Sample records for canada comparing exposure

  1. Spatial analysis of air pollution and childhood asthma in Hamilton, Canada: comparing exposure methods in sensitive subgroups

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    Arain Altaf


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in air pollution exposure within a community may be associated with asthma prevalence. However, studies conducted to date have produced inconsistent results, possibly due to errors in measurement of the exposures. Methods A standardized asthma survey was administered to children in grades one and eight in Hamilton, Canada, in 1994–95 (N ~1467. Exposure to air pollution was estimated in four ways: (1 distance from roadways; (2 interpolated surfaces for ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter and nitrous oxides from seven to nine governmental monitoring stations; (3 a kriged nitrogen dioxide (NO2 surface based on a network of 100 passive NO2 monitors; and (4 a land use regression (LUR model derived from the same monitoring network. Logistic regressions were used to test associations between asthma and air pollution, controlling for variables including neighbourhood income, dwelling value, state of housing, a deprivation index and smoking. Results There were no significant associations between any of the exposure estimates and asthma in the whole population, but large effects were detected the subgroup of children without hayfever (predominately in girls. The most robust effects were observed for the association of asthma without hayfever and NO2LUR OR = 1.86 (95%CI, 1.59–2.16 in all girls and OR = 2.98 (95%CI, 0.98–9.06 for older girls, over an interquartile range increase and controlling for confounders. Conclusion Our findings indicate that traffic-related pollutants, such as NO2, are associated with asthma without overt evidence of other atopic disorders among female children living in a medium-sized Canadian city. The effects were sensitive to the method of exposure estimation. More refined exposure models produced the most robust associations.

  2. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.


    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  3. Particulate matter and manganese exposures in Toronto, Canada (United States)

    Pellizzari, E. D.; Clayton, C. A.; Rodes, C. E.; Mason, R. E.; Piper, L. L.; Fort, B.; Pfeifer, G.; Lynam, D.

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is a manganese-based gasoline additive used to enhance automobile performance. MMT has been used in Canadian gasoline for about 20 yr. Because of the potential for increased levels of Mn in particulate matter resulting from automotive exhausts, a large-scale population-based exposure study (˜1000 participant periods) was conducted in Toronto, Canada, to estimate the distribution of 3-day average personal exposures to particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) and Mn. A stratified, three-stage, two-phase probability, longitudinal sample design of the metropolitan population was employed. Residential indoor and outdoor, and ambient levels (at a fixed site and on a roof) of PM 2.5, PM 10, and Mn were also measured. Supplementary data on traffic counts, meteorology, MMT levels in gasoline, personal occupations, and activities (e.g. amount of vehicular usage) were collected. Overall precision (%RSD) for analysis of duplicate co-located samples ranged from 2.5 to 5.0% for particulate matter and 3.1 to 5.5% for Mn. The detection limits were 1.47 and 3.45 μg m -3 for the PM 10 and PM 2.5 fractions, respectively, and 5.50 and 1.83 ng m -3 for Mn in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. These low detection limits permitted the reporting of concentrations for >98% of the samples. For PM 10, the personal particulate matter levels (median 48.5 μg m -3) were much higher than either indoor (23.1 μg m -3) or outdoor levels (23.6 μg m -3). The median levels for PM 2.5 for personal, indoor, and outdoor were 28.4, 15.4 and 13.2 μg m -3, respectively. The correlation between PM 2.5 personal exposures and indoor concentrations was high (0.79), while correlations between personal and the outdoor, fixed site and roof site were low (0.16-0.27). Indoor Mn concentration distributions (in PM 2.5 and PM 10), unlike particulate matter, exhibited much lower and less variable levels that the corresponding outdoor data. The median personal exposure

  4. Comparing population health in the United States and Canada

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    Huguet Nathalie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the paper is to compare population health in the United States (US and Canada. Although the two countries are very similar in many ways, there are potentially important differences in the levels of social and economic inequality and the organization and financing of and access to health care in the two countries. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health 2002/03. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall health-related quality of life (HRQL. Mean HUI3 scores were compared, adjusting for major determinants of health, including body mass index, smoking, education, gender, race, and income. In addition, estimates of life expectancy were compared. Finally, mean HUI3 scores by age and gender and Canadian and US life tables were used to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE. Results Life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. For those Conclusions The population of Canada appears to be substantially healthier than the US population with respect to life expectancy, HRQL, and HALE. Factors that account for the difference may include access to health care over the full life span (universal health insurance and lower levels of social and economic inequality, especially among the elderly.

  5. Development of an agricultural job-exposure matrix for British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Wood, David; Astrakianakis, George; Lang, Barbara; Le, Nhu; Bert, Joel


    Farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada have been shown to have unexplained elevated proportional mortality rates for several cancers. Because agricultural exposures have never been documented systematically in BC, a quantitative agricultural Job-exposure matrix (JEM) was developed containing exposure assessments from 1950 to 1998. This JEM was developed to document historical exposures and to facilitate future epidemiological studies. Available information regarding BC farming practices was compiled and checklists of potential exposures were produced for each crop. Exposures identified included chemical, biological, and physical agents. Interviews with farmers and agricultural experts were conducted using the checklists as a starting point. This allowed the creation of an initial or 'potential' JEM based on three axes: exposure agent, 'type of work' and time. The 'type of work' axis was determined by combining several variables: region, crop, job title and task. This allowed for a complete description of exposures. Exposure assessments were made quantitatively, where data allowed, or by a dichotomous variable (exposed/unexposed). Quantitative calculations were divided into re-entry and application scenarios. 'Re-entry' exposures were quantified using a standard exposure model with some modification while application exposure estimates were derived using data from the North American Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database (PHED). As expected, exposures differed between crops and job titles both quantitatively and qualitatively. Of the 290 agents included in the exposure axis; 180 were pesticides. Over 3000 estimates of exposure were conducted; 50% of these were quantitative. Each quantitative estimate was at the daily absorbed dose level. Exposure estimates were then rated as high, medium, or low based on comparing them with their respective oral chemical reference dose (RfD) or Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). This data was mainly obtained from the US Environmental

  6. Canada and Mexico: the comparative and joint politics of energy

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    Feldman, E.J.; Costain, W.D.; Hampson, F.; McKinsey, L.


    Topics covered at the symposium include: the national energy policies; political constraints on national policies; the production of electricity, potential for international cooperation; oil, gas, and synthetic fuels, development and exchange; academic views of North America; the future of energy for Canada and Mexico. (GHT)

  7. Exposure of migrant bald eagles to lead in prairie Canada. (United States)

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R


    The prevalence of elevated exposure to lead was assessed in a migrant population of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at a waterfowl staging area in the southern portion of the Canadian prairies, from September to November, 1992-1995. Of 103 eagles, 8% exhibited blood lead (PbB) concentrations suggestive of elevated exposure to lead (> or = 0.200 microgram ml-1 wet wt.). PbB concentrations in eagles from the study area ranged from or = 1.5-year-old birds) (P > 0.05). The prevalence of elevated exposure was significantly greater in November than in October (21.7 vs. 3.8%) (all years: chi 2Y = 5.75, P = 0.017). Eagles with shotshell pellets in the digestive tract did not have accompanying high PbB concentrations. The prevalence of elevated lead exposure in this study was low in comparison to other areas in North America. Potential biases in the trapping technique as they relate to interpreting the results are addressed.

  8. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin


    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  9. Comparative Intergovernmental Politics: CETA Negotiations between Canada and the EU

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    Valerie J. D'Erman


    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA between Canada and the European Union (EU required long-term negotiations between two major polities of the industrialized world. During the negotiations, Canada acquiesced to the EU’s demand that Canadian provinces participate directly in discussions, setting an important precedent in the dynamics of Canadian external trade. This paper examines the dynamics of intergovernmentalism in the policy area of external trade within the settings of the Canadian provinces and the EU member states, and uses the findings to suggest that in this realm the EU is a stronger example of federal synthesis of decision-making than is Canada. This is significant because it contradicts many established theories of federalism within political science, and implies that the EU could become a strong source of normative example for federal-style polities in the globalized world. As well, the strength of the EU’s single market lends credence to the institutions embedded within the supranational polity, and gives the EU significant normative power as a prototype for other experiments in regional integration.

  10. Correlates of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among individuals with a history of substance use and/or psychiatric disorders participating in a tobacco treatment program in Vancouver, Canada. (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Khara, Milan


    Individuals with substance use (SUD) and/or psychiatric disorders (PD) are disproportionately affected by tobacco use; yet, little is known about secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure in these populations. An analysis of existing data examined SHS exposure among 497 smokers in community clinics in Vancouver, Canada. Seventy-percent of the participants reported SHS exposure. In sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression analyses correlates of SHS exposure among women were not having a history of using evidence-based smoking cessation treatment and using a single substance (as compared to a polysubstance use history); whereas among men, a history of a respiratory illness and higher nicotine dependence were associated with SHS exposure. Despite limitations about the measures of SHS exposure used in the study, these findings suggest a need to further determine the risks associated with SHS exposure and tobacco use among individuals with SUD and/or PD within mental health and addictions treatment settings.

  11. A Statistical Comparative Study of the Working Poor in Japan and Canada

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    Masatoshi Murakami


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently in Japan, there has been an increase in the group which is termed the ‘Working Poor’. However, the group’s size and configuration remains unknown. Approach: The purpose of this study is to compare the working poor in Canada and Japan using microdata. First, the definition and method of estimation of the working poor provided by (Iwai and Murakami, 2007 are provided along with later modifications. Second, results of the investigation into data appropriate for use in estimating Canada’s working poor and poverty line are given, as are estimates of Canada’s working poor. Last, the characteristics of unemployment, unstable employment and the labor market are examined for both Canada and Japan and the similarities and differences between the two countries are highlighted. Results: In Canada and Japan, the working poor are most likely to be found among the young, those with a low level of education, those in unstable employment or those working in a company having few employees. As regards the differences between the two countries, males are more likely to be the working poor than females in Canada, though this trend is not seen in Japan; moreover, the percentage of the working poor is high among the 25-34 and 35-44 age groups in Japan, though this is not the case in Canada. Conclusion: As conclusions of this study, the first challenge that lies ahead is to find data from the two countries that allows a more rigorous comparison. The second challenge is to re-evaluate estimates made to date after a full investigation of labor market systems. Statistical Analysis Research Project (2009, we have estimated the working poor of the UK and compared their figures with those of Japan. The third challenge is thus to add the findings of this study to those from the UK/Japan and thereby perform a trilateral comparison.

  12. Workers' exposure to noise inside complex acoustic environments in Canada : a qualitative analysis

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    Hertil, S. [Inst. of Noise Control Engineers, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Occupational noise regulations in Canada have limits on the permissible exposure of a worker to noise in the workplace. These limits are set in terms of an 8-hour average sound level of 85 dBA, with limits of 135 dBC on peak sound pressure levels. However, these noise regulations do not specify any qualitative limits on noise levels and are not clear enough for providing adequate protection of workers against low-frequency noise and inaudible air vibrations and infrasound commonly found in heavy industrial sites and power generation plants. This paper presented actual sound level data that was collected at various power plants in Canada during the period 1995 - 2005. It was shown that noise in the work place includes inaudible low-frequency noise and air vibrations that are impossible to detect by dosimeters or type 1 and type 2 hand held sound level meters. The paper described exposure to noise inside a small, gas-fired generator hall; exposure to noise inside a large steam processing plant; exposure to noise in the area of roller ball mills; noise quality inside a steam processing plant; noise quality inside a coal ball mill building; noise quality inside a large water feed pump area; and quality of noise inside a steam turbine hall. The frequencies that are harmful to workers were identified in an effort to design noise control features for machinery or equipment and to develop abatement measures to protect workers operating in complex acoustic environments. It was concluded that noise control is a collective task that should be undertaken by many professionals from all the fields related to health, safety, hearing and hearing conservation. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Comparing plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and metals in primiparous women from northern and southern Canada. (United States)

    Curren, Meredith S; Davis, Karelyn; Liang, Chun Lei; Adlard, Bryan; Foster, Warren G; Donaldson, Shawn G; Kandola, Kami; Brewster, Janet; Potyrala, Mary; Van Oostdam, Jay


    The exposure of Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals through the consumption of traditional food items is well recognized; however, less information is available for Canadian immigrants. The direct comparison of blood chemical concentrations for expectant primiparous women sampled in the Inuvik and Baffin regions of the Canadian Arctic, as well as Canadian- and foreign-born women from five southern Canadian centers (Halifax, Vancouver, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Calgary), provides relative exposure information for samples of northern and southern mothers in Canada. Based on our analyses, Canadian mothers are exposed to a similar suite of contaminants; however, Inuit first birth mothers residing in the Canadian Arctic had higher age-adjusted geometric mean concentrations for several legacy POPs regulated under the Stockholm Convention, along with lead and total mercury. Significant differences in exposure were observed for Inuit mothers from Baffin who tended to demonstrate higher blood concentrations of POPs and total mercury compared with Inuit mothers from Inuvik. Conversely, northern mothers showed a significantly lower age-adjusted geometric mean concentration for a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-153) compared to southern mothers. Furthermore, southern Canadian mothers born outside of Canada showed the highest individual concentrations measured in the study: 1700 μg/kg lipids for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 990 μg/kg lipids for β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Data from Cycle 1 (2007-2009) of the nationally-representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) places these results in a national biomonitoring context and affirms that foreign-born women of child-bearing age experience higher exposures to many POPs and metals than their Canadian-born counterparts in the general population.

  14. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

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    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin


    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers (years 1-9(10)) in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in...

  15. Comparative study of teaching content in teacher education programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin


    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand...

  16. How Marketing Practices Affect Education: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, the United States and Australia (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Goddard, J. Tim


    This paper examines the theory and practice of the commercialization of education in Canada, using comparative examples from the United States and Australia. Critical theory provides the framework for the study. From the broad focus of business practice, the examination is narrowed down to marketing, and even further to branding, at all levels,…

  17. Non-Formal Education in Poland and Canada--Compared: A Brief Commentary (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan


    The purpose of this brief note is to compare non-formal education in Poland and Canada in terms of accessibility, and it is motivated by the fact that learning is a lifelong process because of rapid advances in technology. The theoretical framework for this commentary is supplied by the general idea that non-formal learning provides a social…

  18. Comparability of portable nanoparticle exposure monitors. (United States)

    Asbach, Christof; Kaminski, Heinz; von Barany, Daniel; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Monz, Christian; Dziurowitz, Nico; Pelzer, Johannes; Vossen, Katja; Berlin, Knut; Dietrich, Silvio; Götz, Uwe; Kiesling, Heinz-Jürgen; Schierl, Rudolf; Dahmann, Dirk


    Five different portable instrument types to monitor exposure to nanoparticles were subject to an intensive intercomparison measurement campaign. Four of them were based on electrical diffusion charging to determine the number concentration or lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration of airborne particles. Three out of these four also determined the mean particle size. The fifth instrument type was a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). The instruments were challenged with three different log-normally distributed test aerosols with modal diameters between 30 and 180 nm, varying in particle concentration and morphology. The CPCs showed the highest comparability with deviations on the order of only ±5%, independent of the particle sizes, but with a strictly limited upper number concentration. The diffusion charger-based instruments showed comparability on the order of ±30% for number concentration, LDSA concentration, and mean particle size, when the specified particle size range of the instruments matched the size range of the aerosol particles, whereas significant deviations were found when a large amount of particles exceeded the upper or lower detection limit. In one case the reported number concentration was even increased by a factor of 6.9 when the modal diameter of the test aerosol exceeded the specified upper limit of the instrument. A general dependence of the measurement accuracy of all devices on particle morphology was not detected.

  19. Cigarette ignition propensity, smoking behavior, and toxicant exposure: A natural experiment in Canada

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    June Kristie M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study used a 'pre-post' research design to measure the impact of the Canadian reduced ignition propensity law on cigarette toxicity and smoking behavior among Canadian smokers. Method The study was conducted in Ontario, Canada over a ten-month period in 2005-2006, consisting of 4 laboratory visits (baseline N = 61, final N = 42. At Visit 1, questionnaire data and biospecimens were collected. During the following 24 hours, participants smoked 5 cigarettes ad libitum through a topography recording device and collected their cigarette butts. Visit 2 consisted of a questionnaire and smoking one cigarette to measure laboratory topography values. After ten months, these procedures were repeated. Results Generalized estimating equations, with law status (pre and post as a fixed within-subject factor, were used to determine changes in behavior and biomarker exposure. Overall, there were no significant differences in smoking topography, breath carbon monoxide, and saliva cotinine pre-post law (p>0.1. However, analyses revealed a significant increase in the summed concentrations of hydroxyfluorene metabolites (N = 3,, and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine, with at notable increase in hydroxyphenanthrene metabolites (N = 3 (pΣhydroxyfluorene = 0.013, 22% increase; p1-hydroxypyrene = 0.018, 24% increase; pΣhydroxyphenanthrene = 0.061, 17% increase. Conclusion While the results suggest no change in topography variables, data showed increases in exposure to three PAH biomarkers following reduced ignition propensity implementation in Canada. These findings suggest that human studies should be considered to evaluate policy impacts.

  20. Comparing antimicrobial exposure based on sales data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondt, Nico; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Puister-Jansen, Linda F.


    This paper explores the possibilities of making meaningful comparisons of the veterinary use of antimicrobial agents among countries, based on national total sales data. Veterinary antimicrobial sales data on country level and animal census data in both Denmark and the Netherlands were combined...... incidences calculated from detailed use data per animal species from the national surveillance programmes in these two countries, to assess their accuracy and relevancy.In Denmark and in the Netherlands, although the computed antimicrobial exposure would seem to be a reasonable estimation of the exposure...... influenced by animal demographics and a very inaccurate indication of the true differences in exposure, per animal species. To get an appropriate certainty about the true differences in antimicrobial exposure between countries it is an absolute necessity to have reliable information about the use per animal...

  1. Comparative studies of sexual assaults in Canada and in Hong Kong


    Wong, Carol K


    Although criminal law involving sexual offence has undergone many legal reforms in both Canada and Hong Kong, there remain numerous socio-cultural factors that maintain the difficulty of achieving successful prosecutions for these offences. This dissertation includes two comparative studies that explore complainant-specific factors that may affect the perception of adult female complainants in real (Study 1) and simulated (Study 2) sexual assault cases. Study 1 reviewed 220 archival rape case...

  2. Institutional Knots: A Comparative Analysis of Cord Blood Policy in Canada and the United States. (United States)

    Denburg, Avram


    Umbilical cord blood is a rich source of blood stem cells, which are of critical clinical importance in the treatment of a variety of malignant and genetic conditions requiring stem cell transplantation. Many countries have established national public cord blood banks; such banks often coexist with a panoply of private options for cord blood banking. Until recently, Canada was the only G8 country without a national cord blood bank. This differs markedly from the United States, which years ago established a national cord blood bank policy and inventory. This article investigates potential reasons for this discrepancy through a comparative analysis of the evolution of programs and policies on national cord blood banking in Canada and the United States. My analysis suggests that cross-national discrepancies in policy on public cord blood banking were determined primarily by institutional factors, principal among them formal governmental structure and the legacy of past policies. Institutional entrepreneurialism in the health sector played a constitutive role in the earlier evolution of national cord blood policy in the United States as compared to Canada.

  3. Prescriptive Authority and Nursing: a comparative analysis of Brazil and Canada

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    Maria Lígia dos Reis Bellaguarda


    Full Text Available Objective: to analyse the differences between medication prescriptions by nurses in Brazil and Ontario, Canada. Methods: a comparative study between two different scenarios; this comparison was not performed between the two countries because Canada does not standardize this practice, which is legally established and is considered as an advanced professional knowledge area in Brazil. Results: prescription is a professional position to be occupied by nurses. However, there is tension surrounding this practice because it is perceived as a threat to privileges or traditions of other health professionals. Prescibing medication by nurses in Brazil and Ontario follows current legislation and training proccess in each context. Conclusions: there are some challenges to be overcome in ensuring the visibility and consolidation of the practice by nurses in these realities: guarantee of professional competence, credibility, acceptability, and the respectability of clientele in your professional scope by other health professionals.

  4. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.


    We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez moins de 1% des adultes et aucun oison n'en portait. Cependant, les concentrations sanguines m??dianes de base (??chantillons de sang contenant moins de 0,18 ppm de plomb) ??taient plus ??lev??es chez les adultes que chez les oisons, ce qui signifie probablement que les adultes avaient ??t?? expos??s au plomb au cours de saisons pr??c??dentes. Les plombs perdus ??taient abondants dans les territoires de migration et les territoires d'hiver et la proportion d'??chantillons de sang contenant des concentrations a?Y 0,18 ppm ??tait

  5. Impact of air pollution on hospital admissions in Southwestern Ontario, Canada: Generating hypotheses in sentinel high-exposure places

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    Luginaah Isaac N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Southwestern Ontario (SWO in Canada has been known as a 'hot spot' in terms of environmental exposure and potential effects. We chose to study 3 major cities in SWO in this paper. We compared age-standardized hospital admission ratios of Sarnia and Windsor to London, and to generate hypotheses about potential pollutant-induced health effects in the 'Chemical Valley', Sarnia. Methods The number of daily hospital admissions was obtained from all hospitals in London, Windsor and Sarnia from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2000. We used indirect age adjustment method to obtain standardized admissions ratios for males and females and we chose London as the reference population. This process of adjustment was to apply the age-specific admission rates of London to the population of Sarnia and Windsor in order to yield expected admissions. The observed number of admissions was then compared to the expected admissions in terms of a ratio. These standardized admissions ratios and their corresponding confidence intervals were calculated for Sarnia and Windsor. Results Our findings showed that Sarnia and Windsor had significantly higher age-adjusted hospital admissions rates compared to London. This finding was true for all admissions, and especially pronounced for cardiovascular and respiratory admissions. For example, in 1996, the observed number of admissions in Sarnia was 3.11 (CI: 2.80, 3.44 times for females and 2.83 (CI: 2.54, 3.14 times for males as would be expected by using London's admission rates. Conclusion Since hospital admissions rates were significantly higher in 'Chemical Valley' as compared to both London and Windsor, we hypothesize that these higher rates are pollution related. A critical look at the way ambient air quality and other pollutants are monitored in this area is warranted. Further epidemiological research is needed to verify our preliminary indications of harmful effects in people living in 'Chemical

  6. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection II. Location of study herds relative to the oil and gas industry in Western Canada. (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L


    During the late part of 2000 and early months of 2001, project veterinarians recruited 205 beef herds to participate in a study of the effects of emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry on cattle reproduction and health. Researchers developed herd-selection criteria to optimize the range of exposure to facilities, including oil and gas wells, battery sites, and gas-gathering and gas-processing facilities across the major cattle-producing areas of Western Canada. Herds were initially selected on the basis of a ranking system of exposure potential on the basis of herd-owner reports of the locations of their operations in relation to oil and gas industry facilities. At the end of the study, researchers summarized data obtained from provincial regulatory agencies on facility location and reported flaring and venting volumes for each herd and compared these data to the original rankings of herd-exposure potential. Through this selection process, the researchers were successful in obtaining statistically significant differences in exposure to various types of oil and gas facility types and reported emissions among herds recruited for the study.

  7. Relative performance of different exposure modeling approaches for sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air in rural western Canada

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    Kim Hyang-Mi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this paper is to compare different methods for predicting the levels of SO2 air pollution in oil and gas producing area of rural western Canada. Month-long average air quality measurements were collected over a two-year period (2001–2002 at multiple locations, with some side-by-side measurements, and repeated time-series at selected locations. Methods We explored how accurately location-specific mean concentrations of SO2 can be predicted for 2002 at 666 locations with multiple measurements. Means of repeated measurements on the 666 locations in 2002 were used as the alloyed gold standard (AGS. First, we considered two approaches: one that uses one measurement from each location of interest; and the other that uses context data on proximity of monitoring sites to putative sources of emission in 2002. Second, we imagined that all of the previous year's (2001's data were also available to exposure assessors: 9,464 measurements and their context (month, proximity to sources. Exposure prediction approaches we explored with the 2001 data included regression modeling using either mixed or fixed effects models. Third, we used Bayesian methods to combine single measurements from locations in 2002 (not used to calculate AGS with different priors. Results The regression method that included both fixed and random effects for prediction (Best Linear Unbiased Predictor had the best agreement with the AGS (Pearson correlation 0.77 and the smallest mean squared error (MSE: 0.03. The second best method in terms of correlation with AGS (0.74 and MSE (0.09 was the Bayesian method that uses normal mixture prior derived from predictions of the 2001 mixed effects applied in the 2002 context. Conclusion It is likely that either collecting some measurements from the desired locations and time periods or predictions of a reasonable empirical mixed effects model perhaps is sufficient in most epidemiological applications. The

  8. The impact of traffic volume, composition, and road geometry on personal air pollution exposures among cyclists in Montreal, Canada. (United States)

    Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Weichenthal, Scott; Dugum, Hussam; Pickett, Graeme; Miranda-Moreno, Luis; Kulka, Ryan; Andersen, Ross; Goldberg, Mark


    Cyclists may experience increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution owing to increased minute ventilation and close proximity to vehicle emissions. The aims of this study were to characterize personal exposures to air pollution among urban cyclists and to identify potential determinants of exposure including the type of cycling lane (separated vs on-road), traffic counts, and meteorological factors. In total, personal air pollution exposure data were collected over 64 cycling routes during morning and evening commutes in Montreal, Canada, over 32 days during the summer of 2011. Measured pollutants included ultrafine particles (UFPs), fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO). Counts of diesel vehicles were important predictors of personal exposures to BC, with each 10 vehicle/h increase associated with a 15.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7%, 24.0%) increase in exposure. Use of separated cycling lanes had less impact on personal exposures with a 12% (95% CI: -43%, 14%) decrease observed for BC and smaller decreases observed for UFPs (mean: -1.3%, 95% CI: -20%, 17%) and CO (mean: -5.6%, 95% CI: -17%, 4%) after adjusting for meteorological factors and traffic counts. On average, PM(2.5) exposure increased 7.8% (95% CI: -17%, 35%) with separate cycling lane use, but this estimate was imprecise and not statistically significant. In general, our findings suggest that diesel vehicle traffic is an important contributor to personal BC exposures and that separate cycling lanes may have a modest impact on personal exposure to some air pollutants. Further evaluation is required, however, as the impact of separate cycling lanes and/or traffic counts on personal exposures may vary between regions.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Social Work in Vietnam and Canada: Rebirth and Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Durst


    Full Text Available Social work education is rapidly developing in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and it is facing new challenges as it blends the historical, political and cultural influences. This article reviews and compares the historical and recent developments of social work in Canada and Vietnam. Canadian social work developed in Euro-western culture and its values, whereas, Vietnam suffered under French colonialism, a 30 year war of independence and then economic depression. For many years, social work remained nebulous but in recent years, the country has seen a rebirth of social work. Field education is the link from theory to practice and is often where differences between the two countries become evident. The article concludes with a discussion on the professionalization of social work and its future contribution to the emerging “new” Vietnam.

  10. Comparing spatial accessibility to conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Meyer, Stephen P


    Health care investigations rarely consider conventional medicine (CM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) simultaneously and spatial accessibility empirical research that incorporates both CM and CAM locations is novel. In this study, residents within municipalities of the Ontario province of Canada are compared in terms of spatial accessibility to a range of health care supplier 'destinations'. While areas with larger urban agglomerations generally exhibit superior levels of spatial accessibility to health care and diversity in medical service choice in comparison to more peripheral areas, considerable heterogeneity in accessibility occurs in both urban and rural settings. This study's identification of subtle spatial imbalances appends the literature by more precisely qualifying the typically reported 'urban-rich, rural-poor' assessment of health care service condition and also reinforces the need for policy-makers to appraise health care spatial accessibility differentials as a function of both CM and CAM endowment.

  11. Framework for Multi-Pathway Cumulative Exposure for Comparative Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Tom; Fantke, Peter


    as a framework for comparative assessment of chemicals, products, and services. We first review the development and evolution of the multimedia mass-balance approach to pollutant fate and exposure evaluation and illustrate some of the calculations used in multimedia, multi-pathway exposure assessments....... The multimedia approach requires comprehensive assessments that locate all points of chemical release to the environment, characterize mass-balance relationships, and track contaminants through the entire environmental system to exposure of individuals or populations or specific ecosystems. For use...... in comparative risk assessment, life-cycle assessment (LCA), and chemical alternatives assessment (CAA), multimedia fate and exposure models synthesize information about partitioning, reaction, and intermedia-transport properties of chemicals in a representative (local to regional) or generic (continental...

  12. Negotiating Indigenous Language Narratives from Canada and South Africa: A Comparative Approach (United States)

    Iseke, Judy M.; Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.


    Indigenous cultural and language negotiations ongoing in the contexts of South Africa and Canada are documented in two studies, one sharing narratives from Black parents in South Africa and the other sharing narratives of Métis Elders in Canada. Black parents' perspectives on Indigenous language and cultures and the role of education in…

  13. Evidence of exposure to Brucella sp. in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Bay of Fundy, Canada. (United States)

    Neimanis, A S; Koopman, H N; Westgate, A J; Nielsen, K; Leighton, F A


    Novel strains of Brucella recently have been discovered in marine mammals. To investigate Brucella exposure and infection in a general population of cetaceans, blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed from wild harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) incidentally caught in fishing gear in the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Two of 170 (1.2%) animals had detectable antibodies against Brucella, but no organisms were isolated from genital swabs or tissues from 22 and 8 porpoises, respectively. Genetic analysis of inflamed testes from 20 animals yielded no amplification of Brucella DNA. This is the first evidence of exposure to Brucella in porpoises from the western North Atlantic, and the prevalence is much lower than documented for conspecifics from the eastern North Atlantic.

  14. Health Canada compares occupants' health in new R-2000 and conventional houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Health of people moving into new R-2000 and similar new conventional houses were studied by Health Canada. The survey which began in 1996 concentrated on New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The objective was to identify a scientific foundation for the anecdotal evidence that residents of R-2000 homes experienced significant health benefits. Questionnaires were administered to one member of each household upon moving into the new house, and again one year later. The questionnaire asked about characteristics of the house they were moving from, including perceptions of its indoor air quality , demographics, general level of health, medications taken by each member of the family and whether and to what extent each member of the household experienced each of 13 symptoms such as headache, fatigue, dry or itchy skin, runny nose, blocked nose, sneezing, cough, wheeze, nausea, diarrhoea, and some control symptoms not normally associated with air quality. Preliminary results of this survey indicate that of people who moved into R-2000 houses 94 per cent claimed improved indoor air quality, compared to 77 per cent in conventional houses. Similarly, 56 per cent of R-2000 home occupants reported general health improvements, compared to only 32 per cent in conventional houses. Ten per cent reported deterioration of their health one year after moving into the new houses. A second phase of the survey , which will include more houses, will include measurements of air change rates, mould species and counts, allergens, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds.

  15. Comparing the ecological relevance of four wave exposure models (United States)

    Sundblad, G.; Bekkby, T.; Isæus, M.; Nikolopoulos, A.; Norderhaug, K. M.; Rinde, E.


    Wave exposure is one of the main structuring forces in the marine environment. Methods that enable large scale quantification of environmental variables have become increasingly important for predicting marine communities in the context of spatial planning and coastal zone management. Existing methods range from cartographic solutions to numerical hydrodynamic simulations, and differ in the scale and spatial coverage of their outputs. Using a biological exposure index we compared the performance of four wave exposure models ranging from simple to more advanced techniques. All models were found to be related to the biological exposure index and their performance, measured as bootstrapped R2 distributions, overlapped. Qualitatively, there were differences in the spatial patterns indicating higher complexity with more advanced techniques. In order to create complex spatial patterns wave exposure models should include diffraction, especially in coastal areas rich in islands. The inclusion of wind strength and frequency, in addition to wind direction and bathymetry, further tended to increase the amount of explained variation. The large potential of high-resolution numerical models to explain the observed patterns of species distribution in complex coastal areas provide exciting opportunities for future research. Easy access to relevant wave exposure models will aid large scale habitat classification systems and the continuously growing field of marine species distribution modelling, ultimately serving marine spatial management and planning.

  16. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE: A policy and economic comparative analysis for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Husid


    Full Text Available The present work aims to achieve an overall view of Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade in Canada, analyzing both the current situation and the actions and policies being implemented by several provinces to promote this subject. This study will be valuable to companies and governments to understand what has been done and to support strategic planning to invest and trade with Canada, especially for the Brazilian market.

  17. Longer Term Impact of Cigarette Package Warnings in Australia Compared with the United Kingdom and Canada (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M.; Thrasher, James F.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi


    This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK…

  18. Linguistic Barriers among Internationally Educated Teachers in Ireland and Canada: A Critical Comparative Analysis (United States)

    Schmidt, Clea; McDaid, Rory


    Drawing on qualitative interview and focus group data collected from Internationally Educated Teachers (IETs) in the context of two different research studies conducted in Ireland and Manitoba, Canada, this article critically examines how national/regional linguistic requirements and expectations of a hidden curriculum are experienced as barriers…

  19. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Tawfik-Shukor (Ali); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); O.A. Arah (Onyebuchi)


    textabstractBackground. Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support thi

  20. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B


    Full Text Available Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada.Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001, binge drinking (P < 0.001, obesity (P < 0.001 and diabetes (P < 0.001, and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029, and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001. Sex differences were also

  1. An examination of population exposure to traffic related air pollution: Comparing spatially and temporally resolved estimates against long-term average exposures at the home location. (United States)

    Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Faghih-Imani, Ahmadreza; Hatzopoulou, Marianne


    Air pollution in metropolitan areas is mainly caused by traffic emissions. This study presents the development of a model chain consisting of a transportation model, an emissions model, and atmospheric dispersion model, applied to dynamically evaluate individuals' exposure to air pollution by intersecting daily trajectories of individuals and hourly spatial variations of air pollution across the study domain. This dynamic approach is implemented in Montreal, Canada to highlight the advantages of the method for exposure analysis. The results for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker of traffic related air pollution, reveal significant differences when relying on spatially and temporally resolved concentrations combined with individuals' daily trajectories compared to a long-term average NO2 concentration at the home location. We observe that NO2 exposures based on trips and activity locations visited throughout the day were often more elevated than daily NO2 concentrations at the home location. The percentage of all individuals with a lower 24-hour daily average at home compared to their 24-hour mobility exposure is 89.6%, of which 31% of individuals increase their exposure by more than 10% by leaving the home. On average, individuals increased their exposure by 23-44% while commuting and conducting activities out of home (compared to the daily concentration at home), regardless of air quality at their home location. We conclude that our proposed dynamic modelling approach significantly improves the results of traditional methods that rely on a long-term average concentration at the home location and we shed light on the importance of using individual daily trajectories to understand exposure.

  2. Comparing children's GPS tracks with geospatial proxies for exposure to junk food. (United States)

    Sadler, Richard C; Gilliland, Jason A


    Various geospatial techniques have been employed to estimate children's exposure to environmental cardiometabolic risk factors, including junk food. But many studies uncritically rely on exposure proxies which differ greatly from actual exposure. Misrepresentation of exposure by researchers could lead to poor decisions and ineffective policymaking. This study conducts a GIS-based analysis of GPS tracks--'activity spaces'--and 21 proxies for activity spaces (e.g. buffers, container approaches) for a sample of 526 children (ages 9-14) in London, Ontario, Canada. These measures are combined with a validated food environment database (including fast food and convenience stores) to create a series of junk food exposure estimates and quantify the errors resulting from use of different proxy methods. Results indicate that exposure proxies consistently underestimate exposure to junk foods by as much as 68%. This underestimation is important to policy development because children are exposed to more junk food than estimated using typical methods.

  3. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The impact of exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities on animal and human health has been a long-standing concern in western Canada. This technical summary presented highlights of the 17 major research appendices of a study examining associations between emissions and important reproductive parameters in beef cattle, including pregnancy rates, frequencies of abortions and stillbirths, and the risk of death among young calves. The effect of exposure to emissions on the respiratory, immune and nervous systems of calves and yearlings was also evaluated. The study was an epidemiological investigation that drew on large blocks of data collected from privately owned cow-calf operations, laboratory analyses of biological samples and samplers from air monitors. Mixed effect regression models were used to investigate whether measures of reproductive, immunological, and pathology outcomes were associated with emissions from the petroleum industry. Appropriate statistical adjustments were made to correct for multiple comparisons following standard statistical practice. An overview of the methods used to analyze the data was presented, as well as an examination of the methods of epidemiology in determining a causal effect, and the limitations of a single study in determining causation with certainty. Information on water quality testing and feeding management and forage testing was provided. 15 tabs., 26 figs.

  4. Retirement income policies and welfare state retrenchment: A comparative study of Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands


    Bouma, Lisa


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of welfare state retrenchment on the retirement income system in Canada during the years 1980-2000. In order to provide perspective on the Canadian experience, this study also examined the effects of retrenchment on the pension systems in the Netherlands and Sweden. The theoretical foundation for this study was supported by Esping-Andersen's (1990) welfare-state regime typology (liberal, conservative and social-democratic). To address retre...

  5. A comparative study of population health in the United States and Canada during the neoliberal era, 1980-2008. (United States)

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Kawachi, Ichiro; Keating, Daniel P; Hertzman, Clyde


    This article draws on the vast evidence that suggests, on one hand, that socioeconomic inequalities in health are present in every society in which they have been measured and, on the other hand, that the size of inequalities varies substantially across societies. We conduct a comparative case study of the United States and Canada to explore the role of neoliberalism as a force that has created inequalities in socioeconomic resources (and thus in health) in both societies and the roles of other societal forces (political, economic, and social) that have provided a buffer, thereby lessening socioeconomic inequalities or their effects on health. Our findings suggest that, from 1980 to 2008, while both the United States and Canada underwent significant neoliberal reforms, Canada showed more resilience in terms of health inequalities as a result of differences in: (a) the degree of income inequality, itself resulting from differences in features of the labor market and tax and transfer policies, (b) equality in the provision of social goods such as health care and education, and (c) the extent of social cohesiveness across race/ethnic- and class-based groups. Our study suggests that further attention must be given to both causes and buffers of health inequalities.

