有效8例,无效1例。结论:小针刀配合臭氧治疗鹅足滑囊炎疗效显著,值得临床推广。%Objective: Knife acupuncture plus ozone for goose foot bursitis was investigated. Methods: Clinical collected 60 diagnosed patients with goose foot bursitis, who recieved knife acupuncture plus ozone treatment 1~3 times. Results: In 60 cases, controlled in 13 cases, 38 cases of markedly effective, effective in 8 cases, 1 case was invalid. Conclusion: The knife acupuncture plus ozone for goose foot bursitis showed significant effects, is worthy of promotion.

  19. Nuclear fuel activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel activities in Canada are considered in the presentation on the following directions: Canadian utility fuel performance; CANDU owner's group fuel programs; AECL advanced fuel program (high burnup fuel behaviour and development); Pu dispositioning (MOX) activities. 1 tab

  20. Difficulties Assessing Multifactor Productivity for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Harper; Nakamura, Alice O.; Lu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, Canada's business sector multifactor productivity (MFP) index, as estimated by Statistics Canada, was below that for 1977, a third of a century earlier. Over these years, public policies were enacted to try to improve Canada's productivity. Yet the nation's MFP continued to fall, relative to both the past and Canada's main trading partners. Policymakers and business decision makers need to know whether Canada's MFP statistics accurately reflect the nation's productivity. We argue tha...

  1. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    recapture analysis with model estimates. The utility of combining sources of information into analysis of populations was the explicit subject of the other two papers. Gauthier & Lebreton (2004 draw on a long–term study of an Arctic–breeding Goose population, where both extensive mark–recapture, ring recovery, and census data are available. The primary goal is to use these various sources of information to to evaluate the effect of increased harvests on dynamics of the population. A number of methods are compared; most notably they describe an approach based on the Kalman filter which allows for different sources of information to be used in the same model, that is demographic data (i.e. transition matrix and census data (i.e. annual survey. They note that one advantage of this approach is that it attempts to minimize both uncertainties associated with the survey and demographic parameters based on the variance of each estimate. The final paper, by Brooks, King and Morgan (Brooks et al., 2004 extends the notion of the combining information in a common model further. They present a Bayesian analysis of joint ring–recovery and census data using a state–space model allowing for the fact that not all members of the population are directly observable. They then impose a Leslie–matrix–based model on the true population counts describing the natural birth–death and age transition processes. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC approach (which eliminates the need for some of the standard assumption often invoked in use of a Kalman filter, Brooks and colleagues describe methods to combine information, including potentially relevant covariates that might explain some of the variation, within a larger framework that allows for discrimination (selection amongst alternative models. We submit that all of the papers presented in this session indicate clearly significant interest in approaches for combining data and modeling approaches. The Bayesian framework appears a natural

  2. Status and conservation of the ruddy-headed goose Chloephaga rubidiceps Sclater (Aves, Anatidae in its wintering grounds (Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina Estado y conservación del cauquén colorado Chloephaga rubidiceps Sclater (Aves, Anatidae en su zona de invernada (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL E BLANCO

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The mainland population of the ruddy-headed goose (Chloephaga rubidiceps breeds in southern Patagonia and winters in the south of Buenos Aires province (Argentina, with a recent estimated size at around 900 individuals. This population is considered "in danger of extinction", while the Malvinas (Falkland Islands population is in well conservation status, with an estimated size of 40,000 birds. The aim of this work is to contribute with updated information about the ruddy-headed goose's population wintering in southern Buenos Aires province. The specific objectives were to better delimit its wintering area, to look for sites with large numbers, to study its habitat used, and to identify main threats to the species. Two intensive surveys were conducted during the austral winter of 1999. The results: (1 confirm the low abundance of the ruddy-headed goose supporting its critical conservation status, (2 corroborate its very restricted distribution, with more than 80 % of sightings concentrated in an area of 13,000 ha in southern Buenos Aires province, and (3 suggest that changes in the species' habitat use during the wintering season appear to be a response to changes in habitat availability, resulting from the growth of crops and pastures. The overlap between the species wintering distribution and the main wheat cropping areas of Argentina results in serious threats to this goose. Management actions are discussed to contribute to the conservation of this endangered species.La población continental del Cauquén colorado (Chloephaga rubidiceps cría en el sur de la Patagonia e inverna en el sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina, con un tamaño poblacional estimado recientemente en alrededor de 900 individuos. Esta población está considerada "en peligro de extinción", mientras la población de las Islas Malvinas se mantiene en buen estado de conservación, con un tamaño estimado en 40.000 individuos. La meta de este trabajo es

  3. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Haese

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000. Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50. Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8, or no-treatment (n=8, developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral

  4. Estimated Number of Birds Killed by House Cats (Felis catus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blancher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predation by house cats (Felis catus is one of the largest human-related sources of mortality for wild birds in the United States and elsewhere, and has been implicated in extinctions and population declines of several species. However, relatively little is known about this topic in Canada. The objectives of this study were to provide plausible estimates for the number of birds killed by house cats in Canada, identify information that would help improve those estimates, and identify species potentially vulnerable to population impacts. In total, cats are estimated to kill between 100 and 350 million birds per year in Canada (> 95% of estimates were in this range, with the majority likely to be killed by feral cats. This range of estimates is based on surveys indicating that Canadians own about 8.5 million pet cats, a rough approximation of 1.4 to 4.2 million feral cats, and literature values of predation rates from studies conducted elsewhere. Reliability of the total kill estimate would be improved most by better knowledge of feral cat numbers and diet in Canada, though any data on birds killed by cats in Canada would be helpful. These estimates suggest that 2-7% of birds in southern Canada are killed by cats per year. Even at the low end, predation by house cats is probably the largest human-related source of bird mortality in Canada. Many species of birds are potentially vulnerable to at least local population impacts in southern Canada, by virtue of nesting or feeding on or near ground level, and habitat choices that bring them into contact with human-dominated landscapes where cats are abundant. Because cat predation is likely to remain a primary source of bird mortality in Canada for some time, this issue needs more scientific attention in Canada.

  5. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  6. Eastern Canada hydrocarbon development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current petroleum industry activities on Canada's east coast, and future potential were discussed. Offshore drilling activity is proceeding in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin, in addition to the Sable and Terra Nova Offshore Energy Projects. Future potential for Newfoundland and Nova Scotia has been estimated at 30 billion BOE and 13 billion BOE respectively. Natural gas potential off Labrador was estimated at 37 Tcf, offshore Newfoundland at 41 Tcf, and offshore Sable Island at 49 Tcf with varying amounts of oil associated with each field. Cumulative industry spending is expected to reach $ 10 billion by the year 2000, and could reach $20 billion by 2005. Prospects for Mobil Oil, number One in discoveries and industry influence, and number Two in acreage among the partners, were reviewed. Some details of the Sable Offshore Energy Project were outlined. The estimated cost of the project is $2 billion. It is expected to be on stream in late 1999 with a total of 27 wells (11 in phase 1). Reserves are estimated at 3.5 TCF or more. Hibernia was on stream in November 1997. Total recoverable reserves at Hibernia are estimated at 750 MMBls. Peak production of 180,000 b/d is expected by 2000-2001. Life expectancy of 20 years is predicted. The Terra Nova project, located 25 miles southeast of Hibernia, was also reviewed. It will be on stream in late 2000 with total reserves of 350-450 MMBls of oil, peak production at 115,000 to 135,000 b/d with a life expectancy of 15 years. 21 figs

  7. SCWR Concept in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL is designing the Canadian SCWR concept, which has evolved from the well-established pressuretube type CANDU® reactor. The Canadian SCWR is designed to produce electrical energy as the main product, plus process heat, hydrogen, industrial isotopes, and drinking water (through the desalination process) as supplementary products, all within a more compact reactor building. Another potential application of the available co-generated process heat is the extraction and refining of oil sands, which is presently achieved using co-generation with natural gas turbines and process heat. The extraction and upgrading process requires: thermal power to lower the viscosity and extract the oil; electric power for separation and refining equipment; and hydrogen gas for upgrading the oil product prior to transport. A National Program has been established in Canada to support R&D studies for the Canadian SCWR design. It covers key areas of interest (such as thermal hydraulics, safety, materials, and chemistry) to participants in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) SCWR designs. Results generated from the program are contributed to the GIF SCWR project management boards (PMBs). For example, heat transfer correlations have been derived using experimental data primarily obtained from fossil-plant related studies (which were started as early as 1930s. Materials and chemistry studies have evolved from operating experience of fossil-fired power plants to a) develop, and perform targeted testing of, materials for key components, in particular in-core reactor components that will be exposed to conditions not encountered in a fossil-fired boiler (such as irradiation and water radiolysis), and b) develop a suitable water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport

  8. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1985-02-01

    Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River causes sporadic level fluctuations along the main stem Flathead River. Seasonal water level fluctuations and substantial habitat losses have occurred as a result of construction and operation of Kerr Dam, which regulates Flathead Lake. These fluctuations may impact goose populations through flooding or erosion of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and increased susceptibility of nests and young to predation. The number, location, and success of goose nests were determined through pair surveys and nest searches. Counts of indicated pairs suggest there were 73-125 occupied nests in the study area; 44 were located in 1984. Twenty were island ground nests, 19 were tree nests, and 5 were on man-made structures. Hatching success was 76 percent. Sixty-one percent of all nests were in deciduous forest habitat; 87 percent were on riparian bench or island landforms. Seventy-four percent of all nests were within 5 m of the seasonal high water mark (HWM) and 85 percent of ground nests were 1 m or less above the HWM. Production, habitat use, and distribution of broods were documented through aerial, boat, ground, and observation tower surveys. 28 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  10. Energy and the future : Canada's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise in global energy consumption is driven by economic growth, particularly in developing countries. It is expected that by 2030, the world population will consume 50 per cent more energy than today. This increase in global energy demand can no longer be met through the business as usual approach. Graphs depicting emerging energy demand in Asia were presented for nuclear energy, coal, natural gas, oil and renewables. The issue of how China can meet it's growing energy demand was discussed with reference to energy consumed by its industrial, agricultural, commercial, residential and transportation sectors. The author emphasized the uneven distribution of resources, where consuming areas do not coincide with producing areas. It is expected that traditional energy sources will still supply most of the world's energy need for the foreseeable future, but they will leave less of an environmental impact. The author suggested that renewable energy sources will also increase but will comprise less than 20 per cent of the world supply in 2050. The author also discussed the issue of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Kyoto obligations and projections of what will happen with Kyoto post 2012. Canada's GHG record and recent environmental findings were also discussed with reference to Arctic ice coverage and the decline in average winter temperature. It was suggested that technology is the key to the energy shortage the environment and security. With declining conventional oil reserves, old nuclear technology and aging electric power technology, new technology must be used to address supply issues, distribution, interconversion, environmental impacts and risks. It was emphasized that since the energy sector is Canada's greatest economic driver, Canada should focus on energy technologies to build a more competitive energy sector. Huge export opportunities also exist for energy technologies. The role of industry and governments in achieving this goal was also discussed. figs

  11. Botulismo tipo C em ganso ocorrido em Minas Gerais, Brasil Type C botulism in a goose at Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulismo é uma intoxicação causada pela ingestão das toxinas produzidas pelo Clostridium botulinum, que acomete mamíferos e aves, caracterizando-se por um quadro de paralisia flácida. Neste trabalho, é descrito um caso de botulismo em ganso, ocorrido no município de Santa Luzia, região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Ao exame clínico, o animal apresentava-se com um quadro de paralisia flácida dos músculos do pescoço, das pernas e asas, além de apresentar ainda desprendimento de penas. A necropsia não revelou lesões significativas. Foi colhido o soro do animal e submetido ao teste de soroneutralização em camundongo, que identificou a toxina de C. botulinum tipo C.Botulism is an intoxication caused by the ingestion of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, that affects mammals and birds, characterized by a flaceid paralysis. This report describes a case of botulism in a goose in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Clinical examinations showed dropping feathers and flaccid paralysis involving the muscles of the wings, legs and neck. post-mortem examination showed no significant gross or macroscopic lesions C. botulinum type C toxin was demonstrated in the serum of the affected animal through serum neutralization test in mice.

  12. Splicing of goose parvovirus pre-mRNA influences cytoplasmic translation of the processed mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Long; Pintel, David J., E-mail: pinteld@missouri.edu

    2012-04-25

    Translation of goose parvovirus (GPV) 72 kDa Rep 1 is initiated from unspliced P9-generated mRNAs in ORF1 from the first in-frame AUG (537 AUG); however, this AUG is bypassed in spliced P9-generated RNA: translation of the 52 kDa Rep 2 protein from spliced RNA is initiated in ORF2 at the next AUG downstream (650 AUG). Usage of the 537 AUG was restored in spliced RNA when the GPV intron was replaced with a chimeric SV40 intron, or following specific mutations of the GPV intron which did not appear in the final spliced mRNA. Additionally, 650 AUG usage was gained in unspliced RNA when the GPV intron splice sites were debilitated. Splicing-dependent regulation of translation initiation was mediated in cis by GPV RNA surrounding the target AUGs. Thus, nuclear RNA processing of GPV P9-generated pre-mRNAs has a complex, but significant, effect on alternative translation initiation of the GPV Rep proteins.

  13. Effects of electrical stunning frequency and voltage combinations on the presence of engorged blood vessels in goose liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsán, Zs; Varga, L; Szigeti, J; Turcsán, J; Csurák, I; Szalai, M

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of nine electrical stunning methods using various frequency and voltage combinations on the occurrence of engorged blood vessels in goose liver. Two hundred seventy Gourmaud geese (liver-type line SI 14) were slaughtered at 12 wk of age, in groups of 90 at three different times. Thirty birds each were subjected to one of the nine stunning methods. Neck cutting was performed immediately after stunning. The duration of exsanguination was 11 min. After completion of bleeding, the birds were scalded, defeathered manually, and kept refrigerated. At 1 d postmortem, the carcasses were eviscerated and cut up. From the slaughterhouse, the livers chilled in ice were transported to the cannery where they were weighed and graded at 2 d postmortem and were further processed. All of the veins and capillaries full of blood were removed from livers, because their presence was a hazard to product quality by causing discoloration of the canned liver, and the percentage of liver weight loss was then determined. The loss in liver weight due to removal of engorged blood vessels was reduced (P electrical stunning of liver geese might have considerable commercial advantages. PMID:14653479

  14. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  15. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ..., NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining Company, LLC, Pennzoil-Quaker... Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining... party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate. The Respondent's...

