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Sample records for canada comparing exposure

  1. Spatial analysis of air pollution and childhood asthma in Hamilton, Canada: comparing exposure methods in sensitive subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain Altaf

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in air pollution exposure within a community may be associated with asthma prevalence. However, studies conducted to date have produced inconsistent results, possibly due to errors in measurement of the exposures. Methods A standardized asthma survey was administered to children in grades one and eight in Hamilton, Canada, in 1994–95 (N ~1467. Exposure to air pollution was estimated in four ways: (1 distance from roadways; (2 interpolated surfaces for ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter and nitrous oxides from seven to nine governmental monitoring stations; (3 a kriged nitrogen dioxide (NO2 surface based on a network of 100 passive NO2 monitors; and (4 a land use regression (LUR model derived from the same monitoring network. Logistic regressions were used to test associations between asthma and air pollution, controlling for variables including neighbourhood income, dwelling value, state of housing, a deprivation index and smoking. Results There were no significant associations between any of the exposure estimates and asthma in the whole population, but large effects were detected the subgroup of children without hayfever (predominately in girls. The most robust effects were observed for the association of asthma without hayfever and NO2LUR OR = 1.86 (95%CI, 1.59–2.16 in all girls and OR = 2.98 (95%CI, 0.98–9.06 for older girls, over an interquartile range increase and controlling for confounders. Conclusion Our findings indicate that traffic-related pollutants, such as NO2, are associated with asthma without overt evidence of other atopic disorders among female children living in a medium-sized Canadian city. The effects were sensitive to the method of exposure estimation. More refined exposure models produced the most robust associations.

  2. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventeenth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. As in the past, this report presents the following data by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. (author). 17 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventh in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of National Health and Welfare. As in the past this report presents by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  4. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the tenth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices, Department of National Health and Welfare. This report presents by occupation average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  5. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the second in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1979 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may be changing. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increased over the corresponding values for 1977 and 1978

  6. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the third in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to be changing. In some occupational categories a consistent upward trend is observed

  7. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fifth in a series of annual reports in Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which contains dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included, and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded

  8. Occupational radiation exposures in canada-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of National Health and Welfare. As in the past this report presents by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. The format has been changed to provide more detailed information regarding the various occupations. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  9. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1978 report is the first in a series of annual reports on occupational radiation exposures in Canada. The data are derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of overexposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1978 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may have changed. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increasd over the corresponding values for 1977

  10. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fourth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes those records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to have resumed after an interruption during 1979 to 1980. A brief summary of extremity dose data is also included

  11. Racial gradients of ambient air pollution exposure in Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buzzelli; Michael Jerrett

    2004-01-01

    Environmental justice research in the United States has coalesced around the notion that visible-minority status, along with socioeconomic position (SEP), conditions exposure to environmental health hazards. In the context of long-standing debates over Canada - USA urban differences, we address the question of whether racial gradients exist in air pollution across Hamilton, Canada. Monitored air quality data are spatially interpolated with a kriging algorithm. These interpolated exposures are...

  12. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  13. Comparing population health in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet Nathalie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the paper is to compare population health in the United States (US and Canada. Although the two countries are very similar in many ways, there are potentially important differences in the levels of social and economic inequality and the organization and financing of and access to health care in the two countries. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health 2002/03. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall health-related quality of life (HRQL. Mean HUI3 scores were compared, adjusting for major determinants of health, including body mass index, smoking, education, gender, race, and income. In addition, estimates of life expectancy were compared. Finally, mean HUI3 scores by age and gender and Canadian and US life tables were used to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE. Results Life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. For those Conclusions The population of Canada appears to be substantially healthier than the US population with respect to life expectancy, HRQL, and HALE. Factors that account for the difference may include access to health care over the full life span (universal health insurance and lower levels of social and economic inequality, especially among the elderly.

  14. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada ranks ninth in the world in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Canada currently releases 1.9 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of fossil fuels, production and treatment of oil and natural gas, and cement manufacturing. Canadian carbon dioxide emissions doubled between 1956 and 1986, growing at an average rate of about 2.4 percent per year. They reached a peak in 1979 and have since fluctuated within 10 percent of that amount. Despite the significant increase in emissions, Canada's share of global carbon dioxide emissions has declined slightly since 1956. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks fourth among nations in carbon dioxide emissions, with about 4.1 tons in 1986. This rate compares with the U.S. average of 5 tons per capita emissions have grown by about 25 percent since 1956. Canada, though a relatively small source of greenhouse gases, has been deeply involved in finding ways to reduce the risk of climatic change. The nation fortunately possesses opportunities to reduce this risk by saving energy, developing nonfossil energy resources, and facilitating international cooperation for capturing these opportunities worldwide

  15. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  16. Creating National Air Pollution Models for Population Exposure Assessment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setton, Eleanor; Cervantes, Alejandro; Poplawski, Karla; Deschenes, Steeve; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lamsal, Lok; Martin, Randall; Jerrett, Michael; Demers, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: Population exposure assessment methods that capture local-scale pollutant variability are needed for large-scale epidemiological studies and surveillance, policy, and regulatory purposes. Currently, such exposure methods are limited. Methods: We created 2006 national pollutant models for fine particulate matter [PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)], nitrogen dioxide (NO2), benzene, ethylbenzene, and 1,3-butadiene from routinely collected fixed-site monitoring data in Canada. In multiple regression models, we incorporated satellite estimates and geographic predictor variables to capture background and regional pollutant variation and used deterministic gradients to capture local-scale variation. The national NO2 and benzene models are evaluated with independent measurements from previous land use regression models that were conducted in seven Canadian cities. National models are applied to census block-face points, each of which represents the location of approximately 89 individuals, to produce estimates of population exposure. Results: The national NO2 model explained 73% of the variability in fixed-site monitor concentrations, PM2.5 46%, benzene 62%, ethylbenzene 67%, and 1,3-butadiene 68%. The NO2 model predicted, on average, 43% of the within-city variability in the independent NO2 data compared with 18% when using inverse distance weighting of fixed-site monitoring data. Benzene models performed poorly in predicting within-city benzene variability. Based on our national models, we estimated Canadian ambient annual average population-weighted exposures (in micrograms per cubic meter) of 8.39 for PM2.5, 23.37 for NO2, 1.04 for benzene, 0.63 for ethylbenzene, and 0.09 for 1,3-butadiene. Conclusions: The national pollutant models created here improve exposure assessment compared with traditional monitor-based approaches by capturing both regional and local-scale pollution variation. Applying national models to routinely collected

  17. 1999 report on occupational radiation exposures in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides statistics on occupational radiation exposures for use by regulatory authorities, organizations and private individuals. Out of a total of 125,883 monitored workers, 4 annual doses exceeded the regulatory limit of 50 mSv in 1998. Out of 43 specified job categories, 18 had a smaller annual average in 1998 than in 1997, 17 had a higher average, and 8 had the same average rounded to 0.01 mSv. The uranium mining job categories are not in this list because the conversion factor for radon progeny exposure to effective dose was changed from 10 to 5 mSv/WLM, precluding a valid comparison of the averages. In all categories of workers, from 1996 to 1997, 19 average annual doses went up, 33 went down, and 4 stayed the same. The figures reflect a sustained effort in keeping the occupational doses low. (author)

  18. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear research and development in Canada started in the 1940s as a responsibility of the federal government. An engineering design team was established at Chalk River, Ontario, to carry out research on heavy water moderated lattices. A zero-energy heavy water moderated research reactor, ZEEP, was built and achieved criticality in September 1945; it was in fact the first human-made operating reactor outside the USA. In 1947, the 20 MW heavy water moderated national research experimental reactor (NRX) started up. It served as one of the most valuable research reactors in the world, and provided the basis for Canada's development of the very successful CANDU series of pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) for power generation. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) was established in 1952 as a federal Crown Corporation. It has both a public and a commercial mandate. AECL has overall responsibility for Canada's nuclear research and development programme (its public mandate) as well as for the Canadian reactor design (CANDU), engineering and marketing programme (its commercial mandate). Nuclear energy in Canada is a $5 billion per-year industry, representing about 150 firms, 21 000 direct jobs and 10 000 indirect jobs, and ∼$1.2 billion in exports - the value to the country's economy is much higher than the research and development funding provided by the federal government. The CANDU nuclear reactor system was developed by AECL in close collaboration with the Canadian nuclear industry, and in particular with Ontario Hydro (now Ontario Power Generation). Currently, Canada operates 17 CANDU reactors, which contribute 16% of the country's current electricity consumption. There are also 12 CANDU reactors operating abroad (in Argentina, China, India, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Romania). AECL is now developing the 'third generation plus' Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000), and also has the leading role internationally in developing the Generation IV

  19. Student Volunteering in China and Canada:Comparative Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Hustinx

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While many of the theoretical frameworks for volunteering have beendeveloped and empirically tested in the West, our understanding of volunteering in non-Western countries, such as China, is relatively limited. Nevertheless, in recent decades enormous efforts have been made by the Chinese government to encourage and support volunteering among its citizens, especially youth. Chinese youth are volunteering in greater numbers in response to these initiatives. Given the strongly state-led nature of volunteering in China, as opposed to the voluntary, more citizen-initiated nature of volunteering in Western societies, this paper seeks to understand the impact of these contextual differences on student volunteering. Using data from 1,892 questionnaires completed by university students in China and Canada, we examine differences in their volunteering. The findings clearly show the impact of the differences in sociopolitical structures that are reflected in the nature of students’ volunteer participation and perceived benefits.

  20. Second-Hand Smoke Exposure in Canada: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Association with Respiratory And Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Vozoris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure in Canada, to identify sociodemographic risk factors for second-hand smoke exposure, and to examine the relationship between second-hand smoke exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik-Shukor, AR; Klazinga, NS; Arah, OA

    2007-01-01

    Background. Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support this cross-national learning, a study was undertaken to compare health system performance approaches in The Netherlands with Ontario, Canada. Methods. We explored the performance assessment framework and system o...

  2. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik-Shukor, Ali; Klazinga, Niek; Arah, Onyebuchi

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support this cross-national learning, a study was undertaken to compare health system performance approaches in The Netherlands with Ontario, Canada. Methods. We explored the performance assessment framework ...

  3. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which score highly in international comparisons such as PISA and TIMMS, and on the other hand Denmark, which receives average scores, but it also functions as...

  4. Second-hand smoke exposure in Canada: Prevalence, risk factors, and association with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Vozoris; M Diane Lougheed

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure in Canada, to identify sociodemographic risk factors for second-hand smoke exposure, and to examine the relationship between second-hand smoke exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.METHODS: Data from the 2000/2001 Statistics Canada Canadian Community Health Survey (n=130,880, aged 12 years or older) were analyzed. Second-hand smoke exposure was based on self-report within the...

  5. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  6. A Comparative Analysis of the Education Systems of Turkey and Canada: The Similarity and the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Ilknur; Gurdal, Ayla

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the education systems of Turkey, a developing country, and Canada, a developed country with a comparatively high living standard and successful education systems. While education is governed at the national level in Turkey, it is the individual responsibility of the governments of the ten provinces and the…

  7. Sports injuries, drowning and exposure to radiation concern Canada Safety Council meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazards associated with surface sports, aquatic sports and exposure to radiation were considered at a meeting of the Canada Safety Council in late 1979. The session on radiation noted that 6 of 20000 radiation workers wearing dosimeters were exposed to a dose in excess of 5 rem, the annual limit set by the Atomic Energy Control Board. Radiographers were in the job classification receiving the highest doses of ionizing radiation. Concern was expressed for the emission of damaging radiation from broken mercury vapour lamps. Increased regulation rather than training was seen as the most effective solution. (T.I.)

  8. A Statistical Comparative Study of the Working Poor in Japan and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Murakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently in Japan, there has been an increase in the group which is termed the ‘Working Poor’. However, the group’s size and configuration remains unknown. Approach: The purpose of this study is to compare the working poor in Canada and Japan using microdata. First, the definition and method of estimation of the working poor provided by (Iwai and Murakami, 2007 are provided along with later modifications. Second, results of the investigation into data appropriate for use in estimating Canada’s working poor and poverty line are given, as are estimates of Canada’s working poor. Last, the characteristics of unemployment, unstable employment and the labor market are examined for both Canada and Japan and the similarities and differences between the two countries are highlighted. Results: In Canada and Japan, the working poor are most likely to be found among the young, those with a low level of education, those in unstable employment or those working in a company having few employees. As regards the differences between the two countries, males are more likely to be the working poor than females in Canada, though this trend is not seen in Japan; moreover, the percentage of the working poor is high among the 25-34 and 35-44 age groups in Japan, though this is not the case in Canada. Conclusion: As conclusions of this study, the first challenge that lies ahead is to find data from the two countries that allows a more rigorous comparison. The second challenge is to re-evaluate estimates made to date after a full investigation of labor market systems. Statistical Analysis Research Project (2009, we have estimated the working poor of the UK and compared their figures with those of Japan. The third challenge is thus to add the findings of this study to those from the UK/Japan and thereby perform a trilateral comparison.

  9. Workers' exposure to noise inside complex acoustic environments in Canada : a qualitative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertil, S. [Inst. of Noise Control Engineers, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Occupational noise regulations in Canada have limits on the permissible exposure of a worker to noise in the workplace. These limits are set in terms of an 8-hour average sound level of 85 dBA, with limits of 135 dBC on peak sound pressure levels. However, these noise regulations do not specify any qualitative limits on noise levels and are not clear enough for providing adequate protection of workers against low-frequency noise and inaudible air vibrations and infrasound commonly found in heavy industrial sites and power generation plants. This paper presented actual sound level data that was collected at various power plants in Canada during the period 1995 - 2005. It was shown that noise in the work place includes inaudible low-frequency noise and air vibrations that are impossible to detect by dosimeters or type 1 and type 2 hand held sound level meters. The paper described exposure to noise inside a small, gas-fired generator hall; exposure to noise inside a large steam processing plant; exposure to noise in the area of roller ball mills; noise quality inside a steam processing plant; noise quality inside a coal ball mill building; noise quality inside a large water feed pump area; and quality of noise inside a steam turbine hall. The frequencies that are harmful to workers were identified in an effort to design noise control features for machinery or equipment and to develop abatement measures to protect workers operating in complex acoustic environments. It was concluded that noise control is a collective task that should be undertaken by many professionals from all the fields related to health, safety, hearing and hearing conservation. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Teacher Induction across the Pacific: A Comparative Study of Canada and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares and evaluates teacher induction in Canada and Japan, following an overview of each educational system and an assessment of higher education in each region. Based on the author's personal teaching experience and research, suggestions for educational reforms are made to enhance the role of teachers. Teachers need opportunities to…

  11. Managing Conduct: A Comparative Policy Analysis of Safe Schools Policies in Toronto, Canada and Buffalo, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Public school districts in Buffalo, USA and Toronto, Canada reviewed their safe schools policies in 2008. Revised Codes of Conduct are compared to earlier versions and each other, and a conceptual policy web is used to understand how local, state/provincial, national, and international influences affect local safe school policies. The comparison…

  12. Non-Formal Education in Poland and Canada--Compared: A Brief Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this brief note is to compare non-formal education in Poland and Canada in terms of accessibility, and it is motivated by the fact that learning is a lifelong process because of rapid advances in technology. The theoretical framework for this commentary is supplied by the general idea that non-formal learning provides a social…

  13. How Marketing Practices Affect Education: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Goddard, J. Tim

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the theory and practice of the commercialization of education in Canada, using comparative examples from the United States and Australia. Critical theory provides the framework for the study. From the broad focus of business practice, the examination is narrowed down to marketing, and even further to branding, at all levels,…

  14. Comparing antimicrobial exposure based on sales data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondt, Nico; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Puister-Jansen, Linda F.;

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of making meaningful comparisons of the veterinary use of antimicrobial agents among countries, based on national total sales data. Veterinary antimicrobial sales data on country level and animal census data in both Denmark and the Netherlands were combined...... with information about estimated average dosages, to make model calculations of the average number of treatment days per average animal per year, at first based on the assumption that the treatment incidence is the same in all species and production types. Secondly, the exposure in respectively animals for meat...... incidences calculated from detailed use data per animal species from the national surveillance programmes in these two countries, to assess their accuracy and relevancy.In Denmark and in the Netherlands, although the computed antimicrobial exposure would seem to be a reasonable estimation of the exposure...

  15. Modelling the Underground Economies in Canada and New Zealand: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tedds, Lindsay M.; David E. A. Giles

    2000-01-01

    Recently there has been a resurgence of interest internationally in measuring the size of the underground economies. This has led to new approaches to this problem, and a more rigorous treatment of the associated time-series issues. In this paper we compare our recent underground economy results for Canada and New Zealand. These results provide time-series measures of the (legally-based plus illegally-based) underground economies in those countries, over similar historical periods, obtained v...

  16. Comparative studies of sexual assaults in Canada and in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Carol K

    2011-01-01

    Although criminal law involving sexual offence has undergone many legal reforms in both Canada and Hong Kong, there remain numerous socio-cultural factors that maintain the difficulty of achieving successful prosecutions for these offences. This dissertation includes two comparative studies that explore complainant-specific factors that may affect the perception of adult female complainants in real (Study 1) and simulated (Study 2) sexual assault cases. Study 1 reviewed 220 archival rape case...

  17. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE TO INDIVIDUALS IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu Medvedev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a comparative assessment of exposure levels of the staff from selected occupational groups in Russia and the respective doses reported for the personnel in some foreign countries. The comparison of the average doses was performed at on a country level and with respect of the job category: nurse, radiographer, industrial radiographer. The analysis involved some relevant data according to the Integrated State System for Doses Control and Registration, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the National Dose Registry of Canada, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection of Germany, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The system for monitoring and registration of individual doses, and the reasons for higher levels of occupational exposure in Russia are discussed. Some recommendations on improving registration of occupational radiation exposure to individuals in forms of Federal Statistical Observation are given.

  18. Institutional Knots: A Comparative Analysis of Cord Blood Policy in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denburg, Avram

    2016-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood is a rich source of blood stem cells, which are of critical clinical importance in the treatment of a variety of malignant and genetic conditions requiring stem cell transplantation. Many countries have established national public cord blood banks; such banks often coexist with a panoply of private options for cord blood banking. Until recently, Canada was the only G8 country without a national cord blood bank. This differs markedly from the United States, which years ago established a national cord blood bank policy and inventory. This article investigates potential reasons for this discrepancy through a comparative analysis of the evolution of programs and policies on national cord blood banking in Canada and the United States. My analysis suggests that cross-national discrepancies in policy on public cord blood banking were determined primarily by institutional factors, principal among them formal governmental structure and the legacy of past policies. Institutional entrepreneurialism in the health sector played a constitutive role in the earlier evolution of national cord blood policy in the United States as compared to Canada. PMID:26567379

  19. Comparative analysis of public opinion research in the U.S. and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlakwe, Linda; DiNunzio, Lisa A.

    2004-06-01

    Bank note producers are working to thwart the threat of counterfeit notes created using high resolution, digital image processing software and color output devices such as inkjet printers, color copiers, and scanners. Genuine notes must incorporate better overt and machine-readable security features that will reduce the chance of counterfeit notes being passed. Recently, Canada and the United States introduced newly designed bank notes that are intended to enable the general public to more easily distinguish genuine notes from counterfeits. The Bank of Canada (BoC) and the U.S. Department of Treasury"s Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) have conducted similar market research projects to explore target audiences' perceptions and attitudes towards currency design and security features. This paper will present a comparative analysis of the two research projects, both of which were conducted using similar methodology. The results of these research studies assist in the selection of security features for future generations of bank notes.

  20. Human Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Animal Rabies in Ontario, Canada, 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D; Johnson, K O; Rosatte, R C; Hobbs, J L; Moore, S R; Rosella, L; Crowcroft, N S

    2015-08-01

    In Ontario, Canada, the implementation of an annual rabies control programme in wildlife that began in 1989 resulted in a marked, steady decrease in the number of animal rabies cases. The number of animal rabies cases decreased from 1870 in 1989 to 183 in 2000 (Nunan et al., 2002 Emerg Infect Dis 8, 214). In our study period, the number of animal rabies cases continued to decrease from 210 in 2001 to 28 in 2012. The marked decrease in animal rabies cases since 1989 has resulted in a decrease in the risk of human infection. A concomitant decrease in the number of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) administered was anticipated but failed to occur. The mean rate of RPEP, 13.9 RPEP administered per 100,000 persons, from 2001-2012 was approximately the same as the rate in the 1990 s. Two possible reasons that the rate of RPEP administration has not decreased include strict adherence to RPEP recommendations and administration of RPEP when it is not recommended. A reduction in the number of RPEP administered, consistent with the decrease in the animal rabies cases, would provide some financial savings for the government. Ideally, an increased use of the risk assessment approach in keeping with recent guidelines, rather than adhering to previous prescriptive recommendations for RPEP administration, coupled with a continuing low incidence of animal rabies cases will result in decreased, and yet appropriate, use of RPEP. Consideration should be given to identify how guidelines could be revised to more effectively target high-risk exposures and reduce the administration of RPEP for instances in which the risk of rabies virus exposure is exceedingly low. PMID:25244148

  1. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klazinga Niek S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support this cross-national learning, a study was undertaken to compare health system performance approaches in The Netherlands with Ontario, Canada. Methods We explored the performance assessment framework and system of each constituency, the embeddedness of performance data in management and policy processes, and the interrelationships between the frameworks. Methods used included analysing governmental strategic planning and policy documents, literature and internet searches, comparative descriptive tables, and schematics. Data collection and analysis took place in Ontario and The Netherlands. A workshop to validate and discuss the findings was conducted in Toronto, adding important insights to the study. Results Both Ontario and The Netherlands conceive health system performance within supportive frameworks. However they differ in their assessment approaches. Ontario's Scorecard links performance measurement with strategy, aimed at health system integration. The Dutch Health Care Performance Report (Zorgbalans does not explicitly link performance with strategy, and focuses on the technical quality of healthcare by measuring dimensions of quality, access, and cost against healthcare needs. A backbone 'five diamond' framework maps both frameworks and articulates the interrelations and overlap between their goals, themes, dimensions and indicators. The workshop yielded more contextual insights and further validated the comparative values of each constituency's performance assessment system. Conclusion To compare the health system performance approaches between The Netherlands and Ontario, Canada, several important conceptual and contextual issues must be addressed

  2. A simple analysis of potential radiological exposure from geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL has submitted an environmental impact statement (EIS) describing its proposal for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The EIS presents a detailed analysis of potential radiation exposure of an individual of a critical group of people in a hypothetical case. In this report, we provide a simpler analysis of potential exposure in the hope that the inherent safety of the disposal will be more readily evident from the analysis. A key to the simplification is the elimination from the analysis of the complex transport processes through disposal vault sealing materials and the geosphere. We also eliminate the relatively complex function describing the failure of the thin-walled titanium containers in the case study presented in the EIS. We therefore conceptually replace the thin-walled titanium containers with thicker-walled copper containers, are expected to remain intact much longer than 10,000 a, the period for which a quantitative estimate of individual exposure is made. However, about 1 in 5000 containers could have small defects that were undetected during manufacture. Our analysis applies only to the case of an undisrupted vault. We assume that the vault and geosphere barriers remain intact and prevent immobile radionuclides from reaching the biosphere. However, we also assume that the three most important mobile radionuclides can escape through an undected manufacturing defect in the container wall, and that the flux of these radionuclides is diluted by well water being used by people. We have focused on 129I, 36Cl and 14C, because these nuclides are found to be the dominant source of exposure in more complex analyses. If a single container released radionuclides to well water, we estimate dose rates of about 1 μSv.a-1 from drinking water and 29 μSv.a-1, which the Atomic Eenrgy Control Board has adopted as a de minimis dose rate, i.e., a dose rate so small as to not warrant institutional control. We believe that the dose rates are greatly

  3. TO WHAT EXTENT CAN ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTS BE ATTRIBUTED TO VIOLENCE EXPOSURE? A POPULATION-BASED STUDY FROM WESTERN CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Chen, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in Canada and globally. The purpose of our study was to calculate what proportion of adolescent suicide attempts could be prevented in the absence of verbal, physical and sexual violence. Using the province-wide 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (N=29,315) we calculated population-attributable fractions for each type of violence, as well as exposure to any violence, separately by gender, among adolescents age 12–19. W...

  4. Translators and Interpreters Certification in Australia, Canada, the Usа and Ukraine: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyba Kateryna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the certification process by which potential translators and interpreters demonstrate minimum standards of performance to warrant official or professional recognition of their ability to translate or interpret and to practice professionally in Australia, Canada, the USA and Ukraine. The aim of the study is to research and to compare the certification procedures of translators and interpreters in Australia, Canada, the USA and Ukraine; to outline possible avenues of creating a certification system network in Ukraine. It has been revealed that there is great variation in minimum requirements for practice, availability of training facilities and formal bodies that certify practitioners and that monitor and advance specialists’ practices in the countries. Certification can be awarded by governmental or non-governmental organizations or associations of professionals in the field of translation/interpretation. Testing has been acknowledged as the usual avenue for candidates to gain certification. There are less popular grounds to get certification such as: completed training, presentation of previous relevant experience, and/or recommendations from practicing professionals or service-user. The comparative analysis has revealed such elements of the certification procedures and national conventions in the researched countries that may form a basis for Ukrainian translators/interpreters certifying system and make it a part of a cross-national one.

  5. Pathogen Loading From Canada Geese Faeces in Freshwater: Potential Risks to Human Health Through Recreational Water Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, T J; Lee, J

    2016-05-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) faeces have been shown to contain pathogenic protozoa and bacteria in numerous studies over the past 15 years. Further, increases in both the Canada geese populations and their ideal habitat requirements in the United States (US) translate to a greater presence of these human pathogens in public areas, such as recreational freshwater beaches. Combining these factors, the potential health risk posed by Canada geese faeces at freshwater beaches presents an emerging public health issue that warrants further study. Here, literature concerning human pathogens in Canada geese faeces is reviewed and the potential impacts these pathogens may have on human health are discussed. Pathogens of potential concern include Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Helicobacter canadensis, Arcobacter spp., Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli pathogenic strains, Chlamydia psitacci, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. Scenarios presenting potential exposure to pathogens eluted from faeces include bathers swimming in lakes, children playing with wet and dry sand impacted by geese droppings and other common recreational activities associated with public beaches. Recent recreational water-associated disease outbreaks in the US support the plausibility for some of these pathogens, including Cryptosporidium spp. and C. jejuni, to cause human illness in this setting. In view of these findings and the uncertainties associated with the real health risk posed by Canada geese faecal pathogens to users of freshwater lakes, it is recommended that beach managers use microbial source tracking and conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment to analyse the local impact of Canada geese on microbial water quality during their decision-making process in beach and watershed management. PMID:26414207

  6. On the Difficulty of Comparing the Spatial Distribution of Service Industries Across Nations: Contrasting Spain and Canada. Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Polése, Mario; Rubiera-Morollon, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of employment in service industries is compared for Spain and Canada for nine (9) industry classes. The empirical and theoretical literature on modern services stresses the importance of agglomeration economies for high-order services. The relationship between city-size and location is examined with emphasis on cases that deviate from predicted patterns. The results for Spain and Canada reconfirm the weight of city-size as a determinant of location for high-order serv...

  7. On the Difficulty of Comparing the Spatial Distribution of Service Industries Across Nations: Contrasting Spain and Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Morollón, Fernando Rubiera; Polèse, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of employment in service industries is compared for Spain and Canada for nine (9) industry classes. The empirical and theoretical literature on modern services stresses the importance of agglomeration economies for high-order services. The relationship between city-size and location is examined with emphasis on cases that deviate from predicted patterns. The results for Spain and Canada reconfirm the weight of city-size as a determinant of location for high-order serv...

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Social Work in Vietnam and Canada: Rebirth and Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Durst

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Social work education is rapidly developing in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and it is facing new challenges as it blends the historical, political and cultural influences. This article reviews and compares the historical and recent developments of social work in Canada and Vietnam. Canadian social work developed in Euro-western culture and its values, whereas, Vietnam suffered under French colonialism, a 30 year war of independence and then economic depression. For many years, social work remained nebulous but in recent years, the country has seen a rebirth of social work. Field education is the link from theory to practice and is often where differences between the two countries become evident. The article concludes with a discussion on the professionalization of social work and its future contribution to the emerging “new” Vietnam.

  9. Relative performance of different exposure modeling approaches for sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air in rural western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyang-Mi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this paper is to compare different methods for predicting the levels of SO2 air pollution in oil and gas producing area of rural western Canada. Month-long average air quality measurements were collected over a two-year period (2001–2002 at multiple locations, with some side-by-side measurements, and repeated time-series at selected locations. Methods We explored how accurately location-specific mean concentrations of SO2 can be predicted for 2002 at 666 locations with multiple measurements. Means of repeated measurements on the 666 locations in 2002 were used as the alloyed gold standard (AGS. First, we considered two approaches: one that uses one measurement from each location of interest; and the other that uses context data on proximity of monitoring sites to putative sources of emission in 2002. Second, we imagined that all of the previous year's (2001's data were also available to exposure assessors: 9,464 measurements and their context (month, proximity to sources. Exposure prediction approaches we explored with the 2001 data included regression modeling using either mixed or fixed effects models. Third, we used Bayesian methods to combine single measurements from locations in 2002 (not used to calculate AGS with different priors. Results The regression method that included both fixed and random effects for prediction (Best Linear Unbiased Predictor had the best agreement with the AGS (Pearson correlation 0.77 and the smallest mean squared error (MSE: 0.03. The second best method in terms of correlation with AGS (0.74 and MSE (0.09 was the Bayesian method that uses normal mixture prior derived from predictions of the 2001 mixed effects applied in the 2002 context. Conclusion It is likely that either collecting some measurements from the desired locations and time periods or predictions of a reasonable empirical mixed effects model perhaps is sufficient in most epidemiological applications. The

  10. Using Blended Learning Strategies to Address Teaching Development Needs: How Does Canada Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuka, Heather; Rourke, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The provision of blended learning strategies designed to assist academics in the higher education sector with the knowledge, skills, and abilities required for effective teaching with technology has been, and continues to be, a challenge for teaching centres in Canada. It is unclear, first, whether this is an ongoing issue unique to Canada; and,…

  11. Negotiating Indigenous Language Narratives from Canada and South Africa: A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseke, Judy M.; Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous cultural and language negotiations ongoing in the contexts of South Africa and Canada are documented in two studies, one sharing narratives from Black parents in South Africa and the other sharing narratives of Métis Elders in Canada. Black parents' perspectives on Indigenous language and cultures and the role of education in…

  12. The Geographic Distribution of Liver Cancer in Canada Does Not Associate with Cyanobacterial Toxin Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan A. Labine

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of liver cancer has been increasing in Canada over the past decade, as has cyanobacterial contamination of Canadian freshwater lakes and drinking water sources. Cyanotoxins released by cyanobacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Objective: To determine whether a geographic association exists between liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes in Canada. Methods: A negative binomial regression model was employed based on previously identified risk factors for liver cancer. Results: No association existed between the geographic distribution of liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination. As predicted, significant associations existed in areas with a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection, large immigrant populations and urban residences. Discussion and Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes does not play an important role in the increasing incidence of liver cancer in Canada.

  13. Estimating the mercury exposure dose in a population of migratory bird hunters in the St. Lawrence River region, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Lawrence River hunters (Quebec, Canada) are exposed to the pollutants, especially mercury, that contaminate birds and fish. However, the health risks of this have remained unclear because of a lack of information about the hunters' duck, geese, and sportfish consumption habits. A nutritional survey was set up to characterize waterfowl and sportfish consumption in St. Lawrence River duck hunters and to estimate their daily exposure to mercury. During the winter of 2000, 512 hunters selected from the Canadian Wildlife Service database completed a self-administered questionnaire. Daily exposure to contaminants was measured using data from the Canadian Wildlife Service (waterfowl) and available data on St. Lawrence River sportfish. The annual average consumption was 7.5 meals of ducks and geese and 8.7 meals of sportfish. The daily exposure to mercury related to waterfowl consumption was below the Canadian tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.47 μg/kg body wt/day for all participants. The daily mercury intake associated with fish consumption was greater than the TDI in 2 duck hunters. The daily exposure to mercury was higher than the TDI in 4 participants when both waterfowl and fish consumption were combined. Our results suggest that fish consumption (especially freshwater fish) represents the main source of exposure to pollutants in duck hunters

  14. Comparing approaches to integrating refugee and asylum-seeking healthcare professionals in Canada and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Yvonne; Bourgeault, Ivy L; Neiterman, Elena

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we examine barriers to the integration of refugee doctors and nurses in Canada and the United Kingdom. Key obstacles impeding the integration of internationally trained health professionals are well documented, but less attention has been paid to the integration of refugee health professionals, particularly in Canada. Based on documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews with 46 Canadian and 34 UK stakeholders, our research shows that there are no simple solutions to mitigating the core obstacles that prohibit the professional integration of refugee doctors and nurses into host countries. The targeted approach adopted in parts of the UK does provide some promising practices for Canada, which has yet to develop policies and initiatives specific to health professional refugees. This study is intended to contribute to our understanding of how immigration and health human resources policies have shaped the economic integration of refugee healthcare professionals in the UK and Canada in distinct ways. PMID:24289945

  15. An examination of population exposure to traffic related air pollution: Comparing spatially and temporally resolved estimates against long-term average exposures at the home location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Faghih-Imani, Ahmadreza; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2016-05-01

    Air pollution in metropolitan areas is mainly caused by traffic emissions. This study presents the development of a model chain consisting of a transportation model, an emissions model, and atmospheric dispersion model, applied to dynamically evaluate individuals' exposure to air pollution by intersecting daily trajectories of individuals and hourly spatial variations of air pollution across the study domain. This dynamic approach is implemented in Montreal, Canada to highlight the advantages of the method for exposure analysis. The results for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker of traffic related air pollution, reveal significant differences when relying on spatially and temporally resolved concentrations combined with individuals' daily trajectories compared to a long-term average NO2 concentration at the home location. We observe that NO2 exposures based on trips and activity locations visited throughout the day were often more elevated than daily NO2 concentrations at the home location. The percentage of all individuals with a lower 24-hour daily average at home compared to their 24-hour mobility exposure is 89.6%, of which 31% of individuals increase their exposure by more than 10% by leaving the home. On average, individuals increased their exposure by 23-44% while commuting and conducting activities out of home (compared to the daily concentration at home), regardless of air quality at their home location. We conclude that our proposed dynamic modelling approach significantly improves the results of traditional methods that rely on a long-term average concentration at the home location and we shed light on the importance of using individual daily trajectories to understand exposure. PMID:26970897

  16. Lead exposure among five distinct occupational groups: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Mohammad Younis; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan; Khabour, Omar Falah; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Gharaibeh, Mamoun Abdallah; Matarneh, Sulaiman Khalid

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate blood lead concentration among five selected occupational groups. The five groups were: hospital health workers, shop workers, taxi drivers, automobiles mechanics, and wood workers. The groups did not significantly differ among each other in the average of age and work years. ANOVA test revealed significantly higher mean lead blood concentration in taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers compared to other groups. Additionally, workers with lead concentration >0.483 umol/L (10μg/dL) were more likely to have frequent muscle pain compared to those with lower concentrations. No association between other symptoms of lead exposure/toxicity and blood lead concentration was detected. In conclusion, special attention must be directed toward lead blood levels and lead poisoning symptoms when examining patients from certain occupational groups such as taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers. Special safety precautions and educational programs are also needed to limit the lead exposure in these occupational groups. PMID:24374433

  17. Longer Term Impact of Cigarette Package Warnings in Australia Compared with the United Kingdom and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M.; Thrasher, James F.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK…

  18. Open Science Strategies in Research Policies: A Comparative Exploration of Canada, the US and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasthiotakis, Helen; Kretz, Andrew; Sá, Creso

    2015-01-01

    Several movements have emerged related to the general idea of promoting "openness" in science. Research councils are key institutions in bringing about changes proposed by these movements, as sponsors and facilitators of research. In this paper we identify the approaches used in Canada, the US and the UK to advance open science, as a…

  19. Linguistic Barriers among Internationally Educated Teachers in Ireland and Canada: A Critical Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Clea; McDaid, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative interview and focus group data collected from Internationally Educated Teachers (IETs) in the context of two different research studies conducted in Ireland and Manitoba, Canada, this article critically examines how national/regional linguistic requirements and expectations of a hidden curriculum are experienced as barriers…

  20. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Tawfik-Shukor (Ali); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); O.A. Arah (Onyebuchi)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support thi

  1. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada.Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001, binge drinking (P < 0.001, obesity (P < 0.001 and diabetes (P < 0.001, and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029, and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001. Sex differences were also

  2. Socioeconomic status, sunlight exposure, and risk of malignant melanoma: the Western Canada Melanoma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R P; Elwood, J M; Threlfall, W J; Spinelli, J J; Fincham, S; Hill, G B

    1987-10-01

    In a study of 261 male melanoma patients and age-and sex-matched controls, a strong positive univariate association between socioeconomic status, as determined by usual occupation, and risk of melanoma was detected. This association, however, was substantially explained by host constitutional factors and occupational, recreational, and vacation sunlight exposure. The study demonstrated an increased risk of melanoma in draftsmen and surveyors and a reduced risk of melanoma in construction workers and individuals employed in the finance, insurance, and real estate industry even after control for the effect of host factors and sunlight exposure. PMID:3116308

  3. Incorporating Cognitive Behavioural Therapy into a Public Health Care System: Canada and England Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Noushon Farmanara; Marchildon, Gregory P.; Amélie Quesnel-Vallée

    2016-01-01

    Since the second half of the 2000s, Canada and England have instituted differing reforms to address the inadequate provision and quality of mental health services in both nations. With growing evidence demonstrating the success and cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy, the English reform sought to expand the delivery of psychological services through the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies program (IAPT) focusing on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). In contrast, Canadian interventio...

  4. Comparing Predictors of Diet Quality in Canada Over Time Under Consideration of Altering Food Guides

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Larissa S.; Goddard, Ellen W.

    2008-01-01

    Latest data on the diet of Canadians from the Canadian Community Health Survey reveals that the diet quality of Canadians needs improvement. Within this paper predictors of diet quality in Canada are identified based on two cross-sectional data sets from the Canadian Food Expenditure Survey. To measure diet quality, the Canadian Healthy Food Diversity (CanHFD)-Index is developed which is based on Food Guide recommendations. Moreover, this paper considers that the Food Guide between survey yea...

  5. Regionalization as an Opportunity for Meaningful Indigenous Participation in Healthcare: Comparing Canada and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amohia Frances Boulton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Canada and New Zealand, policies support Indigenous participation in the planning and delivery of community-based primary health services. However, these services represent only a fraction of the health services accessed by Indigenous peoples. In New Zealand, legislation enacted in 2000 introduced mechanisms to ensure that Māori have a voice in the decisions made by health boards. In Canada, neither policies nor legislation currently ensure that Aboriginal communities are represented in provincial health systems or regional health boards. The New Zealand experience shows that adding mechanisms of participation to legislation and policies creates opportunities for Māori and health boards to engage in discussions about how to best allocate resources to reduce disparities between Māori and non-Māori health outcomes. In Canada,this dialogue may not occur. Requiring that such mechanisms be created in all Canadian jurisdictions would establish meeting places for dialogue, and assist in closing policy and access gaps that remain.

  6. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities on animal and human health has been a long-standing concern in western Canada. This technical summary presented highlights of the 17 major research appendices of a study examining associations between emissions and important reproductive parameters in beef cattle, including pregnancy rates, frequencies of abortions and stillbirths, and the risk of death among young calves. The effect of exposure to emissions on the respiratory, immune and nervous systems of calves and yearlings was also evaluated. The study was an epidemiological investigation that drew on large blocks of data collected from privately owned cow-calf operations, laboratory analyses of biological samples and samplers from air monitors. Mixed effect regression models were used to investigate whether measures of reproductive, immunological, and pathology outcomes were associated with emissions from the petroleum industry. Appropriate statistical adjustments were made to correct for multiple comparisons following standard statistical practice. An overview of the methods used to analyze the data was presented, as well as an examination of the methods of epidemiology in determining a causal effect, and the limitations of a single study in determining causation with certainty. Information on water quality testing and feeding management and forage testing was provided. 15 tabs., 26 figs

  7. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    , Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which score highly in international comparisons such as PISA and TIMMS, and on the other hand Denmark, which receives average scores, but it also functions as a comparison between all four countries. The study covers the following subjects: pedagogy and mathematics....... The study does not offer proof of any clear difference between the Danish teacher education programmes and those found in the top-performing countries. Two main findings are: (1) philosophically based professional knowledge, much of which is normative in character, forms an extensive part of the body...... programmes in Denmark and Finland keep these knowledge forms separate....

  8. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    main findings are: 1) Philosophically-based professional knowledge, much of which is normative in character, forms an extensive part of the body of professional knowledge within the Danish teacher education programmes, which is not true of the programmes in the Top-3 countries. 2) The programmes in...... Canada and Singapore more frequently employ literature combining research-based knowledge with practical guidance and experiences, while the programmes in Denmark and Finland keep these knowledge forms separate. 3) The main distinguishing feature of the teacher education programme at the University of...