  6. Tracking the evolution of hospice palliative care in Canada: A comparative case study analysis of seven provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Judy-Lynn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An aging population, rise in chronic illnesses, increase in life expectancy and shift towards care being provided at the community level are trends that are collectively creating an urgency to advance hospice palliative care (HPC planning and provision in Canada. The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of HPC in seven provinces in Canada so as to inform such planning and provision elsewhere. We have endeavoured to undertake this research out of awareness that good future planning for health and social care, such as HPC, typically requires us to first look backwards before moving forward. Methods To identify key policy and practice events in HPC in Canada, as well as describe facilitators of and barriers to progress, a qualitative comparative case study design was used. Specifically, the evolution and development of HCP in 7 strategically selected provinces is compared. After choosing the case study provinces, the grey literature was searched to create a preliminary timeline for each that described the evolution of HPC beginning in 1970. Key informants (n = 42 were then interviewed to verify the content of each provincial timeline and to discuss barriers and facilitators to the development of HPC. Upon completion of the primary data collection, a face-to-face meeting of the research team was then held so as to conduct a comparative study analysis that focused on provincial commonalities and differences. Results Findings point to the fact that HPC continues to remain at the margins of the health care system. The development of HPC has encountered structural inheritances that have both sped up progress as well as slowed it down. These structural inheritances are: (1 foundational health policies (e.g., the Canada Health Act; (2 service structures and planning (e.g., the dominance of urban-focused initiatives; and (3 health system decisions (e.g., regionalization. As a response to these inheritances, circumventions

  7. Exposure to ambient air pollution in Canada and the risk of adult leukemia. (United States)

    Winters, Nicholas; Goldberg, Mark S; Hystad, Perry; Villeneuve, Paul J; Johnson, Kenneth C


    There is a paucity of studies investigating adult leukemia and air pollution. To address this gap, we analyzed data from a Canadian population-based case-control study conducted in 1994-1997. Cases were 1064 adults with incident leukemia and controls were 5039 healthy adults. We used data from satellites and fixed-site monitoring stations to estimate residential concentrations of NO2 and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) for the period prior to diagnosis, starting in 1975 and ending in 1994. We modeled the average annual exposure of each subject. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, province, smoking, education, body mass index, income, and self-reported exposures to ionizing radiation and benzene. We found an 'n-shaped' response function between exposure to NO2 and all forms of leukemia: from the tenth percentile to the median (4.51 to 14.66 ppb), the OR was 1.20; 95% CI: 0.97-1.48 and from the 75th percentile to the 90th (22.75 to 29.7 ppb), the OR was 0.79; 95% CI 0.68-0.93. For PM2.5 we found a response function consistent with a linear model, with an OR per 10 μg/m(3) of 0.97 (95% CI 0.75-1.26). For chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found response functions that were consistent with a simple linear model, with an OR per 5 ppb of NO2 of 0.93 (95% CI 0.86-1.00) and an OR per 10 μg/m(3) of PM2.5 of 0.62 (95% CI 0.42-0.93). In summary, for chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found no evidence of an association with air pollution and with all forms of leukemia we found weak evidence of an association only at low concentrations of NO2. It is possible that these inconsistent results may have arisen because of unaccounted urban/rural differences or possibly from a selection effect, especially among controls.

  8. Exposure to ambient air pollution in Canada and the risk of adult leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, Nicholas [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Goldberg, Mark S., E-mail: [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Centre, 687 Pine Ave. W., R4.29, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A1 (Canada); Hystad, Perry [College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Villeneuve, Paul J. [Department of Health Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Johnson, Kenneth C. [Science Integration Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    There is a paucity of studies investigating adult leukemia and air pollution. To address this gap, we analyzed data from a Canadian population-based case–control study conducted in 1994–1997. Cases were 1064 adults with incident leukemia and controls were 5039 healthy adults. We used data from satellites and fixed-site monitoring stations to estimate residential concentrations of NO{sub 2} and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) for the period prior to diagnosis, starting in 1975 and ending in 1994. We modeled the average annual exposure of each subject. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, province, smoking, education, body mass index, income, and self-reported exposures to ionizing radiation and benzene. We found an ‘n-shaped’ response function between exposure to NO{sub 2} and all forms of leukemia: from the tenth percentile to the median (4.51 to 14.66 ppb), the OR was 1.20; 95% CI: 0.97–1.48 and from the 75th percentile to the 90th (22.75 to 29.7 ppb), the OR was 0.79; 95% CI 0.68–0.93. For PM{sub 2.5} we found a response function consistent with a linear model, with an OR per 10 μg/m{sup 3} of 0.97 (95% CI 0.75–1.26). For chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found response functions that were consistent with a simple linear model, with an OR per 5 ppb of NO{sub 2} of 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.00) and an OR per 10 μg/m{sup 3} of PM{sub 2.5} of 0.62 (95% CI 0.42–0.93). In summary, for chronic lymphocytic leukemia we found no evidence of an association with air pollution and with all forms of leukemia we found weak evidence of an association only at low concentrations of NO{sub 2}. It is possible that these inconsistent results may have arisen because of unaccounted urban/rural differences or possibly from a selection effect, especially among controls. - Highlights: • Analyzed associations between incidence of adult leukemia and PM • We used 20-year residential

  9. The Conundrum of Demographic Aging and Policy Challenges: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel, Susan A.


    Full Text Available AbstractSome analysts lean toward comparative analyses of population aging, then draw potential policy implications. Others lean in the direction of attention to differences in policy regimes and then consider implications of population aging. Key differences among advanced societies may not emanate from demographic aging but from differences in how markets, states, and families work to redistribute societal benefits. In this paper, three countries with contrasting configurations of markets, states, and families, and at different stages of demographic aging, are compared and contrasted: Canada, Japan, and Korea. The paper has three objectives: 1to outline key changes in population, family, and work in the three countries; 2 to consider how knowledge about these changes, their dynamics and interrelationships, is framed with respect to policy options; and 3 to compare Canada, Japan, and Korea in terms of the framing of policy challenges related to demographic aging. It is found that Canada is joining the longstanding pattern of Japan and Korea of late home-leaving by youth, meaning less effective time in the paid labour force. Little deep connection exists between population aging andeconomic productivity or labour force shortages. Differential labour market participation of women mediates the effects of population aging.RésuméIl y a des analystes qui ont un penchant pour les analyses comparatives du vieillissement despopulations, puis en déduisent les implications possibles sur les politiques. D’autres préfèrentporter leur attention sur les différences dans les régimes de politiques, puis considèrent lesimplications sur le vieillissement des populations. Il est possible que les différences majeuresdans les civilisations de pointe ne soient pas apparentes dans le vieillissement démographique mais plutôt dans les différentes manières dont les marchés, les états, et les familles oeuvrent àredistribuer les avantages sociaux. Dans

  10. Lead exposure through consumption of big game meat in Quebec, Canada: risk assessment and perception. (United States)

    Fachehoun, Richard Coovi; Lévesque, Benoit; Dumas, Pierre; St-Louis, Antoine; Dubé, Marjolaine; Ayotte, Pierre


    Game meat from animals killed by lead ammunition may expose consumers to lead. We assessed the risk related to lead intake from meat consumption of white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition and documented the perception of hunters and butchers regarding this potential contamination. Information on cervid meat consumption and risk perception were collected using a mailed self-administrated questionnaire which was addressed to a random sample of Quebec hunters. In parallel, 72 samples of white-tailed deer (n = 35) and moose (n = 37) meats were collected from voluntary hunters and analysed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A risk assessment for people consuming lead shot game meat was performed using Monte Carlo simulations. Mean lead levels in white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition were 0.28 and 0.17 mg kg(-1) respectively. Risk assessment based on declared cervid meat consumption revealed that 1.7% of the surveyed hunters would exceed the dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP). For consumers of moose meat once, twice or three times a week, simulations predicted that 0.5%, 0.9% and 1.5% of adults would be exposed to a dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in SBP, whereas 0.9%, 1.9% and 3.3% of children would be exposed to a dose associated with 1 point intelligence quotient (IQ) decrease, respectively. For consumers of deer meat once, twice or three times a week, the proportions were 1.6%, 2.9% and 4% for adults and 2.9%, 5.8% and 7.7% for children, respectively. The consumption of meat from cervids killed with lead ammunition may increase lead exposure and its associated health risks. It would be important to inform the population, particularly hunters, about this potential risk and promote the use of lead-free ammunition.

  11. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. (United States)

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry


    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills.

  12. Exploring Individual and School-Related Factors and Environmental Literacy: Comparing U.S. and Canada Using PISA 2006 (United States)

    Lin, Emily; Shi, Qingmin


    Questions remain about how to best prepare students to be environmentally literate. Although Canada and U.S. share similarities in education systems, diversity in student population, and historical roots in formalizing environmental education, Canada is one of the top performing countries in international science assessments while U.S. matches…

  13. Comparing Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy to Prolonged Exposure in the Treatment of Soldiers with PTSD (United States)


    Hodges LF: The use of virtual reality exposure in the treatment of anxiety disorders . Behav Modif 1999; 23(4):507-25 4. Difede J, Cukor J, Ivy P, Giosan C...RD: Virtual reality exposure therapy for Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder . J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62(8):617-22 3. Rothbaum BO...Hoffman H: The Application of Virtual Reality to the Treatment of PTSD Following the WTC Attack, in Psychobiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorders

  14. Comparative Analysis of Satellite Measurements Calculation Results Using the Postprocessing Services: Asg-Eupos (Poland), Apps (USA) and CSRS (Canada) (United States)

    Mika, Monika; Kudach, Jakub


    The publication has a cognitive research character. It presents a comparative analysis of free Internet services in Poland and abroad, used to adjust the data obtained using satellite measurement techniques. The main aim of this work is to describe and compare free tools for satellite data processing and to examine them for possible use in the surveying works in Poland. Among the many European and global services three of them dedicated to satellite measurements were selected: ASG-EUPOS (Poland), APPS (USA) and CSRS (Canada). The publication contains the results of calculations using these systems. Calculations were based on RINEX files obtained via postprocessing service (ASG-EUPOS network) POZGEO D for 12 reference stations in the South Poland. In order to examine differences in results between the ASG-EUPOS, APPS and CSRS the transformation points coordinate to a single coordinate system ETRF 2000 (in force in Poland) was made. Studies have shown the possibility of the calculation in Poland (in postprocessing mode) using the analyzed applications with global coverage.

  15. Structural violence in long-term, residential care for older people: comparing Canada and Scandinavia. (United States)

    Banerjee, Albert; Daly, Tamara; Armstrong, Pat; Szebehely, Marta; Armstrong, Hugh; Lafrance, Stirling


    Canadian frontline careworkers are six times more likely to experience daily physical violence than their Scandinavian counterparts. This paper draws on a comparative survey of residential careworkers serving older people across three Canadian provinces (Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario) and four countries that follow a Scandinavian model of social care (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden) conducted between 2005 and 2006. Ninety percent of Canadian frontline careworkers experienced physical violence from residents or their relatives and 43 percent reported physical violence on a daily basis. Canadian focus groups conducted in 2007 reveal violence was often normalized as an inevitable part of elder-care. We use the concept of "structural violence" (Galtung, 1969) to raise questions about the role that systemic and organizational factors play in setting the context for violence. Structural violence refers to indirect forms of violence that are built into social structures and that prevent people from meeting their basic needs or fulfilling their potential. We applied the concept to long-term residential care and found that the poor quality of the working conditions and inadequate levels of support experienced by Canadian careworkers constitute a form of structural violence. Working conditions are detrimental to careworker's physical and mental health, and prevent careworkers from providing the quality of care they are capable of providing and understand to be part of their job. These conditions may also contribute to the physical violence workers experience, and further investigation is warranted.

  16. Whole organism responses and intersex severity in rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) following exposures to municipal wastewater in the Grand River basin, ON, Canada. Part A. (United States)

    Bahamonde, P A; Fuzzen, M L; Bennett, C J; Tetreault, G R; McMaster, M E; Servos, M R; Martyniuk, C J; Munkittrick, K R


    Municipal wastewater effluents (MWWEs) contain anthropogenic substances that can exhibit endocrine-disrupting activity. These complex mixtures have been observed to exert adverse effects on fish. Rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum, RBD) is a small benthic fish that is widespread throughout the Grand River, Ontario, Canada, and has been previously shown to be adversely affected by MWWE exposure in this watershed. The objectives of this study were to quantify biological responses in this sentinel species and intersex severity in male fish, in relation to the area of urbanization. It focused on RBD populations adjacent to wastewater outfalls in the Grand River watershed. In May 2011, nine sites across the urban gradient were selected to evaluate the impact of MWWEs. Endpoints for energy storage (i.e. condition factor, k; liversomatic index, LSI) as well as reproductive endpoints (i.e. gonadosomatic index, GSI; gonad development, hormone production), and intersex were assessed in the fish. Rainbow darter showed a high incidence of intersex downstream of the wastewater outfalls, especially below the largest treatment plant outfall at Kitchener (∼85%). We applied an intersex index (score from 0 to 7) that considers the number of eggs within the testis and the stage of maturation of the egg. RBD exposed downstream of the largest wastewater outfall at Kitchener had a score of 3.81±0.37 compared to upstream to the urban areas where there were no intersex males found other than a single individual with a score 1 (average intersex score of site 0.06±0.06). In addition, several fish associated with the Kitchener outfall had macroscopic vitellogenic eggs in the testes (intersex scores 5 and 6). The sub-population of fish located at the wastewater outfall also showed a tendency towards skewed sex ratios (greater proportion of females to male fish) compared to the population at the reference sites. Male fish inhabiting the urbanized area of the Grand River also showed

  17. Comparing surficial sediments maps interpreted by experts with dual-frequency acoustic backscatter on the Scotian Shelf, Canada (United States)

    Cuff, Andrew; Anderson, John T.; Devillers, Rodolphe


    Understanding seabed properties is increasingly important to support policy in the marine environment. Such knowledge can be gained from diverse methods, ranging from more traditional expert-interpretations of acoustic and ground-truth data, to maps resulting from fully quantitative analyses of acoustic data. This study directly compares surficial geology maps created through expert-interpretations to near-nadir acoustic backscatter data from two frequencies (38 kHz and 120 kHz) collected using single beam echosounders (SBES) for two 5×1 km study areas on the Scotian Shelf, Canada. Statistical methods were used to analyze and classify both single and dual-frequency acoustic backscatter for comparisons. In particular, spatial scaling of acoustic backscatter responses and acoustic classes created using acoustic seabed classification (ASC) is compared between frequencies and to interpreted sediment units (ISUs) which make up surficial geology maps produced by experts. Seabed morphology layers were included in an ASC approach to reflect the morphological components included in the interpreted geological maps. Results confirmed that higher frequencies and coarser grain sizes generally produced higher backscatter, while more heterogeneous and rougher seabeds produced variable backscatter. Differing acoustic responses within similar substrate units suggest fundamental seabed variations not reflected in the geological interpretations. Spatial scaling of sand and gravel substrates from 38 kHz frequency were closer than the 120 kHz frequency to the spatial scaling of the interpreted geological map. Variable grain size in the sediment volume and surface morphology are both presented as possible reasons for frequency differences. While both frequencies had similar general responses, differences in frequency responses of backscatter occurred at scales of tens to hundreds of meters. Results presented here emphasize the importance of multi-scale seabed mapping and additional

  18. Comparative Detection and Quantification of Arcobacter butzleri in Stools from Diarrheic and Nondiarrheic People in Southwestern Alberta, Canada. (United States)

    Webb, Andrew L; Boras, Valerie F; Kruczkiewicz, Peter; Selinger, L Brent; Taboada, Eduardo N; Inglis, G Douglas


    Arcobacter butzleri has been linked to enteric disease in humans, but its pathogenicity and epidemiology remain poorly understood. The lack of suitable detection methods is a major limitation. Using comparative genome analysis, we developed PCR primers for direct detection and quantification ofA. butzleri DNA in microbiologically complex matrices. These primers, along with existing molecular and culture-based methods, were used to detectA. butzleri and enteric pathogens in stools of diarrheic and nondiarrheic people (n= 1,596) living in southwestern Alberta, Canada, from May to November 2008. In addition, quantitative PCR was used to compare A. butzleridensities in diarrheic and nondiarrheic stools.Arcobacter butzleriwas detected more often by PCR (59.6%) than by isolation methods (0.8%). Comparison by PCR-based detection found no difference in the prevalence ofA. butzleri between diarrheic (56.7%) and nondiarrheic (45.5%) individuals. Rates of detection in diarrheic stools peaked in June (71.1%) and October (68.7%), but there was no statistically significant correlation between the presence ofA. butzleri and patient age, sex, or place of habitation. Densities ofA. butzleriDNA in diarrheic stools (1.6 ± 0.59 log10 copies mg(-1)) were higher (P= 0.007) than in nondiarrheic stools (1.3 ± 0.63 log10copies mg(-1)). Of the 892 diarrheic samples that were positive for A. butzleri, 74.1% were not positive for other bacterial and/or viral pathogens. The current study supports previous work suggesting that A. butzleri pathogenicity is strain specific and/or dependent on other factors, such as the level of host resistance.

  19. Advancing Exposure Science through Chemical Data Curation and Integration in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (United States)

    Grondin, Cynthia J.; Davis, Allan Peter; Wiegers, Thomas C.; King, Benjamin L.; Wiegers, Jolene A.; Reif, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Mattingly, Carolyn J.


    Background: Exposure science studies the interactions and outcomes between environmental stressors and human or ecological receptors. To augment its role in understanding human health and the exposome, we aimed to centralize and integrate exposure science data into the broader biological framework of the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), a public resource that promotes understanding of environmental chemicals and their effects on human health. Objectives: We integrated exposure data within the CTD to provide a centralized, freely available resource that facilitates identification of connections between real-world exposures, chemicals, genes/proteins, diseases, biological processes, and molecular pathways. Methods: We developed a manual curation paradigm that captures exposure data from the scientific literature using controlled vocabularies and free text within the context of four primary exposure concepts: stressor, receptor, exposure event, and exposure outcome. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, we have illustrated the benefits of both centralization and integration of exposure information with CTD core data. Results: We have described our curation process, demonstrated how exposure data can be accessed and analyzed in the CTD, and shown how this integration provides a broad biological context for exposure data to promote mechanistic understanding of environmental influences on human health. Conclusions: Curation and integration of exposure data within the CTD provides researchers with new opportunities to correlate exposures with human health outcomes, to identify underlying potential molecular mechanisms, and to improve understanding about the exposome. Citation: Grondin CJ, Davis AP, Wiegers TC, King BL, Wiegers JA, Reif DM, Hoppin JA, Mattingly CJ. 2016. Advancing exposure science through chemical data curation and integration in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. Environ Health Perspect 124:1592–1599;

  20. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : interpretive overview by the science advisory panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, T.; Nielsen, O.; Berhane, K.; Cohen, B.S.; Hunter, B.; Lasley, B.; Martin, W.; Ribble, C.; Thorne, P.; Tollerud, D.; Witschi, H. [Western Interprovincial Scientific Studies Association, Calgary, AB (Canada). Science Advisory Panel


    The results of a study to determine if chronic exposure to emissions from the oil and gas industry influence the health and reproductive performance of cattle and wildlife in western Canada was presented. Individual cows in herds from Alberta, Saskatchewan and northeastern British Columbia were monitored in pens and pastures to determine their exposure status. Data on other known risk factors such as the cow's age, breed and body condition were collected. The study measured concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}); hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S); and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured as benzene and toluene. Passive air monitors were located on all occupied pastures and wintering areas for each herd. Information on the location of over 39,000 animals from 205 herds on 3355 different parcels of land was recorded at 2 week intervals. Each animal's exposure was then averaged to create cumulative exposure values for biologically relevant risk periods for each outcome. Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured a total of 365 times near the calving area for 32 herds. Five primary health outcomes were studied: (1) nonpregnancy; (2) length of breeding-to-calving interval; (3) abortion; (4) stillbirth; and (5) calf mortality. No associations were found among any of the exposure measures and the risk of nonpregnancy, abortion or stillbirth. Sulphur-containing exposures showed no associations with secondary outcome measures in the respiratory, immune and nervous systems. An association was found between exposure to SO{sub 2} and the increased risk of calf mortality. Findings also suggested that there was a greater risk of lesions in the calf skeletal or cardiac muscle with increased prenatal exposure to SO{sub 2}. Increased exposure to VOCs contributed to a greater risk of calf respiratory and thyroid lesions, and a lower count of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in calves. The results of a concurrent study on

  1. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment (United States)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The "HAWK" tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H*(10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H*(10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  2. An update on thoron exposure in Canada with simultaneous ²²²Rn and ²²⁰Rn measurements in Fredericton and Halifax. (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Moir, Deborah; Pronk, Toon; Goodwin, Terry; Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji


    Naturally occurring isotopes of radon in indoor air are identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Radon-222 (radon gas) and radon-220 (thoron gas) are the most common isotopes of radon. While extensive radon surveys have been conducted, indoor thoron data are very limited. To better assess thoron exposure in Canada, radon/thoron discriminating detectors were deployed in 45 homes in Fredericton and 65 homes in Halifax for a period of 3 months. In this study, radon concentrations ranged from 16 to 1374 Bq m(-3) with a geometric mean (GM) of 82 Bq m(-3) and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.56 in Fredericton, and from 4 to 2341 Bq m(-3) with a GM of 107 Bq m(-3) and a GSD of 3.67 in Halifax. It is estimated that 18 % of Fredericton homes and 32 % of Halifax homes could have radon concentrations above the Canadian indoor radon guideline of 200 Bq m(-3). This conclusion is significantly higher than the previous estimates made 30 y ago with short-term radon measurements. Thoron concentrations were below the detection limit in 62 % of homes in both cities. Among the homes with detectable thoron concentrations, the values varied from 12 to 1977 Bq m(-3) in Fredericton and from 6 to 206 Bq m(-3) in Halifax. The GM and GSD were 86 Bq m(-3) and 3.19 for Fredericton, and 35 Bq m(-3) and 2.35 for Halifax, respectively. On the basis of these results, together with previous measurements in Ottawa, Winnipeg and the Mont-Laurier region of Quebec, it is estimated that thoron contributes ∼8 % of the radiation dose due to indoor radon exposure in Canada.

  3. Virtual reality treatment versus exposure in vivo: a comparative evaluation in acrophobia. (United States)

    Emmelkamp, P M G; Krijn, M; Hulsbosch, A M; de Vries, S; Schuemie, M J; van der Mast, C A P G


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-budget virtual reality (VR) exposure versus exposure in vivo in a between-group design in 33 patients suffering from acrophobia. The virtual environments used in treatment were exactly copied from the real environments used in the exposure in vivo program. VR exposure was found to be as effective as exposure in vivo on anxiety and avoidance as measured with the Acrophobia Questionnaire (AQ), the Attitude Towards Heights Questionnaire (ATHQ) and the Behavioral Avoidance Test (BAT). Results were maintained up to six months follow-up. The present study shows that VR exposure can be effective with relatively cheap hardware and software on stand-alone computers currently on the market. Further studies into the effectiveness of VR exposure are recommended in other clinical groups as agoraphobics and social phobics and studies in which VR exposure is compared with more emerging virtual worlds as presented in CAVE-type systems.

  4. Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations. (United States)

    Rowley, Jack T; Joyner, Ken H


    This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles.

  5. Comparing acceptance and refusal rates of virtual reality exposure vs. in vivo exposure by patients with specific phobias. (United States)

    Garcia-Palacios, A; Botella, C; Hoffman, H; Fabregat, S


    The present survey explored the acceptability of virtual reality (VR) exposure and in vivo exposure in 150 participants suffering from specific phobias. Seventy-six percent chose VR over in vivo exposure, and the refusal rate for in vivo exposure (27%) was higher than the refusal rate for VR exposure (3%). Results suggest that VR exposure could help increase the number of people who seek exposure therapy for phobias.

  6. Defining Product Intake Fraction to Quantify and Compare Exposure to Consumer Products. (United States)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Csiszar, Susan A; Fantke, Peter


    There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction of a chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example applications of the product intake fraction concept, for two chemicals in two personal care products and two chemicals encapsulated in two articles, showing how intakes of these chemicals can primarily occur during product use. We demonstrate the utility of the product intake fraction and its application modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products, or back-calculate maximum allowable concentrations of substances inside products.

  7. A comparative analysis of exposure doses between the radiation workers in dental and general hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Nam Hee; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Ju, Yong Jin; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)


    Research and investigation is required for the exposure dose of radiation workers to work in the dental hospital as increasing interest in exposure dose of the dental hospital recently accordingly, study aim to minimize radiation exposure by making a follow-up study of individual exposure doses of radiation workers, analyzing the status on individual radiation exposure management, prediction the radiation disability risk levels by radiation, and alerting the workers to the danger of radiation exposure. Especially given the changes in the dental hospital radiation safety awareness conducted the study in order to minimize radiation exposure. This study performed analyses by a comparison between general and dental hospital, comparing each occupation, with the 116,220 exposure dose data by quarter and year of 5,811 subjects at general and dental hospital across South Korea from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012. The following are the results obtained by analyzing average values year and quarter. In term of hospital, average doses were significantly higher in general hospitals than detal ones. In terms of job, average doses were higher in radiological technologists the other workers. Especially, they showed statistically significant differences between radiological technologists than dentists. The above-mentioned results indicate that radiation workers were exposed to radiation for the past 5 years to the extent not exceeding the dose limit (maximum 50 mSv y{sup -1}). The limitation of this study is that radiation workers before 2008 were excluded from the study. Objective evaluation standards did not apply to the work circumstance or condition of each hospital. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to work out analysis criteria that will be used as objective evaluation standard. It will be necessary to study radiation exposure in more precise ways on the basis of objective analysis standard in the future. Should try to minimize the radiation individual dose of

  8. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection III. Methods of assessing animal exposure to contaminants from the oil and gas industry. (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L


    Researchers measured exposure to oil and gas industry emissions in 205 cow-calf herds located in Western Canada. They measured airborne concentrations of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds with passive monitors placed in each pasture, wintering, or calving area that contained study animals from the start of the breeding season in the spring of 2001 until June 30, 2002. Researchers continued air monitoring in a subset of herds to the end of the study in fall 2002. Each sampling device was exposed for 1 month and then shipped to the laboratory for analysis. New samplers were installed and the shelters relocated, as necessary, to follow the movements of herd-management groups between pastures. Researchers linked the results of the air-monitoring analysis to individual animals for the relevant month. For the 205 herds examined at pregnancy testing in 2001, monthly mean exposures on the basis of all available data were as follows: sulfur dioxide, geometric mean (GM)=0.5 ppb, geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.2; hydrogen sulfide, GM=0.14 ppb, GSD=2.3; benzene, GM=0.247 microg/m3, GSD=2.5; and toluene, GM=0.236 microg/m3, GSD=2.7. Benzene and toluene were surrogates for volatile organic compound exposure. In addition to passive measurements of air quality, researchers obtained data from provincial regulatory agencies on the density of oil and gas field facilities and on flaring and venting from the surrounding facilities. They developed the data into additional measures of exposure that were linked to each animal at each location for each month of the study.

  9. A comparative analysis of chiropractic and general practitioner patients in North America: Findings from the joint Canada/United States survey of health, 2002–03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Lu-May


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientifically rigorous general population-based studies comparing chiropractic with primary-care medical patients within and between countries have not been published. The objective of this study is to compare care seekers of doctors of chiropractic (DCs and general practitioners (GPs in the United States and Canada on a comprehensive set of sociodemographic, quality of life, and health-related variables. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/U.S. Survey of Health (JCUSH, 2002–03, a random sample of adults in Canada (N = 3505 and the U.S. (N = 5183. Respondents were categorized according to their pattern of health-care use in the past year. Distributions, percentages, and estimates (adjusted odds ratios weighted to reflect the complex survey design were produced. Results Nearly 80% of respondents sought care from GPs; 12% sought DC care. Compared with GP only patients, DC patients in both countries tend to be under 65 and white, with arthritis and disabling back or neck pain. U.S. DC patients are more likely than GP only patients to be obese and to lack a regular doctor; Canadian DC patients are more likely than GP only patients to be college educated, to have higher incomes, and dissatisfied with MD care. Compared with seekers of both GP and DC care, DC only patients in both countries have fewer chronic conditions, take fewer drugs, and have no regular doctor. U.S. DC only patients are more likely than GP+DC patients to be uninsured and dissatisfied with health care; Canadian DC only patients are more likely than GP+DC patients to be under 45, male, less educated, smokers, and not obese, without disabling back or neck pain, on fewer drugs, and lacking a regular doctor. Conclusion Chiropractic and GP patients are dissimilar in both Canada and the U.S., with key differences between countries and between DC patients who do and do not seek care from GPs. Such variation has broad and potentially far-reaching health policy and

  10. Anti-gay sentiment among adolescents in Belgium and Canada: a comparative investigation into the role of gender and religion. (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Claes, Ellen; Harell, Allison; Quintelier, Ellen; Dejaeghere, Yves


    Previous research has indicated that opposition toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trangender (LGBT) rights remains prevalent among Western populations. In this article, we investigate the determinants of anti-gay attitudes among adolescents in two liberal democracies, Belgium (n = 6,330) and Canada (n = 3,334). The analysis indicates that hostile feelings toward LGBT rights are particularly widespread among boys, while the effects of socioeconomic status and parental education remain limited. Various religious denominations proved to have a strong and significant negative impact on tolerance, with especially high scores for Islam. Religious practice, too, contributes to a negative attitude toward LGBT rights. The consequences of these findings with regard to tolerance for gay rights among Islamic youth in Western democracies are discussed.

  11. A comparative study of institutional adaptive capacity : South Saskatchewan River Basin, Canada, and Elqui River Basin, Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauchyn, D.; Diaz, P.; Gauthier, D. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)


    This presentation discussed the strategies and materials developed for a five-year study of the capacity of institutions in two dryland regions (the South Saskatchewan River Basin in western Canada and the Elqui River Basin of north-central Chile) to adapt to the impacts of climate change. The purpose of the project was to obtain a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the capacities of regional institutions to formulate and implement strategies of adaptation to climate change risks and the forecasted impacts of climate change on the supply and management of water resources in dryland environments. Both regions are at different stages of social and environmental vulnerability and yet have a dry climate adjacent to a major mountain system and landscapes at risk of desertification, as well as an agricultural economy dependent on irrigation water derived from mountain snow and glaciers. tabs., figs.

  12. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Ashworth


    Full Text Available Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of <0.01 μg/m3. Proximity and modelled PM10 concentrations for both MSWIs at postcode level were highly correlated when using continuous measures (Spearman correlation coefficients ~ 0.7 but showed poor agreement for categorical measures (deciles or quintiles, Cohen’s kappa coefficients ≤ 0.5. Conclusion. To provide the most appropriate estimate of ambient exposure from MSWIs, it is essential that incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks.

  13. Monitoring low benzene exposure: comparative evaluation of urinary biomarkers, influence of cigarette smoking, and genetic polymorphisms. (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Consonni, Dario; Campo, Laura; Buratti, Marina; Colombi, Antonio; Pesatori, Angela C; Bonzini, Matteo; Bertazzi, Pier A; Foà, Vito; Garte, Seymour; Farmer, Peter B; Levy, Leonard S; Pala, Mauro; Valerio, Federico; Fontana, Vincenzo; Desideri, Arianna; Merlo, Domenico F


    Benzene is a human carcinogen and an ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Identification of specific and sensitive biological markers is critical for the definition of exposure to low benzene level and the evaluation of the health risk posed by this exposure. This investigation compared urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), S-phenylmercapturic acid, and benzene (U-benzene) as biomarkers to assess benzene exposure and evaluated the influence of smoking and the genetic polymorphisms CYP2E1 (RsaI and DraI) and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 on these indices. Gas station attendants, urban policemen, bus drivers, and two groups of controls were studied (415 subjects). Median benzene exposure was 61, 22, 21, 9 and 6 microg/m(3), respectively, with higher levels in workers than in controls. U-benzene, but not t,t-MA and S-phenylmercapturic acid, showed an exposure-related increase. All the biomarkers were strongly influenced by cigarette smoking, with values up to 8-fold higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Significant correlations of the biomarkers with each other and with urinary cotinine were found. A possible influence of genetic polymorphism of CYP2E1 (RsaI and/or DraI) on t,t-MA and U-benzene in subjects with a variant allele was found. Multiple linear regression analysis correlated the urinary markers with exposure, smoking status, and CYP2E1 (RsaI; R(2) up to 0.55 for U-benzene). In conclusion, in the range of investigated benzene levels (<478 micro/m(3) or <0.15 ppm), smoking may be regarded as the major source of benzene intake; among the study indices, U-benzene is the marker of choice for biomonitoring low-level occupational and environmental benzene exposure.

  14. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin. (United States)

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib


    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  15. Historic and contemporary mercury exposure and potential risk to yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) breeding in Alaska and Canada (United States)

    Evers, David C.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Basu, Niladri; DeSorbo, Christopher R.; Fair, Jeff; Gray, Carrie E.; Paruk, James D.; Perkins, Marie; Regan, Kevin; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Wright, Kenneth G.


    The Yellow-billed Loon (Gavia adamsii) is one of the rarest breeding birds in North America. Because of the small population size and patchy distribution, any stressor to its population is of concern. To determine risks posed by environmental mercury (Hg) loads, we captured 115 Yellow-billed Loons between 2002 and 2012 in the North American Arctic and sampled their blood and/or feather tissues and collected nine eggs. Museum samples from Yellow-billed Loons also were analyzed to examine potential changes in Hg exposure over time. An extensive database of published Hg concentrations and associated adverse effects in Common Loons (G. immer) is highly informative and representative for Yellow-billed Loons. Blood Hg concentrations reflect dietary uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) from breeding areas and are generally considered near background levels if less than 1.0 µg/g wet weight (ww). Feather (grown at wintering sites) and egg Hg concentrations can represent a mix of breeding and wintering dietary uptake of MeHg. Based on Common Loon studies, significant risk of reduced reproductive success generally occurs when adult Hg concentrations exceed 2.0 µg/g ww in blood, 20.0 µg/g fresh weight (fw) in flight feathers and 1.0 µg/g ww in eggs. Contemporary mercury concentrations for 176 total samples (across all study sites for 115 Yellow-billed Loons) ranged from 0.08 to 1.45 µg/g ww in blood, 3.0 to 24.9 µg/g fw in feathers and 0.21 to 1.23 µg/g ww in eggs. Mercury concentrations in blood, feather and egg tissues indicate that some individual Yellow-billed Loons in breeding populations across North America are at risk of lowered productivity resulting from Hg exposure. Most Yellow-billed Loons breeding in Alaska overwinter in marine waters of eastern Asia. Although blood Hg concentrations from most breeding loons in Alaska are within background levels, some individuals exhibit elevated feather and egg Hg concentrations, which likely indicate the uptake of Me

  16. Complex and Conflicting Social Norms: Implications for Implementation of Future HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP Interventions in Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Knight

    Full Text Available HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP has been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV acquisition among seronegative individuals in a variety of risk groups, including men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs. To date, however, it remains unclear how socio-cultural norms (e.g., attitudes towards HIV; social understandings regarding HIV risk practices may influence the scalability of future PrEP interventions. The objective of this study is to assess how socio-cultural norms may influence the implementation and scalability of future HIV PrEP interventions in Vancouver, Canada.We conducted 50 interviews with young men (ages 18-24 with a variety of HIV risk behavioural profiles (e.g., young men who inject drugs; MSM. Interviews focused on participants' experiences and perceptions with various HIV interventions and policies, including PrEP.While awareness of PrEP was generally low, perceptions about the potential personal and public health gains associated with PrEP were interconnected with expressions of complex and sometimes conflicting social norms. Some accounts characterized PrEP as a convenient form of reliable protection against HIV, likening it to the female birth control pill. Other accounts cast PrEP as a means to facilitate 'socially unacceptable' behaviour (e.g., promiscuity. Stigmatizing rhetoric was used to position PrEP as a tool that could promote some groups' proclivities to take 'risks'.Stigma regarding 'risky' behaviour and PrEP should not be underestimated as a serious implementation challenge. Pre-implementation strategies that concomitantly aim to improve knowledge about PrEP, while addressing associated social prejudices, may be key to effective implementation and scale-up.

  17. Assessing variability and comparing short-term biomarkers of styrene exposure using a repeated measurements approach. (United States)

    Fustinoni, S; Manini, P; Campo, L; De Palma, G; Andreoli, R; Mutti, A; Bertazzi, P A; Rappaport, S M


    The aim of this work is to compare several short-term biomarkers of styrene exposure, namely urinary styrene (StyU), mercapturic acids (M1+M2), mandelic acid (MA), phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA), phenylglycine (PHG), and 4-vinylphenol conjugates (VP), for use as biomarkers of exposure in epidemiologic studies. A repeated measurements protocol (typically 4 measurements per worker over 6 weeks) was applied to measure airborne styrene (StyA) and urinary biomarkers in 10 varnish and 8 fiberglass reinforced plastic workers. Estimated geometric mean personal exposures to StyA were 2.96mg/m(3) in varnish workers and 15.7mg/m(3) in plastic workers. The corresponding levels of StyU, M1+M2, MA, PGA, MA+PGA, PHG and VP were 5.13microg/L, 0.111, 38.2, 22.7, 62.6, 0.978, and 3.97mg/g creatinine in varnish workers and 8.38microg/L, 0.303, 146, 83.4, 232, 2.85 and 3.97mg/g creatinine in plastic workers. Within-worker (sigma(wY)(2)) and between-worker (sigma(bY)(2)) variance components were estimated from the log-transformed data as were the corresponding fold ranges containing 95% of the respective lognormal distributions of daily levels ((w)R(0.95)) and subject-specific mean levels ((b)R(0.95)). Estimates of (w)R(0.95) (range: 4-26) were generally smaller than those of (b)R(0.95) (range: 5-790) for both environmental and biological markers; this indicates that exposures varied much more between workers than within workers in these groups. Since attenuation bias in an estimated exposure-response relationship increases with the variance ratio lambda=sigma(wY)(2)/sigma(bY)(2), we estimated values of lambda for all exposure measures in our study. Values of lambda were typically much less than one (median=0.220) and ranged from 0.089 for M1+M2 in plastic workers to 1.38 for PHG in varnish workers. Since values of lambda were 0.147 and 0.271 for StyA in varnish workers and plastic workers, respectively, compared to 0.178 and 0.210 for MA in the same groups, our results suggest that either

  18. Comparative Benchmark Dose Modeling as a Tool to Make the First Estimate of Safe Human Exposure Levels to Lunar Dust (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R.


    Brief exposures of Apollo Astronauts to lunar dust occasionally elicited upper respiratory irritation; however, no limits were ever set for prolonged exposure ot lunar dust. Habitats for exploration, whether mobile of fixed must be designed to limit human exposure to lunar dust to safe levels. We have used a new technique we call Comparative Benchmark Dose Modeling to estimate safe exposure limits for lunar dust collected during the Apollo 14 mission.

  19. Comparing interferon-gamma release assays to tuberculin skin test in Thai children with tuberculosis exposure.

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    Hong-Van Tieu

    Full Text Available Data on the performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs, QuantiFERON TB Gold In-tube (QFNGIT and T-Spot.TB, in diagnosing tuberculosis (TB are limited in Southeast Asia. This study aims to compare the performances of the two IGRAs and TST in Thai children with recent TB exposure.This multicenter, prospective study enrolled children with recent exposure to active TB adults. Children were investigated for active TB. TST was performed and blood collected for T-Spot.TB and QFNGIT.158 children were enrolled (87% TB-exposed and 13% active TB, mean age 7.2 years. Only 3 children had HIV infection. 66.7% had TST≥10 mm, while 38.6% had TST≥15 mm. 32.5% had positive QFNGIT; 29.9% had positive T-Spot.TB. QFNGIT and T-Spot.TB positivity was higher among children with active TB compared with TB-exposed children. No indeterminate IGRA results were detected. No statistically significant differences between the performances of the IGRAs and TST at the two cut-offs with increasing TB exposure were detected. Concordance for positive IGRAs and TST ranged from 42-46% for TST≥10 mm and 62-67% for TST≥15 mm. On multivariable analyses, exposure to household primary/secondary caregiver with TB was associated with positive QFNGIT. Higher TB contact score and active TB were associated with positive T-Spot.TB.Both QFNGIT and T-Spot.TB performed well in our Thai pediatric study population. No differences in the performances between tests with increasing TB exposure were found. Due to accessibility and low cost, using TST may more ideal than IGRAs in diagnosing latent and active TB in healthy children in Thailand and other similar settings.