  16. [Linguistic minorities in Canada and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Louise; Desmeules, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Official language minorities (Francophones outside of Quebec and Anglophones in Quebec) make up about 6.4% of the Canadian population. Even though the Canadian constitution gives legal equality status to French and English, there is still room to ask if this equality is maintained in the health sector. In other words, do Francophone and Anglophone communities of Canada have the same health profiles regardless of their minority or majority status? Do they have access to the same health services and in the same conditions? The objective of this paper is to identify the health issues associated with belonging to a linguistic minority. Our research allows us to highlight the social and health disparities that can be attributed to belonging to a minority. In the Canadian context, which has two official languages, an equitable health policy will have to take into consideration language as a determinant of health. PMID:24289938

  17. Agricultural Leadership Development: Insights and Experiences from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Corry; McLean, Scott

    2002-01-01

    In Canada, agriculture and its related industries are undergoing rapid and significant changes. Among the many issues facing farmers and other agri-business people are the development of biotechnologies, the decline of on-farm and rural populations, the emergence of new public policies, concerns over food safety, globalisation of markets, sensitivity to environmental issues, and the influence of regional and global trade agreements. Given the complexity of these issues, and the distinctivenes...

  18. Argentina-Canada from 1870: Explaining the dynamics of divergence

    OpenAIRE

    González, Germán; Viego, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    Argentina and Canada started their industrialization processes while exporting natural resources and importing capital goods. These two nations were sparsely populated but received significant inflows of European immigrants since the second half of the nineteenth century. Until the start of World War II, both economies experienced similar per-capita GDPs. However, the gap between both per-capita GDPs began to grow, widening throughout the century. We carry out an empirical study of the deep d...

  19. Changes in lifestyle after hypertension diagnosis in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Neutel, C Ineke; Campbell, Norm RC

    2008-01-01

    Lifestyle modification should be an important part of therapy when hypertension is first diagnosed, with or without starting antihypertensive medication. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which recently diagnosed hypertensive Canadians modify their lifestyles and to examine how lifestyle modification relates to antihypertensive medication use. The longitudinal National Population Health Survey in Canada was conducted between 1994 and 2002, including five interv...

  20. Study of Golden Eagles Migration in the Calgary Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Tianqing

    2013-01-01

    The eagles watch project is an effort of volunteer bird observers collecting data to monitor the Golden Eagle population in the Rocky Mountains of Calgary, Canada. The project began in March 1992, through April 2012. Such a Citizen Scientist research project has gained great popularity over the last decade due to extensive labor and time needed for observational studies in the fields such as Ornithology and Astronomy. The goal of the Citizen Scientist project is not only accelerate and enric...

  1. New Endemic Legionella pneumophila Serogroup I Clones, Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Tijet, Nathalie; Tang, Patrick; Romilowych, Mya; Duncan, Carla; Ng, Victoria; Fisman, David N.; Jamieson, Frances; Low, Donald E.; Guyard, Cyril

    2010-01-01

    The water-borne pathogen Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) is the most commonly reported etiologic agent of legionellosis. To examine the genetic diversity, the long-term epidemiology, and the molecular evolution of Lp1 clinical isolates, we conducted sequence-based typing on a collection of clinical isolates representing 3 decades of culture-confirmed legionellosis in Ontario, Canada. Analysis showed that the population of Lp1 in Ontario is highly diverse and combines lineages identif...

  2. Canada's commitment to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a broad update on all facets of the Canadian nuclear industry and demonstrates Canada's continuing commitment to nuclear technology. Canada has developed a global leadership position in nuclear technology for power generation, uranium production and isotope supply. This commitment is being further enhanced by successes in international markets with Candu technology, new uranium mine developments in our province of Saskatchewan, and expanding isotope capabilities including the construction of two new production reactors. Korea's economy is benefiting through collaboration with Canada's leading nuclear companies, both in Korea and Canada. These collaborations have the potential to expand considerably with the implementation of the Kyoto Framework Convention on Climate Change and the anticipated increased demand for new nuclear power generation installations in all major global markets. Much has been publicized about the situation surrounding Ontario Hydro Nuclear and its nuclear recovery program. This paper gives the background and highlights the actions within Ontario and Ontario Hydro designed to ensure the long term recovery of all twenty nuclear units in Ontario. The presentation at the conference will bring the audience completely up-to-date on recent events. (author)

  3. Financing Higher Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    It is the purpose of the committee responsible for this document to study, report, and make recommendations on the financing of universities and colleges of Canada, with particular reference to the decade ending 1975, including: (1) prospective financial requirements of universities and colleges, for operation, research, physical facilities and…

  4. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  5. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  6. Canada report on bioenergy 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is a nation rich in fossil fuel resources. Canada has a large, well-developed forest sector and is one of the world's largest exporters of wood products. Although national bioenergy policies exist, provincial policies regarding forest resources are necessary because 77 per cent of Canada's forests are under provincial jurisdiction. This report presented an update on Canada's bioenergy policy and resources. The report discussed biomass resources such as woody biomass; agricultural residues; and municipal waste. The use of biomass was presented with particular reference to heat and power; biofuels production; pyrolysis oil; wood pellets; and trends in biomass production and consumption. Current biomass users and biomass prices were also examined. Last, the report addressed imports and exports of ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets as well as barriers and opportunities to trade. A list of Canadian bioenergy initiatives and programs was also provided. It was concluded that the greatest opportunities for trade are to succeed in research on super-densified pellets; raise ocean shipping capacity to bring down rates; and to establish and entire biomass industry in Newfoundland Labrador. 20 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  7. Compute Canada: Advancing Computational Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Performance Computing (HPC) is redefining the way that research is done. Compute Canada's HPC infrastructure provides a national platform that enables Canadian researchers to compete on an international scale, attracts top talent to Canadian universities and broadens the scope of research.

  8. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  9. Fusion Canada issue 32. Final edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion Canada is a bulletin of the National Fusion Program, this is the last edition. Included in this July edition are articles on Funding for Canada's fusion program, Research and Development on TdeV-96 , Divertor Maintenance Robotics and reference listing for Canada's Fusion research and development sites

  10. First report and morphological, molecular characterization of Xiphinema chambersi Thorne, 1939 (Nematoda, Longidoridae in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A Xiphinema species, new to Canada was recovered from rhizosphere of oak trees in Ontario, Canada. The identity was confirmed with morphological and molecular methods as X. chambersi Thorne, 1939. Female bodies are 2.1–2.4 mm long; odontostyle lengths are 110–118 µm; tail 110–177 µm long, arcuate, elongate-conoid, with hyline region 22-43 µm long. Vagina directed about 30 degrees posteriorly. Reproductive system is monodelphic with ovary reflexed anteriorly, vulva opening at 23–26% of the body. Males were not found. The 18S and ITS1 sequences of this population had 3–4 bp differences (99% identity and 30 bp differences (97% identity from two Arkansas populations respectively. The nematode population had three juvenile stages. Some variations of the morphometrics were observed comparing with the other populations. This is the first report of X. chambersi in Canada.

  11. Canada thistle biological control agents on two South Dakota wildlife refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C.C.; Larson, D.L.; Larson, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We monitored populations of Canada thistle biocontrol agents Cassida rubiginosa, Ceutorhynchus litura, Larinus (= Hadroplantus) planus, Urophora cardui, Orellia (= Terellia) ruficauda, and Rhinocyllus conicus on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) at two national wildlife refuges in South Dakota from 1999 through 2003. C. litura, U. cardui, O. ruficauda, and R. conicus were present on both refuges. Agent populations were low except for C. litura, which was present in up to 90% of stems in some plots. C. litura infestation did not reduce thistle flowering, stem length, or over-winter survival. There was no change in thistle stem numbers over the study period and no difference in stem numbers in areas of high C. litura populations compared to areas of low C. litura populations. Our results suggest that insect biological control agents are inadequate for reduction of Canada thistle in southern South Dakota.

  12. An ethnographic investigation of the maternity healthcare experience of immigrants in rural and urban Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Higginbottom, Gina M; Safipour, Jalal; Yohani, Sophie; O’Brien, Beverly; Mumtaz, Zubia; Paton, Patricia; Chiu, Yvonne; Barolia, Rubina

    2016-01-01

    Background Canada is among the top immigrant-receiving nations in the world. Immigrant populations may face structural and individual barriers in the access to and navigation of healthcare services in a new country. The aims of the study were to (1) generate new understanding of the processes that perpetuate immigrant disadvantages in maternity healthcare, and (2) devise potential interventions that might improve maternity experiences and outcomes for immigrant women in Canada. Methods The st...

  13. An ethnographic investigation of maternity healthcare experience of immigrants in rural and urban Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Higginbottom, Gina M A; Safipour, Jalal; Yohani, Sophie; O'Brien, Beverley; Mumtaz, Zubia; Paton, Patricia; Chiu, Yvonne; Barolia, Rubina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Canada is among the top immigrant-receiving nations in the world. Immigrant populations may face structural and individual barriers in the access to and navigation of healthcare services in a new country. The aims of the study were to (1) generate new understanding of the processes that perpetuate immigrant disadvantages in maternity healthcare, and (2) devise potential interventions that might improve maternity experiences and outcomes for immigrant women in Canada. Methods: ...

  14. The Bank of Canada's 2009 Methods-of-Payment survey: Methodology and key results

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, Carlos; Welte, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The authors present the methodology and main findings of the Bank of Canada's 2009 Methods-of-Payment survey, a detailed investigation of consumer payment behaviour in Canada. The survey targeted the 18- to 75-year-old Canadian resident population. During November 2009, participants answered a questionnaire about their demographics, personal finance, and payment instrument habits and perceptions. Of the 6,868 questionnaire respondents, about half also completed a 3-day shopping diary, recordi...

  15. Carry-over or compensation? The impact of winter harshness and post-winter body condition on spring-fattening in a migratory goose species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Madsen, Jesper; Tombre, Ingunn M.

    2015-01-01

    effect of winter harshness on post-winter body condition. However, this effect was compensated along the spring migration corridor, and did not persist long enough to influence future reproduction. This highlights the importance of temporal scale when assessing impacts of environmental effects, and......Environmental conditions at one point of the annual cycle of migratory species may lead to cross-seasonal effects affecting fitness in subsequent seasons. Based on a long-term mark-resighting dataset and scoring of body condition in an arctic breeding goose species, we demonstrate a substantial...

  16. Public inquiries in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Constitution provides that the provinces may exclusively make laws in relation to electrical generation facilities. However through the exercise of its declaratory power, which is an exceptional power assigned to the federal Parliament, the latter has assumed exclusive legislative jurisdiction over the nuclear fuel cycle. Thus, the legislation applying to nuclear power plants is that which is passed by the federal Parliament. On June 18, 1990, the Canadian government tabled Bill C-78 (Environmental Assessment Act), which clarifies the nature, purpose and scope of public hearings into the construction of nuclear power plants. These reflections upon the role of the public hearing in the Canadian context lead to more general observations on the need to restructure decision-making mechanisms in order to take into account new values that important segments of the population are espousing. More open and democratic decision-making mechanisms, both for developing the content of energy policies and reviewing the construction of specific projects, constitute one of the avenues that should be explored in order to arrive at better public understanding and acceptance of nuclear energy. Public hearings can play an important role in this restructuring of decision-making mechanisms. Precise rules must nevertheless be established in order to use this means effectively and to avoid raising false expectations. (author)

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk profile and microvascular complications of diabetes: comparison of Indigenous cohorts with diabetes in Australia and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Maple-Brown Louise J; Cunningham Joan; Zinman Bernard; Mamakeesick Mary; Harris Stewart B; Connelly Philip W; Shaw Jonathan; O'Dea Kerin; Hanley Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Indigenous populations of Australia and Canada experience disproportionately high rates of chronic disease. Our goal was to compare cardiovascular (CVD) risk profile and diabetes complications from three recent comprehensive studies of diabetes complications in different Indigenous populations in Australia and Canada. Methods We compared participants from three recent studies: remote Indigenous Australians (2002-2003, n = 37 known diabetes), urban Indigenous Australians (2...

  18. The Enigmatic and Ephemeral M Dwarf System KOI 6705: Cheshire Cat or Wild Goose?

    CERN Document Server

    Gaidos, Eric; Ansdell, Megan

    2015-01-01

    We confirm a 0.995 d periodic planetary transit-like signal, KOI 6705.01, in the Kepler lightcurve of the star KIC 6423922. Optical and infrared spectra show that this star is a mid M-type dwarf with an effective temperature $= 3327 \\pm 60$K, metallicity [Fe/H] $= -0.08 \\pm 0.10$, radius $= 0.31 \\pm 0.03 R_{\\odot}$, and mass $= 0.28 \\pm 0.05 M_{\\odot}$. The star is $\\approx 70$ pc away and its space motion, rotation period, and lack of H$\\alpha$ emission indicate it is an older member of the "thin disk" population. On the other hand, the star exhibits excess infrared emission suggesting a dust disk more typical of a very young star. If the KOI 6705.01 signal is produced by a planet, the transit depth of 60 ppm means its radius is only $0.26^{+0.034}_{-0.029} R_{\\oplus}$, or about the size of the Moon. However, the duration ($\\gtrsim 3$~hr) and time variation of KOI 6705.01 are anomalous: the signal was undetected in the first two years of the mission and increased through the latter two years. These character...

  19. Civil emergency planning in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J F

    1967-01-28

    THE NATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF CIVILIAN EMERGENCY PLANNING ARE: (1) protection and preservation of life and property; (2) maintenance of governmental structure; and (3) conservation of resources. The Canada Emergency Measures Organization (E.M.O.) has been developed to accomplish these objectives. E.M.O. co-ordinates other departments and agencies of federal government and its organization is reflected within provincial and municipal governments.Present E.M.O. accomplishments include: an attack warning system; an emergency broadcasting system; emergency government facilities; 400 emergency measure organizations across Canada; plans to implement general readiness; a medical stockpile; and "shadow agencies" for control of housing, food and manpower.PRESENT UNDERTAKINGS INCLUDE: a national survey of fallout shelters; the equipping of the radiation defence (RADEF); the pre-positioning of the items of the medical stockpile; and the training at the Canadian Emergency Measures College at Arnprior. PMID:6015737

  20. Fusion energy and Canada's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion is the process of releasing energy from matter which occurs in our sun. Canada is contributing to the development of technology which will permit this process to be harnessed and made available on earth. The international effort has increased from a modest beginning in the 1950s to a level of approximately two billion dollars annually in the 1980s. The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the concept of fusion energy as a technology which should make an important addition to the mix of energy sources for our future. Through a co-ordinated approach, Canada has established several projects which will contribute significantly to the development of technologies in specific areas leading to opportunities now for Canadian industry in the international effort

  1. Women in physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Ghose, Shohini; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; McKenna, Janis; Bhadra, Sampa; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Dasgupta, Arundhati; Campbell, Melanie; Barkanova, Svetlana; Steinitz, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While the overall climate for women physicists both in academia and industry has improved significantly over the past decade in Canada, it will be some time before women are well represented. Numbers of women in physics at all academic levels have increased, but are less than ideal at the full professor level. Organizations such as the Canadian Association of University Teachers and local initiatives are striving to minimize the socio-economic and professional gaps between women and men. The Canadian Association of Physicists, through its Committee to Encourage Women in Physics, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council are supportive and serve as catalysts, bringing together men and women to discuss and address issues concerning women in physics across Canada.