  9. Tracking the evolution of hospice palliative care in Canada: A comparative case study analysis of seven provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Judy-Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An aging population, rise in chronic illnesses, increase in life expectancy and shift towards care being provided at the community level are trends that are collectively creating an urgency to advance hospice palliative care (HPC planning and provision in Canada. The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of HPC in seven provinces in Canada so as to inform such planning and provision elsewhere. We have endeavoured to undertake this research out of awareness that good future planning for health and social care, such as HPC, typically requires us to first look backwards before moving forward. Methods To identify key policy and practice events in HPC in Canada, as well as describe facilitators of and barriers to progress, a qualitative comparative case study design was used. Specifically, the evolution and development of HCP in 7 strategically selected provinces is compared. After choosing the case study provinces, the grey literature was searched to create a preliminary timeline for each that described the evolution of HPC beginning in 1970. Key informants (n = 42 were then interviewed to verify the content of each provincial timeline and to discuss barriers and facilitators to the development of HPC. Upon completion of the primary data collection, a face-to-face meeting of the research team was then held so as to conduct a comparative study analysis that focused on provincial commonalities and differences. Results Findings point to the fact that HPC continues to remain at the margins of the health care system. The development of HPC has encountered structural inheritances that have both sped up progress as well as slowed it down. These structural inheritances are: (1 foundational health policies (e.g., the Canada Health Act; (2 service structures and planning (e.g., the dominance of urban-focused initiatives; and (3 health system decisions (e.g., regionalization. As a response to these inheritances, circumventions

  10. The Conundrum of Demographic Aging and Policy Challenges: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSome analysts lean toward comparative analyses of population aging, then draw potential policy implications. Others lean in the direction of attention to differences in policy regimes and then consider implications of population aging. Key differences among advanced societies may not emanate from demographic aging but from differences in how markets, states, and families work to redistribute societal benefits. In this paper, three countries with contrasting configurations of markets, states, and families, and at different stages of demographic aging, are compared and contrasted: Canada, Japan, and Korea. The paper has three objectives: 1to outline key changes in population, family, and work in the three countries; 2 to consider how knowledge about these changes, their dynamics and interrelationships, is framed with respect to policy options; and 3 to compare Canada, Japan, and Korea in terms of the framing of policy challenges related to demographic aging. It is found that Canada is joining the longstanding pattern of Japan and Korea of late home-leaving by youth, meaning less effective time in the paid labour force. Little deep connection exists between population aging andeconomic productivity or labour force shortages. Differential labour market participation of women mediates the effects of population aging.RésuméIl y a des analystes qui ont un penchant pour les analyses comparatives du vieillissement despopulations, puis en déduisent les implications possibles sur les politiques. D’autres préfèrentporter leur attention sur les différences dans les régimes de politiques, puis considèrent lesimplications sur le vieillissement des populations. Il est possible que les différences majeuresdans les civilisations de pointe ne soient pas apparentes dans le vieillissement démographique mais plutôt dans les différentes manières dont les marchés, les états, et les familles oeuvrent àredistribuer les avantages sociaux. Dans

  11. Exposure to ambient air pollution in Canada and the risk of adult leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, Nicholas [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Goldberg, Mark S., E-mail: mark.goldberg@mcgill.ca [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Centre, 687 Pine Ave. W., R4.29, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A1 (Canada); Hystad, Perry [College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Villeneuve, Paul J. [Department of Health Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Johnson, Kenneth C. [Science Integration Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-01

    There is a paucity of studies investigating adult leukemia and air pollution. To address this gap, we analyzed data from a Canadian population-based case–control study conducted in 1994–1997. Cases were 1064 adults with incident leukemia and controls were 5039 healthy adults. We used data from satellites and fixed-site monitoring stations to estimate residential concentrations of NO{sub 2} and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) for the period prior to diagnosis, starting in 1975 and ending in 1994. We modeled the average annual exposure of each subject. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, province, smoking, education, body mass index, income, and self-reported exposures to ionizing radiation and benzene. We found an ‘n-shaped’ response function between exposure to NO{sub 2} and all forms of leukemia: from the tenth percentile to the median (4.51 to 14.66 ppb), the OR was 1.20; 95% CI: 0.97–1.48 and from the 75th percentile to the 90th (22.75 to 29.7 ppb), the OR was 0.79; 95% CI 0.68–0.93. For PM{sub 2.5} we found a response function consistent with a linear model, with an OR per 10 μg/m{sup 3} of 0.97 (95% CI 0.75–1.26). For chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found response functions that were consistent with a simple linear model, with an OR per 5 ppb of NO{sub 2} of 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.00) and an OR per 10 μg/m{sup 3} of PM{sub 2.5} of 0.62 (95% CI 0.42–0.93). In summary, for chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found no evidence of an association with air pollution and with all forms of leukemia we found weak evidence of an association only at low concentrations of NO{sub 2}. It is possible that these inconsistent results may have arisen because of unaccounted urban/rural differences or possibly from a selection effect, especially among controls. - Highlights: • Analyzed associations between incidence of adult leukemia and PM • We used 20-year residential

  12. Exposure to ambient air pollution in Canada and the risk of adult leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a paucity of studies investigating adult leukemia and air pollution. To address this gap, we analyzed data from a Canadian population-based case–control study conducted in 1994–1997. Cases were 1064 adults with incident leukemia and controls were 5039 healthy adults. We used data from satellites and fixed-site monitoring stations to estimate residential concentrations of NO2 and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for the period prior to diagnosis, starting in 1975 and ending in 1994. We modeled the average annual exposure of each subject. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, province, smoking, education, body mass index, income, and self-reported exposures to ionizing radiation and benzene. We found an ‘n-shaped’ response function between exposure to NO2 and all forms of leukemia: from the tenth percentile to the median (4.51 to 14.66 ppb), the OR was 1.20; 95% CI: 0.97–1.48 and from the 75th percentile to the 90th (22.75 to 29.7 ppb), the OR was 0.79; 95% CI 0.68–0.93. For PM2.5 we found a response function consistent with a linear model, with an OR per 10 μg/m3 of 0.97 (95% CI 0.75–1.26). For chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found response functions that were consistent with a simple linear model, with an OR per 5 ppb of NO2 of 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.00) and an OR per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 of 0.62 (95% CI 0.42–0.93). In summary, for chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found no evidence of an association with air pollution and with all forms of leukemia we found weak evidence of an association only at low concentrations of NO2. It is possible that these inconsistent results may have arisen because of unaccounted urban/rural differences or possibly from a selection effect, especially among controls. - Highlights: • Analyzed associations between incidence of adult leukemia and PM • We used 20-year residential histories to estimate average annual concentrations

  13. Comparative analysis of concepts for internal exposure regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results on comparison of new ICRP approaches (26 and 30 ICRP publications) to exposure regulation by a whole body effective dose equivalent with a concept of internal occupational exposure regulation by the maximum permissible dose equivalent to a critical organ are presented. The last concept was recommended in the 2 and 9 ICRP publications and regulated by the radiation protection guide-76 (RPG-76). It is shown that the concept of a critical organ and dose limits regulated by RPG-76 provide to a great extent personnel protection both relative to stochastic and non-stochastic radiation effects

  14. Investigation of exposure to swine influenza viruses in Ontario (Canada) finisher herds in 2004 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; McNab, W Bruce; Dewey, Catherine E

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of influenza in the North American swine population has changed since the emergence of a triple-reassortant H3N2 influenza virus. Although seen previously in North America, the Ontario swine population had likely been free of viruses of the reassortant H3N2 lineage until 2005. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of exposure to H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in the Ontario finisher pig population prior to and after the H3N2 outbreak that occurred in 2005. This included investigating prevalence and spatial distribution of positive herds, assessing proportion of random variation at different hierarchical levels, and evaluating selected demographic factors and management procedures as potential risk factors. In total, 919 and 978 sera collected in cross-sectional studies from 46 and 49 finisher herds in 2004 and 2005 were tested by a H1N1 subtype-specific and a H3N2 subtype-specific commercial ELISA. For the H1N1 subtype, the point prevalence of positive herds (>3 reactors) was 19.5% and 30.6% in 2004 and 2005, respectively. For the H3N2 subtype the point prevalence of positive herds (>3 reactors) was 6.5% and 40.8% in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Sera from 2004 that were positive on H3N2 ELISA did not cross-react with any of the H3N2 variants used as antigen on a sequential HI test. Only herds positive for H3N2 subtype in 2005 clustered in space (P<0.01). The H1N1 status in 2005 was associated with the H1N1 status in 2004, and with reported distance to the nearest herd. The H3N2 status in 2005 was associated with reported distance to the nearest herd and a type of replacement gilt source. For H3N2, distance seemed to be important even after controlling for type of gilt source. Most variability in seropositivity was between herds with little variability between pens. This study confirms that in 2005, the epidemic H3N2 subtype co-circulated with endemic H1N1 subtype in the Ontario finisher herds. We concluded that in

  15. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-12-01

    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills. PMID:23667802

  16. A Comparative Study Examining Academic Cohorts with Transnational Migratory Intentions towards Canada and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the issue of transnational academic mobility of academic staff, those choosing to migrate to higher education institutions in different countries as part of their career development, and performs a comparative study between the characteristics of academics examining Australia as a possible migratory destination with those…

  17. Comparative Prospective Study - Exposure to Radiation during URS vs. ESWL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common stone therapies; Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL), Ureteroscopy (URS) and Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL), are performed under fluoroscopy guidenence. Most of the clinical outcome is assent with x-ray imaging. ESWL X-ray image is used to target the stones. Once the stone is targeted, a special unit emits shock waves focused precisely on the stone. These waves produce enough force to cause stone fragmentation, while avoiding injury to adjacent organs and tissues. The stone and resulting pieces are fragmented until they can pass through the ureter, into the bladder, and subsequently exit the body. URS is an alternative to ESWL to remove stones endoscopicaly from the urinary tract. URS is performed under general anesthesia and involves the placement of a miniaturized fiber optic scope under direct vision are introduced through the nature orifices or through percoutaneous access to the stone. A small laser fiber or special ultrasound electrodes are passed through the ureteroscope to break up stones. Other instruments may be passed to capture and retrieve the fragments from the urinary tract. URS may be used to remove stones in all portions of the urinary tract and may be used to retrieve multiple stones during the same procedure. X-rays (up to 100 kV) have been used to diagnose diseases in the kidney and urinary tract, for about a century, to visualize urinary tract and to highlight a kidney stone or tumor that could block the flow of urine. Due to the increased use of radiation during urological procedures, protection of patients from ionizing radiation is becoming increasingly important. With such usage there is a need for adopting dose management techniques in every radiological examination without compromising the image quality and clinical purpose. There is a possibility of staff getting high exposure, in the fluoroscopy room, if protection principles and tools are not employed. In recent years there is an increase in awareness to

  18. Methodology of Comparative Analysis of Public School Teachers’ Continuing Professional Development in Great Britain, Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the methodology of comparative analysis of public school teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD in Great Britain, Canada and the USA has been presented. The main objectives are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; characteristic of the research methodology, used to conduct the comparative analysis. Their major components of the research model (parametric-determining, conceptual and analytical, integrating-analytical and differentiating-analytical, prognostic component have been defined and specified. Public school teachers’ CPD has been studied by foreign and domestic scientists: political, social, cultural and economic aspects of teachers’ CPD (L. Darling-Hammond, M. Tight; CPD programs (C. Pratt; CPD content (N. Dana Fichtman, M. Rees, A. Ross, S. Zepeda; CPD models, methods and forms (K. Duinlan, P. Grimmet, G. Troia, P. Wong; continuous professional education (Ya. Belmaz, A. Kuzminskyy, O. Kuznyetsova. The research methodology comprises theoretical (comparative-historical, logical, induction and deduction, comparison and compatibility, structural and systematic, analysis and synthesis, general scientific and interdisciplinary forecasting methods, and applied (observations, questioning and interviewing methods. The research results have been presented.

  19. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : interpretive overview by the science advisory panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a study to determine if chronic exposure to emissions from the oil and gas industry influence the health and reproductive performance of cattle and wildlife in western Canada was presented. Individual cows in herds from Alberta, Saskatchewan and northeastern British Columbia were monitored in pens and pastures to determine their exposure status. Data on other known risk factors such as the cow's age, breed and body condition were collected. The study measured concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2); hydrogen sulphide (H2S); and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured as benzene and toluene. Passive air monitors were located on all occupied pastures and wintering areas for each herd. Information on the location of over 39,000 animals from 205 herds on 3355 different parcels of land was recorded at 2 week intervals. Each animal's exposure was then averaged to create cumulative exposure values for biologically relevant risk periods for each outcome. Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured a total of 365 times near the calving area for 32 herds. Five primary health outcomes were studied: (1) nonpregnancy; (2) length of breeding-to-calving interval; (3) abortion; (4) stillbirth; and (5) calf mortality. No associations were found among any of the exposure measures and the risk of nonpregnancy, abortion or stillbirth. Sulphur-containing exposures showed no associations with secondary outcome measures in the respiratory, immune and nervous systems. An association was found between exposure to SO2 and the increased risk of calf mortality. Findings also suggested that there was a greater risk of lesions in the calf skeletal or cardiac muscle with increased prenatal exposure to SO2. Increased exposure to VOCs contributed to a greater risk of calf respiratory and thyroid lesions, and a lower count of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in calves. The results of a concurrent study on European Starlings in the region

  20. Media coverage of “grassroots” violence against women: A comparative analysis for Romania and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marinescu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a comparative project about the re-construction of acts of violence against women and children in Canadian and Romanian newspapers. The data showed both the similarities and the differences between Eastern European and Western American images of women. The data stressed that although violence against women and children is a world-wide social phenomena, its media “coverage” was strongly dependenton the peculiarities of the society in which it has occurred, and has a national character. A common trend of the journalistic texts was recorded at a trans-national level: to (implicitly disseminate stereotypes related to the women’s first degree and sociallyaccepted positions of helpless victims of violent acts.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Satellite Measurements Calculation Results Using the Postprocessing Services: Asg-Eupos (Poland), Apps (USA) and CSRS (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Monika; Kudach, Jakub

    2014-06-01

    The publication has a cognitive research character. It presents a comparative analysis of free Internet services in Poland and abroad, used to adjust the data obtained using satellite measurement techniques. The main aim of this work is to describe and compare free tools for satellite data processing and to examine them for possible use in the surveying works in Poland. Among the many European and global services three of them dedicated to satellite measurements were selected: ASG-EUPOS (Poland), APPS (USA) and CSRS (Canada). The publication contains the results of calculations using these systems. Calculations were based on RINEX files obtained via postprocessing service (ASG-EUPOS network) POZGEO D for 12 reference stations in the South Poland. In order to examine differences in results between the ASG-EUPOS, APPS and CSRS the transformation points coordinate to a single coordinate system ETRF 2000 (in force in Poland) was made. Studies have shown the possibility of the calculation in Poland (in postprocessing mode) using the analyzed applications with global coverage.

  2. Structural violence in long-term, residential care for older people: comparing Canada and Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Albert; Daly, Tamara; Armstrong, Pat; Szebehely, Marta; Armstrong, Hugh; Lafrance, Stirling

    2012-02-01

    Canadian frontline careworkers are six times more likely to experience daily physical violence than their Scandinavian counterparts. This paper draws on a comparative survey of residential careworkers serving older people across three Canadian provinces (Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario) and four countries that follow a Scandinavian model of social care (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden) conducted between 2005 and 2006. Ninety percent of Canadian frontline careworkers experienced physical violence from residents or their relatives and 43 percent reported physical violence on a daily basis. Canadian focus groups conducted in 2007 reveal violence was often normalized as an inevitable part of elder-care. We use the concept of "structural violence" (Galtung, 1969) to raise questions about the role that systemic and organizational factors play in setting the context for violence. Structural violence refers to indirect forms of violence that are built into social structures and that prevent people from meeting their basic needs or fulfilling their potential. We applied the concept to long-term residential care and found that the poor quality of the working conditions and inadequate levels of support experienced by Canadian careworkers constitute a form of structural violence. Working conditions are detrimental to careworker's physical and mental health, and prevent careworkers from providing the quality of care they are capable of providing and understand to be part of their job. These conditions may also contribute to the physical violence workers experience, and further investigation is warranted. PMID:22204839

  3. Western Canada beef productivity study : a component of the western Canada study on animal and human health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities : study design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to determine if exposure from oil and gas emissions has an impact on animal and human health in western Canada. The study design has been reviewed and endorsed by the Science Advisory Panel of the Western Interprovincial Scientific Studies Association which is composed of 10 internationally renowned scientists with experience in environmental and reproductive epidemiology, animal and human health, and toxicology. The research methodology includes a peer review process to ensure credibility. The five components of the study include: beef cattle productivity; assessment of the immune function in beef cattle; assessment of wildlife reproduction and immune function; exposure monitoring; and, human health. This study provides insight beyond that gained from previous studies. The association between flaring and reproductive outcomes in beef herds was examined. The association between herd location in high sulfur deposition areas and increased risk of reproductive failure was also evaluated. The study includes exposure markers for both sweet gas emissions and sour gas sources. Passive monitors measured volatile organic carbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. Monitoring was also conducted for other compounds including sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, particulate matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Final analysis and assessment of the data should be complete by late 2003 with a report available for peer review at the beginning of 2004. refs

  4. Evaluation of exposure parameters in plain radiography: a comparative study with european guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Lança, Luís; Silva, Augusto; Alves, Eduardo; Serranheira, Florentino; Correia, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Typical distribution of exposure parameters in plain radiography is unknown in Portugal. This study aims to identify exposure parameters that are being used in plain radiography in the Lisbon area and to compare the collected data with European references [Commission of European Communities (CEC) guidelines]. The results show that in four examinations (skull, chest, lumbar spine and pelvis), there is a strong tendency of using exposure times above the European recommendation. The X-ray tub...

  5. Tracking the evolution of hospice palliative care in Canada: A comparative case study analysis of seven provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Richards Judy-Lynn; Kelley Mary-Lou; Whitfield Kyle; Crooks Valorie A; Williams Allison M; DeMiglio Lily; Dykeman Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background An aging population, rise in chronic illnesses, increase in life expectancy and shift towards care being provided at the community level are trends that are collectively creating an urgency to advance hospice palliative care (HPC) planning and provision in Canada. The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of HPC in seven provinces in Canada so as to inform such planning and provision elsewhere. We have endeavoured to undertake this research out of awareness th...

  6. Defining product intake fraction to quantify and compare exposure to consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Oliver; Ernstoff, Alexi; Csiszar, Susan A.; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    applications of the product intake fraction concept, for two chemicals in two personal care products and two chemicals encapsulated in two articles, showing how intakes of these chemicals can primarily occur during product use. We demonstrate the utility of the product intake fraction and its application......There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction of a...... chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example...

  7. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : interpretive overview by the science advisory panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, T.; Nielsen, O.; Berhane, K.; Cohen, B.S.; Hunter, B.; Lasley, B.; Martin, W.; Ribble, C.; Thorne, P.; Tollerud, D.; Witschi, H. [Western Interprovincial Scientific Studies Association, Calgary, AB (Canada). Science Advisory Panel

    2006-05-15

    The results of a study to determine if chronic exposure to emissions from the oil and gas industry influence the health and reproductive performance of cattle and wildlife in western Canada was presented. Individual cows in herds from Alberta, Saskatchewan and northeastern British Columbia were monitored in pens and pastures to determine their exposure status. Data on other known risk factors such as the cow's age, breed and body condition were collected. The study measured concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}); hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S); and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured as benzene and toluene. Passive air monitors were located on all occupied pastures and wintering areas for each herd. Information on the location of over 39,000 animals from 205 herds on 3355 different parcels of land was recorded at 2 week intervals. Each animal's exposure was then averaged to create cumulative exposure values for biologically relevant risk periods for each outcome. Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured a total of 365 times near the calving area for 32 herds. Five primary health outcomes were studied: (1) nonpregnancy; (2) length of breeding-to-calving interval; (3) abortion; (4) stillbirth; and (5) calf mortality. No associations were found among any of the exposure measures and the risk of nonpregnancy, abortion or stillbirth. Sulphur-containing exposures showed no associations with secondary outcome measures in the respiratory, immune and nervous systems. An association was found between exposure to SO{sub 2} and the increased risk of calf mortality. Findings also suggested that there was a greater risk of lesions in the calf skeletal or cardiac muscle with increased prenatal exposure to SO{sub 2}. Increased exposure to VOCs contributed to a greater risk of calf respiratory and thyroid lesions, and a lower count of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in calves. The results of a concurrent study on

  8. The Cultural Influence in Accounting Standard Setting: A Comparative Analysis of the United States, Canada, and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Robert; And Others

    A study of the processes for establishing the principles and policies of measurement and disclosure in preparing financial reports examines differences in these processes in the United States, Canada, and England. Information was drawn from international accounting literature on standard setting. The differences and similarities in the…

  9. Comparing acceptance and refusal rates of virtual reality exposure vs. in vivo exposure by patients with specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Palacios, A; Botella, C; Hoffman, H; Fabregat, S

    2007-10-01

    The present survey explored the acceptability of virtual reality (VR) exposure and in vivo exposure in 150 participants suffering from specific phobias. Seventy-six percent chose VR over in vivo exposure, and the refusal rate for in vivo exposure (27%) was higher than the refusal rate for VR exposure (3%). Results suggest that VR exposure could help increase the number of people who seek exposure therapy for phobias. PMID:17927544

  10. Sunlight exposure during leisure activities and risk of prostate cancer in Montréal, Canada, 2005-2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jennifer; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of cancer in men in many developed countries, but no modifiable risk factors have been identified. A handful of analytical studies have suggested a possible etiological role for sunlight exposure. We report here on the association between leisure-time sunlight exposure during adulthood and PCa risk in the context of a population-based case–control study. Methods In all, 1,904 PCa cases were ascertained across Montreal French hospitals betw...

  11. Natural background radiation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published airborne gamma ray survey data from 33 areas of Canada were used to compile information on the average ground level exposure from natural radiation. The exposures at ground level were calculated from the surface concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. The highest levels of radioactivity were found in northern Canada and were generally related to granitic rocks; the lowest levels with the Athabasca sandstone. Summer outdoor exposure rates have a population-weighted average of 3.7 +- 2.3 μR.h-1, of which 48 percent orginated from potassium, 43 percent from the thorium series and 9 percent from the uranium series. This low level of radioactivity, compared to worldwide data, has resulted from erosion of a geologically old continental crust in which radioactivity decreases with depth. When seasonal variations of soil moisture and snow cover are considered, the annual population-weighted average outdoor exposure rate decreases to 2.8 +- 1.7 μR.h-1 corresponding to an annual outdoor dose-equivalent of 150 +- 90 μSV. Factors increasing the annual outdoor dose-equivalent are cosmic radiation (320 +- 30 μSV) and the internal radioactivity of the body (190 μSV). Using the ratio between indoor and outdoor values for worldwide published data, the average annual Canadian whole-body dose-equivalent from all sources of natural radiation is estimated to be 690 +-130 μSV

  12. A comparative analysis of exposure doses between the radiation workers in dental and general hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Nam Hee; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Ju, Yong Jin; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Research and investigation is required for the exposure dose of radiation workers to work in the dental hospital as increasing interest in exposure dose of the dental hospital recently accordingly, study aim to minimize radiation exposure by making a follow-up study of individual exposure doses of radiation workers, analyzing the status on individual radiation exposure management, prediction the radiation disability risk levels by radiation, and alerting the workers to the danger of radiation exposure. Especially given the changes in the dental hospital radiation safety awareness conducted the study in order to minimize radiation exposure. This study performed analyses by a comparison between general and dental hospital, comparing each occupation, with the 116,220 exposure dose data by quarter and year of 5,811 subjects at general and dental hospital across South Korea from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012. The following are the results obtained by analyzing average values year and quarter. In term of hospital, average doses were significantly higher in general hospitals than detal ones. In terms of job, average doses were higher in radiological technologists the other workers. Especially, they showed statistically significant differences between radiological technologists than dentists. The above-mentioned results indicate that radiation workers were exposed to radiation for the past 5 years to the extent not exceeding the dose limit (maximum 50 mSv y{sup -1}). The limitation of this study is that radiation workers before 2008 were excluded from the study. Objective evaluation standards did not apply to the work circumstance or condition of each hospital. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to work out analysis criteria that will be used as objective evaluation standard. It will be necessary to study radiation exposure in more precise ways on the basis of objective analysis standard in the future. Should try to minimize the radiation individual dose of

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of Guided Mastery and Exposure Treatments for Intractable Phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Lloyd; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared two models of phobia treatment. Severe height and driving phobics (N=32) were assigned to either mastery-oriented treatment based on self-efficacy theory, exposure treatment, or no treatment. Mastery treatment proved to be significantly more effective. Results indicated that treatments effect behavioral change through their intervening…

  14. The general principles and consequences of environmental radiation exposure in relation to Canada's nuclear fuel waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the general principles and biological consequences of environmental radiation exposure. Particular attention was paid to the ICRP principle that if individual humans are adequately protected, then populations of other living organisms are likely to be sufficiently protected. The data reviewed in this document suggest that this principle is usually valid, although some theoretical concerns were noted with respect to effects of bioaccumulation of certain radionuclides in aquatic organisms

  15. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under existing chemical management systems: A comparative study of sources of childhood exposure in Korea and in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Chan-Kook;

    2014-01-01

    an exposure scenario approach. Then, the scenario based exposure level was compared with back-calculated exposure levels based on biomonitored urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. The result verifies the existence of varying territorial human background exposure levels and the gap between......, while Korea produces more than 0.4 million tons of the three above-mentioned phthalates each year. First, a comparative review of the existing phthalate regulations in the two countries was performed. Next, the level of childhood phthalate exposure from environmental and food sources was estimated using...... exposure estimations based on exposure modeling and biomonitoring data. Cumulative childhood risk levels in Denmark were lower than in Korea. For both countries, risk levels from back calculation were higher than those from scenario estimation. The median cumulative risk levels from scenario estimation and...

  16. A comparative analysis of chiropractic and general practitioner patients in North America: Findings from the joint Canada/United States survey of health, 2002–03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Lu-May

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientifically rigorous general population-based studies comparing chiropractic with primary-care medical patients within and between countries have not been published. The objective of this study is to compare care seekers of doctors of chiropractic (DCs and general practitioners (GPs in the United States and Canada on a comprehensive set of sociodemographic, quality of life, and health-related variables. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/U.S. Survey of Health (JCUSH, 2002–03, a random sample of adults in Canada (N = 3505 and the U.S. (N = 5183. Respondents were categorized according to their pattern of health-care use in the past year. Distributions, percentages, and estimates (adjusted odds ratios weighted to reflect the complex survey design were produced. Results Nearly 80% of respondents sought care from GPs; 12% sought DC care. Compared with GP only patients, DC patients in both countries tend to be under 65 and white, with arthritis and disabling back or neck pain. U.S. DC patients are more likely than GP only patients to be obese and to lack a regular doctor; Canadian DC patients are more likely than GP only patients to be college educated, to have higher incomes, and dissatisfied with MD care. Compared with seekers of both GP and DC care, DC only patients in both countries have fewer chronic conditions, take fewer drugs, and have no regular doctor. U.S. DC only patients are more likely than GP+DC patients to be uninsured and dissatisfied with health care; Canadian DC only patients are more likely than GP+DC patients to be under 45, male, less educated, smokers, and not obese, without disabling back or neck pain, on fewer drugs, and lacking a regular doctor. Conclusion Chiropractic and GP patients are dissimilar in both Canada and the U.S., with key differences between countries and between DC patients who do and do not seek care from GPs. Such variation has broad and potentially far-reaching health policy and

  17. Exposure of the general public to digital broadcast transmitters compared to analogue ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terrestrial digital video and audio broadcast are supposed to replace the existing analogue broadcast systems. To determine possible changes of this switch-over on the public exposure situation to radio frequency electromagnetic fields, extensive measurements at more than 300 identical points were performed 'before' and accordingly 'after' the switch-over. At the point with the highest sum-exposure, only 0.3% of the ICNIRP reference levels for general public exposure (power flux density) was reached. The statistical analysis of both measurement campaigns ('before-after') shows an increase in mean exposure in the centre of the DVB-T starting areas around Nuremberg and Munich, which is mainly based on the increase in the radiated power at the transmitter stations. After developing a simple calculation program based on the ITU-RP.1546, the measured exposure values were compared to calculations. Optimising the results leads to mean deviations of ±3 dB at about 80% of all points. (authors)

  18. Anti-gay sentiment among adolescents in Belgium and Canada: a comparative investigation into the role of gender and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Claes, Ellen; Harell, Allison; Quintelier, Ellen; Dejaeghere, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that opposition toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trangender (LGBT) rights remains prevalent among Western populations. In this article, we investigate the determinants of anti-gay attitudes among adolescents in two liberal democracies, Belgium (n = 6,330) and Canada (n = 3,334). The analysis indicates that hostile feelings toward LGBT rights are particularly widespread among boys, while the effects of socioeconomic status and parental education remain limited. Various religious denominations proved to have a strong and significant negative impact on tolerance, with especially high scores for Islam. Religious practice, too, contributes to a negative attitude toward LGBT rights. The consequences of these findings with regard to tolerance for gay rights among Islamic youth in Western democracies are discussed. PMID:20391000

  19. Radon exposure at workplaces. A comparative analysis of local and personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitored radiation workers (n = 24) at 19 working places are exposed partially to significant increased concentrations of radon gas as well as radon decay products. According part 3 chapter 2 StrlSchV the required procedure of assessment of the radon exposure in self-responsibility of the responsible persons was verified. The results show differences between the estimated values on the one hand on the basis of personnel dosemeters and on the other hand on the basis of short-term measurements. In four of nine cases the values estimated with short-term measuring devices were lower as compared with long-term personnel dosimetry. In three additional companies can be observed overestimations as well as underestimations, if personnel and short-term dosimetry are compared. In the verified water plants the radon exposures are significantly below the action level. (orig.)

  20. Is the bone tissue of ring-billed gulls breeding in a pollution hotspot in the St. Lawrence River, Canada, impacted by halogenated flame retardant exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Stéphanie Pellerin; Moreau, Robert; Letcher, Robert J; Verreault, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    Bone metabolism is a tightly regulated process that controls bone remodeling and repair in addition to maintaining circulating calcium and phosphate levels. It has been shown that certain organohalogen contaminants may adversely impact bone tissue metabolism and structure in wildlife species. However, exceedingly few studies have addressed the bone-related effects of organohalogen exposure in birds. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between markers of bone metabolism and structural integrity, and concentrations of established and current-use halogenated flame retardants (FRs) in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) nesting in a known FR hotspot area in the St. Lawrence River (Montreal, Canada). Bone metabolism was assessed using plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate levels, and alkaline phophatase activity, while bone (tarsus; trabecular and cortical sections) structure quality was examined using the percentage of bone tissue comprised in the total bone volume (Bv/Tv) and bone mineral density (BMD). Bv/Tv and BMD of the tarsus tended (not significant) to be positively associated with circulating calcium levels in male ring-billed gulls. Moreover, concentrations of FRs in male bird liver (brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-154, -183, -201, and -209) and plasma (BDE-209) were negatively correlated with trabecular and cortical BMD of the tarsus. These correlative associations may suggest light demineralization of bone tissue associated with FR exposure in male ring-billed gulls. Present findings provide some evidence that bone (tarsus) metabolism and mineral composition may be impacted in high FR-exposed (mainly to PBDEs) ring-billed gulls breeding in the highly urbanized Montreal region. PMID:24016627

  1. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE TO INDIVIDUALS IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yu. Medvedev

    2016-01-01

    The article provides a comparative assessment of exposure levels of the staff from selected occupational groups in Russia and the respective doses reported for the personnel in some foreign countries. The comparison of the average doses was performed at on a country level and with respect of the job category: nurse, radiographer, industrial radiographer. The analysis involved some relevant data according to the Integrated State System for Doses Control and Registration, the United Nations Sci...

  2. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries. PMID:27336001

  3. Comparative analysis of total mercury concentrations in anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research has documented that total mercury concentrations ([THg]) are lower in anadromous Arctic charr than in non-anadromous conspecifics, but the two life-history forms have rarely been studied together. Here, data from nine pairs of closely-located anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr populations were used to explore the impact of biological and life-history factors on individual [THg] across a range of latitudes (49–81° N) in eastern Canada. Unadjusted mean [THg] ranged from 20 to 114 ng/g wet weight (ww) in anadromous populations, and was significantly higher in non-anadromous populations, ranging from 111 to 227 ng/g ww. Within-population variations in [THg] were best explained by fish age, and were often positively related to fork-length and δ15N-inferred trophic level. Differences in [THg] were not related to differences in length-at-age (i.e., average somatic growth rate) among populations of either life-history type. Mercury concentrations were not related to site latitude in either the anadromous or non-anadromous fish. We conclude that the difference in Arctic charr [THg] with life-history type could not be explained by differences in fish age, fork-length, trophic position, or length-at-age, and discuss possible factors contributing to low mercury concentrations in anadromous, relative to freshwater, fish. - Highlights: ► Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) were measured in 9 co-located anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr populations. ► Mean [THg] in non-anadromous populations exceeded mean [THg] in spatially paired anadromous populations. ► Among-individual variation in [THg] was best explained by fish age. ► The lower [THg] in anadromous fish could not be explained by differences in age, fork-length, trophic level, or growth rate. ► Variations in Arctic charr [THg] were independent of latitude (49–81° N) in eastern Canada

  4. English Proficiency and English Exposure in the Media. A comparative study between countries with high and low English exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Molnár, Máté, 1989-

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to demonstrate the differences between countries that are exposed to English, and countries that are not exposed to English in the media. The English exposure in the media of Iceland and Hungary are presented as examples of countries with a different amount of English exposure. The research on the English exposure of these two countries illustrates that Icelanders are more exposed to English than Hungarians and that Icelanders are more proficient in English. A study w...

  5. Comparative analysis of toxicological evaluations for dermal exposure performed under two different EU regulatory frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerholm, Emma; Schenk, Linda

    2014-02-01

    Dermal exposure to chemicals is highly relevant in relation to the use of cosmetic products, both in consumers and in individuals exposed occupationally. Regulatory frameworks exist within the EU to limit the dermal exposure of the general population and workers to chemicals in general, as well as to limit the use of certain substances in cosmetic products. The objective of the study was to investigate and compare toxicological evaluations of dermal exposure performed under current regulatory frameworks. The publicly disseminated hazard information under the respective regulatory frameworks was compiled and compared for the five substances resorcinol, p-phenylenediamine, p-aminophenol, N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether. A low consistency between evaluations was observed in respect to data coverage and cited dose descriptors. No systematic differences over all five substances were identified from the viewpoint of dermal hazard assessment. The critical effect and corresponding systemic effect dose descriptor was identical for two substances, differed somewhat for two other (a factor of 2-2.5). For N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine a critical effect was only identified under REACH. PMID:24269627

  6. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  7. Child Poverty in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Crossley; Lori Curtis

    2003-01-01

    A 1989 all-party motion of parliament called for the elimination of child poverty in Canada by the year 2000. Despite a series of policy initiatives, recent reports suggest that the child poverty rate may now be comparable to that in 1989. The apparent persistence of child poverty in Canada might reflect socioeconomic developments, or something about the way that child poverty is measured. Using micro data covering the period 1986 to 2000 we find little support for these explanations.

  8. Comparative chlorpyrifos pharmacokinetics via multiple routes of exposure and vehicles of administration in the adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphorus pesticide. A number of toxicity and mechanistic studies have been conducted in animals, where CPF has been administered via a variety of different exposure routes and dosing vehicles. This study compared chlorpyrifos (CPF) pharmacokinetics using oral, intravenous (IV), and subcutaneous (SC) exposure routes and corn oil, saline/Tween 20, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as dosing vehicles. Two groups of rats were co-administered target doses (5 mg/kg) of CPF and isotopically labeled CPF (L-CPF). One group was exposed by both oral (CPF) and IV (L-CPF) routes using saline/Tween 20 vehicle; whereas, the second group was exposed by the SC route using two vehicles, corn oil (CPF) and DMSO (L-CPF). A third group was only administered CPF by the oral route in corn oil. For all treatments, blood and urine time course samples were collected and analyzed for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), and isotopically labeled 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (L-TCPy). Peak TCPy/L-TCPy concentrations in blood (20.2 μmol/l), TCPy/L-TCPy blood AUC (94.9 μmol/l h), and percent of dose excreted in urine (100%) were all highest in rats dosed orally with CPF in saline/Tween 20 and second highest in rats dosed orally with CPF in corn oil. Peak TCPy concentrations in blood were more rapidly obtained after oral administration of CPF in saline/Tween 20 compared to all other dosing scenarios (>1.5 h). These results indicate that orally administered CPF is more extensively metabolized than systemic exposures of CPF (SC and IV), and vehicle of administration also has an effect on absorption rates. Thus, equivalent doses via different routes and/or vehicles of administration could potentially lead to different body burdens of CPF, different rates of bioactivation to CPF-oxon, and different toxic responses. Simulations using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF are consistent with these possibilities

  9. Media exposure and English language proficiency levels. A Comparative Study in Iceland and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García Ortega, Sergio, 1976-

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this essay is to study the status of English in Iceland and Spain. In order to achieve this goal, a comparative study of the media of both countries in terms of exposure is performed. As a result, it is suggested that Icelanders are considerably more exposed to English by the media than their Spanish counterparts.In addition, their education systems,regulations and government policies on English teaching are described. It is found that the Spanish education system de...

  10. Comparing radiation exposure during percutaneous vertebroplasty using one- vs. two-fluoroscopic technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yen-Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV requires relatively lengthy fluoroscopic guidance, which might lead to substantial radiation exposure to patients or operators. The two-fluoroscopic technique (two-plane radiographs obtained using two fluoroscopes during PV can provide simultaneous two-planar projections with reducing operative time. However, the two-fluoroscopic technique may expose the operator or patient to increased radiation dose. The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of radiation exposure to the patient or operator that occurs during PV using one- vs. two-fluoroscopic technique. Methods Two radiation dosimeters were placed on the right flank of each patient and on the upper sternum of each operator during 26 single-level PV procedures by one senior surgeon. The use of two-fluoroscopic technique (13 patients and one-fluoroscopic technique (13 patients were allocated in a consecutive and alternative manner. The operative time and mean radiation dose to each patient and operator were monitored and compared between groups. Results Mean radiation dose to the patient was 1.97 ± 1.20 mSv (95% CI, 0.71 to 3.23 for the one-fluoroscopic technique group vs. 0.95 ± 0.34 mSv (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.23 for the two-fluoroscopic technique group (P =0.031. Mean radiation dose to the operator was 0.27 ± 0.12 mSv (95% CI, 0.17–0.56 for the one-fluoroscopic technique group vs. 0.25 ± 0.14 mSv (95% CI, 0.06–0.44 for the two-fluoroscopic technique group (P = 0.653. The operative time was significantly different between groups: 47.15 ± 13.48 min (range, 20–75 for the one-fluoroscopic technique group vs. 36.62 ± 8.42 min (range, 21–50 for the two-fluoroscopic technique group (P =0.019. Conclusion Compared to the one-fluoroscopic technique, the two-fluoroscopic technique used during PV provides not only shorter operative times but also reduces the radiation exposure to the patient. There was no

  11. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  12. Declining sex ratios in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, B. B.; Brant, R; Seidel, J E; Jarrell, J F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends in the proportion of annual live births that were male in Canada and to compare the trends with those in the United States. DESIGN: Analysis of census data. SETTING: Canada as a whole and 4 main regions (West, Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic). SUBJECTS: All live births from 1930 to 1990. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sex ratio (expressed as the proportion of total live births that were male [male proportion]) overall and by region. RESULTS: The male proportion in Canada decr...

  13. Comparing the epidemiology of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone groups in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzese, S; Bush, K; Leal, J; Kim, J; Vickers, D M; Rusk, A; Fathima, S; Li, V; Chui, L; Louie, M; Henderson, E

    2016-07-01

    Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones, which were traditionally seen in the community setting (USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10), are often identified as hospital-acquired (HA) infections using Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) surveillance definitions. This study examined the demographics and healthcare risk factors of patients with HA-MRSA to help understand if community MRSA clones are from a source internal or external to the hospital setting. Despite USA300/CMRSA10 being the predominant clone in Alberta, hospital clones (USA100/CMRSA2) still dominated in the acute care setting. In the Alberta hospitalized population, patients with USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10 clones were significantly younger, had fewer comorbidities, and a greater proportion had none or ambulatory care-only healthcare exposure. These findings suggest that there are two distinct populations of HA-MRSA patients, and the patients with USA400/CMRSA7 and USA300/CMRSA10 clones identified in hospital more greatly resemble patients affected by those clones in the community. It is possible that epidemiological assessment overidentifies HA acquisition of MRSA in patients unscreened for MRSA on admission to acute care. PMID:26947456

  14. Comparative responses of two species of marine phytoplankton to metolachlor exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakkar, Megha; Randhawa, Varunpreet [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Wei Liping, E-mail: liping.wei@njit.edu [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Metolachlor, a chloroacetanilide herbicide, has been frequently detected in coastal waters. This study examined the growth, photosynthesis, and detoxification responses of chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta (DT) and brown tide alga Aureococcus anophagefferens (AA) upon 5-day exposure to 0.5-5 mg L{sup -1} metolachlor. Growth was assessed with exponential growth rate, and 5th day in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll a, b or c, cell density and cell size. The photosynthesis function was assessed with photochemical parameters of photosystem II (PSII) during the mid-exponential growth phase (i.e. 2-4 day metolachlor exposure). The biochemical detoxification was analyzed with glutathione production and metolachlor degradation. Results show that metolachlor caused up to {approx}9% inhibition in growth rate in both species and an expected {approx}35% and 25% inhibition in chlorophyll based endpoints in DT and AA respectively. DT had an up to 70% inhibition in cell density, but AA a 35% hormesis at 1 mg L{sup -1} metolachlor and no significant inhibition, as compared to the controls. Both DT and AA's cell sizes were enlarged by metolachlor exposure, but greater in DT (1.2% per mg L{sup -1}) than in AA (0.68% per mg L{sup -1}). On PSII photochemistry, maximum quantum yield was not affected in both species; PSII optical cross section and connectivity factor increased in DT but decreased in AA, suggesting species specific impact on PSII function. On detoxification responses, glutathione production, when normalized to total chlorophyll a, was not affected by metolachlor in both species; further, despite of heterotrophic capacity of A. anophagefferens metolachlor was not significantly degraded by this alga during the 5-day incubation. The species specific effects on algal growth have ecological implications of potential selective inhibition of chlorophytes by metolachlor herbicide.

  15. Learning French as a Second Official Language in Canada: Comparing Monolingual and Bilingual Students at Grade 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that compared the French as a second official achievement of three groups of students: (1) Canadian-born English speaking (CBE), (2) Canadian-born multilingual (CBM), and (3) immigrant multilinguals (IMM) as determined by multiskills test results. ANOVAs and subsequent post hoc tests revealed that the…

  16. Comparative assessment of the European and Latin American scenarios for NORM/TENORM exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geological formation of the areas of high natural radioactivity are usually associated with mineral ores commercially important. As a consequence, extracting industries are installed in or near those areas. Several industrial products and byproducts can be obtained from thorium, uranium and potassium rich mineral ores, for example: niobium concentrate from pyrochlore; monazite, ilmenite, rutile and zirconite concentrates from monazite sands; phosphate fertilizers from apatite; tin and lead from cassiterite; gold and copper form a variety of thorium and uranium rich mineral matrices. Other industries like oil- and natural gas production and processing, production of thoriated tungsten lamps, welding, gas mantles and pigments produce non-negligible amounts of wastes containing technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM). In addition, quite frequently unknown amounts of natural radionuclides end up embedded in a variety of consumer products. Thus, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) as well as TENORM in consumer products and/or industrial wastes may be of importance as far as human exposures are concerned. This work will present a comparative assessment of the radiological significance of different NORM/TENORM exposure scenarios in Europe and Latin America. (author)

  17. Comparative effects of dissolved copper and copper oxide nanoparticle exposure to the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Differences between CuO NP and CuCl2 exposure were characterized. • Copper accumulation in E. pallida was concentration-dependent. • E. pallida exposed to CuCl2 accumulated higher copper tissue burdens. • The oxidative stress response was greater in E. pallida exposed to CuO NP. • Both forms of copper inhibited CA activity in E. pallida. - Abstract: Increasing use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) by various industries has resulted in substantial output of these NP into aquatic systems. At elevated concentrations, NP may interact with and potentially affect aquatic organisms. Environmental implications of increased NP use are largely unknown, particularly in marine systems. This research investigated and compared the effects of copper oxide (CuO) NP and dissolved copper, as copper chloride (CuCl2), on the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida. Sea anemones were collected over 21 days and tissue copper accumulation and activities of the enzymes: catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase were quantified. The size and shape of CuO NP were observed using a ecanning electron microscope (SEM) and the presence of copper was confirmed by using Oxford energy dispersive spectroscopy systems (EDS/EDX). E. pallida accumulated copper in their tissues in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with the animals exposed to CuCl2 accumulating higher tissue copper burdens than those exposed to CuO NP. As a consequence of increased copper exposure, as CuO NP or CuCl2, anemones increased activities of all of the antioxidant enzymes measured to some degree, and decreased the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Anemones exposed to CuO NP generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentrations of CuCl2. This study is useful in discerning differences between CuO NP and dissolved copper exposure and the findings have implications for exposure of aquatic organisms to NP in the environment

  18. Comparative effects of dissolved copper and copper oxide nanoparticle exposure to the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Samreen; Goddard, Russell H.; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K., E-mail: gkbielmyer@valdosta.edu

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Differences between CuO NP and CuCl{sub 2} exposure were characterized. • Copper accumulation in E. pallida was concentration-dependent. • E. pallida exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulated higher copper tissue burdens. • The oxidative stress response was greater in E. pallida exposed to CuO NP. • Both forms of copper inhibited CA activity in E. pallida. - Abstract: Increasing use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) by various industries has resulted in substantial output of these NP into aquatic systems. At elevated concentrations, NP may interact with and potentially affect aquatic organisms. Environmental implications of increased NP use are largely unknown, particularly in marine systems. This research investigated and compared the effects of copper oxide (CuO) NP and dissolved copper, as copper chloride (CuCl{sub 2}), on the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida. Sea anemones were collected over 21 days and tissue copper accumulation and activities of the enzymes: catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase were quantified. The size and shape of CuO NP were observed using a ecanning electron microscope (SEM) and the presence of copper was confirmed by using Oxford energy dispersive spectroscopy systems (EDS/EDX). E. pallida accumulated copper in their tissues in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with the animals exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulating higher tissue copper burdens than those exposed to CuO NP. As a consequence of increased copper exposure, as CuO NP or CuCl{sub 2}, anemones increased activities of all of the antioxidant enzymes measured to some degree, and decreased the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Anemones exposed to CuO NP generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentrations of CuCl{sub 2}. This study is useful in discerning differences between CuO NP and dissolved copper exposure and the findings have implications for exposure of aquatic

  19. Comparative study of spermatogonial survival after X-ray exposure, high LET (HZE) irradiation or spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, W. J.; Williams, C. S.; Williams, J. W.; Philpott, D. E.; Kato, K.; Miquel, J. M.; Serova, L.