  20. Fédéralisme et droits des LGBT aux États-Unis et au Canada : analyse comparatives des politiques


    Miriam Smith


    L’article examine le militantisme LGBT et les résultats des politiques en matière de droit pénal et du mariage entre personnes de même sexe de 1969 à aujourd’hui, dans le cadre d’une analyse comparée du fédéralisme aux États-Unis et au Canada. Nous soutiendrons que le fédéralisme a grandement façonné les politiques publiques relatives aux droits des LGBT. Dans le régime américain, le potentiel d’expansion du fédéralisme a favorisé les changements graduels de politiques dans les États et, para...

  1. Comparative chlorpyrifos pharmacokinetics via multiple routes of exposure and vehicles of administration in the adult rat. (United States)

    Smith, Jordan Ned; Campbell, James A; Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L; Lee, Sookwang; Poet, Torka S; Barr, Dana B; Timchalk, Charles


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphorus pesticide. A number of toxicity and mechanistic studies have been conducted in animals, where CPF has been administered via a variety of different exposure routes and dosing vehicles. This study compared chlorpyrifos (CPF) pharmacokinetics using oral, intravenous (IV), and subcutaneous (SC) exposure routes and corn oil, saline/Tween 20, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as dosing vehicles. Two groups of rats were co-administered target doses (5 mg/kg) of CPF and isotopically labeled CPF (L-CPF). One group was exposed by both oral (CPF) and IV (L-CPF) routes using saline/Tween 20 vehicle; whereas, the second group was exposed by the SC route using two vehicles, corn oil (CPF) and DMSO (L-CPF). A third group was only administered CPF by the oral route in corn oil. For all treatments, blood and urine time course samples were collected and analyzed for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), and isotopically labeled 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (L-TCPy). Peak TCPy/L-TCPy concentrations in blood (20.2 micromol/l), TCPy/L-TCPy blood AUC (94.9 micromol/lh), and percent of dose excreted in urine (100%) were all highest in rats dosed orally with CPF in saline/Tween 20 and second highest in rats dosed orally with CPF in corn oil. Peak TCPy concentrations in blood were more rapidly obtained after oral administration of CPF in saline/Tween 20 compared to all other dosing scenarios (>1.5 h). These results indicate that orally administered CPF is more extensively metabolized than systemic exposures of CPF (SC and IV), and vehicle of administration also has an effect on absorption rates. Thus, equivalent doses via different routes and/or vehicles of administration could potentially lead to different body burdens of CPF, different rates of bioactivation to CPF-oxon, and different toxic responses. Simulations using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF are consistent with these possibilities

  2. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin

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    Arbia Abir Gorrab MD


    Full Text Available The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively. The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7% only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001. The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31. The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  3. Auditory Effects of Exposure to Noise and Solvents: A Comparative Study

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    Lobato, Diolen Conceição Barros


    Full Text Available Introduction Industry workers are exposed to different environmental risk agents that, when combined, may potentiate risks to hearing. Objective To evaluate the effects of the combined exposure to noise and solvents on hearing in workers. Methods A transversal retrospective cohort study was performed through documentary analysis of an industry. The sample (n = 198 was divided into four groups: the noise group (NG, exposed only to noise; the noise and solvents group (NSG, exposed to noise and solvents; the noise control group and noise and solvents control group (CNS, no exposure. Results The NG showed 16.66% of cases suggestive of bilateral noise-induced hearing loss and NSG showed 5.26%. The NG and NSG had worse thresholds than their respective control groups. Females were less susceptible to noise than males; however, when simultaneously exposed to solvents, hearing was affected in a similar way, resulting in significant differences (p < 0.05. The 40- to 49-year-old age group was significantly worse (p < 0.05 in the auditory thresholds in the NSG compared with the CNS. Conclusion The results observed in this study indicate that simultaneous exposure to noise and solvents can damage the peripheral auditory system.

  4. Comparative Plasma Exposure of Albendazole after Administration of Rapidly Disintegrating Tablets in Dogs

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    Silvina G. Castro


    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were (a to evaluate the in vitro performance of the rapid disintegration tablets as a way to improve the solid dispersions and (b to study the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the albendazole modified formulation in dogs. Rapid disintegration of tablets seems to be a key factor for efficiency of solid dispersions with regard to improvement of the albendazole bioavailability. The in vivo assays performed on dogs showed a marked increase in drug plasma exposure when albendazole was given in solid dispersions incorporated into rapid disintegration tablets compared with conventional solid dosage form.

  5. Comparative plasma exposure of albendazole after administration of rapidly disintegrating tablets in dogs. (United States)

    Castro, Silvina G; Dib, Alicia; Suarez, Gonzalo; Allemandi, Daniel; Lanusse, Carlos; Sanchez Bruni, Sergio; Palma, Santiago D


    The main objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the in vitro performance of the rapid disintegration tablets as a way to improve the solid dispersions and (b) to study the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the albendazole modified formulation in dogs. Rapid disintegration of tablets seems to be a key factor for efficiency of solid dispersions with regard to improvement of the albendazole bioavailability. The in vivo assays performed on dogs showed a marked increase in drug plasma exposure when albendazole was given in solid dispersions incorporated into rapid disintegration tablets compared with conventional solid dosage form.

  6. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young European children: Comparing a pan-European approach with a national exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, P.E.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; van Klaveren, J.D.


    Long-term dietary exposures to lead in young children were calculated by combining food consumption data of 11 European countries categorised using harmonised broad food categories with occurrence data on lead from different Member States (pan-European approach). The results of the assessment...... in children living in the Netherlands were compared with a long-term lead intake assessment in the same group using Dutch lead concentration data and linking the consumption and concentration data at the highest possible level of detail. Exposures obtained with the pan-European approach were higher than...... the national exposure calculations. For both assessments cereals contributed most to the exposure. The lower dietary exposure in the national study was due to the use of lower lead concentrations and a more optimal linkage of food consumption and concentration data. When a pan-European approach, using...

  7. Homelessness coverage, social reality, and media ownership: Comparing a national newspaper with two regional newspapers in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Mao (Yuping); M.S. Richter (Solina); K. Kovacs Burns (Kathy); J. Chaw-Kant (Jean)


    textabstractThe media plays an important role in the discourse of homelessness. The purpose of this study was to compare how two Alberta newspapers (Calgary Herald and Edmonton Journal) and one national newspaper(the Globe and Mail) covered homeless issues in terms of population, main themes, articl


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Nkongolo


    Full Text Available Comparative studies conducted on the genetic variation of metal-tolerant populations and their non-metal-tolerant counterparts have been performed on numerous species using isozyme markers. Analysis of genetic differences among plant populations growing in heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated regions are limited. The main objectives of the present study were to compare ISSR and microsatellite markers in assessing genetic variation in D. cespitosa populations that colonized metal-contaminated and uncontaminated regions in Northern Ontario, Canada. Total genomic DNA from D. cespitosa samples were amplified with ISSR and SSR primers using optimized PCR conditions. The level of polymorphic loci varies from 46 to 74% for ISSR analysis. The level of observed heterozygosity was moderate to high ranging from 0.44 to 0.68 for the SSR primers used. But no significant difference in genetic variation levels was detected between metal contaminated and uncontaminated sites with SSR markers. There was a significant reduction of polymorphic loci in samples from highly metal-contaminated areas of the Cobalt region compared to the reference sites based on ISSR analysis. Use of a combination of different marker systems is recommended to analyse genetic variation in plant populations.

  9. Breast cancer risk, fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A gene-environment interactions in a province-wide case control study in Prince Edward Island, Canada. (United States)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; VanLeeuwen, John; Cribb, Alastair; Andreou, Pantelis; Guernsey, Judith Read


    Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studies examining the health risks of these agents. The association between agricultural fungicide exposure and breast cancer risk was examined in a secondary analysis of a province-wide breast cancer case-control study in Prince Edward Island (PEI) Canada. Specific objectives were: (1) to derive and examine the level of association between estimated fungicide exposures, and breast cancer risk among women in PEI; and (2) to assess the potential for gene-environment interactions between fungicide exposure and a CYP1A1 polymorphism in cases versus controls. After 1:3 matching of 207 cases to 621 controls by age, family history of breast cancer and menopausal status, fungicide exposure was not significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.46-1.17). Moreover, no statistically significant interactions between fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A were observed. Gene-environment interactions were identified. Though interpretations of findings are challenged by uncertainty of exposure assignment and small sample sizes, this study does provide grounds for further research.

  10. Canadian Lung Cancer Relative Risk from Radon Exposure for Short Periods in Childhood Compared to a Lifetime

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    Jing Chen


    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to elevated indoor radon concentrations has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in adults after tobacco smoking. With the establishment of a National Radon Program in Canada in 2007 thousands of homes across the country have been tested for radon. Although the vast majority of people are exposed to low or moderate radon concentrations; from time to time; there are homes found with very high concentrations of radon. Among those living in homes with very high radon concentrations, it is typically parents of young children that demonstrate a great deal of concern. They want to know the equivalent risk in terms of the lifetime relative risk of developing lung cancer when a child has lived in a home with high radon for a few years. An answer to this question of risk equivalency is proposed in this paper. The results demonstrate clearly that the higher the radon concentration; the sooner remedial measures should be undertaken; as recommended by Health Canada in the Canadian radon guideline.

  11. What is the comparative health status and associated risk factors for the Métis? A population-based study in Manitoba, Canada

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    Martens Patricia J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Métis are descendants of early 17th century relationships between North American Indians and Europeans. This study's objectives were: (1 to compare the health status of the Métis people to all other residents of Manitoba, Canada; and (2 to analyze factors in predicting the likelihood of diabetes and related lower limb amputation. Methods Using de-identified administrative databases plus the Métis Population Database housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, age/sex-adjusted rates of mortality and disease were calculated for Métis (n = 73,016 and all other Manitobans (n = 1,104,672. Diseases included: hypertension, arthritis, diabetes, ischemic heart disease (age 19+; osteoporosis (age 50+; acute myocardial infarction (AMI and stroke (age 40+; total respiratory morbidity (TRM, all ages. Using logistic regression, predictors of diabetes (2004/05-2006/07 and diabetes-related lower-limb amputations (2002/03-2006/07 were analyzed. Results Disease rates were higher for Métis compared to all others: premature mortality before age 75 (4.0 vs. 3.3 per 1000, p Conclusion Despite universal healthcare, Métis' illness and mortality rates are mostly higher. Although elevated diabetes risk persists for the Métis even after adjusting for sociodemographic, healthcare and comorbidity variables, the risk of amputation for Métis appears more related to healthcare access rather than ethnicity.

  12. Molecular pathways associated with the intersex condition in rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) following exposures to municipal wastewater in the Grand River basin, ON, Canada. Part B. (United States)

    Bahamonde, P A; McMaster, M E; Servos, M R; Martyniuk, C J; Munkittrick, K R


    Rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum; RBD) is a small benthic fish found in North America. This species is sensitive to sewage effluent, and intersex is found in up to 80% of males in near-field areas in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. To learn more about the molecular signaling cascades associated with intersex, a developed customized oligonucleotide microarray (4×180 K) using next generation sequencing was developed to characterize the transcriptome in the gonad of male and female RBD. Gene expression profiling was performed in males and females from both a reference site and a polluted site. Males with and without intersex condition from the areas closest to effluent outfalls were compared to males and females from a reference site. Microarray analysis revealed that there was increased mRNA abundance for genes associated with oogenesis in intersex males (i.e. the presence of eggs within the testis), and a decrease in mRNA abundance for genes associated with spermatid development. In females exposed to effluent, cell processes related with hatching and ovulation were down-regulated, and genes involved in immune responses were increased in abundance. In the non-intersex males exposed to effluent, cell processes such as sperm cell adhesion were decreased at the transcript level relative to males from the reference site. Microarray analysis revealed that heat shock proteins (HSP) were significantly increased in non-intersex males exposed to effluent; however, HSPs were not differentially expressed in intersex males exposed to the effluent. Genes involved in sex differentiation (sox9, foxl2 and dmrt1) and reproduction (esr1, esrb, ar, vtg, cyp19a1 and cyp11a) were measured in males, females, and intersex individuals. Consistent with the intersex condition, many transcripts showed an intermediate expression level in intersex males when compared to phenotypic males and females. This study improves our knowledge regarding the molecular pathways that underlie the

  13. [Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in pre-school children--a comparative study]. (United States)

    Bielskai, Dorota Emilia; Gomółka, Ewa; Kurpas, Donata; Chlabicz, Slawomir


    The objective of the work was to compare the socioeconomic situation and the structure of tobacco use in the families of children attending preschools in Bialystok in 2004 and 2012 in terms of 3-year-olds' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The study involved 313 children out of 1,200 3-year-olds attending 51 pre-schools in Bialystok in 2004 (Gr I) and 273 children out of 1,100 attending 49 pre-schools in 2012 (Gr I). Information on environmental conditions and the use of tobacco in the families of the studied 3-year-olds was obtained through anonymous questionnaires filled in by their parents or caregivers. The exposure of children to ETS was evaluated using the questionnaire and by determining the cotinine/creatinine ratio in urine. The children from Gr I had better educated (pgrandparents. The declared number of cigarettes smoked a day by the people living with the children was similar in both Groups The Groups did not differ significantly regarding the rules of tobacco smoke applying to the family members and guests (p=0.639). The mean cotinine/ creatinine concentration [ng/mg] in the urine of children from Gr I (60.78) was significantly higher than in those from Gr II (22.75) (pyoung parents decreased, but despite education activities in the community, only 1/4 of homes with children had the "no smoking" rule.

  14. Comparative effects of dissolved copper and copper oxide nanoparticle exposure to the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Samreen; Goddard, Russell H.; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Differences between CuO NP and CuCl{sub 2} exposure were characterized. • Copper accumulation in E. pallida was concentration-dependent. • E. pallida exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulated higher copper tissue burdens. • The oxidative stress response was greater in E. pallida exposed to CuO NP. • Both forms of copper inhibited CA activity in E. pallida. - Abstract: Increasing use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) by various industries has resulted in substantial output of these NP into aquatic systems. At elevated concentrations, NP may interact with and potentially affect aquatic organisms. Environmental implications of increased NP use are largely unknown, particularly in marine systems. This research investigated and compared the effects of copper oxide (CuO) NP and dissolved copper, as copper chloride (CuCl{sub 2}), on the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida. Sea anemones were collected over 21 days and tissue copper accumulation and activities of the enzymes: catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase were quantified. The size and shape of CuO NP were observed using a ecanning electron microscope (SEM) and the presence of copper was confirmed by using Oxford energy dispersive spectroscopy systems (EDS/EDX). E. pallida accumulated copper in their tissues in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with the animals exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulating higher tissue copper burdens than those exposed to CuO NP. As a consequence of increased copper exposure, as CuO NP or CuCl{sub 2}, anemones increased activities of all of the antioxidant enzymes measured to some degree, and decreased the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Anemones exposed to CuO NP generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentrations of CuCl{sub 2}. This study is useful in discerning differences between CuO NP and dissolved copper exposure and the findings have implications for exposure of aquatic

  15. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under existing chemical management systems: A comparative study of sources of childhood exposure in Korea and in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Chan-Kook


    , while Korea produces more than 0.4 million tons of the three above-mentioned phthalates each year. First, a comparative review of the existing phthalate regulations in the two countries was performed. Next, the level of childhood phthalate exposure from environmental and food sources was estimated using...... estimations based on exposure modeling and biomonitoring data. Cumulative childhood risk levels in Denmark were lower than in Korea. For both countries, risk levels from back calculation were higher than those from scenario estimation. The median cumulative risk levels from scenario estimation and back...... calculation respectively were 0.24 and up to 0.5 in Denmark while 0.52 and up to 0.95 in Korea. Food and indoor dust were the main exposure sources for all three phthalates. In order to protect human health from cumulative risks of these phthalates, the exposure scenarios in existing regulations...

  16. Sniff to see. Comparing sniffing position versus simple head extension position for glottic exposure - A prospective, randomized cross over study

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    Nishant Sahay


    Conclusion: Sniffing position provides better glottis exposure and it is easier to intubate a patient in the sniffing position as compared to simple head extension position. Sniffing position should therefore be used as initial position when attempting intubation.

  17. A case control study of differences in non-work injury and accidents among sawmill workers in rural compared to urban British Columbia, Canada

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    Maggi Stefania


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a cohort of British Columbian male sawmill workers, we conducted a nested case-control study of the impact of rural compared to urban residence as well as rural/urban migration patterns in relation to hospitalization for non-work injury. We postulate that for many types of non-work injuries, rates will be higher in rural communities than in urban ones and that rates will also be higher for workers who migrate from urban to rural communities. Methods Using conditional logistic regression, univariate models were first run with each of five non-work injury outcomes. These outcomes were hospitalizations due to assault, accidental poisoning, medical mis-adventure, motor vehicle trauma, and other non-work injuries. In multivariate models marital status, ethnicity, duration of employment, and occupation were forced into the model and associations with urban, compared to rural, residence and various urban/migration patterns were tested. Results Urban or rural residence and migration status from urban to other communities, and across rural communities, were not associated with hospitalization for medical misadventure, assault, or accidental poisoning. The likelihood of a rural resident being hospitalized for motor vehicle trauma is higher than for an urban resident. The likelihood that a rural resident is hospitalized for "other" non-work injury is higher than for an urban resident. Conclusion In a relatively homogenous group of workers, and using a rigorous study design, we have demonstrated that the odds of other non-work injury are much higher for workers resident in and migrating to rural regions of Canada than they are for workers resident in or migrating to urban places.

  18. Variability in exposure to ambient ultrafine particles in urban schools: Comparative assessment between Australia and Spain. (United States)

    Mazaheri, Mandana; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Crilley, Leigh R; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Viana, Mar; Tobias, Aurelio; Alastuey, Andrés; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier; Morawska, Lidia


    Ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC) have inhomogeneous spatio-temporal distributions and depend on a number of different urban factors, including background conditions and distant sources. This paper quantitatively compares exposure to ambient ultrafine particles at urban schools in two cities in developed countries, with high insolation climatic conditions, namely Brisbane (Australia) and Barcelona (Spain). The analysis used comprehensive indoor and outdoor air quality measurements at 25 schools in Brisbane and 39 schools in Barcelona. PNC modes were analysed with respect to ambient temperature, land use and urban characteristics, combined with the measured elemental carbon concentrations, NOx (Brisbane) and NO2 (Barcelona). The trends and modes of the quantified weekday average daily cycles of ambient PNC exhibited significant differences between the two cities. PNC increases were observed during traffic rush hours in both cases. However, the mid-day peak was dominant in Brisbane schools and had the highest contribution to total PNC for both indoors and outdoors. In Barcelona, the contribution from traffic was highest for ambient PNC, while the mid-day peak had a slightly higher contribution for indoor concentrations. Analysis of the relationships between PNC and land use characteristics in Barcelona schools showed a moderate correlation with the percentage of road network area and an anti-correlation with the percentage of green area. No statistically significant correlations were found for Brisbane. Overall, despite many similarities between the two cities, school-based exposure patterns were different. The main source of ambient PNC at schools was shown to be traffic in Barcelona and mid-day new particle formation in Brisbane. The mid-day PNC peak in Brisbane could have been driven by the combined effect of background and meteorological conditions, as well as other local/distant sources. The results have implications for urban development

  19. Comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis. (United States)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Ferrario, Marco M; Chambless, Lloyd E


    In this article we focus on comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis, when longitudinal data are observed prior to the follow-up time. Motivational examples include the analysis of the association between changes in cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent onset of coronary events. We derive a measurement error model for the rate of change, estimated through subject-specific linear regression, assuming an additive measurement error model for the time-specific measurements. The rate of change is then included as a time-invariant variable in a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for the first time-specific measurement (baseline) and an error-free covariate. In a simulation study, we compared bias, standard deviation and mean squared error (MSE) for the regression calibration (RC) and the simulation-extrapolation (SIMEX) estimators. Our findings indicate that when the amount of measurement error is substantial, RC should be the preferred method, since it has smaller MSE for estimating the coefficients of the rate of change and of the variable measured without error. However, when the amount of measurement error is small, the choice of the method should take into account the event rate in the population and the effect size to be estimated. An application to an observational study, as well as examples of published studies where our model could have been applied, are also provided.

  20. Solar ultraviolet and the occupational radiant exposure of Queensland school teachers: A comparative study between teaching classifications and behavior patterns. (United States)

    Downs, Nathan J; Harrison, Simone L; Chavez, Daniel R Garzon; Parisi, Alfio V


    Classroom teachers located in Queensland, Australia are exposed to high levels of ambient solar ultraviolet as part of the occupational requirement to provide supervision of children during lunch and break times. We investigated the relationship between periods of outdoor occupational radiant exposure and available ambient solar radiation across different teaching classifications and schools relative to the daily occupational solar ultraviolet radiation (HICNIRP) protection standard of 30J/m(2). Self-reported daily sun exposure habits (n=480) and personal radiant exposures were monitored using calibrated polysulphone dosimeters (n=474) in 57 teaching staff from 6 different schools located in tropical north and southern Queensland. Daily radiant exposure patterns among teaching groups were compared to the ambient UV-Index. Personal sun exposures were stratified among teaching classifications, school location, school ownership (government vs non-government), and type (primary vs secondary). Median daily radiant exposures were 15J/m(2) and 5J/m(2)HICNIRP for schools located in northern and southern Queensland respectively. Of the 474 analyzed dosimeter-days, 23.0% were found to exceed the solar radiation protection standard, with the highest prevalence found among physical education teachers (57.4% dosimeter-days), followed by teacher aides (22.6% dosimeter-days) and classroom teachers (18.1% dosimeter-days). In Queensland, peak outdoor exposure times of teaching staff correspond with periods of extreme UV-Index. The daily occupational HICNIRP radiant exposure standard was exceeded in all schools and in all teaching classifications.

  1. Home-care programmes for older adults with disabilities in Canada: how can we assess the adequacy of services provided compared with the needs of users? (United States)

    Tousignant, M; Dubuc, N; Hébert, R; Coulombe, C


    The need for home care will probably continue to increase over the next decade as one response to innovative health practices designed to help people receive services at home instead of in institutions. However, there are no data for determining whether home-care programmes can meet user needs. The objectives of the present study were to describe the functional autonomy profile of the users of public home-care programmes in Québec, Canada, and to compare the level of adequacy between required and provided services in public home-care programmes for older adults with disabilities. This study was based on a cross-sectional design from September to December 2002. The population studied consisted of all users of public home-care services in one administrative region in the province of Québec over this 3-month period. Each user was assessed with the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF) and then classified into one of the 14 Iso-SMAF profiles. The total number of hours of care required was determined using the median number of hours of nursing care, personal care and support services associated with each profile. For the sake of comparison with the services required, the services provided were calculated from an administrative databank that included statistics of the time spent by health professionals on caring for home-care users. The ratio of hours of services provided to the number of hours of services required by home-care users highlights a discrepancy between the services provided and user needs. The results of this study show the feasibility of describing users of public home-care programmes and the adequacy of services provided in relation to user needs. Based on these results, public home-care programmes in the province of Québec appear to be under-funded.

  2. Comparing population exposure to multiple Washington earthquake scenarios for prioritizing loss estimation studies (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Ratliff, Jamie L.; Schelling, John; Weaver, Craig S.


    Scenario-based, loss-estimation studies are useful for gauging potential societal impacts from earthquakes but can be challenging to undertake in areas with multiple scenarios and jurisdictions. We present a geospatial approach using various population data for comparing earthquake scenarios and jurisdictions to help emergency managers prioritize where to focus limited resources on data development and loss-estimation studies. Using 20 earthquake scenarios developed for the State of Washington (USA), we demonstrate how a population-exposure analysis across multiple jurisdictions based on Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) classes helps emergency managers understand and communicate where potential loss of life may be concentrated and where impacts may be more related to quality of life. Results indicate that certain well-known scenarios may directly impact the greatest number of people, whereas other, potentially lesser-known, scenarios impact fewer people but consequences could be more severe. The use of economic data to profile each jurisdiction’s workforce in earthquake hazard zones also provides additional insight on at-risk populations. This approach can serve as a first step in understanding societal impacts of earthquakes and helping practitioners to efficiently use their limited risk-reduction resources.

  3. Exposure of Prague's homeless population to lead and cadmium, compared to Prague's general population. (United States)

    Hrncírová, Dana; Batáriová, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Procházka, Bohumír; Dlouhý, Pavel; Andel, Michal


    Homelessness is a growing problem in the Czech Republic where homeless people represent a specific minority group beset by many problems linked to their divergent lifestyle. It was therefore expected that the homeless population would be at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollutants than the general population. The aim of our study was to compare blood lead (B-Pb) and blood cadmium (B-Cd) levels in the homeless population (HP) with those obtained from the Human Biomonitoring Project (CZ-HBM), which used blood donors considered representative of the general population (GP). We present data obtained between 2004 and 2006 for B-Pb and B-Cd in 257 Prague homeless adults and compare them to B-Pb and B-Cd levels in 104 Prague adult blood donors from the CZ-HBM project in 2005. The mean (geometric) B-Pb levels in men were 36.5 (HP) and 35.4microg/l (GP), which is not significantly different. However, statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in the GP (Phomeless nonsmokers (geometric means 1.06 and 1.18microg/l in men and women, respectively) were more than 2.5 times higher than in the nonsmoking GP (0.36 and 0.38microg/l for men and women, respectively). B-Cd levels were significantly (Phomeless population under study might be exposed to lead and cadmium more extensively than the general population of Prague and that homeless women represent a particularly vulnerable population group.

  4. Time profiles and toxicokinetic parameters of key biomarkers of exposure to cypermethrin in orally exposed volunteers compared with previously available kinetic data following permethrin exposure. (United States)

    Ratelle, Mylène; Coté, Jonathan; Bouchard, Michèle


    Biomonitoring of pyrethroid exposure is largely conducted but human toxicokinetics has not been fully documented. This is essential for a proper interpretation of biomonitoring data. Time profiles and toxicokinetic parameters of key biomarkers of exposure to cypermethrin in orally exposed volunteers have been documented and compared with previously available kinetic data following permethrin dosing. Six volunteers ingested 0.1 mg kg(-1) bodyweight of cypermethrin acutely. The same volunteers were exposed to permethrin earlier. Blood samples were taken over 72 h after treatment and complete timed urine voids were collected over 84 h postdosing. Cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (trans- and cis-DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) metabolites, common to both cypermethrin and permethrin, were quantified. Blood and urinary time courses of all three metabolites were similar following cypermethrin and permethrin exposure. Plasma levels of metabolites reached peak values on average ≈ 5-7 h post-dosing; the elimination phase showed mean apparent half-lives (t½ ) for trans-DCCA, cis-DCCA and 3-PBA of 5.1, 6.9 and 9.2 h, respectively, following cypermethrin treatment as compared to 7.1, 6.2 and 6.5 h after permethrin dosing. Corresponding mean values obtained from urinary rate time courses were peak values at ≈ 9 h post-dosing and apparent elimination t½ of 6.3, 6.4 and 6.4 h for trans-DCCA, cis-DCCA and 3-PBA, respectively, following cypermethrin treatment as compared to 5.4, 4.5 and 5.7 h after permethrin dosing. These data confirm that the kinetics of cypermethrin is similar to that of permethrin in humans and that their common biomarkers of exposure may be used for an overall assessment of exposure.

  5. A Comparative View of Equality Under the UN Convention on the Rights of PERSONS with Disabilities and the Disability Laws of the United States and Canada

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    Arlene S Kanter


    Full Text Available In 2006, the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities [CRPD], the first international treaty addressing specifically the rights of people with disabilities, including in the workplace.  The purpose of the CRPD is “to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity....” The CRPD has been ratified by 160 countries, including Canada, but not yet by the United States. Article 27 of the CRPD, entitled Work and Employment, prohibits not only discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, but also the right of people with disabilities to reasonable accommodations, equal remuneration for work of equal value, safe and healthy working conditions,  assistance in finding, obtaining, maintaining and returning to employment,  rehabilitation, job retention and return-to-work programmes,  as well as affirmative action programmes, incentives and other measures to promote equal employment opportunities. As compared to the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Canadian Charter, the CRPD, therefore, goes beyond prohibiting discrimination and instead seeks to ensure greater substantive equality for people with disabilities in the workplace.  As such, the author proposes that both US and Canadian legislatures and courts should look to the CRPD to help their respective countries move beyond traditional notions of formal equality towards a new right to substantive equality in the workplace for people with disabilities. En 2006, les Nations Unies ont adopté la Convention relative aux droits des personnes handicapées [CDPH], le premier traité international portant explicitement sur les droits des personnes handicapées, y compris les droits dans le milieu de travail. La CDPH a pour objet de « promouvoir, protéger et assurer la pleine et égale jouissance de tous

  6. Mapping of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in outdoor environment and comparing with reference levels for general public health. (United States)

    Cansiz, Mustafa; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Kurt, M Bahattin; Celik, A Recai


    In this study, radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels were measured on the main streets in the city center of Diyarbakır, Turkey. Measured electric field levels were plotted on satellite imagery of Diyarbakır and were compared with exposure guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Exposure measurements were performed in dense urban, urban and suburban areas each day for 7 consecutive days. The measurement system consisted of high precision and portable spectrum analyzer, three-axis electric field antenna, connection cable and a laptop which was used to record the measurement samples as a data logger. The highest exposure levels were detected for two places, which are called Diclekent and Batıkent. It was observed that the highest instantaneous electric field strength value for Batıkent was 7.18 V/m and for Diclekent was 5.81 V/m. It was statistically determined that the main contributor band to the total exposure levels was Universal Mobile Telecommunications System band. Finally, it was concluded that all measured exposure levels were lower than the reference levels recommended by ICNIRP for general public health.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 2 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.64.

  7. Comparative evaluation of the effects of short-term inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust on rat lung and brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlo, Damien van; Albrecht, Catrin; Krutmann, Jean; Schins, Roel P.F. [Institut fuer Umweltmedizinische Forschung (IUF) an der Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Knaapen, Ad M.; Schooten, Frederik-Jan van [Maastricht University, Department of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Cassee, Flemming R.; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Kooter, Ingeborg M. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Environmental Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola [Research Center Juelich, Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine (INM-2), Juelich (Germany); Bidmon, Hans-Juergen [Heinrich-Heine-University, C and O Vogt Institute for Brain Research, Duesseldorf (Germany)


    Combustion-derived nanoparticles, such as diesel engine exhaust particles, have been implicated in the adverse health effects of particulate air pollution. Recent studies suggest that inhaled nanoparticles may also reach and/or affect the brain. The aim of our study was to comparatively evaluate the effects of short-term diesel engine exhaust (DEE) inhalation exposure on rat brain and lung. After 4 or 18 h recovery from a 2 h nose-only exposure to DEE (1.9 mg/m{sup 3}), the mRNA expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) were investigated in lung as well as in pituitary gland, hypothalamus, olfactory bulb, olfactory tubercles, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum. HO-1 protein expression in brain was investigated by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. In the lung, 4 h post-exposure, CYP1A1 and iNOS mRNA levels were increased, while 18 h post-exposure HO-1 was increased. In the pituitary at 4 h post-exposure, both CYP1A1 and HO-1 were increased; HO-1 was also elevated in the olfactory tuberculum at this time point. At 18 h post-exposure, increased expression of HO-1 and COX-2 was observed in cerebral cortex and cerebellum, respectively. Induction of HO-1 protein was not observed after DEE exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis of inflammatory cell influx, TNF-{alpha}, and IL-6 indicated that the mRNA expression changes occurred in the absence of lung inflammation. Our study shows that a single, short-term inhalation exposure to DEE triggers region-specific gene expression changes in rat brain to an extent comparable to those observed in the lung. (orig.)

  8. Parish classification or dwelling coordinate for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology - A comparative study using Geographical Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondel, Martin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)], E-mail:; Lindgren, Peter [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Garvin, Peter [Division of Social Medicine and Public Health Science, Department of Health and Society, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Persson, Bodil [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)


    Background:: Two previous epidemiological studies on the incidence of total malignancies in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident have shown consistently increased risks. The first study used an analogue map on {sup 137}Cs from 1986 to classify individuals in terms of the parish they lived in. In the second study, dwelling coordinates were matched to a digital map from the year 2000 to assess the individual exposure. To establish the accuracy of the exposure assessment using the larger unit of parish, instead of coordinates, we decided to compare the methods. Methods:: On the analogue map eleven isolines on the deposition of {sup 137}Cs (kBq/m{sup 2}) were used to classify all individuals in each of the 450 parishes. Using the digital map, by contrast, each dwelling with its inhabitants could be matched to {sup 137}Cs deposition at a coordinate level. A population-weighted average of {sup 137}Cs deposition was calculated for each parish. In total, 1,126,960 individuals and 450 parishes were included and analysed into six different exposure categories. Results:: Using the new parish exposure index, 111 out of the 450 parishes were reclassified as a result of the increased resolution of the digital map (86 parishes) or unequal distribution of the population compared with the deposition (25 parishes). Seventy-five per cent of the parishes remained in the same exposure category as on the analogue map. Conclusion:: Using dwelling coordinates for exposure assessment may not always be superior to parish classification. Nor is it always a cost-effective way of estimating the exposure, especially if the exposure in a parish is relatively homogenous or if parishes can be merged into broader categories with little intra-parish difference.

  9. Comparative Exposure Assessment of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli through Meat Consumption (United States)

    Pielaat, Annemarie; Smid, Joost H.; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Vennemann, Francy B. C.; Wijnands, Lucas M.; Chardon, Jurgen E.


    The presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli (EEC) in food animals, especially broilers, has become a major public health concern. The aim of the present study was to quantify the EEC exposure of humans in The Netherlands through the consumption of meat from different food animals. Calculations were done with a simplified Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) model. The model took the effect of pre-retail processing, storage at the consumers home and preparation in the kitchen (cross-contamination and heating) on EEC numbers on/in the raw meat products into account. The contribution of beef products (78%) to the total EEC exposure of the Dutch population through the consumption of meat was much higher than for chicken (18%), pork (4.5%), veal (0.1%) and lamb (0%). After slaughter, chicken meat accounted for 97% of total EEC load on meat, but chicken meat experienced a relatively large effect of heating during food preparation. Exposure via consumption of filet americain (a minced beef product consumed raw) was predicted to be highest (61% of total EEC exposure), followed by chicken fillet (13%). It was estimated that only 18% of EEC exposure occurred via cross-contamination during preparation in the kitchen, which was the only route by which EEC survived for surface-contaminated products. Sensitivity analysis showed that model output is not sensitive for most parameters. However, EEC concentration on meat other than chicken meat was an important data gap. In conclusion, the model assessed that consumption of beef products led to a higher exposure to EEC than chicken products, although the prevalence of EEC on raw chicken meat was much higher than on beef. The (relative) risk of this exposure for public health is yet unknown given the lack of a modelling framework and of exposure studies for other potential transmission routes. PMID:28056081

  10. Comparative Analysis of Airborne Chemical Exposure to Air Force Small Arms Range Instructors (United States)


    combustion ( Fischbein , 1979; Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 2005). Once the primer is struck, the next potential source of lead exposure results...stop ( Fischbein , 1979). 2.3.1 Health Effects of Lead Lead can have numerous adverse effects on the human body. At firing ranges, it enters...bone marrow ( Fischbein , 1979). Skeletal bone tests are also being used to determine cumulative lead exposure for individuals chronically exposed to

  11. Quantifying the Increase in Radiation Exposure Associated with SPECT/CT Compared to SPECT Alone for Routine Nuclear Medicine Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Larkin


    Full Text Available Purpose. We quantify the additional radiation exposure in terms of effective dose incurred by patients in the CT portion of SPECT/CT examinations. Methods. The effective dose from a variety of common nuclear medicine procedures is calculated and summarized. The extra exposure from the CT portion of the examination is summarized by examination and body part. Two hundred forty-eight scans from 221 patients are included in this study. The effective dose from the CT examination is also compared to average background radiation. Results. We found that the extra effective dose is not sufficient to cause deterministic effects. However, the stochastic effects may be significant, especially in patients undergoing numerous follow-up studies. The cumulative effect might increase the radiation exposure compared to patient management with SPECT alone. Conclusions. While the relative increase in radiation exposure associated with SPECT/CT is generally considered acceptable when compared with the benefits to the patient, physicians should make every effort to minimize this effect by using proper technical procedures and educating patients about the exposure they will receive.

  12. Comparing ELISA test-positive prevalence, risk factors and management recommendations for Johne's disease prevention between organic and conventional dairy farms in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David


    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of

  13. EDITORIAL: Theory Meets Data Analysis at Comparable and Extreme Mass Ratios Conference (NRDA/Capra 2010), Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Canada, 20-26 June 2010 Theory Meets Data Analysis at Comparable and Extreme Mass Ratios Conference (NRDA/Capra 2010), Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Canada, 20-26 June 2010 (United States)

    Lehner, L.; Pfeiffer, H.; Poisson, E.


    This special issue of Classical and Quantum Gravity contains articles submitted in relation to the 'Theory Meets Data Analysis at Comparable and Extreme Mass Ratios' conference held at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Canada, 20-26 June 2010. This conference, organized by S Fairhurst, G Gonzalez, L Lehner, Y Liu, H Pfeiffer, and E Poisson brought together researchers from three gravitational wave communities: experiment, theory and data analysis, who discussed the latest advances and challenges for detecting and exploiting gravitational waves. Approximately 60 talks spread over one week, together with many lively discussions provided an excellent atmosphere for debate. With so much packed in over seven days there were too many highlights to list specifics here. However, several common themes could be clearly discerned: the tremendous progress achieved in the detector level; the understanding of key comparable-mass systems and the data analysis techniques required for searching for their signals; the significant progress achieved in obtaining predictions in extreme mass ratio scenarios and the understanding of remaining challenges; as well as several new efforts towards making multi-messenger astronomy a reality. This issue contains research articles presented at this conference which, together with online talks (all of which can be found at, illustrate the level of maturity the field has reached. Many challenges still remain and the communities involved are actively working towards addressing them.