  2. Nuclear criticality safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach taken to nuclear criticality safety in Canada has been influenced by the historical development of participants. The roles played by governmental agencies and private industry since the Atomic Energy Control Act was passed into Canadian Law in 1946 are outlined to set the scene for the current situation and directions that may be taken in the future. Nuclear criticality safety puts emphasis on the control of materials called special fissionable material in Canada. A brief account is given of the historical development and philosophy underlying the existing regulations governing special fissionable material. Subsequent events have led to a change in emphasis in the regulatory process that has not yet been fully integrated into Canadian legislation and regulations. Current efforts towards further development of regulations governing the practice of nuclear criticality safety are described. (auth)

  3. Variation in trace element contents among chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and pigeon eggs analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisianakis, P; Giannenas, I; Gavriil, A; Kontopidis, G; Kyriazakis, I

    2009-04-01

    Despite substantial interest in the trace element content of eggs by poultry breeders, nutritionists, and environmental scientists, available data about trace elements levels in eggs are scarce. Trace element contents in yolk and albumen of chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and pigeon eggs were analyzed to establish a baseline dataset and assess differences among trace element content in avian species. We measured the selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and thallium (Tl) contents in both yolk and albumen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. One hundred twenty eggs deriving from 24 birds of each species, reared in the same poultry farm in northern Greece, were used; bird feed was common and based on cereals and legumes and contained no added vitamins or microminerals. Trace element contents in yolks were far higher than those in albumen, except for V and Ni. In yolks, the highest content for Se, Mo, and Tl were in pigeon eggs, for Zn, Mn, Cu, and Cr in turkey eggs, and for Co and Ni in goose eggs. In albumen, Se was highest in duck eggs, while Zn, Mn, and Co in pigeon ones. It is concluded that there is a substantial, up to threefold, variation for trace element contents in eggs among different domestic avian species offered the same feed. PMID:18936883

  4. 鹅蛋蛋壳组织结构的电子显微学研究%Microstructural investigation of goose egg shell by SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许耀斌; 马德生; 马秀良

    2015-01-01

    Microstructure and chemical compositions of goose egg shell were investigated by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) . The SEM observations demonstrate that egg shell consists of inner membrane layer, outer membrane layer, mastoid layer, reticulate layer, vertical crystal layer, and cuticle layer from outer to inner. The total thickness of eggshell is about 515 micrometers. The SEM⁃EDS analysis indicates that the compositions of any layer are different. In addition, the main component of goose egg shell is CaCO3 with rhombohedral structure.%本文利用扫描电子显微镜对鹅蛋蛋壳的微观组织及成分进行了系统的分析。扫描电镜结果显示鹅蛋蛋壳从内向外由内壳膜层、外壳膜层、乳突层、栅栏层、柱状晶体层和胶护层六部分组成,总厚度约为515μm。 EDS能谱分析结果显示鹅蛋蛋壳各层成分组成有所不同。通过X射线衍射技术确定鹅蛋蛋壳主要由具有菱方结构的CaCO3晶体构成。

  5. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  6. Electric power in Canada, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (78 tabs., 27 figs.)

  7. Canada: The largest uranium producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite all the current difficulties, previous erroneous forecasts and other mistakes, the longer term future looks good for uranium mining and for Canada's industry in particular. Saskatchewan continues to offer the most exciting new prospects, the huge and fabulously high grade Cigar Lake deposits being the most spectacular of the recent discoveries. Notwithstanding continuous mining for 30 years from Elliot Lake there still remain there significant uncommitted reserves which can be developed when the market for uranium is in better balance

  8. The nuclear debate in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author argues that the nuclear debate in Canada is concerned less with the safety of nuclear power plants and more with arguments of economics and social decision-making. The nuclear industry cannot afford to neglect the continuing need to inform the public about nuclear risks. But there is also a need to develop specific arguments to increase public acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic, democratic and equitable energy option

  9. The Enigmatic and Ephemeral M Dwarf System KOI 6705: Cheshire Cat or Wild Goose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Eric; Mann, Andrew W.; Ansdell, Megan

    2016-01-01

    We confirm a 0.995 day periodic planetary transit-like signal, KOI 6705.01, in the Kepler light curve of the star KIC 6423922. Optical and infrared spectra show that this star is a mid M-type dwarf with an effective temperature =\\3327+/- 60 K, metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.08 ± 0.10, radius =\\0.31+/- 0.03R⊙, and mass = 0.28 ± 0.05M⊙. The star is ≈ 70 pc away and its space motion, rotation period, and lack of Hα emission indicate it is an older member of the “thin disk” population. On the other hand, the star exhibits excess infrared emission suggesting a dust disk more typical of a very young star. If the KOI 6705.01 signal is produced by a planet, the transit depth of 60 ppm means its radius is only {0.26}-0.029+0.034R⊕, or about the size of the Moon. However, the duration (≳ 3 hr) and time variation of KOI 6705.01 are anomalous: the signal was undetected in the first two years of the mission and increased through the latter two years. These characteristics require implausible orbits and material properties for any planet and rule out such an explanation, although a dust cloud is possible. We excluded several false positive scenarios including background stars, scattered light from stars that are nearby on the sky, and electronic cross-talk between detector readout channels. We find the most likely explanation to be that KOI 6705.01 is a false positive created by charge transfer inefficiency in a detector column on which KIC 6423922 and a 1.99 day eclipsing binary both happened to fall.

  10. Routine outcome measures in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Steve; Adair, Carol E; Lin, Elizabeth; Marriott, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canada is a federal country of 10 provinces and three territories. High level information on mental health conditions and service use has mostly been generated from administrative data collected by provinces and territories. These include four major types - hospital admissions and discharges, physician billings, ambulatory care services, and drug databases. At the national level, the Canadian Institute for Health Information brings together this information to produce indicators of outcome. Although these data provide information on patient and health system characteristics, they do not capture the full spectrum of formal and informal mental healthcare. These include changes in health status, functioning, community integration and quality of life. As a result, some jurisdictions have begun to implement more standardized measures of outcome such as the clinician-rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales or the inpatient Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health. In this paper we provide an overview of mental-health-related data sources in Canada, highlight some of the more progressive practices beginning to emerge, and conclude with some thoughts about how the routine measurement and reporting of mental health outcomes in Canada might be advanced including efforts at engaging both clinicians and decision-makers. PMID:25738745

  11. Overview of Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries

  12. Education of pharmacists in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zubin; Ensom, Mary H H

    2008-12-15

    In Canada, the education of pharmacists is built upon a foundation of strong, research-intensive publicly funded universities and a universal health-care system that balances government and private financing for prescription medications. The evolution of pharmacy education and practice in Canada has laid the foundation for a variety of emerging trends related to expanded roles for pharmacists, increasing interprofessional collaboration for patient-centered care, and emergence of pharmacy technicians as a soon-to-be regulated professional group in parts of the country. Current challenges include the need to better integrate internationally educated pharmacists within the domestic workforce and tools to ensure continuous professional development and maintenance of competency of practitioners. Academic pharmacy is currently debating how best to manage the need to enhance the pharmacy curriculum to meet current and future skills needs, and whether a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree ought to become the standard entry-to-practice qualification for pharmacists in Canada. PMID:19325948

  13. Women in Physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  14. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

  15. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in Canada: recommendations for testing and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan; Bienzle, Dorothee; Carioto, Lisa; Chisholm, Hugh; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Scherk, Margie

    2011-08-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious disease agents of cats in Canada. Seroprevalence data for FeLV and FIV in various populations of Canadian cats are reviewed and recommendations for testing and management of infections by these viruses in cats in Canada are presented. Retrovirus testing in Canada is infrequent in comparison with the United States, and efforts should be focused on reducing physical and other barriers to testing, and on education of veterinarians, veterinary team members, and cat owners regarding the importance of testing. New test methodologies for FeLV and FIV are emerging, and should be independently evaluated in order to provide practitioners with information on test reliability. Finally, more information is needed on FIV subtypes in Canada to improve diagnostics and vaccines, and to provide information on disease outcomes. PMID:22294790

  16. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  17. A perspective on forage production in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, L

    1980-03-01

    Over the past decade, the cattle industry has experienced practically a full circle. With the promising beef prices in the early 1970s, with the glut of grain and a generous assist from government incentive programs, the forage acreage and cattle population have increased at a record rate. By 1974, the tide began to turn - grain prices went up sharply and beef prices became sluggish - and by 1976 a major crisis faced the producers. The cattle industry which had been developing on a cheap grain economy was now obliged to rely more on forage for its survival. Unfortunately, the forage was not existent and the only salvation of the industry was the gift of Providence - weather patterns that provided ample moisture conditions and above normal forage crops, the utilization of cereals and the intervention of government cow-calf support programs. Over the past year, the cycle was completed and record beef prices again prevail. The barley bins are full again and the cattlemen are gearing up for a few fat years. Demands for forage seed are brisk and the seeding down of forage acreage is bound to increase substantially over the next few years. And with this increase, cattle population expansion is bound to follow: how much expansion can the economy support? The production cost factors will determine the extent, but one can almost be certain that any expansion will either be modest or of short duration. At least, it should be. If the cattle industry is to establish solid foundations, it cannot be dependent upon the instability of a grain surplus-shortage position. With the present resources and the potential for developing it in direct competition with other crops, one can only expect a small and steady expansion over a long time span. One must agree with the range researchers and specialists of the Canada Research Stations at Lethbridge and Swift Current that pasture and range will continue to be the limiting factors of cattle expansion as they have been for the past 50

  18. Fusion energy. What Canada can do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Canada's fusion programs have grown, Canadian capabilities in fusion science and technology have grown and matured with them. The fusion capabilities described in this booklet have come from a coordinated national effort. The Government of Canada is committed to continuing its fusion energy program, and to supporting global fusion efforts. These first pages provide an overview of Canada's fusion work and its underlying basis of science and technology

  19. Chiropractic radiology in Canada: an anthology of the Chiropractic College of Radiologists (Canada) Inc

    OpenAIRE

    Shrubb, Eric F.

    1990-01-01

    Although there are numerous chiropractic institutions, one which receives little acclaim, but contributes significantly to chiropractic life in Canada, is the Chiropractic College of Radiologists (Canada) Inc. The following presentation represents a brief historical perspective of this most prestigious organization.

  20. Population aging, older workers, and Canada's labour force

    OpenAIRE

    Frank T Denton; Spencer, Byron G.

    2009-01-01

    The Expert Panel on Older Workers made recommendations designed to increase the labour force participation of older workers. We explore the implications that higher rates of older-worker participation would have for the overall size and age composition of the labour force, for the productive capacity of the economy, and for the incomes of Canadians. Our purpose is to assess the potential impact that increased participation of older workers might have in offsetting any anticipated adverse effe...

  1. Smoking behaviours of current cancer patients in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Chadder, J.; Fung, S.; Lockwood, G.; Rahal, R.; Halligan, M.; Mowat, D.; Bryant, H.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that continued smoking by cancer patients leads to adverse treatment outcomes and affects survival. Smoking diminishes treatment effectiveness, exacerbates side effects, and increases the risk of developing additional complications. Patients who continue to smoke also have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer or experiencing a cancer recurrence, both of which ultimately contribute to poorer quality of life and poorer survival. Here, we present a snapshot of smoking behaviours of current cancer patients compared with the non-cancer patient population in Canada. Minimal differences in smoking behaviours were noted between current cancer patients and the rest of the population. Based on 2011–2014 data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, 1 in 5 current cancer patients (20.1%) reported daily or occasional smoking. That estimate is comparable to findings in the surveyed non-cancer patient population, of whom 19.3% reported smoking daily or occasionally. Slightly more male cancer patients than female cancer patients identified as current smokers. A similar distribution was observed in the non-cancer patient population. There is an urgent need across Canada to better support cancer patients in quitting smoking. As a result, the quality of patient care will improve, as will cancer treatment and survival outcomes, and quality of life for these patients.

  2. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiner, Ari; Widdifield, Jessica; Katzberg, Hans D; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Tu, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and prevalence estimates in myasthenia gravis have varied widely. Recent studies based on administrative health data have large sample sizes but lack rigorous validation of MG cases, and have not examined the North American population. Our aim was to explore trends in MG incidence and prevalence for the years 1996-2013 in the province of Ontario, Canada (population 13.5 million). We employed a previously validated algorithm to identify MG cases. Linking with census data allowed for the calculation of crude- and age/sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates for the years 1996-2013. The regional distribution of MG cases throughout the province was examined. Mean age at the first myasthenia gravis encounter was 60.2 ± 17.1 years. In 2013, there were 3611 prevalent cases in Ontario, and the crude prevalence rate was 32.0/100,000 population. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates rose consistently over time from 16.3/100,000 (15.4-17.1) in 1996 to 26.3/100,000 (25.4-27.3) in 2013. Standardized incidence rates remained stable between 1996 (2.7/100,000; 95% CL 2.3-3.0) and 2013 (2.3/100,000; 2.1-2.6). Incidence was highest in younger women and older men, and geographic variation was evident throughout the province. In conclusion, this large epidemiological study shows rising myasthenia gravis prevalence with stable incidence over time, which is likely reflective of patients living longer, possibly due to improved disease treatment. Our findings provide accurate information on the Canadian epidemiology of myasthenia gravis and burden for health care resources planning for the province, respectively. PMID:26573434

  3. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  4. Abortion health services in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  5. Landfill gas management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (1015 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring

  6. Nuclear waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classification of radioactive wastes in Canada involves two categories - waste of such a nature or in such amounts that it could be hazardous to the public, and waste which can be dealt with safely by methods available to individual institutions having at their disposal only conventional methods for getting rid of unwanted material. It is easy to provide for long-term retention of radioactive wastes if no account need be taken of expense. However, it is unreasonable (and discouraging to progress) to insist upon techniques of waste management that are applicable to multi-curie sources when the amounts to be dealt with are in the millicurie range. (author)

  7. Decommissioning Experience: Chalk River, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has reported that work has continued on the decommissioning of old structures on the Chalk River laboratory site. An environmental assessment was approved in 2006 for the decommissioning of the NRX reactor fuel bays (A and B). The regulator approved two work packages for the removal of water and the wooden structure over the bays. The A bays were cleaned as far as possible and were emptied in 2007. Decontamination work will continue. Sections of the B bays were filled with sand and other parts filled with water. NRX is currently in storage (i.e. a dormant state) with surveillance. (author)