    1992-01-01

    Spermatogonial cell loss has been observed in rats flown on Space Lab 3, Cosmos 1887, Cosmos 2044 and in mice following irradiation with X-ray or with HZE particle beams. Spermatogonial loss is determined by cell counting in maturation stage-6 seminferous tubules. With the exception of iron, laboratory irradiation experiments (with mice) revealed a similar pattern of spermatogonial loss proportional to the radiation dose at levels less than 0.1 Gy. Helium and argon irradiation resulted in a 5-percent loss of spermatogonia after only 0.01 Gy exposure. Significant spermatogonial loss (45 percent) occurred at this radiation level with iron particle beams. The loss of spermatogonia during each spaceflight was less than 10 percent when compared to control (nonflight) animals.

  20. Reproductive Performance of Female Braconids Compared after (A) Brief and (B) Protracted Exposures to Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    85Sr sources are installed in the initial US biosatellites to provide calculable dose levels during three-day orbital space flights. Such protracted exposures are longer than those used customarily in insect radiobiology and shorter than those of ecological studies. This paper concerns results from the ground controls of ill-fated US Biosatellite A and compares them with results from other dose rates and types of radiation. Males are packaged separately and used for mutational studies to be reported elsewhere. To compare the vulnerability of cell types in the ovariole sequence, nearly 1000 virgin females from a vigorous out- cross are used, half for ground controls and half for the satellite launched. Samples of 20-25 wasps are packed in each of two screw-capped capsules inserted into housings in plastic modules which also incorporate thermisters and radiodosimeters. These packages are fixed in shielded positions as well as in places which receive one of four levels of gamma rays from the 85Sr source. Each treatment thus consists of 40-50 virgins; a similar number receives a sensitizing preflight exposure to 2000 R of X-rays. After the flight period daily egg production is scored to detect resorption following gross chromosomal damage, embryonic deaths to reveal more subtle damage, and maternal life span as a measure of somatic fitness. In most insects bundles of numerous ovarioles confound interpretation relating cell status during exposure to eggs deposited subsequently. Habrobracon's four synchronized ovarioles provide a uniquely suitable system for studying radiosensitivity of a sequence complete from specialized oocytes through oocyte- trophocyte units to primitive interphase cells. Following a series of doses, the family of oviposition curves reflects the vulnerability of differentiating units in a valley which deepens and broadens with increased dose. At high dose rates, lowest egg production occurs on day 7. The pattern, well established for X-rays and 32P

  1. Comparative toxicities of bismuth oxybromide and titanium dioxide exposure on human skin keratinocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoya; Wang, Yawen; Peng, Shiqi; Yue, Bin; Fan, Caimei; Chen, Weiyi; Li, Xiaona

    2015-09-01

    Nano-sized bismuth oxybromide (BiOBr) particles are being considered for applications within the semiconductor industry. However, little is known about their potential impact on human health. In this study, we comparatively investigated the cytotoxicity of BiOBr and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) using human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) as a research model. Results indicate that lamellar-shaped BiOBr (length: 200 nm, width: 150 nm, and an average thickness: around 15 nm) has less toxic effects on cell viability and intracellular organelles than TiO2 (P25) NPs. BiOBr mainly induced late cell apoptosis, while for TiO2, both early apoptosis and late apoptosis were involved. Cell cycle arrest was found in cells on both NPs exposure, and more prominent in TiO2-treated cells. More cellular uptake was achieved after TiO2 exposure, particularly at 10 μg mL(-1), presence of TiO2 resulted in more than 2-fold increase in cellular granularity compared with BiOBr. Furthermore, TiO2 had a high potential to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, where a 2.7-fold increase in TiO2 group and 2.0-fold increase in BiOBr group at the same concentration of 25 μg mL(-1). Higher cellular uptake and ROS stimulation should contribute to the more hazards of TiO2 than BiOBr NPs. This knowledge is a crucial component in the environmental and human hazard assessment of BiOBr and TiO2 NPs. PMID:25917605

  2. Breast Cancer Risk, Fungicide Exposure and CYP1A1*2A Gene-Environment Interactions in a Province-Wide Case Control Study in Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Read Guernsey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studies examining the health risks of these agents. The association between agricultural fungicide exposure and breast cancer risk was examined in a secondary analysis of a province-wide breast cancer case-control study in Prince Edward Island (PEI Canada. Specific objectives were: (1 to derive and examine the level of association between estimated fungicide exposures, and breast cancer risk among women in PEI; and (2 to assess the potential for gene-environment interactions between fungicide exposure and a CYP1A1 polymorphism in cases versus controls. After 1:3 matching of 207 cases to 621 controls by age, family history of breast cancer and menopausal status, fungicide exposure was not significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.46–1.17. Moreover, no statistically significant interactions between fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A were observed. Gene-environment interactions were identified. Though interpretations of findings are challenged by uncertainty of exposure assignment and small sample sizes, this study does provide grounds for further research.

  3. Why doesn't Canada have an American-style Christian Right? A Comparative Framework for Analyzing the Political Effects of Evangelical Subcultural Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Bean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Political commentators have asked if Canada could see the rise of an American-style “Culture War,” where evangelical Protestants are rallied by moral issues to support the Conservative party. This paper argues that even though Canadian evangelicals are just as morally conservative as American evangelicals, they work from very different understandings about the relationship between religious morality and national identity. We predict that rank-and-file Canadian evangelicals will be less responsive to political mobilization around moral issues because they construct their subcultural identity differently than American evangelicals. This paper uses a multimethod strategy to analyze the political impact of evangelical subcultural identity, a cultural mechanism that mediates the political effects of moral attitudes. We illustrate this multidimensional concept of subcultural identity through survey data, in-depth interviews, and comparativehistorical data. This comparative framework for studying subcultural identity helps explain why the content of evangelical Protestant morality becomes linked to political behaviour in some national contexts and historical periods but not others.

  4. Comparative evaluation of nose-only vs. whole-body inhalation exposures for rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of rat exposure chambers, nose-only and whole-body chambers, were evaluated simultaneously for the temporal and spatial distribution of the same test aerosols within the chambers, both with and without animals present. Results indicated that both types of exposure chambers performed well, with coefficients of variation less than 10% for both temporal and spatial variations. (author)

  5. Contributions and challenges of cross-national comparative research in migration, ethnicity and health: insights from a preliminary study of maternal health in Germany, Canada and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Jule

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health researchers are increasingly encouraged to establish international collaborations and to undertake cross-national comparative studies. To-date relatively few such studies have addressed migration, ethnicity and health, but their number is growing. While it is clear that divergent approaches to such comparative research are emerging, public health researchers have not so far given considered attention to the opportunities and challenges presented by such work. This paper contributes to this debate by drawing on the experience of a recent study focused on maternal health in Canada, Germany and the UK. Discussion The paper highlights various ways in which cross-national comparative research can potentially enhance the rigour and utility of research into migration, ethnicity and health, including by: forcing researchers to engage in both ideological and methodological critical reflexivity; raising awareness of the socially and historically embedded nature of concepts, methods and generated 'knowledge'; increasing appreciation of the need to situate analyses of health within the wider socio-political setting; helping researchers (and research users to see familiar issues from new perspectives and find innovative solutions; encouraging researchers to move beyond fixed 'groups' and 'categories' to look at processes of identification, inclusion and exclusion; promoting a multi-level analysis of local, national and global influences on migrant/minority health; and enabling conceptual and methodological development through the exchange of ideas and experience between diverse research teams. At the same time, the paper alerts researchers to potential downsides, including: significant challenges to developing conceptual frameworks that are meaningful across contexts; a tendency to reify concepts and essentialise migrant/minority 'groups' in an effort to harmonize across countries; a danger that analyses are superficial

  6. Comparative evaluation of the effects of short-term inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust on rat lung and brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlo, Damien van; Albrecht, Catrin; Krutmann, Jean; Schins, Roel P.F. [Institut fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung (IUF) an der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Knaapen, Ad M.; Schooten, Frederik-Jan van [Maastricht University, Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Cassee, Flemming R.; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Kooter, Ingeborg M. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Environmental Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola [Research Center Juelich, Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine (INM-2), Juelich (Germany); Bidmon, Hans-Juergen [Heinrich-Heine-University, C and O Vogt Institute for Brain Research, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Combustion-derived nanoparticles, such as diesel engine exhaust particles, have been implicated in the adverse health effects of particulate air pollution. Recent studies suggest that inhaled nanoparticles may also reach and/or affect the brain. The aim of our study was to comparatively evaluate the effects of short-term diesel engine exhaust (DEE) inhalation exposure on rat brain and lung. After 4 or 18 h recovery from a 2 h nose-only exposure to DEE (1.9 mg/m{sup 3}), the mRNA expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) were investigated in lung as well as in pituitary gland, hypothalamus, olfactory bulb, olfactory tubercles, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. HO-1 protein expression in brain was investigated by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. In the lung, 4 h post-exposure, CYP1A1 and iNOS mRNA levels were increased, while 18 h post-exposure HO-1 was increased. In the pituitary at 4 h post-exposure, both CYP1A1 and HO-1 were increased; HO-1 was also elevated in the olfactory tuberculum at this time point. At 18 h post-exposure, increased expression of HO-1 and COX-2 was observed in cerebral cortex and cerebellum, respectively. Induction of HO-1 protein was not observed after DEE exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis of inflammatory cell influx, TNF-{alpha}, and IL-6 indicated that the mRNA expression changes occurred in the absence of lung inflammation. Our study shows that a single, short-term inhalation exposure to DEE triggers region-specific gene expression changes in rat brain to an extent comparable to those observed in the lung. (orig.)

  7. Parish classification or dwelling coordinate for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology - A comparative study using Geographical Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondel, Martin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)], E-mail: Martin.Tondel@amm.gu.se; Lindgren, Peter [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Garvin, Peter [Division of Social Medicine and Public Health Science, Department of Health and Society, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Persson, Bodil [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Background:: Two previous epidemiological studies on the incidence of total malignancies in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident have shown consistently increased risks. The first study used an analogue map on {sup 137}Cs from 1986 to classify individuals in terms of the parish they lived in. In the second study, dwelling coordinates were matched to a digital map from the year 2000 to assess the individual exposure. To establish the accuracy of the exposure assessment using the larger unit of parish, instead of coordinates, we decided to compare the methods. Methods:: On the analogue map eleven isolines on the deposition of {sup 137}Cs (kBq/m{sup 2}) were used to classify all individuals in each of the 450 parishes. Using the digital map, by contrast, each dwelling with its inhabitants could be matched to {sup 137}Cs deposition at a coordinate level. A population-weighted average of {sup 137}Cs deposition was calculated for each parish. In total, 1,126,960 individuals and 450 parishes were included and analysed into six different exposure categories. Results:: Using the new parish exposure index, 111 out of the 450 parishes were reclassified as a result of the increased resolution of the digital map (86 parishes) or unequal distribution of the population compared with the deposition (25 parishes). Seventy-five per cent of the parishes remained in the same exposure category as on the analogue map. Conclusion:: Using dwelling coordinates for exposure assessment may not always be superior to parish classification. Nor is it always a cost-effective way of estimating the exposure, especially if the exposure in a parish is relatively homogenous or if parishes can be merged into broader categories with little intra-parish difference.

  8. Quantifying the Increase in Radiation Exposure Associated with SPECT/CT Compared to SPECT Alone for Routine Nuclear Medicine Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Larkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We quantify the additional radiation exposure in terms of effective dose incurred by patients in the CT portion of SPECT/CT examinations. Methods. The effective dose from a variety of common nuclear medicine procedures is calculated and summarized. The extra exposure from the CT portion of the examination is summarized by examination and body part. Two hundred forty-eight scans from 221 patients are included in this study. The effective dose from the CT examination is also compared to average background radiation. Results. We found that the extra effective dose is not sufficient to cause deterministic effects. However, the stochastic effects may be significant, especially in patients undergoing numerous follow-up studies. The cumulative effect might increase the radiation exposure compared to patient management with SPECT alone. Conclusions. While the relative increase in radiation exposure associated with SPECT/CT is generally considered acceptable when compared with the benefits to the patient, physicians should make every effort to minimize this effect by using proper technical procedures and educating patients about the exposure they will receive.

  9. Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Rebecca C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways.

  10. Comparative hazard identification by a single dose lung exposure of zinc oxide and silver nanomaterials in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosens, Ilse; Kermanizadeh, Ali; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Bokkers, Bas; de Jong, Wim H; Krystek, Petra; Tran, Lang; Stone, Vicki; Wallin, Håkan; Stoeger, Tobias; Cassee, Flemming R

    2015-01-01

    systemic inflammation. A decrease in glutathione levels was demonstrated in the liver following exposure to high doses of all three nanomaterials irrespective of any noticeable inflammatory or cytotoxic effects in the lung. By applying benchmark dose (BMD) modeling statistics to compare potencies of the...... fluid (BALF) after administration of both non-functionalised and functionalised ZnO. The latter also induced systemic inflammation measured as an increase in blood neutrophils and a decrease in blood lymphocytes. Exposure to Ag NM was not accompanied by pulmonary inflammation or cytotoxicity, or by...

  11. Comparative sensitivity of three populations of the cladoceran Moinodaphnia macleayi to acute and chronic uranium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, M; Holdway, D A; van Dam, R A

    2001-10-01

    Assessment of differences in the response of three different populations of the tropical cladoceran Moinodaphnia macleayi to uranium exposure was evaluated. The populations tested included a laboratory stock (maintained for 10 years), a wild population collected from Bowerbird Billabong (an uncontaminated environment), and a population collected from Djalkmara Billabong (a relatively contaminated environment with elevated levels of uranium), located on the Ranger uranium mine site, Jabiru East, NT, Australia. Chronic and acute toxicity of uranium was determined for all three populations. The no-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC; reproduction) and lowest observed-effect-concentration (LOEC; reproduction) for uranium ranged between 8-31 micrograms L-1 and 20-49 micrograms L-1, respectively, for all three populations. The 48 h EC50 (immobilization-lethality) for uranium ranged between 160-390 micrograms L-1 for all three populations. There was little difference in the response of the three populations of M. macleayi to acute and chronic uranium exposure, although the response of the laboratory population to chronic uranium exposure appeared more variable than the "wild" populations. There was no apparent tolerance in the population of M. macleayi obtained from Djalkmara Billabong when exposed to elevated levels of uranium. M. macleayi was significantly more sensitive to uranium exposure than other species previously tested. It was concluded that the sensitivity of the laboratory population (to uranium) is still representative of natural M. macleayi populations. PMID:11594022

  12. Comparing ELISA test-positive prevalence, risk factors and management recommendations for Johne's disease prevention between organic and conventional dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David

    2015-11-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of

  13. Increased rodenticide exposure rate and risk of toxicosis in barn owls (Tyto alba) from southwestern Canada and linkage with demographic but not genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Andrew C; Elliott, John E; Hindmarch, Sofi; Lee, Sandi L; Maisonneuve, France; Bowes, Victoria; Cheng, Kimberly M; Martin, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Among many anthropogenic drivers of population decline, continual rapid urbanization and industrialization pose major challenges for the survival of wildlife species. Barn owls (Tyto alba) in southwestern British Columbia (BC) face a multitude of threats ranging from habitat fragmentation to vehicle strikes. They are also at risk from secondary poisoning of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), a suite of toxic compounds which at high doses results in a depletion of blood clotting factors leading to internal bleeding and death. Here, using long-term data (N = 119) for the hepatic residue levels of SGAR, we assessed the risk of toxicosis from SGAR for the BC barn owl population over the past two decades. We also investigated whether sensitivity to SGAR is associated with genetic factors, namely Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the CYP2C45 gene of barn owls. We found that residue concentration for total SGAR was significantly higher in 2006-2013 (141 ng/g) relative to 1992-2003 (57 ng/g). The proportion of owls exposed to multiple SGAR types was also significantly higher in 2006-2013. Those measures accordingly translate directly into an increase in toxicosis risk level. We also detected demographic differences, where adult females showed on average lower concentration of total SGAR (64 ng/g) when compared to adult males (106 ng/g). Juveniles were overall more likely to show signs of toxicosis than adults (33.3 and 6.9 %, respectively), and those symptoms were positively predicted by SGAR concentrations. We found no evidence that SNPs in the CYP2C45 gene of barn owls were associated with intraspecific variation in SGAR sensitivity. We recommend several preventative measures be taken to minimize wildlife exposure to SGAR. PMID:27151403

  14. The LINA Study: Higher Sensitivity of Infant Compared to Maternal Eosinophil/Basophil Progenitors to Indoor Chemical Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Hörnig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Enhanced eosinophil/basophil (Eo/B progenitor cell levels are known to be associated with allergic inflammation and atopy risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different indoor exposures on the recruitment and differentiation of Eo/B progenitors in mother-child pairs. Methods. In 68 mother-child pairs of the LINA study peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to assess Eo/B colony forming units (CFUs. Information about disease outcomes and indoor exposures was obtained from questionnaires. Indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured by passive sampling. Results. Infant’s Eo/B CFUs were positively associated with exposure to tobacco smoke, disinfectants, or VOCs. In contrast, for maternal Eo/B CFUs, only a few associations were seen. Higher numbers of infant Eo/B CFUs were observed in children with wheezing symptoms within the second year of life. Conclusions. We demonstrate that infant’s hematopoietic cells seem to respond with more sensitivity to environmental exposure compared to maternal cells. At least in infants, an activation of these hematopoietic cells by environmental exposure could contribute to an enhanced risk for the development of respiratory outcomes.

  15. Comparative transcriptomic responses to chronic cadmium, fluoranthene, and atrazine exposure in Lumbricus rubellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, C; Owen, J; Kille, P; Wren, J; Jonker, M J; Headley, B A; Morgan, A J; Blaxter, M; Stürzenbaum, S R; Hankard, P K; Lister, L J; Spurgeon, D J

    2008-06-01

    Transcriptional responses of a soil-dwelling organism (the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus) to three chemicals, cadmium (Cd), fluoranthene (FA), and atrazine (AZ), were measured following chronic exposure, with the aim of identifying the nature of any shared transcriptional response. Principal component analysis indicated full or partial separation of control and exposed samples for each compound but not for the composite set of all control and exposed samples. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis allowed separation of the control and exposed samples for each chemical and also for the composite data set, suggesting a common transcriptional response to exposure. Genes identified as changing in expression level (by the least stringent test for significance) following exposure to two chemicals indicated a substantial number of common genes (> 127). The three compound overlapping gene set, however, comprised only 25 genes. We suggest that the low commonality in transcriptional response may be linked to the chronic concentrations (approximately 10% EC50) and chronic duration (28 days) used. Annotations of the three compound overlapping gene set indicated that genes from pathways most often associated with responses to environmental stress, such as heat shock, phase I and II metabolism, antioxidant defense, and cation balance, were not represented. The strongest annotation signature was for genes important in mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. PMID:18589989

  16. Comparing plasma and X-ray exposure and identifying vulnerable cell parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bill

    2012-10-01

    Here two issues in plasma medicine that are being addressed in a collaboration between the Centre of Plasma Physics and the School of Pharmacy at Queen's University Belfast and the Plasma Institute at York University UK will be discussed. Recent measurements of the interaction of plasmas created directly in DMEM cell medium and MDAMB-231, a human breast cancer cell line, showed evidence of reduced cell viability and of DNA damage. The same set of experiments were undertaken but with X-ray exposure. A correlation of the dependence on plasma exposure time and X-ray dose was observed which might point the way to dose definition in plasma medicine. We have also been working to identify the cell parts most vulnerable to plasma exposure. In this study a 10 kHz atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet, operating in He/0.5%O2 and characterized to determine the behavior of many of the plasma species, was incident onto the surface of media containing either bacterial strains, in their planktonic and biofilm forms, or isolated bacterial plasmid DNA. The results of measurements to look for changes in plasmid structural conformation, rates of single and double strand breaks, the catalytic activity of certain bacterial enzymes, the peroxidation of lipid content of the bacterial cells, the leakage of ATP and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images will be discussed.

  17. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water, and Hibernia mud cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.; Fancey, L.; Andrews, C.; Meade, J.; Power, F.; Veinot, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Science Branch; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Quality Laboratory

    2001-04-01

    The authors studied the short term effects on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods (Calanus finmarchicus), juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) and ctenophores (Pleurobrachius pileus) of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings. In this report, they presented the data collected, including data on the water solubility of Petro-Canada drill mud fluid IA-35 and metal analysis of production water from the Sable Island Offshore Exploration Project. Low acute toxicity potential for drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill cuttings for the species and life stages tested were revealed. The hypothesis to the effect that wastes pose very little or no risk of an acute toxic nature to the marine environment were reinforced by the results from this study. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  18. Comparative MicroRNA Expression Patterns in Fibroblasts after Low and High Doses of Low-LET Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Olivier C.; Xu, Suying; Hada, Megumi; Wu, Honglu; Wang, Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes DNA damage to cells, and provokes a plethora of cellular responses controlled by unique gene-directed signaling pathways. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (22-nucleotide), non-coding RNAs which functionally silence gene expression by either degrading the messages or inhibiting translation. Here we investigate radiation-dependent changes in these negative regulators by comparing the expression patterns of all 462 known human miRNAs in fibroblasts, after exposure to low (0.1 Gy) or high (2 Gy) doses of X-rays at 30 min, 2, 6 and 24 hrs post-treatment. The expression patterns of microRNAs after low and high doses of radiation show a similar qualitative down-regulation trend at early (0.5 hr) and late (24 hr) time points, with a quantitatively steeper slope following the 2 Gy exposures. Interestingly, an interruption of this downward trend is observed after the 2 Gy exposure, i.e. a significant up-regulation of microRNAs at 2 hrs, then reverting to the downward trend by 6 hrs; this interruption at the intermediate time point was not observed with the 0.1 Gy exposure. At the early time point (0.5 hr), candidate gene targets of selected down-regulated microRNAs, common to both 0.1 and 2 Gy exposures, were those functioning in chromatin remodeling. Candidate target genes of unique up-regulated microRNAs seen at a 2 hr intermediate time point, after the 2 Gy exposure only, are those involved in cell death signaling. Finally, putative target genes of down-regulated microRNAs seen at the late (24 hr) time point after either doses of radiation are those involved in the up-regulation of DNA repair, cell signaling and homeostasis. Thus we hypothesize that after radiation exposure, microRNAs acting as hub negative regulators for unique signaling pathways needed to be down-regulated so as to de-repress their target genes for the proper cellular responses, including DNA repair and cell maintenance. The unique microRNAs up-regulated at 2 hr after 2

  19. Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Jürgen Rehm

    2015-01-01

    A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calculated for individual scenarios and population-based scenarios. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations. The benchmark dos...

  20. Fédéralisme et droits des LGBT aux États-Unis et au Canada : analyse comparatives des politiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available L’article examine le militantisme LGBT et les résultats des politiques en matière de droit pénal et du mariage entre personnes de même sexe de 1969 à aujourd’hui, dans le cadre d’une analyse comparée du fédéralisme aux États-Unis et au Canada. Nous soutiendrons que le fédéralisme a grandement façonné les politiques publiques relatives aux droits des LGBT. Dans le régime américain, le potentiel d’expansion du fédéralisme a favorisé les changements graduels de politiques dans les États et, parallèlement, les multiples points de véto créés par le système de séparation des pouvoirs conjugués aux compétences conférés aux États dans d’importants domaines de politiques ont entravé ces changements de politiques. Dans le régime canadien, la centralisation des mécanismes de protection des droits de la personne dans la Charte de même que la dynamique descendante de l’exercice du pouvoir dans le régime parlementaire de type Westminster ont facilité les changements de politiques. Le fédéralisme est souvent perçu comme un obstacle à l’adoption de politiques progressistes. La répartition des pouvoirs entrave l’élaboration de politiques cohérentes et prête le flanc à la prolifération de vétos dont peuvent se prévaloir des groupes influents pour freiner le changement. Les critiques de cette perspective arguent depuis longtemps que, même si le fédéralisme multiplie les points de véto, il présente aussi de nombreuses possibilités d’innovation. Ils font valoir que les groupes ont plus de poids dans les régimes fédéraux puisqu’ils peuvent exercer leur influence à deux paliers de gouvernement plutôt qu’à un. Ainsi, un groupe qui ne réussit pas à se faire entendre à l’un des paliers pourra tenter sa chance au second et pourra même dresser un palier contre l’autre pour atteindre ses objectifs stratégiques.

  1. Measuring Media Exposure to Contradictory Health Information: A Comparative Analysis of Four Potential Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Rebekah H; Hornik, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing concern that the news media present conflicting health information on topics including cancer screening and nutrition, yet little is known about whether people notice such content. This study proposes four potential measures of media exposure to contradictory health information, using nutrition as an example (Measures I-IV). The measures varied on two dimensions: (1) content specificity, or whether specific nutrition topics and health consequences were mentioned in the question scripting, and (2) obtrusiveness, or whether "contradictory or conflicting information" was mentioned. Using data from the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS), we evaluated the performance of each measure against a set of validity criteria including nomological, convergent, and face validity. Overall, measure IV, which was moderately content-specific and obtrusive, performed consistently well and may prove most useful to researchers studying media effects of contradictory health information. Future directions and applications are discussed. PMID:22518202

  2. Tax-deductible provisions for gluten-free diet in Canada compared with systems for gluten-free diet coverage available in various countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sanchez, Maria Ines; Verdu, Elena F; Gordillo, Maria C; Bai, Julio C; Birch, Stephen; Moayyedi, Paul; Bercik, Premysl

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease affects 1% of the North American population, with an estimated 350,000 Canadians diagnosed with this condition. The disease is triggered by the ingestion of gluten, and a lifelong, strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available treatment. Compliance with a strict GFD is essential not only for intestinal mucosal recovery and alleviation of symptoms, but also for the prevention of complications such as anemia, osteoporotic fractures and small bowel lymphoma. However, a GFD is difficult to follow, socially inconvenient and expensive. Different approaches, such as tax reduction, cash transfer, food provision, prescription and subsidy, have been used to reduce the additional costs of the GFD to patients with celiac disease. The current review showed that the systems in place exhibit particular advantages and disadvantages in relation to promoting uptake and compliance with GFD. The tax offset system used in Canada for GFD coverage takes the form of a reimbursement of a cost previously incurred. Hence, the program does not help celiac patients meet the incremental cost of the GFD – it simply provides some future refund of that cost. An ideal balanced approach would involve subsidizing gluten-free products through controlled vouchers or direct food provision to those who most need it, independently of ‘ability or willingness to pay’. Moreover, if the cost of such a program is inhibitive, the value of the benefits could be made taxable to ensure that any patient contribution, in terms of additional taxation, is directly related to ability to pay. The limited coverage of GFD in Canada is concerning. There is an unmet need for GFD among celiac patients in Canada. More efforts are required by the Canadian medical community and the Canadian Celiac Association to act as agents in identifying ways of improving resource allocation in celiac disease. PMID:25803021

  3. Increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) in humans after solar exposure under natural conditions compared to artificial UVB exposure of hands and face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta, Pameli; Bogh, Morten Karsten Bentzen; Olsen, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D studies are often performed under controlled laboratory conditions and the findings may be difficult to translate to natural conditions. We aimed to determine and compare the doses of natural solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) with doses of artificial UVB radiation of hands and face needed...... to increase serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D). Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the natural course of 25(OH)D due to solar exposure from April to September. 46 Caucasian volunteers were included. 17 volunteers received solar UVR (Group 1) in their natural Danish environment. Individual daily...... solar UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SEDs) were determined with personal wristwatch UV-dosimeters. 29 volunteers (Group 2) received artificial UVB doses of 6 SEDs (N = 14) and 3 SEDs (N = 15) on hands and face during late-winter/early-spring when outdoor UVB is negligible. 25(OH)D-levels were...

  4. Comparative responses of river biofilms at the community level to common organic solvent and herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule, A; Roubeix, V; Swerhone, G D W; Roy, J; Lauga, B; Duran, R; Delmas, F; Paul, E; Rols, J L; Lawrence, J R

    2016-03-01

    Residual pesticides applied to crops migrate from agricultural lands to surface and ground waters. River biofilms are the first aquatic non-target organisms which interact with pesticides. Therefore, ecotoxicological experiments were performed at laboratory scale under controlled conditions to investigate the community-level responses of river biofilms to a chloroacetanilide herbicide (alachlor) and organic solvent (methanol) exposure through the development referenced to control. Triplicate rotating annular bioreactors, inoculated with river water, were used to cultivate river biofilms under the influence of 1 and 10 μg L(-1) of alachlor and 25 mg L(-1) of methanol. For this purpose, functional (thymidine incorporation and carbon utilization spectra) and structural responses of microbial communities were assessed after 5 weeks of development. Structural aspects included biomass (chlorophyll a, confocal laser scanning microscopy) and composition (fluor-conjugated lectin binding, molecular fingerprinting, and diatom species composition). The addition of alachlor resulted in a significant reduction of bacterial biomass at 1 μg L(-1), whereas at 10 μg L(-1), it induced a significant reduction of exopolymer lectin binding, algal, bacterial, and cyanobacterial biomass. However, there were no changes in biofilm thickness or thymidine incorporation. No significant difference between the bacterial community structures of control and alachlor-treated biofilms was revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses. However, the methanol-treated bacterial communities appeared different from control and alachlor-treated communities. Moreover, methanol treatment resulted in an increase of bacterial biomass and thymidine incorporation as well. Changes in dominant lectin binding suggested changes in the exopolymeric substances and community composition. Chlorophyll a and cyanobacterial biomass were also altered by methanol. This study suggested

  5. Comparative response of dogs and monkeys to sublethal acute and continuous low dose-rate gamma-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and dogs (beagle) were given thirteen 100-rad gamma-ray doses at 28-day intervals. The comparative response (injury and recovery) of the hematopoietic system of the two species was observed at 7-day intervals during the exposure regime. At 84 days after the thirteenth gamma-ray dose, the 1300-rad conditioned and control dogs and monkeys were challenged continuously with 35 R/day until death to determine the amount of radiation-induced injury remaining in conditioned animals as a reduction in mean survival time. Dogs (50 percent) and monkeys (8 percent) died from injury incurred during the conditioning exposures. Thus, the comparative response of dogs and monkeys to dose protraction by acute dose fractionation was similar to what might be expected from a single acute dose. Mean survival times for nonconditioned dogs and monkeys during continuous exposure at 35 R/day were the same (approximately 1400 h). Thus, hematopoietic response of the two species by this method of dose protraction was not significantly different. Mean survival times of conditioned dogs and monkeys during the continuous 35 R/day gamma-ray challenge exposure were greater than for their control counterparts. Thus, the long-term radiation-induced injury was not measurable by this method. Conditioning doses of more than four times the acute LD50-30 in dogs and approximately two times that of monkeys served only to increase both mean survival time and variance in a gamma-ray stress environment with a dose rate of 35 R/day

  6. Complex and Conflicting Social Norms: Implications for Implementation of Future HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Interventions in Vancouver, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Rod Knight; Will Small; Anna Carson; Jean Shoveller

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV acquisition among seronegative individuals in a variety of risk groups, including men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs. To date, however, it remains unclear how socio-cultural norms (e.g., attitudes towards HIV; social understandings regarding HIV risk practices) may influence the scalability of future PrEP interventions. The objective of this study is to assess how socio-cultura...

  7. Fetal adrenal development: comparing effects of combined exposures to PCB 118 and PCB 153 in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Karin E; Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona; Gutleb, Arno C; Østby, Gunn C; Dahl, Ellen; Berg, Vidar; Skaare, Janneche U; Olsaker, Ingrid; Ropstad, Erik

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to the ubiquitous contaminants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the fetal adrenal cortex and on plasma cortisol using the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) as a model. Pregnant ewes were intendedly subjected to oral treatment with PCB 153 (98 μg/kg bw/day), PCB 118 (49 μg/kg bw/day) or the vehicle corn oil from mating until euthanasia on gestation day 134 (±0.25 SE). However, because of accidental cross-contamination occurring twice causing a mixed exposure scenario in all three groups, the focus of this paper is to compare three distinct groups of fetuses with different adipose tissue PCB levels (PCB 153high, PCB 118high and low, combined groups) rather than comparing animals exposed to single PCB congeners to those of a control group. When comparing endocrine and anatomical parameters from fetuses in the PCB 153high (n = 13) or PCB 118high (n = 14) groups with the low, combined group (n = 14), there was a significant decrease in fetal body weight (P genes encoding enzymes and receptors related to steroid hormone synthesis was also affected and mostly down-regulated in fetuses with high PCB tissue levels. In conclusion, we suggest that mono-and di-ortho PCBs were able to interfere with growth, adrenal development and cortisol production in the fetal sheep model. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013. PMID:21544918

  8. Improving bioaerosol exposure assessments 1 - comparative modelling of 2 emissions from different compost ages and activities.

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, Gillian H; Tamer Vestlund, Asli; Hewings, G.; Jordinson, G. M.; Longhurst, Philip J.; Pollard, Simon J. T.

    2007-01-01

    We present bioaerosol source term concentrations from passive and active composting sources and compare emissions from green waste compost aged 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Results reveal that the age of compost has little effect on the bioaerosol concentrations emitted for passive windrow sources. However emissions from turning compost during the early stages may be higher than during the later stages of the composting process. The bioaerosol emissions from passive sourc...

  9. Western Canada study on animal and human health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to examine whether beef cattle exposed to emissions from oil and gas batteries and other field facility sites are at a greater risk of productivity failure and disease than cattle which are not exposed. The study examined beef cattle productivity; assessment of the immune function in beef cattle; assessment of wildlife reproduction and immune function; and, exposure monitoring. This study focused on the association between flaring and reproductive outcomes in beef herds. The association between herd location in high sulfur deposition areas and increased risk of reproductive failure was also evaluated. The study includes exposure markers for both sweet gas emissions and sour gas sources. Passive air and water pollution monitors measured volatile organic carbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. Water and air pollution monitoring was also conducted for other compounds including sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, particulate matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Final analysis and assessment of the data should be complete by late 2003 with a report available for peer review at the beginning of 2004

  10. Comparative risk assessment of residential radon exposures in two radon-prone areas, Stei (Romania) and Torrelodones (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and radon progeny are present indoors, in houses and others dwellings, representing the most important contribution to dose from natural sources of radiation. Most studies have demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer at high concentration of radon for both smokers and nonsmokers. The work presents a comparative analysis of the radon exposure data in the two radon-prone areas, Stei, Transylvania, (Romania), in the near of old Romanian uranium mines and in the granitic area of Torrelodones town, Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain). Measurements of indoor radon were performed in 280 dwellings (Romania) and 91 dwellings (Spain) by using nuclear track detectors, CR 39. The highest value measured in Stei area was 2650 Bq m-3 and 366 Bq m-3 in the Spanish region. The results are computed with the BEIR VI report estimates using the age-duration model at an exposure rate below 2650 Bq m-3. We used the EC Radon Software to calculate the lifetime lung cancer death risks for individuals groups in function of attained age, radon exposures and tobacco consumption. A total of 233 lung cancer deaths were observed in the Stei area for a period of 13 years (1994-2006), which is 116.82% higher than expected from the national statistics. In addition, the number of deaths estimated for the year 2005 is 28, which is worth more than 2.21 times the amount expected by authorities. In comparison, for Torrelodones was rated a number of 276 deaths caused by lung cancer for a period of 13 years, which is 2.09 times higher than the number expected by authorities. For the year 2005 in the Spanish region were reported 32 deaths caused by pulmonary cancer, the number of deaths exceeding seen again with a factor of 2.10 statistical expectations. This represents a significantly evidence that elevated risk can strongly be associated with cumulated radon exposure.

  11. Comparative toxicogenomic analysis of oral Cr(VI) exposure effects in rat and mouse small intestinal epithelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal tumors in mice but not rats. Concentration-dependent gene expression effects were evaluated in female F344 rat duodenal and jejunal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/L (as sodium dichromate dihydrate, SDD) in drinking water. Whole-genome microarrays identified 3269 and 1815 duodenal, and 4557 and 1534 jejunal differentially expressed genes at 8 and 91 days, respectively, with significant overlaps between the intestinal segments. Functional annotation identified gene expression changes associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, cell death, and immune response that were consistent with reported changes in redox status and histopathology. Comparative analysis with B6C3F1 mouse data from a similarly designed study identified 2790 differentially expressed rat orthologs in the duodenum compared to 5013 mouse orthologs at day 8, and only 1504 rat and 3484 mouse orthologs at day 91. Automated dose–response modeling resulted in similar median EC50s in the rodent duodenal and jejunal mucosae. Comparative examination of differentially expressed genes also identified divergently regulated orthologs. Comparable numbers of differentially expressed genes were observed at equivalent Cr concentrations (μg Cr/g duodenum). However, mice accumulated higher Cr levels than rats at ≥ 170 mg/L SDD, resulting in a ∼ 2-fold increase in the number of differentially expressed genes. These qualitative and quantitative differences in differential gene expression, which correlate with differences in tissue dose, likely contribute to the disparate intestinal tumor outcomes. -- Highlights: ► Cr(VI) elicits dose-dependent changes in gene expression in rat intestine. ► Cr(VI) elicits less differential gene expression in rats compared to mice. ► Cr(VI) gene expression can be phenotypically anchored to intestinal changes. ► Species

  12. Comparative hazard identification by a single dose lung exposure of zinc oxide and silver nanomaterials in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Gosens

    Full Text Available Comparative hazard identification of nanomaterials (NMs can aid in the prioritisation for further toxicity testing. Here, we assessed the acute lung, systemic and liver responses in C57BL/6N mice for three NMs to provide a hazard ranking. A silver (Ag, non-functionalised zinc oxide (ZnO and a triethoxycaprylylsilane functionalised ZnO NM suspended in water with 2% mouse serum were examined 24 hours following a single intratracheal instillation (I.T.. An acute pulmonary inflammation was noted (marked by a polymorphonuclear neutrophil influx with cell damage (LDH and total protein in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF after administration of both non-functionalised and functionalised ZnO. The latter also induced systemic inflammation measured as an increase in blood neutrophils and a decrease in blood lymphocytes. Exposure to Ag NM was not accompanied by pulmonary inflammation or cytotoxicity, or by systemic inflammation. A decrease in glutathione levels was demonstrated in the liver following exposure to high doses of all three nanomaterials irrespective of any noticeable inflammatory or cytotoxic effects in the lung. By applying benchmark dose (BMD modeling statistics to compare potencies of the NMs, we rank functionalised ZnO ranked the highest based on the largest number of affected endpoints, as well as the strongest responses observed after 24 hours. The non-functionalised ZnO NM gave an almost similar response, whereas Ag NM did not cause an acute response at similar doses.

  13. Correlating radiation exposure with embrittlement: Comparative studies of electron- and neutron-irradiated pressure vessel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative experiments using high energy (10 MeV) electrons and test reactor neutrons have been undertaken to understand the role that primary damage state has on hardening (embrittlement) induced by irradiation at 300 C. Electrons produce displacement damage primarily by low energy atomic recoils, while fast neutrons produce displacements from considerably higher energy recoils. Comparison of changes resulting from neutron irradiation, in which nascent point defect clusters can form in dense cascades, with electron irradiation, where cascade formation is minimized, can provide insight into the role that the in-cascade point defect clusters have on the mechanisms of embrittlement. Tensile property changes induced by 10 MeV electrons or test reactor neutron irradiations of unalloyed iron and an Fe-O.9 wt.% Cu-1.0 wt.% Mn alloy were examined in the damage range of 9.0 x 10-5 dpa to 1.5 x 10-2 dpa. The results show the ternary alloy experienced substantially greater embrittlement in both the electron and neutron irradiate samples relative to unalloyed iron. Despite their disparate nature of defect production similar embrittlement trends with increasing radiation damage were observed for electrons and neutrons in both the ternary and unalloyed iron

  14. Correlating radiation exposure with embrittlement: Comparative studies of electron- and neutron-irradiated pressure vessel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D. E.; Rehn, L. E.; Odette, G. R.; Lucas, G. E.; Klingensmith, D.; Gragg, D.

    1999-12-22

    Comparative experiments using high energy (10 MeV) electrons and test reactor neutrons have been undertaken to understand the role that primary damage state has on hardening (embrittlement) induced by irradiation at 300 C. Electrons produce displacement damage primarily by low energy atomic recoils, while fast neutrons produce displacements from considerably higher energy recoils. Comparison of changes resulting from neutron irradiation, in which nascent point defect clusters can form in dense cascades, with electron irradiation, where cascade formation is minimized, can provide insight into the role that the in-cascade point defect clusters have on the mechanisms of embrittlement. Tensile property changes induced by 10 MeV electrons or test reactor neutron irradiations of unalloyed iron and an Fe-O.9 wt.% Cu-1.0 wt.% Mn alloy were examined in the damage range of 9.0 x 10{sup {minus}5} dpa to 1.5 x 10{sup {minus}2} dpa. The results show the ternary alloy experienced substantially greater embrittlement in both the electron and neutron irradiate samples relative to unalloyed iron. Despite their disparate nature of defect production similar embrittlement trends with increasing radiation damage were observed for electrons and neutrons in both the ternary and unalloyed iron.

  15. A comparative evaluation of licensing requirements for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel in the United States, Germany, Canada and the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical activities to support licensing of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities are complex, with policy and regulatory requirements often being influenced by politics. Moreover, the process is often convoluted, with numerous and diverse stake-holders making the licensing activity a difficult exercise in consensus-reaching. The objective of this evaluation is to present alternatives to assist the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) in developing a licensing approach for a planned Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility. Because the RK lacks experience in licensing a facility of this type, there is considerable interest in knowing more about the approval process in other countries so that an effective, non-redundant method of licensing can be established. This evaluation is limited to a comparison of approaches from the United States, Germany, Russia, and Canada. For each country considered, the following areas were addressed: siting; fuel handling and cask loading; dry fuel storage; and transportation of spent fuel. The regulatory requirements for each phase of the process are presented, and a licensing approach that would best serve the RK is recommended. (authors)

  16. USEtox human exposure and toxicity factors for comparative assessment of toxic emissions in life cycle analysis: sensitivity to key chemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark; Henderson, Andrew D.;

    2011-01-01

    USEtoxTM, primarily by extrapolating from an oral route to exposure in air (and optionally acute-to-chronic). Some exposure pathways (e.g. indoor inhalation, pesticide residues, dermal exposure) will be included in a later stage. USEtoxTM is applicable in various comparative toxicity impact assessments...... pathway considered (i.e. inhalation through air, ingestion through i) drinking water, ii) agricultural produce, iii) meat and milk, and iv) fish). The calculation of human health effect factors for cancer and non-cancer effects via ingestion and inhalation exposure respectively is described. This section...