  14. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water, and Hibernia mud cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.; Fancey, L.; Andrews, C.; Meade, J.; Power, F.; Veinot, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Science Branch; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Quality Laboratory


    The authors studied the short term effects on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods (Calanus finmarchicus), juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) and ctenophores (Pleurobrachius pileus) of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings. In this report, they presented the data collected, including data on the water solubility of Petro-Canada drill mud fluid IA-35 and metal analysis of production water from the Sable Island Offshore Exploration Project. Low acute toxicity potential for drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill cuttings for the species and life stages tested were revealed. The hypothesis to the effect that wastes pose very little or no risk of an acute toxic nature to the marine environment were reinforced by the results from this study. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the effects of climate and land-cover changes on hydrologic responses of the Muskeg River, Alberta, Canada


    Hyung-Il Eum; Yonas Dibike; Terry Prowse


    Study region: The Muskeg River Basin located in the Oil-Sands region of northern Alberta, Canada. Study focus: An integrated modelling framework, which combines a process-based distributed hydrologic model with a dynamic land-cover simulation model is used to evaluate the effects of climate and land-cover changes on the hydrological regime in the basin. Land-cover types corresponding to three hypothetical levels of future industrial expansion are synthesized based on the current lease hold...

  16. Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Rebecca C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways.

  17. The effect of randomised exposure to different types of natural outdoor environments compared to exposure to an urban environment on people with indications of psychological distress in Catalonia (United States)

    Gidlow, Christopher J.; Martínez, David; de Bont, Jeroen; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Martínez-Íñiguez, Tania; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Seto, Edmund; Jones, Marc V.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.


    Introduction Experimental studies have reported associations between short-term exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) and health benefits. However, they lack insight into mechanisms, often have low external and ecological validity, and have rarely focused on people with some psycho-physiological affection. The aim of this study was to use a randomized, case-crossover design to investigate: (i) the effects of unconstrained exposure to real natural and urban environments on psycho-physiological indicators of people with indications of psychological distress, (ii) the possible differential effects of 30 and 30+180 minutes exposures, and (iii) the possible mechanisms explaining these effects. Material and methods People (n = 26) with indications of psychological distress were exposed to green (Collserola Natural Park), blue (Castelldefels beach) and urban (Eixample neighbourhood) environments in Catalonia. They were exposed to all environments in groups for a period of 30+180 minutes between October 2013 and January 2014. During the exposure period, participants were instructed to do what they would usually do in that environment. Before, during (at 30 and 30+180 minutes) and after each exposure, several psycho-physiological measures were taken: mood (measured as Total Mood Disturbance, TMD), attention capacity (measured as backwards digit-span task), stress levels (measures as salivary cortisol), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, autonomous nervous system (assessed as heart rate variability and the indicators: low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), ratio between LF and HF (LF:HF), and coefficients of component variance of LF, HF, and LF:HF). We also measured several potential mediators: air pollution, noise, physical activity, social interactions, and self-perceived restoration experience. Results When compared with responses to urban environment, we found statistically significantly lower TMD [-4.78 (-7.77, -1.79) points

  18. Integrated approach for characterizing and comparing exposure-based impacts with life cycle impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier


    To address hazardous chemicals in consumer products, chemical alternatives assessment (CAA) is an emerging approach combining hazard and exposure assessment with technical and economic feasibility. Life cycle aspects are typically not consistently considered in CAA, but are relevant to avoid decis...... ions that involve burden shifting or that result in only incremental improvement. Focusing in the life cycle impacts on widely accepted and applied impact categories like global warming potential or cumulative energy demand aggregating several impact categories will lead to underestimations of life...... cycle emissions of potentially harmful chemicals and their proposed replacements. Hence, an assessment framework is required that is able to account for near-field consumer exposure to chemicals in products during and after product use as well as population far-field exposure to chemical emissions...

  19. Defining product intake fraction to quantify and compare exposure to consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Oliver; Ernstoff, Alexi; Csiszar, Susan A.;


    modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products...

  20. The Influence of Initial Exposure on Lexical Representation: Comparing Early and Simultaneous Bilinguals (United States)

    Sebastian-Galles, N.; Echeverria, S.; Bosch, L.


    The representation of L2 words and non-words was analysed in a series of three experiments. Catalan-Spanish bilinguals, differing in terms of their L1 and the age of exposure to their L2 (since birth-simultaneous bilinguals-or starting in early childhood-early sequential bilinguals), were asked to perform a lexical decision task on Catalan words…

  1. Comparative Analysis of Immune Cells Activation and Cytotoxicity upon Exposure Pathogen and Glycoconjugates (United States)

    Saheb, Entsar; Tarasenko, Olga


    Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) including macrophages are key players in the immune responses against pathogens. Any infection could be attenuated if PMNC would be activated and capable to kill pathogen on exposure. It was shown that glycoconjugates (GCs) play an important role in adhesion to, activation, and recognition of pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is a regulatory molecule released by immune cells against pathogens that include bacteria, protozoa, helminthes, and fungi. NO is a highly reactive and diffusible molecule that controls replication or intracellular killing of pathogens during infection and immune responses against infections caused by pathogens. Avirulent Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores were used as a model in our study. The purpose of this study was two-fold: A) to analyze PMNC activation through NO production and B) to determine the cytotoxicity effect based on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) upon exposure to pathogen exerted by GCs. The latter were used "prior to," "during," and "following" PMNC exposure to pathogen in order to modulate immune responses to spores during phagocytosis. Post-phagocytosis study involved the assessment of NO and LDH release by macrophages upon exposure to spores. Results have shown that untreated PMNC released low levels of NO. However, in the presence of GCs, PMNC were activated and produced high levels of NO under all experimental conditions. In addition, the results showed that GC1, GC3 are capable of increasing PMNC activity as evidenced by higher NO levels under the "prior," "during" and "following" to pathogen exposure conditions. On the other hand, GCs were capable of controlling cytotoxicity and decreased LDH levels during phagocytosis of spores. Our findings suggest that GCs stimulate NO production by activating PMNC and decrease cytotoxicity caused by pathogens on PMNC.

  2. Contaminant Research in Canada

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    Wren C.


    Full Text Available Contaminant Research in CanadaPages 9 - 11 (ReportChristopher WrenAbstract:During the 1983/84 and 1984/85 trapping seasons, carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis were collected for contaminant analysis from trappers in Ontario. The studies identified clear differences in tissue levels of Hg, Pb and Cd between different collection areas. There is evidence to support Hg poisoning as the cause of death in at least one otter along this river system. The studies emphasize the potential interactions of toxic chemicals with each other and with natural stresses (e.g. cold, starvation, disease. More research is required along these lines since simultaneous exposure to more than one chemical and other stresses is more typical of conditions in the wild.

  3. Fédéralisme et droits des LGBT aux États-Unis et au Canada : analyse comparatives des politiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Smith


    Full Text Available L’article examine le militantisme LGBT et les résultats des politiques en matière de droit pénal et du mariage entre personnes de même sexe de 1969 à aujourd’hui, dans le cadre d’une analyse comparée du fédéralisme aux États-Unis et au Canada. Nous soutiendrons que le fédéralisme a grandement façonné les politiques publiques relatives aux droits des LGBT. Dans le régime américain, le potentiel d’expansion du fédéralisme a favorisé les changements graduels de politiques dans les États et, parallèlement, les multiples points de véto créés par le système de séparation des pouvoirs conjugués aux compétences conférés aux États dans d’importants domaines de politiques ont entravé ces changements de politiques. Dans le régime canadien, la centralisation des mécanismes de protection des droits de la personne dans la Charte de même que la dynamique descendante de l’exercice du pouvoir dans le régime parlementaire de type Westminster ont facilité les changements de politiques. Le fédéralisme est souvent perçu comme un obstacle à l’adoption de politiques progressistes. La répartition des pouvoirs entrave l’élaboration de politiques cohérentes et prête le flanc à la prolifération de vétos dont peuvent se prévaloir des groupes influents pour freiner le changement. Les critiques de cette perspective arguent depuis longtemps que, même si le fédéralisme multiplie les points de véto, il présente aussi de nombreuses possibilités d’innovation. Ils font valoir que les groupes ont plus de poids dans les régimes fédéraux puisqu’ils peuvent exercer leur influence à deux paliers de gouvernement plutôt qu’à un. Ainsi, un groupe qui ne réussit pas à se faire entendre à l’un des paliers pourra tenter sa chance au second et pourra même dresser un palier contre l’autre pour atteindre ses objectifs stratégiques.

  4. The LINA Study: Higher Sensitivity of Infant Compared to Maternal Eosinophil/Basophil Progenitors to Indoor Chemical Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Hörnig


    Full Text Available Purpose. Enhanced eosinophil/basophil (Eo/B progenitor cell levels are known to be associated with allergic inflammation and atopy risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different indoor exposures on the recruitment and differentiation of Eo/B progenitors in mother-child pairs. Methods. In 68 mother-child pairs of the LINA study peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to assess Eo/B colony forming units (CFUs. Information about disease outcomes and indoor exposures was obtained from questionnaires. Indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured by passive sampling. Results. Infant’s Eo/B CFUs were positively associated with exposure to tobacco smoke, disinfectants, or VOCs. In contrast, for maternal Eo/B CFUs, only a few associations were seen. Higher numbers of infant Eo/B CFUs were observed in children with wheezing symptoms within the second year of life. Conclusions. We demonstrate that infant’s hematopoietic cells seem to respond with more sensitivity to environmental exposure compared to maternal cells. At least in infants, an activation of these hematopoietic cells by environmental exposure could contribute to an enhanced risk for the development of respiratory outcomes.

  5. Tax-deductible provisions for gluten-free diet in Canada compared with systems for gluten-free diet coverage available in various countries (United States)

    Pinto-Sanchez, Maria Ines; Verdu, Elena F; Gordillo, Maria C; Bai, Julio C; Birch, Stephen; Moayyedi, Paul; Bercik, Premysl


    Celiac disease affects 1% of the North American population, with an estimated 350,000 Canadians diagnosed with this condition. The disease is triggered by the ingestion of gluten, and a lifelong, strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available treatment. Compliance with a strict GFD is essential not only for intestinal mucosal recovery and alleviation of symptoms, but also for the prevention of complications such as anemia, osteoporotic fractures and small bowel lymphoma. However, a GFD is difficult to follow, socially inconvenient and expensive. Different approaches, such as tax reduction, cash transfer, food provision, prescription and subsidy, have been used to reduce the additional costs of the GFD to patients with celiac disease. The current review showed that the systems in place exhibit particular advantages and disadvantages in relation to promoting uptake and compliance with GFD. The tax offset system used in Canada for GFD coverage takes the form of a reimbursement of a cost previously incurred. Hence, the program does not help celiac patients meet the incremental cost of the GFD – it simply provides some future refund of that cost. An ideal balanced approach would involve subsidizing gluten-free products through controlled vouchers or direct food provision to those who most need it, independently of ‘ability or willingness to pay’. Moreover, if the cost of such a program is inhibitive, the value of the benefits could be made taxable to ensure that any patient contribution, in terms of additional taxation, is directly related to ability to pay. The limited coverage of GFD in Canada is concerning. There is an unmet need for GFD among celiac patients in Canada. More efforts are required by the Canadian medical community and the Canadian Celiac Association to act as agents in identifying ways of improving resource allocation in celiac disease. PMID:25803021

  6. Tax-Deductible Provisions for Gluten-Free Diet in Canada Compared with Systems for Gluten-Free Diet Coverage Available in Various Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez


    Full Text Available Celiac disease affects 1% of the North American population, with an estimated 350,000 Canadians diagnosed with this condition. The disease is triggered by the ingestion of gluten, and a lifelong, strict gluten-free diet (GFD is the only currently available treatment. Compliance with a strict GFD is essential not only for intestinal mucosal recovery and alleviation of symptoms, but also for the prevention of complications such as anemia, osteoporotic fractures and small bowel lymphoma. However, a GFD is difficult to follow, socially inconvenient and expensive. Different approaches, such as tax reduction, cash transfer, food provision, prescription and subsidy, have been used to reduce the additional costs of the GFD to patients with celiac disease. The current review showed that the systems in place exhibit particular advantages and disadvantages in relation to promoting uptake and compliance with GFD. The tax offset system used in Canada for GFD coverage takes the form of a reimbursement of a cost previously incurred. Hence, the program does not help celiac patients meet the incremental cost of the GFD – it simply provides some future refund of that cost. An ideal balanced approach would involve subsidizing gluten-free products through controlled vouchers or direct food provision to those who most need it, independently of ‘ability or willingness to pay’. Moreover, if the cost of such a program is inhibitive, the value of the benefits could be made taxable to ensure that any patient contribution, in terms of additional taxation, is directly related to ability to pay. The limited coverage of GFD in Canada is concerning. There is an unmet need for GFD among celiac patients in Canada. More efforts are required by the Canadian medical community and the Canadian Celiac Association to act as agents in identifying ways of improving resource allocation in celiac disease.

  7. Tax-deductible provisions for gluten-free diet in Canada compared with systems for gluten-free diet coverage available in various countries. (United States)

    Pinto-Sanchez, Maria Ines; Verdu, Elena F; Gordillo, Maria C; Bai, Julio C; Birch, Stephen; Moayyedi, Paul; Bercik, Premysl


    Celiac disease affects 1% of the North American population, with an estimated 350,000 Canadians diagnosed with this condition. The disease is triggered by the ingestion of gluten, and a lifelong, strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available treatment. Compliance with a strict GFD is essential not only for intestinal mucosal recovery and alleviation of symptoms, but also for the prevention of complications such as anemia, osteoporotic fractures and small bowel lymphoma. However, a GFD is difficult to follow, socially inconvenient and expensive. Different approaches, such as tax reduction, cash transfer, food provision, prescription and subsidy, have been used to reduce the additional costs of the GFD to patients with celiac disease. The current review showed that the systems in place exhibit particular advantages and disadvantages in relation to promoting uptake and compliance with GFD. The tax offset system used in Canada for GFD coverage takes the form of a reimbursement of a cost previously incurred. Hence, the program does not help celiac patients meet the incremental cost of the GFD - it simply provides some future refund of that cost. An ideal balanced approach would involve subsidizing gluten-free products through controlled vouchers or direct food provision to those who most need it, independently of 'ability or willingness to pay'. Moreover, if the cost of such a program is inhibitive, the value of the benefits could be made taxable to ensure that any patient contribution, in terms of additional taxation, is directly related to ability to pay. The limited coverage of GFD in Canada is concerning. There is an unmet need for GFD among celiac patients in Canada. More efforts are required by the Canadian medical community and the Canadian Celiac Association to act as agents in identifying ways of improving resource allocation in celiac disease.

  8. Asthmatics exhibit altered oxylipin profiles compared to healthy individuals after subway air exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L Lundström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM and oxidants are important factors in causing exacerbations in asthmatics, and the source and composition of pollutants greatly affects pathological implications. OBJECTIVES: This randomized crossover study investigated responses of the respiratory system to Stockholm subway air in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the distal lung to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators in association with exposure to subway air relative to ambient air. METHODS: Sixty-four oxylipins representing the cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 (CYP metabolic pathways were screened using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL-fluid. Validations through immunocytochemistry staining of BAL-cells were performed for 15-LOX-1, COX-1, COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. Multivariate statistics were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin and immunocytochemistry data in combination with patient clinical information. RESULTS: Asthmatics and healthy individuals exhibited divergent oxylipin profiles following exposure to ambient and subway air. Significant changes were observed in 8 metabolites of linoleic- and α-linolenic acid synthesized via the 15-LOX pathway, and of the COX product prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2. Oxylipin levels were increased in healthy individuals following exposure to subway air, whereas asthmatics evidenced decreases or no change. CONCLUSIONS: Several of the altered oxylipins have known or suspected bronchoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects, suggesting a possible reduced anti-inflammatory response in asthmatics following exposure to subway air. These observations may have ramifications for sensitive subpopulations in urban areas.

  9. Selective agonists of retinoic acid receptors: comparative toxicokinetics and embryonic exposure. (United States)

    Arafa, H M; Elmazar, M M; Hamada, F M; Reichert, U; Shroot, B; Nau, H


    Three biologically active synthetic retinoids were investigated that bind selectively to retinoic acid receptors RARs (alpha, beta and gamma). The retinoids were previously demonstrated to have different teratogenic effects in the mouse in terms of potency and regioselectivity. The teratogenic potency rank order (alpha >beta >gamma) was found to be more or less compatible with the receptor binding affinities and transactivation potencies of the retinoid ligands to their respective receptors. The RARalpha agonist (Am580; CD336) induced a wide spectrum of malformations; CD2019 (RARbeta agonist) and especially CD437 (RARgamma agonist) produced more restricted defects. In the current study we tried to address whether the differences in teratogenic effects are solely related to binding affinity and transactivation differences or also due to differences in embryonic exposure. Therefore, transplacental kinetics of the ligands were assessed following administration of a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg of either retinoid given to NMRI mice on day 11 of gestation. Am580 was rapidly transferred to the embryo resulting in the highest embryonic exposure [embryo to maternal plasma area under the time vs concentration curve (AUC)(0-24 h )ratio (E/M) was 1.7], in accordance with its highest teratogenic potency. The low placental transfer of CD2019 (E/M of 0.3) was compatible with its lower teratogenic potential. Of major interest was the finding that the CD437, though being least teratogenic, exhibited considerable embryonic exposure (E/M of 0.6). These findings suggest that both the embryonic exposure and receptor binding transactivation selectivity are crucial determinants of the teratogenicity of these retinoid ligands.

  10. The Canada Basin compared to the southwest South China Sea: Two marginal ocean basins with hyper-extended continent-ocean transitions (United States)

    Li, Lu; Stephenson, Randell; Clift, Peter D.


    Both the Canada Basin (a sub-basin within the Amerasia Basin) and southwest (SW) South China Sea preserve oceanic spreading centres and adjacent passive continental margins characterized by broad COT zones with hyper-extended continental crust. We have investigated strain accommodation in the regions immediately adjacent to the oceanic spreading centres in these two basins using 2-D backstripping subsidence reconstructions, coupled with forward modelling constrained by estimates of upper crustal extensional faulting. Modelling is better constrained in the SW South China Sea but our results for the Canada Basin are analogous. Depth-dependent extension is required to explain the great depth of both basins because only modest upper crustal faulting is observed. A weak lower crust in the presence of high heat flow and, accordingly, a lower crust that extends far more the upper crust are suggested for both basins. Extension in the COT may have continued even after seafloor spreading has ceased. The analogous results for the two basins considered are discussed in terms of (1) constraining the timing and distribution of crustal thinning along the respective continental margins, (2) defining the processes leading to hyper-extension of continental crust in the respective tectonic settings and (3) illuminating the processes that control hyper-extension in these basins and more generally.

  11. Historical Empathy and "Canada: A People's History" (United States)

    Bryant, Darren; Clark, Penney


    In this article, we examine the CBC/Radio-Canada series, "Canada: A People's History," for its use of empathy, specifically with regard to its portrayal of Aboriginal people. We call the empathy promoted in the series, emotive empathy, and compare it to the concept of historical empathy constructed by researchers in history education. The emotive…

  12. An outbreak of salmonella chester infection in Canada: rare serotype, uncommon exposure, and unusual population demographic facilitate rapid identification of food vehicle. (United States)

    Taylor, John; Galanis, Eleni; Wilcott, Lynn; Hoang, Linda; Stone, Jason; Ekkert, Judi; Quibell, Doug; Huddleston, Mark; McCormick, Rachel; Whitfield, Yvonne; Adhikari, Bijay; Grant, Christopher C R; Sharma, Davendra


    Salmonella Chester infection has rarely been reported in the literature. In 2010, 33 case patients were reported in 2 months in four Canadian provinces. We conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with public health agencies, food safety specialists, regulatory agencies, grocery store chains, and the product distributor. We used case patient interviews, customer loyalty cards, and microbiological testing of clinical and food samples to identify nationally distributed head cheese as the food vehicle responsible for the outbreak. The rare serotype, a limited affected demographic group, and an uncommon exposure led to the rapid identification of the source. Control measures were implemented within 9 days of notification of the outbreak.

  13. Comparative exposure to DEHP from food contact materials: application of the product intake fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    the product intake fraction (PiF: g intake/g in product) – a metric accounting for human intake of chemical mass per unit of mass embodied within a product. PiF of ingestion of DEHP is estimated from empirical data for PET water bottles on the order of 1E-7 through 1E-5 and for food handling gloves from 1E-6...... for rice and 1E-3 for radishes. The uncertainty is related to unknown information (chemical content in FCM), circumstances of use (e.g. food item), and any analytical uncertainty. Using PiF, maximum allowable concentrations of DEHP within water bottles and gloves were calculated with respect to regulatory...... thresholds. A hypothetical average PiF for the FCM sector was calculated via production volume and oral exposure doses estimated from NHANES data. In both cases the indication was gloves may contribute more to DEHP exposure when used with certain food items than bottled water. DEHP content in gloves greater...

  14. Comparative Study of Several Behaviors in Caenorhabditis Elegans Following High-Let Radiation Exposure (United States)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya

    Learning and behavioral impairments following ionizing radiation exposure are an important potential risk in manned space missions. We previously reported the effects of γ-ray exposure on olfactory adaptation [1], salt chemotaxis learning [2], and locomotion - learning behavior relationship [3] in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, little is known about the effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We investigated various behavioral responses of wellfed adult Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to accelerated carbon ions (1 2C, 18.3M eV /u, LET = 113.3keV /µm). Following carbon-ion irradiation, locomotion, basal slowing response and salt chemotaxis learning were not significantly affected, whereas chemosensation to NaCl of animals during learning was altered. These results suggest that sensitivity of the C. elegans nervous system to high-LET heavy ions differs with the types of behaviors. References: [1] Sakashita et al., Biol. Sci. Space 21, 117-20 (2007), [2] Sakashita et al., FASEB J 22, 713-20 (2008), [3] Sakashita et al., J. Radiat. Res. 49, in press (2008).

  15. Aberrant cell divisions in root meristeme of maize following exposure to X-rays low doses compared to similar effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic exposure (United States)

    Focea, R.; Capraru, G.; Racuciu, M.; Creanga, D.; Luchian, T.


    The response of maize to radiation exposure was investigated by two cytogenetic methods considering the importance of the geno-toxic effect for environmental and agricultural purposes. Uniform genophond seeds, freshly germinated, were exposed to relatively low radiation doses using a radiotherapy X-ray applicator from a hospital irradiation device and to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field with about 10 mT magnetic induction (generated within laboratory assembled electromagnetic coils). Radicular meristeme tissue aliquots were prevailed for cytogenetic investigation based on microscopic observations and cell counting. Microscope slides were prepared following a specific procedure (squash technique and Feulgen method based on modified Carr reactive coloration). Mitotic index as well as chromosomal aberration percentage were calculated for more than 30,000 cells taken into account. From a qualitative viewpoint, chromosomal aberrations such as interchromatidian bridges, lagging and expelled chromosomes and multipolar divisions were evidenced - no distinct situation for either ionizing radiation or electromagnetic field being identified. The main quantitative difference consisted in the increased mitotic index for electromagnetic exposure increased times compared with the diminished mitotic index in the case of low X-ray doses.

  16. Pathophysiology of tobacco smoke exposure: recent insights from comparative and redox proteomics. (United States)

    Colombo, Graziano; Clerici, Marco; Giustarini, Daniela; Portinaro, Nicola M; Aldini, Giancarlo; Rossi, Ranieri; Milzani, Aldo; Dalle-Donne, Isabella


    First-hand and second-hand tobacco smoke are causally linked to a huge number of deaths and are responsible for a broad spectrum of pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, and eye diseases as well as adverse effects on female reproductive function. Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of thousands of different chemical species, which exert their negative effects on macromolecules and biochemical pathways, both directly and indirectly. Many compounds can act as oxidants, pro-inflammatory agents, carcinogens, or a combination of these. The redox behavior of cigarette smoke has many implications for smoke related diseases. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (both radicals and non-radicals), reactive carbonyl compounds, and other species may induce oxidative damage in almost all the biological macromolecules, compromising their structure and/or function. Different quantitative and redox proteomic approaches have been applied in vitro and in vivo to evaluate, respectively, changes in protein expression and specific oxidative protein modifications induced by exposure to cigarette smoke and are overviewed in this review. Many gel-based and gel-free proteomic techniques have already been used successfully to obtain clues about smoke effects on different proteins in cell cultures, animal models, and humans. The further implementation with other sensitive screening techniques could be useful to integrate the comprehension of cigarette smoke effects on human health. In particular, the redox proteomic approach may also help identify biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke useful for preventing these effects or potentially predictive of the onset and/or progression of smoking-induced diseases as well as potential targets for therapeutic strategies.

  17. Comparative responses of river biofilms at the community level to common organic solvent and herbicide exposure. (United States)

    Paule, A; Roubeix, V; Swerhone, G D W; Roy, J; Lauga, B; Duran, R; Delmas, F; Paul, E; Rols, J L; Lawrence, J R


    Residual pesticides applied to crops migrate from agricultural lands to surface and ground waters. River biofilms are the first aquatic non-target organisms which interact with pesticides. Therefore, ecotoxicological experiments were performed at laboratory scale under controlled conditions to investigate the community-level responses of river biofilms to a chloroacetanilide herbicide (alachlor) and organic solvent (methanol) exposure through the development referenced to control. Triplicate rotating annular bioreactors, inoculated with river water, were used to cultivate river biofilms under the influence of 1 and 10 μg L(-1) of alachlor and 25 mg L(-1) of methanol. For this purpose, functional (thymidine incorporation and carbon utilization spectra) and structural responses of microbial communities were assessed after 5 weeks of development. Structural aspects included biomass (chlorophyll a, confocal laser scanning microscopy) and composition (fluor-conjugated lectin binding, molecular fingerprinting, and diatom species composition). The addition of alachlor resulted in a significant reduction of bacterial biomass at 1 μg L(-1), whereas at 10 μg L(-1), it induced a significant reduction of exopolymer lectin binding, algal, bacterial, and cyanobacterial biomass. However, there were no changes in biofilm thickness or thymidine incorporation. No significant difference between the bacterial community structures of control and alachlor-treated biofilms was revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses. However, the methanol-treated bacterial communities appeared different from control and alachlor-treated communities. Moreover, methanol treatment resulted in an increase of bacterial biomass and thymidine incorporation as well. Changes in dominant lectin binding suggested changes in the exopolymeric substances and community composition. Chlorophyll a and cyanobacterial biomass were also altered by methanol. This study suggested

  18. Historical exposure levels of inhalable dust in the Polish rubber industry compared to levels in Western Europe (United States)

    de Vocht, F.; Kromhout, H.; Sobala, W.; Peplonska, B.


    Although studies have been carried out to assess inhalable dust exposure levels in the rubber manufacturing industry, the levels of exposure in factories in Eastern Europe are less well documented. Routine stationary sampling for compliance testing of inhalable aerosols has however been conducted in a large factory producing tires and tubes in Poland between 1981 and 1996 (N=6,152). This study was conducted to assess historical inhalable aerosol levels in different departments in this rubber plant and to compare the results with estimates based on European data from the UK, Sweden, the Netherlands and Germany, and also Poland (EXASRUB project). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations in the factory ranged from 2.41 mg/m3 to 5.82 mg/m3 and were to a large extent associated to the actual production capacity of the plant and flow of the production process. Whereas 3-4 fold differences between departments existed prior to about 1985, stronger reduction of exposure in the raw materials and finishing departments (-12%/year) compared to other departments (range -5%/yr to -3%/yr), resulted in comparable levels in the 1990s. However, in the pre-treating departments, average concentrations were still about a factor 2-3 higher than in other departments, which could presumably be attributed to the use of anti-tacking agents. GM concentrations have been modelled using (1) stationary measurements collected in the Polish factory only, or (2) all European data collected in the EXASRUB project. Comparison of the estimates showed that these were fairly similar for both datasets. This analysis showed that the levels of inhalable aerosols in the Polish rubber industry have been at least a factor three to four higher than in Western European countries in the 1980s and 1990s, depending on the department, but that these differences were getting smaller in the 1990s. Furthermore, the estimates based on all European data from EXASRUB provides valid estimates compared to factory-specific data.

  19. Compare ultrasound-mediated heating and cavitation between flowing polymer- and lipid-shelled microbubbles during focused ultrasound exposures. (United States)

    Zhang, Siyuan; Zong, Yujin; Wan, Mingxi; Yu, Xiaojun; Fu, Quanyou; Ding, Ting; Zhou, Fanyu; Wang, Supin


    This paper compares the efficiency of flowing polymer- and lipid-shelled microbubbles (MBs) in the heating and cavitation during focused ultrasound exposures. Temperature and cavitation activity were simultaneously measured as the two types of shelled MBs and saline flowing through a 3 mm diameter vessel in the phantom with varying flow velocities (0-20 cm/s) at different acoustic power levels (0.6-20 W) with each exposure for 5 s. Temperature and cavitation for the lipid-shelled MBs were higher than those for the polymer-shelled MBs. Temperature rise decreased with increasing flow velocities for the two types of shelled MBs and saline at acoustic power 1.5 W. At acoustic power 11.1 W, temperature rise increased with increasing flow velocities for the lipid-shelled MBs. For the polymer-shelled MBs, the temperature rise increased with increasing flow velocities from 3-15 cm/s and decreased at 20 cm/s. Cavitation increased with increasing flow velocity for the two shelled MBs and there were no significant changes of cavitation with increasing flow velocities for saline. These results suggested that lipid-shelled MBs may have a greater efficiency than polymer-shelled MBs in heating and cavitation during focused ultrasound exposures.

  20. Comparative hazard identification by a single dose lung exposure of zinc oxide and silver nanomaterials in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosens, Ilse; Kermanizadeh, Ali; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun


    Comparative hazard identification of nanomaterials (NMs) can aid in the prioritisation for further toxicity testing. Here, we assessed the acute lung, systemic and liver responses in C57BL/6N mice for three NMs to provide a hazard ranking. A silver (Ag), non-functionalised zinc oxide (ZnO) and a ......Comparative hazard identification of nanomaterials (NMs) can aid in the prioritisation for further toxicity testing. Here, we assessed the acute lung, systemic and liver responses in C57BL/6N mice for three NMs to provide a hazard ranking. A silver (Ag), non-functionalised zinc oxide (Zn...... fluid (BALF) after administration of both non-functionalised and functionalised ZnO. The latter also induced systemic inflammation measured as an increase in blood neutrophils and a decrease in blood lymphocytes. Exposure to Ag NM was not accompanied by pulmonary inflammation or cytotoxicity......, or by systemic inflammation. A decrease in glutathione levels was demonstrated in the liver following exposure to high doses of all three nanomaterials irrespective of any noticeable inflammatory or cytotoxic effects in the lung. By applying benchmark dose (BMD) modeling statistics to compare potencies...

  1. Comparative Plasma Exposure and Lung Distribution of Two Human Use Commercial Azithromycin Formulations Assessed in Murine Model: A Preclinical Study


    Virginia Rivulgo; Mónica Sparo; Mónica Ceci; Elida Fumuso; Alejandra Confalonieri; Gastón Delpech; Sánchez Bruni, Sergio F.


    Azithromycin(AZM)therapeutic failure and relapses of patients treated with generic -35 formulations have been observed in clinical practice.The main goal of this research was 36 to compare in a pre-clinical study the serum exposure and lung tissue concentrationof 37 two commercial formulations AZM-based in murine model. The current study involved 38 264 healthy Balb-C.Mice were divided in two groups (n=44): Animals of Group A 39 (Reference Formulation ?R-) were orally treated with AZM suspens...

  2. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rabbits under environmentally realistic exposure conditions and comparative assessment between mammals and birds. (United States)

    Tarazona, J V; Rodríguez, C; Alonso, E; Sáez, M; González, F; San Andrés, M D; Jiménez, B; San Andrés, M I


    This article describes the toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in rabbits under low repeated dosing, equivalent to 0.085μg/kg per day, and the observed differences between rabbits and chickens. The best fitting for both species was provided by a simple pseudo monocompartmental first-order kinetics model, regulated by two rates, and accounting for real elimination as well as binding of PFOS to non-exchangeable structures. Elimination was more rapid in rabbits, with a pseudo first-order dissipation half-life of 88 days compared to the 230 days observed for chickens. By contrast, the calculated assimilation efficiency for rabbits was almost 1, very close to full absorption, significantly higher than the 0.66 with confidence intervals of 0.64 and 0.68 observed for chickens. The results confirm a very different kinetics than that observed in single-dose experiments confirming clear dose-related differences in apparent elimination rates in rabbits, as previously described for humans and other mammals; suggesting the role of a capacity-limited saturable process resulting in different kinetic behaviours for PFOS in high dose versus environmentally relevant low dose exposure conditions. The model calculations confirmed that the measured maximum concentrations were still far from the steady state situation, and that the different kinetics between birds and mammals should may play a significant role in the biomagnifications assessment and potential exposure for humans and predators. For the same dose regime, the steady state concentration was estimated at about 36μg PFOS/L serum for rabbits, slightly above one-half of the 65μg PFOS/L serum estimated for chickens. The toxicokinetic parameters presented here can be used for higher-tier bioaccumulation estimations of PFOS in rabbits and chickens as starting point for human health exposure assessments and as surrogate values for modeling PFOS kinetics in wild mammals and bird in exposure assessment of predatory

  3. Comparative hazard identification by a single dose lung exposure of zinc oxide and silver nanomaterials in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Gosens

    Full Text Available Comparative hazard identification of nanomaterials (NMs can aid in the prioritisation for further toxicity testing. Here, we assessed the acute lung, systemic and liver responses in C57BL/6N mice for three NMs to provide a hazard ranking. A silver (Ag, non-functionalised zinc oxide (ZnO and a triethoxycaprylylsilane functionalised ZnO NM suspended in water with 2% mouse serum were examined 24 hours following a single intratracheal instillation (I.T.. An acute pulmonary inflammation was noted (marked by a polymorphonuclear neutrophil influx with cell damage (LDH and total protein in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF after administration of both non-functionalised and functionalised ZnO. The latter also induced systemic inflammation measured as an increase in blood neutrophils and a decrease in blood lymphocytes. Exposure to Ag NM was not accompanied by pulmonary inflammation or cytotoxicity, or by systemic inflammation. A decrease in glutathione levels was demonstrated in the liver following exposure to high doses of all three nanomaterials irrespective of any noticeable inflammatory or cytotoxic effects in the lung. By applying benchmark dose (BMD modeling statistics to compare potencies of the NMs, we rank functionalised ZnO ranked the highest based on the largest number of affected endpoints, as well as the strongest responses observed after 24 hours. The non-functionalised ZnO NM gave an almost similar response, whereas Ag NM did not cause an acute response at similar doses.

  4. Uranium industry in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Current state of uranium industry in Canada has been considered. It is shown that in Canada, which is the major supplier of uranium, new methods of prospecting, mining and processing of uranium are developed and the old ones are improved. Owing to automation and mechanization a higher labour productivity in uranium ore mining is achieved. The uranium industry of Canada can satisfy the future demands in uranium but introduction of any new improvement will depend completely on the rate of nuclear power development.

  5. Historical exposure levels of inhalable dust in the Polish rubber industry compared to levels in Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vocht, F de [Occupational and Environmental Health Research Group, School of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Kromhout, H [Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Sobala, W; Peplonska, B, E-mail: [Department of Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology, NOFER Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)


    Although studies have been carried out to assess inhalable dust exposure levels in the rubber manufacturing industry, the levels of exposure in factories in Eastern Europe are less well documented. Routine stationary sampling for compliance testing of inhalable aerosols has however been conducted in a large factory producing tires and tubes in Poland between 1981 and 1996 (N=6,152). This study was conducted to assess historical inhalable aerosol levels in different departments in this rubber plant and to compare the results with estimates based on European data from the UK, Sweden, the Netherlands and Germany, and also Poland (EXASRUB project). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations in the factory ranged from 2.41 mg/m{sup 3} to 5.82 mg/m{sup 3} and were to a large extent associated to the actual production capacity of the plant and flow of the production process. Whereas 3-4 fold differences between departments existed prior to about 1985, stronger reduction of exposure in the raw materials and finishing departments (-12%/year) compared to other departments (range -5%/yr to -3%/yr), resulted in comparable levels in the 1990s. However, in the pre-treating departments, average concentrations were still about a factor 2-3 higher than in other departments, which could presumably be attributed to the use of anti-tacking agents. GM concentrations have been modelled using (1) stationary measurements collected in the Polish factory only, or (2) all European data collected in the EXASRUB project. Comparison of the estimates showed that these were fairly similar for both datasets. This analysis showed that the levels of inhalable aerosols in the Polish rubber industry have been at least a factor three to four higher than in Western European countries in the 1980s and 1990s, depending on the department, but that these differences were getting smaller in the 1990s. Furthermore, the estimates based on all European data from EXASRUB provides valid estimates compared to factory

  6. Comparing field-based and numerically modelled reconstructions of the last Cordilleran Ice Sheet deglaciation over the Thompson Plateau, southern interior British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Cripps, Jonathan; Brennand, Tracy; Seguinot, Julien; Perkins, Andrew


    Palaeoglaciological and palaeoclimate reconstructions of the deglaciation of the last Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) over British Columbia (BC), Canada, are limited by the relative lack of understanding of the late-glacial ice sheet margins and dynamics. Deglaciation of the last CIS over the southern Interior Plateau of BC has been characterised as proceeding via stagnation and downwasting into dead ice lobes in valleys where ice was thickest. This conceptual model explains the apparent lack of moraines, which may otherwise imply active recession, and known palaeo-glacial lakes are explained as being dammed by these dead ice lobes. However, downwasting alone is at odds with coeval ice sheets which receded systematically towards their interiors. Presented here is a comparison between a new field-based reconstruction of the deglaciation of the northern Thompson Plateau, and ice sheet model results of the same area. Glacioisostatic tilts, reconstructed using mapped shoreline elevations, rise to the north-northwest at around 1.8 m/km, implying an ice surface slope, and likely active recession, towards the Coast Mountains. New reconstructions of the stages of glacial Lake Nicola (gLN), utilising field and aerial photographic mapping of shorelines, and sedimentology and geophysical surveys on ice-marginal and glaciolacustrine landforms, largely support this interpretation; the lake expanded and lowered to the north-northwest as progressively lower outlets were opened during ice retreat in this direction. Fields of newly discovered glaciotectonised moraines, grounding-line deposits and overridden glacial lake sediments record ice margin oscillations and minor readvances within gLN; the general alignment of these features further supports recession to the north-northwest. Numerical simulations of deglaciation of the area results in ice retreat to the north-northeast, which is inconsistent with the north-north-westward evolution of gLN. Excess precipitation over the eastern

  7. Exposure of Brassica juncea (L) to arsenic species in hydroponic medium: comparative analysis in accumulation and biochemical and transcriptional alterations. (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohd Anwar; Gupta, Meetu


    Arsenic (As) contamination in the environment has attracted considerable attention worldwide. The objective of the present study was to see the comparative effect of As species As(III) and As(V) on accumulation, biochemical responses, and gene expression analysis in Brassica juncea var. Pusa Jaganath (PJn). Hydroponically grown 14-day-old seedlings of B. juncea were treated with different concentrations of As(III) and As(V). Accumulation of total As increased with increasing concentration of both As species and exposure time, mainly in roots. Reduction in seed germination, root-shoot length, chlorophyll, and protein content were observed with increasing concentration and exposure time of both As species, being more in As(III)-treated leaves. PJn variety showed that antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) and stress-related parameters (cysteine, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were stimulated and allows plant to tolerate both As species. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis in leaves showed significant changes in protein profile with more stringent effect with As(III) stress. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed regulation in expression of phytochelatin synthase (PCS), metallothionine-2 (MT-2), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione synthetase (GS) genes under both As(III) and As(V) stresses. Results suggested that accumulation and inhibition on physiological parameters differ according to the As species, while molecular and biochemical parameters showed a combinatorial type of tolerance mechanism against As(III) and As(V) stresses.