  8. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 122 publications from the Canadian federal government and from 9 Canadian provinces. Topics include environmental programs and problems, gambling, crime, young offenders, health and welfare issues, use of electronic information, materials on education, employment, tourism, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and issues relating to…

  9. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Virginia

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 110 Canadian federal and provincial government documents published in 1991 that address a wide range of topics, including demographics; constitutional law; social issues, including problems of women, children, and minorities; education; the environment; and standard of living. A list of reviewers is included. (MES)

  10. 2000 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All wells drilled in Western Canada during the first nine months of 1999 are listed and sorted into 12 geographical areas used in the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) well cost study. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Area totals for well counts and meters drilled were determined from the sorting process. Previous years' activities are reviewed and various operators and PSAC members contacted to review upcoming programs. In addition, trends and other projections were consulted to develop an estimate of drilling activity for the rest of 1999 as well as a projection of drilling activity for 2000. The historical and projected drilling activities were tabulated and plotted for each area. Average drilling costs for each area were determined, and the total expenditures were calculated for each area by multiplying the the projected meterage by the adjusted drilling costs. All costs were allocated to various services and products utilizing percentages determined in the Well Cost Study. During the sorting process, a list was developed of the major operators in each area, which list is included in the report along with average depths and types of wells drilled by the various operators in each area. The costs included in the report include only drilling and completion operations, starting with the building of the location prior to drilling, and ending with the installation of the wellhead after construction. 5 tabs

  11. 1999 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forecasts contained in this report are based on a review of the drilling activity through the first eight months of 1998 in twelve geographic areas of Western Canada. The forecasts incorporate current operator activity and trends into an estimate of well counts and meters drilled for the entire year of 1998. The estimates produced in this manner serve as the basis for the activity forecast for 1999. This projection, and cost data developed for the Association's 1998 Well Cost Study released in September 1998, provide the foundation for calculating the anticipated expenditure for various products and services in each of the specified geographical areas. Major operators in each area, and the type of drilling activities conducted by them, are also included. For Western Canada as a whole, a total of 9,885 wells are predicted to be drilled in 1999, at a total expenditure of $3.939 billion. The predicted average well depth will be 1,171 m, at an average cost of $ 219/m

  12. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  14. Energy in Canada: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent changes in the North American natural gas industry are discussed, with a focus on how these changes will affect the ability of Alberta and Canadian natural gas supply to meet market growth. These changes include a decline in the merchant role of many of the major interstate pipelines, resulting in a larger number of smaller-sized purchasers for natural gas marketers to deal with; a greater extent of direct purchasing by local distribution companies and large industrial users, combined with a preference for spot sales rather than long-term commitments; direct marketing of uncontracted gas by many producers and brokers; a bidding type of sales process rather than a negotiated process; and price deregulation. It is foreseen that long term security of supply will again become an important factor to North American buyers, and Canada can offer substantial supplies under secure long term contracts. Marketers will have to seek new market targets such as cogeneration plants and the transportation sector. Access to pipeline transport will be one of the major factors in obtaining new markets. The Canada-USA free trade agreement is viewed as a positive development which should help Canadian gas marketers to gain and retain U.S. customers

  15. Growth Of Broadband And ICT Adoption By SMEs In Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. FLEET

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, we have conducted three Atlantic Canada-wide surveys of SME businesses benchmarking levels of ICT adoption, change in adoption, as well as the role of marketing and export on ICT usage in helping to create growing and sustainable business opportunities. Despite Atlantic Canada’s low population base and distance to major population centres, SMEs in the region show strong levels of adoption of various ICT products and services. Broadband access, website adoption and online purchasing is now over 90%. Even newer socialnetworking services, such as web analytics, search engine optimization, and the use of Twitter are being adopted by as many of 44% of the SMEs. These adoption rates will be compared with our previous studies to document the historical growth within Atlantic Canada, as well as compare these baseline measures to other regions within Canada, as well as studies of comparable regions worldwide.

  16. Immunomorphologic Manifestations in Mice Liver Infected with Influenza A/H5N1, A/Goose/Krasnoozerskoye/627/05 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana V. Potapova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1 viruses can infect mammals, including humans, causing severe systemic disease with the inhibition of the immune system and a high mortality rate. In conditions of lymphoid tissue depletion, the liver plays an important role in host defence against viruses. The changes in mice liver infected with HPAI H5N1 virus A/goose/Krasnoozerskoye/627/05 have been studied. It has been shown that the virus persistence in the liver leads to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and intracellular proteases (lysozyme, cathepsin D, and myeloperoxidase by Kupffer cells. Defective antiviral response exacerbates destructive processes in the liver accelerating the development of liver failure.

  17. Diurnal variation in the behaviour of the Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) during the spring stopover in Trøndelag, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudzinska, Magda Ewa; Madsen, Jesper; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    behaviour at a staging site and assess the extent to which behavioural patterns are attributable to physiological factors (digestibility of the food) and environmental conditions (flock size, type and frequency of disturbance and distance to roost). We found that feeding activity peaked at mid-day, whereas...... the birds were most alert in the morning and afternoon. The behaviour of Pink-footed Goose also varied with habitat type, disturbance level and distance to roost. The diurnal variation in feeding activity differed from behaviour reported for geese on the wintering grounds, indicating that the birds...... have different energetic and nutrient demands when at spring staging sites. Seasonal changes in habitat availability as well as density dependence may also affect the birds’ behavioural patterns. A sporadic, unpredictable disturbance reduced the proportion of geese feeding to a greater extent than a...

  18. Canada's forest biomass resources: deriving estimates from Canada's forest inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biomass inventory for Canada was undertaken to address the data needs of carbon budget modelers, specifically to provide estimates of above-ground tree components and of non-merchantable trees in Canadian forests. The objective was to produce a national method for converting volume estimates to biomass that was standardized, repeatable across the country, efficient and well documented. Different conversion methods were used for low productivity forests (productivity class 1) and higher productivity forests (productivity class 2). The conversion factors were computed by constructing hypothetical stands for each site, age, species and province combination, and estimating the merchantable volume and all the above-ground biomass components from suitable published equations. This report documents the procedures for deriving the national biomass inventory, and provides illustrative examples of the results. 46 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Professor: Lær af Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada.......Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada....

  20. Canada Experientially: Every Trail Has a Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bob

    The discovery of Canada means rolling out a new map, giving meaning to the land and its heritage. Experientially discovering Canada is at the heart of teaching and learning. It is necessary to balance experiential exploration with classroom and library exploration. In order to achieve this, the student must be a traveler. Programs that attempt to…

  1. AECL: 60 years of contributing to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper traces the history of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. For 60 years AECL has contributed world class science and technology to Canada, while assisting Government on policy issues, enabling business innovation and technology transfer, and generating highly qualified workforce for Canadian industry.

  2. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  3. Study on the Processing Technology of Wanxi White Goose Dried Meat%皖西白鹅肉干的加工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李先保; 解晓东

    2011-01-01

    The dried meat of Wanxi white goose was processed using following technology: tenderizing, pickling, tumbling, microwave cooking, microwave drying and so on. The quality of taste, tenderness, and color were measured. The results showed that the optimum processing conditions were 1. 5% calcium chloride, 0. 5% papayin, 0. 2% compound phosphate, 1.5% salt, 7% sugar, and 1% white liquor; the curing period is 40h. The quality of the product is better than the traditional product, and has the unique goose meat flavor.%试验采用嫩化、腌制、滚揉、微波熟化、微波干燥脱水等新工艺方法来加工皖西白鹅肉干。结果表明:嫩化剂最佳配方为1.5%CaCl2,0.5%木瓜蛋白酶,0.2%复合磷酸盐;腌制配料的最佳用量是食盐1.5%,白砂糖7%,白酒1%;腌制时间为40h,使加工出的皖西白鹅肉干制品在口感、嫩度、色泽等方面与传统肉干比都得到了明显改善,且具有独特的鹅肉风味。

  4. The current status of percutaneous vertebroplasty in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffernan, E.J.; O' Sullivan, P.J.; Alkubaidan, F.O.; Heran, M.K.S.; Legiehn, G.M.; Munk, P.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)], E-mail: ejheffernan@eircom.net

    2008-04-15

    To provide an overview of the current status of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) practice in Canada, including the preprocedure work up operative technique and follow-up practice of physicians performing the procedure in this county. Questionnaires were emailed to 31 institutions performing percutaneous vertebroplasty across Canada. Twenty-three (74.2%) completed surveys were returned, representing data from 1,516 vertebroplasties performed by 66 radiologists and surgeons. Preoperative routine imaging and screening practice varies widely. The majority of respondents perform PVP under conscious sedation; however, an anaesthetist is present in only 22% of institutions. Biplane fluoroscopy is used in 43.5% of practices. The preference for unipedicular or bipedicular injection varies: in 7 institutions, a unipedicular approach is used in at least 80% of cases. Patients receive a follow-up by the screening physician in 65.2% of institutions. There were 4 complications requiring treatment. Venous and intradiscal extravasation rates were 20.8% and 25.3%, respectively; however, the vast majority of these were clinically insignificant. PVP complication rates reported in our Canadian survey compare favourably with those in the published literature. The number of PVPs performed annually in the institutions surveyed appears small, relative to the figures from the United States. The prevalence of osteoporosis and incidence of vertebral compression fractures in Canada is increasing as the population ages, and demand for PVP is likely to rise significantly in the coming years. (author)

  5. Compulsory drug treatment in Canada: historical origins and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Roberts, Julian V; Kirst, Maritt

    2002-04-01

    In Canada, illicit drug use and addiction have traditionally been considered as a criminal justice problem and have been addressed from a legal perspective. Over the past century, a medical approach to drug addiction has slowly crept into the criminal justice processing of drug offenders. This has happened through the combination of principles of punishment with principles of addiction treatment in the sentencing of drug offenders to create a distinct application of 'compulsory drug treatment' in Canada. However, this evolution has occurred sporadically over time, with punishment and coercion as predominantly the main approach to dealing with this population. This evolution has recently culminated in Canada with the development of two criminal justice approaches to dealing with the substance use problems of drug offenders that incorporate concepts of punishment and treatment more equally than ever before - conditional sentencing and drug courts. This paper outlines the historical evolution of concepts of 'compulsory treatment', discusses such examples of contemporary 'compulsory treatment' as conditional sentencing and drug courts, and analyses the implications, concerns and challenges associated with these tools currently used in the sentencing of drug offenders in the Canadian context. PMID:11979008

  6. Le Canada au miroir de l’Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Boily, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    L’exploitation du pétrole des sables bitumineux, qui s’est intensifiée depuis quelques années dans le nord de la province albertaine, a amené le premier ministre Stephen Harper à décrire le Canada comme étant une « super puissance énergétique » en émergence. Cet article se propose de montrer comment la province de l’Alberta est devenue, en raison des impacts environnementaux ainsi que ceux sur les populations autochtones, l’enjeu principal quant à l’image, plus souvent négative que positive, ...

  7. Trends in extinction risk for imperiled species in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Favaro

    Full Text Available Protecting and promoting recovery of species at risk of extinction is a critical component of biodiversity conservation. In Canada, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC determines whether species are at risk of extinction or extirpation, and has conducted these assessments since 1977. We examined trends in COSEWIC assessments to identify whether at-risk species that have been assessed more than once tended to improve, remain constant, or deteriorate in status, as a way of assessing the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation in Canada. Of 369 species that met our criteria for examination, 115 deteriorated, 202 remained unchanged, and 52 improved in status. Only 20 species (5.4% improved to the point where they were 'not at risk', and five of those were due to increased sampling efforts rather than an increase in population size. Species outcomes were also dependent on the severity of their initial assessment; for example, 47% of species that were initially listed as special concern deteriorated between assessments. After receiving an at-risk assessment by COSEWIC, a species is considered for listing under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA, which is the primary national tool that mandates protection for at-risk species. We examined whether SARA-listing was associated with improved COSEWIC assessment outcomes relative to unlisted species. Of 305 species that had multiple assessments and were SARA-listed, 221 were listed at a level that required identification and protection of critical habitat; however, critical habitat was fully identified for only 56 of these species. We suggest that the Canadian government should formally identify and protect critical habitat, as is required by existing legislation. In addition, our finding that at-risk species in Canada rarely recover leads us to recommend that every effort be made to actively prevent species from becoming at-risk in the first place.

  8. The use of Traditional Medicine by Ghanaians in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into health and health-care seeking behaviour amongst immigrant populations suggests that culturally-based behaviours change over time towards those prevalent in the host culture. Such acculturation of immigrant groups occurs as part of the interaction of immigrants with mainstream culture. This study examined the acculturation of Ghanaian immigrants in Greater Toronto Area (Canada focusing particularly on attitudes towards and usage of Ghanaian traditional medicine (TRM. Methods The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. Structured questionnaire interviews were conducted with a sample of Ghanaians in active collaboration with the Ghanaian-Canadian Association in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA. A total of 512 questionnaire interviews were conducted. In addition, three focus groups of nine participants each were conducted with a sub-sample of Ghanaians in Canada. Results Both the questionnaire and the focus groups indicated that nearly 73% of the Ghanaian immigrants in Canada have a positive attitude toward Ghanaian TRM. This is in comparison with less than 30% who have changed their attitude for various reasons. Some of the attraction of TRM lies in its holistic origin. Ghanaians in the GTA have been pursuing 'integration' and 'assimilation' in their acculturation in Canada. Some have given up or modified some of their attitudes and opinions toward TRM to embrace the 'modern' or 'civilized' way of living. Conclusion There is the need for health care providers and other stakeholders to be aware of the influence of religion on African immigrants during their acculturation process. Although modernity is said to be founded on the 'ruthless undermining of tradition', there is no evidence to suggest that Ghanaian traditional religion has been undermined to such an extent that there is a major change in attitudes towards TRM.