  17. Gamma-ray double-layered transmission exposure buildup factors of some engineering materials, a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kulwinder Singh; Heer, Manmohan Singh; Rani, Asha

    2016-08-01

    Comparative study on various deterministic methods and formulae of double layered transmission exposure buildup factors (DLEBF) for point isotropic gamma-ray sources has been performed and the results are provided here. This investigation has been performed on some commonly available engineering materials for the purpose of gamma-ray shielding. In reality, the presence of air around the gamma-ray shield motivated to focus this study on exposure buildup factor (EBF). DLEBF have been computed at four energies viz. 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 MeV for various combinations of the chosen five samples taken two at a time with combined optical thickness up to 8 mean free path (mfp). For the necessary computations for DLEBF, a computer program (BUF-toolkit) has been designed. Comparison of Monte Carlo (EGS4-code) and Geometric Progression (G.P.) fitting point kernel methods were done for DLEBF computation. It is concluded that empirical formula given by Lin and Jiang using EBF computed by G.P. fitting formula is the most accurate and easiest method for DLEBF computations. It was observed that DLEBF values at selected energies for two layered slabs with an orientation (low-Z material followed by high-Z material) were lower than the opposite orientation. For optical thickness up to 8 mfp and chosen energy range (0.5-3.0 MeV), Aluminum-Lime Stone shield, appears to provide the best protection against the gamma-rays.

  18. Ultraviolet spectral distribution and erythema-weighted irradiance from indoor tanning devices compared with solar radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Yolanda; Baeza, David; Gómez, Miguel; Lorente, Jerónimo

    2016-08-01

    Concern regarding the impact of indoor tanning devices on human health has led to different regulations and recommendations, which set limits on erythema-weighted irradiance. Here, we analyze spectral emissions from 52 tanning devices in Spanish facilities and compare them with surface solar irradiance for different solar zenith angles. Whereas most of the devices emitted less UV-B radiation than the midday summer sun, the unweighted UV-A irradiance was 2-6 times higher than solar radiation. Moreover, the spectral distributions of indoor devices were completely different from that of solar radiation, differing in one order of magnitude at some UV-A wavelengths, depending on the lamp characteristics. In 21% of the devices tested, the erythema-weighted irradiance exceeded 0.3Wm(-2): the limit fixed by the European standard and the Spanish regulation. Moreover, 29% of the devices fall within the UV type 4 classification, for which medical advice is required. The high variability in erythema-weighted irradiance results in a wide range of exposure times to reach 1 standard erythemal dose (SED: 100Jm(-2)), with 62% of devices requiring exposures of solar UV-A dose. PMID:27318601

  19. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. During 1986 the program was strongly influenced by radioactive fallout on Canada resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986 in the Soviet Ukraine. The Environmental Radiation Hazards Division (ERHD) increased its frequency of analyses of environmental samples immediately following the accident. Interim screening limits for foodstuffs were developed. A measurement program for radioactivity in domestic and imported foods was implemented. The ERHD measurement program was supplemented by additional measurements conducted by many other private and government laboratories. Radiation doses to Canadian from Chernobyl fallout were extremely low with no group in the population receiving more than 10 microsieverts

  20. Comparative study of the effects of occupational exposure to infrasound and low frequency noise with those of audible noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pawlas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study aimed to compare effects of occupational exposure to low frequency noise (LFN in comparison with those of audible noise (AN. Material and methods. Three groups of 307 workers (I – exposed to LFN, II – exposed to audible noise – AN, and III- controls were examined. Results. Blood pressure and other biochemical parameters were worse in the group exposed. All parameters of hearing were worse in the AN group in comparison with LFN one in whole range of frequency. The same trends were found in posturography. Conclusions. The results of the study showed that audible noise is more hazardous than LFN. The results did not support thesis on vibroacoustic disease.

  1. Comparative measurements of external radiation exposure using mobile phones, dental ceramic, household salt and conventional personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because retrospective dosimetry utilises commonly occurring materials and objects, it is particularly useful in cases of large-scale radiation accidents or malevolent acts with radioactive materials where casualties are inflicted on the general public and first emergency responders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether retrospective dosemeters can provide dose estimates with comparable accuracy like conventional personal dosemeters. Using an external source of radiation 137Cs and an anthropomorphic phantom, we simulated serious irradiation of a human body in anterior-posterior and rotational geometries. Retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects, such as mobile phones, dental ceramic and household salt, and conventional personal dosemeters (thermoluminescent and electronic) were fixed to the anthropomorphic phantom. The doses obtained were compared with specific reference values. In most cases, relative deviations between the measured doses and the reference values did not exceed 20%. As the retrospective and conventional dosemeters show no significant differences in laboratory conditions, the retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects represent a very promising tool if handled properly. - Highlights: • A serious external exposure of human body was simulated. • Doses were measured using both retrospective and conventional dosemeters. • Utilised retrospective dosimetry materials were alumina resistors from mobile phones, household salt and dental ceramic. • Doses obtained were compared with reference values. • Both retrospective and conventional dosemeters gave similar results

  2. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  3. Comparative assessments of the effects of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development using optical coherence tomography and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    The developing fetal brain is vulnerable to a variety of environmental agents including maternal ethanol consumption. Preclinical studies on the development and amelioration of fetal teratology would be significantly facilitated by the application of high resolution imaging technologies like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (US). This study investigates the ability of these imaging technologies to measure the effects of maternal ethanol exposure on brain development, ex vivo, in fetal mice. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were administered ethanol (3 g/Kg b.wt.) or water by intragastric gavage, twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and imaged. Three-dimensional images of the mice fetus brains were obtained by OCT and high-resolution US, and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. Ethanol-exposed fetuses exhibited a statistically significant, 2-fold increase in average left and right ventricular volumes compared with the ventricular volume of control fetuses, with OCT-derived measures of 0.38 and 0.18 mm3, respectively, whereas the boundaries of the fetal mouse lateral ventricles were not clearly definable with US imaging. Our results indicate that OCT is a useful technology for assessing ventriculomegaly accompanying alcohol-induced developmental delay. This study clearly demonstrated advantages of using OCT for quantitative assessment of embryonic development compared with US imaging.

  4. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  5. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  6. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and asessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1980 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format is used with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  7. Gambling households in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  8. Risperidone long-acting injection in Schizophrenia Spectrum Illnesses compared to first generation depot antipsychotics in an outpatient setting in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lammers, Laura; Zehm, Bree; Williams, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background Depot formulations of antipsychotics provide a potential solution to the poor adherence to oral therapies in schizophrenia. However, there have been few comparative studies on the effectiveness and tolerability of first and second generation depot antipsychotics in a real clinical practice setting. The objectives of the present study were to compare safety and outcomes in patients with schizophrenia initiated on risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) or first generation antipsych...

  9. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  10. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    The issue of productivity growth in Canada has received considerable attention reflecting its marked slowdown since the early 1970s and concerns about its implications for Canadian competitiveness. To better understand productivity developments in Canada, it is useful to decompose total factor productivity (TFP) into investment-specific productivity change (ISP) and technologically neutral productivity change (TNP). The gap in manufacturing productivity growth between Canada and the United St...

  11. Comparative analyses of built environment exposures relevant to health of greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategies in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Sandra P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents comparative analysis of residential indoor air pollutant concentration change over future specified time horizon, implementing building physical and thermal retrofit measures, thus creating pollution mitigation scenarios for existing Belgrade and Nis housing stock followed by greenhouse gas emission reduction scenarios up to 2050. Regarding specified mitigation scenarios, the set of typical housing unit models has been generated which define existing housing stock of Belgrade and Nis. Extensive monitoring of physical and thermal parameters as well as detailed socio-technical survey of selected households was performed and used as an initial modeling input. Relationship between environment pollution and building performances was investigated, with respect to indooroutdoor sources of pollution, thermal and physical properties of the stock samples and occupant’s behavior. As a final output, indoor pollutant concentrations for each of the modelled cases was obtained and validated against the available data. This housing modelling framework has been created in order to develop an assessment of present and future exposure and health impact quantity regarding single/multiple scenario interventions introduced to the housing stock. This paper provides each strategy guidelines for taking measures towards achieving the healthier indoor environments. [FP7-ENV-2010: PURGE-Public health impacts in urban environments of greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategies, Project number: 265325, financed by the European Commission

  12. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotube variants: a comparative in vitro exposure study with A549 epithelial and J774 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarathasan, Prem; Breznan, Dalibor; Das, Dharani; Salam, Mohamed A; Siddiqui, Yunus; MacKinnon-Roy, Christine; Guan, Jingwen; de Silva, Nimal; Simard, Benoit; Vincent, Renaud

    2015-03-01

    While production of engineered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has escalated in recent years, knowledge of risk associated with exposure to these materials remains unclear. We report on the cytotoxicity of four CNT variants in human lung epithelial cells (A549) and murine macrophages (J774). Morphology, metal content, aggregation/agglomeration state, pore volume, surface area and modifications were determined for the pristine and oxidized single-walled (SW) and multi-walled (MW) CNTs. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by cellular ATP content, BrdU incorporation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and CellTiter-Blue (CTB) reduction assays. All CNTs were more cytotoxic than respirable TiO2 and SiO2 reference particles. Oxidation of CNTs removed most metallic impurities but introduced surface polar functionalities. Although slopes of fold changes for cytotoxicity endpoints were steeper with J774 compared to A549 cells, CNT cytotoxicity ranking in both cell types was assay-dependent. Based on CTB reduction and BrdU incorporation, the cytotoxicity of the polar oxidized CNTs was higher compared to the pristine CNTs. In contrast, pristine CNTs were more cytotoxic than oxidized CNTs when assessed for cellular ATP and LDH. Correlation analyses between CNTs' physico-chemical properties and average relative potency revealed the impact of metal content and surface area on the potency values estimated using ATP and LDH assays, while surface polarity affected the potency values estimated from CTB and BrdU assays. We show that in order to reliably estimate the risk posed by these materials, in vitro toxicity assessment of CNTs should be conducted with well characterized materials, in multiple cellular models using several cytotoxicity assays that report on distinct cellular processes. PMID:24713075

  13. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.)

  14. Cost-utility of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) compared with corticosteroids for the treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell Kaitryn; Xie Feng; Gaebel Kathryn; Blackhouse Gord; Assasi Nazila; Tarride Jean-Eric; O'Reilly Daria; Chalk Colin; Levine Mitchell; Goeree Ron

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has demonstrated improvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) patients in placebo controlled trials. However, IVIG is also much more expensive than alternative treatments such as corticosteroids. The objective of the paper is to evaluate, from a Canadian perspective, the cost-effectiveness of IVIG compared to corticosteroid treatment of CIDP. Methods A markov model was used to evaluate the costs and QALYs for IVI...

  15. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. PMID:23628429

  16. Comparative sensitivity of juvenile and adult Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae) under chronic exposure to cadmium and tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Katharina; Geiß, Cornelia; Ostermann, Sina; Theis, Christina; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2016-07-28

    To investigate a potential extension of a partial life cycle test protocol to a full life cycle test design, a comparative sensitivity analysis with juvenile and adult Potamopyrgus antipodarum was performed. Neonates and adult snails were exposed to the metal cadmium (Cd) and the endocrine disruptor tributyltin (TBT) at nominal concentrations ranging from 1.56 to 50 μg Cd/L and from 25 to 1,000 ng TBT-Sn/L. The experiments were performed over 28 days at 16°C in a semi-static test design. Mortality was assessed for both life stages. Juvenile snails' specific growth rate and reproduction of adults were investigated as main endpoints. We determined effects on snails' survival, juvenile growth and embryo numbers in the brood pouch of adult snails under exposure to both chemicals. Juvenile control mortality was between 25% and 30% and significantly higher than in the control groups with adult snails. A higher sensitivity of juvenile snails compared to adults was observed for the endpoint mortality. Calculated LC50 in Cd exposed snails was 38.2 μg/L for adults and 15.0 μg/L for juvenile snails. Significant effects on mortality in TBT exposed adult snails occurred at the highest test concentration only with a LC50 of 535 ng Sn/L. Juvenile survival was significantly affected at 50.8 ng Sn/L and higher concentrations. Effect concentrations for the main endpoints reproduction and juvenile growth show comparable sensitivities. For Cd exposed groups, EC50 values were 11.3 μg/L for the endpoint reproduction in adult snails and 3.82 μg/L for juvenile growth with overlapping confidence intervals. TBT also significantly affected juvenile snails' growth (EC50: 178 ng Sn /L). EC50 for embryo numbers was 125 ng TBT-Sn/L. Results indicate the manageability of a FLC test starting with newly hatched snails. Precautions have to be taken to guarantee a sufficient number of surviving snails until adulthood so that reproduction can be assessed. For final decision for the

  17. Comparative Assessment of Soil Contamination by Lead and Heavy Metals in Riparian and Agricultural Areas (Southern Québec, Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Baril; Julien St-Laurent; Marlies Hähni; Diane Saint-Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50), PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots) have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout) and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 m...

  18. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  19. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  20. Cost-utility of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG compared with corticosteroids for the treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Kaitryn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG has demonstrated improvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP patients in placebo controlled trials. However, IVIG is also much more expensive than alternative treatments such as corticosteroids. The objective of the paper is to evaluate, from a Canadian perspective, the cost-effectiveness of IVIG compared to corticosteroid treatment of CIDP. Methods A markov model was used to evaluate the costs and QALYs for IVIG and corticosteroids over 5 years of treatment for CIDP. Patients initially responding to IVIG could remain a responder or relapse every 12 week model cycle. Non-responding IVIG patients were assumed to be switched to corticosteroids. Patients on corticosteroids were at risk of a number of adverse events (fracture, diabetes, glaucoma, cataract, serious infection in each cycle. Results Over the 5 year time horizon, the model estimated the incremental costs and QALYs of IVIG treatment compared to corticosteroid treatment to be $124,065 and 0.177 respectively. The incremental cost per QALY gained of IVIG was estimated to be $687,287. The cost per QALY of IVIG was sensitive to the assumptions regarding frequency and dosing of maintenance IVIG. Conclusions Based on common willingness to pay thresholds, IVIG would not be perceived as a cost effective treatment for CIDP.

  1. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  2. Adult acclimation to combined temperature and pH stressors significantly enhances reproductive outcomes compared to short-term exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Coleen C; Clark, Melody S; Richard, Joelle; Morley, Simon A; Thorne, Michael A S; Harper, Elizabeth M; Peck, Lloyd S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of long-term culture under altered conditions on the Antarctic sea urchin, Sterechinus neumayeri. Sterechinus neumayeri was cultured under the combined environmental stressors of lowered pH (-0.3 and -0.5 pH units) and increased temperature (+2 °C) for 2 years. This time-scale covered two full reproductive cycles in this species and analyses included studies on both adult metabolism and larval development. Adults took at least 6-8 months to acclimate to the altered conditions, but beyond this, there was no detectable effect of temperature or pH. Animals were spawned after 6 and 17 months exposure to altered conditions, with markedly different outcomes. At 6 months, the percentage hatching and larval survival rates were greatest in the animals kept at 0 °C under current pH conditions, whilst those under lowered pH and +2 °C performed significantly less well. After 17 months, performance was not significantly different across treatments, including controls. However, under the altered conditions urchins produced larger eggs compared with control animals. These data show that under long-term culture adult S. neumayeri appear to acclimate their metabolic and reproductive physiology to the combined stressors of altered pH and increased temperature, with relatively little measureable effect. They also emphasize the importance of long-term studies in evaluating effects of altered pH, particularly in slow developing marine species with long gonad maturation times, as the effects of altered conditions cannot be accurately evaluated unless gonads have fully matured under the new conditions. PMID:25491898

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION EXPOSURE IN TRAIN AND CAR PASSENGERS: A CASE STUDY IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Rahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trains and cars are the most important modes of transportation throughout the world. In highly developed countries, trains have become essential for human use as the most well-known form of public transportation, whereas the car plays a significant role in prompt human travel from one place to another. The high magnitude of vibration caused by trains and cars may cause health problems in humans, especially low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the values of daily exposure to vibration A(8 and the vibration dose value (VDV in passengers travelling by train and car and to assess the effects produced by this exposure on the human body. Moreover, this study introduces a newly developed whole-body vibration measurement instrumentation system. One train travelling from the east coast to the south of Malaysia was chosen to conduct the study. Whole-body vibration exposure was measured over 8 hours, which is equal to the duration of normal occupational exposure. One car was chosen randomly and whole-body vibration exposure was measured for 5 min and 10 min. All the data were computed using an IEPE(ICPTM accelerometer sensor connected to a DT9837 device which is capable of effectively measuring and analysing vibration. The vibration results were displayed on a personal computer using a custom graphical user interface (GUI. Matlab software was used to interpret the data. From the results, the whole-body vibration exposure level could be determined. It can be concluded that the whole-body vibration absorbed by the human body is enhanced when the magnitude of the vibration exposure experienced by the passengers increased. This was shown by the increased values of daily exposure to vibration A(8 and VDV calculated in the study.

  4. Smoking patterns in waterpipe smokers compared with cigarette smokers: an exploratory study of puffing dynamics and smoke exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Pulcu, Erdem; McNeill, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Aim: It is estimated that globally there are about 100 million people who smoke waterpipes daily yet exposure resulting from smoking waterpipes is under-researched relative to cigarette smoking. This exploratory study assesses smoke exposure and puffing profiles among waterpipe smokers in comparison with cigarette smokers in Turkey, where there is a concern that waterpipe smoking prevalence is increasing. Method: A convenience sample of waterpipe (n=20) and cigarette smokers (n=110) was recru...

  5. Comparing the effectiveness of copper intrauterine devices available in Canada. Is FlexiT non-inferior to NovaT when inserted immediately after first-trimester abortion? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Wendy V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the rationale and protocol for a randomized noninferiority controlled trial (RCT to determine if the Flexi-T380(+ copper intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD is comparable in terms of effectiveness and expulsion rates to the most common Canadian IUD currently in use, NovaT-200, when placed immediately after a first-trimester abortion. Methods/Design Consenting women choosing to use an IUD after an abortion for a pregnancy of less than 12 weeks of gestation will be randomized to device-type groups to receive immediate post-abortion placement of either a Flexi-T380(+ IUD, a device for which no current evidence on expulsion or effectiveness rates is available, or the Nova-T200 IUD, the only other brand of copper IUD available in Canada at the time of study initiation. The primary outcome measure is IUD expulsion rate at 1 year. Secondary outcomes include: pregnancy rate, method continuation rate, complication rates (infection, perforation, and satisfaction with contraceptive method. A non-intervention group of consenting women choosing a range of other post-abortion contraception methods, including no contraception, will be included for comparison of secondary outcomes. Web-based contraception satisfaction questionnaires, clinical records, and government-linked health administrative databases will be used to assess primary and secondary outcomes. Discussion The RCT design, combined with access to clinical records at all provincial abortion clinics, and to information in provincial single-payer linked administrative health databases, birth registry, and hospital records, offers a unique opportunity to determine if a novel IUD has a comparable expulsion rate to that of the current standard IUD in Canada, in addition to the first opportunity to determine pregnancy rate and method satisfaction at 1 year post-abortion for women choosing a range of post-abortion contraceptive options. We highlight considerations of

  6. Comparative Assessment of Soil Contamination by Lead and Heavy Metals in Riparian and Agricultural Areas (Southern Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Baril

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50, PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg−1 (As, 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg−1 (Cd 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg−1 (Pb. These metallic elements are considered highly toxic and can harm wildlife and human health at high levels. The maximum concentration of Pb (149.13 mg kg−1 in soils of the riparian zone is twelve times higher than the average Pb concentration found in a natural state evaluated at 15.3 mg kg−1 (SD 17.5. Pb concentrations in soils of agricultural areas (woodland control sites range between 12 and 22 mg kg−1, and given that these values are recorded in surrounding cultivated land, the issue of the quality of agricultural products (crops and forage to feed livestock or destined for human consumption must be further addressed in detail.

  7. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  8. Two Related Occupational Cases of Legionella longbeachae Infection, Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Masson, Marianne; Lajoie, Élisabeth; Lord, Judith; Lalancette, Cindy; Marchand, Geneviève; Levac, Éric; Lemieux, Marc-André; Hudson, Patricia; Lajoie, Louise

    2016-07-01

    Two patients with no exposure to gardening compost had related Legionella longbeachae infections in Quebec, Canada. Epidemiologic investigation and laboratory results from patient and soil samples identified the patients' workplace, a metal recycling plant, as the likely source of infection, indicating a need to suspect occupational exposure for L. longbeachae infections. PMID:27314946

  9. Comparing South African occupational exposure limits for pesticides, metals, dusts and fibres with those of developed countries / Jason Peter Viljoen

    OpenAIRE

    Viljoen, Jason Peter

    2014-01-01

    The ever-changing industrial processes which are becoming more globalised as well as the merging of markets in different economies, led to an increased focus on the health and safety of workers in the industries and the mining sector over the past decades. Occupational exposure limits (OELs) have been used for more than half a century as a risk management tool for the prevention of work-related illnesses which may arise from the exposure to a wide variety of hazardous chemical substances in t...

  10. Canada's Neutron Beam Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the current and planned activities of Canada's Neutron Beam Laboratory which is managed by the National Research Council of Canada. In 1994, Professor Bertram Brockhouse shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for his pioneering work carried out in this laboratory. He developed neutron scattering as a powerful and versatile tool for investigating materials at the level of molecules and nano structures. The neutron source for this work is Canada's NRU reactor located at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. This neutron source is also used for the production of medical isotopes, testing of components for the nuclear power stations and neutron scattering experiments on materials

  11. Physics Teaching in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Ernie; Hirsch, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of physics teaching in Canada. Responds to questions involving the curriculum, efforts to promote gender equity, teaching methods, high school physics teachers, physics teaching organizations, and educational trends. (27 references) (MDH)

  12. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  13. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  14. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper reviews the factors that may explain high and persistent unemployment in Canada, with particular emphasis on the role that a decline in the relative cost of capital may have had on trend unemployment. The analysis suggests that in Canada a declining trend in the cost of capital, associated with technological changes and innovations, has been an important factor in explaining the rise and persistence of unemployment. The paper also analyzes recent trends in personal ...

  15. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  16. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1973-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. This report summarizes the results obtained during 1973-1976 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides. During this period, all radioactivity levels were below the maximum permissible limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (Auth)

  17. Socioeconomic inequality in exposure to bullying during adolescence: a comparative, cross-sectional, multilevel study in 35 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Merlo, Juan; Harel-Fisch, Yossi;

    2009-01-01

    of 5998 schools in 35 countries in Europe and North America for the 2001-2002 school year. The survey used standardized measures of exposure to bullying and socioeconomic affluence. RESULTS: Adolescents from families of low affluence reported higher prevalence of being victims of bullying (odds ratio...... [OR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10, 1.16). International differences in prevalence of exposure to bullying were not associated with the economic level of the country (as measured by gross national income) or the school, but wide disparities in affluence at a school and large economic...... victimization. Adolescents who attend schools and live in countries where socioeconomic differences are larger are at higher risk of being bullied....

  18. TransCanada PipeLines Limited 1998 annual report : TransCanada energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from TransCanada PipeLines Limited and a review of the company's 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. TransCanada's pipeline system transports natural gas and crude oil from Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to North America's major energy markets. Net earnings from continuing operations for 1998, before unusual charges, were $575 million ($ 355 million after unusual charges) compared to $522 million for 1997. Solid performances from the energy transmission and international business, when compared to 1997, were more than offset by a decreased contribution from energy processing. TransCanada recorded integration costs of $166 million, after tax, related to the merger with NOVA in 1998, which was the major operational accomplishment during the year, creating a seamless economic energy delivery, processing and marketing system from the wellhead to the market. tabs., figs

  19. Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

  20. Incidence of exposure in PET/CT compared to the total dose taken by the nuclear medicine technical staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: the 511-keV photons originated by the annihilation event have a penetration capacity 10-fold greater than the 140 keV gamma rays emitted by 99mTc. The resulting increased radiation risk for technical staff is sometimes underestimated. The results of a prior pilot investigation had shown that, in our center, radiation exposure for technologists working with PET/CT before installation of the automatic injector was higher than for those working with conventional Nuclear Medicine, and was directly related to the number of scans performed. In this work we measured the actual radiation exposure for the technical staff employed for PET/CT and for conventional Nuclear Medicine, respectively, considering that for PET/CT we minimized radiation exposure by using an automatic injector. Methods: to measure the actual percentage of whole-body and extremities exposures (normally measured every 4 months with chest and wrist film dosimeters, respectively), throughout 2012 each technologist was equipped with two dosimeters, one of which was used only during the PET/CT sessions. Over that period each technologist performed about 500 conventional Nuclear Medicine scans (using mostly 99mTc, but also 131I, 123I and 111In) and about 250 PET/CT scans (almost exclusively with [18F]FDG). Results: the range of exposures in 2012 turned out to be 0.5±0.3 mSv (range 0.23-1.04) for the chest dosimeter used in PET/CT, while it was 0.6±0.3 (range 0.21-1.24) for conventional Nuclear Medicine. Regarding the extremities, the dosimeter used only for PET/CT recorded 1.4±0.8 mSv (range 0.69-3.02), while they recorded 5.7±4.17 mSv (range 1.0-13.84) for conventional Nuclear Medicine. Conclusion: these results demonstrate that similar whole-body exposures are reached with about half the PET/CT scans versus the conventional Nuclear Medicine scans (0.5 mSv versus 0.6 mSv deriving from 250 versus 500 scans, respectively). The additional exposure from PET/CT activity

  1. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les

    2000-01-01

    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth in...... Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  2. A study on the health of the employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) Employee Health Study commenced in 1980 July following the issue of a Company-Wide General Notice of 1980 April by the President of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mr. James Donnelly. The study was set up to determine the causes of death of the AECL study population as compared to a similar group in the general population and to determine if there is a relationship between cause of death and occupational exposure to ionising radiation. Previous AECL reports have outlined how the study has been set up and implemented. The purpose of this report is to describe the reasons for and the methods of upgrading the data base for the AECL Employee Health Study. Some description of procedures used during the first linkage and recommendations for future linkages are included

  3. Controlando a atividade policial: uma análise comparada dos códigos de conduta no Brasil e Canadá Monitoring police activity: a comparative analysis of codes of ethics in Brazil and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Trindade

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto discutimos os códigos de deontologia policial em uso em duas instituições policiais: a Polícia Militar do Distrito Federal (Brasil e o Ottawa Police Service (Canadá. Inicialmente, analisamos e comparamos os conteúdos destes documentos. A seguir, verificamos como cada uma destas duas instituições policiais articula seus sistemas de treinamento e avaliação com seus respectivos códigos de deontologia. Por fim, concluímos que a simples existência de códigos de deontologia, sem normas administrativas, não assegura o controle adequado das atividades policiais. Também constatamos a necessidade de assimilação destes códigos e nor-mas administrativas pelos sistemas de treinamento e avaliação das polícias.In this paper we discuss police deontology and codes of ethics used in two police institutions: the Military Police of the Federal District (Brazil and the Ottawa Police Service (Canada. First, we analyse and compare contents of these documents. Following, we examine how each of those police institutions coordinates its training and evaluation systems with its own deontological code. Finally, we find that the existence of deontolgy codes in itself, without administrative regulation, does not guarantee the appropriate control of police activities. Furthermore, we identified a need for assimilation of such codes and administrative regulations by the police training and evaluation systems.

  4. Comparative Assessment of the Whole-Body Vibration Exposure Under Different Car Speed Based on Malaysian Road Profile

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Bakar; N.F. Kamaruddin; M.Z. Nuawi; A.R. Ismail

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and validate the Daily Exposure to Vibration A(8) and Vibration Dose Value (VDV) experienced by the car driver, with care taken to elucidate the effects of WBV on the human body and all at once to introduce a newly developed real-time WBV measurement instrumentation. Cars are one of the most important transportation worldwide. It plays a significant role for the human to travel from one place to the other places promptly. However, high magnitude Whole...

  5. Comparing the Efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy with Prolonged Exposure Therapy on the Trauma impact symptoms in Veterans Suffering from Chronic PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    A Maredpour; F. Naderi; M Mehrabizadeh-Honarmand

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim: Post-traumatic stress disorder is considered as set of symptoms developed afterward an individual witness, hear or involved. The current research was purposed to compare the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy with prolonged exposure therapy on the trauma impact symptoms in veterans suffering from chronic PTSD. Methods: in this clinical trail research randomly sampled 48 veterans diagnosed with PTSD who had psychiatric rec...

  6. The effects of pre- and postnatal depression in fathers: a natural experiment comparing the effects of exposure to depression on offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Evans, Jonathan; Heron, Jon; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Depression in fathers in the postnatal period is associated with an increased risk of behavioural problems in their offspring, particularly for boys. The aim of this study was to examine for differential effects of depression in fathers on children's subsequent psychological functioning via a natural experiment comparing prenatal and postnatal exposure. Methods: In a longitudinal population cohort study (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)) we examined the...

  7. Prenatal exposure to sodium phenytoin in rats induces complex maze learning deficits comparable to those induced by exposure to phenytoin acid at half the dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhees, C V; Acuff-Smith, K D; Schilling, M A; Moran, M S

    1995-01-01

    Gravid Sprague-Dawley CD (VAF) rats were administered sodium phenytoin suspended in corn oil by gavage once per day on embryonic days 7-18 at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Controls were administered corn oil alone by gavage on E7-18. Litters were randomly culled to 10. Offspring were regularly weighted, mortality noted, and males checked for preputial separation. At approximately 50 days of age offspring were evaluated in a straight water-filled channel for swimming proficiency and motivation to escape. Following this, rats were tested in the Cincinnati multiple T-water maze and scored for errors, latency to find the goal, and presence of phenytoin-induced abnormal circling behavior while swimming. Sodium phenytoin-exposed dams gained weight normally and delivered normally. Offspring mortality in the sodium phenytoin group was not increased above controls. No treatment effects on preputial separation or offspring growth were observed. No differences between groups in swimming proficiency in straight channel performance were obtained. In the Cincinnati maze, phenytoin offspring committed significantly more errors and had longer latencies to find the goal than controls. Among the phenytoin offspring, those exhibiting abnormal circling committed more errors than noncircling animals. When compared to previous data using the same maze and test protocol, it was found that 100 mg/kg of sodium phenytoin induced performance deficits similar to those induced by a dose of 200 mg/kg of phenytoin acid. Accordingly, the present data help explain why other investigators have reported sodium phenytoin to be more developmentally neurotoxic than phenytoin acid. Because the prenatal neurotoxic effects seen with the salt of phenytoin occur at lower doses, it suggests that phenytoin is more developmentally neurotoxic than previously believed. PMID:8747744

  8. Comparative Study on Radiological Impact Due To Direct Exposure to a Radiological Dispersal Device Using A Sealed Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, one of the most serious terrorist threats implies radiological dispersal devices (RDDs), the so-called dirty bombs, that combine a conventional explosive surrounded by an inflammatory material (like thermit) with radioactive material. The paper objective is to evaluate the radiological impact due to direct exposure to a RDD using a sealed radiation source (used for medical and industrial applications) as radioactive material. The simulations were performed for 60Co, 137Cs and 192Ir radiation sources. In order to model the contamination potential level and radiation exposure due to radioactive material spreading from RDD, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's HOTSPOT 2.07 computer code was used. The worst case scenario has been considered, calculations being performed for two radioactive material dispersion models, namely General radioactive Plume and General Explosion. Following parameters evolution with distance from the radiation source was investigated: total effective dose equivalent, time-integrated air concentration, ground surface deposition and ground shine dose rates. Comparisons between considered radiation sources and radioactive material dispersion models have been performed. The most drastic effects on population and the environment characterize 60Co sealed radiation source use in RDD.

  9. Comparative study of temperature measurements in ex vivo swine muscle and a tissue-mimicking material during high intensity focused ultrasound exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) can provide a convenient, stable, and reproducible means for testing high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) devices. When TMMs containing thermal sensors are used to measure ultrasound-induced temperature rise, it is important that measurement results reasonably represent those that occur in biological tissue. Therefore the aim of this paper is to compare the thermal behavior of the TMM under HIFU exposure to that of ex vivo tissue. This was accomplished using both a previously developed TMM and fresh ex vivo swine muscle that were instrumented with bare 50 µm thin wire thermocouples. HIFU at 825 kHz was focused at the thermocouple junction. 30 s exposures of increasing peak negative pressure (1 to 5 MPa) were applied and the temperature profile during and after sonication was recorded. B-mode imaging was used to monitor bubble activity during sonication. If bubble formation was noted during the sonication, the sonication was repeated at the same pressure levels two more times at 20 min intervals. Temperature traces obtained at various pressure levels demonstrated similar types of heating profiles in both the tissue and TMM, the exact nature of which depended on whether bubbles formed during the HIFU exposure. The onset of bubble activity occurred at lower ultrasonic pressures in the TMM, but the basic temperature rise features due to HIFU exposure were essentially the same for both materials. (paper)

  10. Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungroul Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure in Baltimore (Maryland, USA. A subset of the study participants (n = 52 were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.

  11. Etude comparative des conditions environnementales potentiellement limitantes dans l'etablissement d'une espece aquatique envahissante Clona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) dans deux systemes de bassins versants a l'ile-du Prince-Edouard, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, Janelle

    Aquatic invasive species are a growing global problem. Since the late 1990s, the province of Prince Edward Island (PEI), located on the east coast of Canada, has seen the introduction and the establishment of several species of tunicate. Shortly after their introduction into new aquatic systems such as the Brudenell and Montague rivers, tunicate population exploded to extremely high levels which have had significant impacts on native species populations, the fisheries and aquaculture industries and on the economy of local communities. Brudenell and Montague rivers are located southeast of the province. Comparatively, the aquatic system of Orwell Bay, which is also located in this area, is an exception to the successful establishment of tunicates, despite several successive unintentional introductions. The objective of this research is to identify and understand the main key factors that could potentially limit the establishment of a tunicate species in PEI. This study is based on a comparative approach between the two aquatic systems previously mentioned. The results of this research shows that the Orwell Bay system is characterized by a slightly higher percentage of terrestrial areas with potential soil loss, a shorter water renewal time, a shallower aquatic area, a higher turbidity level, a slightly lower salinity and a slightly higher temperature than the Brudenell and Montague rivers system. One of the environmental variables that showed a significant difference between the two systems in the analysis is turbidity. This study also examines the relationship between different turbidity levels, in terms of suspended inorganic matter, and its potential role in the establishment of the invasive tunicate C. intestinalis. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of suspended inorganic matter on primary stages of this species of tunicate. The results show a significant negative effect at higher suspended inorganic matter levels on fertilization

  12. A possible trend suggesting increased abuse from Coricidin exposures reported to the Texas Poison Network: comparing 1998 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S David; Borys, Douglas J

    2002-06-01

    Coricidin products seemed to be one of the over-the-counter medications being reportedly abused by adolescents, as observed from the Texas Poison Center Network data. This retrospective chart review investigated the occurrence of abuse, developed a patient profile, and defined the clinical effects resulting from the abuse of Coricidin products. Data collected from the Texas Poison Center Network Toxic Exposure Surveillance System database included human exposures between 1998 and 1999, patients > or = 10y old, intentional use or abuse, and single substance ingestion of I of the tablet formulations of Coricidin. Thirty-three cases from 1998 and 59 cases from 1999 were reviewed. Of these cases, 85% met the inclusion criteria. Of the 7 medications searched, only 4 substances were coded for: Coricidin D, Coricidin D (long acting), Coricidin D (cold, flu & sinus) and Coriciding HBP. These contain a combination of dextromethorphan hydrobromide, chlorpheniramine maleate, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, and acetaminophen. Of the 78 cases, 63% were male and 38% were female. The mean age was 14.67 years, 77% being between 13 to 17 years old. Eighteen different symptoms were reported: tachycardia 50%, somnolence 24.4%, mydriasis and hypertension 16.7%, agitation 12.8%, disorientation 10.3%, slurred speech 9%, ataxia 6.4%, vomiting 5.1%, dry mouth and hallucinations 3.9%, tremor 2.6%, and headache, dizziness, syncope, seizure, chest pain, and nystagmus each 1.3%; 12.8% of the calls originated from the school nurse. The incidence of abuse reported increased 60% from 1998 to 1999. This worrisome trend suggests increased abuse of these products. PMID:12046973

  13. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

    1988-01-01

    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  14. Update on Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, John Webster

    1994-01-01

    Gift planning is increasing in Canada's colleges and universities to offset effects of retrenchment. New annuity vehicles and the emergence of university Crown Foundations offer tax breaks that support private giving to institutions. In addition, a simplified process for gifts is anticipated. (MSE)

  15. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  16. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  17. Nuclear technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed

  18. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  19. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  20. Suicide among immigrant psychiatric patients in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, R; Beddage, V; Fernando, M L

    1991-11-01

    Ninety-four Canadian-born psychiatric patients who committed suicide were compared with 23 foreign-born patients committing suicide in Canada. East Europeans were over-represented, and significant differences were found in the age distribution, stress, level of education, social isolation, and methods of suicide. Most foreign-born patients had come to Canada for family or economic reasons but were unemployed, with poor social integration. Employment, housing, education, social integration and a support network seem to be important in preventing these deaths. Cultural evaluation of the patient and early intervention is recommended. PMID:1756350

  1. Canada vs. the OECD: an environmental comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's environmental performance is compared to the 28 other nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Twenty-five environmental indicators in ten categories are examined. These are: air, water, energy, biodiversity, waste, climate change, ozone depletion, agriculture, transportation and miscellaneous. Results show Canada with the poorest environmental record of all OECD countries, except the United States. The statistical information, compiled from data verified and published by the OECD, shows Canada among the worst three countries on nine indicators (per capita GHG emissions, CO and VOCs emissions, water consumption, energy consumption, energy efficiency, volume of timber logged, generation of nuclear waste, and the highest amount of energy consumed per unit of GDP). Tracking Canada's energy performance over the past two decades reveals that the situation is worsening in terms of water and energy consumption, production of nuclear and hazardous waste, greenhouse gas emissions, the number of endangered species, decline of fish populations, commercial fertilizer use, timber logging, number of motor vehicles, kilometres travelled by road, higher population and lower official development assistance (foreign aid). On the positive side, Canada's environmental performance was found to be poor but improving on ten indicators, including reduced air pollution, improved sewage treatment, reduced municipal waste, increased recycling, improved energy efficiency, decreased production of ozone-depleting substances and an increase in parks and protected areas

  2. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  3. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  4. Canada country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrill, Cheryl [Bruce Power, 3394 County Road 20 - RRH2, N0G 2T0 Tiverton ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility

  5. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  6. Abortion health services in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  7. Comparative Effects of Di(n-Butyl) Phthalate Exposure on Fetal Germ Cell Development in the Rat and in Human Fetal Testis Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnell, Chris; Calarrão, Ana; Kennedy, Laura; Hutchison, Gary R.; Hrabalkova, Lenka; Jobling, Matthew S.; Macpherson, Sheila; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.; Mitchell, Rod T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Phthalate exposure induces germ cell effects in the fetal rat testis. Although experimental models have shown that the human fetal testis is insensitive to the steroidogenic effects of phthalates, the effects on germ cells have been less explored. Objectives We sought to identify the effects of phthalate exposure on human fetal germ cells in a dynamic model and to establish whether the rat is an appropriate model for investigating such effects. Methods We used immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine Sertoli and germ cell markers on rat testes and human fetal testis xenografts after exposure to vehicle or di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP). Our study included analysis of germ cell differentiation markers, proliferation markers, and cell adhesion proteins. Results In both rat and human fetal testes, DBP exposure induced similar germ cell effects, namely, germ cell loss (predominantly undifferentiated), induction of multinucleated gonocytes (MNGs), and aggregation of differentiated germ cells, although the latter occurred rarely in the human testes. The mechanism for germ cell aggregation and MNG induction appears to be loss of Sertoli cell–germ cell membrane adhesion, probably due to Sertoli cell microfilament redistribution. Conclusions Our findings provide the first comparison of DBP effects on germ cell number, differentiation, and aggregation in human testis xenografts and in vivo in rats. We observed comparable effects on germ cells in both species, but the effects in the human were muted compared with those in the rat. Nevertheless, phthalate effects on germ cells have potential implications for the next generation, which merits further study. Our results indicate that the rat is a human-relevant model in which to explore the mechanisms for germ cell effects. Citation van den Driesche S, McKinnell C, Calarrão A, Kennedy L, Hutchison GR, Hrabalkova L, Jobling MS, Macpherson S, Anderson RA

  8. Comparative hazard identification by a single dose lung exposure of zinc oxide and silver nanomaterials in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Ilse; Kermanizadeh, Ali; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Bokkers, Bas; de Jong, Wim H; Krystek, Petra; Tran, Lang; Stone, Vicki; Wallin, Håkan; Stoeger, Tobias; Cassee, Flemming R

    2015-01-01

    Comparative hazard identification of nanomaterials (NMs) can aid in the prioritisation for further toxicity testing. Here, we assessed the acute lung, systemic and liver responses in C57BL/6N mice for three NMs to provide a hazard ranking. A silver (Ag), non-functionalised zinc oxide (ZnO) and a tri

  9. Abdominal CT scan: A comparative study of patient exposure in clinical routine on devices with and without iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: compare the dose delivered to patients and image quality in clinical routine to perform an abdominal CT scan with no iterative reconstruction techniques (IR) relative to an examination conducted on a scanner with IR. Materials and methods: this is a retrospective study of 30 patients who underwent two abdominal examinations: one on a 40-slice scanner (TDM40) without IR and another one on a 256-slice scanner with IR (TDM256). The patients, on medical follow-up for a chronic abdominal disease, had an exam on each scanner using the same protocol comprising an abdomino-pelvic time portal phase. The length of acquisition, the effective dose and the dose length product (DLP) as well as quantitative and qualitative assessments of the image were compared. Results: the average effective dose per examination was 17.3 mSv with the TDM40 (PDL: 1019 mGy.cm) against 11.1 mSv with the TDM256 (PDL: 654 mGy.cm), hence a reduction of 35.8% (p < 0.001). The length of acquisition and quantification were comparable in both groups. The qualitative assessment was slightly higher on the TDM40 but no examination was considered suboptimal. Conclusion: using a scanner equipped with IR significantly reduces the effective dose while maintaining image quality. (authors)

  10. Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Minard, Kevin R.; Forsythe, William C.; Wang, Wei; Sharma, Gaurav; Karin, Norman J.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    quantitative comparison of in vitro and in vivo systems advance their use for hazard assessment and extrapolation to humans. The mildly inflammogentic cellular doses experienced by mice were similar those calculated for humans exposed to the same at the existing permissible exposure limit of 10 mg/m3 iron oxide (as Fe).

  11. Nuclear insurance in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many years ago, a group of insurance companies founded an organization offering nuclear insurance, called Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada. The passage of Order-in-Council P.C. 1960-555 gave Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. the power to indemnify suppliers, contractors, etc. against liability claims. The situation has remained essentially unchanged. In 1970 Parliament passed the Nuclear Liability Act, but it has never been proclaimed. The act sets mandatory levels of nuclear insurance as high as $75 million for firms involved in nuclear activity. It is expected that agreement between the insurers and government will be reached later this year (1976), so that the act can be proclaimed. (N.D.H.)

  12. Canada's medical isotope strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper details Canada's medical isotope strategy and the role of the Canadian Government in the security of the isotope supply chain. The government's role is to promote health and safety of Canadians, establish appropriate regulatory framework, allow the markets to work, facilitate international collaboration, fund high-risk early stage research and development, encourage private sector investment in innovation and support and respect environmental and non-proliferation goals.