  8. Gamma-ray double-layered transmission exposure buildup factors of some engineering materials, a comparative study (United States)

    Mann, Kulwinder Singh; Heer, Manmohan Singh; Rani, Asha


    Comparative study on various deterministic methods and formulae of double layered transmission exposure buildup factors (DLEBF) for point isotropic gamma-ray sources has been performed and the results are provided here. This investigation has been performed on some commonly available engineering materials for the purpose of gamma-ray shielding. In reality, the presence of air around the gamma-ray shield motivated to focus this study on exposure buildup factor (EBF). DLEBF have been computed at four energies viz. 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 MeV for various combinations of the chosen five samples taken two at a time with combined optical thickness up to 8 mean free path (mfp). For the necessary computations for DLEBF, a computer program (BUF-toolkit) has been designed. Comparison of Monte Carlo (EGS4-code) and Geometric Progression (G.P.) fitting point kernel methods were done for DLEBF computation. It is concluded that empirical formula given by Lin and Jiang using EBF computed by G.P. fitting formula is the most accurate and easiest method for DLEBF computations. It was observed that DLEBF values at selected energies for two layered slabs with an orientation (low-Z material followed by high-Z material) were lower than the opposite orientation. For optical thickness up to 8 mfp and chosen energy range (0.5-3.0 MeV), Aluminum-Lime Stone shield, appears to provide the best protection against the gamma-rays.

  9. Ultraviolet spectral distribution and erythema-weighted irradiance from indoor tanning devices compared with solar radiation exposures. (United States)

    Sola, Yolanda; Baeza, David; Gómez, Miguel; Lorente, Jerónimo


    Concern regarding the impact of indoor tanning devices on human health has led to different regulations and recommendations, which set limits on erythema-weighted irradiance. Here, we analyze spectral emissions from 52 tanning devices in Spanish facilities and compare them with surface solar irradiance for different solar zenith angles. Whereas most of the devices emitted less UV-B radiation than the midday summer sun, the unweighted UV-A irradiance was 2-6 times higher than solar radiation. Moreover, the spectral distributions of indoor devices were completely different from that of solar radiation, differing in one order of magnitude at some UV-A wavelengths, depending on the lamp characteristics. In 21% of the devices tested, the erythema-weighted irradiance exceeded 0.3Wm(-2): the limit fixed by the European standard and the Spanish regulation. Moreover, 29% of the devices fall within the UV type 4 classification, for which medical advice is required. The high variability in erythema-weighted irradiance results in a wide range of exposure times to reach 1 standard erythemal dose (SED: 100Jm(-2)), with 62% of devices requiring exposures of solar UV-A dose.

  10. Internal exposure from building materials exhaling (222)Rn and (220)Rn as compared to external exposure due to their natural radioactivity content. (United States)

    Ujić, Predrag; Celiković, Igor; Kandić, Aleksandar; Vukanac, Ivana; Durasević, Mirjana; Dragosavac, Dusan; Zunić, Zora S


    The main scope of this paper is to point out the importance of introducing radon and thoron exhalation measurements from building materials in the regulating frame. Currently (2009), such a regulation of this kind of exposure is not explicitly included in the Serbian regulating network. To this end, this work reports concentration measurements of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and radon and thoron exhalation rates from building materials used in Serbia. Following detailed analysis, it was noticed that both internal exposures to radon and/or thoron exhaling from building materials may exceed external exposures to their precursors contained therein.

  11. Internal exposure from building materials exhaling {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn as compared to external exposure due to their natural radioactivity content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujic, Predrag [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Celikovic, Igor [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)], E-mail:; Kandic, Aleksandar; Vukanac, Ivana; Durasevic, Mirjana; Dragosavac, Dusan; Zunic, Zora S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)


    The main scope of this paper is to point out the importance of introducing radon and thoron exhalation measurements from building materials in the regulating frame. Currently (2009), such a regulation of this kind of exposure is not explicitly included in the Serbian regulating network. To this end, this work reports concentration measurements of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K and radon and thoron exhalation rates from building materials used in Serbia. Following detailed analysis, it was noticed that both internal exposures to radon and/or thoron exhaling from building materials may exceed external exposures to their precursors contained therein.

  12. One Canada, Two Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ByMurrayGreig; 赵金前


    Canada is one of the few nations in theworld to have two official languages: Englishand French. There are 10 provinces in thecountry but only one of these--Quebec isknown as "French Canada". This is because itwas founded by French explorers while Britishadventurers discovered the rest.

  13. Comparing efficiency of micro-RNA and mRNA biomarker liberation with microbubble-enhanced ultrasound exposure. (United States)

    Forbrich, Alex; Paproski, Robert; Hitt, Mary; Zemp, Roger


    Blood biomarkers are potentially powerful diagnostic tools that are limited clinically by low concentrations, the inability to determine biomarker origin and unknown patient baseline. Recently, ultrasound has been shown to liberate proteins and large mRNA biomarkers, overcoming many of these limitations. We have since demonstrated that adding lipid-stabilized microbubbles elevates mRNA concentration an order of magnitude compared with ultrasound without microbubbles, in vitro. Unfortunately the large size of some mRNA molecules may limit efficiency of release and hinder efficacy as an ultrasound-liberated biomarker. We hypothesize that smaller molecules will be released more efficiently with ultrasound than larger molecules. Although investigation of large libraries of biomarkers should be performed to fully validate this hypothesis, we focus on a small subset of mRNA and micro-RNAs. Specifically, we focus on miR-21 (22 base pairs [bp]), which is upregulated in certain forms of cancer, compared with previously investigated mammaglobin mRNA (502 bp). We also report release of micro-RNA miR-155 (22 bp) and housekeeping rRNA S18 (1869 bp). More than 10 million additional miR-21 copies per 100,000 cells are released with ultrasound-microbubble exposure. The low- molecular-weight miR-21 proved to be liberated 50 times more efficiently than high-molecular-weight mammaglobin mRNA, releasing orders of magnitude more miR-21 than mammaglobin mRNA under comparable conditions.

  14. Cancer risk in aluminum reduction plant workers (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, J.J.; Demers, P.A.; Le, N.D.; Friesen, M.D.; Lorenzi, M.F.; Fang, R.; Gallagher, R.P. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    A 14-year update to a previously published historical cohort study of aluminum reduction plant workers was conducted. All men with three or more years at an aluminum reduction plant in British Columbia (BC), Canada between the years 1954 and 1997 were included; a total of 6,423 workers. A total of 662 men were diagnosed with cancer, representing a 400% increase from the original study. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios were used to compare the cancer mortality and incidence of the cohort to that of the BC population. Poisson regression was used to examine risk by cumulative exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) measured as benzene soluble materials (BSM) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The risk for bladder cancer was related to cumulative exposure to CTPV measured as BSM and BaP (p trends < 0.001), and the risk for stomach cancer was related to exposure measured by BaP (p trend BaP < 0.05). The risks for lung cancer (p trend < 0.001), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (p trend < 0.001), and kidney cancer (p trend < 0.01) also increased with increasing exposure, although the overall rates were similar to that of the general population. Analysis of the joint effect of smoking and CTPV exposure on cancer showed the observed dose-response relationships to be independent of smoking.

  15. Comparative assessments of the effects of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development using optical coherence tomography and ultrasound imaging (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.


    The developing fetal brain is vulnerable to a variety of environmental agents including maternal ethanol consumption. Preclinical studies on the development and amelioration of fetal teratology would be significantly facilitated by the application of high resolution imaging technologies like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (US). This study investigates the ability of these imaging technologies to measure the effects of maternal ethanol exposure on brain development, ex vivo, in fetal mice. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were administered ethanol (3 g/Kg b.wt.) or water by intragastric gavage, twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and imaged. Three-dimensional images of the mice fetus brains were obtained by OCT and high-resolution US, and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. Ethanol-exposed fetuses exhibited a statistically significant, 2-fold increase in average left and right ventricular volumes compared with the ventricular volume of control fetuses, with OCT-derived measures of 0.38 and 0.18 mm3, respectively, whereas the boundaries of the fetal mouse lateral ventricles were not clearly definable with US imaging. Our results indicate that OCT is a useful technology for assessing ventriculomegaly accompanying alcohol-induced developmental delay. This study clearly demonstrated advantages of using OCT for quantitative assessment of embryonic development compared with US imaging.

  16. Canada and veterinary parasitology. (United States)

    Slocombe, J Owen D


    A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.

  17. Cost-utility of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG compared with corticosteroids for the treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Kaitryn


    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG has demonstrated improvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP patients in placebo controlled trials. However, IVIG is also much more expensive than alternative treatments such as corticosteroids. The objective of the paper is to evaluate, from a Canadian perspective, the cost-effectiveness of IVIG compared to corticosteroid treatment of CIDP. Methods A markov model was used to evaluate the costs and QALYs for IVIG and corticosteroids over 5 years of treatment for CIDP. Patients initially responding to IVIG could remain a responder or relapse every 12 week model cycle. Non-responding IVIG patients were assumed to be switched to corticosteroids. Patients on corticosteroids were at risk of a number of adverse events (fracture, diabetes, glaucoma, cataract, serious infection in each cycle. Results Over the 5 year time horizon, the model estimated the incremental costs and QALYs of IVIG treatment compared to corticosteroid treatment to be $124,065 and 0.177 respectively. The incremental cost per QALY gained of IVIG was estimated to be $687,287. The cost per QALY of IVIG was sensitive to the assumptions regarding frequency and dosing of maintenance IVIG. Conclusions Based on common willingness to pay thresholds, IVIG would not be perceived as a cost effective treatment for CIDP.

  18. Comparative trends in incident fracture rates for all long-term care and community-dwelling seniors in Ontario, Canada, 2002–2012 (United States)

    Kennedy, C. C.; Ioannidis, G.; Cameron, C.; Croxford, R.; Adachi, J. D.; Mursleen, S.; Jaglal, S.


    Summary In this population-based study, we compared incident fracture rates in long-term care (LTC) versus community seniors between 2002 and 2012. Hip fracture rates declined more rapidly in LTC than in the community. An excess burden of fractures occurred in LTC for hip, pelvis, and humerus fractures in men and hip fractures only in women. Introduction This study compares trends in incident fracture rates between long-term care (LTC) and community-dwelling seniors ≥65 years, 2002–2012. Methods This is a population-based cohort study using administrative data. Measurements were age/sex-adjusted incident fracture rates and rate ratios (RR) and annual percent change (APC). Results Over 11 years, hip fracture rates had a marked decline occurring more rapidly in LTC (APC, −3.49 (95% confidence interval (CI), −3.97, −3.01)) compared with the community (APC, −2.93 (95 % CI, −3.28, −2.57); p< 0.05 for difference in slopes). Humerus and wrist fracture rates decreased; however, an opposite trend occurred for pelvis and spine fractures with rates increasing over time in both cohorts (all APCs, p <0.05). In 2012, incident hip fracture rates were higher in LTC than the community (RRs: women, 1.55 (95 % CI, 1.45, 1.67); men, 2.18 (95 % CI, 1.93, 2.47)). Higher rates of pelvis (RR, 1.48 (95 % CI, 1.22, 1.80)) and humerus (RR, 1.40 (95 % CI, 1.07, 1.84)) fractures were observed in LTC men, not women. In women, wrist (RR, 0.76 (95 % CI, 0.71, 0.81)) and spine (RR, 0.52 (95 % CI, 0.45, 0.61)) fracture rates were lower in LTC than the community; in men, spine (RR, 0.75 (95 % CI, 0.57, 0.98) but not wrist fracture (RR, 0.91 (95 % CI, 0.67, 1.23)) rates were significantly lower in LTC than the community. Conclusion Previous studies in the community have shown declining hip fracture rates over time, also demonstrated in our study but at a more rapid rate in LTC. Rates of humerus and wrist fractures also declined. An excess burden of fractures in LTC occurred for hip

  19. Comparing the effectiveness of copper intrauterine devices available in Canada. Is FlexiT non-inferior to NovaT when inserted immediately after first-trimester abortion? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Wendy V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the rationale and protocol for a randomized noninferiority controlled trial (RCT to determine if the Flexi-T380(+ copper intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD is comparable in terms of effectiveness and expulsion rates to the most common Canadian IUD currently in use, NovaT-200, when placed immediately after a first-trimester abortion. Methods/Design Consenting women choosing to use an IUD after an abortion for a pregnancy of less than 12 weeks of gestation will be randomized to device-type groups to receive immediate post-abortion placement of either a Flexi-T380(+ IUD, a device for which no current evidence on expulsion or effectiveness rates is available, or the Nova-T200 IUD, the only other brand of copper IUD available in Canada at the time of study initiation. The primary outcome measure is IUD expulsion rate at 1 year. Secondary outcomes include: pregnancy rate, method continuation rate, complication rates (infection, perforation, and satisfaction with contraceptive method. A non-intervention group of consenting women choosing a range of other post-abortion contraception methods, including no contraception, will be included for comparison of secondary outcomes. Web-based contraception satisfaction questionnaires, clinical records, and government-linked health administrative databases will be used to assess primary and secondary outcomes. Discussion The RCT design, combined with access to clinical records at all provincial abortion clinics, and to information in provincial single-payer linked administrative health databases, birth registry, and hospital records, offers a unique opportunity to determine if a novel IUD has a comparable expulsion rate to that of the current standard IUD in Canada, in addition to the first opportunity to determine pregnancy rate and method satisfaction at 1 year post-abortion for women choosing a range of post-abortion contraceptive options. We highlight considerations of

  20. Comparative analyses of built environment exposures relevant to health of greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategies in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Sandra P.


    Full Text Available Paper presents comparative analysis of residential indoor air pollutant concentration change over future specified time horizon, implementing building physical and thermal retrofit measures, thus creating pollution mitigation scenarios for existing Belgrade and Nis housing stock followed by greenhouse gas emission reduction scenarios up to 2050. Regarding specified mitigation scenarios, the set of typical housing unit models has been generated which define existing housing stock of Belgrade and Nis. Extensive monitoring of physical and thermal parameters as well as detailed socio-technical survey of selected households was performed and used as an initial modeling input. Relationship between environment pollution and building performances was investigated, with respect to indooroutdoor sources of pollution, thermal and physical properties of the stock samples and occupant’s behavior. As a final output, indoor pollutant concentrations for each of the modelled cases was obtained and validated against the available data. This housing modelling framework has been created in order to develop an assessment of present and future exposure and health impact quantity regarding single/multiple scenario interventions introduced to the housing stock. This paper provides each strategy guidelines for taking measures towards achieving the healthier indoor environments. [FP7-ENV-2010: PURGE-Public health impacts in urban environments of greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategies, Project number: 265325, financed by the European Commission

  1. Comparative risk assessment of tobacco smoke constituents using the margin of exposure approach: the neglected contribution of nicotine (United States)

    Baumung, Claudia; Rehm, Jürgen; Franke, Heike; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.


    Nicotine was not included in previous efforts to identify the most important toxicants of tobacco smoke. A health risk assessment of nicotine for smokers of cigarettes was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach and results were compared to literature MOEs of various other tobacco toxicants. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Dose-response modelling of human and animal data was used to derive the benchmark dose. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations for daily cigarette smokers. Benchmark dose values ranged from 0.004 mg/kg bodyweight for symptoms of intoxication in children to 3 mg/kg bodyweight for mortality in animals; MOEs ranged from below 1 up to 7.6 indicating a considerable consumer risk. The dimension of the MOEs is similar to those of other tobacco toxicants with high concerns relating to adverse health effects such as acrolein or formaldehyde. Owing to the lack of toxicological data in particular relating to cancer, long term animal testing studies for nicotine are urgently necessary. There is immediate need of action concerning the risk of nicotine also with regard to electronic cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. PMID:27759090

  2. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Human Liver Tissue and Isolated Hepatocytes with a Focus on Proteins Determining Drug Exposure. (United States)

    Vildhede, Anna; Wiśniewski, Jacek R; Norén, Agneta; Karlgren, Maria; Artursson, Per


    Freshly isolated human hepatocytes are considered the gold standard for in vitro studies of liver functions, including drug transport, metabolism, and toxicity. For accurate predictions of the in vivo outcome, the isolated hepatocytes should reflect the phenotype of their in vivo counterpart, i.e., hepatocytes in human liver tissue. Here, we quantified and compared the membrane proteomes of freshly isolated hepatocytes and human liver tissue using a label-free shotgun proteomics approach. A total of 5144 unique proteins were identified, spanning over 6 orders of magnitude in abundance. There was a good global correlation in protein abundance. However, the expression of many plasma membrane proteins was lower in the isolated hepatocytes than in the liver tissue. This included transport proteins that determine hepatocyte exposure to many drugs and endogenous compounds. Pathway analysis of the differentially expressed proteins confirmed that hepatocytes are exposed to oxidative stress during isolation and suggested that plasma membrane proteins were degraded via the protein ubiquitination pathway. Finally, using pitavastatin as an example, we show how protein quantifications can improve in vitro predictions of in vivo liver clearance. We tentatively conclude that our data set will be a useful resource for improved hepatocyte predictions of the in vivo outcome.

  3. Comparative sensitivity of juvenile and adult Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae) under chronic exposure to cadmium and tributyltin. (United States)

    Ruppert, Katharina; Geiß, Cornelia; Ostermann, Sina; Theis, Christina; Oehlmann, Jörg


    To investigate a potential extension of a partial life cycle test protocol to a full life cycle test design, a comparative sensitivity analysis with juvenile and adult Potamopyrgus antipodarum was performed. Neonates and adult snails were exposed to the metal cadmium (Cd) and the endocrine disruptor tributyltin (TBT) at nominal concentrations ranging from 1.56 to 50 μg Cd/L and from 25 to 1,000 ng TBT-Sn/L. The experiments were performed over 28 days at 16°C in a semi-static test design. Mortality was assessed for both life stages. Juvenile snails' specific growth rate and reproduction of adults were investigated as main endpoints. We determined effects on snails' survival, juvenile growth and embryo numbers in the brood pouch of adult snails under exposure to both chemicals. Juvenile control mortality was between 25% and 30% and significantly higher than in the control groups with adult snails. A higher sensitivity of juvenile snails compared to adults was observed for the endpoint mortality. Calculated LC50 in Cd exposed snails was 38.2 μg/L for adults and 15.0 μg/L for juvenile snails. Significant effects on mortality in TBT exposed adult snails occurred at the highest test concentration only with a LC50 of 535 ng Sn/L. Juvenile survival was significantly affected at 50.8 ng Sn/L and higher concentrations. Effect concentrations for the main endpoints reproduction and juvenile growth show comparable sensitivities. For Cd exposed groups, EC50 values were 11.3 μg/L for the endpoint reproduction in adult snails and 3.82 μg/L for juvenile growth with overlapping confidence intervals. TBT also significantly affected juvenile snails' growth (EC50: 178 ng Sn /L). EC50 for embryo numbers was 125 ng TBT-Sn/L. Results indicate the manageability of a FLC test starting with newly hatched snails. Precautions have to be taken to guarantee a sufficient number of surviving snails until adulthood so that reproduction can be assessed. For final decision for the

  4. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les


    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  5. Socioeconomic inequality in exposure to bullying during adolescence: a comparative, cross-sectional, multilevel study in 35 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Merlo, Juan; Harel-Fisch, Yossi


    OBJECTIVES: We examined the socioeconomic distribution of adolescent exposure to bullying internationally and documented the contribution of the macroeconomic environment. METHODS: We used an international survey of 162,305 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years from nationally representative samples...... of 5998 schools in 35 countries in Europe and North America for the 2001-2002 school year. The survey used standardized measures of exposure to bullying and socioeconomic affluence. RESULTS: Adolescents from families of low affluence reported higher prevalence of being victims of bullying (odds ratio [OR......] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10, 1.16). International differences in prevalence of exposure to bullying were not associated with the economic level of the country (as measured by gross national income) or the school, but wide disparities in affluence at a school and large economic...

  6. Workplace health and safety: report from Canada. (United States)

    Sass, R


    This article represents a critical analysis of the major policy responses to workplace health and safety in Canada. It examines the deficiencies inherent in the legislative development of Joint Health and Safety Committees in most Canadian jurisdictions, the limitations regarding standard-setting of worker exposure to contaminants, and disincentive for employers to positively improve the workplace because of Workers Compensation legislation. Collective bargaining agreements in Canada have had only limited positive effects, while the ultimate legal sanction of criminal prosecution by the regulatory agencies has weakened enforcement and compliance of existing regulations. There has never been a successful criminal prosecution of an employer in Canada, even for multiple deaths. The article suggests the following four reasons for this "underdevelopment" of occupational health and safety in Canada: the concealment of the dimension of the incidence of industrial disease based on Workers Compensation Board statistics; the application of an incorrect theory of causation of both industrial disease and injury by both managers and government administrators of occupational health and safety programs; the resistance of both senior and middle managers against increased worker participation in both work organization and job design questions; and the general "moral underdevelopment," rather than ignorance, of managers in favoring economic considerations or values at the expense of worker health and safety. In light of the magnitude of the problem and the deficiencies of existing policy approaches, the author proposes the need for greater workplace democratization of production and industry as a necessary and sufficient reform of workplace health and safety.

  7. Comparing South African occupational exposure limits for pesticides, metals, dusts and fibres with those of developed countries / Jason Peter Viljoen


    Viljoen, Jason Peter


    The ever-changing industrial processes which are becoming more globalised as well as the merging of markets in different economies, led to an increased focus on the health and safety of workers in the industries and the mining sector over the past decades. Occupational exposure limits (OELs) have been used for more than half a century as a risk management tool for the prevention of work-related illnesses which may arise from the exposure to a wide variety of hazardous chemical substances in t...

  8. Detection of urinary stones at reduced radiation exposure: a phantom study comparing computed radiography and a low-dose digital radiography linear slit scanning system (United States)

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Chakraborty, D. P.; Thoeny, Harriet C.; Loupatatzis, Christos; Vock, Peter; Harald, Bonel


    Objective In this experimental study we assessed the diagnostic performance of linear slit scanning radiography (LSSR) compared to conventional computed radiography (CR) in the detection of urinary calculi in an anthropomorphic phantom imitating patients weighing approximately 58 to 88 kg. Conclusion Compared to computed radiography, LSSR is superior in the detection of urinary stones and may be used for pretreatment localization and follow-up at a lower patient exposure. PMID:19457787

  9. 中德加三国高校研发经费的比较研究%Comparative Study of Higher Education R&D Funds among Three Countries of China, Germany and Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Higher education Institute is one of the most important R&D institutions. R&D funds are the major material insurance for higher education R&D activities. To understand the development of China's higher education R&D funds and the gap with foreign countries, the international situation of higher education R&D funds is analyzed. Then Germany and Canada are chosen to compared with China at the sources, total funds, the intensity, funds per R&D personnel I~E and as a percentage of GERD. It is found that the total funding, the funds intensity, funds per R&D personnel FTE and percentage of GERD of Chinese higher education R&D funds are all low. Suggestions are presented to improve Chinese higher education R&D investments.%高等学校是开展研发活动的重要机构之一。研发经费是高校研发活动的重要物质保障。为了解我国高校研发经费投入的进展以及与国外高校的差距,分析了目前高校研发经费的国际概况,比较了中、德、加三国高校研发经费的来源结构、经费总额、强度与人均经费和占国内研发经费比重。通过三国比较,发现中国高校研发经费投入具有总量低、强度低、人均低和比重低的特征,并提出了完善我国高校研发经费投入的建议。

  10. Do Self-Statements Enhance the Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy? A Comparative Evaluation in Acrophobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijn, M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Olafsson, R.P.; Schuemie, M.J.; Van der Mast, C.A.P.G.


    There is a clear need for more detailed analysis of the role of cognitive self-statements in virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET). To date, no research on this topic has been done. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether coping self-statements would enhance the effectiveness of V

  11. Study to compare veterinarians’ exposure to Toxoplasma gondii to that of veterinary staff and the general public (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis has been epidemiologically linked with the serious mental illness that is schizophrenia. Toxoplasmosis has also been associated with the risk of suicide. The suicide rate in the veterinary population has reached a level of concern. To assess the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii exposure...

  12. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.


    Smith, H. J.; Snowdon, K E


    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  13. In Canada: Friendly Fire (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-jane


    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  14. Inhalation exposure and risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among the rural population adopting wood gasifier stoves compared to different fuel-stove users (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Chen, Yuanchen; Du, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Zhu, Xi; Huang, Tianbo; Wang, Xilong; Cheng, Hefa; Liu, Junfeng; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Zeng, Eddy Y.; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu


    Polycyclic aromatica hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds with carcinogenic potentials and residential solid fuel combustion is one major source of PAHs in most developing countries. Replacement of traditional stoves with improved ones is believed to be a practical approach to reduce pollutant emissions, however, field assessments on the performance and consequent impacts on air quality and human health after adopting improved stoves are rare. The study is the first time to quantify inhalation exposure to PAHs among the residents who adopted wood gasifier stoves. The results were compared to those still burning coals in the region and compared to exposure levels for different fuel/stove users in literature. The results showed that the PAHs exposure levels for the wood gasifier stove users were significantly lower than the values for those using traditional wood stoves reported in literature, and the daily exposure concentrations of BaPeq (Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration) can be reduced by 48%-91% if traditional wood stoves were replaced by wood gasifier stoves. The corresponding Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) decreased approximately four times from 1.94 × 10-4 to 5.17 × 10-5. The average concentration of the total 26 PAHs for the wood users was 1091 ± 722 ng/m3, which was comparable to 1060 ± 927 ng/m3 for those using anthracite coals, but the composition profiles were considerably different. The average BaPeq were 116 and 25.8 ng/m3 for the wood and coal users, respectively, and the corresponding ILCR of the anthracite coal users was 1.69 × 10-5, which was nearly one third of those using the wood gasifier stoves. The wood users exposed to not only high levels of high molecular weight PAHs, but relatively high fractions of particulate phase PAHs in small particles compared to the coal users, resulting in high exposure risks.

  15. A comparative study of human exposures to household air pollution from commonly used cookstoves in Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Chartier, R; Phillips, M; Mosquin, P; Elledge, M; Bronstein, K; Nandasena, S; Thornburg, V; Thornburg, J; Rodes, C


    Solid fuel burning cookstoves are a major source of household air pollution (HAP) and a significant environmental health risk in Sri Lanka. We report results of the first field study in Sri Lanka to include direct measurements of both real-time indoor concentrations and personal exposures of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) in households using the two most common stove types in Sri Lanka. A purposive sample of 53 households was selected in the rural community of Kopiwatta in central Sri Lanka, roughly balanced for stove type (traditional or improved 'Anagi') and ventilation (chimney present or absent). At each household, 48-h continuous real-time measurements of indoor kitchen PM2.5 and personal (primary cook) PM2.5 concentrations were measured using the RTI MicroPEM(™) personal exposure monitor. Questionnaires were used to collect data related to household demographics, characteristics, and self-reported health symptoms. All primary cooks were female and of an average age of 47 years, with 66% having completed primary education. Median income was slightly over half the national median monthly income. Use of Anagi stoves was positively associated with a higher education level of the primary cook (P = 0.026), although not associated with household income (P = 0.18). The MicroPEM monitors were well-received by participants, and this study's valid data capture rate exceeded 97%. Participant wearing compliance during waking hours was on average 87.2% on Day 1 and 83.3% on Day 2. Periods of non-compliance occurred solely during non-cooking times. The measured median 48-h average indoor PM2.5 concentration for households with Anagi stoves was 64 μg/m(3) if a chimney was present and 181 μg/m(3) if not. For households using traditional stoves, these values were 70 μg/m(3) if a chimney was present and 371 μg/m(3) if not. Overall, measured indoor PM2.5 concentrations ranged from a minimum of 33 μg/m(3) to a maximum of 940 μg/m(3) , while personal exposure

  16. IYPE in Canada (United States)

    Boyd, J.; Nowlan, G.


    The Canadian National Committee picked five of the ten IYPE themes for emphasis in Canada - Water, Hazards, Energy, Resources and Environment. They are summarized in the acronym WHERE - WHERE on Earth, WHERE in Canada. Our committee raised funds from industry, with some generous support from The Geological Survey of Canada. Funds were used for publishing “Four Billion Years and Counting”, a book on Canadian geology designed for the general public. It will be useful to educators who can download many of the illustrations and images for classroom support. Recognizing the looming shortage of Geoscientists, we designed a new careers website to help attract young people to the Earth sciences. It can be seen on our website, The website will be updated regularly. The WHERE Challenge was a national contest for children aged 10 to 14. They were asked to select an object, often something from their household, identify at least one non-renewable resource used to make the object, and submit an entry describing the object, the resources within it, and WHERE they came from. We received entries from more than 1000 students Some of the winning entries are posted on our website. We developed a partnership with Parks Canada called Egoists, which is a series of pamphlets on iconic views within the parks explaining the Earth science behind the views. We also supported the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Burgess Shale by providing funding for the publication of a field guide. At the end of the year all programs will transfer to the Canadian Federation of Earth Sciences. The WHERE Challenge will be repeated in 2010. It, plus our book and careers website will continue our outreach activities.

  17. Etude comparative des conditions environnementales potentiellement limitantes dans l'etablissement d'une espece aquatique envahissante Clona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) dans deux systemes de bassins versants a l'ile-du Prince-Edouard, Canada (United States)

    Mclaughlin, Janelle

    Aquatic invasive species are a growing global problem. Since the late 1990s, the province of Prince Edward Island (PEI), located on the east coast of Canada, has seen the introduction and the establishment of several species of tunicate. Shortly after their introduction into new aquatic systems such as the Brudenell and Montague rivers, tunicate population exploded to extremely high levels which have had significant impacts on native species populations, the fisheries and aquaculture industries and on the economy of local communities. Brudenell and Montague rivers are located southeast of the province. Comparatively, the aquatic system of Orwell Bay, which is also located in this area, is an exception to the successful establishment of tunicates, despite several successive unintentional introductions. The objective of this research is to identify and understand the main key factors that could potentially limit the establishment of a tunicate species in PEI. This study is based on a comparative approach between the two aquatic systems previously mentioned. The results of this research shows that the Orwell Bay system is characterized by a slightly higher percentage of terrestrial areas with potential soil loss, a shorter water renewal time, a shallower aquatic area, a higher turbidity level, a slightly lower salinity and a slightly higher temperature than the Brudenell and Montague rivers system. One of the environmental variables that showed a significant difference between the two systems in the analysis is turbidity. This study also examines the relationship between different turbidity levels, in terms of suspended inorganic matter, and its potential role in the establishment of the invasive tunicate C. intestinalis. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of suspended inorganic matter on primary stages of this species of tunicate. The results show a significant negative effect at higher suspended inorganic matter levels on fertilization

  18. Do Self-Statements Enhance the Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy? A Comparative Evaluation in Acrophobia


    Krijn, M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Olafsson, R.P.; Schuemie, M. J.; van der Mast, C. A. P. G.


    There is a clear need for more detailed analysis of the role of cognitive self-statements in virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET). To date, no research on this topic has been done. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether coping self-statements would enhance the effectiveness of VRET. In a randomized crossover design, 26 patients with acrophobia (DSM-IV diagnosis of specific phobia) were randomly assigned to two sessions of VRET followed by two sessions of VRET plus coping ...

  19. Increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 in humans after solar exposure under natural conditions compared to artificial UVB exposure of hands and face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta, Pameli; Bogh, Morten Karsten; Olsen, Peter


    Vitamin D studies are often performed under controlled laboratory conditions and the findings may be difficult to translate to natural conditions. We aimed to determine and compare the doses of natural solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) with doses of artificial UVB radiation of hands and face needed...... UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SEDs) were determined with personal wristwatch UV-dosimeters. 29 volunteers (Group 2) received artificial UVB doses of 6 SEDs (N = 14) and 3 SEDs (N = 15) on hands and face during late-winter/early-spring when outdoor UVB is negligible. 25(OH)D-levels were...... limited to hands and face. Instead the earliest period (week 17-19) with significant Δ25(OH)D, occurring after a mean of 2 days of sun-exposing more than hands and face, was used to estimate an approximate UVR dose required to increase 25(OH)D. This estimate resulted in a dose of 4.1 solar SEDs required...

  20. DEWI partnership in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutilleux, P.; Klug, H.; Molly, J.P. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)


    Canada is with its 9.982.000 km{sup 2} the second largest country in the world. It has plenty of natural resources for a population density of 3 inhabitants per km{sup 2}. Now that the time for wind energy is coming, DEWI is willing to contribute with its know-how to the development of wind energy in this country. In this article we review briefly two of the market drivers for the development of wind energy: the need for additional electricity generation capacity and the political framework. After considering the volume of projects under development, a way is shown how DEWI will be present in Canada in order to support its clients. (orig.)

  1. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions. (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin


    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality.

  2. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Comparative study of temperature measurements in ex vivo swine muscle and a tissue-mimicking material during high intensity focused ultrasound exposures (United States)

    Maruvada, S.; Liu, Y.; Pritchard, W. F.; Herman, B. A.; Harris, G. R.


    Tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) can provide a convenient, stable, and reproducible means for testing high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) devices. When TMMs containing thermal sensors are used to measure ultrasound-induced temperature rise, it is important that measurement results reasonably represent those that occur in biological tissue. Therefore the aim of this paper is to compare the thermal behavior of the TMM under HIFU exposure to that of ex vivo tissue. This was accomplished using both a previously developed TMM and fresh ex vivo swine muscle that were instrumented with bare 50 µm thin wire thermocouples. HIFU at 825 kHz was focused at the thermocouple junction. 30 s exposures of increasing peak negative pressure (1 to 5 MPa) were applied and the temperature profile during and after sonication was recorded. B-mode imaging was used to monitor bubble activity during sonication. If bubble formation was noted during the sonication, the sonication was repeated at the same pressure levels two more times at 20 min intervals. Temperature traces obtained at various pressure levels demonstrated similar types of heating profiles in both the tissue and TMM, the exact nature of which depended on whether bubbles formed during the HIFU exposure. The onset of bubble activity occurred at lower ultrasonic pressures in the TMM, but the basic temperature rise features due to HIFU exposure were essentially the same for both materials.

  4. Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungroul Kim


    Full Text Available While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure in Baltimore (Maryland, USA. A subset of the study participants (n = 52 were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Stress Induced Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans following Exposure to Environmental and Lab Reconstituted Complex Metal Mixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Kumar

    Full Text Available Metals are essential for many physiological processes and are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, high metal concentrations can be harmful to organisms and lead to physiological stress and diseases. The accumulation of transition metals in the environment due to either natural processes or anthropogenic activities such as mining results in the contamination of water and soil environments. The present study used Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate gene expression as an indicator of physiological response, following exposure to water collected from three different locations downstream of a Swedish mining site and a lab reconstituted metal mixture. Our results indicated that the reconstituted metal mixture exerted a direct stress response in C. elegans whereas the environmental waters elicited either a diminished or abrogated response. This suggests that it is not sufficient to use the biological effects observed from laboratory mixtures to extrapolate the effects observed in complex aquatic environments and apply this to risk assessment and intervention.

  6. Do self-statements enhance the effectiveness of virtual reality exposure therapy? A comparative evaluation in acrophobia. (United States)

    Krijn, M; Emmelkamp, P M G; Olafsson, R P; Schuemie, Martijn J; van der Mast, Charles A P G


    There is a clear need for more detailed analysis of the role of cognitive self-statements in virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET). To date, no research on this topic has been done. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether coping self-statements would enhance the effectiveness of VRET. In a randomized crossover design, 26 patients with acrophobia (DSM-IV diagnosis of specific phobia) were randomly assigned to two sessions of VRET followed by two sessions of VRET plus coping self-statements, or the other way around: first two sessions of VRET plus coping self-statements followed by two sessions of VRET. Results showed that VRET, regardless of addition of coping self-statements, decreased anxiety of heights, decreased avoidance of height situations, and improved attitudes towards heights. However, at 6-month follow-up, most gains during treatment were not fully retained.

  7. Effects of lactational exposure of olanzapine and risperidone on hematology and lymphoid organs histopathology: a comparative study in mice neonates. (United States)

    Mishra, Akash C; Mohanty, Banalata


    Body weight gain, sexual/reproductive dysfunction and hematological abnormalities are serious consequences of atypical antipsychotics treatment. No attempts however have been made preclinically to elucidate the adverse hematological impacts. Presently, effects of lactational exposure of olanzapine (4, 8 and 10 mg/kg) and risperidone (1 and 2 mg/kg) on hematology as well as lymphoid organ histopathology of mice neonates were investigated. Both olanzapine and risperidone transfers through milk and make the neonates susceptible to their adverse side effects. Corticosterone elevation tendency of both the drugs further enhance the susceptibility for immune dysfunction. Analysis of total and differential leukocytes counts revealed neutropenia with all the doses of olanzapine but only with risperidone 2mg/kg. Weight analysis and histopathology of thymus and spleen indicated a state of suppression; less in the risperidone-exposed groups. Significant plasma corticosterone elevation occurred on 4 and 8 mg/kg olanzapine exposures but not with 10 mg/kg as well as with both the risperidone doses. Elevation of plasma prolactin levels occurred dose-dependently for both the drugs. Hematological toxicity (neutropenia) might be the direct toxic effects of the drugs/unstable metabolites on circulating neutrophils and/or on the bone marrow hemopoietic cells. Direct toxicity of the drugs might also have suppressed the lymphoid organs thymus and spleen. Further, it could be associated to hormonal imbalance induced by adverse pharmacological effects of the drugs on the endocrine system. Suppression of lymphoid organs in olanzapine groups might have resulted because of corticosteronemia and hyperprolactinemia, while in risperidone it could be mediated by pronounced hyperprolactinemic effect alone.