  9. Canada's energy outlook : the reference case 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term projection of energy supply, demand, consumption, production and greenhouse gas emissions from now until 2020 identified pressure points and emerging issues in Canadian energy markets. It contributed to public discussions on energy and related economic and environmental issues in Canada and provided a reference scenario from which new energy and climate change policies can be evaluated. Energy projections were developed based on the relationships between energy production, consumption and prices, as well as economic, technological and policy factors. The report included government implemented initiatives that promote energy efficiency or increase the use of alternative energy. This Outlook to 2020 is sensitive to key assumptions about economic growth, oil sands development and the electricity generation mix. It is based on a specific set of assumptions regarding oil price and economic growth. This outlook assumes crude oil prices to be nearly twice that of the last outlook in 1999 and natural gas prices are assumed to be three times higher. The outlook also assumes that the Mackenzie Delta gas pipeline will be in service by 2011. Other principal assumptions used to develop this outlook were that population will grow by 0.7 percent annually and that all but two of Canada's nuclear power plants will stay in service for at least eight more years. The outlook revealed that total energy demand is projected to grow by 1.3 percent per year. The fuel mix will not change much over this period because the prices of different energy sources will remain the same. Energy intensity is expected to improve by about 0.25 per cent annually in the residential and commercial sectors due to stock turn over and appliance regulations. Total energy demand will increase by 1 per cent per year for the residential sector, and at 2.4 percent per year for the commercial sector. Transportation demand is expected to grow by 1.6 per cent per year, while industrial energy intensity

  10. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, John [Department of Finance and Real Estate, 1272 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  11. 1999 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil and gas drilling activity for the final quarter of 1998 and the first quarter of 1999 for 12 specific geographical areas in Western Canada is reviewed. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Current operator activity and trends are incorporated into an estimate of well counts for 1999. Average drilling costs for each area are also calculated. Drilling of about 8920 wells is projected for 1999. The anticipated drilling and completion expenditures will be about $3.2 (Cdn) billion. While horizontal drilling activity appears to have decreased slightly in 1998, an increase to over 1200 horizontal and directionally drilled wells is projected for 1999. A list of the major operators in each geographical area is also provided. 8 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  13. Beyond design basis in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the Canadian Government required: — Ongoing environmental monitoring on Canadian territory from coast to coast. — Deployment of experts to the IAEA. —Issuance of a directive pursuant to the regulatory requirements to all major nuclear facilities to review initial lessons learned. — Re-examination of the safety cases with a focus on: ● External hazards and measures to prevent or mitigate severe accidents; ● Emergency preparedness; ● Implementation of immediate short term and long term measures. At the regulatory level, the CNSC carried out reviews of the safety status of the plants in Canada and abroad. The CNSC site staff carried out focused inspection on seismic, fire, flooding, backup power, hydrogen igniters and passive recombiners, in addition to ongoing inspections against external hazards. The CNSC conducted inspections of spent fuel bays, their components and equipment, heat sinks and alarms, as well as the availability of on-site and off-site resources

  14. Tracking the evolution of hospice palliative care in Canada: A comparative case study analysis of seven provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Richards Judy-Lynn; Kelley Mary-Lou; Whitfield Kyle; Crooks Valorie A; Williams Allison M; DeMiglio Lily; Dykeman Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background An aging population, rise in chronic illnesses, increase in life expectancy and shift towards care being provided at the community level are trends that are collectively creating an urgency to advance hospice palliative care (HPC) planning and provision in Canada. The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of HPC in seven provinces in Canada so as to inform such planning and provision elsewhere. We have endeavoured to undertake this research out of awareness th...

  15. Access to infertility services in Canada for HIV-positive individuals and couples: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Loutfy Mona R; Shapiro Heather M; Yudin Mark H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Family and pregnancy planning issues are important among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals and couples. However, access to fertility services may be limited for this population. The objective of this study was to estimate the types of services available in fertility clinics in Canada for these individuals. Methods A survey was sent to all registered fertility clinics in Canada to assess the availability of services (investigations and treatment) for i...

  16. The Demographic Foundations of Rising Employment and Earnings Among Single Mothers in Canada and the United States, 1980 to 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Feng; Picot, Garnett; Myers, Karen; Myles, John

    2008-01-01

    Despite comparatively modest welfare reforms in Canada relative to those of the United States, employment rates and earnings among single mothers have risen by virtually identical magnitudes in the two countries since 1980. We show that most of the gains in Canada and a substantial share of the change in the United States were the result of the dynamics of cohort replacement and population aging as the large and better educated baby boom generation replaced earlier cohorts and began entering ...

  17. Humans, Nature and God: Exploring images of their interrelationships in Victoria, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M. de; Born, J.G. van den

    2007-01-01

    This study explores visions of nature among five populations in Victoria, a small city in British Columbia, Canada: Christians, Muslims, Native Americans, Buddhists, and secularists. Each group was asked to express their view of the human relationships with nature based upon four approaches: mastery

  18. (Re)-Introduction to French: Four Education Models to Revitalise an Endangered Group in Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Marianne; Bourque, Jimmy; Jolicoeur, Manon

    2014-01-01

    This study explores early francization models for a linguistic minority currently struggling to preserve its language. The French Acadians of New Brunswick, Canada, represent 30% of the province's total population, yet their numbers and their linguistic vitality are decreasing. New Brunswick has two public school systems: the English language…

  19. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's non-proliferation and safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote the emergence of a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to assure the Canadian people and the international community that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the NPT, by promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, by treating nuclear weapon and non-nuclear weapon states alike regarding Canadian nuclear exports, by working for new approaches covering the sensitive phases (e.g. reprocessing) of the nuclear fuel cycle, Canada's policy promotes attainment of the first objective. The latter objective is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its nuclear partners. Those agreements provide assurance that Canada's nuclear exports are used solely for legitimate, peaceful, nuclear energy production purposes. At the same time, Canada, having formulated its non-proliferation and safeguards policy during the period 1945 to 1980, has recognized that it has gone as far as it can on its own in this field and that from this point on any further changes should be made on the basis of international agreement. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums such as the Committee on Assurances of Supply is to exert Canada's best efforts to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers might subsume their national requirements

  20. Uranium in Canada: Billion-dollar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium; five primary uranium producers reported concentrate output containing 12,400 MT of uranium, or about one-third of Western production. Uranium shipments made by these producers in 1988 exceeded 13,200 MT, worth Canadian $1.1 billion. Because domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian output, most of Canada's uranium production is available for export. Despite continued market uncertainty in 1988, Canada's uranium producers signed new sales contracts for some 14,000 MT, twice the 1987 level. About 90% of this new volume is with the US, now Canada's major uranium customer. The recent implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade agreement brings benefits to both countries; the uranium industries in each can now develop in an orderly, free market. Canada's uranium industry was restructured and consolidated in 1988 through merger and acquisition; three new uranium projects advanced significantly. Canada's new policy on nonresident ownership in the uranium mining sector, designed to encourage both Canadian and foreign investment, should greatly improve efforts to finance the development of recent Canadian uranium discoveries

  1. Taxi and limousine industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxi and limousine service plays an important role in the movement of people within a city. In 2004, the total revenue in this industry in Canada was $1.305 billion, and an estimated 35,339 carriers served the industry. In Canada, economic and safety regulations of taxi supply were imposed in most cities during the 1930s and 1940s and continue to this date. Although the industry is regulated, the competition law also applies. The appropriateness of these regulations continues to be challenged and regulatory reforms in the major cities in Canada have concentrated their efforts on increasing the rate of services, improving the quality of vehicles and enhancing the training of taxi drivers. Indicators for the 1999-2004 period reveal that the taxi and limousine industry in Canada did not perform very well. Revenue increased by only 1.7 per cent per year and margins deteriorated by -1.78 per cent together with the operating ratio. The purpose of this paper was to examine the taxi and limousine industry in Canada. First, the structure of the industry in Canada was examined followed by a review of the economic regulation of the industry. Recent regulatory developments in Canada and in other countries were then reviewed with arguments for or against deregulation. 28 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Petro-Canada 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is a dominant player in the petroleum industry in Western Canada as well as on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. This report presents a review of operations, provides detailed statements of the corporation's finances, and a wealth of information of interest to shareholders. The report states that in 1997 Petro-Canada achieved record financial results, following a dramatic turnaround over the past five years. Net earnings for 1997 were $306 million, a $59 million increase over 1996. The company's share price appreciated 34 per cent in 1997 and was one of the most heavily traded stocks in Canada. The company plans to maximize shareholder value by reducing its interests in conventional oil from mature fields in western Canada and by re-investing the proceeds in natural gas development. Petro-Canada is also committed to an expansion that will double production at the Syncrude oil sands plant over the next decade and has tested large in-situ oil sands resources for potential development in northeastern Alberta. On the Atlantic coast too, Petro-Canada is delivering leadership with increasing production from Hibernia, and final approvals in place to proceed with development of the Terra Nova field. International operations are also contributing to the Corporation's profitability by delivering new production from oil fields offshore Norway and from the Sahara Desert in North Africa. tabs., figs

  3. An evaluation of productivity and mortality factors influencing goose populations: A status report of the 1984 waterfowl monitoring effort at Old Chevak field camp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During spring and summer 1984 data were obtained from nine field camps located on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge one cooperative camp and eight refuge...

  4. An evaluation of productivity and mortality factors influencing goose populations: A status report of the 1983 waterfowl effort on the Yukon Delta NWR, Alaska: Summary report, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Seven field camps North Marshall, Kokechik West, Tutakoke, Manokinak, Whitefront Survey, Kigigak Island and South Nelson Island documented the nesting chronology,...

  5. An evaluation of productivity and mortality factors influencing goose populations: A status report of the 1983 waterfowl effort on the Yukon Delta NWR, Alaska: Summary report, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Seven field camps (North Marshall, Kokechik West, Tutakoke, Manokinak, White-front Survey, Kigigak Island and South Nelson Island) documented the nesting...

  6. La mobilité ethnique des Autochtones du Canada entre les recensements de 2001 et 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Éric Caron-Malenfant; Simon Coulombe; Eric Guimond; Chantal Grondin; André Lebel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an analysis of intragenerational ethnic mobility of Aboriginal peoples using a data source that allows direct estimation of the phenomenon in Canada for the first time : a linkage between the 2001 and 2006 Censuses of Population. Intragenerational ethnic mobility, or change in the self-reporting of Aboriginal identity over the course of life, contributed significantly to population growth for the Métis and for North American Indians livin...

  7. Leveraging Canada's nuclear infrastructure for medical innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the role that Canada plays in nuclear medicine worldwide. Canada supplies over 75% of the world's Cobalt-60 which sterilizes 45% of all single-use medical supplies in the world. Cobalt-60 teletherapy delivers 45000 cancer treatments daily. It is used in non-destructive testing. Canada also supplies over 50% of the world's medical isotopes. NRU reactor-produced isotopes include Molybdenum 99, iodine 131, Iodine 125, Xenon 133 and Cobalt 60. MDS Nordion maintains a strategic supply agreement with AECL

  8. Electricity - a great asset for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has a great national asset in its ability to generate electricity economically from its abundant hydro, coal, and uranium resources. Its nuclear industry has an excellent product. Despite lack of orders for now, the CANDU will be a competitive force when the reactor market recovers. Canada has a proven record of reliability for electricity trade with the United States. There appear to be some opportunities for plants in Canada dedicated to the export of electric power. The federal government is prepared to work closely with the provinces to develop projects which will be attractive to customers in the United States

  9. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  10. Bailarinas Exoticas, Striptease e Inmigracion en Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Diaz Barrero.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the product of exploratory field research conducted in Toronto, Canada. It consists of in-depth interviews of Latin American women from diverse countries who obtained temporary work visas as exotic dancers. The objective of the study is to determine the ways in which women are recruited in their countries of origin, transported to Canada and what happens to them upon arrival. The author proposes that the conditions inherent to migration, more than women's legal status, determines their emotional, economic and legal well-being. However, upon obtaining legal residency in Canada, abuse committed by employers and state agents is significantly reduced.

  11. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  12. [Colorectal carcinoma in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zügel, N P; Hehl, J A; Jechart, G; Tannapfel, A; Wienbeck, M; Witte, J

    2001-05-01

    We report a 63-year-old lady with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, who developed colorectal cancer. A hemicolectomy was performed, and the tumor specimen was prepared for DNA-analysis and immunohistochemical screening. We found a mutation of p53 gene without APC- and ras-gene alteration and expression of erbB2-protooncogen. The polyps in non-hereditary Cronkhite-Canada-syndrom are neither adenomatous nor hyperplastic, but patients often develop colorectal cancers. The steps of mutation do not follow the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, first described by Vogelstein 1988. This and previous observations suggest that carcinogenesis in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome follows another independent sequence. PMID:11413916

  13. Cost Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination for Rotavirus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Coyle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.

  14. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  15. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  16. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  17. Latitudinal-Related Variation in Wintering Population Trends of Greylag Geese (Anser Anser) along the Atlantic Flyway: A Response to Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Cristina; Amat, Juan A.; Nilsson, Leif; Schricke, Vincent; Rodríguez-Alonso, Mariano; Gómez-Crespo, Enrique; Jubete, Fernando; Navedo, Juan G.; Masero, José A.; Palacios, Jesús; Boos, Mathieu; Green, Andy J.

    2015-01-01

    The unusually high quality of census data for large waterbirds in Europe facilitates the study of how population change varies across a broad geographical range and relates to global change. The wintering population of the greylag goose Anser anser in the Atlantic flyway spanning between Sweden and Spain has increased from 120 000 to 610 000 individuals over the past three decades, and expanded its wintering range northwards. Although population sizes recorded in January have increased in all seven countries in the wintering range, we found a pronounced northwards latitudinal effect in which the rate of increase is higher at greater latitudes, causing a constant shift in the centre of gravity for the spatial distribution of wintering geese. Local winter temperatures have a strong influence on goose numbers but in a manner that is also dependent on latitude, with the partial effect of temperature (while controlling for the increasing population trend between years) being negative at the south end and positive at the north end of the flyway. Contrary to assumptions in the literature, the expansion of crops exploited by greylag geese has made little contribution to the increases in population size. Only in one case (expansion of winter cereals in Denmark) did we find evidence of an effect of changing land use. The expanding and shifting greylag population is likely to have increasing impacts on habitats in northern Europe during the course of this century. PMID:26465601

  18. 肉桂油对鹅肉干防腐效果及其成分的GC-MS分析%Preservative Effect of Cinnamon Oil on Goose Jerky and GC-MS Analysis of Its Chemical Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜才; 蔡力创; 彭瑛

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of the effectiveness of cinnamon oil and potassium sorbate in preserving goose jerky was carried out to select a safe preservative for goose jerky.Besides,the chemical composition of cinnamon oil was analyzed by GC-MS and the relationship with the functionality was studied.Fifty-three compounds were separated.The predominant compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde with a content of 85.53%.Both the oil and potassium sorbate could prevent goose jerky from becoming moldy and the former was more effective than the latter.%为开发鹅肉干的安全防腐剂,比较肉桂油和山梨酸钾对鹅肉干的防腐效果,采用气质联用分析肉桂油的成分,研究肉桂成分与其功能的关系。结果表明,肉桂油共分离出53种成分,主要组分为反式肉桂醛,含量85.53%;肉桂油和山梨酸钾均可显著提高鹅肉干的防霉能力,而肉桂油的防霉效果在一定程度上高于山梨酸钾。

  19. Gulf Canada Resources Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of operations in 1998 and financial information from Gulf Canada Resources Limited is provided to keep shareholders abreast of company performance. Gulf Canada Resources Limited explores for, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1998, the company's main operating centres were in western Canada (where it owns a nine per cent interest in the Syncrude Joint Venture), Indonesia, the North Sea and Australia. The report summarizes the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed review of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Although Gulf Canada Resources sold $ 1.2 billion worth of non-producing assets during the year, year end proved reserves of 838 million barrels of oil equivalent were less than ten per cent lower than a year earlier, reflecting reserve additions of 100 million barrels of oil equivalent. tabs., figs

  20. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  1. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's non-proliferation safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to ensure that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, treating nuclear weapon and non-weapon states alike, and working for new approaches covering reprocessing, Canada promotes attainment of the first objective. The second is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its partners. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums is to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers may subsume their national requirements

  2. Emerging Churches in Post-Christian Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Beach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional mainline and evangelical churches in Canada, as in most western countries, are either in decline or static. Taken as a measure of the future, the prospects for Christianity in Canada, and more broadly the West, are bleak. Post-Christian Canada, however, contains thriving alternative and innovative forms of church, often called ‘emerging’ churches. They take many forms of expression, but share common theological convictions. Based on site research and personal interviews, this article describes the various types and contexts of these churches in Canada. It then highlights three of their central theological characteristics. First, rejecting the ‘culture wars’ social involvement of Christendom churches, they embrace practices and initiatives that transform their local communities. Second, they embrace an incarnational and contextual understanding of Christian life and ministry. Eschewing mega-church franchise models, they endeavor to shape their ministry to the their local communities. Third, they adopt a comprehensive rather than compartmental spirituality.