  13. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  14. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  15. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. PMID:25308235

  17. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, April - June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare determines levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assesses the resulting population exposures. In this Report, the results for the second quarter of 1977 from the analyses of air, water vapour, drinking water and milk for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format used in the last quarterly report has been retained with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this quarter are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection. (auth)

  18. Exposure of composite tannery effluent on snail, Pila globosa: A comparative assessment of toxic impacts of the untreated and membrane treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2016-04-01

    Effluent from tannery industries can significantly affect the aquatic environment due to the presence of a variety of recalcitrant components. The present study focuses on a comparative assessment of the toxic impacts of an untreated tannery effluent and membrane treated effluents using snail, Pila globosa as an aquatic model. Composite tannery effluent collected from a common effluent treatment plant was selected as the untreated effluent. To investigate the effect of treated effluents on the aquatic organism the effluent was treated by two ways, viz. a single stage microfiltration (MF) using ceramic membrane and a two-step process involving MF followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The whole body tissue, gonad and mantle of P. globosa were subjected to enzyme assays like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-GPx), glutathione S- transferase (GST), etc. for assessing toxic impact. Changes in the biochemical parameters like protein, carbohydrate and amino acid were observed including histological studies of gonad and mantle tissue upon treatment with tannery effluents. To examine potential DNA damage due to the exposure of the effluent, comet assay was conducted. The study revealed that with an exposure to the untreated effluent, activity of the antioxidant enzymes increased significantly while the protein and carbohydrate content reduced largely in the whole body tissue, gonad as well as mantle tissues of P. globosa. Histological study indicated considerable damage in the gonad and mantle tissues following exposure to the untreated effluent. Comet assay using hemolymph of P. globosa following exposure to tannery effluent, showed significant genotoxicity. Interestingly, compared to the untreated effluent, damaging effect was reduced in molluscs tissues when exposed to MF treated effluent and even lesser when exposed to MF+RO treated effluent. Apart from the reduced activities of oxidative stress enzymes, the

  19. Risks for the development of outcomes related to occupational allergies: an application of the asthma-specific job exposure matrix compared with self-reports and investigator scores on job-training-related exposure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarthana, E.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Ghezzo, H.; Malo, J.L.; Kennedy, S.M.; Gautrin, D.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Risks for development of occupational sensitisation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, rhinoconjunctival and chest symptoms at work associated with continued exposure to high molecular weight (HMW) allergens were estimated with three exposure assessment methods. METHODS: A Cox regr

  20. Comparative assessment of the environmental hazards of and exposure to perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs and PFPiAs): Current knowledge, gaps, challenges and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyun; Cousins, Ian T; Berger, Urs; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Scheringer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl phosphonic and phosphinic acids (PFPAs and PFPiAs) are sub-groups of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) that have been commercialized since the 1970s, particularly as defoamers in pesticide formulations and wetting agents in consumer products. Recently, C4/C4 PFPiA and its derivatives have been presented as alternatives to long-chain PFASs in certain applications. In this study, we systematically assess the publicly available information on the hazardous properties, occurrence, and exposure routes of PFPAs and PFPiAs, and make comparisons to the corresponding properties of their better-known carboxylic and sulfonic acid analogs (i.e. PFCAs and PFSAs). This comparative assessment indicates that [i] PFPAs likely have high persistence and long-range transport potential; [ii] PFPiAs may transform to PFPAs (and possibly PFCAs) in the environment and biota; [iii] certain PFPAs and PFPiAs can only be slowly eliminated from rainbow trout and rats, similarly to long-chain PFCAs and PFSAs; [iv] PFPAs and PFPiAs have modes-of-action that are both similar to, and different from, those of PFCAs and PFSAs; and [v] the measured levels of PFPAs/PFPiAs in the global environment and biota appear to be low in comparison to PFCAs and PFSAs, suggesting, for the time being, low risks from PFPAs and PFPiAs alone. Although risks from individual PFPAs/PFPiAs are currently low, their ongoing production and use and high persistence will lead to increasing exposure and risks over time. Furthermore, simultaneous exposure to PFPAs, PFPiAs and other PFASs may result in additive effects necessitating cumulative risk assessments. To facilitate effective future research, we highlight possible strategies to overcome sampling and analytical challenges. PMID:26922149

  1. Petro-Canada annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is Canada's national energy corporation, formed by an Act of Parliament in 1975. Operations began in January 1976. In 1991, Petro-Canada became a public company, issuing 19.5% of its common shares for net proceeds of $523 million. Heavy losses in the first half of the year were driven by price volatility following the Persian Gulf war. Cash flow return on capital employed was 7.2%, and a net loss of $598 million was posted. The Klua gas field was brought on stream only 30 months after discovery, an important gas discovery was made in British Columbia, and production and sales of natural gas increased. This annual report presents a corporate profile, a statement of corporate responsibility, and the year's activities in production and sales of natural gas, synthetic and natural crude oil and gasoline. Details are also provided of Petro-Canada's financial and operational restructuring in view of the declining revenues being obtained. A financial review from 1986 to the present is included, along with a glossary of financial terms, a financial statement, and a 5-year summary. Reserves information comparing the current to the previous year is given. 11 figs., 12 tabs

  2. Petro-Canada's 2001 report in support of Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the leading oil and gas companies in Canada, Petro-Canada is committed to the Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program. In this document, the major initiatives undertaken by Petro-Canada with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions were highlighted. The successes in improving energy efficiency in the process of reducing greenhouse gas emissions were reviewed. A major accomplishment in 2000 was the total greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the operations of Petro-Canada that were below the level of 1990, even in the face of a one-third increase in production over the last ten years. As a result, a reduction in excess of 45,000 tonnes of ongoing annual emissions was achieved. The targets that were set are a one per cent reduction every year from 2000 to 2005 through reductions in fuel consumption. The Production Energy Intensity (PEI) of the upstream was improved in 2000 by 11 per cent when compared to 1999 value. Energy efficiency projects have been allocated a total of 4 million dollars in capital funds, and emerging technologies in alternate fuels are being monitored to enable Petro-Canada to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. Several education projects are being funded to enhance public awareness of climate change issues. 4 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Induction of DNA repair synthesis in human monocytes/B-lymphocytes compared with T-lymphocytes after exposure to N-acetoxy-N-acetylaminofluorene and dimethylsulfate in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Ryder, L P; Wassermann, K

    1992-01-01

    We have explored the induction of DNA repair synthesis in monocyte/B- and T-lymphocyte enriched cell fractions from 12 different human mononuclear blood cell populations. Unscheduled DNA synthesis was measured in monocyte/B- and T-cells after exposure to the DNA-damaging agents dimethylsulfate (DMS......) and N-acetoxy-N-acetylaminofluorene in vitro. Also, the binding of DMS to DNA was measured. An increased DNA repair synthesis was measured in monocyte/B-lymphocytes after induction of the two different types of DNA lesions, whereas no induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis was observed in T-lymphocytes....... A significantly higher DMS-DNA binding was also observed in monocyte/B-lymphocytes when compared with T-lymphocytes. Specific characterization of mononuclear blood cell populations used in biomonitoring of DNA adducts and repair is recommended....

  4. Comparative consideration of probabilistic/stochastic and deterministic modeling of exposures with respect to the reliability of the modeling results and the requirements to the quality of the input data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radiation exposures may exhibit uncertainties concerning the scenario, the model structure and the parameters of exposure models. The project focused on the investigation and comparative assessment of techniques for the consideration of parameter uncertainties by means of conservative deterministic approaches and probabilistic model calculations using Monte Carlo simulations and Bayesian methods, respectively. In addition, alternative methods for uncertainty modelling were considered like evidence and possibility theory, and the conceptual disparities between probabilistic and stochastic modelling approaches. It was investigated under which conditions (objective, purpose, exposure situation, input data quality etc.) radioecological models for exposure calculations can or should be based on deterministic or probabilistic approaches. The probabilistic modelling of uncertainties was investigated with respect to minimum requirements concerning the quality of input data and further methodical aspects, and its reliability was compared to the deterministic exposure modelling.

  5. Canada's disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept for the safe and permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes from Canada's CANDU reactors has been developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). The waste would be placed in an engineered disposal vault 500 to 1000 m below the surface in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The multiple barriers to retain the waste and retard the release of radioactivity would be the waste form, the containers, buffer and backfill, and the rock overlying the vault. Numerous research programmes have been carried out to develop the technology for the concept. These include work on materials corrosion and failure mechanisms to assess the performance of the used fuel containers. Predictive modelling has shown that more than 97% of ASTM Grade 2 titanium containers will retain their integrity, even under pessimistic assumptions, for 1200-6000 years after emplacement, and even longer times may be achieved with other grades of titanium or copper. Other research has been aimed at vault sealing, at site characterization for an underground research laboratory and at the development of a methodology for assessing radiological and environmental effects after closure of the facility. A review of the safety and environmental impacts of the concept is now being carried out by an independent panel appointed by the government. (2 figures, 3 references) (UK)

  6. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  7. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs

  8. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  9. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  10. "Ils doivent vivre comme nous": analyse comparative du placement des enfants yéniches, aborigènes et autochtones du Canada durant le 20ème siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Veth, Tatiana; Hanson, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Retirer un enfant de son milieu familial a communément pour but de lui offrir de meilleures conditions de vie et de le protéger d’un environnement qui lui est néfaste. Toutefois, dans les situations abordées dans ce travail, la question du but réel du placement se pose. Durant le 20ème siècle, le placement des enfants yéniches, autochtones du Canada et aborigènes visait-il l’intérêt de l’enfant ou plutôt l’élimination d’un groupe spécifique de la population ? Le présent travail a pour objecti...

  11. Economic assimilation of immigrants : a comparison between Norway and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The economic assimilation of immigrants in Norway is analyzed in this thesis. Since Norway and Canada have different immigration policies, the economic assimilations of immigrants in these two countries are compared. Unlike Norway, Canada uses a “point system” to target economic and demographic growth which results in a large class of economic immigrants. The entry effect, the years effect, the cohort effect and the period effect, as defined in previous academic literature, are considered....

  12. Modelling of occupational respirable crystalline silica exposure for quantitative exposure assessment in community-based case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roe; Portengen, Lutzen; Olsson, Ann; Kendzia, Benjamin; Vincent, Raymond; Savary, Barbara; Lavoue, Jerome; Cavallo, Domenico; Cattaneo, Andrea; Mirabelli, Dario; Plato, Nils; Fevotte, Joelle; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We describe an empirical model for exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) to create a quantitative job-exposure matrix (JEM) for community-based studies. Personal measurements of exposure to RCS from Europe and Canada were obtained for exposure modelling. A mixed-effects model was elaborate

  13. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico); Rangel-López, Edgar [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Castillo, Claudia G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Santamaría, Abel [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Gonzalez, Carmen, E-mail: cgonzalez.uaslp@gmail.com, E-mail: gonzalez.castillocarmen@fcq.uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO{sub 3}) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells.

  14. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO3) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells

  15. Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study: Design and Methods Validation of Personal, Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures...

  16. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U3O8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  17. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Comparative transcriptomics reveals genes involved in metabolic and immune pathways in the digestive gland of scallop Chlamys farreri following cadmium exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhai, Yuxiu; Yao, Lin; Jiang, Yanhua; Li, Fengling

    2016-05-01

    Chlamys farreri is an economically important mollusk that can accumulate excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Studying the molecular mechanism of Cd accumulation in bivalves is difficult because of the lack of genome background. Transcriptomic analysis based on high-throughput RNA sequencing has been shown to be an efficient and powerful method for the discovery of relevant genes in non-model and genome reference-free organisms. Here, we constructed two cDNA libraries (control and Cd exposure groups) from the digestive gland of C. farreri and compared the transcriptomic data between them. A total of 227 673 transcripts were assembled into 105 071 unigenes, most of which shared high similarity with sequences in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. For functional classification, 24 493 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Additionally, EuKaryotic Ortholog Groups and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses assigned 12 028 unigenes to 26 categories and 7 849 unigenes to five pathways, respectively. Comparative transcriptomics analysis identified 3 800 unigenes that were differentially expressed in the Cd-treated group compared with the control group. Among them, genes associated with heavy metal accumulation were screened, including metallothionein, divalent metal transporter, and metal tolerance protein. The functional genes and predicted pathways identified in our study will contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic and immune system in the digestive gland of C. farreri. In addition, the transcriptomic data will provide a comprehensive resource that may contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms that respond to marine pollutants in bivalves.

  19. Comparing the impact of increasing condom use or HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP use among female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindoga Mukandavire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In many settings, interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs could significantly reduce the overall transmission of HIV. To understand the role HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP could play in controlling HIV transmission amongst FSWs, it is important to understand how its impact compares with scaling-up condom use—one of the proven HIV prevention strategies for FSWs. It is important to remember that condoms also have other benefits such as reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections and preventing pregnancy. A dynamic deterministic model of HIV transmission amongst FSWs, their clients and other male partners (termed ‘pimps’ was used to compare the protection provided by PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs with FSWs increasing their condom use with clients and/or pimps. For different HIV prevalence scenarios, levels of pimp interaction, and baseline condom use, we estimated the coverage of PrEP that gives the same reduction in endemic FSW HIV prevalence or HIV infections averted as different increases in condom use. To achieve the same impact on FSW HIV prevalence as increasing condom use by 1%, the coverage of PrEP has to increase by >2%. The relative impact of PrEP increases for scenarios where pimps contribute to HIV transmission, but not greatly, and decreases with higher baseline condom use. In terms of HIV infections averted over 10 years, the relative impact of PrEP compared to condoms was reduced, with a >3% increase in PrEP coverage achieving the same impact as a 1% increase in condom use. Condom promotion interventions should remain the mainstay HIV prevention strategy for FSWs, with PrEP only being implemented once condom interventions have been maximised or to fill prevention gaps where condoms cannot be used.

  20. Canada No. 1 in business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has for the fifth time in a row been chosen the best industrialized country in the world in which to initiate and run a business. The Norwegian interest in Canada has grown strongly the last years and Norwegian companies have invested over 20 billion NOK there. Canada is the perfect gateway to the large markets in the USA. Norway is currently Canada's 15th largest trading partner. In addition to low costs and strategic location, Canada has the most highly educated workforce in the world. A company on the Canadian side of the US border has the same access to the American market as a US-based company. There is even a Norwegian company in Canada that exports 100 per cent of its products across the border to the USA. The trade between the USA and Canada is more extensive than between the USA and all the EU countries together. Furthermore, Canadian companies concentrating on research and education are given a generous tax credit

  1. Immunohistochemical study on cellular origins of rat lung tumors induced by inhalation exposures to plutonium dioxide aerosols as compared to those by X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunohistochemical examinations were performed on rat pulmonary tumors induced by inhalation exposures to 239PuO2 aerosols, or by X-ray-irradiation to identify and compare cellular origins or, in turn, target cells at risk for radiation carcinogenesis. Both plutonium-induced and X-ray-induced pulmonary tumors appeared to occur from the lower respiratory tract epithelium through bronchioles into alveoli, and were histopathologically diagnosed as adenoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic lesions using rabbit polyclonal antibodies to rat surfactant apoprotein A specific for alveolar type II pneumocytes, and Clara cell antigen specific for nonciliated bronchiolar Clara cells, showed that most of the adenomatous and adenocarcinomatous lesions from plutonium-exposed or X-irradiated rats were positive for either or both antigens, while, in contrast, adenosquamous and squamous lesions were mostly negative for both antigens. Even though there were some differences in the proportions and distributions of immunoreactive cells between plutonium- and X-ray-induced tumors and among neoplastic lesions, the results indicate that radiation-induced pulmonary adenomas and adenocarcinomas mostly originate from either alveolar type II pneumocytes or bronchiolar Clara cells, while adenosquamous and squamous carcinomas may be derived from the other epithelial cell components, or might have lost specific antigenicity during their transforming differentiation. (author)

  2. Brown adipose and central nervous system glucose uptake is lower during cold exposure in older compared to young men: a preliminary PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindred, John H; Tuulari, Jetro J; Simon, Stacey; Luckasen, Gary J; Bell, Christopher; Rudroff, Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the central nervous system (CNS) during cold exposure in young and older men. Two young, 24 and 21 years, and two older, 76 and 74 years, men participated in the study. Positron emission tomography images showed cold-induced BAT activity was absent in older men but clearly present in the clavicular region of the young men (Standardized Uptake Value: SUVmean: 3.12 and 3.71). Statistical parametric mapping revealed cortical brain activity was lower in the older men within areas of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, and the thalamus (peak-level p uncorr  < 0.036). Cervical spinal cord SUVmean values tended to be lower for older (SUVmean: 1.64 and 1.61) compared to young men (SUVmean: 1.91 and 1.71). These preliminary findings suggest lower BAT activity in older men may in part be due to lower CNS activity. PMID:26754046

  3. Comparing corporal punishment and children's exposure to violence between caregivers: Towards better diagnosis and prevention of intrafamilial physical abuse of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Coelho, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Any intervention involving child victims of intrafamilial abuse must take the alleged underlying motives for the abuse into account. The aim of this study is to further our understanding of intrafamilial physical abuse of children, by comparing its various aspects while considering the alleged underlying motives. A preliminary sample of 1656 cases of alleged physical abuse in the northern region of Portugal was analysed, with two main motives being identified: corporal punishment (CP) (G1 = 927) and exposure to violence between caregivers (EVC) (G2 = 308). Statistically significant differences were found between the two motives (p victims, (2) sex of the alleged abuser, (3) risk factors affecting the alleged abuser, (4) abuser/victim relationship, (5) injury-producing mechanism, (6) time between last abuse and forensic medical examination and (7) location of injuries. Evidence-based knowledge of these differences may help in accurate diagnosis by doctors (particularly forensic physicians) and prevention of this type of violence through support strategies (including tertiary prevention strategies). PMID:26694872

  4. Immunohistochemical study on cellular origins of rat lung tumors induced by inhalation exposures to plutonium dioxide aerosols as compared to those by X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghiso, Yoichi; Yamada, Yutaka [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Immunohistochemical examinations were performed on rat pulmonary tumors induced by inhalation exposures to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} aerosols, or by X-ray-irradiation to identify and compare cellular origins or, in turn, target cells at risk for radiation carcinogenesis. Both plutonium-induced and X-ray-induced pulmonary tumors appeared to occur from the lower respiratory tract epithelium through bronchioles into alveoli, and were histopathologically diagnosed as adenoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic lesions using rabbit polyclonal antibodies to rat surfactant apoprotein A specific for alveolar type II pneumocytes, and Clara cell antigen specific for nonciliated bronchiolar Clara cells, showed that most of the adenomatous and adenocarcinomatous lesions from plutonium-exposed or X-irradiated rats were positive for either or both antigens, while, in contrast, adenosquamous and squamous lesions were mostly negative for both antigens. Even though there were some differences in the proportions and distributions of immunoreactive cells between plutonium- and X-ray-induced tumors and among neoplastic lesions, the results indicate that radiation-induced pulmonary adenomas and adenocarcinomas mostly originate from either alveolar type II pneumocytes or bronchiolar Clara cells, while adenosquamous and squamous carcinomas may be derived from the other epithelial cell components, or might have lost specific antigenicity during their transforming differentiation. (author)

  5. Nuclear fuel activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel activities in Canada are considered in the presentation on the following directions: Canadian utility fuel performance; CANDU owner's group fuel programs; AECL advanced fuel program (high burnup fuel behaviour and development); Pu dispositioning (MOX) activities. 1 tab

  6. Canada goose behavior: Fall 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese use four divisions of the Mark Twin NWR: Louisa, Delair, Cannon, and Calhoun. There was a shortage of cultivated crops, corn and soybeans, on all...

  7. Transport of radioactive material in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) presents the results of its study on how the system of the transport of radioactive material (TRM) in Canada is regulated, how it operates, and how it performs. The report deals with the transport of packages, including Type B packages which are used to carry large quantities of radioactive material, but not with the transport of spent nuclear fuel or with the transport of low-level historical waste. The ACNS has examined the Canadian experience in the TRM area, the regulatory framework in Canada with respect to the TRM some relevant aspects of training workers and monitoring compliance with regulatory requirements, the state of the emergency preparedness of organizations involved in the TRM and the process of updating present regulations by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). As a result of this study, the ACNS concludes that the current Canadian regulatory system in the TRM is sound and that the TRM is, for the most part, conducted safely. However, improvements can be made in a number of areas, such as: determining the exposures of workers who transport radioactive material; rewording the proposed Transport Regulations in plain language; training all appropriate personnel regarding the AECB and Transport Canada (TC) Regulations; enforcing compliance with the regulations; and increasing the level of cooperation between the federal agencies and provincial authorities involved in the inspection and emergency preparedness aspects of the TRM. It is also noted that Bill C-23, the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, imposes a new requirement, subject to the Regulations, for a licence for a carrier to transport some types of radioactive material

  8. Petro-Canada annual report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is Canada's national energy corporation, formed by an Act of Parliament in 1975. Operations began in January 1976. In 1993 net earnings were improved by $153 million to $162 million, and cash flow from operations was increased by $113 million to $630 million. The consolidation of conventional upstream activities to 150 producing entities in 26 strategic areas was completed, and remaining non-core upstream assets were grouped into a separate unit for sale. The refinery capacity reduction program was completed, and retail rationalization neared completion. Total capital and exploration expenditures of $639 million were less than cash flow of $630 million. Credit ratings and market valuation improved in recognition of the company's increased strength. This annual report presents a corporate profile, a statement of corporate responsibility, and the year's activities in production and sales of natural gas, synthetic and natural crude oil and gasoline. Details are also provided of Petro-Canada's financial and operational restructuring in view of the declining revenues being obtained. A financial review from 1986 to the present is included, along with a glossary of financial terms, a financial statement, and a 5-year summary. Reserves information comparing the current to the previous year are given. 2 figs., 12 tabs

  9. Nuclear energy's continuing benefits to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Canadian nuclear power program when it began twenty years ago was to reduce Canadian dependence on imported coal. This goal has been met, with 35 percent of Ontario's electricity being produced by CANDU reactors. These reactors have been proven reliable and safe, and provide a considerable cost advantage over coal. The CANDU reactor was developed with the strengths and limitations of Canadian industry in mind, the newest stations have over 85 percent Canadian-manufactured components. A similar benefit should be found in many countries with manufacturing capabilities comparable to Canada's. The use of natural uranium as a fuel has been a wise choice both technically and economically. A new industry was created in Canada in order to gain an assured supply of heavy water. The personnel brought to or trained in Canada to work in all parts of the nuclear industry represent a valuable asset in themselves. Radioisotope exports are making a significant contribution. Nuclear power is likely to make its greatest impact in the next century, when it will be a necessity

  10. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch

    2001-07-01

    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  11. Difficulties Assessing Multifactor Productivity for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Harper; Nakamura, Alice O.; Lu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, Canada's business sector multifactor productivity (MFP) index, as estimated by Statistics Canada, was below that for 1977, a third of a century earlier. Over these years, public policies were enacted to try to improve Canada's productivity. Yet the nation's MFP continued to fall, relative to both the past and Canada's main trading partners. Policymakers and business decision makers need to know whether Canada's MFP statistics accurately reflect the nation's productivity. We argue tha...

  12. Canada's climate change policy in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has a wide range of implications for the health, well-being, and economic prospects for Canadians, and for the ecological systems that sustain life on this planet. The overwhelming scientific opinion, world leaders and even a growing number of corporate leaders now agree that the Earth is undergoing a significant and unusual warming period as a result of the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. There is also wide agreement that much of this build-up is anthropogenic, and that a global effort is required to slow this trend. Because climate change is a global problem, it requires global solutions by way of reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the Kyoto Agreement of 1997 constitutes a major breakthrough, even though it takes only a small step towards towards altering the human impact on global climate. Although some 80 states, plus the European Union signed the Kyoto Protocol, it remains unclear when it will come into force because the majority of states have failed to ratify it, pending the resolution of a variety of technical and operational details. Canada is the second highest emitter of greenhouse gases (16 tonnes per capita, compared to world average of 3.6 tonnes per capita). This, combined with Canada's foreign policy goals of playing a leading role in taking action and preserving its reputation as an honest broker, makes the challenge of meeting Canada's Kyoto commitments especially pressing. The purpose of this paper is to explain Canada's climate change policy in the context of these international and domestic pressures. The paper identifies the main climate change-related policy challenges, international responses to date and the constraints and opportunities open to Canada in the light of its economy, its federalist political structure, and place in the world as a middle power, as well as its geographic situation, natural resources and environmental endowment. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto

  13. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  14. Eastern Canada hydrocarbon development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current petroleum industry activities on Canada's east coast, and future potential were discussed. Offshore drilling activity is proceeding in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin, in addition to the Sable and Terra Nova Offshore Energy Projects. Future potential for Newfoundland and Nova Scotia has been estimated at 30 billion BOE and 13 billion BOE respectively. Natural gas potential off Labrador was estimated at 37 Tcf, offshore Newfoundland at 41 Tcf, and offshore Sable Island at 49 Tcf with varying amounts of oil associated with each field. Cumulative industry spending is expected to reach $ 10 billion by the year 2000, and could reach $20 billion by 2005. Prospects for Mobil Oil, number One in discoveries and industry influence, and number Two in acreage among the partners, were reviewed. Some details of the Sable Offshore Energy Project were outlined. The estimated cost of the project is $2 billion. It is expected to be on stream in late 1999 with a total of 27 wells (11 in phase 1). Reserves are estimated at 3.5 TCF or more. Hibernia was on stream in November 1997. Total recoverable reserves at Hibernia are estimated at 750 MMBls. Peak production of 180,000 b/d is expected by 2000-2001. Life expectancy of 20 years is predicted. The Terra Nova project, located 25 miles southeast of Hibernia, was also reviewed. It will be on stream in late 2000 with total reserves of 350-450 MMBls of oil, peak production at 115,000 to 135,000 b/d with a life expectancy of 15 years. 21 figs

  15. SCWR Concept in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL is designing the Canadian SCWR concept, which has evolved from the well-established pressuretube type CANDU® reactor. The Canadian SCWR is designed to produce electrical energy as the main product, plus process heat, hydrogen, industrial isotopes, and drinking water (through the desalination process) as supplementary products, all within a more compact reactor building. Another potential application of the available co-generated process heat is the extraction and refining of oil sands, which is presently achieved using co-generation with natural gas turbines and process heat. The extraction and upgrading process requires: thermal power to lower the viscosity and extract the oil; electric power for separation and refining equipment; and hydrogen gas for upgrading the oil product prior to transport. A National Program has been established in Canada to support R&D studies for the Canadian SCWR design. It covers key areas of interest (such as thermal hydraulics, safety, materials, and chemistry) to participants in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) SCWR designs. Results generated from the program are contributed to the GIF SCWR project management boards (PMBs). For example, heat transfer correlations have been derived using experimental data primarily obtained from fossil-plant related studies (which were started as early as 1930s. Materials and chemistry studies have evolved from operating experience of fossil-fired power plants to a) develop, and perform targeted testing of, materials for key components, in particular in-core reactor components that will be exposed to conditions not encountered in a fossil-fired boiler (such as irradiation and water radiolysis), and b) develop a suitable water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport

  16. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2013-01-01

    . For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily......'s total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values....

  17. Quantifying carbon fixation in trace minerals from processed kimberlite: A comparative study of quantitative methods using X-ray powder diffraction data with applications to the Diavik Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Siobhan A., E-mail: swilson@eos.ubc.ca [Mineral Deposit Research Unit, Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Raudsepp, Mati; Dipple, Gregory M. [Mineral Deposit Research Unit, Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    estimates can be made for the amount of CO{sub 2} stored in secondary nesquehonite using the RIR method or the Rietveld method for abundances {>=}0.5 wt.% and a calibration curve for abundances <0.5 wt.%. The extent to which C is being mineralized in an active mine setting at the Diavik Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada, has been investigated. Rietveld refinement results and calibrated abundances for trace nesquehonite are used to estimate the amount of CO{sub 2} trapped in Diavik tailings. Results of quantitative phase analysis are also used to calculate neutralization potentials for the kimberlite mine tailings and to estimate the contribution made by secondary nesquehonite.

  18. Black carbon exposure more strongly associated with census tract poverty compared to household income among US black, white, and Latino working class adults in Boston, MA (2003–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the association of individual-level ambient exposure to black carbon (spatiotemporal model-based estimate for latitude and longitude of residential address) with individual, household, and census tract socioeconomic measures among a study sample comprised of 1757 US urban working class white, black and Latino adults (age 25–64) recruited for two studies conducted in Boston, MA (2003–2004; 2008–2010). Controlling for age, study, and exam date, the estimated average annual black carbon exposure for the year prior to study enrollment at the participants' residential address was directly associated with census tract poverty (beta = 0.373; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.322, 0.423) but not with annual household income or education; null associations with race/ethnicity became significant only after controlling for socioeconomic position. - Highlights: • The study included 1757 black, Latino, and white working class adults in Boston, MA. • Census tract poverty was associated with annual average black carbon exposure. • Annual household income was not associated with black carbon exposure. • Individual-level education was not associated with black carbon exposure. • The observed socioeconomic patterns varied by race/ethnicity. - In a US multiethnic urban working adult population, exposure to black carbon was more strongly associated with census tract as compared to household- or individual-level socioeconomic measures

  19. An update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, P.L.; Barker, R.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office

    1993-03-01

    This paper gives an overview and update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada. To provide a relevant perspective, Canadian data are compared with US data on annual waste arisings and with disposal initiatives of the US compacts and states. Presented also is an assessment of the data and its implications for disposal solutions in Canada.

  20. Comparative Risks of Cancer from Drywall Finishing Based on Stochastic Modeling of Cumulative Exposures to Respirable Dusts and Chrysotile Asbestos Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelter, Fred W; Xia, Yulin; Dell, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Sanding joint compounds is a dusty activity and exposures are not well characterized. Until the mid 1970s, asbestos-containing joint compounds were used by some people such that sanding could emit dust and asbestos fibers. We estimated the distribution of 8-h TWA concentrations and cumulative exposures to respirable dusts and chrysotile asbestos fibers for four worker groups: (1) drywall specialists, (2) generalists, (3) tradespersons who are bystanders to drywall finishing, and (4) do-it-yourselfers (DIYers). Data collected through a survey of experienced contractors, direct field observations, and literature were used to develop prototypical exposure scenarios for each worker group. To these exposure scenarios, we applied a previously developed semi-empirical mathematical model that predicts area as well as personal breathing zone respirable dust concentrations. An empirical factor was used to estimate chrysotile fiber concentrations from respirable dust concentrations. On a task basis, we found mean 8-h TWA concentrations of respirable dust and chrysotile fibers are numerically highest for specialists, followed by generalists, DIYers, and bystander tradespersons; these concentrations are estimated to be in excess of the respective current but not historical Threshold Limit Values. Due to differences in frequency of activities, annual cumulative exposures are highest for specialists, followed by generalists, bystander tradespersons, and DIYers. Cumulative exposure estimates for chrysotile fibers from drywall finishing are expected to result in few, if any, mesothelioma or excess lung cancer deaths according to recently published risk assessments. Given the dustiness of drywall finishing, we recommend diligence in the use of readily available source controls. PMID:25428276

  1. Of rodents and humans: A comparative review of the neurobehavioral effects of early life SSRI exposure in preclinical and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Matthew E; Clinton, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been a mainstay pharmacological treatment for women experiencing depression during pregnancy and postpartum for the past 25 years. SSRIs act via blockade of the presynaptic serotonin transporter and result in a transient increase in synaptic serotonin. Long-lasting changes in cellular function such as serotonergic transmission, neurogenesis, and epigenetics, are thought to underlie the therapeutic benefits of SSRIs. In recent years, though, growing evidence in clinical and preclinical settings indicate that offspring exposed to SSRIs in utero or as neonates exhibit long-lasting behavioral adaptions. Clinically, children exposed to SSRIs in early life exhibit increased internalizing behavior reduced social behavior, and increased risk for depression in adolescence. Similarly, rodents exposed to SSRIs perinatally exhibit increased traits of anxiety- or depression-like behavior. Furthermore, certain individuals appear to be more susceptible to early life SSRI exposure than others, suggesting that perinatal SSRI exposure may pose greater risks for negative outcome within certain populations. Although SSRIs trigger a number of intracellular processes that likely contribute to their therapeutic effects, early life antidepressant exposure during critical neurodevelopmental periods may elicit lasting negative effects in offspring. In this review, we cover the basic development and structure of the serotonin system, how the system is affected by early life SSRI exposure, and the behavioral outcomes of perinatal SSRI exposure in both clinical and preclinical settings. We review recent evidence indicating that perinatal SSRI exposure perturbs the developing limbic system, including altered serotonergic transmission, neurogenesis, and epigenetic processes in the hippocampus, which may contribute to behavioral domains (e.g., sociability, cognition, anxiety, and behavioral despair) that are affected by perinatal SSRI treatment

  2. Alterations in the infrared spectral signature of avian feathers reflect potential chemical exposure: a pilot study comparing two sites in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llabjani, Valon; Malik, Riffat N; Trevisan, Júlio; Hoti, Valmira; Ukpebor, Justina; Shinwari, Zabta K; Moeckel, Claudia; Jones, Kevin C; Shore, Richard F; Martin, Francis L

    2012-11-01

    Chemical contamination of ecosystems is a global issue with evidence that pollutants impact on living organisms in a harmful fashion. Developing sensor approaches that would allow the derivation of biomarkers or signatures of effect in target sentinel organisms and monitor environmental chemical contamination in a high throughput manner is of utmost importance. As biomolecules absorb infrared (IR), signature vibrational spectra related to structure and function can be derived. In light of this, we tested the notion that IR spectra of bird feathers might reflect environmental chemical contaminant exposure patterns. Feathers were collected from monospecific heronries of cattle egret based in two independent locations (Trimu vs. Mailsi) in the Punjab province of Pakistan; these sites were found to differ in their chemical contamination patterns. Feather samples were chemically analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organochlorines and heavy metals. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to derive a spectral signature of individual feathers. Resultant IR spectra were then subjected to canonical correspondence analysis (CAA) to determine whether feather spectral signatures correlate to chemical exposure. Additionally, we explored if principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) could be applied to distinguish site-specific differences; linear discriminant function (LDF) was also applied to classify sites. The sampled feathers varied in their chemical exposure patterns depending on whether they were sourced from one site associated with heavy metal exposure or the other which suggested high organic pollutant exposures. CCA of chemical and spectral data showed a correlation between spectral signatures and chemical exposure. PCA-LDA readily distinguished feathers from the two different sites. Discriminating alterations were identified and these were associated with

  3. Radiation studies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public demand to know the delayed risks associated with various working and living environments has led private industry, the health and research communities, labour unions, and government to intensify their efforts to obtain quantitative human data. For example, the long-term health effects of radiation, pesticides and sprays, asbestos, glass fiber and chemicals are of interest. These studies seek to relate prior exposure or circumstances in the lives of people to subsequent harm such as deaths from various causes or cancer among those who are living. Specific files and studies are described and used to illustrate how this information is extremely important in assessing and controlling workplace hazards, for labour negotiations and relations, for the setting of regulatory standards for substances, for developing compensation criteria, and for the evaluation of the efficiency of preventive, control and treatment measures for improving the quality of health care for Canadians

  4. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  5. Exposure to contaminated sediments induces alterations in the gill epithelia in juvenile Solea senegalensis: a comparative in situ and ex situ study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Martins

    2014-06-01

    contaminated sediments. Hypertrophied chloride cells are a consequence of a hindered osmotic regulation by the impairment of ionic active transport, leading to loss-of-function and excessive fluid retention in the cytoplasm. On its turn, a reduction in number and size of gill mucous cells likely reduced the protection provided by mucous to these delicate structures. In general, the alterations were more pronounced in the ex situ study than in situ bioassays, which is probably linked to differences in contaminant bioavailability between laboratory and field scenarios. This variation is likely related to, for instance, estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment steady-state parameters. Interestingly, the results suggest that time of exposure is a key factor, since fewer alterations were observed in animals sampled at the end of the assay (28 days compared to the mid-term (14 days, revealing adaptation to toxicological challenge. In conclusion, mixed sediment contamination can cause physiological alterations in fish gill epithelia that can be determined histologically. These subtle changes may affect the health status of animals by impairing key vital functions such as osmotic balance. As such, physiological alterations to fish gill epithelia may reflect, as in the present case, estuarine sediment contamination even when severe gill lesions are reduced or absent, which mandates caution when interpreting histopathological data in fish for the purpose of environmental risk assessment.

  6. Incidence of epithelial lesions of the conjunctiva in a review of 12,102 specimens in Canada (Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Filipe de Albuquerque Alves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relative frequency of epithelial lesions of the conjunctiva in Canada. METHODS: A retrospective study of 12,102 consecutive cases received during 16 years (1993-2009 at the Henry C. Witelson Ocular Pathology Laboratory in Montreal, Canada, was performed. Demographic data was retrieved from histopathological request forms and specimens were categorized and analyzed by mean percentage. The relative frequency of epithelial lesions of the conjunctiva from a single center in Canada, representing the province of Quebec was reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 12,102 specimens reviewed, 273 were conjunctival lesions (2.25%, including 86 epithelial tumors (0.71% of the conjunctiva that comprised the studied sample. The average age of these patients was 59.9 ± 17.6 years, and gender distribution was 66 (69% males and 30 (31% females. Fifteen lesions (17.4% were classified as squamous cell papillomas (mean age, 57.3 ± 16.7 years. Within the ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN spectrum, there were 10 (11.6% actinic keratosis (63.8 ± 17.6 years, 27 (31.3% cases of conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN with variable degrees of atypia (mild to moderate (63.9 ± 15.3 years, 15 (17.4% carcinomas in situ (66.7 ± 18.0 years, and 17 (19.7% squamous cell carcinomas (SCC (56.2 ± 19.4 years. Two other rare cases of malignant tumors included one basal cell carcinoma and one mucoepidermoid carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of our sample is similar to the one reported by the American Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP in 1994. When we compare our sample to others coming from countries with high levels of sunlight exposure, we found a lower incidence of ocular surface squamous neoplasia, including squamous cell carcinomas in Canada.

  7. Treating Low-Income and Minority Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Pilot Study Comparing Prolonged Exposure and Treatment as Usual Conducted by Community Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feske, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-one female psychiatric outpatients with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are randomly assigned to prolonged exposure (PE; n = 9) for PTSD or treatment as usual (TAU; n = 12). Participants are predominately low income and African American with complex trauma and psychiatric histories. Treatment is delivered by community…

  8. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ..., NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining Company, LLC, Pennzoil-Quaker... Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining... party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate. The Respondent's...

  9. Comparative study of neurologic effects of nano-TiO2 versus SiO2 after direct intracerebral exposure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvay, A.; Thieriet, N.; Lakhdar, L.; Bencsik, A.

    2013-04-01

    Titanium and silicon dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 and SiO2 NPs) are now in daily use in many commercial products of which food, sunscreens, toothpastes or cosmetics. However, their effects on human body, especially on the central nervous system, are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether direct exposition of the brain to TiO2 and SiO2 NPs results in alternations in nervous system function. C57Bl6 mice were exposed to 5 and 10 μg doses of TiO2 and SiO2 NPs through intracerebroventricular administration using a stereotaxic approach. Then the neurologic effects were investigated using motor performance parameters, measured on a rotarod at 20 rpm or at an accelerating rod (from 4 to 40 rpm). Before and after injection, motor activity is registered individually for each mouse exposed, once a week, for 8 weeks. Besides, a group of 3 mice is culled at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks after exposure in order to study the time dependant effect on the histopathology of the brain (gliosis, inflammatory process...). Both rotarod tests (accelerating and at 20 rpm) showed that TiO2 and SiO2 NPs exposure could significantly impair the motor performances, even several weeks after initial acute exposure. The first examination of the brain histopathology revealed microglial activation. As it appeared to grow throughout the brain in a time dependant manner this suggests the induction of a long lasting neuroinflammation. These primary findings indicated that exposure to TiO2 and SiO2 NPs could possibly impair the locomotor ability and this deficit may be possibly attributed at least to an inflammatory process maintained till 8 weeks after exposure in the mouse brain. To fully investigate the neurotoxicological consequences of TiO2 and SiO2 NPs exposure, brain contents in these NPs will be also investigated as well as other alterations like neurotransmitter levels. These preliminary data already underline the necessity of more in vivo studies to better characterize TiO2

  10. Comparative study of neurologic effects of nano-TiO2 versus SiO2 after direct intracerebral exposure in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and silicon dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 and SiO2 NPs) are now in daily use in many commercial products of which food, sunscreens, toothpastes or cosmetics. However, their effects on human body, especially on the central nervous system, are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether direct exposition of the brain to TiO2 and SiO2 NPs results in alternations in nervous system function. C57Bl6 mice were exposed to 5 and 10 μg doses of TiO2 and SiO2 NPs through intracerebroventricular administration using a stereotaxic approach. Then the neurologic effects were investigated using motor performance parameters, measured on a rotarod at 20 rpm or at an accelerating rod (from 4 to 40 rpm). Before and after injection, motor activity is registered individually for each mouse exposed, once a week, for 8 weeks. Besides, a group of 3 mice is culled at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks after exposure in order to study the time dependant effect on the histopathology of the brain (gliosis, inflammatory process...). Both rotarod tests (accelerating and at 20 rpm) showed that TiO2 and SiO2 NPs exposure could significantly impair the motor performances, even several weeks after initial acute exposure. The first examination of the brain histopathology revealed microglial activation. As it appeared to grow throughout the brain in a time dependant manner this suggests the induction of a long lasting neuroinflammation. These primary findings indicated that exposure to TiO2 and SiO2 NPs could possibly impair the locomotor ability and this deficit may be possibly attributed at least to an inflammatory process maintained till 8 weeks after exposure in the mouse brain. To fully investigate the neurotoxicological consequences of TiO2 and SiO2 NPs exposure, brain contents in these NPs will be also investigated as well as other alterations like neurotransmitter levels. These preliminary data already underline the necessity of more in vivo studies to better characterize TiO2

  11. Are small or large producers driving the Canada-U.S. labour productivity gap? Recent evidence from manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Jianmin Tang

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that the higher smallplant employment share in Canada compared with the United States mattered for the CanadaU.S. manufacturing labourproductivity gap, but it did not contribute to the widening of the gap between 2002 and 2007. In addition, it shows that while the weaker productivity performance of small plants in Canada compared with the United States accounted for much of the gap in a particular year, the deterioration in the productivity performance of large plants in Cana...

  12. Exposures and their determinants in radiographic film processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Kay; Chow, Yat; Brauer, Michael; Chessor, Ed; Hirtle, Bob; Kennedy, Susan M; Yeung, Moira Chan; Ward, Helen Dimich

    2002-01-01

    Radiographers process X-ray films using developer and fixer solutions that contain chemicals known to cause or exacerbate asthma. In a study in British Columbia, Canada, radiographers' personal exposures to glutaraldehyde (a constituent of the developer chemistry), acetic acid (a constituent of the fixer chemistry), and sulfur dioxide (a byproduct of sulfites, present in both developer and fixer solutions) were measured. Average full-shift exposures to glutaraldehyde, acetic acid, and sulfur dioxide were 0.0009 mg/m3, 0.09 mg/m3, and 0.08 mg/m3, respectively, all more than one order of magnitude lower than current occupational exposure limits. Local exhaust ventilation of the processing machines and use of silver recovery units lowered exposures, whereas the number of films processed per machine and the time spent near the machines increased exposures. Personnel in clinic facilities had higher exposures than those in hospitals. Private clinics were less likely to have local exhaust ventilation and silver recovery units. Their radiographers spent more time in the processor areas and processed more films per machine. Although exposures were low compared with exposure standards, there are good reasons to continue practices to minimize or eliminate exposures: glutaraldehyde and hydroquinone (present in the developer) are sensitizers; the levels at which health effects occur are not yet clearly established, but appear to be lower than current standards; and health effects resulting from the mixture of chemicals are not understood. Developments in digital imaging technology are making available options that do not involve wet-processing of photographic film and therefore could eliminate the use of developer and fixer chemicals altogether. PMID:11843420

  13. Uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compared the impact of taxation on the economic viability and competitive position of uranium mining in Canada and Australia. The evaluation is based on four types of uranium deposit and four hypothetical project models. The deposits are assumed to have been discovered and delineated, and are awaiting a mine development decision. The models, initially appraised on a before-tax basis, are then subjected to taxation in each of six jurisdictions. Several taxation criteria are assessed in each case, including after-tax measures of investment incentive, discounted tax revenues, effective tax rates, intergovernmental tax shares, and comparative tax levels. The impact of taxation is shown to be both high and variable. The taxation systems in Saskatchewan and Australia's Northern Territory generate the most government revenue and provide the lowest incentive for investment. Canada's Northwest Territories and Ontario provide the best investment incentive and collect the least amount of taxes. South Australia and Western Australia tend to be positioned between these extremes. The study demonstrates that only the very best uranium mining projects have a chance of being developed under current market conditions, and even these can be rendered uneconomic by excessive taxation regimes. It follows that exceptionally good quality targets will have to be identified to provide the economic justification for uranium exploration. These realities will likely restrict uranium exploration and development activities for some time, not an unexpected response to a market situation where low prices have been caused largely by excess supply. (L.L.)