  8. Comparative analysis of cytochrome P450-like genes from Locusta migratoria manilensis: expression profiling and response to insecticide exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Qiong Guo; Jian-Zhen Zhang; Mei-Ling Yang; Liang-Zhen Yan; Kun Yan Zhu; Ya-Ping Guo; En-Bo Ma


    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450) gene superfamily comprises many genes that may be involved in the biotransformations of pesticides and other xenobiotics.To date,very little is known about cytochrome P450 genes in the oriental migratory locust,Locusta migratoria manilensis.In this study,we carried out a genomewide analysis of cytochrome P450 genes of the locust to identify putative cytochrome P450 genes and characterize their expression responses to insecticide exposures.We identified 15 cytochrome P450-1ike genes from a locust expressed sequence tag database (LocustDB).Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that most cytochrome P450-1ike genes displayed different tissue and developmental stage expression patterns.However,most of them were predominantly expressed in the midgut,gastric caeca,fatbodies,and/or hindgut.Biochemical analysis showed that cytochrome P450 was differentially affected by three different insecticides.Deltamethrin caused significant inductions in 12 h at LD30 (dose to kill 30% of the tested individuals) in the nymphs,whereas malathion and carbaryl did not have significant effect on cytochrome P450 enzyme activity.Further RT-PCR analysis showed significant increases of transcriptions of several cytochrome P450 genes in deltamethrin-treated locusts.Thus,the increased cytochrome P450 enzyme activity is likely due to increased transcriptions of multiple cytochrome P450genes in response to deltamethrin exposure.These results are expected to help us better understand the interactions between insecticides and major detoxification enzymes,and possible changes of the susceptibility to other insecticides in deltamethrin-treated insects at various molecular levels.

  9. Canada Finance Minster:Welcome China's Investment in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan


    @@ To forward the relationship between China and Canada in financial and trade sectors and strengthen the cooperation in avoiding the worse impact of international financial crisis,Canadian financial high-level leaders involving Bank of Canada Governor Mark Carney,Canada's Minister of Finance Jim Flaherty,Federal Superintendent of Financial Institutions Julie well as tive malor banks and the two biggest insurance companies in Canada,who are lpoking to strengthen and expand business ties with China,visited China from August 8 to August 14,2009.

  10. Plating effluent management in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, P. [Environment Canada, Hull, PQ (Canada)


    There are some 600 firms in Canada classified as metal finishers, employing about 8,000 people; 60 per cent of these firms are located in Ontario. Annual sales are in the range of $800 million. About 25 per cent of the total effort is devoted to the automotive industry. Regulatory initiatives are based on the Toxic Substance Management Policy 1995 Framework, and involve multi-stakeholder consultation to identify, evaluate and recommend goals, targets, and management options to reduce exposure to hexavalent chromium, maximize the recycling of nickel and minimize the releases of cadmium from industry operations by promoting and encouraging appropriate P2 practices. Other regulatory initiatives follow from the Fisheries Act of 1970, the Metal Finishing Liquid Effluent Guidelines of 1977, and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act of 1988. There are also non-regulatory initiatives, such as the Metal Finishing Industry Pollution Project, a voluntary cooperative effort directed towards formulating plans to reduce toxic effluents from metal finishing operations and to develop and implement site-specific P2 plans. The various treatment technologies such as physico-chemical treatment of multi-metal rinse waters and periodic bath dumpings at on-site waste water treatment plants, water reduction practices to make more effective use of rinse water, evaporation, ion exchange, packed bed scrubbers, fume suppressants, composite mesh pads and separate ventilation for degreasing are also described. Specific case studies are cited to illustrate the various treatment technologies.

  11. Acute Kidney Injury, Risk Factors, and Prognosis in Hospitalized HIV-Infected Adults in South Africa, Compared by Tenofovir Exposure (United States)

    Martinson, Neil; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Abraham, Pattamukkil; Mancama, Dalu; Naicker, Saraladevi; Variava, Ebrahim


    Abstract There are limited data describing acute kidney injury (AKI) in HIV-infected adult patients in resource-limited settings where tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), which is potentially nephrotoxic, is increasingly prescribed. We describe risk factors for and prognosis of AKI in HIV-infected individuals, stratified by those receiving and those naive to TDF. A prospective case cohort study of hospitalized HIV-infected adults with AKI stratified by TDF exposure. Adults (≥18 years) were recruited: clinical and biochemical data were collected at admission; their renal recovery, discharge, or mortality was ascertained as an in-patient and, subsequently, to a scheduled 3-month follow-up. Among this predominantly female (61%), almost exclusively black African cohort of 175 patients with AKI, 93 (53%) were TDF exposed; median age was 41 years (interquartile range 35–50). Median CD4 count and viral load and creatinine at baseline were 116 cells/mm3 and 110,159 copies/ml, respectively. A greater proportion of the TDF group had severe AKI on admission (61% vs. 43%, p = .014); however, both groups had similar rates of newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB; 52%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID; 32%) use. Intravenous fluid was the therapeutic mainstay; only seven were dialyzed. Discharge median serum creatinine (SCr) was higher in the TDF group (p = .032) and fewer in the TDF group recovered renal function after 3 months (p = .043). Three-month mortality was 27% in both groups, but 55% of deaths occurred in hospital. Those that died had a higher SCr and more severe AKI than survivors; TB was diagnosed in 33 (70%) of those who died. AKI was more severe and renal recovery slower in the TDF group; comorbidities, risk factors, and prognosis were similar regardless of TDF exposure. Because TB is linked to higher mortality, TB coinfection in HIV-infected patients with AKI warrants more intensive monitoring. In all those with poor renal recovery, our

  12. Comparative toxicity of physiological and biochemical parameters in Euglena gracilis to short-term exposure to potassium sorbate. (United States)

    Engel, Fernanda; Pinto, Luciano Henrique; Del Ciampo, Lineu Fernando; Lorenzi, Luciano; Heyder, Carmen Diamantina Teixeira; Häder, Donat Peter; Erzinger, Gilmar Sidnei


    Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid, is a widespread and efficient antioxidant that has multiple functions in plants, traditionally associated with the reactions of photosynthesis; however, it has moderate toxicity to various species including rat, fish, bacteria and human health. The effects of potassium sorbate on the movement and photosynthetic parameters of Euglena gracilis were studied during short-term exposure. Potassium sorbate showed acute toxicity to the green flagellate E. gracilis affecting different physiological parameters used as endpoints in an automatic bioassay such as motility, precision of gravitational orientation (r-value), upward movement and alignment, with mean EC50 values of 2867.2 mg L(-1). The concentrations above 625 mg L(-1) of potassium sorbate induce an inhibition of the photosynthetic efficiency and electron transport rate and, in concentrations more than 2500.0 mg L(-1), the Euglena cells undergo a complete inhibition of photosynthesis even at low light irradiation.

  13. Comparative analysis of the Metarhizium anisopliae secretome in response to exposure to the greyback cane grub and grub cuticles. (United States)

    Manalil, Nirupama Shoby; Junior Téo, V S; Braithwaite, K; Brumbley, S; Samson, P; Helena Nevalainen, K M


    Metarhizium anisopliae is a well-characterized biocontrol agent of a wide range of insects including cane grubs. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis was used to display secreted proteins of M. anisopliae strain FI-1045 growing on the whole greyback cane grubs and their isolated cuticles. Hydrolytic enzymes secreted by M. anisopliae play a key role in insect cuticle-degradation and initiation of the infection process. We have identified all the 101 protein spots displayed by cross-species identification (CSI) from the fungal kingdom. Among the identified proteins were 64-kDa serine carboxypeptidase, 1,3 beta-exoglucanase, Dynamin GTPase, THZ kinase, calcineurin like phosphoesterase, and phosphatidylinositol kinase secreted by M. ansiopliae (FI-1045) in response to exposure to the greyback cane grubs and their isolated cuticles. These proteins have not been previously identified from the culture supernatant of M. anisopliae during infection. To our knowledge, this the first proteomic map established to study the extracellular proteins secreted by M. ansiopliae (FI-1045) during infection of greyback cane grubs and its cuticles.

  14. Return migration from Canada to Britain. (United States)

    Richmond, A H


    Abstract Statistics of migrants returning from Canada to Britain and re-registering for national insurance purposes are compared with labour force immigrants entering Canada between 1956 and 1965. Short and long-term indices are calculated which suggest that return migration has been increasing since 1960. A sample survey carried out in 1962-63 distinguishes three types of returning migrant: (a) quasi-migrants who originally planned to return to Britain; (b) permanent repatriates who originally intended to settle in Canada but now expect to remain in Britain; (c) transilient migrants who exhibit a high propensity to move backwards and forwards between two or more countries without becoming permanently rooted in anyone. The demographic, economic and social characteristics of the three types are described. A further comparison is made between migrants who plan to settle in Britain, those who intend to come back again to Canada, and those who are uncertain of their future plans or who intend to move on to a third country.

  15. Indicateurs cles au Canada


    Warren, Paul


    Au cours des dernieres annees, on s'est beaucoup interesse sur la scene internationale aux indicateurs cles. Le present document se veut un tour d'horizon des efforts deployes recemment au Canada en vue d'elaborer des indicateurs cles du bien etre economique, social, environnemental et physique. Y sont classifies et examines en detail plus de 40 projets et publications portant sur ce sujet. Y figurent aussi l'enumeration breve de 20 autres projets, ainsi que des renvois a plusieurs enquetes a...

  16. Comparative hazard identification by a single dose lung exposure of zinc oxide and silver nanomaterials in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Ilse; Kermanizadeh, Ali; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Bokkers, Bas; de Jong, Wim H; Krystek, Petra; Tran, Lang; Stone, Vicki; Wallin, Håkan; Stoeger, Tobias; Cassee, Flemming R


    Comparative hazard identification of nanomaterials (NMs) can aid in the prioritisation for further toxicity testing. Here, we assessed the acute lung, systemic and liver responses in C57BL/6N mice for three NMs to provide a hazard ranking. A silver (Ag), non-functionalised zinc oxide (ZnO) and a tri

  17. Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Minard, Kevin R.; Forsythe, William C.; Wang, Wei; Sharma, Gaurav; Karin, Norman J.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.


    quantitative comparison of in vitro and in vivo systems advance their use for hazard assessment and extrapolation to humans. The mildly inflammogentic cellular doses experienced by mice were similar those calculated for humans exposed to the same at the existing permissible exposure limit of 10 mg/m3 iron oxide (as Fe).

  18. Canada and the Third World. (United States)

    Burghardt, Andrew F.


    Canada did not develop strong ties with the Third World until well after World War II. Three factors that have channeled and limited Canada's relationships with developing nations--location, history, and internal political relationships--are discussed. Also examined are patterns of Canadian foreign aid and investment and peace-seeking efforts. (RM)

  19. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada (United States)

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan


    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  20. Chemical synthesis, characterisation, analytical method development and control to promote exposure assessments and toxicological testing. Highlights from COMPARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Aa.; Malmberg, T.; Weiss, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry


    The issue of endocrine disruptor effects in wildlife and humans grow increasingly important during the 1990s'. As part of the focus on endocrine disruptors new contaminants and their metabolites were put forward for studies with endpoints related to hormone disruption. One such large group of chemicals and/or metabolites of neutral semi-persistent or persistent compounds was the substituted phenols, particularly the halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs). Polychlorobiphenylols (OHPCBs) were reported to be strongly retained in human blood plasma in 1995 and this article was the first study to point out the general retention of several OH-PCBs in the plasma. The metabolic formation of OH-PCBs was well known and the specific blood retention had been reported for at least one PCB congener, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB-77) in some previous studies. The identification of OH-PCBs being retained in blood and their specific binding to transthyretin (TTR) has formed much of the basis for two EU R and D programs, first RENCO and now COMPARE. The present report is aimed to highlight some of the results obtained within the COMPARE program mainly dealing with the chemical synthesis, characterisation and analytical aspects of HPCs.

  1. IL-6 and IL-10 levels in the umbilical cord blood of newborns with a history of crack/cocaine exposure in utero: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mardini


    Full Text Available Introduction Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE is associated with neurobehavioral problems during childhood and adolescence. Early activation of the inflammatory response may contribute to such changes. Our aim was to compare inflammatory markers (IL-6 and IL-10 both in umbilical cord blood and in maternal peripheral blood at delivery between newborns with history of crack/cocaine exposure in utero and non-exposed newborns. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 57 newborns with a history of crack/cocaine exposure in utero (EN and 99 non-exposed newborns (NEN were compared for IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Sociodemographic and perinatal data, maternal psychopathology, consumption of nicotine and other substances were systematically collected in cases and controls. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, mean IL-6 was significantly higher in EN than in NEN (10,208.54, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1,328.54-19,088.55 vs. 2,323.03, 95%CI 1,484.64-3,161.21; p = 0.007; generalized linear model [GLM]. Mean IL-10 was also significantly higher in EN than in NEN (432.22, 95%CI 51.44-812.88 vs. 75.52, 95%CI 5.64-145.39, p = 0.014; GLM. Adjusted postpartum measures of IL-6 were significantly higher in mothers with a history of crack/cocaine use (25,160.05, 95%CI 10,958.15-39,361.99 vs. 8,902.14, 95%CI 5,774.97-12,029.32; p = 0.007; GLM, with no significant differences for IL-10. There was no correlation between maternal and neonatal cytokine levels (Spearman test, p ≥ 0.28 for all measures. Conclusions IL-6 and IL-10 might be early biomarkers of PCE in newborns. These findings could help to elucidate neurobiological pathways underlying neurodevelopmental changes and broaden the range of possibilities for early intervention.

  2. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada (United States)


    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Risks for the development of outcomes related to occupational allergies: an application of the asthma-specific job exposure matrix compared with self-reports and investigator scores on job-training-related exposure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarthana, E.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Ghezzo, H.; Malo, J.L.; Kennedy, S.M.; Gautrin, D.


    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Risks for development of occupational sensitisation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, rhinoconjunctival and chest symptoms at work associated with continued exposure to high molecular weight (HMW) allergens were estimated with three exposure assessment methods. METHODS: A Cox regr

  4. Modelling of occupational respirable crystalline silica exposure for quantitative exposure assessment in community-based case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roe; Portengen, Lutzen; Olsson, Ann; Kendzia, Benjamin; Vincent, Raymond; Savary, Barbara; Lavoue, Jerome; Cavallo, Domenico; Cattaneo, Andrea; Mirabelli, Dario; Plato, Nils; Fevotte, Joelle; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans


    We describe an empirical model for exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) to create a quantitative job-exposure matrix (JEM) for community-based studies. Personal measurements of exposure to RCS from Europe and Canada were obtained for exposure modelling. A mixed-effects model was elaborate

  5. Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study: Design and Methods Validation of Personal, Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring (United States)

    The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures...

  6. Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): the potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration. (United States)

    Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P


    Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5 min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30 min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55 μg/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30 μg/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55 μg/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36 μg/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ≥5 μg/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from water.

  7. Genotoxicity and toxicity assay of multiple-pollutant exposure. Comparative analysis of water from natural reservoirs with contrast level of radioactive and chemical contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, T.; Geras' Kin, S.; Taskaev, A.; Shuktomova, I. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)


    Bio-indication (using the anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay that was carried out on A. schoenoprasum L. meristematic root tip cells) and chemical analysis approaches for comparative analysis of water from natural reservoirs located near place of underground nuclear explosion with rock outburst (Perm region) and the radium production industry storage cell (Komi Republic) with contrast level of radioactive and chemical contamination was used for the first time. Even at very low levels of a specific activity both natural ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb), and artificial ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 230,240}Pu) radionuclides contribute significantly (59-91 %) to an induction of genotoxic and toxic effects. An alkaline, earth and heavy metals ions, weaken or enhancing an radionuclides exposure was changed a spectrum of cytogenetic disturbances. Our results clearly indicated that combined exposure of metal ions and radionuclides at levels officially adopted as permissible for a population may acted synergistically and result in significant damage on different biota species. (author)

  8. Coal facies studies in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, Wolfgang D. [Laboratorio de Carvao e de Petrologia Organica, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    The present study is a compilation of published data on coal facies studies in Canada based on coal petrological and other methods. The geological age of the coals range from the Devonian coal deposits in Arctic Canada to coals of Tertiary age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, intermontane British Columbia and Arctic Canada. In terms of rank, the coal deposits studied range from lignite to low volatile bituminous. Coal petrological methods include maceral and microlithotype analyses, frequently integrated with data from palynological and geochemical analyses. Most recently, a number of studies have applied sequence stratigraphic concepts to the coal-bearing strata including the interpretation of coal petrological data in the context of this concept.

  9. Obstetric medical care in Canada. (United States)

    Magee, Laura A; Cote, Anne-Marie; Joseph, Geena; Firoz, Tabassum; Sia, Winnie


    Obstetric medicine is a growing area of interest within internal medicine in Canada. Canadians continue to travel broadly to obtain relevant training, particularly in the United Kingdom. However, there is now a sufficient body of expertise in Canada that a cadre of 'home-grown' obstetric internists is emerging and staying within Canada to improve maternity care. As this critical mass of practitioners grows, it is apparent that models of obstetric medicine delivery have developed according to local needs and patterns of practice. This article aims to describe the state of obstetric medicine in Canada, including general internal medicine services as the rock on which Canadian obstetric medicine has been built, the Canadian training curriculum and opportunities, organisation of obstetric medicine service delivery and the future.

  10. Canada goose behavior: Fall 1969 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese use four divisions of the Mark Twin NWR: Louisa, Delair, Cannon, and Calhoun. There was a shortage of cultivated crops, corn and soybeans, on all refuge...

  11. A staff shortage in Canada?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, P. [Human Resources Development Canada, Quebec (Canada)


    Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members` future personnel requirements. (author).

  12. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch


    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  13. Bombardier Inc. Factory, Valcourt, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollick, J. [Solar Wall International Ltd., Downsview (Canada)


    Bombardier Inc. of Montreal, Canada has installed over 15,000 m{sup 2} of unglazed solar air collectors at its various manufacturing plants in Quebec. The solar collectors decrease operating expenses and significantly improve indoor air quality. Bombardier's engineers compared the cost of this system with other methods of recladding and improving ventilation and found the costs to be the same. With no extra costs for free solar heating, the system has an immediate payback, along with other benefits of improved air quality and attractive architecturally designed walls that utilize solar energy. Bombardier's first solar heating installation at their Sea Doo manufacturing plant has a solar wall area of 740 m{sup 2}. The heat-absorbing surface area is 611 m{sup 2} of a custom dark olive-green colour, with the balance being the white canopy plenum along the top and vertical dividers. The entire surface of the solar panel is separated into six sections with one fan per section. Wall-mounted ventilation fans were installed to bring in a total of 71,400 m{sup 3}/h of heated ventilation air. Monitored solar and destratification savings for the year 1993-94 were CA $33,000 (ECU 20,440) based on energy savings of 894,000 kWh. (author)

  14. Harnessing Canada's wind resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.


    Canada's latest wind farm, the 20-turbine Magrath Wind Power project, a $48 million joint venture between Suncor, EHN Wind Power Canada Inc., and Enbridge Inc. is described. This latest addition to Canada's growing renewable energy generation capacity is situated near the town of Magrath in Alberta, 40 km south of Lethbridge. The 20 turbines are erected along a distance of eight kilometres; they are capable of generating enough electricity to light approximately 13,000 homes. Each hub stands 65 metres above the ground, equivalent in height to a 23-story building; the turbine's bladespan is 34 metres, which is close to the wingspan of a Boeing 737-900 airliner. The Magrath is Suncor's second wind power project, and is part of the oil giant's continuing commitment to the development of renewable energy sources as a means of providing a reliable source of electricity and protect the environment at the same time. The construction activity took three months over a 12-month period and provided employment for 70 people at the peak construction period. Each turbine generates 1.5 megawatts of energy, and will offset 82,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually (equivalent to the removal of 12,000 cars from Canadian roads). At present, the cost of generating wind energy ranges between 6 cents and 12 cents per kilowatt-hour, depending on location, compared to about 5 cents for electricity generated by hydro power. The Magrath Wind Power project joins 30 other wind farms currently in operation in Canada.

  15. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico); Rangel-López, Edgar [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Castillo, Claudia G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Santamaría, Abel [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Gonzalez, Carmen, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico)


    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO{sub 3}) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells.

  16. Comparing the impact of increasing condom use or HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP use among female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindoga Mukandavire


    Full Text Available In many settings, interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs could significantly reduce the overall transmission of HIV. To understand the role HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP could play in controlling HIV transmission amongst FSWs, it is important to understand how its impact compares with scaling-up condom use—one of the proven HIV prevention strategies for FSWs. It is important to remember that condoms also have other benefits such as reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections and preventing pregnancy. A dynamic deterministic model of HIV transmission amongst FSWs, their clients and other male partners (termed ‘pimps’ was used to compare the protection provided by PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs with FSWs increasing their condom use with clients and/or pimps. For different HIV prevalence scenarios, levels of pimp interaction, and baseline condom use, we estimated the coverage of PrEP that gives the same reduction in endemic FSW HIV prevalence or HIV infections averted as different increases in condom use. To achieve the same impact on FSW HIV prevalence as increasing condom use by 1%, the coverage of PrEP has to increase by >2%. The relative impact of PrEP increases for scenarios where pimps contribute to HIV transmission, but not greatly, and decreases with higher baseline condom use. In terms of HIV infections averted over 10 years, the relative impact of PrEP compared to condoms was reduced, with a >3% increase in PrEP coverage achieving the same impact as a 1% increase in condom use. Condom promotion interventions should remain the mainstay HIV prevention strategy for FSWs, with PrEP only being implemented once condom interventions have been maximised or to fill prevention gaps where condoms cannot be used.

  17. Comparative transcriptomics reveals genes involved in metabolic and immune pathways in the digestive gland of scallop Chlamys farreri following cadmium exposure (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhai, Yuxiu; Yao, Lin; Jiang, Yanhua; Li, Fengling


    Chlamys farreri is an economically important mollusk that can accumulate excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Studying the molecular mechanism of Cd accumulation in bivalves is difficult because of the lack of genome background. Transcriptomic analysis based on high-throughput RNA sequencing has been shown to be an efficient and powerful method for the discovery of relevant genes in non-model and genome reference-free organisms. Here, we constructed two cDNA libraries (control and Cd exposure groups) from the digestive gland of C. farreri and compared the transcriptomic data between them. A total of 227 673 transcripts were assembled into 105 071 unigenes, most of which shared high similarity with sequences in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. For functional classification, 24 493 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Additionally, EuKaryotic Ortholog Groups and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses assigned 12 028 unigenes to 26 categories and 7 849 unigenes to five pathways, respectively. Comparative transcriptomics analysis identified 3 800 unigenes that were differentially expressed in the Cd-treated group compared with the control group. Among them, genes associated with heavy metal accumulation were screened, including metallothionein, divalent metal transporter, and metal tolerance protein. The functional genes and predicted pathways identified in our study will contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic and immune system in the digestive gland of C. farreri. In addition, the transcriptomic data will provide a comprehensive resource that may contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms that respond to marine pollutants in bivalves.

  18. Traditional Chinese medicine education in Canada. (United States)

    Du, Huan-bin


    The history of education and legislation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture in Canada is short. The first school of TCM opened its door to the general public in Canada in 1985 and the first legislation of acupuncture was introduced in Alberta, Canada in 1988. Currently, TCM and/or acupuncture have been regulated in five provinces in Canada. The legislation and regulation, as well as education of TCM and acupuncture vary among the five provinces in Canada. Opportunities and challenges facing TCM education exist simultaneously. Strategies are proposed to develop an international standard for TCM education in Canada, and possibly in other English speaking countries as well.

  19. The Evolution of Elderly Poverty in Canada


    Kevin Milligan


    The drop in income poverty among the elderly in Canada over the last generation has been well-documented. In this paper, I extend the calculation of head-count measures of poverty to all currently available microdata, spanning the years 1973 to 2003. I then generate consumption poverty measures spanning 1969 to 2004 and compare to the income poverty results. For both income and consumption, I implement a relative poverty measure that uses the wellbeing of working age families as a benchmark f...

  20. [History of trachoma in canada]. (United States)

    Milot, Jean


    The author retraces the history of trachoma in Canada. The numerous articles in Canadian medical journals from the middle of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century show the remarkable contribution of Canadian ophthalmologists. The clinical symptoms and signs followed by the etiology and the different modes of treatment are reviewed. The presence and prevention of trachoma in Canada, ranging from Montreal to Toronto, also in Halifax with the arrival of the transatlantic immigrants, as well as those reaching the western provinces of Canada are described. How the Canadian Department of Health belatedly introduced a prevention campaign only after a widespread dissemination of trachoma across the country is also examined.

  1. An update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, P.L.; Barker, R.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office


    This paper gives an overview and update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada. To provide a relevant perspective, Canadian data are compared with US data on annual waste arisings and with disposal initiatives of the US compacts and states. Presented also is an assessment of the data and its implications for disposal solutions in Canada.

  2. Developing Canada`s climate change strategy : electricity sector table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellan, A. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    Canada`s climate change strategy has been the focus of extensive consultation processes whose objective is to provide recommendations to federal and provincial ministers by the end of 1999. They are also designed to study the impact, the cost and the benefits of implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and to develop immediate actions to provide early reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The development of long-term actions that will result in sustained greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions is also on the agenda. The role of the Electricity Sector Table is to determine the contribution of GHG emissions by power generation, transmission and distribution elements as well as by electricity and cogeneration industries. The contribution of GHG emissions by renewable energy is also being studied. One of the recommended early actions is that the federal government should include solution gas as a qualifying fuel in Class 43.1 of the Income Tax Act to provide incentives to produce electricity from waste solution gas in fossil fuel production. Natural Resources Canada predicts that GHG emissions from the electricity sector will have increased from 94 MT in 1990 to 146 MT by 2020. The current sources of power generation in Canada are as follows: hydroelectric (65 per cent), nuclear (15 per cent), coal (15 per cent), and other (5 per cent).

  3. Risks for the development of outcomes related to occupational allergies: an application of the asthma-specific job exposure matrix compared with self-reports and investigator scores on job-training-related exposure.


    Suarthana, E.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Ghezzo, H.; Malo, J. L.; Kennedy, S M; Gautrin, D


    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Risks for development of occupational sensitisation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, rhinoconjunctival and chest symptoms at work associated with continued exposure to high molecular weight (HMW) allergens were estimated with three exposure assessment methods. METHODS: A Cox regression analysis with adjustment for atopy and smoking habit was carried out in 408 apprentices in animal health technology, pastry making, and dental hygiene technology with an 8-year follow-up aft...

  4. Silica nanoparticles are less toxic to human lung cells when deposited at the air–liquid interface compared to conventional submerged exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Panas


    Full Text Available Background: Investigations on adverse biological effects of nanoparticles (NPs in the lung by in vitro studies are usually performed under submerged conditions where NPs are suspended in cell culture media. However, the behaviour of nanoparticles such as agglomeration and sedimentation in such complex suspensions is difficult to control and hence the deposited cellular dose often remains unknown. Moreover, the cellular responses to NPs under submerged culture conditions might differ from those observed at physiological settings at the air–liquid interface.Results: In order to avoid problems because of an altered behaviour of the nanoparticles in cell culture medium and to mimic a more realistic situation relevant for inhalation, human A549 lung epithelial cells were exposed to aerosols at the air–liquid interphase (ALI by using the ALI deposition apparatus (ALIDA. The application of an electrostatic field allowed for particle deposition efficiencies that were higher by a factor of more than 20 compared to the unmodified VITROCELL deposition system. We studied two different amorphous silica nanoparticles (particles produced by flame synthesis and particles produced in suspension by the Stöber method. Aerosols with well-defined particle sizes and concentrations were generated by using a commercial electrospray generator or an atomizer. Only the electrospray method allowed for the generation of an aerosol containing monodisperse NPs. However, the deposited mass and surface dose of the particles was too low to induce cellular responses. Therefore, we generated the aerosol with an atomizer which supplied agglomerates and thus allowed a particle deposition with a three orders of magnitude higher mass and of surface doses on lung cells that induced significant biological effects. The deposited dose was estimated and independently validated by measurements using either transmission electron microscopy or, in case of labelled NPs, by fluorescence

  5. Incidence of epithelial lesions of the conjunctiva in a review of 12,102 specimens in Canada (Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Filipe de Albuquerque Alves


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relative frequency of epithelial lesions of the conjunctiva in Canada. METHODS: A retrospective study of 12,102 consecutive cases received during 16 years (1993-2009 at the Henry C. Witelson Ocular Pathology Laboratory in Montreal, Canada, was performed. Demographic data was retrieved from histopathological request forms and specimens were categorized and analyzed by mean percentage. The relative frequency of epithelial lesions of the conjunctiva from a single center in Canada, representing the province of Quebec was reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 12,102 specimens reviewed, 273 were conjunctival lesions (2.25%, including 86 epithelial tumors (0.71% of the conjunctiva that comprised the studied sample. The average age of these patients was 59.9 ± 17.6 years, and gender distribution was 66 (69% males and 30 (31% females. Fifteen lesions (17.4% were classified as squamous cell papillomas (mean age, 57.3 ± 16.7 years. Within the ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN spectrum, there were 10 (11.6% actinic keratosis (63.8 ± 17.6 years, 27 (31.3% cases of conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN with variable degrees of atypia (mild to moderate (63.9 ± 15.3 years, 15 (17.4% carcinomas in situ (66.7 ± 18.0 years, and 17 (19.7% squamous cell carcinomas (SCC (56.2 ± 19.4 years. Two other rare cases of malignant tumors included one basal cell carcinoma and one mucoepidermoid carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of our sample is similar to the one reported by the American Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP in 1994. When we compare our sample to others coming from countries with high levels of sunlight exposure, we found a lower incidence of ocular surface squamous neoplasia, including squamous cell carcinomas in Canada.

  6. Sensitivity of a Tier I screening battery compared to an in utero exposure for detecting the estrogen receptor agonist 17 beta-estradiol. (United States)

    O'Connor, J C; Frame, S R; Biegel, L B; Cook, J C; Davis, L G


    A Tier I screening battery for detecting endocrine active compounds (EACs) has been evaluated for its ability to identify 17 beta-estradiol, a pure estrogen receptor agonist. In addition, the responses obtained with the Tier I battery were compared to the responses obtained from F1 generation rats from a 90-day/one-generation reproduction study with 17 beta-estradiol in order to characterize the sensitivity of the Tier I battery against the sensitivity of an in utero exposure for detecting EACs. The Tier I battery incorporates two short-term in vivo tests (5-day ovariectomized female battery; 15-day intact male battery) and an in vitro yeast transactivation system (YTS) for identifying compounds that alter endocrine homeostasis. The Tier I female battery consists of traditional uterotrophic endpoints coupled with biochemical and hormonal endpoints. It is designed to identify compounds that are estrogenic/antiestrogenic or modulate dopamine levels. The Tier I male battery consists of organ weights coupled with microscopic evaluations and a comprehensive hormonal assessment. It is designed to identify compounds that have the potential to act as agonists or antagonists to the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, or dopamine receptor; steroid biosynthesis inhibitors (aromatase, 5 alpha-reductase, and testosterone biosynthesis); or compounds that alter thyroid function. The YTS is designed to identify compounds that bind to steroid hormone receptors (estrogen, androgen, and progesterone) and activate gene transcription. The profile generated for 17 beta-estradiol was characteristic of the responses expected with a pure estrogen receptor agonist. In the female battery, responses to 17 beta-estradiol included increases in uterine fluid imbibition, uterine weight, estrus conversion, uterine stromal cell proliferation, uterine epithelial cell height, uterine progesterone receptor content, serum prolactin and estradiol levels, and decreases in uterine estrogen receptor content

  7. Placebo Trends across the Border: US versus Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory S Harris

    Full Text Available Physicians around the world report to using placebos in a variety of situations and with varying degrees of frequency. Inconsistent methodologies, however, complicate interpretation and prevent direct comparisons across studies. While US- and Canada-based physicians share similar professional standards, Canada harbours a less-litigious universal healthcare model with no formal placebo-related policy-factors that may impact how physicians view and use placebos.To compare American and Canadian data, we circulated an online survey to academic physicians practicing in Canada, collected anonymous responses, and extracted those of internists and rheumatologists for comparison to US data obtained through parallel methodologies.Whereas our data show overall concordance across the border-from definitions to ethical limitations and therapeutic potential-differences between American- and Canadian-based placebo practices merit acknowledgement. For example, compared to 45%-80% among US-based respondents, only 23±7% of Canada-based respondents reported using placebos in clinical practice. However, 79±7% of Canada-respondents-a figure comparable to US data-professed to prescribing at least one form of treatment without proven or expected efficacy. Placebo interventions including unwarranted vitamins and herbal supplements (impure placebos as well as sugar pills and saline injections (pure placebos appear more common in Canada, where more doctors described placebos as "placebos" (rather than "medications" and used them as a "diagnostic" tool (rather than a means of placating patient demands for treatment.Cross-border variation in the use of clinical placebos appears minor despite substantial differences in health care delivery system, malpractice climate, and placebo-related policy. The prevalence of impure placebos in both Canadian and US clinics raises ethical and practical questions currently unaddressed by policy and warranting investigation.

  8. Canada-U.S. Relations (United States)


    56 RBC Financial Group, Daily Forex Fundamentals, February 27, 2009. [ analysis/daily- forex -fundamentals/canada%27s-fourth%11quarter-current-account-moves-into-deficit-after-nine-years- of-surpluses

  9. Child maltreatment in Canada: an understudied public health problem. (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O


    Child maltreatment is a major public health problem associated with impairment in childhood, adolescence, and extending throughout the lifespan. Within Canada, high-quality child maltreatment studies have been conducted and are critical for informing prevention and intervention efforts. However, compared to other parts of the world (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Mexico), the number of studies conducted in Canada is far fewer and the data used to study this important public health problem are less diverse. Importantly, to date, representative data on child maltreatment from the general population at the national level in Canada do not exist. This means that many questions regarding child maltreatment in Canada remain unanswered. To advance our understanding of child maltreatment in Canada and to make significant strides towards protecting Canadian children and families, research using Canadian data is essential. To begin to meet these important public health goals, we need to invest in collecting high-quality, nationally representative Canadian data on child maltreatment. Solutions for the barriers and challenges for the inclusion of child maltreatment data into nationally representative Canadian surveys are provided.

  10. Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011


    Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe


    The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...

  11. Situating Nunavut Education with Indigenous Education in Canada (United States)

    McGregor, Heather Elizabeth


    Recognizing that educational change in Nunavut has not been extensively documented, this article provides an entry point for considering how Nunavut can be better understood and situated with scholarship on Indigenous education in Canada. Comparing the history of education in Nunavut with key turning points in First Nations education, the article…

  12. Bone fluoride concentrations in beluga whales from Canada. (United States)

    Mikaelian, I; Qualls, C W; De Guise, S; Whaley, M W; Martineau, D


    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary have been reported to have dental and bone abnormalities. To determine whether these lesions could be caused by high exposure to fluorides, we measured bone fluoride levels in eight beluga whales stranded on the shores of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada), and in nine beluga whales killed by Inuit hunters in the Hudson Bay (North Western Territories, Canada). In both groups, fluoride concentrations were higher than those found in terrestrial mammals intoxicated by fluorides. Unexpectedly, fluoride concentration was significantly higher in beluga whales from the Hudson Bay (mean +/- SD: 10.365 +/- 1.098 ppm) than in beluga whales from the St. Lawrence Estuary (4.539 +/- 875 ppm) and was positively correlated with age in the latter population. Differences in diet might explain the differences in fluoride concentrations found between these two populations.

  13. USEtox human exposure and toxicity factors for comparative assessment of toxic emissions in life cycle analysis: sensitivity to key chemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark; Henderson, Andrew D.;


    pathway considered (i.e. inhalation through air, ingestion through i) drinking water, ii) agricultural produce, iii) meat and milk, and iv) fish). The calculation of human health effect factors for cancer and non-cancer effects via ingestion and inhalation exposure respectively is described. This section...... by one route can reasonably be used to represent another route. However, we first identify and mark as interim chemicals for which observed tumours are directly related to a given exposure route (e.g. for nasal or lung, or gastro-intestinal cancers) or for which absorbed fraction by inhalation...

  14. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bekö

    Full Text Available Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di(isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw. For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum, which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

  15. Can Canada Avoid Arctic Militarization? (United States)


    Passage is considered an international strait because it joins two high-seas areas used for international navigations.28 Geography is the key to the...2014). 42Roger Howard, 54. 43Sian Griffith, “US-Canada Arctic Border Dispute Key to Maritime Riches,” BBC News , August 2, 2010,, Deputy Chairman of the Russian Duma and a famous Polar scientist, directed a submarine expedition to the North Pole and planted a Russian flag

  16. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships


    Scott Elaine


    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  17. China, Canada Strengthen Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ China and Canada released a joint statement to work together to promote the bilateral cooperation in the oil and gas sector in lateJanuary when Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin paid a state visit to China. Encouraging respective enterprises to expand commercial partnership, the two nations have agreed to take on the energy sector - oil and gas, nuclear energy,energy efficiency and cleaner energy - as "priority areas of long-term mutual cooperation".

  18. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon


    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  19. Use of portable exposure meters for comparing mobile phone base station radiation in different types of areas in the cities of Basel and Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbinello, D.; Huss, A.; Beekhuizen, J.; Vermeulen, R.; Röösli, M.


    BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) are highly variable and differ considerably within as well as between areas. Exposure assessment studies characterizing spatial and temporal variation are limited so far. Our objective was to evaluate sources of data variability and the repe

  20. Children's Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka


    . For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake...

  1. Caregiver Talk to Young Spanish-English Bilinguals: Comparing Direct Observation and Parent-Report Measures of Dual-Language Exposure (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Martínez, Lucía Z.; Hurtado, Nereyda; Grüter, Theres; Fernald, Anne


    In research on language development by bilingual children, the early language environment is commonly characterized in terms of the relative amount of exposure a child gets to each language based on parent report. Little is known about how absolute measures of child-directed speech in two languages relate to language growth. In this study of…

  2. Exposure to contaminated sediments induces alterations in the gill epithelia in juvenile Solea senegalensis: a comparative in situ and ex situ study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Martins


    contaminated sediments. Hypertrophied chloride cells are a consequence of a hindered osmotic regulation by the impairment of ionic active transport, leading to loss-of-function and excessive fluid retention in the cytoplasm. On its turn, a reduction in number and size of gill mucous cells likely reduced the protection provided by mucous to these delicate structures. In general, the alterations were more pronounced in the ex situ study than in situ bioassays, which is probably linked to differences in contaminant bioavailability between laboratory and field scenarios. This variation is likely related to, for instance, estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment steady-state parameters. Interestingly, the results suggest that time of exposure is a key factor, since fewer alterations were observed in animals sampled at the end of the assay (28 days compared to the mid-term (14 days, revealing adaptation to toxicological challenge. In conclusion, mixed sediment contamination can cause physiological alterations in fish gill epithelia that can be determined histologically. These subtle changes may affect the health status of animals by impairing key vital functions such as osmotic balance. As such, physiological alterations to fish gill epithelia may reflect, as in the present case, estuarine sediment contamination even when severe gill lesions are reduced or absent, which mandates caution when interpreting histopathological data in fish for the purpose of environmental risk assessment.