  3. Canada's constitutional separation of (wind) power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact that a federal government structure has on strategic selection of renewable energy policy instruments. The context for this study centers on wind power development in Canada. Canada is a nation that is blessed by all the attributes necessary to catalyze global leadership in installed wind power capacity. Unfortunately, the constitutional separation of powers that underpins Canada's federal system impedes the creation of a national wind power development strategy because Canada's provinces have constitutional authority over electricity governance. The insights gleaned from the case study are used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the impact that federal structure has on policy instrument selection and efficacy under areas of federal, regional and concurrent policy jurisdiction. Finally, this framework is re-applied to identify specific approaches the Canadian federal government could take to resolve what currently amounts to be a fragmented, ineffective approach to wind power development planning.

  4. Symbolism and Militarism of Canada's North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Mark; Burke, Danita Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Canada is often characterised as a mosaic for world cultures while contending with the difficulty of defining its national identity. Canada’s confederation in 1867 was influenced by the fear that then-British North America was at risk from the United States’ internal conflicting forces. This sense...... component of Canada’s domestic politics. Understanding the relationship dynamics of the Canadian Armed Forces, the Government of Canada and the idea of the North in Canada has broader implications for states wishing to cooperate or negotiate with Canada on matters pertaining to Canada’s Northern region....... of vulnerability bred the desire to strengthen the position of the British North American colonies while avoiding the violent internal conflicts which plagued its southern neighbour. In the decades since its formation, Canadian political parties have learnt that national campaigns, not regional or...

  5. How Can Health System Efficiency Be Improved in Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Sara; Veillard, Jeremy; Wang, Li; Grignon, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Improving value for money in the health system is an often-stated policy goal. This study is the first to systematically measure the efficiency of health regions in Canada in producing health gains with their available resources, and to identify the factors that are associated with increased efficiency. Based on the objective elicited from decision-makers that the health system should ensure access to care for Canadians when they need it, we measured the efficiency with which regions reduce causes of death that are amenable to healthcare interventions using a linear programming approach (data envelopment analysis). Variations in efficiency were explained in part by public health factors, such as the prevalence of obesity and smoking in the population; in part by characteristics of the population, such as their average income; and in part by managerial factors, such as hospital readmissions. PMID:26571467

  6. Canada - committed to a nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a flurry of activity in the Ontario electricity sector over the last 2 years as the government continued to work at averting a major crisis of supply in Canada's most populous province.As stated by the Ministry of Energy in 2004, Ontario needs to refurbish, rebuild, replace or conserve 25,000 megawatts of generating capacity by the year 2020 to meet growing demand while replacing its polluting coal-fired generating plants. That represents 80 per cent of Ontario's current generating capacity and would require an investment of $25 to $40 billion. Action has been taken. The government has completed a restructuring of the electricity market with new legislation and has undertaken a number of major procurement initiatives to enable the system to operate until about 2015. These include contracts for significant wind generation and other renewables supply, new gas generation, conservation and demand management and the refurbishment of idled nuclear units. The Ontario Power Authority as now issued it ''Supply Mix Advice'' to address the needs of the province for the long term (20 years). The recommendations would ''increase the share of renewable sources' in Ontario's supply mix, maintain the share of nuclear generation, and replace coal by increasing the share of gas-fired generation and renewable resources.'' It clearly recognizes the importance of nuclear power as a clean and economic option to meet the ongoing base load requirements and states that the nuclear share can be achieved through refurbishing existing units, rebuilding on existing sites and undertaking ''new build'' plants. This paper will examine government's plan to maintain the share of nuclear power at about 50% of electricity generated, and address the important issues required to make decisions on future refurbishments and new build

  7. Climate change plan for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document updates Natsource's previous briefing on the October 24 Climate change draft plan' outlining significant changes and modifications incorporated in the November 21, 2002 version of the Climate change plan for Canada' as tabled in the House of Commons by the Minister of the Environment. The changes in the new version of the Plan are the result of continued consultations with industry and the provinces. The revised Plan addresses nine of the 12 concerns expressed by the provinces. Key changes include: (1) establishment of sectoral emissions reduction targets through negotiated covenants with a regulatory or financial backstop; (2) guaranteeing a limit of 55 Megatonnes reductions for covered sectors under the covenants and trading system; (3) introducing flexibility in timing by signaling willingness on the part of the Government to discuss acceptance of commitments over a longer term; (4) promising to work with industry on options for providing protection against risks associated with sustained carbon prices above certain levels; (5) designing implementation system in such a way as to not disadvantage those companies that have taken early action in emission reductions; (6) building in contingencies, assessing progress and adjusting the Federal approach and level of investment; (7) remaining engaged in joint efforts with the United States to minimize impacts on Canadian competitiveness. The Federal Government also recognizes the need for further research in addressing climate model uncertainties, in providing regional-scale climate change information, in future evolution of the climate in the Arctic, and in determining the record of past climate variability and extremes

  8. Gulf Canada's Russian joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After three years of evaluating prospects and negotiating with government and industry representatives, Gulf Canada established its first joint venture in the Russian Federation with Komineft, a production association from the Komi autonomous republic. Komineft has a 50% share of the venture, and the rest is shared equally between Gulf and British Gas. The operating area is at the Vozey and Upper Vozey fields in the Timan-Pechora Basin, some 1,500 km northeast of Moscow just inside the Arctic Circle. An attractive feature of the Upper Vozey project is low development costs of ca $2/bbl. In the Vozey field, the venture will set up an enhanced oil recovery demonstration project to test techniques perfected in Alberta. About 60 Canadians are involved on the project, and headquarters are in Usinsk, ca 100 km south of the oil fields. In the first half of 1992, oil production in the first phase of the venture averaged around 10,000 bbl/d and continues to increase

  9. Understanding gasoline pricing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure is designed to help consumers understand how gasoline is priced and explained why prices increase, fluctuate and vary by location, city or region. The price of a litre of gasoline reflects the costs of crude oil, refining, retailing and taxes. Taxes are usually the largest single component of gasoline prices, averaging 40 to 50 per cent of the pump price. The cost of crude oil makes up another 35 to 45 per cent of the price. Refining costs make up 10 to 15 per cent while the remaining 5 to 10 per cent represents retail costs. Gasoline retailers make a profit of about 1 cent per litre. The latest network technology allows national and regional retail chains to constantly monitor price fluctuations to change their prices at gasoline stations at a moments notice to keep up with the competition and to protect their market shares. Several government studies, plus the Conference Board of Canada, have reported that competition is working in favour of Canadian motorists. This brochure also explained the drawbacks of regulating crude and pump prices with the reminder that crude prices were regulated in the 1970s with many negative consequences. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  10. NDT in Canada - the next 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme for the Fifth Canadian Conference on Nondestructive Testing was 'NDT in Canada - The Next 20 years'. The three day conference with 42 presentations provided a short overview of NDT in Canada, a look at NDT in pipeline, materials, offshore, nuclear and training applications, and a glimpse into the next 20 years with recent advances in research and development as related to this 'hi-tech' field of work

  11. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventeenth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. As in the past, this report presents the following data by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. (author). 17 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Canada 2030: An Agenda for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Kindornay; Centre for the Study of Living Standards

    2015-01-01

    As the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) reach their end date in 2015, negotiations are ramping up at the United Nations for the establishment of a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs, to be announced in September this year, will replace the MDGs and serve as a universal framework for achieving sustainable development outcomes in all countries by 2030, including Canada. This report takes an in-depth look at what the SDGs could mean for Canada, providing a concise overv...

  13. Visible minorities` educational choices in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbocean, Corneliu

    2009-01-01

    Paper investigates educational choices of visible minorities in Canada, educational attainment and choices over fields of study. Using 2001 Canada Census data and multinomial logistic regression, research finds that choices over level of education and field of study significantly differ among visible minorities. The choices of visible minorities’ males and females differentiate substantially; insights into visible minorities` culture and role of education might explain those differences. Math...

  14. Canada's upstream petroleum industry - 1996 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the activities and business prospects of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry for 1996 was provided. Canada's hydrocarbon resource base, reserve potential, crude oil and natural gas markets, pipeline transportation system, business and investment climate, deregulation and environmental health and safety concerns were summarized. A profile of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the principal industry organization representing upstream producers in Canada, was also provided

  15. Status of the belugas of the St Lawrence estuary, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael CS Kingsley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A population of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas inhabiting the estuary of the St Lawrence river in Quebec, Canada, was depleted by unregulated hunting, not closed until 1979. Surveys in 1977 showed only a few hundred in the population. Surveys since then have produced increasing estimates of population indices. An estimate of the population, fully corrected for diving animals, was 1,238 (SE 119 in September 1997. The population was estimated to have increased from 1988 through 1997 by 31.4 belugas/yr (SE 13.1. Observations of population age structure, as well as data on age at death obtained from beach-cast carcasses, do not indicate serious problems at the population level, although there are indications that mortality of the oldest animals may be elevated. Few animals appear to live much over 30 years. From examination of beach-cast carcasses, it appears that most deaths are due to old age and disease; hunting is illegal, ship strikes and entrapments in fishing gear are rare, ice entrapments and predation are unknown. Among beach-cast carcasses recovered and necropsied, about 23% of the adults have malignant cancers, while most of the juveniles have pneumonia; other pathological conditions are diverse. No factors are known to be limiting numbers of this population. Habitat quality factors, including persistent contaminants, boat traffic and harassment, may affect the population’s rate of increase, but these effects have not been quantitatively evaluated. Comprehensive legislation exists with powers to protect the population and the environment of which it is a component, but application and enforcement of the laws is not without problems.

  16. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs

  17. The Geographic Distribution of Liver Cancer in Canada Does Not Associate with Cyanobacterial Toxin Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan A. Labine

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of liver cancer has been increasing in Canada over the past decade, as has cyanobacterial contamination of Canadian freshwater lakes and drinking water sources. Cyanotoxins released by cyanobacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Objective: To determine whether a geographic association exists between liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes in Canada. Methods: A negative binomial regression model was employed based on previously identified risk factors for liver cancer. Results: No association existed between the geographic distribution of liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination. As predicted, significant associations existed in areas with a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection, large immigrant populations and urban residences. Discussion and Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes does not play an important role in the increasing incidence of liver cancer in Canada.

  18. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Goose Sausage%鹅肉香肠的发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊江; 曹婷婷; 潘道东; 孔诺

    2012-01-01

    In this study,Lactobacillus fermentum(L.f) and Micrococcus rossus(M.r) were used together to produce fermented goose sausage.The effects of four fermentation conditions including temperature,time,inoculum size and L.f-to-M.r ratio on sensory evaluation score and POV were investigated by one-factor-at-a-time method.The fermentation conditions were optimized using an orthogonal array design based on sensory evaluation score and POV.The optimal fermentation conditions were determined as follows: a 1:1 mixture of L.f and M.r was inoculated at an inoculum size of 1×107 CFU/g for fermentation at 25 ℃ for 20 h.The sensory evaluation score and POV of goose sausages obtained under these conditions were 96 and 2.3 meq/kg,respectively.Moreover,the reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging rate were 0.45 and 85.7%,respectively,suggesting powerful antioxidant effects.%选用发酵乳杆菌和变异微球菌为复合发酵剂生产鹅肉香肠,并以样品感官评分、过氧化值(POV)作为考察指标,在单因素试验分析的基础上,采用多指标正交设计对发酵鹅肉香肠的发酵温度、发酵时间、接种量以及菌种比例进行优化。结果表明:鹅肉香肠的最佳发酵工艺条件为:发酵时间20h、发酵温度25℃、接种量1×107CFU/g、发酵乳杆菌和变异微球菌最佳比例1:1。在此条件下,发酵鹅肉香肠感官评分为96分,POV为2.3meq/kg。在最佳发酵条件下制得的发酵鹅肉香肠的还原力(A700nm)和DPPH自由基的清除率分别是0.45和85.7%,样品抗氧化效果好。

  19. 智能变电站中SMV网和GOOSE网共网可能性探讨%Research on the Shared-network of SMV and Goose in Smart Substation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文龙; 刘明慧

    2011-01-01

    简述目前智能变电站的常用网络架构,分析采样值(sampled measured value,SMV)网和面向对象的变电站通用事件(generic object oriented substation event,GOOSE)网共网所面临的网络设备和智能设备的处理能力、数据实时性和网络可靠性、网络故障情况下对变电站的影响等技术问题.在此基础上对SMV网和GOOSE网共网进行可行性探讨,对所分析的问题逐一提出解决方法,最终得出了基于报文优先级控制、交换机端口数量限制、虚拟局域网(virtual local area network,VLAN)和GARP组播注册协议(GARP multicast registration protocol,GMRP)分类流量控制等应用的SMV网和GOOSE网共网解决方案.并且搭建试验台对SMV网GOOSE网共网和分网方案进行了对比试验和分析,其结果具有参考价值.%The network of the smart substation in common use was introduced, and the technical problem of the shared-network of sampled measured value (SMV) and generic object oriented substation event (GOOSE) was analysed, such as the processing ability of network device and the intelligent device, the data real-time property and the network reliability, the effects to the substation in the condition of network fault, and so on. On this basis, the feasibility of the shared-network of SMV and GOOSE was discussed, the resolving methods of the problems were presented one by one, and eventually came to the solution of the shared-network of SMV and GOOSE, which based on the applications of the message priority control, restricting the switch number, virtual local area network (VLAN) and GARP multicast registration protocol (GMRP) classification flow control, etc. In the test-bed, the cases of shared-network and separate-network of SMV and GOOSE were compared and analysed, and the results was valuable for reference.