  14. Canada: Living with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadians are exposed daily to a variety of naturally occurring radiation. Heat and light from the sun, are familiar examples. Radium and uranium are naturally occurring materials which have been found to emit radiation and so have been called radioactive. There are also various types of artificially produced forms of radiation that are employed routinely in modern living, such as radio and television waves and microwaves. X-rays, another common type of radiation, are widely used in medicine as are some man-made radioactive substances. These emit radiation just like naturally occurring radioactive materials. Surveys have shown that many people have a poor understanding of the risks associated with the activities of modern living. Exposure to ionizing radiation from radioactive materials is also considered by many persons to have a high risk, This booklet attempts to inform the readers about ionizing radiation, its uses and the risks associated with it, and to put these risks in perspective with the risks of other activities and practices. A range of topics from medical uses of radiation to emergency planning, from biological effects of radiation to nuclear power, each topic is explained to relate radiation to our everyday lives. 44 figs

  15. Comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of carbon tetrachloride in the rat following repeated inhalation exposures of 8 and 11.5 hr/day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate whether exposure to inhaled vapors for periods longer than 8 hr/day could affect the rates and routes of elimination, male Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed to 100 ppm of radiolabeled carbon tetrachloride (14CCl4) in a closed-loop chamber. One group was exposed for 8 hr/day for 5 days and another group for 11.5 hr/day for 4 days. Two other groups were exposed for either 8 hr/day for 10 of 12 consecutive days or 11.5 hr/day for 7 of 10 days. The elimination of 14C activity was measured in the expired air, urine, and feces for up to 100 hr following exposure and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 8-hr/day schedule, 14CCl4 in the breath and 14C activity in the feces comprised 45 and 48% of the total 14C excreted, respectively. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 11.5-hr/day schedule, the values were 32 and 62%, respectively, indicating that repeated exposure to the longer schedule altered the route of elimination of CCl4. Regardless of the period of exposure, less than 8% of the inhaled 14CCl4 was excreted in the urine and less than 2% was exhaled in the breath as the 14CO2 metabolite. Approximately 97-98% of the 14C activity in the expired air was 14CCl4. The quantities of 14C noted in the feces and urine suggest that more than 60% of the inhaled CCl4 was metabolized. Elimination of 14CCl4 and 14CO2 in the breath followed a two-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model (r2 = 0.98). For rats exposed 8 hr/day and 11.5 hr/day for 2 weeks, the average half-lives for elimination of 14CCl4 in the breath for the fast (alpha) and slow (beta) phases averaged 96 and 455 min, and 89 and 568 min, respectively. The average alpha and beta half-lives for elimination of 14CO2 in the breath

  16. Canada's commitment to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a broad update on all facets of the Canadian nuclear industry and demonstrates Canada's continuing commitment to nuclear technology. Canada has developed a global leadership position in nuclear technology for power generation, uranium production and isotope supply. This commitment is being further enhanced by successes in international markets with Candu technology, new uranium mine developments in our province of Saskatchewan, and expanding isotope capabilities including the construction of two new production reactors. Korea's economy is benefiting through collaboration with Canada's leading nuclear companies, both in Korea and Canada. These collaborations have the potential to expand considerably with the implementation of the Kyoto Framework Convention on Climate Change and the anticipated increased demand for new nuclear power generation installations in all major global markets. Much has been publicized about the situation surrounding Ontario Hydro Nuclear and its nuclear recovery program. This paper gives the background and highlights the actions within Ontario and Ontario Hydro designed to ensure the long term recovery of all twenty nuclear units in Ontario. The presentation at the conference will bring the audience completely up-to-date on recent events. (author)

  17. Financing Higher Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    It is the purpose of the committee responsible for this document to study, report, and make recommendations on the financing of universities and colleges of Canada, with particular reference to the decade ending 1975, including: (1) prospective financial requirements of universities and colleges, for operation, research, physical facilities and…

  18. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  19. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  20. Canada report on bioenergy 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is a nation rich in fossil fuel resources. Canada has a large, well-developed forest sector and is one of the world's largest exporters of wood products. Although national bioenergy policies exist, provincial policies regarding forest resources are necessary because 77 per cent of Canada's forests are under provincial jurisdiction. This report presented an update on Canada's bioenergy policy and resources. The report discussed biomass resources such as woody biomass; agricultural residues; and municipal waste. The use of biomass was presented with particular reference to heat and power; biofuels production; pyrolysis oil; wood pellets; and trends in biomass production and consumption. Current biomass users and biomass prices were also examined. Last, the report addressed imports and exports of ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets as well as barriers and opportunities to trade. A list of Canadian bioenergy initiatives and programs was also provided. It was concluded that the greatest opportunities for trade are to succeed in research on super-densified pellets; raise ocean shipping capacity to bring down rates; and to establish and entire biomass industry in Newfoundland Labrador. 20 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  1. Compute Canada: Advancing Computational Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Performance Computing (HPC) is redefining the way that research is done. Compute Canada's HPC infrastructure provides a national platform that enables Canadian researchers to compete on an international scale, attracts top talent to Canadian universities and broadens the scope of research.

  2. Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...

  3. Natural disturbance impacts on Canada's forest carbon budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildfire and insect outbreaks are major determinants of forest dynamics in Canada, transferring carbon within the ecosystem, releasing carbon into the atmosphere and influencing post-disturbance carbon dynamics. This paper discusses the impacts of global climate change on natural disturbances. Higher temperatures and drier conditions are likely to increase burned areas in Canada and will also increase the impacts of insects, allowing for an expanded range and stressing their host species. Long-term changes in disturbance regimes have already affected Canada's forest age-class structure. Statistics of lower disturbance periods and carbon production were compared with periods of higher disturbance. Scenario analyses were conducted for the period of 1996 to 2032, assuming that annual insect and fire disturbance rates in timber-productive forests were 20 per cent higher and carbon production 20 per cent lower than base scenarios using average disturbance rates. It was concluded that these conditions could cause carbon stocks in Canada's forests to decline. The future carbon balance of Canada's forests will be affected by the rate of natural and human-induced disturbances. 4 refs

  4. Academic Experiences of War-Zone Students in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stermac, Lana; Elgie, Susan; Clarke, Allyson; Dunlap, Hester

    2012-01-01

    This research examined educational outcomes and experiences of late adolescent immigrant students who entered the Canadian educational system following residence in global war-zone regions or areas of extreme civil unrest. Data from a Statistics Canada data-set of 18- to 20-year-old respondents (N = 658) were used to compare the academic…

  5. Content and Style of Advice in Iran and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    The content and nature of nonprofessional advice in Iran, a hierarchical and collectivist culture, was compared to the same type of advice in Canada, an egalitarian and individualist culture. A researcher developed a questionnaire that consisted of 10 letters, each describing a writer's problem and asking for advice. The responses of…

  6. Teacher Diversity in Canada: Leaky Pipelines, Bottlenecks, and Glass Ceilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James; Pollock, Katina; Antonelli, Fab

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the racial diversity of the teacher population in Canada. In particular, we compare the number of teachers of colour in Canadian elementary and secondary schools from the 2001 and 2006 Census data with the diversity of the student and general populations. We also explore ways to understand the gap between the proportion of…

  7. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  8. Fusion Canada issue 32. Final edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion Canada is a bulletin of the National Fusion Program, this is the last edition. Included in this July edition are articles on Funding for Canada's fusion program, Research and Development on TdeV-96 , Divertor Maintenance Robotics and reference listing for Canada's Fusion research and development sites

  9. A Comparative Study on the Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Iron and X-65 Steel in 4.0 wt % Sodium Chloride Solution after Different Exposure Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. Sherif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the results obtained from studying the anodic dissolution of pure iron and API X-65 5L pipeline steel after 40 min and 12 h exposure period in 4.0 wt % NaCl solutions at room temperature were reported. Potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and chronoamperometric current-time at constant potential techniques were employed. It has been found that the iron electrode corrodes in the chloride test solutions faster than the API X-65 5L steel does under the same conditions. Increasing the exposure period for the electrodes from 40 min to 12 h showed a significant reduction in the corrosion parameters for both iron and steel in the 4.0 wt % NaCl solution. Results together confirmed clearly that the X-65 steel is superior to iron against corrosion in sodium chloride solutions.

  10. Cell cycle delay in murine pre-osteoblasts is more pronounced after exposure to high-LET compared to low-LET radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueyuan; Hellweg, Christine E; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Reitz, Günther; Lau, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Space radiation contains a complex mixture of particles comprised primarily of protons and high-energy heavy ions. Radiation risk is considered one of the major health risks for astronauts who embark on both orbital and interplanetary space missions. Ionizing radiation dose-dependently kills cells, damages genetic material, and disturbs cell differentiation and function. The immediate response to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage is stimulation of DNA repair machinery and activation of cell cycle regulatory checkpoints. To date, little is known about cell cycle regulation after exposure to space-relevant radiation, especially regarding bone-forming osteoblasts. Here, we assessed cell cycle regulation in the osteoblastic cell line OCT-1 after exposure to various types of space-relevant radiation. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ionizing radiation was investigated regarding the biological endpoint of cellular survival ability. Cell cycle progression was examined following radiation exposure resulting in different RBE values calculated for a cellular survival level of 1 %. Our findings indicate that radiation with a linear energy transfer (LET) of 150 keV/μm was most effective in inducing reproductive cell killing by causing cell cycle arrest. Expression analyses indicated that cells exposed to ionizing radiation exhibited significantly up-regulated p21(CDKN1A) gene expression. In conclusion, our findings suggest that cell cycle regulation is more sensitive to high-LET radiation than cell survival, which is not solely regulated through elevated CDKN1A expression. PMID:24240273

  11. A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys of healthcare workers' hand hygiene knowledge, intentions, access and product preferences between two university hospitals, one in Norway and one in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mediå, Anne Kristine

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) and The University Hospital of Northern Norway in Tromsø (UNN-Tromsø) were compared for self-reported differences in level of knowledge and intentions to comply with the hand hygiene guidelines. Hand hygiene products were also assessed for preference of use, access, gentleness and promotion of hand hygiene compliance. Methods: A cross-sectional quality assurance staff survey was made available at UNN- Tromsø and at VGH in both print and in electr...

  12. Small mammals as sentinels of oil sands related contaminants and health effects in northeastern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Smits, Judit E G

    2016-02-01

    The extraction of bitumen in areas of northeastern Alberta (Canada) has been associated with the release of complex mixtures of metals, metalloids, and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to the environment. To mitigate effects on ecosystems, Canadian legislation mandates that disturbed areas be reclaimed to an ecologically sustainable state after active operations. However, as part of reclamation activities, exposure to, and effects on wildlife living in these areas is not generally assessed. To support successful reclamation, the development of efficient methods to assess exposure and health effects in potentially exposed wildlife is required. In the present study, we investigated the usefulness of two native mammalian species (deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus, and meadow vole Microtus pennsylvanicus) as sentinels of oil sands related contaminants by examining biomarkers of exposure and indicators of biological costs. Tissue residues of 31 metals and metalloids in kidneys and muscle, activity of the hepatic detoxification enzyme EROD (as a biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants), body condition, and the relative mass of liver, kidney, spleen, and testes were compared in animals from one reclaimed area and a reference site. Deer mice from the reclaimed site had higher renal levels of Co, Se and Tl compared to animals from the reference site, which was associated with reduced body condition. Lower testis mass was another feature that distinguished mice from the reclaimed site in comparison to those from the reference site. One mouse and one vole from the reclaimed site also showed increased hepatic EROD activity. In marked contrast, no changes were evident for these variables in meadow voles. Our results show that deer mouse is a sensitive sentinel species and that the biomarkers and indicators used here are efficient means to detect local contamination and associated biological effects in native mammals inhabiting reclaimed areas on active oil sands mine

  13. Impacts of Canada's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines economic and environmental impacts of uranium mining in Canada and compares these impacts with those of other extractive and energy industries. The uranium industry generates taxes and royalties, income, employment, foreign exchange earnings, security of energy supply, and technological spinoffs. The indirect impacts of the industry as measured by employment and income multipliers are lower than those for other types of mining and comparable to oil and gas because of the high proportion of costs withdrawn from the economy in the form of taxes and operator margin. Social costs are primarily occupational hazards. Uranium mining probably has a lower non-health environmental impact than other mining industries due to much smaller throughputs and transportation requirements. Residents of the area surrounding the mine bear a disproportionate share of the social costs, while non-residents receive most of the benefits

  14. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  15. Breast cancer screening in Canada: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized screening for breast cancer in Canada began in 1988 and has been implemented in all provinces and 2 of the 3 territories. Quality initiatives are promoted through national guidelines which detail best practices in various areas, including achieving quality through a client-service approach, recruitment and capacity, retention, quality of mammography, reporting, communication of results, follow-up and diagnostic workup, and program evaluation; it also offers detailed guidelines for the pathological examination and reporting of breast specimens. The Canadian Breast Cancer Data Base is a national breast cancer screening surveillance system whose objective is to collect information from provincial-screening programs. These data are used to monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and allow comparison with national and international results. A series of standardized performance indicators and targets for the evaluation of performance and quality of organized breast cancer screening programs have been developed from the data base. Although health care is a provincial responsibility in Canada, the collective reporting and comparison of results both nationally and internationally is beneficial in evaluating and refining both screening programs and individual radiologist performance. The results of Canadian performance indicators compare favourably with those of other well-established international screening programs. There are variations in performance indicators across the provinces and territories, but these differences are not extreme. (author)

  16. Civil emergency planning in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J F

    1967-01-28

    THE NATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF CIVILIAN EMERGENCY PLANNING ARE: (1) protection and preservation of life and property; (2) maintenance of governmental structure; and (3) conservation of resources. The Canada Emergency Measures Organization (E.M.O.) has been developed to accomplish these objectives. E.M.O. co-ordinates other departments and agencies of federal government and its organization is reflected within provincial and municipal governments.Present E.M.O. accomplishments include: an attack warning system; an emergency broadcasting system; emergency government facilities; 400 emergency measure organizations across Canada; plans to implement general readiness; a medical stockpile; and "shadow agencies" for control of housing, food and manpower.PRESENT UNDERTAKINGS INCLUDE: a national survey of fallout shelters; the equipping of the radiation defence (RADEF); the pre-positioning of the items of the medical stockpile; and the training at the Canadian Emergency Measures College at Arnprior. PMID:6015737

  17. Fusion energy and Canada's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion is the process of releasing energy from matter which occurs in our sun. Canada is contributing to the development of technology which will permit this process to be harnessed and made available on earth. The international effort has increased from a modest beginning in the 1950s to a level of approximately two billion dollars annually in the 1980s. The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the concept of fusion energy as a technology which should make an important addition to the mix of energy sources for our future. Through a co-ordinated approach, Canada has established several projects which will contribute significantly to the development of technologies in specific areas leading to opportunities now for Canadian industry in the international effort

  18. Women in physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Ghose, Shohini; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; McKenna, Janis; Bhadra, Sampa; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Dasgupta, Arundhati; Campbell, Melanie; Barkanova, Svetlana; Steinitz, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While the overall climate for women physicists both in academia and industry has improved significantly over the past decade in Canada, it will be some time before women are well represented. Numbers of women in physics at all academic levels have increased, but are less than ideal at the full professor level. Organizations such as the Canadian Association of University Teachers and local initiatives are striving to minimize the socio-economic and professional gaps between women and men. The Canadian Association of Physicists, through its Committee to Encourage Women in Physics, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council are supportive and serve as catalysts, bringing together men and women to discuss and address issues concerning women in physics across Canada.

  19. Nuclear criticality safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach taken to nuclear criticality safety in Canada has been influenced by the historical development of participants. The roles played by governmental agencies and private industry since the Atomic Energy Control Act was passed into Canadian Law in 1946 are outlined to set the scene for the current situation and directions that may be taken in the future. Nuclear criticality safety puts emphasis on the control of materials called special fissionable material in Canada. A brief account is given of the historical development and philosophy underlying the existing regulations governing special fissionable material. Subsequent events have led to a change in emphasis in the regulatory process that has not yet been fully integrated into Canadian legislation and regulations. Current efforts towards further development of regulations governing the practice of nuclear criticality safety are described. (auth)

  20. Can the Canada-U.S. ICT Investment Gap be a Measurement Issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Vikram Rai; Andrew Sharpe

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, business sector investment per worker in information and communications technology (ICT) in Canada was only 57.8 per cent of the U.S. level, indicating an ICT investment per worker gap of 42.2 percentage points. Numerous explanations have been advanced to explain this gap, one of which is the ICT investment data from Statistics Canada and the Bureau of Economic Analysis are not strictly comparable. We compare the methodology used to measure ICT investment in Canada and the United Sta...

  1. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  2. Electric power in Canada, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (78 tabs., 27 figs.)

  3. Canada: The largest uranium producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite all the current difficulties, previous erroneous forecasts and other mistakes, the longer term future looks good for uranium mining and for Canada's industry in particular. Saskatchewan continues to offer the most exciting new prospects, the huge and fabulously high grade Cigar Lake deposits being the most spectacular of the recent discoveries. Notwithstanding continuous mining for 30 years from Elliot Lake there still remain there significant uncommitted reserves which can be developed when the market for uranium is in better balance

  4. The nuclear debate in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author argues that the nuclear debate in Canada is concerned less with the safety of nuclear power plants and more with arguments of economics and social decision-making. The nuclear industry cannot afford to neglect the continuing need to inform the public about nuclear risks. But there is also a need to develop specific arguments to increase public acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic, democratic and equitable energy option

  5. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  6. Routine outcome measures in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Steve; Adair, Carol E; Lin, Elizabeth; Marriott, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canada is a federal country of 10 provinces and three territories. High level information on mental health conditions and service use has mostly been generated from administrative data collected by provinces and territories. These include four major types - hospital admissions and discharges, physician billings, ambulatory care services, and drug databases. At the national level, the Canadian Institute for Health Information brings together this information to produce indicators of outcome. Although these data provide information on patient and health system characteristics, they do not capture the full spectrum of formal and informal mental healthcare. These include changes in health status, functioning, community integration and quality of life. As a result, some jurisdictions have begun to implement more standardized measures of outcome such as the clinician-rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales or the inpatient Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health. In this paper we provide an overview of mental-health-related data sources in Canada, highlight some of the more progressive practices beginning to emerge, and conclude with some thoughts about how the routine measurement and reporting of mental health outcomes in Canada might be advanced including efforts at engaging both clinicians and decision-makers. PMID:25738745

  7. Overview of Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries

  8. Education of pharmacists in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zubin; Ensom, Mary H H

    2008-12-15

    In Canada, the education of pharmacists is built upon a foundation of strong, research-intensive publicly funded universities and a universal health-care system that balances government and private financing for prescription medications. The evolution of pharmacy education and practice in Canada has laid the foundation for a variety of emerging trends related to expanded roles for pharmacists, increasing interprofessional collaboration for patient-centered care, and emergence of pharmacy technicians as a soon-to-be regulated professional group in parts of the country. Current challenges include the need to better integrate internationally educated pharmacists within the domestic workforce and tools to ensure continuous professional development and maintenance of competency of practitioners. Academic pharmacy is currently debating how best to manage the need to enhance the pharmacy curriculum to meet current and future skills needs, and whether a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree ought to become the standard entry-to-practice qualification for pharmacists in Canada. PMID:19325948

  9. Women in Physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  10. A Cohort Study of Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jerrett, Michael; Murray M Finkelstein; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Arain, M Altaf; Kanaroglou, Palvos; Stieb, Dave M.; Gilbert, Nicolas L.; Verma, Dave; Finkelstein, Norm; Kenneth R Chapman; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) may contribute to premature mortality, but few studies to date have addressed this topic. Objectives In this study we assessed the association between TRAP and mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Methods We collected nitrogen dioxide samples over two seasons using duplicate two-sided Ogawa passive diffusion samplers at 143 locations across Toronto. We calibrated land use regressions to predict NO2 exposure on a fine scale ...

  11. Teaching Global Engineering in Canada, Learning Informality of the Global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopakumar, Govind

    2014-01-01

    Globalisation has inspired a wide assortment of curricular initiatives within engineering education in the USA and Europe. This interest could be categorised in multiple directions--international exposure, service learning, or critical understanding and praxis. In Canada, however, there has been far less consideration for integrating globalisation…

  12. Data-driven approach for cross-species comparative metabolite exposure assessment: how to establish fundamental bioanalytical parameters for the peak area ratio method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongying; Obach, R Scott

    2014-03-01

    We previously developed an high-performance LC-MS peak area ratio approach to demonstrate whether an animal species used in a toxicology study has greater exposures to drug metabolites relative to humans, meeting regulatory guidances regarding safety assessment of drug metabolites. Herein we explain the underlying bioanalytical principals, how to establish all fundamental bioanalytical parameters, and how to evaluate data quality in sample analysis, in the absence of authentic standards of analyte(s). A data-driven tiered approach was used in which data from the peak area ratio method can stand based on statistical analysis, as well as assuring that fundamental elements of bioanalytical method and bioanalysis are met. This strategy offers considerable time- and resource-saving advantage while providing high confidence in the safety assessment of human metabolites in drug development. PMID:24620806

  13. The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) employee health study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary examination of records relating to past Chalk River employees provides some reassurance that large numbers of cancer deaths that might be related to occupational radiation exposure do not exist in the groups of employees studied to the end of 1982. The lack of reliable information on deaths of ex-employees who left AECL for other employment prevented the inclusion of this group in this preliminary study. This information will presumably be obtained during the course of the more comprehensive Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. employee health study. 6 refs

  14. Syncrude: Working to secure Canada's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syncrude Canada supplies 11% of total Canadian crude oil production, over 60 million bbl/y, from oil sand deposits in northern Alberta. Syncrude is the world's largest synthetic crude oil producer, and its operating costs are comparable to the costs of finding and producing new conventional oil sources. Some 200 billion bbl of oil are recoverable from the oil sands using present extraction techniques, but more research and development is needed for the northern Alberta deposits to realize their full potential. A key to much of Syncrude's success is its personnel policies, which include involvement in working with local native communities to hire and train aboriginal employees, establishment of partnerships with educational institutions, on-the-job education, and employment equity programs for women and minority groups. 2 figs

  15. Sleep enhances exposure therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kleim, Birgit; Wilhelm, F. H.; Temp, L; Margraf, J.; Wiederhold, B. K.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep benefits memory consolidation. Here, we tested the beneficial effect of sleep on memory consolidation following exposure psychotherapy of phobic anxiety. Method: A total of 40 individuals afflicted with spider phobia according to DSM-IV underwent a one-session virtual reality exposure treatment and either slept for 90 min or stayed awake afterwards. Results: Sleep following exposure therapy compared with wakefulness led to better reductions in self-reported fear (p = 0...

  16. Exposición a estireno en cabinas prefabricadas: Estudio comparativo 2003 - 2005 Styrene exposure in pre-built cabins: Comparative study 2003 - 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cousillas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los objetos fabricados con las resinas reforzadas pueden liberar al medio ambiente, vapor de estireno, lo que conlleva a tener una exposición al disolvente. En Uruguay, para el desarrollo de diferentes tareas administrativas, de vigilancia, de comercio, etc. se utilizan unas cabinas que son fabricadas con resinas de poliester no saturadas. En un trabajo anterior se comprobó que existía exposición a estireno en este tipo de cabinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los riesgos higiénicos a los que está expuesto el personal de empresa que desarrolla sus tareas administrativas en cabinas de fibra de vidrio reforzadas de resina. Se realizaron muestreos ambientales en cabinas ubicadas en diferentes zonas del Montevideo durante el año 2004 y 2005. Los valores de referencia que se utilizaron fueron los de la American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH de 2006. El trabajo realizado demuestra que no existe exposición del personal a vapores de estireno en sus lugares de trabajo con el consiguiente riesgo descrito para estos productos. Considerando los resultados del año 2003, se concluye que los valores obtenidos ese año fueron puntuales del tipo de cabinas.The objects made with reinforced resins can release styrene steam to the indoor environment, which involves worker´s exposure to this toxic solvent. In Uruguay, some administrative, commerce, and more tasks are carried out in those fiber glass cabins which are manufactured with those resins. In a previous study we had high values of styrene in air and his metabolites in urine for people working in this buildings. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the hygienic risks to exposed workers from different companies who perform their administrative tasks in reinforced fiber glass cabins. Environmental samplings were made. The reference values used were those of the American Conference of Industrial Governmental Hygienists of 2005 (ACGIH. The results obtained

  17. Integrating environment health and safety management at Petro-Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada has developed a tool to integrate, measure, and improve its management systems of environment, health, and safety (EH ampersand S). This tool, called the Total Loss Management System, is described in the areas of general management issues, policies and procedures, evaluations, organization, stewardship, issue management, and performance measures. Petro-Canada's policies on occupational health and safety are consistent with its environmental policy, being structured in the same way. An integrated audit system is used to cover health, safety, industrial hygiene, reliability, environment, and risk management. EH ampersand S matters are integrated at the corporate level in a separate department. Regional divisions review EH ampersand S performance every month, incidents are discussed, and preventive measures are taken as necessary. Regional performances are combined every quarter for ultimate presentation to the Petro-Canada board. New or emerging issues that may affect divisions are assigned an issue sponsor, a member of divisional management who makes sure the issue receives the resources necessary to study and define its impact. Examples of issues include soil contamination, process hazard management, and benzene exposure limits. Performance measures flow from the corporate environment and occupational health and safety policies, and come in two types: those that measure activities to improve performance and those that measure the outcome of the activities

  18. Comparative study of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in blood and semen of two young male populations: lack of relationship to infertility, but evidence of high exposure of the mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Corinne J; Foidart, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the possible effect of an environmental organochlorine, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), on male fertility assessed by main sperm variables, conducted through a case-control study on young men attending the andrology laboratory in the context of infertility investigation in the couple. Blood and semen samples were obtained from 73 young men considered as fertile based on semen analysis (controls) and 82 classified as subfertile or unfertile (cases). Standard clinical analysis of semen was performed and identification and quantification of p,p'-DDE in serum and in seminal plasma were done by gas chromatography. No p,p'-DDE was detected in the seminal plasma of either group. Blood concentration of p,p'-DDE in both groups was very low and did not differ between cases and controls; however, blood samples were obtained from 23 mothers in the control group, and from 19 in the case group, and p,p'-DDE serum level was significantly higher in the mothers of subfertile men. These data suggest that male infertility could be associated with exposure of the mothers to p,p'-DDE with deleterious effects restricted to intra-uterine life and thus undetected in blood or seminal plasma of subfertile men. PMID:15907656

  19. Long duration measurements of whole-body vibration exposures associated with surface coal mining equipment compared to previous short-duration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Lynas, Danellie

    2016-01-01

    Previous measurements of whole-body vibration associated with earth-moving equipment at surface coal mines have highlighted the significance of the hazard. Considerable variability in measurement amplitudes, even within the same equipment type operated at the same site, has been noted. However, the measurements have previously been undertaken for relatively short durations. Fifty-nine measurements were collected from a range of earth-moving equipment in operation at a surface coal mine. Measurement durations ranged from 100-460 min (median = 340 min). The results indicate that the measurements previously observed are not an artifact of the relatively short durations and confirm that operators of dozers and off-road haul trucks, in particular, are frequently exposed to vertical whole-body vibration levels which lie within, or above, the Health Guidance Caution Zone defined by ISO2631.1. Further investigations are justified to identify opportunities for reducing operators' exposure to high amplitude vibrations. PMID:26771238

  20. Immigration and Crime: Evidence from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haimin

    2014-01-01

    There is growing belief in many developed countries, including Canada, that the large influx of the foreign-born population increases crime. Despite the heated public discussion, the immigrant-crime relationship is understudied in the literature. This paper identifies the causal linkages between immigration and crime using panel data constructed from the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and the master files of the Census of Canada. This paper distinguishes immigrants by their years in Canada an...

  1. Fusion energy. What Canada can do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Canada's fusion programs have grown, Canadian capabilities in fusion science and technology have grown and matured with them. The fusion capabilities described in this booklet have come from a coordinated national effort. The Government of Canada is committed to continuing its fusion energy program, and to supporting global fusion efforts. These first pages provide an overview of Canada's fusion work and its underlying basis of science and technology

  2. Chiropractic radiology in Canada: an anthology of the Chiropractic College of Radiologists (Canada) Inc

    OpenAIRE

    Shrubb, Eric F.

    1990-01-01

    Although there are numerous chiropractic institutions, one which receives little acclaim, but contributes significantly to chiropractic life in Canada, is the Chiropractic College of Radiologists (Canada) Inc. The following presentation represents a brief historical perspective of this most prestigious organization.

  3. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  4. Canada-United States oil and gas relations, 1958 to 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Tammy Lynn

    While there were overtures from each country to develop a more formal accord to govern the trade of oil and natural gas at different times since 1958, Canada rejected that option in 1974 when it decided to phase out oil exports to the U.S. The main purpose of this research is to trace the development and evolution of Canada-U.S. oil and gas relations from the beginning of the informal continental relationship in 1959, through attempts to formalize a continental oil and gas agreement in the late 1960s, to the initial reversal of continentalism by Canada in 1974. This study examines and compares the changing influence of the explanatory variables of interest groups, international forces, national security, economics, ideas, and personalities on the energy decision- and policy-making processes of Canada and the U.S. between 1958 and 1974. Four key decisions or events that can be considered turning points in the Canada-U.S. oil and gas relationship are analysed and include: Canada's exemption to the American Mandatory Oil Import Program (MOIP); Canada's National Oil Policy (NOP); the near revocation of Canada's MOIP exemption; and Canada's decision to phase out oil exports. These events and relationships are situated in the larger context of interdependence, intergovernmental and transgovernmental relations, and the altered bureaucratic structures of governments in both countries over this period of time. Although decisions concerning Canada-U.S. oil and gas relations, and the pursuit and reversal of continentalist policies, were influenced by concerns regarding the pressure of various interest groups, international forces, national security, and changing economic and ideological circumstances; in the period examined here, the personalities of and personal relationships between Presidents and Prime Ministers, and the actions of key officials, as well as their transgovernmental networks across the border, often made the difference in determining what policy or approach

  5. Landfill gas management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (1015 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring

  6. Nuclear waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classification of radioactive wastes in Canada involves two categories - waste of such a nature or in such amounts that it could be hazardous to the public, and waste which can be dealt with safely by methods available to individual institutions having at their disposal only conventional methods for getting rid of unwanted material. It is easy to provide for long-term retention of radioactive wastes if no account need be taken of expense. However, it is unreasonable (and discouraging to progress) to insist upon techniques of waste management that are applicable to multi-curie sources when the amounts to be dealt with are in the millicurie range. (author)

  7. Decommissioning Experience: Chalk River, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has reported that work has continued on the decommissioning of old structures on the Chalk River laboratory site. An environmental assessment was approved in 2006 for the decommissioning of the NRX reactor fuel bays (A and B). The regulator approved two work packages for the removal of water and the wooden structure over the bays. The A bays were cleaned as far as possible and were emptied in 2007. Decontamination work will continue. Sections of the B bays were filled with sand and other parts filled with water. NRX is currently in storage (i.e. a dormant state) with surveillance. (author)

  8. Long-Term Mental Health among Low-Income, Minority Women Following Exposure to Multiple Natural Disasters in Early and Late Adolescence Compared to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Harville, Emily W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High impact experiences following a natural disaster have been shown to influence later psychopathology. Individual-level factors such as age may also contribute to a disaster's impact on mental health, though it is unclear whether young age confers a protective effect or represents a period of increased risk as compared to adulthood.…

  9. Particulate Matter from Both Heavy Fuel Oil and Diesel Fuel Shipping Emissions Show Strong Biological Effects on Human Lung Cells at Realistic and Comparable In Vitro Exposure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Marco; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Schlager, Christoph; Mülhopt, Sonja; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten; Stengel, Benjamin; Rabe, Rom; Harndorf, Horst; Torvela, Tiina; Jokiniemi, Jorma K.; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; BéruBé, Kelly A.; Wlodarczyk, Anna J.; Prytherch, Zoë; Michalke, Bernhard; Krebs, Tobias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kelbg, Michael; Tiggesbäumker, Josef; Karg, Erwin; Jakobi, Gert; Scholtes, Sorana; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Lintelmann, Jutta; Matuschek, Georg; Sklorz, Martin; Klingbeil, Sophie; Orasche, Jürgen; Richthammer, Patrick; Müller, Laarnie; Elsasser, Michael; Reda, Ahmed; Gröger, Thomas; Weggler, Benedikt; Schwemer, Theo; Czech, Hendryk; Rüger, Christopher P.; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Radischat, Christian; Hiller, Karsten; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Dittmar, Gunnar; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling. Objectives To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols. Methods Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO) or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF). Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses. Results The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon (“soot”). Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification. Conclusions Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the

  10. Particulate matter from both heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel shipping emissions show strong biological effects on human lung cells at realistic and comparable in vitro exposure conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Oeder

    Full Text Available Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling.To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols.Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF. Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses.The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon ("soot". Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification.Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the use of HFO and DF we recommend a

  11. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 122 publications from the Canadian federal government and from 9 Canadian provinces. Topics include environmental programs and problems, gambling, crime, young offenders, health and welfare issues, use of electronic information, materials on education, employment, tourism, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and issues relating to…

  12. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Virginia

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 110 Canadian federal and provincial government documents published in 1991 that address a wide range of topics, including demographics; constitutional law; social issues, including problems of women, children, and minorities; education; the environment; and standard of living. A list of reviewers is included. (MES)

  13. Frequency analysis of pulmonary tumors occurrence at the rat after exposure to actinide oxide aerosols. Risk factors identification by comparing NpO2 and PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation of actinide oxide particles is potentially one route of contamination of workers, which might induce pulmonary tumours due to aerosol generation during nuclear fuel fabrication process. Dose-effect relationships for lung tumour induction have been well established from epidemiological and experimental studies. However, they do not take into account specific parameters of exposure. The aim of this study was to compare cancer incidence among groups of rats exposed either to NpO2 or to PuO2, two actinide oxides with different specific activity, but with similar aerosol granulometry. During the rat life-span, lung tumour development could occur and the individual follow-up allowed the determination of lung dose at death. Although aerosol particle sizes were similar, the mean number of particles per unit of activity was 2400 times higher for NpO2 as compared to PuO2. This range of variation appeared higher than the variation of specific activity (450). Initial distribution of aerosol was then much more homogeneous for neptunium. In the range of initial lung deposits studied, the only physiological changes observed concerned lung clearance and rat life- span after exposure to the highest levels of Np activity. Pathological examination performed at death showed that carcinogenic power of neptunium was 2 to 3 times higher than that of plutonium. Dose-effect relationships appeared linear and when compared to previous studies, showed an increase of lung cancer risk as the specific activity of the inhaled actinide oxide decreases. The range of risk variation can reach a factor of 10, revealing that the consideration of lung dose at death solely might not be sufficient for an accurate estimate of risk and that specific parameters of exposure, such as nature and granulometry of aerosols, should also be taken into account. (author)

  14. 2000 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All wells drilled in Western Canada during the first nine months of 1999 are listed and sorted into 12 geographical areas used in the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) well cost study. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Area totals for well counts and meters drilled were determined from the sorting process. Previous years' activities are reviewed and various operators and PSAC members contacted to review upcoming programs. In addition, trends and other projections were consulted to develop an estimate of drilling activity for the rest of 1999 as well as a projection of drilling activity for 2000. The historical and projected drilling activities were tabulated and plotted for each area. Average drilling costs for each area were determined, and the total expenditures were calculated for each area by multiplying the the projected meterage by the adjusted drilling costs. All costs were allocated to various services and products utilizing percentages determined in the Well Cost Study. During the sorting process, a list was developed of the major operators in each area, which list is included in the report along with average depths and types of wells drilled by the various operators in each area. The costs included in the report include only drilling and completion operations, starting with the building of the location prior to drilling, and ending with the installation of the wellhead after construction. 5 tabs

  15. 1999 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forecasts contained in this report are based on a review of the drilling activity through the first eight months of 1998 in twelve geographic areas of Western Canada. The forecasts incorporate current operator activity and trends into an estimate of well counts and meters drilled for the entire year of 1998. The estimates produced in this manner serve as the basis for the activity forecast for 1999. This projection, and cost data developed for the Association's 1998 Well Cost Study released in September 1998, provide the foundation for calculating the anticipated expenditure for various products and services in each of the specified geographical areas. Major operators in each area, and the type of drilling activities conducted by them, are also included. For Western Canada as a whole, a total of 9,885 wells are predicted to be drilled in 1999, at a total expenditure of $3.939 billion. The predicted average well depth will be 1,171 m, at an average cost of $ 219/m

  16. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  18. Energy in Canada: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent changes in the North American natural gas industry are discussed, with a focus on how these changes will affect the ability of Alberta and Canadian natural gas supply to meet market growth. These changes include a decline in the merchant role of many of the major interstate pipelines, resulting in a larger number of smaller-sized purchasers for natural gas marketers to deal with; a greater extent of direct purchasing by local distribution companies and large industrial users, combined with a preference for spot sales rather than long-term commitments; direct marketing of uncontracted gas by many producers and brokers; a bidding type of sales process rather than a negotiated process; and price deregulation. It is foreseen that long term security of supply will again become an important factor to North American buyers, and Canada can offer substantial supplies under secure long term contracts. Marketers will have to seek new market targets such as cogeneration plants and the transportation sector. Access to pipeline transport will be one of the major factors in obtaining new markets. The Canada-USA free trade agreement is viewed as a positive development which should help Canadian gas marketers to gain and retain U.S. customers

  19. Flame retardants in eggs of four gull species (Laridae) from breeding sites spanning Atlantic to Pacific Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare legacy and emerging flame retardant (FR) contamination in Canadian marine and freshwater ecosystems, eggs of four gull species (Laridae) were collected from 26 colonies spanning Pacific to Atlantic Canada, including in the Great Lakes basin. Fourteen polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 20 non-PBDE FRs were analyzed, but BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154 and -209, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) syn- and anti-isomers were common, and where concentrations of ∑PBDEs (37–610 ng/g wet weight, ww) ≫ HBCD (0.5–12 ng/g ww) > ∑DP (not quantifiable-5.5 ng/g ww). All other FRs were generally not detectable. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes used as dietary tracers provided insights into the diet choice influences on the exposure sources and contamination patterns (e.g., PBDE congener compositions) for individual gulls from the same colony. Eggs from gulls breeding near metropolitan regions of higher human densities showed greater PBDE burdens than from other ecosystems. - Highlights: ► We investigated flame retardants in eggs of four gull species spanning Canada. ► Concentrations of ∑PBDE ≫ hexabromocyclododecane > ∑Dechlorane Plus in eggs. ► Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes revealed diet sources of flame retardants. ► Human density near breeding sites influenced flame retardant burdens in eggs. - Various flame retardants were found in eggs of four gull species from sites across Canada, and levels were influenced by location, ecosystem, diet and proximity to human populations.

  20. Cultural influence, economic security, and the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang, Zongli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis study explores interactions of cultural influence and economic insecurity and their effects on the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada. The importance of group context on the actions of individuals is measured through data from the PUST of the 1971 and1991 Canadian Censuses. Contextual analysis and random coefficient models are the major statistical tools employed to achieve the above objectives. The Chinese-Canadians are compared to the British-Canadians, who are used as the reference group. The findings suggest that Chinese reproductive norms with pronatalist endowments exert strong influence on the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada.This influence effectively counteracts the negative effects of economic insecurity and encourages Chinese immigrants to quickly recover their fertility deficit after the initial immigration stage. The effects of the origin culture on fertility diminish with increasing exposure to the host society.However, even among the native-born or Canadian-born Chinese, the influence of Chinese reproductive norms is still present though not as strong as among the foreign-born Chinese.FrenchCette étude explore les interactions de l'influence culturelle et de l'insécuritééconomique et leurs effets sur le comportement procréateur des Chinois auCanada. L'importance d'un contexte de groupe sur les actions des individus estmesurée au moyen de données provenant de la BEGD (bande-échantillon àgrande diffusion des recensements canadiens de 1971 et 1991. L'analysecontextuelle et les coefficients de modèles au hasard constituent les principauxoutils statistiques employés pour atteindre les objectifs susmentionnés. Les Sino-Canadiens sont comparés aux habitants de la Colombie-Britannique qui serventde groupe témoin. Les conclusions indiquent que les normes de reproduction àaction nataliste exercent une forte influence sur le comportement procréateur desChinois au Canada. Cette influence

  1. Healthy indoors : achieving healthy indoor environments in Canada : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large proportion of the lives of Canadians is spent indoors, whether in vehicles, restaurants, shopping malls, offices or houses. The health of people working and living in those indoor settings might be damaged a a result, despite best efforts. Indoor pollution has been identified as one of the most serious risks to human health, according to numerous leading authorities, among them the American Lung Association, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). A large number of cancer deaths are attributed to indoor pollution each year in the United States, as well as respiratory health problems. A causal link between certain indoor exposures and the development and provocation of asthma was established recently in a report on asthma and indoor air quality published by the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine. Exposure to indoor pollutants has also resulted in thousands of children experiencing elevated blood lead levels. Not enough attention is paid in Canada to pollution in buildings by government agencies, corporations and other non-governmental organizations and citizens. Not much seems to have changed in the past thirty years. An ambitious strategy by Pollution Probe was described in this document, listing the initial goals and measures required to achieve those goals. The creation of Healthy Indoors Partnership (HIP) was proposed to regroup all the stakeholders under the same umbrella. refs., tabs

  2. Exposure of patients in the Department of Nuclear Medicine resulting from diagnostic examinations with radionuclides (comparative studies in the years 1975-1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies were carried out on the basis of the data from the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Central Clinical Hospital WAM in Warsaw. The number of patients, activity and frequency of administration of radionuclides were compared, and the collective committed effective equivalent doses and mean annual effective equivalent doses per patients in the years 1975-1993 were determined. The purpose of the work was the evaluation of individual and committed effective equivalent doses after the use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic in vivo examinations in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the University Hospital. 17 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Low cost energy in Canada: The view from downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key cost determinants of energy in Canada are analyzed and recommendations are made to ensure the competitiveness of Canadian energy costs and energy-consuming industries in the North American and world markets. Oil supplies 45% of world energy and has a key role in determining prices of all other energy forms since it serves as an incremental source of energy: its consumption changes according to economic growth, changes in weather patterns, and other factors. North America currently accounts for about a third of world oil consumption. North American oil demand is expected to remain flat over the next few decades. As Canada only produces ca 3% of world oil supply, it cannot determine oil prices. However, with an efficient downstream industry, Canada can influence the end-user price of energy. The cost structure of refined products in Canada is analyzed. The cost of raw materials is the single biggest determinant of the final product cost, followed by taxes, operating costs, and profit margin. For gasoline in Ontario, taxes account for half the retail cost, crude oil prices ca 30%, and refining costs ca 4%. Refining costs comprise about two thirds labor costs and one third energy costs. Refiner margins have not exceeded 2 cents/l since 1981, creating reluctance to invest in the refining sector. By 1994, some 200,000 bbl/d of refining capacity is expected to be shut down in Canada. Compared to refineries in the USA, Canadian refineries are smaller and have a much lower capacity to upgrade residual fuel oil to light products. Future challenges to the industry include a projected need for $5 billion in investment, largely to fund new environmental initiatives. Such an investment cannot be met through current industry profits. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Mounting ground sections of teeth: Cyanoacrylate adhesive versus Canada balsam

    OpenAIRE

    Manogna R.L. Vangala; Amrutha Rudraraju; Subramanyam, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hard tissues can be studied by either decalcification or by preparing ground sections. Various mounting media have been tried and used for ground sections of teeth. However, there are very few studies on the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive as a mounting medium. Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of cyanoacrylate adhesive (Fevikwik™) as a mounting medium for ground sections of teeth and to compare these ground sections with those mounted with Canada balsam. Mat...