  3. Teaching Global Engineering in Canada, Learning Informality of the Global South (United States)

    Gopakumar, Govind


    Globalisation has inspired a wide assortment of curricular initiatives within engineering education in the USA and Europe. This interest could be categorised in multiple directions--international exposure, service learning, or critical understanding and praxis. In Canada, however, there has been far less consideration for integrating globalisation…

  4. Comparative study of neurologic effects of nano-TiO2 versus SiO2 after direct intracerebral exposure in mice (United States)

    Balvay, A.; Thieriet, N.; Lakhdar, L.; Bencsik, A.


    Titanium and silicon dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 and SiO2 NPs) are now in daily use in many commercial products of which food, sunscreens, toothpastes or cosmetics. However, their effects on human body, especially on the central nervous system, are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether direct exposition of the brain to TiO2 and SiO2 NPs results in alternations in nervous system function. C57Bl6 mice were exposed to 5 and 10 μg doses of TiO2 and SiO2 NPs through intracerebroventricular administration using a stereotaxic approach. Then the neurologic effects were investigated using motor performance parameters, measured on a rotarod at 20 rpm or at an accelerating rod (from 4 to 40 rpm). Before and after injection, motor activity is registered individually for each mouse exposed, once a week, for 8 weeks. Besides, a group of 3 mice is culled at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks after exposure in order to study the time dependant effect on the histopathology of the brain (gliosis, inflammatory process...). Both rotarod tests (accelerating and at 20 rpm) showed that TiO2 and SiO2 NPs exposure could significantly impair the motor performances, even several weeks after initial acute exposure. The first examination of the brain histopathology revealed microglial activation. As it appeared to grow throughout the brain in a time dependant manner this suggests the induction of a long lasting neuroinflammation. These primary findings indicated that exposure to TiO2 and SiO2 NPs could possibly impair the locomotor ability and this deficit may be possibly attributed at least to an inflammatory process maintained till 8 weeks after exposure in the mouse brain. To fully investigate the neurotoxicological consequences of TiO2 and SiO2 NPs exposure, brain contents in these NPs will be also investigated as well as other alterations like neurotransmitter levels. These preliminary data already underline the necessity of more in vivo studies to better characterize TiO2

  5. Chronic and acute effects of coal tar pitch exposure and cardiopulmonary mortality among aluminum smelter workers. (United States)

    Friesen, Melissa C; Demers, Paul A; Spinelli, John J; Eisen, Ellen A; Lorenzi, Maria F; Le, Nhu D


    Air pollution causes several adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects. In occupational studies, where levels of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are higher, the evidence is inconsistent. The effects of acute and chronic PAH exposure on cardiopulmonary mortality were examined within a Kitimat, Canada, aluminum smelter cohort (n = 7,026) linked to a national mortality database (1957-1999). No standardized mortality ratio was significantly elevated compared with the province's population. Smoking-adjusted internal comparisons were conducted using Cox regression for male subjects (n = 6,423). Ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality (n = 281) was associated with cumulative benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) exposure (hazard ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.46) in the highest category. A monotonic but nonsignificant trend was observed with chronic B(a)P exposure and acute myocardial infarction (n = 184). When follow-up was restricted to active employment, the hazard ratio for IHD was 2.39 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 6.05) in the highest cumulative B(a)P category. The stronger associations observed during employment suggest that risk may not persist after exposure cessation. No associations with recent or current exposure were observed. IHD was associated with chronic (but not current) PAH exposure in a high-exposure occupational setting. Given the widespread workplace exposure to PAHs and heart disease's high prevalence, even modest associations produce a high burden.

  6. Suicide policy in Canada: lessons from history. (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Elias, Brenda; Bolton, James M; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender


    In Canada, suicide has transitioned from being a criminal activity with much associated stigma, to being a public health concern that needs to be managed by governments and clinicians in a culturally sensitive manner. In Canada and worldwide, the social attitudes toward and legal interpretation of suicide have been dynamic. Much has been proposed in the development of suicide policy in Canada, however Canada is unique in that it remains one of the only industrialized countries without a national suicide prevention strategy. The current article provides a critical review of the history of suicide in Canada, as well as an appraisal of Canadian suicide prevention policies and key government and political milestones that have impacted suicide policy. Current activity regarding a national suicide prevention strategy in Canada is discussed, as well as potential options for clinician involvement.

  7. Update: outbreaks of cyclosporiasis -- United States and Canada, 1997. (United States)


    Since April 1997, CDC has received reports of outbreaks of cyclosporiasis in the United States and Canada (1,2). As of June 11, there have been 21 clusters of cases of cyclosporiasis reported from eight states (California, Florida, Maryland, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, Rhode Island, and Texas) and one province in Canada (Ontario). These clusters were associated with events (e.g., receptions, banquets, or time-place-related exposures [meals in the same restaurant on the same day]) that occurred during March 19-May 25 and comprise approximately 140 laboratory-confirmed and 370 clinically defined cases of cyclosporiasis. In addition, four laboratory-confirmed and approximately 220 clinically defined cases have been reported among persons who, during March 29-April 5, were on a cruise ship that departed from Florida. Approximately 70 laboratory-confirmed sporadic cases (i.e., cases not associated with events, the cruise, or recent overseas travel) have been reported in the United States and Canada. The most recent laboratory-confirmed sporadic case occurred in a person who had onset of symptoms on June 3.

  8. A comparative study on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of iron and X-65 steel in 4.0 wt % sodium chloride solution after different exposure intervals. (United States)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M


    In this work, the results obtained from studying the anodic dissolution of pure iron and API X-65 5L pipeline steel after 40 min and 12 h exposure period in 4.0 wt % NaCl solutions at room temperature were reported. Potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and chronoamperometric current-time at constant potential techniques were employed. It has been found that the iron electrode corrodes in the chloride test solutions faster than the API X-65 5L steel does under the same conditions. Increasing the exposure period for the electrodes from 40 min to 12 h showed a significant reduction in the corrosion parameters for both iron and steel in the 4.0 wt % NaCl solution. Results together confirmed clearly that the X-65 steel is superior to iron against corrosion in sodium chloride solutions.

  9. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012 (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012


    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  10. Exposure Forecaster (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  11. Disentangling herbivore impacts on Populus tremuloides: a comparison of native ungulates and cattle in Canada's Aspen Parkland. (United States)

    Bork, Edward W; Carlyle, Cameron N; Cahill, James F; Haddow, Rae E; Hudson, Robert J


    Ungulates impact woody species' growth and abundance but little is understood about the comparative impacts of different ungulate species on forest expansion in savanna environments. Replacement of native herbivore guilds with livestock [i.e., beef cattle (Bos taurus)] has been hypothesized as a factor facilitating trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) encroachment into grasslands of the Northern Great Plains. We used a controlled herbivory study in the Parklands of western Canada to compare the impact of native ungulates and cattle on aspen saplings. Native ungulate treatments included a mixed species guild and sequences of herbivory by different ungulates [bison (Bison bison subsp. bison), elk (Cervus elaphus) then deer (Odocoileus hemionus); or deer, elk, then bison]. Herbivory treatments were replicated in three pastures, within which sets of 40 marked aspen saplings (aspen stand. Stems were assessed for mortality and incremental damage (herbivory, leader breakage, stem abrasion and trampling). Final mortality was greater with exposure to any type of herbivore, but remained similar between ungulate treatments. However, among all treatments, the growth of aspen was highest with exposure only to cattle. Herbivory of aspen was attributed primarily to elk within the native ungulate treatments, with other forms of physical damage, and ultimately sapling mortality, associated with exposure to bison. Overall, these results indicate that native ungulates, specifically elk and bison, have more negative impacts on aspen saplings and provide evidence that native and domestic ungulates can have different functional effects on woody plant dynamics in savanna ecosystems.

  12. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scott


    Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.

  13. History of geriatrics in Canada. (United States)

    Hogan, David B


    Specialization is a pervasive movement in medicine. How specialties develop is a complex phenomenon and does not depend solely on the growth of knowledge. The history of geriatrics in Canada is presented as an example of specialization in our country. The gestation period extended over decades. Practitioners moved from partial specialization to a full-time practice in the care of older patients. Opposition to the emerging specialty was mounted by established fields of practice. The choices made by the leaders of Canadian geriatrics molded the evolution of the specialty and have contributed to its precarious status at the present time.

  14. Canada. (United States)

    Gilham, Virginia


    Annotates 122 publications from the Canadian federal government and from 9 Canadian provinces. Topics include environmental programs and problems, gambling, crime, young offenders, health and welfare issues, use of electronic information, materials on education, employment, tourism, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and issues relating to…

  15. Side effects and tolerability of post-exposure prophylaxis with zidovudine, lamivudine, and lopinavir/ritonavir: a comparative study with HIV/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Juan; Xiao Jiang; Zhang Qiang


    Background In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART),the use of antiretrovirals as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) was the most important strategy for preventing occupational exposure to blood or fluids containing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the tolerability,safety,and side effects of a HAART regimen containing three antiretroviral drugs,consisting of zidovudine,lamivudine,and lopinavir/ ritonavir,in healthcare personnel (HCP) who experienced occupational exposure to HIV.Methods The tolerability,safety,and side effects in 26 HCPs who experienced PEP and in 27 HIV/AIDS patients with HAART regimen,AZT+3TC+Lpv/r,were evaluated between January 2010 and December 2012.Results The most frequent clinical side effect was fatigue (in 23 cases,88.5%),and gastroenterological symptoms were the second most common side effects in HCP with PEP.Liver dysfunction was found in 10 cases (38.5%),while drug rash was found in 18 cases (69.2%) after PEP.The prevalence of side effects in HCPs who experienced PEP was higher than that in HIV/AIDS patients P <0.05.One nurse (3.8%) experienced severe gastrointestinal symptoms,which led to withdrawal of PEP.No HIV infection was found during 6-month follow-up period.Conclusion HCPs who received occupational PEP with triple-drug regimen,AZT+3TC+Lpv/r,experienced different side effects,and the tolerability and safety of PEP regimen were good in this cohort.

  16. Comparative effects of hydrogen chloride gas on tomato and chrysanthemum. I. Distribution and accumulation of chloride following exposure. II. Pathological anatomy of hydrogen chloride gas injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.


    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas damage to plants has not been a historically important problem. However, recent practices in a number of industries, particularly glass manufacturing and pyrolysis of waste plastics, have increased the seriousness of the problem. Studies were carried out under carefully controlled exposure conditions to determine the effects of HCl gas on a relatively sensitive and a relatively resistant plant species. The macroscopic symptoms of most importance in acute damage to tomato and chrysanthemum are glazing of the lower surface, and a bifacial bronzing of interveinal and marginal areas of leaves. Microscopically, glazing was shown to be caused by a collapse of the lower epidermal cells and a partial disorganization of the spongy mesophyll of leaves. Bronzing was shown to be caused by the further collapse of the spongy mesophyll, and in some cases the palisade mesophyll and upper epidermis. Analysis of plant tissues for their free chloride content following an exposure to HCl gas was done with cell-free water extracts which were titrated on an automatic chloride titrator. On the basis of such studies, evidence suggest that the mechanism of accumulation of chlorides in plants is similar to that of fluorides, and that in subacute doses, chlorides are translocated toward the extremities of the foliar portions of the plant. In areas where a number of different types of pollution sources exist, and symptomotology is not definitive in pinpointing the source, chloride analysis of plant tissues should prove valuable as an aid to diagnosis if HCl gas was suspected.

  17. Student Volunteering in China and Canada:Comparative Perspectives


    Lesley Hustinx; Cnaan, Ram A; Femida Handy


    While many of the theoretical frameworks for volunteering have beendeveloped and empirically tested in the West, our understanding of volunteering in non-Western countries, such as China, is relatively limited. Nevertheless, in recent decades enormous efforts have been made by the Chinese government to encourage and support volunteering among its citizens, especially youth. Chinese youth are volunteering in greater numbers in response to these initiatives. Given the strongly state-led nature ...

  18. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015 (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne


    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  19. Canada's Changing Geography of Jobs and Trade. (United States)

    Kilgour, David


    Discusses the impact of globalization on the jobs and trade of Canada. Emphasizes new relationships with countries in Latin America and Africa. Notes the types of trade that Canada enjoys with these two areas and encourages expansion of business into them. (DSK)

  20. Cultural influence, economic security, and the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang, Zongli


    Full Text Available EnglishThis study explores interactions of cultural influence and economic insecurity and their effects on the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada. The importance of group context on the actions of individuals is measured through data from the PUST of the 1971 and1991 Canadian Censuses. Contextual analysis and random coefficient models are the major statistical tools employed to achieve the above objectives. The Chinese-Canadians are compared to the British-Canadians, who are used as the reference group. The findings suggest that Chinese reproductive norms with pronatalist endowments exert strong influence on the fertility behavior of the Chinese in Canada.This influence effectively counteracts the negative effects of economic insecurity and encourages Chinese immigrants to quickly recover their fertility deficit after the initial immigration stage. The effects of the origin culture on fertility diminish with increasing exposure to the host society.However, even among the native-born or Canadian-born Chinese, the influence of Chinese reproductive norms is still present though not as strong as among the foreign-born Chinese.FrenchCette étude explore les interactions de l'influence culturelle et de l'insécuritééconomique et leurs effets sur le comportement procréateur des Chinois auCanada. L'importance d'un contexte de groupe sur les actions des individus estmesurée au moyen de données provenant de la BEGD (bande-échantillon àgrande diffusion des recensements canadiens de 1971 et 1991. L'analysecontextuelle et les coefficients de modèles au hasard constituent les principauxoutils statistiques employés pour atteindre les objectifs susmentionnés. Les Sino-Canadiens sont comparés aux habitants de la Colombie-Britannique qui serventde groupe témoin. Les conclusions indiquent que les normes de reproduction àaction nataliste exercent une forte influence sur le comportement procréateur desChinois au Canada. Cette influence

  1. Impact of Canada's Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles


    Lutsey, Nicholas P.


    On April 5, 2005, a voluntary agreement between the automobile industry and government officials of Canada was reached to commit to greenhouse gas emission reductions through the year 2010. This report compares Canada's voluntary agreement with other voluntary and mandatory greenhouse gas reduction programs around the world in terms of what technologies are likely to be deployed and how much vehicle fuel consumption is likely to improve. It investigates various methods and measurement approac...

  2. Comparative evaluation of microhardness of dentin treated with 4% titanium tetrafluoride and 1.23% acidic phosphate fluoride gel before and after exposure to acidic pH: An ex vivo study (United States)

    Kandanuru, Vivek; Madhusudhana, Koppolu; Ramachandruni, Vamsi Krishna; Vitta, Harish Madhav; Babu, Lenin


    Aim: The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) and 1.23% acidic phosphate fluoride (APF) gel on the microhardness of human coronal dentin. Materials and Methods: Thirty noncarious extracted premolars were collected and sectioned buccolingually with the help of diamond disk. Exposing the sectioned surface, teeth were embedded in self-cure acrylic. Exposed coronal dentin was polished with abrasive papers starting with 220–5000 grit. Microhardness was evaluated by Vickers microhardness evaluator, at four different stages as follows - stage 1: Baseline values, Stage 2: Exposure of specimens to acidic environment at a pH 1 for 5 min, Stage 3: Application of 1.23% APF gel and 4% TiF4 (after dividing the specimens into two groups, i.e., Group A and B, respectively), and Stage 4: Followed by exposure of fluoridated specimens to acidic protocol as mentioned above. Results: Paired t-test was used to compare the readings between Groups A and B. Group B has shown greater resistance to decrease in microhardness of coronal dentin (P < 0.05) on exposure to acidic protocol. Conclusion: Due to acidic pH (1.5) of 4% TiF4, amount of increase in microhardness of dentin is <1.23% APF gel. 4% TiF4 was more effective in resisting demineralization than 1.23% APF gel. PMID:27994319

  3. Cinéma / Canada


    Berthomé, Jean-Pierre; Coulombe, Michel; Dvorak, Marta; Garel, Sylvain; Noguez, Dominique; Suchet, Simone; Vimenet, Pascal


    Longtemps connue en France par le biais de cinéastes québécois tels que Claude Jutra, Gilles Carle, ou Pierre Perrault, l'industrie cinématographique du Canada a dû se développer dans l'ombre d'Hollywood. Elle s'est forgée une réputation internationale d'excellence dans les domaines qui ne concurrençaient pas les studios américains : le documentaire, le court-métrage, et les films d'animation. Nous sommes en présence d'un cinéma fortement subventionné (et même d'un cinéma d'État) qui repose s...

  4. Paint removal activities in Canada (United States)

    Foster, Terry


    Paint removal activities currently under way in Canada include: research and development of laser paint stripping; development and commercialization of a new blasting medium based on wheat starch; commercialization of a new blasting medium and process using crystalline ice blasting for paint removal and surface cleaning; and the development of automated and robotic systems for paint stripping applications. A specification for plastic media blasting (PMB) of aircraft and aircraft components is currently being drafted by NDHQ for use by the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and contractors involved in coating removal for the CAF. Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) is studying the effects of various blast media on coating removal rates, and minimizing the possibility of damage to substrates other than aluminum such as graphite epoxy composite and Kevlar. The effects of plastic media blasting on liquid penetrant detection of fatigue cracks is also under investigation.

  5. Towards 250 m mapping of terrestrial primary productivity over Canada (United States)

    Gonsamo, A.; Chen, J. M.


    Terrestrial ecosystems are an important part of the climate and global change systems. Their role in climate change and in the global carbon cycle is yet to be well understood. Dataset from satellite earth observation, coupled with numerical models provide the unique tools for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of territorial carbon cycle. The Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is a remote sensing based approach to quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle by that gross and net primary productivity (GPP and NPP) and terrestrial carbon sinks and sources expressed as net ecosystem productivity (NEP). We have currently implemented a scheme to map the GPP, NPP and NEP at 250 m for first time over Canada using BEPS model. This is supplemented by improved mapping of land cover and leaf area index (LAI) at 250 m over Canada from MODIS satellite dataset. The results from BEPS are compared with MODIS GPP product and further evaluated with estimated LAI from various sources to evaluate if the results capture the trend in amount of photosynthetic biomass distributions. Final evaluation will be to validate both BEPS and MODIS primary productivity estimates over the Fluxnet sites over Canada. The primary evaluation indicate that BEPS GPP estimates capture the over storey LAI variations over Canada very well compared to MODIS GPP estimates. There is a large offset of MODIS GPP, over-estimating the lower GPP value compared to BEPS GPP estimates. These variations will further be validated based on the measured values from the Fluxnet tower measurements over Canadian. The high resolution GPP (NPP) products at 250 m will further be used to scale the outputs between different ecosystem productivity models, in our case the Canadian carbon budget model of Canadian forest sector CBM-CFS) and the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon model (InTEC).

  6. Canada's population: growth and dualism. (United States)

    Beaujot, R P


    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  7. Exposición a estireno en cabinas prefabricadas: Estudio comparativo 2003 - 2005 Styrene exposure in pre-built cabins: Comparative study 2003 - 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cousillas


    Full Text Available Los objetos fabricados con las resinas reforzadas pueden liberar al medio ambiente, vapor de estireno, lo que conlleva a tener una exposición al disolvente. En Uruguay, para el desarrollo de diferentes tareas administrativas, de vigilancia, de comercio, etc. se utilizan unas cabinas que son fabricadas con resinas de poliester no saturadas. En un trabajo anterior se comprobó que existía exposición a estireno en este tipo de cabinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los riesgos higiénicos a los que está expuesto el personal de empresa que desarrolla sus tareas administrativas en cabinas de fibra de vidrio reforzadas de resina. Se realizaron muestreos ambientales en cabinas ubicadas en diferentes zonas del Montevideo durante el año 2004 y 2005. Los valores de referencia que se utilizaron fueron los de la American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH de 2006. El trabajo realizado demuestra que no existe exposición del personal a vapores de estireno en sus lugares de trabajo con el consiguiente riesgo descrito para estos productos. Considerando los resultados del año 2003, se concluye que los valores obtenidos ese año fueron puntuales del tipo de cabinas.The objects made with reinforced resins can release styrene steam to the indoor environment, which involves worker´s exposure to this toxic solvent. In Uruguay, some administrative, commerce, and more tasks are carried out in those fiber glass cabins which are manufactured with those resins. In a previous study we had high values of styrene in air and his metabolites in urine for people working in this buildings. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the hygienic risks to exposed workers from different companies who perform their administrative tasks in reinforced fiber glass cabins. Environmental samplings were made. The reference values used were those of the American Conference of Industrial Governmental Hygienists of 2005 (ACGIH. The results obtained

  8. Pre-exposing Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) to a low-pathogenic H1N1 avian influenza virus protects them against H5N1 HPAI virus challenge. (United States)

    Berhane, Yohannes; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Leith, Marsha; Kehler, Helen; Suderman, Matthew; Pasick, John


    In previous studies we examined the role of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in the epidemiology of Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. To expand on this and better understand how pre-exposure to heterosubtypic low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses might influence the outcome of H5N1 HPAI infection, we pre-exposed naïve juvenile Canada Geese to different North American wild-bird-origin LPAI viruses. We selected H1, H2, and H6 hemagglutinin subtype viruses based on their higher-order evolutionary relatedness to the H5 hemagglutinin. Pre-exposing Canada Geese to either H2N3 or H6N5 viruses did not protect them against a lethal H5N1 HPAI virus challenge. In addition, H5N1 was transmitted to naïve control birds that were placed among both groups resulting in death by 5 days postcontact. In contrast, Canada Geese that were pre-exposed to H1N1 were protected against a lethal H5N1 challenge, shed minimal amounts of the virus into the environment, and did not transmit the infection to naïve contact birds. None of the H1N1, H2N3, or H6N5 pre-exposure sera neutralized H5N1 in vitro; however, sera from H1N1-infected birds reduced virus plaque size but not number when compared with H2N3, H6N5, or negative sera, suggesting that antibodies directed against the neuraminidase may have had a role in the protective effects observed.

  9. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity surveillance in Canada. (United States)

    Allen, Victoria M; Campbell, Melanie; Carson, George; Fraser, William; Liston, Robert M; Walker, Mark; Barrett, Jon


    The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System has provided a comprehensive review of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada, and has identified several important limitations to existing national maternal data collection systems, including variability in the detail and quality of mortality data. The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System report recommended the establishment of an ongoing national review and reporting system, as well as consistency in definitions and classifications of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity, in order to enhance surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. Using review articles and studies that examined maternal mortality in general as opposed to maternal mortality associated with particular management strategies or conditions, maternal mortality and severe morbidity classifications, terminology, and comparative statistics were reviewed and employed to evaluate deficiencies in past and current methods of data collection and to seek solutions to address the need for enhanced and consistent national surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada.

  10. Public policy discourse, planning and measures toward sustainable energy strategies in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liming, Huang [Department of International Economics and Trade, Jinan University (China); Haque, Emdad [Natural Resources Institute, The University of Manitoba (Canada); Barg, Stephan [International Institute for Sustainable Development (Canada)


    Since the 1970s, Canada has formulated various strategy measures to accelerate the development of energy efficiency systems and renewable energy technologies and has made significant progress. ''From 1990 to 2003, Canada's energy efficiency improved by an estimated 13%, or 883.3 petajoules, saving Canadians almost $13.4 billion in 2003 alone and reducing annual greenhouse gas emissions by 52.3 megatonnes''. In 2000, about 17% of Canadian primary energy supply came from renewable sources (with hydroelectric, combustible renewables and waste). Canada is a leader in devising and implementing energy options for sustainable development. However, the nation still has great scope for furthering energy efficiency and more use of renewable energy. Canada has a higher aggregate intensity - absolute energy use per capita or per unit of GDP - than most International Energy Agency (IEA) countries, ranking second and fourth, respectively. In 2000, Canada used only a small amount of renewable energy (without hydroelectric, combustible renewables and waste), accounting for 1.3% of its primary energy supply. Canada has made little use of wind power compared to other industrialized countries. By June 2004, Canada's installed capacity was 341 megawatts (MW), compared to 13,407 MW installed by late 2003 in Germany, the country with the largest installed capacity. Canada's current small-scale hydroelectric capacity is about 2000 MW. Canada also has a few grid-connected wood-waste-fired power plants operational or under construction, with a maximum capacity of 60 MW. By 1999, Canada was generating 85.3 MW of electricity from captured municipal landfill gas. It is also worth noting that solar power is now finding niche applications in Canada, despite the fact that its cost remains relatively high (although falling). Canada is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol. It has committed to reducing its emissions to 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. But Canada

  11. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y


    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  12. Particulate matter from both heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel shipping emissions show strong biological effects on human lung cells at realistic and comparable in vitro exposure conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Oeder

    Full Text Available Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling.To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols.Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF. Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses.The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon ("soot". Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification.Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the use of HFO and DF we recommend a

  13. Long-Term Mental Health among Low-Income, Minority Women Following Exposure to Multiple Natural Disasters in Early and Late Adolescence Compared to Adulthood (United States)

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Harville, Emily W.


    Background: High impact experiences following a natural disaster have been shown to influence later psychopathology. Individual-level factors such as age may also contribute to a disaster's impact on mental health, though it is unclear whether young age confers a protective effect or represents a period of increased risk as compared to adulthood.…

  14. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011 (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011


    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  15. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009 (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009


    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  16. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Canada. 93.418 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.418 Cattle from Canada. (a) Health certificates. Cattle intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate issued in...

  17. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  18. Cost Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination for Rotavirus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Coyle


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.

  19. Ammi Canada 2015 Annual Conference: Abstract Titles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Abstracts to be presented at the 2015 Annual Conference of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, April 16 to 18, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, alphabetized according to the surname of the first author.

  20. Emerging Churches in Post-Christian Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Studebaker


    Full Text Available The traditional mainline and evangelical churches in Canada, as in most western countries, are either in decline or static. Taken as a measure of the future, the prospects for Christianity in Canada, and more broadly the West, are bleak. Post-Christian Canada, however, contains thriving alternative and innovative forms of church, often called ‘emerging’ churches. They take many forms of expression, but share common theological convictions. Based on site research and personal interviews, this article describes the various types and contexts of these churches in Canada. It then highlights three of their central theological characteristics. First, rejecting the ‘culture wars’ social involvement of Christendom churches, they embrace practices and initiatives that transform their local communities. Second, they embrace an incarnational and contextual understanding of Christian life and ministry. Eschewing mega-church franchise models, they endeavor to shape their ministry to the their local communities. Third, they adopt a comprehensive rather than compartmental spirituality.

  1. Coaxial Connections: Art Education in Canada. (United States)

    Gray, James V.


    Several avenues of communication that bind art education in the United States and Canada are described. Developments of mutual understanding have tightened the art education relationship between the two countries. (RM)

  2. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  3. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  4. Cackling Canada goose nesting populations, Yukon Delta (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Number of potential territories, number of cackling Canada Goose nests, and percent occupancy of available territories from CCG plots on the Yukon Delta National...

  5. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera (United States)

    Price, J.I.


    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  6. Reliability of single panoramic radiograph with vertical and horizontal parallax; and intraoral periapical radiograph with Clark′s rule compared to computed tomography/surgical exposure in localization of impacted permanent maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Bokkasam


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate an accurate, inexpensive and low-radiation conventional radiograph suitable for localization of impacted maxillary permanent canine. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 38 subjects in the age group of 13-50 years of both the genders with 50 impacted canines. Panoramic radiographs (OPGs (on which Chaushu et al. criteria was applied and intraoral periapical radiographs (IOPARs (on which Clark′s rule was applied of the subjects were made and the accuracy of the above two radiographic techniques were compared with computed tomography (CT axial sections or with surgical exposure, which was considered as the standard guide for localization of impacted maxillary permanent canine. The data obtained was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using the statistical package for SAS software. Results: Localization of impacted maxillary permanent canine tooth done with SLOB (Same Lingual Opposite Buccal/Clark′s rule technique could predict the bucco-palatal canine impactions in 98% of cases. OPG using differential magnification index could predict location only in 68% of bucco-palatal canine impactions and in 72% based on vertical position. Conclusion: In 68% of cases the bucco-lingual position of the canine in OPG (by magnification index coincided with the location as per CT/surgical exposure. In 98% of cases localization with SLOB technique coincided with CT/surgical exposure. 72% of cases showed coincidence with vertical position of the canine on OPG with CT/surgical exposure. IOPARs taken with SLOB technique are more accurate than OPGs for localization of impacted permanent maxillary canine teeth.

  7. Dietary Mercury Exposure Resulted in Behavioral Differences in Mice Contaminated with Fish-Associated Methylmercury Compared to Methylmercury Chloride Added to Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Bourdineaud


    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets.

  8. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, J.T. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs.

  9. Mining dams safety regulations : where does Canada stand?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priscu, C. [AMEC, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Small, A. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Lupo, J. [AMEC, Englewood, CO (United States); Diaz, M. [AMEC, Ashford, Kent (United Kingdom); Davies, M. [AMEC, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Musse, M. [AMEC, Santiago (Chile)


    While many jurisdictions in Canada use the Canadian Dam Association (CDA) dam safety guidelines, their applicability to the safety of mining dams is limited. Mining dams are some of the largest containment structures in the world, and impound millions of cubic meters of mine process residues in both solid and liquid form. This study presented a review of dam safety regulatory frameworks for mining dams located in various countries. The aim of the study was to compare the Canadian framework with various dam safety legislations in order to evaluate Canada's current status and recommend best practices in dam safety regulations. The study reviewed incremental consequence classifications; best practices in operation, surveillance and maintenance manuals and procedures; emergency preparedness plans; and dam safety inspections. The study showed that Canada has limited documentation regulating the safe management of tailings facilities, and does not have an all-encompassing national guideline for mining dams. It was concluded that an incremental consequence classification (ICC) system should be developed specifically for mining dams. 12 refs.

  10. Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsato, J.


    Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

  11. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Yusa


    Full Text Available Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases. A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health.

  12. Growth Of Broadband And ICT Adoption By SMEs In Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. FLEET


    Full Text Available Since 2005, we have conducted three Atlantic Canada-wide surveys of SME businesses benchmarking levels of ICT adoption, change in adoption, as well as the role of marketing and export on ICT usage in helping to create growing and sustainable business opportunities. Despite Atlantic Canada’s low population base and distance to major population centres, SMEs in the region show strong levels of adoption of various ICT products and services. Broadband access, website adoption and online purchasing is now over 90%. Even newer socialnetworking services, such as web analytics, search engine optimization, and the use of Twitter are being adopted by as many of 44% of the SMEs. These adoption rates will be compared with our previous studies to document the historical growth within Atlantic Canada, as well as compare these baseline measures to other regions within Canada, as well as studies of comparable regions worldwide.

  13. Results of simultaneous radon and thoron measurements in 33 metropolitan areas of Canada. (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Bergman, Lauren; Falcomer, Renato; Whyte, Jeff


    Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. (222)Rn (radon gas) and (220)Rn (thoron gas) are the most common isotopes of radon. In order to assess thoron contribution to indoor radon and thoron exposure, a survey of residential radon and thoron concentrations was initiated in 2012 with ∼4000 homes in the 33 census metropolitan areas of Canada. The survey confirmed that indoor radon and thoron concentrations are not correlated and that thoron concentrations cannot be predicted from widely available radon information. The results showed that thoron contribution to the radiation dose varied from 0.5 to 6% geographically. The study indicated that, on average, thoron contributes ∼3% of the radiation dose due to indoor radon and thoron exposure in Canada. Even though the estimated average thoron concentration of 9 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) in Canada is low, the average radon concentration of 96 Bq m(-3) (population weighted) is more than double the worldwide average indoor radon concentration. It is clear that continued efforts are needed to further reduce the exposure and effectively reduce the number of lung cancers caused by radon.

  14. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions (United States)

    Hiebert, Al


    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six population…

  15. Comparative analysis of bacterial community-metagenomics in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms following exposure to Macondo oil (MC252). (United States)

    Koo, Hyunmin; Mojib, Nazia; Thacker, Robert W; Bej, Asim K


    The indigenous bacterial communities in sediment microcosms from Dauphin Island (DI), Petit Bois Island (PB) and Perdido Pass (PP) of the coastal Gulf of Mexico were compared following treatment with Macondo oil (MC252) using pyrosequencing and culture-based approaches. After quality-based trimming, 28,991 partial 16S rRNA sequence reads were analyzed by rarefaction, confirming that analyses of bacterial communities were saturated with respect to species diversity. Changes in the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes played an important role in structuring bacterial communities in oil-treated sediments. Proteobacteria were dominant in oil-treated samples, whereas Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were either the second or the third most abundant taxa. Tenericutes, members of which are known for oil biodegradation, were detected shortly after treatment, and continued to increase in DI and PP sediments. Multivariate statistical analyses (ADONIS) revealed significant dissimilarity of bacterial communities between oil-treated and untreated samples and among locations. In addition, a similarity percentage analysis showed the contribution of each species to the contrast between untreated and oil-treated samples. PCR amplification using DNA from pure cultures of Exiguobacterium,  Pseudoalteromonas,  Halomonas and Dyadobacter, isolated from oil-treated microcosm sediments, produced amplicons similar to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genes. In the context of the 2010 Macondo blowout, the results from our study demonstrated that the indigenous bacterial communities in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms responded to the MC252 oil with altered community structure and species composition. The rapid proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria suggests their involvement in the degradation of the spilt oil in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  16. Comparative analysis of bacterial community-metagenomics in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms following exposure to Macondo oil (MC252)

    KAUST Repository

    Koo, Hyunmin


    The indigenous bacterial communities in sediment microcosms from Dauphin Island (DI), Petit Bois Island (PB) and Perdido Pass (PP) of the coastal Gulf of Mexico were compared following treatment with Macondo oil (MC252) using pyrosequencing and culture-based approaches. After quality-based trimming, 28,991 partial 16S rRNA sequence reads were analyzed by rarefaction, confirming that analyses of bacterial communities were saturated with respect to species diversity. Changes in the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes played an important role in structuring bacterial communities in oil-treated sediments. Proteobacteria were dominant in oil-treated samples, whereas Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were either the second or the third most abundant taxa. Tenericutes, members of which are known for oil biodegradation, were detected shortly after treatment, and continued to increase in DI and PP sediments. Multivariate statistical analyses (ADONIS) revealed significant dissimilarity of bacterial communities between oil-treated and untreated samples and among locations. In addition, a similarity percentage analysis showed the contribution of each species to the contrast between untreated and oil-treated samples. PCR amplification using DNA from pure cultures of Exiguobacterium,  Pseudoalteromonas,  Halomonas and Dyadobacter, isolated from oil-treated microcosm sediments, produced amplicons similar to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genes. In the context of the 2010 Macondo blowout, the results from our study demonstrated that the indigenous bacterial communities in coastal Gulf of Mexico sediment microcosms responded to the MC252 oil with altered community structure and species composition. The rapid proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria suggests their involvement in the degradation of the spilt oil in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  17. Effects of nontoxic shot regulations on lead accumulation in ducks and American woodcock in Canada. (United States)

    Stevenson, A L; Scheuhammer, A M; Chan, H M


    Prior to the first nontoxic shot zones being established in Canada, a nationwide survey of lead (Pb) concentrations in wing bones of hatch year (HY) dabbling and diving ducks determined the incidence of elevated Pb exposure in waterfowl in different parts of the country (Scheuhammer and Dickson 1996). The main objectives of the present study were (1) to compare these previously collected data with the incidence of elevated Pb accumulation in the same species several years after the establishment of a national regulation in 1997 prohibiting the use of Pb shot for waterfowl hunting; and (2) to survey waterfowl hunters to determine reported levels of compliance with the nontoxic shot regulation. Average bone-Pb concentrations in dabbling ducks (mallards [Anas platyrhyncos] and American black ducks [Anas rubripes] combined) decreased significantly between 1989+1990 and 2000 (11 microg/g vs. 4.8 microg/g, respectively [p 80%) with the nontoxic shot regulation among waterfowl hunters residing in Ontario and British Columbia. Conversely, American woodcock (Scolopax minor), an important upland game species not affected by the nontoxic shot regulation, showed no decrease in mean bone-Pb concentration since the national regulation came into effect (19 microg/g in 1995 vs. 21 microg/g in 2000). A majority (70%) of waterfowl hunters in British Columbia and Ontario who also hunt upland game birds report continued (legal) use of Pb shot for upland game bird hunting.

  18. Smoking-attributable morbidity: acute care hospital diagnoses and days of treatment in Canada, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehm Jürgen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for burden of disease. Our objective was to estimate the number of hospital diagnoses and days of treatment attributable to smoking for Canada, 2002. Methods Distribution of exposure was taken from a major national survey of Canada, the Canadian Community Health Survey. For chronic diseases, risk relations were taken from the published literature and combined with exposure to calculate age- and sex-specific smoking-attributable fractions (SAFs. For fire deaths, SAFs were taken directly from available statistics. Information on morbidity, with cause of illness coded according to the International Classification of Diseases version 10, was obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Results For Canada in 2002, 339,179 of all hospital diagnoses were estimated to be attributable to smoking and 2,210,155 acute care hospital days. Ischaemic heart disease was the largest single category in terms of hospital days accounting for 21 percent, followed by lung cancer at 9 percent. Smoking-attributable acute care hospital days cost over $2.5 billion in Canada in 2002. Conclusion Since the last major project produced estimates of this type, the rate of hospital days per 100,000 population has decreased by 33.8 percent. Several possible factors may have contributed to the decline in the rate of smoking-attributable hospital days: a drop in smoking prevalence, a decline in overall hospital days, and a shift in distribution of disease categories. Smoking remains a significant health, social, and economic burden in Canada.

  19. USArray - Seismic Reconnaissance in Northwest Canada (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Spiers, K.; Murray, M. S.


    This poster describes the results of reconnaissance carried out by the Arctic Institute of North America in summer 2014 in collaboration with USArray and IRIS for deployment of the USArray in northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada. USArray is a 15-year program to place a dense network of permanent and portable seismographs across the continental United States and parts of Canada. The seismographs record local, regional, and distant (teleseismic) earthquakes. The array records seismic waves that propagate through finer and finer slices of the earth enabling scientists to link structures inherited from earlier stages of continental formation to known and potential geologic hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides) ( USArray deployment in Canada will complement existing Canadian seismic network(s). This project will be particularly significant in the St. Elias region of southwest Yukon, northwest British Columbia, and southeast Alaska as this one of the most seismically active areas and tectonically complex areas in Canada . The deployment will complement ongoing geological mapping carried out by both Yukon Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada and several universities. This reconnaissance work is part of a growing portfolio of research conducted by the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary designed to meet needs for information and enable synthesis and transfer of knowledge for problem solving and decision-making in the north.