  20. Extratropical Transitions in Atlantic Canada: Impacts and Adaptive Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Athena; Catto, Norm

    2013-04-01

    . Storm surge damage occurred along the north shore of the Bonavista Peninsula. Similar effects, differing only in the size of the affected areas, have resulted from several extratropical transitions which have impacted Atlantic Canada since July 1989. Extratropical transition "Leslie" impacted Newfoundland on 10-11 September 2012. Although the area affected was comparable to "Igor", wind velocities and rainfall totals were less, fortunately limiting damage. Preparation, advance warning to the population, proaction, and response efforts all showed significant improvement, however, indicating that the experience gained from coping with "Igor" had been successfully applied in adaptation to "Leslie". Extratropical transitions pose a significantly different set of challenges for adaptation in comparison to purely tropical hurricanes, and responses and adaptation strategies should be tailored to address these specific events. Calculating the frequency, magnitude and intensity of potential shifts is important for accurate forecasting and public awareness, safety management, preparedness, and adaptation. Available data indicate an increase in extratropical frequency and severity in Atlantic Canada since 1991, but there are difficulties in establishing the extent and nature of transition for previous storm events. A cautionary policy would assume no significant changes in extratropical transition frequency for Atlantic Canada, but would also acknowledge that large events remain probable.

  1. Federal Support of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Financing Higher Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waines, W. J.

    The purpose of this report is to help the people and governments of Canada face the financial problems of university development over the next decade. The report deals with: (1) enrollment projections of Canada's universities and colleges; (2) projection of operating expenditures; (3) projection of capital expenditures; (4) estimated total…

  2. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  3. An assessment of antimicrobial resistant disease threats in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Garner

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR of infectious agents is a growing concern for public health organizations. Given the complexity of this issue and how widespread the problem has become, resources are often insufficient to address all concerns, thus prioritization of AMR pathogens is essential for the optimal allocation of risk management attention. Since the epidemiology of AMR pathogens differs between countries, country-specific assessments are important for the determination of national priorities.To develop a systematic and transparent approach to AMR risk prioritization in Canada.Relevant AMR pathogens in Canada were selected through a transparent multi-step consensus process (n=32. Each pathogen was assessed using ten criteria: incidence, mortality, case-fatality, communicability, treatability, clinical impact, public/political attention, ten-year projection of incidence, economic impact, and preventability. For each pathogen, each criterion was assigned a numerical score of 0, 1, or 2, and multiplied by criteria-specific weighting determined through researcher consensus of importance. The scores for each AMR pathogen were summed and ranked by total score, where a higher score indicated greater importance. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effects of changing the criteria-specific weights.The AMR pathogen with the highest total weighted score was extended spectrum B-lactamase-producing (ESBL Enterobacteriaceae (score=77. When grouped by percentile, ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium difficile, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were in the 80-100th percentile.This assessment provides useful information for prioritising public health strategies regarding AMR resistance at the national level in Canada. As the AMR environment and challenges change over time and space, this systematic and transparent approach can be adapted for use by other stakeholders domestically and

  4. Safety review of operating nuclear power plants in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public utilities own and operate all 22 operating power reactors in Canada. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), a Federal Government agency, regulates the nuclear industry in Canada and, as part of that responsibility, continually reviews the safety of power reactor operation. Canada's regulatory process is not as prescriptive as it is in many other countries. The AECB sets general requirements for reactor design, analysis and operation, and requires the licensee to develop and carry out procedures, processes and practices to meet these requirements. The primary responsibility for safety of nuclear power reactors rests with the licensee. The safety review process of the AECB covers all of its regulatory requirements and accommodates a two-year licence renewal cycle. Project officers located at the plant sites continually monitor operation and inspect the plant. Quality assurance, radiation protection practices, emergency plans, pressure boundary integrity design changes, reported events and safety analyses are also continually reviewed. The review of each station's operation by AECB staff is summarized in annual reports which are available to the public. These reports are an important input into the two-yearly licence renewal process. The safety review process currently focuses on obtaining assurance that the risk to public and worker health and safety and to the environment remains within the bounds of the original licensing basis for the facility. The AECB recognizes that, to obtain the desired level of assurance of continuing safety for an ageing reactor population, its current safety review process needs to be changed. More attention has to be focused on operational safety (i.e. plant operation and maintenance) and on developing the standards and skills to do this effectively. The compliance assessment programme should be expanded to include station management processes and practices, such as maintenance strategy, configuration management and risk

  5. Modification of the full-length cDNA clone of Newcastle disease virus Isolated from an outbreak In the goose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuliang; HU Shunli; ZHANG Yanmei; WU Yantao; LIU Xiufan; R(o)emer-Oberdoerfer Angela; Veits Jutta; Lange Martina

    2006-01-01

    A 6.5-kb specific fragment containing the T7 promoter and the transcription vector was excised from the full-length eDNA clone of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain ZJI of goose origin,and thereafter it was self-ligated to form a high quality plasmid for mutagenesis.Site-directed mutagenesis was used for inserting three additional G nucleotides (nts) into the region between the T7 promoter and the leader sequence of the NDV genome.RT-PCR was employed to amplify the F/HN gene fragments,and then they were ligated by the shared restriction enzyme BsmBI.Finally,the corresponding fragment in the mutant full-length eDNA was substituted with the new one.The sequencing results showed that the three additional Gnts were successfully inserted and the mutant nts in the full-length eDNA were corrected.This study lays a good foundation for research on the reverse genetics of NDV strain ZJI.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a distinct duck-origin goose parvovirus causing an outbreak of duckling short beak and dwarfism syndrome in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shilong; Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Xiao, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoli; Lin, Fengqiang; Wu, Nanyang; Wang, Jinxiang; Huang, Meiqing; Zheng, Min; Chen, Shaoying; Yu, Fusong

    2016-09-01

    Many mule duck and Cherry Valley duck flocks in different duck-producing regions of China have shown signs of an apparently new disease designated "short beak and dwarfism syndrome" (SBDS) since 2015. The disease is characterized by dyspraxia, weight loss, a protruding tongue, and high morbidity and low mortality rates. In order to characterize the etiological agent, a virus designated SBDSV M15 was isolated from allantoic fluid of dead embryos following serial passage in duck embryos. This virus causes a cytopathic effect in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. Using monoclonal antibody diagnostic assays, the SBDSV M15 isolate was positive for the antigen of goose parvovirus but not Muscovy duck parvovirus. A 348-bp (2604-2951) VP1gene fragment was amplified, and its sequence indicated that the virus was most closely related to a Hungarian GPV strain that was also isolated from mule ducks with SBDS disease. A similar disease was reproduced by inoculating birds with SBDSV M15. Together, these data indicate that SBDSV M15 is a GPV-related parvovirus causing SBDS disease and that it is divergent from classical GPV isolates. PMID:27314945

  7. Identification of Lactobacillus strains of goose origin using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, Marta; Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Gnat, Sebastian; Puchalski, Andrzej; Wernicki, Andrzej

    2014-04-01

    The objective of our study was to identify Lactobacillus sp. strains of goose origin using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, ITS-PCR and ITS-PCR/RFLP. All three techniques proved to be valuable tools for identification of avian lactobacilli and produced comparable classification results. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from 100% of geese aged 3 weeks to 4 years, but from only 25% of chicks aged 1-10 days. Among the 104 strains isolated, we distinguished 14 Lactobacillus species. The dominant species was Lactobacillus salivarius (35.6%), followed by Lactobacillus johnsonii (18.3%), Lactobacillus ingluviei (11.5%) and Lactobacillus agilis (7.7%). The intact-cell MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry enabled rapid species identification of the lactobacilli with minimal pretreatment. However, it produced more than one identification result for 11.5% examined strains (mainly of the species L. johnsonii). ITS-PCR distinguished 12 genotypes among the isolates, but was not able to differentiate closely related strains, i.e. between Lactobacillus amylovorus and Lactobacillus kitasatonis and between Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus zeae. These species were differentiated by ITS-PCR/RFLP using the restriction enzymes TaqI and MseI. The results obtained indicate that ITS-PCR and ITS-PCR/RFLP assays could be used not only for interspecific, but also for intraspecific, typing. PMID:24607713

  8. Epidemiological and Evolutionary Inference of the Transmission Network of the 2014 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N2 Outbreak in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanhong; Berhane, Yohannes; Dubé, Caroline; Liang, Binhua; Pasick, John; VanDomselaar, Gary; Alexandersen, Soren

    2016-01-01

    The first North American outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) involving a virus of Eurasian A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (H5N1) lineage began in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada in late November 2014. A total of 11 commercial and 1 non-commercial (backyard) operations were infected before the outbreak was terminated. Control measures included movement restrictions that were placed on a total of 404 individual premises, 150 of which were located within a 3 km radius of an infected premise(s) (IP). A complete epidemiological investigation revealed that the source of this HPAI H5N2 virus for 4 of the commercial IPs and the single non-commercial IP likely involved indirect contact with wild birds. Three IPs were associated with the movement of birds or service providers and localized/environmental spread was suspected as the source of infection for the remaining 4 IPs. Viral phylogenies, as determined by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods, were used to validate the epidemiologically inferred transmission network. The phylogenetic clustering of concatenated viral genomes and the median-joining phylogenetic network of the viruses supported, for the most part, the transmission network that was inferred by the epidemiologic analysis. PMID:27489095

  9. Opportunities in Canada's growing wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investment in Canada's wind sector is projected to reach $8 billion by 2012, and growth of the sector is expected to create over 16,000 jobs. Canada's wind energy capacity grew by 54 per cent in 2005 alone, aided in part by supportive national policies and programs such as the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI); the Canadian Renewable Conservation Expense (CRCE) and Class 43.1 Capital Cost Allowance; and support for research and development. Major long-term commitments for clean power purchases, standard offer contracts and renewable portfolio standards in several provinces are encouraging further development of the wind energy sector. This paper argued that the development of a robust Canadian wind turbine manufacturing industry will enhance economic development, create opportunities for export; and mitigate the effects of international wind turbine supply shortages. However, it is not known whether Canadian wind turbine firms are positioned to capitalize on the sector's recent growth. While Canada imports nearly all its large wind turbine generators and components, the country has technology and manufacturing strengths in advanced power electronics and small wind systems, as well as in wind resource mapping. Wind-diesel and wind-hydrogen systems are being developed in Canada, and many of the hybrid systems will offer significant opportunities for remote communities and off-grid applications. Company partnerships for technology transfer, licensing and joint ventures will accelerate Canada's progress. A recent survey conducted by Industry Canada and the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) indicated that the total impact of wind energy related expenditures on economic output is nearly $1.38 billion for the entire sector. Annual payroll for jobs in Canada was estimated at $50 million, and substantial employment growth in the next 5 years is expected. Canada offers a strong industrial supply base capable of manufacturing wind turbine generators and

  10. The Status of the Sea Otter in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenson G.B.

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available The extirpation of otters in Canada was caused by commercial exploitation and with continued protection it is likely that the population will continue to increase. Suitable habitat appears to be plentiful and does not appear to have been reduced significantly in quantity or quality since historical times. Given the remoteness of much of this habitat it is unlikely that human activities pose much of a threat at the present time. One possible exception, however, is the presence of oil pollution. Unlike most marine mammals, sea otters rely upon their fur for insulation. This fur is highly sensitive to environmental contamination and oiling has been shown to significantly reduce its insulative properties This results in increased metabolic rates and can cause death. Considering the limited distribution of sea otters and the increased interest in offshore oil development and transportation along the British Columbian coast, this could pose a future threat. For now however, the future of sea otters in Canada appears bright.

  11. Combustion and global climate change: Canada's challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All aspects of energy use, combustion and environmental impacts have been examined in an effort to find scientific, engineering and societal solutions to the global warming and climatic change challenges facing the world's population. Primary emphasis was on challenges to Canadians and the uniquely Canadian solutions required to ensure that Canada as a nation can meet its environmental commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. The conference was organized in eight concurrent sessions, some of which were further subdivided into two or more sub-sessions. Each session or sub-session consisted of an average of five formal presentations and the ensuing question and answer sessions. The proceedings volume contains only the formal presentations. Session titles included (1) flaring; (2) how can electric utilities succeed in the climate change challenge; (3) industrial combustion and greenhouse gases: the consequences and the challenges; (4) more efficient residential and commercial combustion systems; (5) carbon dioxide capture and sequestration; (6) the district energy solution and climate protection; (7) improving transportation engines, systems, and fuels for GHG emission reductions; and (8) biomass in Canada's energy mix. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Hot air : meeting Canada's climate change challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a large northern country, Canada will change significantly as a result of climate change. Global warming is expected to cause diminutions of snow and ice changes in the Arctic, as well as changes to glaciers, and the mountain snowpacks that feed rivers, and provide sources of fresh water. This book argued that the effects of global warming have been apparent in Canada for many years. Water levels in lakes and rivers have been falling, and a thawing permafrost has led to difficulties in building and maintaining winter roads in the far north. Disturbances such as the mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in British Columbia have also been attributed to global warming, the beetles are only killed by cold weather. The book also considered Canada's current climate change policies, and discussed attempts to arrive at meaningful and effective strategies. 30 refs

  13. Report on external occupational dosimetry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of the new recommendations of the ICRP in Report 60 on dose quantities and dose limits, this working group was set up to examine the implications for external dosimetry in Canada. The operational quantities proposed by the ICRU are discussed in detail with regard to their applicability in Canada. The current occupational dosimetry services available in Canada are described as well as the several performance intercomparisons that have been carried out within the country as well as internationally. Recommendations are given with respect to standards for dosimetry, including accuracy and precision. More practical advice is given on the choice of dosimeter to use for external dosimetry, frequency of monitoring, and who should be monitored. Specific advice is given on the monitoring of pregnant workers and problem of non-uniform irradiation. Accident and emergency dosimetry are dealt with briefly. Suggestions are given regarding record keeping both for employers and for the national dose registry. 48 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Primary health care nurse practitioners in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCenso, Alba; Auffrey, Lucille; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Donald, Faith; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Matthews, Sue; Opsteen, Joanne

    2007-08-01

    Canada, like many countries, is in the midst of primary health care reform. A key priority is to improve access to primary health care, especially in remote communities and areas with physician shortages. As a result, there is an increased emphasis on the integration of primary health care nurse practitioners. As of March 2006, legislation exists in all provinces and two territories in Canada that allows nurse practitioners (NPs) to implement their expanded nursing role. In this paper, we will briefly review the historical development of the NP role in Canada and situate it in the international context; describe the NP role, supply of NPs in the country, and the settings in which they work; propose an NP practice model framework; summarize facilitators and barriers to NP role implementation in primary health care delivery; and outline strategies to address the barriers. PMID:18041990

  15. Restructuring of Canada's nuclear utilities: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Business decisions relating to the electric power sector are a provincial responsibility in Canada. The federal government looks to the three nuclear utilities to manage their nuclear assets and maintain them in a way that maximizes their reliability, efficiency and overall performance. A significant development in Canada's nuclear sector in the past year was the Ontario Hydro Nuclear Asset Optimization Plan. Structural change in the North American electricity market is a major impetus for decisions regarding nuclear assets by Canada's electric power utilities. The Ontario government is now taking steps to introduce competition in the Ontario Electricity market. The province of New Brunswick, which has one reactor at Point Lepreau which supplies one-third of the province's electricity, is also taking measures to introduce competition in its electricity market. (author)

  16. The Hybridisation of Higher Education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Shale

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada's postsecondary institutions are becoming increasingly involved with technology enhanced learning, generally under the rubric of distance education. Growth and activity in distance education stems from rapid developments in communication and information technologies such as videoconferencing and the Internet. This case study focuses on the use of new technologies, primarily within the context of higher education institutions operating in Canada's English speaking provinces. Capitalising on the interactive capabilities of "new" learning technologies, some distance education providers are starting to behave more like conventional educational institutions in terms of forming study groups and student cohorts. Conversely, new telecommunications technologies are having a reverse impact on traditional classroom settings, and as a result conventional universities are beginning to establish administrative structures reflective of those used by distance education providers. When viewed in tandem, these trends reflect growing convergence between conventional and distance learning modes, leading to the hybridisation of higher education in Canada.