  5. Selective immigration policy in Australia, Canada, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Antecol, Heather; Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Stephen J. Trejo

    2004-01-01

    We compare the selective immigration policies in Australia, Canada and the United States over the twentieth century and as they exist today. We then review existing information about the link between selective immigration policy and immigration outcomes in the three countries. The literature reviewed suggests that there does seem to be potential for selective immigration policy to affect immigrant outcomes by altering the skill levels of immigrants. Still, it is clear that other forces are at...

  6. Animal welfare and the harp seal hunt in Atlantic Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Crook, Alice; Bollinger, Trent K.; Campbell, Keith G.; Wong, James

    2002-01-01

    Much attention has been given over the years to animal welfare issues surrounding the seal hunt in Atlantic Canada. However, very little information is available on this subject in the scientific literature. This article reports the results of observations made by representatives of the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association at the hunt in recent years and compares them with observations made by members of the International Fund for Animal Welfare. The conclusion is that the large majority o...

  7. Canada's Capital Markets: How Do They Measure Up?

    OpenAIRE

    Sheryl Kennedy

    2004-01-01

    In a recent speech, Deputy Governor Sheryl Kennedy discusses how the efficiency of Canada's capital markets compares in a global context. Taking into account the three inter-related aspects of an efficient market (allocational, operational, and informational efficiency), Kennedy reviews the recent performance of Canadian capital markets under such headings as size, completeness, and access to capital and the instruments needed to hedge, or distribute, risk (allocational efficiency). To assess...

  8. Parceria universidade-empresa e mudanças na cultura acadêmica: análise comparativa dos casos da Argentina e do Canadá University-industry partnerships and changes in academic culture: a comparative analysis of Argentina and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schugurensky

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo estuda as mudanças na cultura acadêmica que ocorreram nas universidades públicas nestas últimas décadas. A partir de uma perspectiva histórica e comparada (que descreve os casos da Argentina e do Canadá, analisam-se as características das universidades e da cultura acadêmica no período do pós-guerra (1950-1970 e do final do século (1980-2000. No contexto das políticas neoliberais de mercadorização do conhecimento, de diminuição do financiamento público e do redirecionamento dos fundos vinculados por agentes externos à universidade, um modelo de capitalismo acadêmico instaurou-se gradualmente durante esse segundo período e a universidade autônoma transformou-se paulatinamente numa universidade heterônoma.This paper studies the changes in academic culture public universities have suffered these last decades. From a historical and comparative (with cases from Argentina and Canada standpoint, it analyses the features of university and academic culture during the post-war (1950-1970 and end of century (1980-2000. In a context of neo-liberal policies that commercialize knowledge, reduce public funding and redirect funding according to external actors, a model of academic capitalism has gradually taken over during this last period and university has undergone a gradual shift from autonomy to heteronomy.

  9. Canada's forest biomass resources: deriving estimates from Canada's forest inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biomass inventory for Canada was undertaken to address the data needs of carbon budget modelers, specifically to provide estimates of above-ground tree components and of non-merchantable trees in Canadian forests. The objective was to produce a national method for converting volume estimates to biomass that was standardized, repeatable across the country, efficient and well documented. Different conversion methods were used for low productivity forests (productivity class 1) and higher productivity forests (productivity class 2). The conversion factors were computed by constructing hypothetical stands for each site, age, species and province combination, and estimating the merchantable volume and all the above-ground biomass components from suitable published equations. This report documents the procedures for deriving the national biomass inventory, and provides illustrative examples of the results. 46 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Professor: Lær af Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada.......Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada....

  11. Canada Experientially: Every Trail Has a Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bob

    The discovery of Canada means rolling out a new map, giving meaning to the land and its heritage. Experientially discovering Canada is at the heart of teaching and learning. It is necessary to balance experiential exploration with classroom and library exploration. In order to achieve this, the student must be a traveler. Programs that attempt to…

  12. AECL: 60 years of contributing to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper traces the history of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. For 60 years AECL has contributed world class science and technology to Canada, while assisting Government on policy issues, enabling business innovation and technology transfer, and generating highly qualified workforce for Canadian industry.

  13. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  14. Implications of occupational exposure distributions in the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is the nuclear regulator agency in Canada. Its mandate includes controlling the development, application and use of atomic energy. A major consideration in meeting this mandate is radiological safety. Careful recording and analysis of dose data are important in the regulatory process. AECB objectives in analysing this data include: studying the degree of compliance with regulations and provisions outlined in the licences; identifying the most exposed occupational groups, comparing exposures and studying exposure trends and informing the public as well as provincial, federal and international organizations. The National Dose Registry is operated by the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices of the Department of National Health and Welfare (DNHW). It is a centralized dose record keeping system which maintains dose information on all monitored radiation workers in Canada, that is, those in both the AECB regulated nuclear industry as well as the provincially regulated X-ray facilities. The nuclear industry workers constitute about 20% of the total. The Department maintains the Registry to: undertake epidemiological studies and health surveillance; assist the AECB and provincial authorities in controlling occupational radiation exposure; undertake dose trend analysis; and provide information for compensatory and legal purposes. The AECB and DNHW have established an interdepartmental working group to determine how DNHW can best meet AECB requirements for dose data analysis. Typical analyses include: dose distributions and average doses by job category and by area in a facility; trends in dose distributions or averages for each job category; trends in collective dose and determination of factors causing these trends. Additional analyses include intercomparison of data for similar jobs but at different facilities and different sectors of the nuclear industry, and the determination of radiation dose per unit of production. 3 refs

  15. Payroll Taxes in Canada Revisited: Structure, Policy Parameters and Recent Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zhengxi

    2001-01-01

    This paper extends earlier work by updating the structure and policy parameters of payroll taxes in Canada. Drawing from a newly available dataset, it also reports trends on the level, growth and role of each component of these taxes in recent years. Finally, it compares Canadian payroll taxes to those of the world's leading developed countries. The following highlights the main findings. Payroll taxes in Canada have grown considerably since the early 1980s, constituting an increasingly impor...

  16. A review of gasoline retailing Canada vs United States: Update, 1980-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is presented of the economies of scale achieved by the gasoline retailing sector in Canada and the United States over the period 1980-1990. Gasoline demand increased steadily in the USA and by 1990 was 10% higher than in 1980, while in Canada the fluctuating demand has led to a 12% decline for the same period. Number of automobiles increased 23% in Canada compared to 19% in the USA, while number of retail outlets fell by 5,000 in Canada and 47,000 in the USA. The average distance travelled by automobile increased 11% and 7%, respectively for Canada and the USA, however Canadians drove 7% further than Americans. In 1990, automobiles used ca 200 litres less fuel per year in Canada than the USA. Average sales per outlet increased by 56% in the USA and 10% in Canada. While most of the price difference between American and Canadian gasoline is attributable to taxes, the larger size of American refineries, transportation costs, product slate and product demand affects prices. 6 figs

  17. Perspectives on methyl mercury exposure locally, nationally, and globally

    OpenAIRE

    Mallach, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Methyl mercury exposure by consumption of fish and marine mammals is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes, particularly during early developmental stages. In British Columbia, there is a lack of knowledge relating to exposures in the freshwater angler population, identified elsewhere as a population at risk. Exposure assessment methods can help to characterize the risk to populations from dietary fish consumption. In Canada, the Aboriginal population is particularly vulnerabl...

  18. A comparison of delays in the treatment of cancer with radiation in Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Waiting lists for medical care in Canada have been used as an argument against the single-payer option for health care reform in the United States, but there have been no direct comparisons of access to care in these two health care systems. The objective of this study was to compare how long cancer patients wait for radiotherapy in Canada and the USA. Methods and Materials: Heads of radiation oncology at all cancer centers listed by the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) in Canada and the United States were sent a questionnaire that asked how long their patients waited for radiotherapy, and how long they thought it was acceptable for patients to wait, in six clinical situations. Results: Ninety-two of 97 eligible centers responded (95%). Median waiting times to start of radiotherapy were as follows: carcinoma of the larynx (T2,N0,M0), 29 days in Canada, 10 days in the USA; carcinoma of the lung (Stage IIIb, squamous), 34 days in Canada, 9 days in the USA; carcinoma of the prostate (Stage B2), 40 days in Canada, 11 days in the USA; carcinoma of the breast (T2,N0,M0) referred 1 month after lumpectomy, 43 days in Canada, 10 days in the USA; carcinoma of the prostate with painful bone metastases, 17 days in Canada, 5 days in the USA; carcinoma of the prostate with spinal cord compression, < 1 day in Canada, < 1 day in the USA. The differences in waiting times between Canada and the USA were all statistically significant (p < 0.0001), except in the case of emergency treatment for cord compression. The majority of radiation oncologists in both Canada and the USA regarded the delays reported by Canadian departments as medically unacceptable. Conclusions: Patients almost everywhere in Canada wait longer for radiotherapy than they do almost anywhere in the United States

  19. Comparative effects of protracted exposures to 60Co γ-radiation and 239Pu α-radiation on breeding performance in female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding performances are compared of hybrid female mice given 239Pu(5 or 10μCikg-1 body mass in 1 per cent trisodium citrate via the tail-vein), or kept in a 10rad/day or 20rad/day 60Co γ-irradiation field (but mated in the control area), or unirradiated. Ovarian dose-rates from the injected plutonium were initially 0.8 and 1.7 rad/day, changing little thereafter; actual γ-ray dose-rates to breeding females averaged around 8 and 16 rad/day respectively. Both γ-ray treatments affected reproductive performance more than the plutonium injections, with respect to duration of fertility and to offspring per litter in successive 4-weekly periods, though overall mean litter-sizes were not significantly less than controls. The r.b.e. for these effects on reproduction, attributed to germ-cell killing, is about 2.5 for the α particles vs. γ-rays, lower than for testis mass reduction in males. This low r.b.e. may be connected with inhomogeneity of α-particle dose within the ovary, but it is known that fission neutron versus gamma r.b.e.'s for impairment of female fertility are also lower than those for impairment of male fertility. (Author)

  20. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, John [Department of Finance and Real Estate, 1272 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  1. 1999 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil and gas drilling activity for the final quarter of 1998 and the first quarter of 1999 for 12 specific geographical areas in Western Canada is reviewed. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Current operator activity and trends are incorporated into an estimate of well counts for 1999. Average drilling costs for each area are also calculated. Drilling of about 8920 wells is projected for 1999. The anticipated drilling and completion expenditures will be about $3.2 (Cdn) billion. While horizontal drilling activity appears to have decreased slightly in 1998, an increase to over 1200 horizontal and directionally drilled wells is projected for 1999. A list of the major operators in each geographical area is also provided. 8 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  3. Beyond design basis in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the Canadian Government required: — Ongoing environmental monitoring on Canadian territory from coast to coast. — Deployment of experts to the IAEA. —Issuance of a directive pursuant to the regulatory requirements to all major nuclear facilities to review initial lessons learned. — Re-examination of the safety cases with a focus on: ● External hazards and measures to prevent or mitigate severe accidents; ● Emergency preparedness; ● Implementation of immediate short term and long term measures. At the regulatory level, the CNSC carried out reviews of the safety status of the plants in Canada and abroad. The CNSC site staff carried out focused inspection on seismic, fire, flooding, backup power, hydrogen igniters and passive recombiners, in addition to ongoing inspections against external hazards. The CNSC conducted inspections of spent fuel bays, their components and equipment, heat sinks and alarms, as well as the availability of on-site and off-site resources

  4. The Job Consciousness for Radiological Technologists in Korea, Canada, and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts to provide basic information on overseas employment to the radiological technologists and students majoring in radiology in Korea who consider the overseas employment by investigating the job consciousness for radiological technologists in Canada and Australia which have a high level of interest for overseas employment and want to compare their status with that of Korean radiological technologists. This study was performed by visiting hospitals such as Prince George Regional Hospital, 1475 Edmonton Street, Prince George, BC, Canada on August 13, 2007, Alfred Hospital, Commercial Road Melbourne 3004, Australia on August 4, 2008, and other Korea hospitals that show the similar scale as Canada and Australia on September 10, 2007. The results were summarized as follows : 1. Differences were observed in this sexual composition, such as 18 males (90%) in Korea, 14 females (73.7%) in Canada, and 25 females in Australia (86.2%). 2. The item of 'aptitude' which is one of the most important criteria, showed the highest level in Korea, Canada, and Australia, and the second most considered item was 'salary'. 3. In the values in jobs, the items of 'economic self-sufficiency', 'recognized by others', and 'establishing a social position' represented high levels in Korea, and the items of 'like the job itself', 'establishing self-actualization', 'feel the meaning of life', and 'make new friends' showed high levels in Canada and Australia. 4. Regarding the item of 'a job is important as much as a marriage', 'Yes' showed high level in Korea, and 'No' showed high levels in Canada and Australia. 5. Radiological technologists in Korea demonstrated a low level in the job consciousness compared to those of Canada and Australia. Although this study shows some limitations for showing whole idea of radiological technologists due to the lack of the scope in samples for each country as a practical manner, this study can be regarded significant to compare some countries

  5. Comparative analysis of bacterial community-metagenomics in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms following exposure to Macondo oil (MC252)

    KAUST Repository

    Koo, Hyunmin

    2014-09-10

    The indigenous bacterial communities in sediment microcosms from Dauphin Island (DI), Petit Bois Island (PB) and Perdido Pass (PP) of the coastal Gulf of Mexico were compared following treatment with Macondo oil (MC252) using pyrosequencing and culture-based approaches. After quality-based trimming, 28,991 partial 16S rRNA sequence reads were analyzed by rarefaction, confirming that analyses of bacterial communities were saturated with respect to species diversity. Changes in the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes played an important role in structuring bacterial communities in oil-treated sediments. Proteobacteria were dominant in oil-treated samples, whereas Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were either the second or the third most abundant taxa. Tenericutes, members of which are known for oil biodegradation, were detected shortly after treatment, and continued to increase in DI and PP sediments. Multivariate statistical analyses (ADONIS) revealed significant dissimilarity of bacterial communities between oil-treated and untreated samples and among locations. In addition, a similarity percentage analysis showed the contribution of each species to the contrast between untreated and oil-treated samples. PCR amplification using DNA from pure cultures of Exiguobacterium,  Pseudoalteromonas,  Halomonas and Dyadobacter, isolated from oil-treated microcosm sediments, produced amplicons similar to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genes. In the context of the 2010 Macondo blowout, the results from our study demonstrated that the indigenous bacterial communities in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms responded to the MC252 oil with altered community structure and species composition. The rapid proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria suggests their involvement in the degradation of the spilt oil in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  6. Physiological and immunological changes following exposure to low versus high-dose ionizing irradiation; comparative analysis with dose rate and cumulative dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms some reports suggest low-dose of radiation may not be as damaging as previously thought. Despite increasing evidence regarding the protective effect of low-dose radiation, no studies have directly compared the exact dose-response pattern by high- and low-dose of radiation exposed at high-and low-dose rate. This study aims to explore the cellular and molecular changes in mice exposed to low- and high-dose of radiation exposed at low- and high-dose rate. When C57BL/6 mice (Female, 6 weeks) were exposed at high-dose rate, 0.8 Gy/min, no significant change on the level of WBC, RBC, or platelets was observed up to total dose of 0.5 Gy. However, 2 Gy of radiation caused dramatic reduction in the level of white blood cells (WBC) and platelets. This reduction was accompanied by increased DNA damage in hematopoietic environments. The reduction of WBC was mainly due to the reduction in the number of CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells. CD8+ T cells and NK cells appeared to be relatively resistant to high-dose of radiation. This change was also accompanied by the reduction of T- and B- progenitor cells in the bone marrow. In contrast, no significant changes of the number of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, NK, and B cells were observed in the spleen of mice exposed at low-dose-rate (0.7 m Gy/h or 3.95 mGy/h) for up to 2 Gy, suggesting that low-dose radiation does not alter cellular distribution in the spleen. Nevertheless, mice exposed to low-dose radiation exhibited elevation of VEGF, MCP-1, IL-4, Leptin, IL-3, and Tpo in the peripheral blood and slight increases in MIP-2, RANTES, and IL-2 in the spleen. This suggests that chronic γ-radiation can stimulate immune function without causing damage to the immune components of the body. Taken together, these data indicate hormesis of low-dose radiation, which could be attributed to the stimulation of immune function. Dose rate rather than total

  7. The potential role of electrolytic hydrogen in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential role of electrolytic hydrogen in Canada is assessed for the period 1980 to 2025 for large-scale uses only. Present uses of hydrogen, and specifically electrolytic hydrogen, are discussed briefly and hydrogen production processes are summarized. Only hydrogen derived from natural gas, coal, or electrolysis of sater are considered. Cost estimates of electrolytic hydrogen are obtained from a parametric equation, comparing values for unipolar water elecctrklyser technologies with those for bipolar electrolysers. Both by-products of electrolytic hydrogen production, namely heavy water and oxygen, are evaluated. Electrolytic hydrogen, based on non-fossil primary energy sources, is also considered as ankther 'liquid fuel option' for Canada along with the alcohols. The market potential for hydrogen in general and electrolytic hydrogen is assessed. Results show that the market potential for electrolytic hydrogen is large by the year 2025

  8. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's non-proliferation and safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote the emergence of a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to assure the Canadian people and the international community that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the NPT, by promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, by treating nuclear weapon and non-nuclear weapon states alike regarding Canadian nuclear exports, by working for new approaches covering the sensitive phases (e.g. reprocessing) of the nuclear fuel cycle, Canada's policy promotes attainment of the first objective. The latter objective is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its nuclear partners. Those agreements provide assurance that Canada's nuclear exports are used solely for legitimate, peaceful, nuclear energy production purposes. At the same time, Canada, having formulated its non-proliferation and safeguards policy during the period 1945 to 1980, has recognized that it has gone as far as it can on its own in this field and that from this point on any further changes should be made on the basis of international agreement. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums such as the Committee on Assurances of Supply is to exert Canada's best efforts to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers might subsume their national requirements

  9. Uranium in Canada: Billion-dollar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium; five primary uranium producers reported concentrate output containing 12,400 MT of uranium, or about one-third of Western production. Uranium shipments made by these producers in 1988 exceeded 13,200 MT, worth Canadian $1.1 billion. Because domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian output, most of Canada's uranium production is available for export. Despite continued market uncertainty in 1988, Canada's uranium producers signed new sales contracts for some 14,000 MT, twice the 1987 level. About 90% of this new volume is with the US, now Canada's major uranium customer. The recent implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade agreement brings benefits to both countries; the uranium industries in each can now develop in an orderly, free market. Canada's uranium industry was restructured and consolidated in 1988 through merger and acquisition; three new uranium projects advanced significantly. Canada's new policy on nonresident ownership in the uranium mining sector, designed to encourage both Canadian and foreign investment, should greatly improve efforts to finance the development of recent Canadian uranium discoveries

  10. Taxi and limousine industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxi and limousine service plays an important role in the movement of people within a city. In 2004, the total revenue in this industry in Canada was $1.305 billion, and an estimated 35,339 carriers served the industry. In Canada, economic and safety regulations of taxi supply were imposed in most cities during the 1930s and 1940s and continue to this date. Although the industry is regulated, the competition law also applies. The appropriateness of these regulations continues to be challenged and regulatory reforms in the major cities in Canada have concentrated their efforts on increasing the rate of services, improving the quality of vehicles and enhancing the training of taxi drivers. Indicators for the 1999-2004 period reveal that the taxi and limousine industry in Canada did not perform very well. Revenue increased by only 1.7 per cent per year and margins deteriorated by -1.78 per cent together with the operating ratio. The purpose of this paper was to examine the taxi and limousine industry in Canada. First, the structure of the industry in Canada was examined followed by a review of the economic regulation of the industry. Recent regulatory developments in Canada and in other countries were then reviewed with arguments for or against deregulation. 28 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Petro-Canada 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is a dominant player in the petroleum industry in Western Canada as well as on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. This report presents a review of operations, provides detailed statements of the corporation's finances, and a wealth of information of interest to shareholders. The report states that in 1997 Petro-Canada achieved record financial results, following a dramatic turnaround over the past five years. Net earnings for 1997 were $306 million, a $59 million increase over 1996. The company's share price appreciated 34 per cent in 1997 and was one of the most heavily traded stocks in Canada. The company plans to maximize shareholder value by reducing its interests in conventional oil from mature fields in western Canada and by re-investing the proceeds in natural gas development. Petro-Canada is also committed to an expansion that will double production at the Syncrude oil sands plant over the next decade and has tested large in-situ oil sands resources for potential development in northeastern Alberta. On the Atlantic coast too, Petro-Canada is delivering leadership with increasing production from Hibernia, and final approvals in place to proceed with development of the Terra Nova field. International operations are also contributing to the Corporation's profitability by delivering new production from oil fields offshore Norway and from the Sahara Desert in North Africa. tabs., figs

  12. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1977 population exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany has not changed as compared to the previous years. The main share of the total exposure, nearly two thirds, is attributed to natural radioactive substances and cosmic radiation. The largest part (around 85%) of the artificial radiation exposure is caused by X-ray diagnostics. In comparison to this, radiation exposure from application of ionizing radiation in medical therapy, use of radioactive material in research and technology, or from nuclear facilities is small. As in the years before, population exposure caused by nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities is distinctly less than 1% of the natural radiation exposure. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within a radius of 3 km around nuclear facilities. On the whole, the report makes clear that the total amount of artificial population exposure will substantially decrease only if one succeeds in reducing the high contribution to the radiation exposure caused by medical measures. (orig.)

  13. Leveraging Canada's nuclear infrastructure for medical innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the role that Canada plays in nuclear medicine worldwide. Canada supplies over 75% of the world's Cobalt-60 which sterilizes 45% of all single-use medical supplies in the world. Cobalt-60 teletherapy delivers 45000 cancer treatments daily. It is used in non-destructive testing. Canada also supplies over 50% of the world's medical isotopes. NRU reactor-produced isotopes include Molybdenum 99, iodine 131, Iodine 125, Xenon 133 and Cobalt 60. MDS Nordion maintains a strategic supply agreement with AECL

  14. Electricity - a great asset for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has a great national asset in its ability to generate electricity economically from its abundant hydro, coal, and uranium resources. Its nuclear industry has an excellent product. Despite lack of orders for now, the CANDU will be a competitive force when the reactor market recovers. Canada has a proven record of reliability for electricity trade with the United States. There appear to be some opportunities for plants in Canada dedicated to the export of electric power. The federal government is prepared to work closely with the provinces to develop projects which will be attractive to customers in the United States

  15. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  16. Bailarinas Exoticas, Striptease e Inmigracion en Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Diaz Barrero.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the product of exploratory field research conducted in Toronto, Canada. It consists of in-depth interviews of Latin American women from diverse countries who obtained temporary work visas as exotic dancers. The objective of the study is to determine the ways in which women are recruited in their countries of origin, transported to Canada and what happens to them upon arrival. The author proposes that the conditions inherent to migration, more than women's legal status, determines their emotional, economic and legal well-being. However, upon obtaining legal residency in Canada, abuse committed by employers and state agents is significantly reduced.

  17. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  18. [Colorectal carcinoma in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zügel, N P; Hehl, J A; Jechart, G; Tannapfel, A; Wienbeck, M; Witte, J

    2001-05-01

    We report a 63-year-old lady with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, who developed colorectal cancer. A hemicolectomy was performed, and the tumor specimen was prepared for DNA-analysis and immunohistochemical screening. We found a mutation of p53 gene without APC- and ras-gene alteration and expression of erbB2-protooncogen. The polyps in non-hereditary Cronkhite-Canada-syndrom are neither adenomatous nor hyperplastic, but patients often develop colorectal cancers. The steps of mutation do not follow the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, first described by Vogelstein 1988. This and previous observations suggest that carcinogenesis in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome follows another independent sequence. PMID:11413916

  19. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  20. Cost Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination for Rotavirus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Coyle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.

  1. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  2. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  3. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  4. Comparative consideration of probabilistic/stochastic and deterministic modeling of exposures with respect to the reliability of the modeling results and the requirements to the quality of the input data; Vergleichende Betrachtung der probabilistischen/stochastischen und deterministischen Modellierung von Expositionen im Hinblick auf die Belastbarkeit des Modellergebnisses und die Anforderungen an die Qualitaet der Eingangsdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, R.; Thierfeldt, S.

    2015-01-15

    The estimation of radiation exposures may exhibit uncertainties concerning the scenario, the model structure and the parameters of exposure models. The project focused on the investigation and comparative assessment of techniques for the consideration of parameter uncertainties by means of conservative deterministic approaches and probabilistic model calculations using Monte Carlo simulations and Bayesian methods, respectively. In addition, alternative methods for uncertainty modelling were considered like evidence and possibility theory, and the conceptual disparities between probabilistic and stochastic modelling approaches. It was investigated under which conditions (objective, purpose, exposure situation, input data quality etc.) radioecological models for exposure calculations can or should be based on deterministic or probabilistic approaches. The probabilistic modelling of uncertainties was investigated with respect to minimum requirements concerning the quality of input data and further methodical aspects, and its reliability was compared to the deterministic exposure modelling.

  5. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  6. Gulf Canada Resources Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of operations in 1998 and financial information from Gulf Canada Resources Limited is provided to keep shareholders abreast of company performance. Gulf Canada Resources Limited explores for, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1998, the company's main operating centres were in western Canada (where it owns a nine per cent interest in the Syncrude Joint Venture), Indonesia, the North Sea and Australia. The report summarizes the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed review of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Although Gulf Canada Resources sold $ 1.2 billion worth of non-producing assets during the year, year end proved reserves of 838 million barrels of oil equivalent were less than ten per cent lower than a year earlier, reflecting reserve additions of 100 million barrels of oil equivalent. tabs., figs

  7. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  8. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's non-proliferation safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to ensure that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, treating nuclear weapon and non-weapon states alike, and working for new approaches covering reprocessing, Canada promotes attainment of the first objective. The second is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its partners. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums is to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers may subsume their national requirements

  9. Emerging Churches in Post-Christian Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Beach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional mainline and evangelical churches in Canada, as in most western countries, are either in decline or static. Taken as a measure of the future, the prospects for Christianity in Canada, and more broadly the West, are bleak. Post-Christian Canada, however, contains thriving alternative and innovative forms of church, often called ‘emerging’ churches. They take many forms of expression, but share common theological convictions. Based on site research and personal interviews, this article describes the various types and contexts of these churches in Canada. It then highlights three of their central theological characteristics. First, rejecting the ‘culture wars’ social involvement of Christendom churches, they embrace practices and initiatives that transform their local communities. Second, they embrace an incarnational and contextual understanding of Christian life and ministry. Eschewing mega-church franchise models, they endeavor to shape their ministry to the their local communities. Third, they adopt a comprehensive rather than compartmental spirituality.

  10. Cackling Canada goose nesting populations, Yukon Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Number of potential territories, number of cackling Canada Goose nests, and percent occupancy of available territories from CCG plots on the Yukon Delta National...

  11. Canada's constitutional separation of (wind) power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact that a federal government structure has on strategic selection of renewable energy policy instruments. The context for this study centers on wind power development in Canada. Canada is a nation that is blessed by all the attributes necessary to catalyze global leadership in installed wind power capacity. Unfortunately, the constitutional separation of powers that underpins Canada's federal system impedes the creation of a national wind power development strategy because Canada's provinces have constitutional authority over electricity governance. The insights gleaned from the case study are used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the impact that federal structure has on policy instrument selection and efficacy under areas of federal, regional and concurrent policy jurisdiction. Finally, this framework is re-applied to identify specific approaches the Canadian federal government could take to resolve what currently amounts to be a fragmented, ineffective approach to wind power development planning.

  12. Symbolism and Militarism of Canada's North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Mark; Burke, Danita Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Canada is often characterised as a mosaic for world cultures while contending with the difficulty of defining its national identity. Canada’s confederation in 1867 was influenced by the fear that then-British North America was at risk from the United States’ internal conflicting forces. This sense...... component of Canada’s domestic politics. Understanding the relationship dynamics of the Canadian Armed Forces, the Government of Canada and the idea of the North in Canada has broader implications for states wishing to cooperate or negotiate with Canada on matters pertaining to Canada’s Northern region....... of vulnerability bred the desire to strengthen the position of the British North American colonies while avoiding the violent internal conflicts which plagued its southern neighbour. In the decades since its formation, Canadian political parties have learnt that national campaigns, not regional or...

  13. Climate change plan for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document updates Natsource's previous briefing on the October 24 Climate change draft plan' outlining significant changes and modifications incorporated in the November 21, 2002 version of the Climate change plan for Canada' as tabled in the House of Commons by the Minister of the Environment. The changes in the new version of the Plan are the result of continued consultations with industry and the provinces. The revised Plan addresses nine of the 12 concerns expressed by the provinces. Key changes include: (1) establishment of sectoral emissions reduction targets through negotiated covenants with a regulatory or financial backstop; (2) guaranteeing a limit of 55 Megatonnes reductions for covered sectors under the covenants and trading system; (3) introducing flexibility in timing by signaling willingness on the part of the Government to discuss acceptance of commitments over a longer term; (4) promising to work with industry on options for providing protection against risks associated with sustained carbon prices above certain levels; (5) designing implementation system in such a way as to not disadvantage those companies that have taken early action in emission reductions; (6) building in contingencies, assessing progress and adjusting the Federal approach and level of investment; (7) remaining engaged in joint efforts with the United States to minimize impacts on Canadian competitiveness. The Federal Government also recognizes the need for further research in addressing climate model uncertainties, in providing regional-scale climate change information, in future evolution of the climate in the Arctic, and in determining the record of past climate variability and extremes

  14. Gulf Canada's Russian joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After three years of evaluating prospects and negotiating with government and industry representatives, Gulf Canada established its first joint venture in the Russian Federation with Komineft, a production association from the Komi autonomous republic. Komineft has a 50% share of the venture, and the rest is shared equally between Gulf and British Gas. The operating area is at the Vozey and Upper Vozey fields in the Timan-Pechora Basin, some 1,500 km northeast of Moscow just inside the Arctic Circle. An attractive feature of the Upper Vozey project is low development costs of ca $2/bbl. In the Vozey field, the venture will set up an enhanced oil recovery demonstration project to test techniques perfected in Alberta. About 60 Canadians are involved on the project, and headquarters are in Usinsk, ca 100 km south of the oil fields. In the first half of 1992, oil production in the first phase of the venture averaged around 10,000 bbl/d and continues to increase

  15. Understanding gasoline pricing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure is designed to help consumers understand how gasoline is priced and explained why prices increase, fluctuate and vary by location, city or region. The price of a litre of gasoline reflects the costs of crude oil, refining, retailing and taxes. Taxes are usually the largest single component of gasoline prices, averaging 40 to 50 per cent of the pump price. The cost of crude oil makes up another 35 to 45 per cent of the price. Refining costs make up 10 to 15 per cent while the remaining 5 to 10 per cent represents retail costs. Gasoline retailers make a profit of about 1 cent per litre. The latest network technology allows national and regional retail chains to constantly monitor price fluctuations to change their prices at gasoline stations at a moments notice to keep up with the competition and to protect their market shares. Several government studies, plus the Conference Board of Canada, have reported that competition is working in favour of Canadian motorists. This brochure also explained the drawbacks of regulating crude and pump prices with the reminder that crude prices were regulated in the 1970s with many negative consequences. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  16. NDT in Canada - the next 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme for the Fifth Canadian Conference on Nondestructive Testing was 'NDT in Canada - The Next 20 years'. The three day conference with 42 presentations provided a short overview of NDT in Canada, a look at NDT in pipeline, materials, offshore, nuclear and training applications, and a glimpse into the next 20 years with recent advances in research and development as related to this 'hi-tech' field of work

  17. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married a...

  18. Canada 2030: An Agenda for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Kindornay; Centre for the Study of Living Standards

    2015-01-01

    As the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) reach their end date in 2015, negotiations are ramping up at the United Nations for the establishment of a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs, to be announced in September this year, will replace the MDGs and serve as a universal framework for achieving sustainable development outcomes in all countries by 2030, including Canada. This report takes an in-depth look at what the SDGs could mean for Canada, providing a concise overv...

  19. Visible minorities` educational choices in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbocean, Corneliu

    2009-01-01

    Paper investigates educational choices of visible minorities in Canada, educational attainment and choices over fields of study. Using 2001 Canada Census data and multinomial logistic regression, research finds that choices over level of education and field of study significantly differ among visible minorities. The choices of visible minorities’ males and females differentiate substantially; insights into visible minorities` culture and role of education might explain those differences. Math...

  20. Canada's upstream petroleum industry - 1996 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the activities and business prospects of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry for 1996 was provided. Canada's hydrocarbon resource base, reserve potential, crude oil and natural gas markets, pipeline transportation system, business and investment climate, deregulation and environmental health and safety concerns were summarized. A profile of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the principal industry organization representing upstream producers in Canada, was also provided

  1. Green power marketing : an opportunity for wind development in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation defined green power with reference to VisionQuest's role in the wind power industry, product development and customer motivations. The status of wind energy markets in the United States and Canada were also outlined and compared. VisionQuest builds, owns and operates wind power plants and is an independent division of TransAlta, Canada's largest unregulated independent power provider. VisionQuest's major activities include exploration for wind potential, wind energy development, turbine production and operation, and product marketing. Their main products include Green Energy and Green Energy Tags. VisionQuest currently operates 220 wind turbines for a total installed capacity of 189 MW, enough to power more than 80,000 homes. This presentation demonstrated that customer choice and government policies are stimulating demand for wind energy along with green pricing which offers customers the option to support green electricity investment through premiums on their electricity bills that pay for the additional costs related to renewable energy. There are currently 12 companies in Canada that offer green power options. tabs., figs

  2. The current status of percutaneous vertebroplasty in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffernan, E.J.; O' Sullivan, P.J.; Alkubaidan, F.O.; Heran, M.K.S.; Legiehn, G.M.; Munk, P.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)], E-mail: ejheffernan@eircom.net

    2008-04-15

    To provide an overview of the current status of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) practice in Canada, including the preprocedure work up operative technique and follow-up practice of physicians performing the procedure in this county. Questionnaires were emailed to 31 institutions performing percutaneous vertebroplasty across Canada. Twenty-three (74.2%) completed surveys were returned, representing data from 1,516 vertebroplasties performed by 66 radiologists and surgeons. Preoperative routine imaging and screening practice varies widely. The majority of respondents perform PVP under conscious sedation; however, an anaesthetist is present in only 22% of institutions. Biplane fluoroscopy is used in 43.5% of practices. The preference for unipedicular or bipedicular injection varies: in 7 institutions, a unipedicular approach is used in at least 80% of cases. Patients receive a follow-up by the screening physician in 65.2% of institutions. There were 4 complications requiring treatment. Venous and intradiscal extravasation rates were 20.8% and 25.3%, respectively; however, the vast majority of these were clinically insignificant. PVP complication rates reported in our Canadian survey compare favourably with those in the published literature. The number of PVPs performed annually in the institutions surveyed appears small, relative to the figures from the United States. The prevalence of osteoporosis and incidence of vertebral compression fractures in Canada is increasing as the population ages, and demand for PVP is likely to rise significantly in the coming years. (author)

  3. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs

  4. Non-hodgkin's lymphoma and work in agriculture: Results of a two case-control studies in Saskatchewan, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Chandima P. Karunanayake; Dosman, James A; Punam Pahwa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to examine the association between non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL) and farming-related activities, gender, pesticides exposure, and exposure to chemicals other than pesticides in Saskatchewan. Materials and Methods: Male and female study participants were taken from two separate case-control studies conducted in Saskatchewan province, Canada. A case was defined as any man or woman aged 19 years and older with a first diagnosis of NHL registered by the Saskatchewan C...

  5. 不同暴露方式下水生植物化感物质抑藻效应的比较研究%Comparative Study on Antialgal Effects of Allelochemicals from Aquatic Plants under Different Exposure Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高云霓; 葛芳杰; 刘碧云; 鲁志营; 何燕; 张甬元; 吴振斌

    2015-01-01

    为研究水生植物释放的化感物质在生态水平上的有效作用模式,选择水生植物释放的壬酸、N-苯基-1-萘胺和咖啡酸等不同类型化感物质,比较高剂量单次暴露与低剂量多次暴露对铜绿微囊藻(Microcystis aeruginosa)生长的影响,探讨化感物质不同投加频次、剂量和光暗条件等对多次暴露抑藻效果的影响。结果显示,3种化感物质以2 h为间隔、分5次、每次添加0.5 mg·L-1的方式暴露时均表现出比以总剂量2.5 mg·L-1单次暴露更强的抑藻效果,在实验的第7天壬酸、N-苯基-1-萘胺和咖啡酸的抑藻率是单次暴露组的1.8、1.1和1.6倍。以1 h间隔、10次暴露的壬酸和N-苯基-1-萘胺,抑制率随着单次添加量的减少而降低,但在单次暴露剂量低至0.1 mg·L-1时两种物质仍能显著抑制铜绿微囊藻的生长,第7天N-苯基-1-萘胺的平均生长抑制率仍可以达到50.25%。壬酸和N-苯基-1-萘胺在铜绿微囊藻生长的黑暗阶段多次暴露比在光照阶段的抑藻效果好,第3天的平均抑制率分别是是光照阶段的2.2和1.3倍。上述结果表明,水生植物释放的化感物质可以通过低剂量多次暴露实现比高剂量单次暴露更强的抑藻效果。因此,加强对化感物质多次暴露方式下抑藻作用的研究将推动自然环境中水生植物化感作用生态机制的进一步揭示,有利于指导水生植物化感作用的理论研究和实践应用。%To explore the effective pathway of how the allelochemicals released by aquatic plants work at ecological levels, three typical allelochemicals including nonanoic acid, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine and caffeic acid, from different chemical classes, were selected to compare their inhibition effects at high-dose single exposure and low-dose repeated exposure on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. The influences of exposure frequency, dose and light conditions on the repeated exposure

  6. Spatial distribution of carbon sources and sinks in Canada's forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual spatial distributions of carbon sources and sinks in Canada's forests at 1 km resolution are computed for the period from 1901 to 1998 using ecosystem models that integrate remote sensing images, gridded climate, soils and forest inventory data. GIS-based fire scar maps for most regions of Canada are used to develop a remote sensing algorithm for mapping and dating forest burned areas in the 25 yr prior to 1998. These mapped and dated burned areas are used in combination with inventory data to produce a complete image of forest stand age in 1998. Empirical NPP age relationships were used to simulate the annual variations of forest growth and carbon balance in 1 km pixels, each treated as a homogeneous forest stand. Annual CO2 flux data from four sites were used for model validation. Averaged over the period 1990-1998, the carbon source and sink map for Canada's forests show the following features: (i) large spatial variations corresponding to the patchiness of recent fire scars and productive forests and (ii) a general south-to-north gradient of decreasing carbon sink strength and increasing source strength. This gradient results mostly from differential effects of temperature increase on growing season length, nutrient mineralization and heterotrophic respiration at different latitudes as well as from uneven nitrogen deposition. The results from the present study are compared with those of two previous studies. The comparison suggests that the overall positive effects of non-disturbance factors (climate, CO2 and nitrogen) outweighed the effects of increased disturbances in the last two decades, making Canada's forests a carbon sink in the 1980s and 1990s. Comparisons of the modeled results with tower-based eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange at four forest stands indicate that the sink values from the present study may be underestimated

  7. Cardiovascular disease risk profile and microvascular complications of diabetes: comparison of Indigenous cohorts with diabetes in Australia and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Maple-Brown Louise J; Cunningham Joan; Zinman Bernard; Mamakeesick Mary; Harris Stewart B; Connelly Philip W; Shaw Jonathan; O'Dea Kerin; Hanley Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Indigenous populations of Australia and Canada experience disproportionately high rates of chronic disease. Our goal was to compare cardiovascular (CVD) risk profile and diabetes complications from three recent comprehensive studies of diabetes complications in different Indigenous populations in Australia and Canada. Methods We compared participants from three recent studies: remote Indigenous Australians (2002-2003, n = 37 known diabetes), urban Indigenous Australians (2...

  8. Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

  9. Comparative Analyses of Institutions, Regulations and Administration on Healthcare Risk Management in United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia and Taiwan District%美英加澳和中国台湾地区医疗风险管理机构、法规与运行机制的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙纽云; 崔小花; 王莉; 周军; 袁强; 张宗久; 李幼平; 梁铭会; 成岚; 高光明

    2011-01-01

    Objective Interpretation of the growing body of global literature on health care risk is compromised by a lack of common understanding and language.This series of articles aims to comprehensively compare laws and regulations, institutional management, and administration of incidence reporting systems on medical risk management in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, and Taiwan, so as to provide evidence and recommendations for health care risk management policy in China.Methods We searched the official websites of the healthcare risk management agencies of the four countries and one district for laws, regulatory documents, research reports, reviews and evaluation forms concerned with healthcare risk management and assessment.Descriptive comparative analysis was performed on relevant documents.Results A total of 146 documents were included in this study, including 2 laws (1.4%), 17 policy documents (11.6%), 41 guidance documents (28.1%), 37 reviews (25.3%), and 49 documents giving general information (33.6%).The United States government implemented one law and one rule of patient safety management, while the United Kingdom and Australia each issued professional guidances on patient safety improvement.The four countries implemented patient safety management policy on four different levels: national, state/province/district, hospital, and non-governmental organization.Conclusion The four countries and one district adopted four levels of patient safety management, and the administration modes can be divided into an “NGO-led mode” represented by the United States and Canada and a “government-led mode” represented by the United Kingdom, Australia, and Taiwan.%目的 "医疗风险无处不在"已成为全球医疗界的共识.有关病人安全的文献量和报告数都在快速增长.但对其概念的解读和比较尚缺乏共识.本研究通过比较美英加澳和我国台湾地区医疗风险管理的概念、政策法规、

  10. 英美加澳和中国台湾地区医疗风险管理方法与评估工具的比较研究%Comparative Analyses on Methods and Tools for Medical Risk Management and Assessment in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia and Taiwan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成岚; 孙纽云; 王莉; 梁铭会; 李幼平; 袁强; 崔小花; 李筱

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较英美加澳与中国台湾地区医疗风险管理方法与评估工具,为我国医疗风险管理提供决策依据和政策建议.方法 计算机检索英美加澳与我国台湾地区政府机构和行业协会或学术团体的官方网站,查找并纳入与医疗风险管理与监测相关的法律、规范性文件、研究报告、综述和评价表格等,而后采用描述性对比分析方法,综合比较上述四国一区医疗风险管理方法与评估工具.结果①共纳入17篇规范性文件,41篇指南,37篇综述和49篇一般信息,共计146篇文献;②英国采用整合风险管理,澳大利亚和台湾采用经典风险识别、分析、评估与控制方法,美国和加拿大采用前瞻性FMEA方法识别与评估临床风险;③在医疗风险评估分级方面,英、澳将医疗风险严重程度分为5级,台湾分为6级;发生频率均分为5级;应对响应均按4级标准.④四国一区RCA分事件对象略有不同,RCA步骤与工具基本一致.结论 英美加澳与我国台湾地区主要采取前瞻性风险评估、基于已发生不良事件的风险评估及整合风险管理三种医疗风险管理模式,且评估工具相同;英、澳和我国台湾地区临床医疗风险分级大致相同,但分级定义有差异;四国一区不良事件分析方法与过程基本一致.%Objective To comprehensively compare the methods and tools for medical risk management and assessment in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia and Taiwan region (hereafter shortened as "four countries and one region"), so as to provide evidence and recommendations for medical risk management policy in China. Methods The official websites of the healthcare risk management agencies in these four countries and one region were searched to collect materials concerning healthcare risk management and monitoring, such as laws, regulatory documents, research reports, reviews and evaluation forms, then the descriptive

  11. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Anna; Berry, Peter; J Cheng, June; Ogden, Nicholas; Bonsal, Barrie; Stewart, Ronald; Waldick, Ruth

    2015-07-01

    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases). A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation) options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health. PMID:26193300

  12. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Yusa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases. A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health.

  13. Results of simultaneous radon and thoron measurements in 33 metropolitan areas of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jing; Bergman, Lauren; Falcomer, Renato; Whyte, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. 222Rn (radon gas) and 220Rn (thoron gas) are the most common isotopes of radon. In order to assess thoron contribution to indoor radon and thoron exposure, a survey of residential radon and thoron concentrations was initiated in 2012 with ∼4000 homes in the 33 census metropolitan areas of Canada. The survey confirmed that indoor radon and thoron concentrations are not correlated and that thoron concent...

  14. Growth Of Broadband And ICT Adoption By SMEs In Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. FLEET

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, we have conducted three Atlantic Canada-wide surveys of SME businesses benchmarking levels of ICT adoption, change in adoption, as well as the role of marketing and export on ICT usage in helping to create growing and sustainable business opportunities. Despite Atlantic Canada’s low population base and distance to major population centres, SMEs in the region show strong levels of adoption of various ICT products and services. Broadband access, website adoption and online purchasing is now over 90%. Even newer socialnetworking services, such as web analytics, search engine optimization, and the use of Twitter are being adopted by as many of 44% of the SMEs. These adoption rates will be compared with our previous studies to document the historical growth within Atlantic Canada, as well as compare these baseline measures to other regions within Canada, as well as studies of comparable regions worldwide.

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, July-December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assesing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1978 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. Radioactivity measurements are now given in the SI unit. the becquerel (Bq). One becquerel is equivalent to about 27 picocuries. Dose commitment estimates are given in sieverts (Sv). One sievert is equal to 100 rem. The graphical format used in previous reports has been retained with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommeded by the International Commission for Radiological Protection. (Auth)

  16. Mercury in the natural gas industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are an estimated 1,500 natural gas facilities across Canada, most of which used mercury (Hg) in metering equipment at one time or another. Although the use of mercury has ceased, many gas industry buildings still contain detectable levels of Hg in air. Air Hg levels are generally low but indoor remediation is suggested. Worker exposure to the air Hg levels is not considered a significant hazard. Very high soil Hg levels have been observed at numerous sites. Soil Hg levels do not pose an immediate human hazard but are sufficient to be hazardous to ecological receptors. The area of soil contamination is generally within the buildings or within a few metres of the nearest door. Downward movement of the Hg does not generally extent more than one metre. Remediation of contaminated soil with on-site thermal desorption is recommended as the appropriate soil clean-up technology. 2 refs., 1 tab

  17. Surgical Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hendra Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Surgical exposure is a surgical method to expose mucous or bone which prevent delayed or unerupted permanent crown teeth, in order to provide normal eruption and to prevent malocclusion. Surgical exposure is usually carried out on maxillary caninces as they have higher incidence of delayed eruption. Nevertheless, this procedure can also be performed on other teeth. For patient management, this procedure need cooperation betweent oral surgeon and orthodontist.

  18. Federal Support of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Financing Higher Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waines, W. J.

    The purpose of this report is to help the people and governments of Canada face the financial problems of university development over the next decade. The report deals with: (1) enrollment projections of Canada's universities and colleges; (2) projection of operating expenditures; (3) projection of capital expenditures; (4) estimated total…

  19. Canada-wide standard for benzene phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of available data, benzene is classified as carcinogenic to humans, and it led to the establishment, pursuant to the 1998 Canada-wide Accord on Environmental Harmonization of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and its Canada-wide Environmental Standards Sub-Agreement, of the Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) for benzene. It is generally considered that any level of exposure carries some probability of harmful effects. A balancing act between achieving the best health and environmental protection possible and feasibility and costs associated with the reduction of emissions contributing to elevated levels of benzene in the air was performed for the development of this CWS. In June 2000, the Ministers of the Environment agreed to a phased approach to benzene reduction. To this effect, the Canada-Wide Standard for Benzene Phase 1 was ratified. By the end of 2000, a 30 per cent reduction in total benzene emissions form 1995 emission inventory levels was expected, according to Phase 1. The measures initiated during Phase 1 will continue beyond the time frame, and Phase 2 calls for a follow-through on those measures. Best management practices and jurisdictional regulations that will minimize emissions are recognized as part of Phase 2. Joint action in conjunction with other air issue programs should lead to additional reductions. Specifically, Phase 2 calls for an additional reduction of 6 kilotonnes in benzene emissions for existing facilities by the end of 2010. The minimization of benzene emissions through the application of best available pollution prevention and control techniques is contained for new and expanding facilities. The implementation of the CWS comprises the follow-up of existing initiatives resulting from the application of Phase 1 and the promotion and application of best management practices for new and expanding facilities, the determination and tracking of ancillary emission reductions of benzene realized as a result of

  20. Smoking-attributable morbidity: acute care hospital diagnoses and days of treatment in Canada, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehm Jürgen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for burden of disease. Our objective was to estimate the number of hospital diagnoses and days of treatment attributable to smoking for Canada, 2002. Methods Distribution of exposure was taken from a major national survey of Canada, the Canadian Community Health Survey. For chronic diseases, risk relations were taken from the published literature and combined with exposure to calculate age- and sex-specific smoking-attributable fractions (SAFs. For fire deaths, SAFs were taken directly from available statistics. Information on morbidity, with cause of illness coded according to the International Classification of Diseases version 10, was obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Results For Canada in 2002, 339,179 of all hospital diagnoses were estimated to be attributable to smoking and 2,210,155 acute care hospital days. Ischaemic heart disease was the largest single category in terms of hospital days accounting for 21 percent, followed by lung cancer at 9 percent. Smoking-attributable acute care hospital days cost over $2.5 billion in Canada in 2002. Conclusion Since the last major project produced estimates of this type, the rate of hospital days per 100,000 population has decreased by 33.8 percent. Several possible factors may have contributed to the decline in the rate of smoking-attributable hospital days: a drop in smoking prevalence, a decline in overall hospital days, and a shift in distribution of disease categories. Smoking remains a significant health, social, and economic burden in Canada.

  1. The characteristics of psychiatrists disciplined by professional colleges in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Alam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of health care professionals who are incompetent, impaired, exploitative or have criminal intent is important for public safety. It is unclear whether psychiatrists are more likely to commit medical misconduct offences than non-psychiatrists, and if the nature of these offences is different. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of psychiatrists disciplined in Canada and the nature of their offences and disciplinary sentences for the ten years from 2000 through 2009 to other physicians disciplined during that timeframe. METHODS: Utilizing a retrospective cohort design, we constructed a database of all physicians disciplined by provincial licensing authorities in Canada for the ten years from 2000 through 2009. Demographic variables and information on type of misconduct violation and penalty imposed were also collected for each physician disciplined. We compared psychiatrists to non-psychiatrists for the various outcomes. RESULTS: There were 82 (14% psychiatrists of 606 physicians disciplined in Canada in the ten years from 2000 through 2009, double the national proportion of psychiatrists. Of those disciplined psychiatrists, 8 (9.6% were women compared to 29% in the national cohort. A total of 5 (6% psychiatrists committed at least two separate offenses, accounting for approximately 11% of the total violations. A higher proportion of psychiatrists were disciplined for sexual misconduct (OR 3.62 [95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.45-5.34], fraudulent behavior (OR 2.32 [95% CI 1.20-4.40] and unprofessional conduct (OR 3.1 [95% CI 1.95-4.95]. As a result, psychiatrists had between 1.85-4.35 greater risk of having disciplinary penalties in almost all categories in comparison to other physicians. CONCLUSION: Psychiatrists differ from non-psychiatrist physicians in the prevalence and nature of medical misconduct. Efforts to decrease medical misconduct by psychiatrists need to be conducted and

  2. Menstrual cycle perturbation by organohalogens and elements in the Cree of James Bay, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainman, Bruce C; Kesner, James S; Martin, Ian D; Meadows, Juliana W; Krieg, Edward F; Nieboer, Evert; Tsuji, Leonard J

    2016-04-01

    Persistent organohalogens (POHs) and metals have been linked to alterations in menstrual cycle function and fertility in humans. The Cree First Nations people living near James Bay in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, have elevated levels of POHs, mercury and lead compared to other Canadians. The present study examines the interrelationships between selected POHs and elements on menstrual cycle function in these Cree women. Menstrual cycle characteristics were derived from structured daily diaries and endocrine measurements from daily urine samples collected during one cycle for 42 women age 19-42. We measured 31 POHs in blood plasma and 18 elements in whole blood, for 31 of the participants. POHs and elements detected in ≥ 70% of the participants were transformed by principal component (PC) analysis to reduce the contaminant exposure data to fewer, uncorrelated PCA variables. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, after adjusting for confounders, PC-3 values showed significant negative association with cycle length, after adjusting for confounders (p = 0.002). PC-3 accounted for 9.2% of the variance and shows positive loadings for cadmium, selenium, and PBDE congeners 47 and 153, and a negative loading for copper. Sensitivity analysis of the model to quantify likely effect sizes showed a range of menstrual cycle length from 25.3 to 28.3 days using the lower and upper 95% confidence limits of mean measured contaminant concentrations to predict cycle length. Our observations support the hypothesis that the menstrual cycle function of these women may be altered by exposure to POHs and elements from their environment. PMID:26855224

  3. Opportunities in Canada's growing wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investment in Canada's wind sector is projected to reach $8 billion by 2012, and growth of the sector is expected to create over 16,000 jobs. Canada's wind energy capacity grew by 54 per cent in 2005 alone, aided in part by supportive national policies and programs such as the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI); the Canadian Renewable Conservation Expense (CRCE) and Class 43.1 Capital Cost Allowance; and support for research and development. Major long-term commitments for clean power purchases, standard offer contracts and renewable portfolio standards in several provinces are encouraging further development of the wind energy sector. This paper argued that the development of a robust Canadian wind turbine manufacturing industry will enhance economic development, create opportunities for export; and mitigate the effects of international wind turbine supply shortages. However, it is not known whether Canadian wind turbine firms are positioned to capitalize on the sector's recent growth. While Canada imports nearly all its large wind turbine generators and components, the country has technology and manufacturing strengths in advanced power electronics and small wind systems, as well as in wind resource mapping. Wind-diesel and wind-hydrogen systems are being developed in Canada, and many of the hybrid systems will offer significant opportunities for remote communities and off-grid applications. Company partnerships for technology transfer, licensing and joint ventures will accelerate Canada's progress. A recent survey conducted by Industry Canada and the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) indicated that the total impact of wind energy related expenditures on economic output is nearly $1.38 billion for the entire sector. Annual payroll for jobs in Canada was estimated at $50 million, and substantial employment growth in the next 5 years is expected. Canada offers a strong industrial supply base capable of manufacturing wind turbine generators and

  4. A research review: exploring the health of Canada's Aboriginal youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Ning

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the current state of health research on Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal youth in Canada. Design. A search of published academic literature on Canadian Aboriginal youth health, including a comprehensive review of both non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal youth research, was conducted using MEDLINE and summarized. Methodology. A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published over a 10-year period (2000–2010. The search was limited to research articles pertaining to Canadian youth, using various synonyms for “Canada,” “youth,” and “Aboriginal.” Each article was coded according to 4 broad categories: Aboriginal identity, geographic location, research topic (health determinants, health status, health care, and the 12 key determinants of health proposed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC. Results. Of the 117 articles reviewed, only 34 pertained to Aboriginal youth, while the remaining 83 pertained to non-Aboriginal youth. The results revealed major discrepancies within the current body of research with respect to the geographic representation of Aboriginal youth, with several provinces missing from the literature, including the northern territories. Furthermore, the current research is not reflective of the demographic composition of Aboriginal youth, with an under-representation of Métis and urban Aboriginal youth. Health status of Aboriginal youth has received the most attention, appearing in 79% of the studies reviewed compared with 57% of the non-Aboriginal studies. The number of studies that focus on health determinants and health care is comparable for both groups, with the former accounting for 62 and 64% and the latter comprising 26 and 19% of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal studies, respectively. However, this review reveals several differences with respect to specific focus on health determinants between the two populations. In non-Aboriginal youth studies, all the 12 key determinants of health of PHAC

  5. Promoting print magazine subscriptions online at Reader's Digest Canada, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yuchun

    2013-01-01

    This report examines methods of maximizing print magazine subscriptions on the rd.ca website. It begins with an overview of the history and current status of the Reader’s Digest Canada (RDC). It then takes an in-depth look at the ways in which RDC is currently reviewing and refining its online subscription strategies. It compares the methods used by RDC to methods of online subscription promotion employed by its main competitors. The study concludes with a set of recommendations for promoting...

  6. The nurses' perception and protective status of occupational hazards: a Comparative Study between two hospitals in China and Canada%中加两所医院护士职业危害感知与防护现状的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洁; Judith Ritchie; 张玲娟; 王利丽; 沈峰平; 陆小英

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过比较中加两所医院手术室和肿瘤科护士对职业危害的感知与职业防护现状,为中国医疗卫生保健管理部门开展深入研究,制定相关政策提供借鉴.方法:自行设计与开发护士职业危害与防护量表,并将该量表法语化与汉语化,在中加两所综合性大学附属医院开展调查.结果:不同调查点护士年龄分布差异有统计学意义,调查对象职位分布差异无统计学意义;中国护士对生物性职业危害及总体危害的感知程度比加拿大护士高,中国护士对锐器伤、喷溅物、空气传播性生物危害的感知程度比加拿大护士高,中国护士对举/搬运大重量器具危害的感知程度比加拿大护士高,但中国护士对手术室烟雾危害的感知程度比加拿大护士低;中国医疗机构在降低护士生物性职业危害及化学性职业危害等方面所采取的相关职业防护措施力度低于加拿大.结论:跨国研究存在的文化差异显著,护士对职业危害感知与其职业防护知识背景紧密相关,我国护士职业防护面临严峻的挑战,医院应加大对临床护士职业防护教育的力度,引进先进理念与标准,进一步推动相关政策的制定.%Objective: To compare the perception and protective status of occupational hazards of nurses in oncology department and operating room in two hospitals in China and Canada, and to provide reference and evidence for developing further studies and polices.Methods: We designed and developed the nurse occupational hazards and protection scale and translated the scale into French and Chinese version respectively. Nurses' age distribution in two survey sites had statistically significant difference while the difference of nurses'job position distribution in two survey sites wasn't statistically significant. The perception levels of Chinese nurses on biological hazards,overall occupational hazards, sharp injuries,splashes, and airborne biological

  7. Nuclear has good market news, but exposure limits cause worry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just as Canada's nuclear power generating industry got a needed shot in the arm earlier this month with reports that AECL CANDU was interested in building Indonesia's first nuclear power plant, the country's uranium mining industry took an unwanted shot in the head over planned tightening of limits covering radiation exposure for miners

  8. The state of energy efficiency in Canada : Office of Energy Efficiency Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the progress of Canada's economic sectors in improving energy efficiency. It also demonstrates the contribution made by energy efficiency initiatives administered by Natural Resources Canada through its Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE). Since 1990, Canada's energy efficiency has improved by 10 per cent, for a saving of $10.7 billion in energy costs. Energy efficiency programs carry new significance with Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in 2002. Energy conservation reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change. The OEE introduced the One-Tonne Challenge to encourage individuals to reduce personal GHG emissions by an average of one tonne per year by 2008-2012. The programs help Canadian use energy more wisely at home, work and travel. The OEE collects and analyzes energy efficiency data and trends from major energy-using sectors of the economy and publishes the results on an annual basis to compare changes in how Canadians use energy. Between 1990 and 2001, energy use in Canada increased by 14 per cent compared to the 25 per cent that would have taken place without energy efficiency measures. Energy-related GHG emissions were 44 megatonnes lower than they would have been without energy efficiency measures. As of March 2002, GHG emissions related to government operations were reduced by 24 per cent from 1990 levels

  9. Dana Cole, Georgia Division of Public Health, Notifiable Disease Section, Department of Human Resources, 2 Peachtree Free-living Canada Geese and Antimicrobial Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Dana; Drum, David J.V.; Stallknecht, David E.; White, David G.; Lee, Margie D.; Ayers, Sherry; Sobsey, Mark; Maurer, John J

    2005-01-01

    We describe antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli isolated from free-living Canada Geese in Georgia and North Carolina (USA). Resistance patterns are compared to those reported by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Canada Geese may be vectors of antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in agricultural environments.

  10. Hot air : meeting Canada's climate change challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a large northern country, Canada will change significantly as a result of climate change. Global warming is expected to cause diminutions of snow and ice changes in the Arctic, as well as changes to glaciers, and the mountain snowpacks that feed rivers, and provide sources of fresh water. This book argued that the effects of global warming have been apparent in Canada for many years. Water levels in lakes and rivers have been falling, and a thawing permafrost has led to difficulties in building and maintaining winter roads in the far north. Disturbances such as the mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in British Columbia have also been attributed to global warming, the beetles are only killed by cold weather. The book also considered Canada's current climate change policies, and discussed attempts to arrive at meaningful and effective strategies. 30 refs

  11. Report on external occupational dosimetry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of the new recommendations of the ICRP in Report 60 on dose quantities and dose limits, this working group was set up to examine the implications for external dosimetry in Canada. The operational quantities proposed by the ICRU are discussed in detail with regard to their applicability in Canada. The current occupational dosimetry services available in Canada are described as well as the several performance intercomparisons that have been carried out within the country as well as internationally. Recommendations are given with respect to standards for dosimetry, including accuracy and precision. More practical advice is given on the choice of dosimeter to use for external dosimetry, frequency of monitoring, and who should be monitored. Specific advice is given on the monitoring of pregnant workers and problem of non-uniform irradiation. Accident and emergency dosimetry are dealt with briefly. Suggestions are given regarding record keeping both for employers and for the national dose registry. 48 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Primary health care nurse practitioners in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCenso, Alba; Auffrey, Lucille; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Donald, Faith; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Matthews, Sue; Opsteen, Joanne

    2007-08-01

    Canada, like many countries, is in the midst of primary health care reform. A key priority is to improve access to primary health care, especially in remote communities and areas with physician shortages. As a result, there is an increased emphasis on the integration of primary health care nurse practitioners. As of March 2006, legislation exists in all provinces and two territories in Canada that allows nurse practitioners (NPs) to implement their expanded nursing role. In this paper, we will briefly review the historical development of the NP role in Canada and situate it in the international context; describe the NP role, supply of NPs in the country, and the settings in which they work; propose an NP practice model framework; summarize facilitators and barriers to NP role implementation in primary health care delivery; and outline strategies to address the barriers. PMID:18041990

  13. Restructuring of Canada's nuclear utilities: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Business decisions relating to the electric power sector are a provincial responsibility in Canada. The federal government looks to the three nuclear utilities to manage their nuclear assets and maintain them in a way that maximizes their reliability, efficiency and overall performance. A significant development in Canada's nuclear sector in the past year was the Ontario Hydro Nuclear Asset Optimization Plan. Structural change in the North American electricity market is a major impetus for decisions regarding nuclear assets by Canada's electric power utilities. The Ontario government is now taking steps to introduce competition in the Ontario Electricity market. The province of New Brunswick, which has one reactor at Point Lepreau which supplies one-third of the province's electricity, is also taking measures to introduce competition in its electricity market. (author)

  14. The Hybridisation of Higher Education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Shale

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada's postsecondary institutions are becoming increasingly involved with technology enhanced learning, generally under the rubric of distance education. Growth and activity in distance education stems from rapid developments in communication and information technologies such as videoconferencing and the Internet. This case study focuses on the use of new technologies, primarily within the context of higher education institutions operating in Canada's English speaking provinces. Capitalising on the interactive capabilities of "new" learning technologies, some distance education providers are starting to behave more like conventional educational institutions in terms of forming study groups and student cohorts. Conversely, new telecommunications technologies are having a reverse impact on traditional classroom settings, and as a result conventional universities are beginning to establish administrative structures reflective of those used by distance education providers. When viewed in tandem, these trends reflect growing convergence between conventional and distance learning modes, leading to the hybridisation of higher education in Canada.

  15. Action plan for electric mobility in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric mobility is an important emerging industry in Canada, where there is significant expertise in electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries, hybrid technologies, grid-connected technologies and fuel cell vehicles. This paper presented a case for the formation of Electric Mobility Canada, a proposed network of private companies and public sector agencies that aims to stimulate industry and provide support to government agencies involved with meeting Canada's obligations under the Kyoto Protocol, as well as in new industry sectors. The environmental, health, economic and industrial benefits of electric mobility were outlined. Current programs for electric mobility were reviewed, and details of financial incentives and initiatives were presented. An overview of electric mobility programs in the United States and Europe was provided. Research and development needs were evaluated. The former Electric Vehicle Association of Canada was discussed. An organizational structure for the proposed network was presented, along with a mission statement and outline of future goals. Recommendations for the future of the network included identifying short and long-term market opportunities for electric mobility technologies for all surface transport modes in Canada; determining research and development needs and appropriate funding and investment opportunities; determining other actions necessary to allow the electric mobility industry to play a growing role in meeting Canada's transport needs; and raising public awareness of the importance of electric mobility trends. It was concluded that the federal government should be approached for start-up funds for the network, which will be followed by further investment from provincial and business interests once the network is in place and functioning. 84 refs

  16. Extratropical Transitions in Atlantic Canada: Impacts and Adaptive Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Athena; Catto, Norm

    2013-04-01

    . Storm surge damage occurred along the north shore of the Bonavista Peninsula. Similar effects, differing only in the size of the affected areas, have resulted from several extratropical transitions which have impacted Atlantic Canada since July 1989. Extratropical transition "Leslie" impacted Newfoundland on 10-11 September 2012. Although the area affected was comparable to "Igor", wind velocities and rainfall totals were less, fortunately limiting damage. Preparation, advance warning to the population, proaction, and response efforts all showed significant improvement, however, indicating that the experience gained from coping with "Igor" had been successfully applied in adaptation to "Leslie". Extratropical transitions pose a significantly different set of challenges for adaptation in comparison to purely tropical hurricanes, and responses and adaptation strategies should be tailored to address these specific events. Calculating the frequency, magnitude and intensity of potential shifts is important for accurate forecasting and public awareness, safety management, preparedness, and adaptation. Available data indicate an increase in extratropical frequency and severity in Atlantic Canada since 1991, but there are difficulties in establishing the extent and nature of transition for previous storm events. A cautionary policy would assume no significant changes in extratropical transition frequency for Atlantic Canada, but would also acknowledge that large events remain probable.

  17. The nuclear ingredient in Canada's industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy scene in Canada has been confused by a changing industrial and economic pattern, a proliferation of energy options, a conflict of energy priorities, and possibly a media and anti-nuclear inspired perception that electricity is expensive and not a good substitute for oil. In spite of an economic down-turn, in 1982-83 five new CANDU reactors with a combined capacity of 3000 MW were completed in Canada. Opportunities exist for increased use of electricity both in households and in industry. The benefits of nuclear power have extended beyond a reliable and economic energy supply to research advances, job creation, and the overall industrial development of the country

  18. Shell Canada Limited 1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shell Canada Resources Limited is one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, sulphur and bitumen. This annual report for 1996 presented a summary review of operations and a summary of the Company's audited consolidated financial statements. Overall, the resources business delivered exceptional results in 1996. The oil products and chemicals businesses did not perform as well as expected. This less than satisfactory performance of the oil products and chemicals divisions of the the Company is reflected in the financial returns which, after excluding revenues from asset sales, left operating earnings $ 59 million below those of 1996. tabs., figs

  19. Canada's green plan - The second year. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan's goal is 'to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.' It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan's short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities

  20. Is Canada's sex ratio in decline?

    OpenAIRE

    Dodds, L; Armson, B A

    1997-01-01

    In this issue (see pages 37 to 41) Dr. Bruce B. Allan and associates report a small but statistically significant decrease--of about 0.2%--in the proportion of male live births in Canada over the period 1970-90. In this editorial, factors that have been reported in the literature to influence sex ratio are examined within a Canadian context. The authors suggest that although the reasons for the apparent decline in the sex ratio in Canada are unclear, the increasing use of ovulation induction ...

  1. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of occupational exposure is presented. Concepts and quantities used for radiation protection are explained as well as the ICRP system of dose limitation. The risks correlated to the limits are discussed. However, the actual exposure are often much lower than the limits and the average risk in radiation work is comparable with the average risk in other safe occupations. Actual exposures in various occupations are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. The Demographic Foundations of Rising Employment and Earnings Among Single Mothers in Canada and the United States, 1980 to 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Feng; Picot, Garnett; Myers, Karen; Myles, John

    2008-01-01

    Despite comparatively modest welfare reforms in Canada relative to those of the United States, employment rates and earnings among single mothers have risen by virtually identical magnitudes in the two countries since 1980. We show that most of the gains in Canada and a substantial share of the change in the United States were the result of the dynamics of cohort replacement and population aging as the large and better educated baby boom generation replaced earlier cohorts and began entering ...

  3. Globalisation and Wage Inequality: A Comparison of the Manufacturing Sector in Canada and the United States from 1970 to 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Grenier; Akbar Tavakoli

    2009-01-01

    This article compares Canada and the United States in terms of the evolution of the relative wages of production and non-production workers in the manufacturing sector. The results show that the wage ratio is affected by similar economic globalisation variables in each country. Other than technological changes, however, the overall effect of globalisation is more pronounced in Canada. Among economic globalisation variables, such as technological changes and imports from developing countries, ...

  4. Non-hodgkin′s lymphoma and work in agriculture: Results of a two case-control studies in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandima P Karunanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective was to examine the association between non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL and farming-related activities, gender, pesticides exposure, and exposure to chemicals other than pesticides in Saskatchewan. Materials and Methods: Male and female study participants were taken from two separate case-control studies conducted in Saskatchewan province, Canada. A case was defined as any man or woman aged 19 years and older with a first diagnosis of NHL registered by the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency during the study period. Conditional logistic regression was used to fit the statistical models. Results: Farming exposure and exposure to pesticides-contaminated cloths were related to an increased risk of NHL. Exposure to pesticides was strongly associated with an increased risk of NHL, especially for men. Conclusion: For men, the incidence of NHL was associated with exposure to pesticides after adjusting for other independent predictors.

  5. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  6. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  7. Smoking behaviours of current cancer patients in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Chadder, J.; Fung, S.; Lockwood, G.; Rahal, R.; Halligan, M.; Mowat, D.; Bryant, H.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that continued smoking by cancer patients leads to adverse treatment outcomes and affects survival. Smoking diminishes treatment effectiveness, exacerbates side effects, and increases the risk of developing additional complications. Patients who continue to smoke also have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer or experiencing a cancer recurrence, both of which ultimately contribute to poorer quality of life and poorer survival. Here, we present a snapshot of smoking behaviours of current cancer patients compared with the non-cancer patient population in Canada. Minimal differences in smoking behaviours were noted between current cancer patients and the rest of the population. Based on 2011–2014 data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, 1 in 5 current cancer patients (20.1%) reported daily or occasional smoking. That estimate is comparable to findings in the surveyed non-cancer patient population, of whom 19.3% reported smoking daily or occasionally. Slightly more male cancer patients than female cancer patients identified as current smokers. A similar distribution was observed in the non-cancer patient population. There is an urgent need across Canada to better support cancer patients in quitting smoking. As a result, the quality of patient care will improve, as will cancer treatment and survival outcomes, and quality of life for these patients.

  8. Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Artificial Intelligence in Canada: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mccalla, Gordon; Cercone, Nick

    1984-01-01

    Canadians have made many contributions to artificial intelligence over the years. This article presents a summary of current research in artificial intelligence in Canada and acquaints readers with the Canadian organization for artificial intelligence -- the Canadian Society for the Computational Studies of Intelligence / Societe Canadienne pour l' Etude de l'Intelligence par Ordinateur (CSCSI/ SCEIO).

  10. Canada,China,Closer in Hard Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Facing the current global financial storm,more posSible economic and trade cooperation and promotion worldwide is being sought by nations to walk out the hard time.The 2nd Canada China Business Forum held in Beijing,on November 3,is an example to a closer tie of both countries.

  11. Climate change effects on regions of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the major effects of climatic change being experienced in different parts of Canada, and emphasizes those that they are likely to become so severe that they may disrupt social, ecological and economic systems. The report notes that the driving force behind these impacts is change in temperature, precipitation, and in extreme weather events. The report strongly suggests that greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide will likely continue to increase due to human activities such as burning of fossil fuels for heating, cooling and transportation. Loss of tropical forests is also listed as a cause for increased greenhouse gases. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, Canada must use energy much more efficiently, use more alternative renewable energy source and substitute natural gas for coal and oil whenever possible. It was emphasized that the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol would slow down the rate of increase of the world's greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn affect atmospheric concentrations. The author states that Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol is key to global success, particularly since some countries have backed away from it and some are wavering. The report outlined the following major impacts of climate change in various parts of Canada: sea ice, permafrost, forest fires, transportation, toxic contaminants, storminess, precipitation, water supply, water quality, fisheries, hydropower, agriculture and human adaptation. refs., tabs

  12. Closing Canada's ‘universal’ reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, M.; Rogge, R.

    2015-08-01

    In reply to a post on the physicsworld.com blog about the forthcoming closure of the National Research Universal reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada (“Lament for ‘the reactor that can do everything’”, 16 June, http://ow.ly/On9VN).

  13. Clostridium difficile in Retail Ground Meat, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander; Staempfli, Henry R.; Duffield, Todd; Weese, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12 (20%) of 60 retail ground meat samples purchased over a 10-month period in 2005 in Canada. Eleven isolates were toxigenic, and 8 (67%) were classified as toxinotype III. The human health implications of this finding are unclear, but with the virulence of toxinotype III strains further studies are required.

  14. The Core Health Science Library in Canada *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, June Leath

    1974-01-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482

  15. The core health science library in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J L

    1974-04-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482

  16. Recent developments in Canada's climate change program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper surveys Canada's official response to the responsibilities it took on with the Kyoto Protocol. In order to meet Kyoto targets for the timeframe 2008-2012, greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced by 33 percent below what they currently are. Two billion Canadian dollars have been allocated to this effort. The government of Canada's official stance is that carbon dioxide levels have been rising more rapidly than at any other time in the last half million years. Canada's main efforts in the mining and minerals sector have been to find a replacement for sulphur hexafluoride, reduce emissions of perfluorocarbons, and demonstrate the use of hydrogen as a fuel for underground mining vehicles. According to the author, the most important contribution has been the use of supplementary cementing material such as fly ash, ash, and ground blast furnace slag. These materials have partially replaced cement in concrete. Canada expects to reduce carbon dioxide emissions this way by about 1.5 million tonnes per year. EcoSmart, a non-profit organization, is the main vehicle for this effort. 8 refs., 7 figs

  17. Radiation biology in Canada 1962-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the research projects in radiation biology being carried out in Canada during the fiscal year 1962-63. The report includes the names of the investigators, their location, a brief description of the projects and information on the financial support being provided. A classification of the projects into areas of specific interest is also included. (author)

  18. TransCanada Corporation 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents financial information from TransCanada Corp., along with a review of its operations throughout 2003 and a summary of the how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2003, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations by 7 per cent. It maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. More than 1.2 billion was invested and dividends were increased by 7 per cent in January 2004, for a total return to shareholders of 27 per cent, including dividends. In 2003, TransCanada also increased its ownership interest in Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd. to 100 per cent from 50 per cent. It secured a position in the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project and progressed the development of multiple liquefied natural gas projects in the northeast United States and eastern Canada. The company acquired 31.6 per cent interest in Bruce Power, adding nearly 1,500 megawatts base load generation to its portfolio. Plans are underway for cogeneration plants in Quebec, New Brunswick and Alberta. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  19. The Western Canada Fuel Cell Initiative (WCFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vision: Western Canada will become an international centre for stationary power generation technology using high temperature fuel cells that use a wide variety of fossil and biomass fuels. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Clean efficient use of hydrocarbons 2. Large-scale electricity generation 3. CO2 sequestration 4. Direct alcohol fuel cells 5. Solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  20. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  1. The control of radioisotopes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regulations applicable to the control of radioisotopes in Canada are reviewed. The administrative procedures are described, the definition of atomic radiation workers clarified and the means for inspections and compliance indicated. An outline is provided of the main revisions currently under consideration. (author)

  2. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties has not been…

  3. Canada thistle phenology in broadbean canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soine of the developmental stages of Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (I. emergence and early growth, II. shooting, II. budding, IV. flowering, V. fructification, VI. shedding of fruits on the background of development stages of broad-bean, weeded by herbicides and without that weed-killing substances, were presented in the paper. Phenological observations were carried out on the plants growing on alluvial soil developed from light loam in Zakrz6w near Tarnobrzeg. It was proved that phenological development of Canada thistle, during broad-bean vegetation, depended on course of weather conditions and method of crop care. Emergence of the weed occurred earlier than broad-bean plants during warm and rather dry seasons. In every vegetation period, emergence and early vegetation stage (to 4 leaves seedling of Canada thistle lasted about 3 months, until broad-bean got full pod setting. During wet and cold season (in 2001 the weed emerged also early under herbicide (Afalon 1,5 kg ha-1 condition. Until to broad-bean harvest, Canada thistle attained the finish developmental stages, that means fruiting and fruit shedding. Herbicide treatment delayed the last two stages and limited fruit shedding by plants of Cirsium arvense.

  4. Enriched Students Program: Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    The Russell C. Gordon Elementary School (Nova Scotia, Canada) offers the Enriched Students Program (ESP) for academically gifted students. ESP goals include: fostering and developing individual interests of students; initiating higher level thinking skills; strengthening task commitment; stimulating creativity; promoting leadership qualities; and…

  5. E-Commerce in Globalised Economy: Its Economic Implications in India and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Saiyed

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to analyse importance of e-commerce in economic growth process. Therefore in this paper the attempt is made to examine the economic implications of e-commerce in India and Canada. So we can have a comparative picture of the role of e-commerce in economic growth in developing country like India and a developed country, Canada. E-commerce includes use of Internet and Information and Communication Technology. Both Internet and Information and Communication Tec...

  6. Exploring an Olympic "Legacy": Sport Participation in Canada before and after the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Guided by the notion of a trickle-down effect, the present study examines whether sport participation in Canada increased following the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Comparing rates of sport participation prior to and following the Games using nationally representative data, the results suggest that the Olympics had almost no impact on sport participation in Canada, although there does appear to be a modest "bounce" in sport participation in the Vancouver area immediately following the Vancouver Games. As such, if the trickle-down effect did occur, the analysis suggests that the effect was locally situated, short-lived, and small. PMID:26577884

  7. Heat flow, depth–temperature variations and stored thermal energy for enhanced geothermal systems in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to help assessment of enhanced geothermal energy potential in Canada, we constructed a new series of heatflow and depth–temperature distribution maps (down to 10 km). We focus on high-temperature resources (>150 °C) capable of electrical production. Maps presented show large temperature variability, related mainly to heat flow patterns. The highest temperatures occur in western and northern Canada. Here temperatures greater than 150 °C, required for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), can be reached at reasonable drilling depths of <5 km. Heat flow, by itself however, is not a sufficient tool to predict areas of high energy content. A combination of thick low thermal conductivity sedimentary blankets and moderate to high heat flow areas can generate targets that are as favorable as regions with high conductivity and high heat flow. Some moderate heat flow areas in the deeper parts of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin have heat content comparable to high heat flow zones of the the Canadian Cordillera. The magnitude of in-place thermal energy available for future heat 'mining/farming' was esitmated throughout Canada by calculating heat released through cooling a defined rock volume through a fixed temperature change. These estimates show the first-order appoximation of available geothermal heat content. The fraction of true heat energy available will be as low as 0.02 of these values. However, even this more limited energy production could be large enough to be a considerable future renewable energy resource for Canada

  8. Substance Use and Sexual Orientation among East and Southeast Asian Adolescents in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East- and Southeast-Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly…

  9. Compound-specific radiocarbon dating of the varved Holocene sedimentary record of Saanich Inlet, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Smittenberg, R.H.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Hayes, J.M.; Eglinton, T.I.

    2004-01-01

    The radiocarbon contents of various biomarkers extracted from the varve-counted sediments of Saanich Inlet, Canada, were determined to assess their applicability for dating purposes. Calibrated ages obtained from the marine planktonic archaeal biomarker crenarchaeol compared favorably with varve-cou

  10. Fiber glass and rock/slag wool exposure of professional and do-it-yourself installers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, L Daniel; Eastes, Walter; Hadley, John G; Carter, Charles M; Reynolds, Janis W; Niebo, Ron

    2003-02-01

    The fiber glass (FG) and rock/slag wool (RSW) manufacturers have developed a Health and Safety Partnership Program (HSPP) with the participation and oversight of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Among its many provisions the HSPP includes the continuing study of FG and RSW workplace concentrations in manufacturing facilities operated by FG/RSW producers and among their customers and end users. This analysis estimates the probable cumulative lifetime exposure (fiber-months/cubic centimeter [f-months/cc]) to those who install FG and RSW insulation in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings in Canada and the United States. Both professional and do-it-yourself (DIY) cohorts are studied and the estimated working lifetime exposures are compared with benchmark values derived from an analysis of the epidemiological studies of FG and RSW manufacturing cohorts. The key finding of this analysis is that both of these end-user cohorts are likely to have substantially lower cumulative lifetime exposures than the manufacturing cohorts. As the most recent updates of the epidemiological studies concluded that there was no significant increase in respiratory system cancer among the manufacturing cohorts, there is likely to be even less risk for the installer cohorts. This analysis also underscores the wisdom of stewardship activities in the HSPP, particularly those directed at measuring and controlling exposure. PMID:12662907

  11. Canada in the International Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William T.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on Canada's role in the world economy. Ten sections contain readings and suggestions for activities related to Canadian trade, tariffs, the Canada-United States automobile pact, Canada-United…

  12. Canada/China Oil and Gas Technology Transfer Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhongqiao

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Government of Canada is providing assistance to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) via the Canada/China Oil and Gas Technology Transfer Programme. Canada is represented by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in this Programme, while China's interests are administered by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (MOFTEC).

  13. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section 123.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments...

  14. An evaluation of Canada's environmental sustainability planning system

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    In 1992, Canada committed to developing a national sustainable development strategy (NSDS). Canada has chosen a decentralized approach to NSDS in which each federal department creates its own sustainable development strategy (SDS). Federal legi slation and environmental initiatives provide additional environmental protection. These three components - SDS, environmental legislation and initiatives - represent Canada's environmental sustainability planning system (CESPS). This report uses an in...

  15. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  16. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  17. Introducing small modular reactors into Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in smaller, simpler reactors for generating electricity and process heat. This is evidenced in the growing body of literature and the increasingly frequent meetings and conferences on the subject. The interest in Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) is driven to a large extent by the desire to reduce capital costs, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to replace retiring fossil plants that do not meet today's environmental standards, and to provide power in locations away from large electrical grids. These drivers are as important in Canada as they are in the U.S., where the design and licensing of SMRs is being most vigorously pursued. They have led to a growing interest in Canada as a potentially significant market for SMRs, particularly in the Western Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and in the remote First Nations communities of Northern Canada. There is a growing body of literature addressing the regulation and licensing of Small Modular Reactors in the U.S. Issues being identified in there can generally be categorized as licensing framework issues, licensing application issues, and design and manufacturing issues. Many of these issues are embedded in the US regulatory framework and can only be resolved through changes in the regulations. For the most part these issues are equally applicable in Canada and will need to be addressed in introducing SMRs here. A significant difference, however, is that these issues can be addressed within the Canadian regulatory framework without requiring changes in the regulations. The CNSC has taken a very proactive stance regarding the licensing of small reactors in Canada. They have published two new Regulatory Documents stipulating the requirements for licensing small reactors. A key feature is that they allow the application of a 'graded approach' in which the stringency of the design measures and analyses applied are commensurate with the level of risk posed by

  18. The risk of stranded assets for utilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of dealing with stranded assets in Canada and the United States were discussed. Compared to the United States, the risk associated with stranded assets for utilities in Canada was considered to be relatively low because of the following factors: (1) low variable cost, (2) isolation, (3) lack of transmission interconnection capacity, (4) lack of tight synchronization in North America, (5) the likelihood of an increase in natural gas prices, (6) the absence of jurisdictional disputes such as FERC versus the states, (7) social considerations, (8) the learning curve, (9) politics, (10) weak balance sheets, (11) relatively low electricity prices, (12) the weak Canadian dollar, and (13) the possibility of refinancing at lower interest rates. Ontario Hydro, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Power are the three Canadian utilities that may have stranded costs. For Ontario Hydro and New Brunswick Power the stranded costs would be related to nuclear generator problems, whereas for Nova Scotia Power, the stranded costs would be related to the thermal generating base, the threat from Sable Island Gas and the changing tax structure of the utility. Some other reasons why stranded assets could be created in Canada would include low variable costs and high fixed costs, over capacity of at least 30 per cent in generation, limited domestic energy growth, competitive threat from gas, reliability and safety of nuclear plants, and technology change. Five factors in terms of which stranded assets can be expressed are: (1) variable cost definition, (2) total cost definition, (3) operating profit definition, (4) wide geographic definition, and (5) free market definition. In calculating stranded assets, the number of years over which the assets are recovered and the discount rate are considered to be key factors. 26 tabs

  19. Can hunting of translocated nuisance Canada geese reduce local conflicts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevinski, R.A.; Malecki, R.A.; Curtis, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis) nest or reside in the temperate latitudes of North America. In past years, translocation-the capture and subsequent release of geese at distant locations-has been used to establish resident goose populations and to reduce nuisance problems. However, with new special hunting seasons designed to target resident Canada geese, we can now evaluate translocation as a management tool when hunting is allowed at release sites. We selected 2 study sites, representative of urban and suburban locations with nuisance resident geese, in central and western New York, USA. In June 2003, we translocated 80 neck-banded adult geese, 14 radiomarked adult females, and 83 juveniles 150 km east and southwest from urban and suburban problem sites in western New York to state-owned Wildlife Management Areas. At these same capture sites, we used 151 neck-banded adult geese, 12 radiomarked females, and 100 juveniles as controls to compare dispersal movements and harvest vulnerability to translocated geese. All observations (n = 45) of translocated radiomarked geese were hunting was permitted. Only 25 of 538 observations (4.6%) of radiomarked geese at control sites were in areas open to hunting. The remainder of observations occurred at nonhunting locations within 10 km of control sites. More translocated adult geese (23.8%) were harvested than control geese (6.6%; ??2 = 72.98, P = 0.0009). More translocated juvenile geese were harvested (22.9%) than juvenile controls (5.0%; ??2 = 72.30, P = 0.0005). Only 7 (8.8%) translocated adult geese returned to the original capture sites during Canada goose hunting seasons. Translocation of adult and juvenile geese in family groups may alleviate nuisance problems at conflict sites through increased harvest, reducing the number of birds returning in subsequent years.

  20. First report and morphological, molecular characterization of Xiphinema chambersi Thorne, 1939 (Nematoda, Longidoridae in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A Xiphinema species, new to Canada was recovered from rhizosphere of oak trees in Ontario, Canada. The identity was confirmed with morphological and molecular methods as X. chambersi Thorne, 1939. Female bodies are 2.1–2.4 mm long; odontostyle lengths are 110–118 µm; tail 110–177 µm long, arcuate, elongate-conoid, with hyline region 22-43 µm long. Vagina directed about 30 degrees posteriorly. Reproductive system is monodelphic with ovary reflexed anteriorly, vulva opening at 23–26% of the body. Males were not found. The 18S and ITS1 sequences of this population had 3–4 bp differences (99% identity and 30 bp differences (97% identity from two Arkansas populations respectively. The nematode population had three juvenile stages. Some variations of the morphometrics were observed comparing with the other populations. This is the first report of X. chambersi in Canada.