  17. A research review: exploring the health of Canada's Aboriginal youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Ning

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the current state of health research on Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youth in Canada. Design. A search of published academic literature on Canadian Aboriginal youth health, including a comprehensive review of both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal youth research, was conducted using MEDLINE and summarized. Methodology. A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published over a 10-year period (2000–2010. The search was limited to research articles pertaining to Canadian youth, using various synonyms for “Canada,” “youth,” and “Aboriginal.” Each article was coded according to 4 broad categories: Aboriginal identity, geographic location, research topic (health determinants, health status, health care, and the 12 key determinants of health proposed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC. Results. Of the 117 articles reviewed, only 34 pertained to Aboriginal youth, while the remaining 83 pertained to non-Aboriginal youth. The results revealed major discrepancies within the current body of research with respect to the geographic representation of Aboriginal youth, with several provinces missing from the literature, including the northern territories. Furthermore, the current research is not reflective of the demographic composition of Aboriginal youth, with an under-representation of Métis and urban Aboriginal youth. Health status of Aboriginal youth has received the most attention, appearing in 79% of the studies reviewed compared with 57% of the non-Aboriginal studies. The number of studies that focus on health determinants and health care is comparable for both groups, with the former accounting for 62 and 64% and the latter comprising 26 and 19% of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal studies, respectively. However, this review reveals several differences with respect to specific focus on health determinants between the two populations. In non-Aboriginal youth studies, all the 12 key determinants of health of PHAC

  18. Report of wildlife management study: Progress report no. 2: Canada goose response and use of a variety of habitat types and habitat conditions on the Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Progress on this multi-year wildlife management study has involved data gather in accordance with three of the five steps identified in the Wildlife Management...

  19. Action plan for electric mobility in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric mobility is an important emerging industry in Canada, where there is significant expertise in electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries, hybrid technologies, grid-connected technologies and fuel cell vehicles. This paper presented a case for the formation of Electric Mobility Canada, a proposed network of private companies and public sector agencies that aims to stimulate industry and provide support to government agencies involved with meeting Canada's obligations under the Kyoto Protocol, as well as in new industry sectors. The environmental, health, economic and industrial benefits of electric mobility were outlined. Current programs for electric mobility were reviewed, and details of financial incentives and initiatives were presented. An overview of electric mobility programs in the United States and Europe was provided. Research and development needs were evaluated. The former Electric Vehicle Association of Canada was discussed. An organizational structure for the proposed network was presented, along with a mission statement and outline of future goals. Recommendations for the future of the network included identifying short and long-term market opportunities for electric mobility technologies for all surface transport modes in Canada; determining research and development needs and appropriate funding and investment opportunities; determining other actions necessary to allow the electric mobility industry to play a growing role in meeting Canada's transport needs; and raising public awareness of the importance of electric mobility trends. It was concluded that the federal government should be approached for start-up funds for the network, which will be followed by further investment from provincial and business interests once the network is in place and functioning. 84 refs

  20. The nuclear ingredient in Canada's industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy scene in Canada has been confused by a changing industrial and economic pattern, a proliferation of energy options, a conflict of energy priorities, and possibly a media and anti-nuclear inspired perception that electricity is expensive and not a good substitute for oil. In spite of an economic down-turn, in 1982-83 five new CANDU reactors with a combined capacity of 3000 MW were completed in Canada. Opportunities exist for increased use of electricity both in households and in industry. The benefits of nuclear power have extended beyond a reliable and economic energy supply to research advances, job creation, and the overall industrial development of the country

  1. Shell Canada Limited 1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shell Canada Resources Limited is one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, sulphur and bitumen. This annual report for 1996 presented a summary review of operations and a summary of the Company's audited consolidated financial statements. Overall, the resources business delivered exceptional results in 1996. The oil products and chemicals businesses did not perform as well as expected. This less than satisfactory performance of the oil products and chemicals divisions of the the Company is reflected in the financial returns which, after excluding revenues from asset sales, left operating earnings $ 59 million below those of 1996. tabs., figs

  2. Canada's green plan - The second year. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan's goal is 'to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.' It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan's short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities

  3. Suicide among immigrant psychiatric patients in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, R; Beddage, V; Fernando, M L

    1991-11-01

    Ninety-four Canadian-born psychiatric patients who committed suicide were compared with 23 foreign-born patients committing suicide in Canada. East Europeans were over-represented, and significant differences were found in the age distribution, stress, level of education, social isolation, and methods of suicide. Most foreign-born patients had come to Canada for family or economic reasons but were unemployed, with poor social integration. Employment, housing, education, social integration and a support network seem to be important in preventing these deaths. Cultural evaluation of the patient and early intervention is recommended. PMID:1756350

  4. Is Canada's sex ratio in decline?

    OpenAIRE

    Dodds, L; Armson, B A

    1997-01-01

    In this issue (see pages 37 to 41) Dr. Bruce B. Allan and associates report a small but statistically significant decrease--of about 0.2%--in the proportion of male live births in Canada over the period 1970-90. In this editorial, factors that have been reported in the literature to influence sex ratio are examined within a Canadian context. The authors suggest that although the reasons for the apparent decline in the sex ratio in Canada are unclear, the increasing use of ovulation induction ...

  5. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, July-December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assesing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1978 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. Radioactivity measurements are now given in the SI unit. the becquerel (Bq). One becquerel is equivalent to about 27 picocuries. Dose commitment estimates are given in sieverts (Sv). One sievert is equal to 100 rem. The graphical format used in previous reports has been retained with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommeded by the International Commission for Radiological Protection. (Auth)

  6. The effect of plants with novel traits (PNT) regulation on mutation breeding in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988 the Parliament of Canada passed the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) into law. Within this Act is a definition for biotechnology which reads 'the application of science and engineering in the direct or indirect use of living organisms or parts or products of living organisms in their natural or modified forms'. The definition was placed in CEPA to deal with concerns regarding Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and would allow Environment Canada to regulate all GMOs. In response to CEPA the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), which is responsible for registration of plant varieties in Canada, developed the concept of a Plant with Novel Traits (PNT) defined as 'a plant variety possessing a characteristic that is intentionally selected or created through a specific genetic change and is either not previously associated with a distinct and stable population of the cultivated plant species in Canada or expressed outside the normal range of a similar existing characteristic in the plant species'. Not only does this definition capture GMOs it also includes induced mutations, natural mutations and exotic germplasm that have not previously been grown in Canada. It is, as CFIA has argued, a system that is product not process based. However, apart from questions regarding the novelty of traits in new plant varieties, breeders are asked by CFIA to identify the process used to develop the trait or traits in question. Field trials involving breeding lines with a PNT may be subject to confined testing. This conference celebrates 70 years of unconfined development and testing of induced plant mutations. This regulation is time consuming, expensive and an innovation barrier for Canadian plant breeding. It can only be hoped that other nations, and particularly those that have successfully used induced mutations, will not emulate Canada's approach. (author)

  7. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  8. A study on the health of the employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) Employee Health Study commenced in 1980 July following the issue of a Company-Wide General Notice of 1980 April by the President of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mr. James Donnelly. The study was set up to determine the causes of death of the AECL study population as compared to a similar group in the general population and to determine if there is a relationship between cause of death and occupational exposure to ionising radiation. Previous AECL reports have outlined how the study has been set up and implemented. The purpose of this report is to describe the reasons for and the methods of upgrading the data base for the AECL Employee Health Study. Some description of procedures used during the first linkage and recommendations for future linkages are included

  9. 皖北“老雁馍”民俗的文化意蕴%The Cultural Implication of “Wild Goose-Steamed Bun” Folk Custom in Wanbei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王改凌

    2015-01-01

    “The wild-goose-shaped steamed bun” is made of wheat flour by married women in Northern Anhui, with the shape of a wild goose, and is sent to their parents and elders as the“steamed flour ( flower) gift”. It carries much historical information of the wheat-growing culture in Wanbei and is an important carrier of Wanbei people’ s value system, emotions and ways of thinking. In view of the status that our country has entered the aging society and family bonds become increasingly weak, it is of great realistic significance to rec-ognize the cultural connotation of the folk custom of“wild-goose-shaped steamed bun”, and to inherit and car-ry forward the essence of filial respect.%“老雁馍”是皖北已婚女性用小麦面蒸制成大雁形状送给父母长辈的面花礼馍。“老雁馍”承载着皖北麦作文化的诸多历史信息,是皖北民众价值观念、思想情感、思维方式的重要载体。鉴于我国已步入老龄化社会及血缘亲情日趋淡漠的现状,充分认知“老雁馍”民俗的文化内涵,传承并弘扬其敬老孝亲之精髓具有一定的现实意义。

  10. Health and social costs of tobacco use in Ontario, Canada, 1979 and 1988.

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, B. C.; Pak, A W

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the health and social costs of tobacco use in Ontario, Canada. DESIGN: This was a cost-benefit analysis based on cross sectional data in 1988, stratified by age and sex, using an attributable risk model. The total cost of the consequences of tobacco use in the society included those costs attributed to extra deaths, disability, hospitalisation, physician visits, and fire losses, from tobacco use. PARTICIPANTS: The general population of Ontario, Ca...

  11. Strategies for Reforestation under Uncertain Future Climates: Guidelines for Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Laura K.; Hamann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background Commercial forestry programs normally use locally collected seed for reforestation under the assumption that tree populations are optimally adapted to local environments. However, in western Canada this assumption is no longer valid because of climate trends that have occurred over the last several decades. The objective of this study is to show how we can arrive at reforestation recommendations with alternative species and genotypes that are viable under a majority of climate chan...

  12. Income adequacy and education associated with the prevalence of obesity in rural Saskatchewan, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yue; Rennie, Donna C.; Chandima P. Karunanayake; Janzen, Bonnie; Hagel, Louise; Pickett, William; Dyck, Roland; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James A; Pahwa, Punam; ,

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is prevalent in rural communities in Canada, however little is known about the social determinants of health and obesity in rural populations. Socioeconomic status has been found to be inversely associated with the risk of obesity in developed countries. This study investigated the relationship between income adequacy, education and obesity in a rural setting. Methods The study used data from 5391 adults aged 18–69 who participated in the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study in ...

  13. Quantifying the Impact of Obesity Category on Major Chronic Diseases in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Jiang; Yue Chen; Douglas Manuel; Howard Morrison; Yang Mao; Obesity Working Group

    2007-01-01

    Adverse health effects differ with various levels of obesity, but limited national data existed previously for the Canadian population. We examined the associations of sociodemographic and behavioral factors with obesity levels in Canada, and measured the impact of each level on major chronic diseases. Data were extracted from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey. We grouped overweight/obese participants aged 18 years and over into four levels based on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2): overw...

  14. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Higginbottom Gina MA; Vallianatos Helen; Forgeron Joan; Gibbons Donna; Malhi Rebecca; Mamede Fabiana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to unders...

  15. Health Status and Health Determinants of Older Immigrant Women in Canada: A Scoping Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sepali Guruge; Birpreet Birpreet; Samuels-Dennis, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing international migration in the context of aging populations makes a comprehensive understanding of older immigrant women’s health status and determinants of their health particularly urgent. Using Arksey and O’Malley’s framework, we conducted a scoping review to examine the available literature on the health of older immigrant women in Canada. We searched CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane databases for the period of 1990 to 2014 for Canadian-based, peer-reviewed studi...

  16. Strategies for Reforestation under Uncertain Future Climates: Guidelines for Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Laura K.; Andreas Hamann

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Commercial forestry programs normally use locally collected seed for reforestation under the assumption that tree populations are optimally adapted to local environments. However, in western Canada this assumption is no longer valid because of climate trends that have occurred over the last several decades. The objective of this study is to show how we can arrive at reforestation recommendations with alternative species and genotypes that are viable under a majority of climate cha...

  17. The epidemiology of fatal cyclist crashes over a 14-year period in Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudet, Lindsay; Romanow, Nicole T. R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Voaklander, Donald; Hagel, Brent E.; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Background Cycling is a popular recreational activity and a common transportation option; however, cycling-related injuries can be fatal. There are few studies of cycling fatalities in Canada and none in a region as sparsely populated as Alberta. Methods A chart review was conducted of cyclists involved in fatal crashes. Charts for deaths that occurred between 1998 and 2011 (inclusive) were identified and abstracted onto standardized forms. Personal characteristics and crash circumstances, in...

  18. Brazilian immigrants’ oral health literacy and participation in oral health care in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Calvasina, Paola; Lawrence, Herenia P.; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Norman, Cameron D

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate functional health literacy is a common problem in immigrant populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between oral (dental) health literacy (OHL) and participation in oral health care among Brazilian immigrants in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Methods The study used a cross-sectional design and a convenience sample of 101 Brazilian immigrants selected through the snowball sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logi...

  19. Artificial Intelligence in Canada: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mccalla, Gordon; Cercone, Nick

    1984-01-01

    Canadians have made many contributions to artificial intelligence over the years. This article presents a summary of current research in artificial intelligence in Canada and acquaints readers with the Canadian organization for artificial intelligence -- the Canadian Society for the Computational Studies of Intelligence / Societe Canadienne pour l' Etude de l'Intelligence par Ordinateur (CSCSI/ SCEIO).

  20. Canada,China,Closer in Hard Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Facing the current global financial storm,more posSible economic and trade cooperation and promotion worldwide is being sought by nations to walk out the hard time.The 2nd Canada China Business Forum held in Beijing,on November 3,is an example to a closer tie of both countries.