  20. Demand for human allograft tissue in Canada. (United States)

    Lakey, Jonathan R T; Mirbolooki, Mohammadreza; Rogers, Christina; Mohr, Jim


    There is relatively little known about the demand for allograft tissues in Canada. The Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation (CCDT) is a national advisory body that undertook a comprehensive "market survey" to estimate surgical demand for human allograft tissues in Canada. The report "Demand for Human Allograft Tissue in Canada" reflects survey results sent to 5 prominent User Groups. User Groups were identified as orthopaedic surgeons; neurosurgeons; corneal transplant surgeons; plastic surgeons, specifically those at Canadian Burn Units; and cardiac surgeons (adult and paediatric surgery). The demand for allograft grafts was determined and then extrapolated across the total User Group and then increases in allograft tissue use over the next 1-2 years across User Groups were predicted. The overall response rate for the survey was 21.4%. It varied from a low of 19.6% for the orthopaedic survey to a high of 40.5% for the corneal survey. The estimated current demand for allograft tissue in Canada ranges from a low of 34,442 grafts per year to a high of 62,098 grafts per year. The predicted increase in use of allograft tissue over the next 1-2 year period would suggest that annual demand could rise to somewhere in the range of 42,589-72,210 grafts. The highest rated preferences (98% and 94%) were for accredited and Canadian tissue banks, respectively. This study represents a key step in addressing the paucity of information concerning the demand for allograft tissue in Canada.

  1. William D. Stevenson: Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon. (United States)

    Mukhida, Karim; Mendez, Ivar


    The origins of neurosurgical services in Atlantic Canada are tied to the individual efforts of William D. Stevenson. Born in Hamilton, Ontario, Stevenson completed his senior matriculation in Dunnville, Ontario, before studying medicine at the University of Toronto. He completed the Gallie surgical course in Toronto and then spent 1 year training with Edward Archibald at McGill University. After working for 2 years with the Canadian Mobile Neurosurgical Unit in Europe during the Second World War, Stevenson undertook formal neurosurgical training with Kenneth G. McKenzie, Canada's first neurosurgeon. Stevenson was thereafter recruited to Halifax to start the neurosurgical service at the Victoria General Hospital in January 1948, and he remained head of the division for the next 26 years. His pioneering work laid the foundations for the establishment of a major academic neurosurgical service at Dalhousie University and was crucial for the establishment of neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada. After his retirement, Stevenson moved back to Ontario and began his second career, transferring his passion for neurosurgery to oil painting. His legacy to neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada will be remembered in perpetuity with the annual Neurosurgery Resident Research Award at Dalhousie University, established and named in his honour. This paper focuses on Stevenson's life and work in neurosurgery as Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon.

  2. The Concept of Equivalent Radon Concentration for Practical Consideration of Indoor Exposure to Thoron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Moir


    Full Text Available To consider the total exposure to indoor radon and thoron, a concept of equivalent radon concentration for thoron is introduced, defined as the radon concentration that delivers the same annual effective dose as that resulting from the thoron concentration. The total indoor exposure to radon and thoron is then the sum of the radon concentration and the equivalent radon concentration for thoron. The total exposure should be compared to the radon guideline value, and if it exceeds the guideline value, appropriate remedial action is required. With this concept, a separate guideline for indoor thoron exposure is not necessary. For homes already tested for radon with radon detectors, Health Canada’s recommendation of a 3-month radon test performed during the fall/winter heating season not only ensures a conservative estimate of the annual average radon concentration but also covers well any potentially missing contribution from thoron exposure. In addition, because the thoron concentration is much lower than the radon concentration in most homes in Canada, there is no real need to re-test homes for thoron.

  3. The Hybridisation of Higher Education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Shale


    Full Text Available Canada's postsecondary institutions are becoming increasingly involved with technology enhanced learning, generally under the rubric of distance education. Growth and activity in distance education stems from rapid developments in communication and information technologies such as videoconferencing and the Internet. This case study focuses on the use of new technologies, primarily within the context of higher education institutions operating in Canada's English speaking provinces. Capitalising on the interactive capabilities of "new" learning technologies, some distance education providers are starting to behave more like conventional educational institutions in terms of forming study groups and student cohorts. Conversely, new telecommunications technologies are having a reverse impact on traditional classroom settings, and as a result conventional universities are beginning to establish administrative structures reflective of those used by distance education providers. When viewed in tandem, these trends reflect growing convergence between conventional and distance learning modes, leading to the hybridisation of higher education in Canada.

  4. Satellite mobile data service for Canada (United States)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  5. Critical Energy Infrastructure Protection in Canada (United States)


    que le gouvernement attache beaucoup d’importance à la protection des infrastructures énergétiques essentielles. Neuf ans après les attaques du 11...pour la défense Canada – CARO; Décembre 2010. Différents gouvernements ont prétendu que la gestion des urgences et la protection des...nouvelles menaces globales ont émergé et ainsi persuadé le gouvernement du Canada (GC) qu’une approche plus intégrée en matière de sécurité était

  6. Prevalence of Residential Dampness and Mold Exposure in a University Student Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lanthier-Veilleux


    Full Text Available The impact of residential dampness or mold on respiratory health is well established but few studies have focused on university students. This study aims to: (a describe the prevalence of exposure to residential dampness or mold in university students according to socio-geographic factors and (b identify associated housing characteristics. A web survey was conducted in 2014 among the 26,676 students registered at the Université de Sherbrooke (QC, Canada. Residential dampness and mold being closely intertwined, they were considered as a single exposure and assessed using a validated questionnaire. Exposure was compared according to socio-geographic and housing characteristics using chi-square tests and logistic regressions. Among the 2097 participants included in the study (response rate: 8.1%, over 80% were tenants. Residential exposure to dampness or mold was frequent (36.0%, 95% CI: 33.9–38.1. Marked differences for this exposure were noted according to home ownership (39.7% vs. 25.5% among tenants and owners respectively; OR = 1.92%, 95% CI: 1.54–2.38. Campus affiliation, household composition and the number of residents per building were associated with exposure to dampness or mold (p < 0.01, while sex and age were not. Exposure was also associated with older buildings, and buildings in need of renovations and lacking proper ventilation (p < 0.001. This study highlights the potential risk of university students suffering from mold-related health effects given their frequent exposure to this agent. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the mold-related health impact in this at risk group.

  7. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  8. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada. (United States)


    ... transiting Canada from point to point in the United States will be manifested on United States-Canada Transit... certified. The driver will be allowed to break any seals affixed by Canadian Customs upon presentation of...

  9. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  10. Impact of Canada’s Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles


    Lutsey, Nicholas P.


    On April 5, 2005, a voluntary agreement between the automobile industry and government officials of Canada was reached to commit to greenhouse gas emission reductions through the year 2010. This report compares Canada’s voluntary agreement with other voluntary and mandatory greenhouse gas reduction programs around the world in terms of what technologies are likely to be deployed and how much vehicle fuel consumption is likely to improve. It investigates various methods and measurement appro...

  11. Military Exposures (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Military Exposures Veterans may have been exposed to a range of chemical, physical, and environmental hazards during military service. Reports on Veterans’ Health Care Use What ...

  12. The nurses' perception and protective status of occupational hazards: a Comparative Study between two hospitals in China and Canada%中加两所医院护士职业危害感知与防护现状的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洁; Judith Ritchie; 张玲娟; 王利丽; 沈峰平; 陆小英


    目的:通过比较中加两所医院手术室和肿瘤科护士对职业危害的感知与职业防护现状,为中国医疗卫生保健管理部门开展深入研究,制定相关政策提供借鉴.方法:自行设计与开发护士职业危害与防护量表,并将该量表法语化与汉语化,在中加两所综合性大学附属医院开展调查.结果:不同调查点护士年龄分布差异有统计学意义,调查对象职位分布差异无统计学意义;中国护士对生物性职业危害及总体危害的感知程度比加拿大护士高,中国护士对锐器伤、喷溅物、空气传播性生物危害的感知程度比加拿大护士高,中国护士对举/搬运大重量器具危害的感知程度比加拿大护士高,但中国护士对手术室烟雾危害的感知程度比加拿大护士低;中国医疗机构在降低护士生物性职业危害及化学性职业危害等方面所采取的相关职业防护措施力度低于加拿大.结论:跨国研究存在的文化差异显著,护士对职业危害感知与其职业防护知识背景紧密相关,我国护士职业防护面临严峻的挑战,医院应加大对临床护士职业防护教育的力度,引进先进理念与标准,进一步推动相关政策的制定.%Objective: To compare the perception and protective status of occupational hazards of nurses in oncology department and operating room in two hospitals in China and Canada, and to provide reference and evidence for developing further studies and polices.Methods: We designed and developed the nurse occupational hazards and protection scale and translated the scale into French and Chinese version respectively. Nurses' age distribution in two survey sites had statistically significant difference while the difference of nurses'job position distribution in two survey sites wasn't statistically significant. The perception levels of Chinese nurses on biological hazards,overall occupational hazards, sharp injuries,splashes, and airborne biological

  13. 政府间事权与收支责任划分的美加比较及启示%Division of Power, Revenue and Expenditure among Layers of Government:A Comparative Study between U.S.A and Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on division of power, and data of revenue and expenditure of layers of government in the U.S.A and Canada, which are two typical and distinguish federal countries, this paper compares how they divide power, revenue and expenditure among layers of government, and shows that power division should be stable and revenue and expenditure division should be relatively flexible or even changes greatly according to changes of times. From the study , some lessons on reforms in inter-government fiscal relationships in China are given in the conclusion part of this paper. Firstly, powers and spending responsibility should be divided between orders of government, and therefore to build the inter-government fiscal relationships. Secondly, comprehensive government financial report system should be in time, comprehensive and precise, for it's one of the most important ways to oversight government. Thirdly, the reform of dividing powers and responsibilities between orders of government should be undertaken within the law system.%文章基于美国和加拿大两个典型又各具鲜明特色的联邦制国家各级政府的权力划分,以及近年来两国联邦、州(省)、地方政府收入和支出划分数据,对两国政府间事权及收支责任划分的制度安排展开研究,通过对比分析,归纳概括了两国多层级政府结构中各级政府间事权及收支责任制度安排的基本情况,得出的基本结论为:一国在其历史发展中各级政府权力划分相对稳定而政府间收支责任划分却可能因时代变迁而存在较大变化。根据以上研究,文章总结归纳出可供我国借鉴的启示:第一,应将公共服务的事权及支出进行划分,并由此构建相应政府间关系。第二,政府综合财务报告体系建设是考察政府间财政关系的重要信息资源,应保障其及时性、全面性及精细性。第三,政府的事权与收支责任划分应在相应的法律体系支撑下进行。

  14. Non-hodgkin′s lymphoma and work in agriculture: Results of a two case-control studies in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandima P Karunanayake


    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective was to examine the association between non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL and farming-related activities, gender, pesticides exposure, and exposure to chemicals other than pesticides in Saskatchewan. Materials and Methods: Male and female study participants were taken from two separate case-control studies conducted in Saskatchewan province, Canada. A case was defined as any man or woman aged 19 years and older with a first diagnosis of NHL registered by the Saskatchewan Cancer Agency during the study period. Conditional logistic regression was used to fit the statistical models. Results: Farming exposure and exposure to pesticides-contaminated cloths were related to an increased risk of NHL. Exposure to pesticides was strongly associated with an increased risk of NHL, especially for men. Conclusion: For men, the incidence of NHL was associated with exposure to pesticides after adjusting for other independent predictors.

  15. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository? (United States)

    Nariani, Rajiv


    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  16. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.


    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  17. Canada: An Ideal Place for Outbound Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen


    @@ In recent years, bilateral investment between China and Canada has become more and more active. According to the report on overseas investment of Chinese enterprises released by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)at the 4th Chinese Enterprise Outbound Investment Conference, Chinese overseas investment is displayingan increasing trend, with the strength of Chinese enterprises and overseas investment rapidly growing.

  18. Canada thistle phenology in broadbean canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski


    Full Text Available Soine of the developmental stages of Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (I. emergence and early growth, II. shooting, II. budding, IV. flowering, V. fructification, VI. shedding of fruits on the background of development stages of broad-bean, weeded by herbicides and without that weed-killing substances, were presented in the paper. Phenological observations were carried out on the plants growing on alluvial soil developed from light loam in Zakrz6w near Tarnobrzeg. It was proved that phenological development of Canada thistle, during broad-bean vegetation, depended on course of weather conditions and method of crop care. Emergence of the weed occurred earlier than broad-bean plants during warm and rather dry seasons. In every vegetation period, emergence and early vegetation stage (to 4 leaves seedling of Canada thistle lasted about 3 months, until broad-bean got full pod setting. During wet and cold season (in 2001 the weed emerged also early under herbicide (Afalon 1,5 kg ha-1 condition. Until to broad-bean harvest, Canada thistle attained the finish developmental stages, that means fruiting and fruit shedding. Herbicide treatment delayed the last two stages and limited fruit shedding by plants of Cirsium arvense.

  19. Career Development in Canada: A Changing Landscape. (United States)

    Kellett, Ralph

    In Canada, responsibility for the career development delivery system is divided among federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels of government. Education comes under provincial/territorial jurisdiction. Career development varies across provinces and often from school to school. There are eight transition points throughout the school…

  20. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 2. (United States)

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue consists of the following: an article entitled "Suggestopaedia and Language Teaching, International Perspective"; an article which discusses possible adaptations of the Bulgarian Suggestopaedia - A New Method of Teaching Foreign Languages"; and bibliographical notes from Canada and Bulgaria announcing new publications on suggestopedia.…

  1. Information Literacy Training in Canada's Public Libraries (United States)

    Julien, Heidi; Hoffman, Cameron


    The purposes of the study were to explore the role of Canada's public libraries in developing the public's information literacy (IL) skills, to explore current IL training practices, and to explore the perspectives and IL experiences of individuals who visit public libraries to access the Internet. This article documents the second phase of a…

  2. Evolving perspectives on lyme borreliosis in Canada. (United States)

    Sperling, Jlh; Middelveen, Mj; Klein, D; Sperling, Fah


    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis.

  3. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.


    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  4. Greeks in Canada (an Annotated Bibliography). (United States)

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    This bibliography on Greeks in Canada includes annotated references to both published and (mostly) unpublished works. Among the 70 entries (arranged in alphabetical order by author) are articles, reports, papers, and theses that deal either exclusively with or include a separate section on Greeks in the various Canadian provinces. (GC)

  5. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon


    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties…

  6. Prediction of Hepatitis C Burden in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimian Zou


    Full Text Available To assess the risk of hepatitis C in Canada and to predict the burden that this disease may pose to the Canadian society in the near future, expected numbers of persons at different stages of the disease currently and in the next decade were estimated by simulation using a published hepatitis C natural history model with no treatment effect being applied. Based on the estimate of 240,000 persons who are currently infected with the hepatitis C virus in Canada, the simulation analysis demonstrated that the number of hepatitis C cirrhosis cases would likely increase by 92% from 1998 to the year 2008. It was also projected that the number of liver failures and hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C would increase by 126% and 102%, respectively, in the next decade. The number of liver-related deaths associated with hepatitis C is expected to increase by 126% in 10 years. The medical and social care systems in Canada may not be ready to support these large increases. These results highlight the importance of both the control of disease progression of hepatitis C virus-infected persons and the primary prevention of hepatitis C infections in Canada.

  7. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon


    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties has not been…

  8. Zoonotic diseases in Canada: an interdisciplinary challenge.



    Although zoonotic diseases are generally rare in Canada, a wide range of pathogens can be transmitted from animal reservoirs to humans through insect vectors or direct contact with wild and domestic animals. Across the country researchers with backgrounds ranging from wildlife biology to parasitology and epidemiology are tracking a variety of zoonotic diseases, some of which are causing increasing concern among public health officials.

  9. First China-Canada Cultural Dialogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>An official visit to China in December 2009 by Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper and the holding of the First China-Canada Cultural Dialogue in Beijing a month earlier gave the two countries unique opportunities to further promote friendly cooperation. The two sides agreed to make concerted efforts to safeguard and consolidate the non-governmental basis

  10. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany. (United States)

    Hufeisen, Britta


    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  11. Canada,China,Closer in Hard Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin


    @@ Facing the current global financial storm,more posSible economic and trade cooperation and promotion worldwide is being sought by nations to walk out the hard time.The 2nd Canada China Business Forum held in Beijing,on November 3,is an example to a closer tie of both countries.

  12. The core health science library in Canada. (United States)

    Huntley, J L


    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists.

  13. The Core Health Science Library in Canada * (United States)

    Huntley, June Leath


    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482

  14. Illegal Immigrants in Canada: Recent Developments. (United States)

    Robinson, W. G.


    Naturally protected by its distance from most migrant routes and with a long undefended border with the U.S., a parliamentary system capable of responding rapidly to problems, and a small legal and even smaller illegal immigrant population, Canada has experimented with novel immigration policies to encourage and control its population increase.…

  15. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL (United States)

    Jambor, Paul Z.


    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  16. Exploring an Olympic "Legacy": Sport Participation in Canada before and after the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics. (United States)

    Perks, Thomas


    Guided by the notion of a trickle-down effect, the present study examines whether sport participation in Canada increased following the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Comparing rates of sport participation prior to and following the Games using nationally representative data, the results suggest that the Olympics had almost no impact on sport participation in Canada, although there does appear to be a modest "bounce" in sport participation in the Vancouver area immediately following the Vancouver Games. As such, if the trickle-down effect did occur, the analysis suggests that the effect was locally situated, short-lived, and small.

  17. First report and morphological, molecular characterization of Xiphinema chambersi Thorne, 1939 (Nematoda, Longidoridae in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yu


    Full Text Available A Xiphinema species, new to Canada was recovered from rhizosphere of oak trees in Ontario, Canada. The identity was confirmed with morphological and molecular methods as X. chambersi Thorne, 1939. Female bodies are 2.1–2.4 mm long; odontostyle lengths are 110–118 µm; tail 110–177 µm long, arcuate, elongate-conoid, with hyline region 22-43 µm long. Vagina directed about 30 degrees posteriorly. Reproductive system is monodelphic with ovary reflexed anteriorly, vulva opening at 23–26% of the body. Males were not found. The 18S and ITS1 sequences of this population had 3–4 bp differences (99% identity and 30 bp differences (97% identity from two Arkansas populations respectively. The nematode population had three juvenile stages. Some variations of the morphometrics were observed comparing with the other populations. This is the first report of X. chambersi in Canada.

  18. Personal experience in pediatric emergency medicine training in Canada and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Gang-xi; LUO Yi-ming; Adam CHENG; YANG Shu-yu; WANG Jian-she; Ran-D Goldman


    Currently,pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) as practiced in many developed countries is different from ours in China.Chinese pediatric emergency medicine is just children's internal medicine and does not include general surgery,ear-nose-throat,etc.If children have an emergency condition that require specialized treatments they need to go to different departments.However in Canada,the pediatric emergency physicians will first treat the patients whatever the condition,then,if it is a complicated sub specialty problem,they will consult the specialist or let the patient see the specialist later.In addition,resuscitation is done in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China,but it is done in the emergency room in Canada.This article compares the differences in the pediatric emergency systems in Canada and China and also introduces the international standard system of pediatric triage.

  19. Loneliness of Older Immigrant Groups in Canada: Effects of Ethnic-Cultural Background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; van der Pas, S.; Keating, N.


    This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determin

  20. Survey of the Teaching of Pronunciation in Adult ESL Programs in Canada, 2010 (United States)

    Foote, Jennifer A.; Holtby, Amy K.; Derwing, Tracey M.


    This follow-up study reexamines the state of the teaching of pronunciation in ESL classes across Canada. The purpose of the survey was twofold: to gain a snapshot of current practices and to compare this with the picture of 10 years ago. We based the current work on Breitkreutz, Derwing, and Rossiter's (2001) survey asking teachers about…

  1. Joint-FACET: The Canada-Netherlands initiative to study multi-sensor data fusion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossee, E.; Theil, A.; Huizing, A.G.; Aartsen, C.S. van


    This paper presents the progress of a collaborative effort between Canada and The Netherlands in analyzing multi-sensor data fusion systems, e.g. for potential application to their respective frigates. In view of the overlapping interest in studying and comparing applicability and performance and ad

  2. Communication Ethics in the Communication Curriculum: United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico (United States)

    Swenson-Lepper, Tammy; Leavitt, Michelle A.; Hoffer, Melba; Charron, Lori N.; Ballard, Robert L.; Bell McManus, Leeanne M.; Holba, Annette M.; Jovanovic, Spoma; Tompkins, Paula S.


    This study investigated the status of communication ethics pedagogy at colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Data were collected from 193 institutions that responded to an online survey. Results showed an increase in communication ethics courses compared with 19 years ago, with 51% now offering a required or…

  3. Substance Use and Sexual Orientation among East and Southeast Asian Adolescents in Canada (United States)

    Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East- and Southeast-Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly…

  4. Intensive hog farming operations and self-reported health among nearby rural residents in Ottawa, Canada

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    Challacombe Laurel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, hog farming operations were introduced in the village of Sarsfield in the eastern part of Ottawa, Canada. This study evaluates the health-related quality of life (HRQOL, and the prevalence of respiratory conditions among adults and children who lived in proximity to this farm. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to a random sample of residents from seven rural communities in the eastern part of Ottawa, Canada. We analyzed self-reported questionnaire data obtained from 723 adults and 285 children/adolescents. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-36 survey instrument, while data were also collected for sociodemographic characteristics, the prevalence of selected health conditions, and lifestyle related behaviours (e.g., smoking of participants. Variations in self-reported health according to the residential distance to the hog farm were evaluated using logistic regression and analysis of variance methods. Results For the most part, the prevalence of selected health conditions among adults and children was not associated with how far they lived from the farm. No associations were observed with migraines, respiratory conditions (asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis, and chronic bronchitis, and allergies. However, a higher prevalence of depression was noted among those who lived within 3 km of the farm relative to those who lived more than 9 km away (odds ratio = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.11, 3.65. Furthermore, individuals who lived closer to the IHF were more likely to worry about environmental issues such as water quality, outdoor and indoor smells, and air pollution. This level of worry also contributed to lower HRQOL scores for individuals who lived closer to the farm. It was also observed that the prevalence of depression was much higher among those who indicated a concern about environmental issues (18.2% when compared to those who did not (8.0%. Conclusion While our findings suggest that living in close proximity to an IHF

  5. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards. (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg


    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  6. Characterizing the forest fragmentation of Canada's national parks. (United States)

    Soverel, Nicholas O; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A


    Characterizing the amount and configuration of forests can provide insights into habitat quality, biodiversity, and land use. The establishment of protected areas can be a mechanism for maintaining large, contiguous areas of forests, and the loss and fragmentation of forest habitat is a potential threat to Canada's national park system. Using the Earth Observation for Sustainable Development of Forests (EOSD) land cover product (EOSD LC 2000), we characterize the circa 2000 forest patterns in 26 of Canada's national parks and compare these to forest patterns in the ecological units surrounding these parks, referred to as the greater park ecosystem (GPE). Five landscape pattern metrics were analyzed: number of forest patches, mean forest patch size (hectare), standard deviation of forest patch size (hectare), mean forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio (meters per hectare), and edge density of forest patches (meters per hectare). An assumption is often made that forests within park boundaries are less fragmented than the surrounding GPE, as indicated by fewer forest patches, a larger mean forest patch size, less variability in forest patch size, a lower perimeter-to-area ratio, and lower forest edge density. Of the 26 national parks we analyzed, 58% had significantly fewer patches, 46% had a significantly larger mean forest patch size (23% were not significantly different), and 46% had a significantly smaller standard deviation of forest patch size (31% were not significantly different), relative to their GPEs. For forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio and forest edge density, equal proportions of parks had values that were significantly larger or smaller than their respective GPEs and no clear trend emerged. In summary, all the national parks we analyzed, with the exception of the Georgian Bay Islands, were found to be significantly different from their corresponding GPE for at least one of the five metrics assessed, and 50% of the 26 parks were significantly

  7. Human health impacts of biodiesel use in on-road heavy duty diesel vehicles in Canada. (United States)

    Rouleau, Mathieu; Egyed, Marika; Taylor, Brett; Chen, Jack; Samaali, Mehrez; Davignon, Didier; Morneau, Gilles


    Regulatory requirements for renewable content in diesel fuel have been adopted in Canada. Fatty acid alkyl esters, that is, biodiesel, will likely be used to meet the regulations. However, the impacts on ambient atmospheric pollutant concentrations and human health outcomes associated with the use of biodiesel fuel blends in heavy duty diesel vehicles across Canada have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential human health implications of the widespread use of biodiesel in Canada compared to those from ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The health impacts/benefits resulting from biodiesel use were determined with the Air Quality Benefits Assessment Tool, based on output from the AURAMS air quality modeling system and the MOBILE6.2C on-road vehicle emissions model. Scenarios included runs for ULSD and biodiesel blends with 5 and 20% of biodiesel by volume, and compared their use in 2006 and 2020. Although modeling and data limitations exist, the results of this study suggested that the use of biodiesel fuel blends compared to ULSD was expected to result in very minimal changes in air quality and health benefits/costs across Canada, and these were likely to diminish over time.

  8. Spatiotemporal Modeling of Ozone Levels in Quebec (Canada): A Comparison of Kriging, Land-Use Regression (LUR), and Combined Bayesian Maximum Entropy–LUR Approaches (United States)

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Brand, Allan; Fournier, Michel; Jerrett, Michael


    Background: Ambient air ozone (O3) is a pulmonary irritant that has been associated with respiratory health effects including increased lung inflammation and permeability, airway hyperreactivity, respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function. Estimation of O3 exposure is a complex task because the pollutant exhibits complex spatiotemporal patterns. To refine the quality of exposure estimation, various spatiotemporal methods have been developed worldwide. Objectives: We sought to compare the accuracy of three spatiotemporal models to predict summer ground-level O3 in Quebec, Canada. Methods: We developed a land-use mixed-effects regression (LUR) model based on readily available data (air quality and meteorological monitoring data, road networks information, latitude), a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) model incorporating both O3 monitoring station data and the land-use mixed model outputs (BME-LUR), and a kriging method model based only on available O3 monitoring station data (BME kriging). We performed leave-one-station-out cross-validation and visually assessed the predictive capability of each model by examining the mean temporal and spatial distributions of the average estimated errors. Results: The BME-LUR was the best predictive model (R2 = 0.653) with the lowest root mean-square error (RMSE ;7.06 ppb), followed by the LUR model (R2 = 0.466, RMSE = 8.747) and the BME kriging model (R2 = 0.414, RMSE = 9.164). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that errors of estimation in the interpolation of O3 concentrations with BME can be greatly reduced by incorporating outputs from a LUR model developed with readily available data. Citation: Adam-Poupart A, Brand A, Fournier M, Jerrett M, Smargiassi A. 2014. Spatiotemporal modeling of ozone levels in Quebec (Canada): a comparison of kriging, land-use regression (LUR), and combined Bayesian maximum entropy–LUR approaches. Environ Health Perspect 122:970–976; PMID:24879650

  9. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

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    Varga Csaba


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68 and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94, after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors.

  10. Fiber glass and rock/slag wool exposure of professional and do-it-yourself installers. (United States)

    Maxim, L Daniel; Eastes, Walter; Hadley, John G; Carter, Charles M; Reynolds, Janis W; Niebo, Ron


    The fiber glass (FG) and rock/slag wool (RSW) manufacturers have developed a Health and Safety Partnership Program (HSPP) with the participation and oversight of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Among its many provisions the HSPP includes the continuing study of FG and RSW workplace concentrations in manufacturing facilities operated by FG/RSW producers and among their customers and end users. This analysis estimates the probable cumulative lifetime exposure (fiber-months/cubic centimeter [f-months/cc]) to those who install FG and RSW insulation in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings in Canada and the United States. Both professional and do-it-yourself (DIY) cohorts are studied and the estimated working lifetime exposures are compared with benchmark values derived from an analysis of the epidemiological studies of FG and RSW manufacturing cohorts. The key finding of this analysis is that both of these end-user cohorts are likely to have substantially lower cumulative lifetime exposures than the manufacturing cohorts. As the most recent updates of the epidemiological studies concluded that there was no significant increase in respiratory system cancer among the manufacturing cohorts, there is likely to be even less risk for the installer cohorts. This analysis also underscores the wisdom of stewardship activities in the HSPP, particularly those directed at measuring and controlling exposure.

  11. Demographics of orofacial clefts in Canada from 2002 to 2008. (United States)

    Pavri, Sabrina; Forrest, Christopher R


    Objective : Orofacial clefts such as cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate are the most frequent congenital anomalies of the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to determine the current demographics for orofacial clefts in Canada. Methods : A request for data from all Canadian provinces (excluding Quebec due to incompatibilities with provincial coding systems) for the fiscal years 2002-2003 to 2007-2008 was submitted to the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Variables evaluated included gender, cleft type, gestational age, birth weight, income quintile, and institution health region. Results : Over the period studied, the prevalence of orofacial clefts ranged from 11.0 to 15.3 per 10,000 live births (1 in 654 to 1 in 909 live births). The distribution of cleft types for live births with orofacial clefts was 17% for cleft lip, 41% for cleft palate, and 42% for cleft lip and palate, of which cleft lip and cleft lip and palate were male dominant (62% and 66% male, respectively) and cleft palate was female dominant (56% female). Saskatchewan and Manitoba had significantly higher cleft birthrates (P orofacial clefting compared with those with no cleft. Conclusions : Canada has one of the highest orofacial cleft birthrates in the world (prevalence of 12.7 per 10,000 live births, approximately 1 in 790 live births). This study presents an updated demographic of orofacial clefts in Canadian newborns and may be useful in predicting the burden of anticipated health care.

  12. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese (United States)

    Austin, J.E.


    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  13. Advancing Primary Care Use of Electronic Medical Records in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zelmer


    Full Text Available In 2010, the federal government's Economic Action Plan funded Canada Health Infoway to co-invest with provinces, territories, and health care providers in electronic medical records (EMRs in primary care. The goal is to help improve access to care, quality of health services, and productivity of the health system, as well as to deliver economic benefits. The decision to fund EMRs was consistent with a long-term framework for digital health established in consultation with stakeholders across the country, spurred by analysis demonstrating the economic impact of such investments and data on Canada's low rate of EMR use in primary care compared with other countries. The decision reflected widespread public and stakeholder consensus regarding the importance of such investments. EMR adoption has more than doubled since 2006, with evaluations identifying efficiency and patient care benefits (e.g., reduced time managing laboratory test results and fewer adverse drug events in community-based practices. These benefits are expected to rise further as EMR adoption continues to grow and practices gain more experience with their use.

  14. A Bibliometric Analysis of Digestive Health Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Tuitt


    Full Text Available Measurement of the impact and influence of medical/scientific journals, and of individual researchers has become more widely practiced in recent decades. This is driven, in part, by the increased availability of data regarding citations of research articles, and by increased competition for research funding. Digestive disease research has been identified as a particularly strong discipline in Canada. The authors collected quantitative data on the impact and influence of Canadian digestive health research. The present study involved an analysis of the research impact (Hirsch factor and research influence (Influence factor of 106 digestive health researchers in Canada. Rankings of the top 25 researchers on the basis of the two metrics were dominated by the larger research groups at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario, and the Universities of Calgary (Calgary, Alberta and Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, but with representation by other research groups at the Universities of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Western Ontario (London, Ontario and McGill University (Montreal, Quebec. Female and male researchers had similar scores for the two metrics, as did basic scientists versus clinical investigators. Strategic recruitment, particularly of established investigators, can have a major impact on the ranking of research groups. Comparing these metrics over different time frames can provide insights into the vulnerabilities and strengths of research groups.

  15. How much might universal health insurance reduce socioeconomic disparities in health? : A comparison of the US and Canada. (United States)

    Decker, Sandra L; Remler, Dahlia K


    A strong association between lower socioeconomic status and worse health has been documented within many countries, but little work has been done to compare the strength of this relationship across countries. We compare the strength of the relationship between income and self-reported health in the US and Canada. We find that being below median income raises the likelihood that a middle-aged person is in poor or fair health by about 15 percentage points in the US, compared with less than 8 percentage points in Canada. We also find that this 7 percentage points stronger relationship between low income and poor health in the US compared with Canada is reduced by about 4 percentage points after age 65, the age at which virtually all US citizens receive basic health insurance through the Medicare programme. Income differences in the probability that an individual lacks a usual source of care are also significantly larger in the US than in Canada before the age of 65, but about the same after age 65. Our results are therefore consistent with the theory that the availability of universal health insurance in the US, or at least some other difference that occurs around the age of 65 in one country but not the other, decreases the difference in the strength of the income-health relationship in the US compared with Canada.

  16. Reforming health care in Canada: current issues

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    Baris Enis


    Full Text Available This paper examines the current health care reform issues in Canada. The provincial health insurance plans of the 1960s and 1970s had the untoward effects of limiting the federal government's clout for cost control and of promoting a system centered on inpatient and medical care. Recently, several provincial commissions reported that the current governance structures and management processes are outmoded in light of new knowledge, new fiscal realities and the evolution of power among stake-holders. They recommend decentralized governance and restructuring for better management and more citizen participation. Although Canada's health care system remains committed to safeguarding its guiding principles, the balance of power may be shifting from providers to citizens and "technocrats". Also, all provinces are likely to increase their pressure on physicians by means of salary caps, by exploring payment methods such as capitation, limiting access to costly technology, and by demanding practice changes based on evidence of cost-effectiveness.

  17. Giardiasis in pinnipeds from eastern Canada. (United States)

    Measures, L N; Olson, M


    Cysts of Giardia sp. were detected in feces from the rectum of 20 of 74 pinnipeds examined from the eastern coast of Canada in 1997 and 1998 using a monoclonal antibody technique. Infected pinnipeds included 15 adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), four adult grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and one juvenile harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Cysts were not detected in 15 seal pups St. Lawrence. The overall prevalence of Giardia sp. in grey and harbor seals, excluding pups, from the Gulf and St. Lawrence estuary was 23%. Feces from 11 beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and one northern bottle-nosed whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) stranded in the St. Lawrence estuary were negative for Giardia sp. cysts. The significance of Giardia sp. in marine mammals, shown here for the first time in eastern coastal Canada, is unknown.

  18. GEOID '88: A gravimetric geoid for Canada (United States)

    Nagy, Dezso


    Using Stokes' formula, a gravimetric geoid was calculated for Canada. The input data are as follows: 15 x 15' block averages were used for Canada and the USA and 1 x 1 deg block averages and satellite model (GEM-T1) provided values for the remaining part of the Earth. The geoid was calculated at 6398 points covering the area within the points rho(sub i)(phi sub i; lambda sub i) (lambda is + west): rho sub 1(40,125); rho sub 2(75,184); rho sub 3(75,10); and rho sub 4(40,60). The computed geoid refers to the GRS1980 and reaches a local minimum of -47.3 meters around the western part of Hudson Bay. A contour map of the geoid is shown.

  19. Biomaterials in Canada: the first four decades. (United States)

    Brash, John L


    Biomaterials research in Canada began in the 1960s. Over the past four decades significant contributions have been made across a broad spectrum covering dental, orthopaedic, cardiovascular, neuro, and ocular biomaterials. Canadians have also been active in the derivative area of tissue engineering. Biomaterials laboratories are now established in universities and research institutes from coast to coast, supported mainly by funding from the Federal and Provincial Governments. The Canadian Biomaterials Society was formed in 1971 and has played an important role in the development of the field. The Society played host to the 5th World Biomaterials Congress in Toronto in 1996. The work of Canadian researchers over the past four decades is summarized briefly. It is concluded that biomaterials and tissue engineering is a mature, strong area of research in Canada and appears set to continue as such into the future.

  20. Comparative avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts of Cd, Cu and Zn using filter paper and extruded water agar gels as exposure media. (United States)

    Demuynck, Sylvain; Lebel, Aurélie; Grumiaux, Fabien; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain; Lemière, Sébastien


    We studied the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards Cd, Cu, and Zn, trace elements (TEs) tested as chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts. Sub adults were exposed individually using dual-cell chambers at 20+2°C in the dark. Recordings were realised at different dates from 2h to 32h. We used filter paper and extruded water agar gel as exposure media to evaluate the contribution of the dermal and the digestive exposure routes on the avoidance reactions. Exposures to Cu or Cd (10mgmetal ionL(-1)) resulted in highly significant avoidance reactions through the exposure duration. Worms avoided Zn poorly and reactions towards Zn salts varied along the exposure. Worm sensitivity towards TEs differed between salts and this could result from differential toxicity or accessibility of these TE salts to earthworms. The anion in itself was not the determinant of the avoidance reactions since exposures to similar concentrations of these anions using calcium salts did not result in significant avoidance worm behaviour. Avoidance responses towards TEs were higher in the case of water agar exposures than in filter paper exposures. Thus, dermal contacts with TE solutions would elicit worm avoidance but signals from receptors located inside the digestive tract could reinforce this behaviour. The use of extruded water agar gels as the substrate allows checking the real sensitivity of earthworm species towards TEs since the TE concentrations leading to significant avoidance reactions were below those reported in the literature when using TE-spiked soils.

  1. Canada: An Ideal Place for Outbound Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen


    @@ In recent years,bilateral investment between China and Canada has become more and more active.According to the report on overseas investment of Chinese enterprises released by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)at the 4th Chinese Enterprise Outbound Investment Conference,Chinese overseas investment is displaying an increasing trend,with the strength of Chinese enterprises and overseas investment rapidly growing.

  2. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome: case description

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    Andrea Da Porto


    Full Text Available We present the case of an 80-year old woman affected by the Cronkhite-Canada syndrome. This rare disease was described for the first time in 1955. It is characterized by the growth of multiple polyps in the gastroenteric tract, leading to diarrhea, alopecia, dystrophy of nails and hyper-pigmented skin. In this article, we describe the patient’s clinical picture and report the results of laboratory tests and imaging assessments.

  3. A history of neurosurgery in Canada. (United States)

    Weir, Bryce


    Canada existed for more than half a century before there were glimmerings of modern neurosurgical activity. Neurosurgery had advanced significantly in Europe and the United States prior to its being brought to Toronto and Montreal from American centers. The pioneers responsible for the rapid evolution in practice, teaching and research are described. The interplay of scientific, professional, demographic and economic forces with general historical trends has produced dramatic changes in the way that neurosurgery is now practiced.

  4. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada. (United States)


    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  5. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada (United States)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael


    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  6. An emissions trading regime for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.L. [National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    In 1998, over twelve papers were published on emissions trading regimes in Canada by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), a federal government agency whose members represent stakeholders as varied as business, environmental groups, academics, aboriginal groups and others. One of the recommendations that emerged was for the computer modelling of the possibilities that had been identified for a domestic trading regime in Canada for greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether the modelling was ever performed as the file was taken over by the Finance Department under the umbrella of a special emission trading table that examined Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. The author examined questions pertaining to whether a domestic trading regime is essential, and what its characteristics should be in case it was deemed essential or advisable to have one. The upstream versus downstream application was looked at, as well as grand-fathering versus auction. Provincial issues were then addressed, followed by meshing with a credit system. International systems were reviewed. Early action was discussed, whereby an emitter seeks credit for action taken toward reductions since the original reference year of 1990. The case of emitters having bought or sold permits since the original reference years will also want those trades recognized under a trading regime. The author indicated that it seems probable that an emission trading system will eventually be implemented and that a debate on the issue should be initiated early.

  7. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber


    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  8. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw


    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  9. Breast Cancer among Women Living in Poverty: Better Care in Canada than in the United States. (United States)

    Gorey, Kevin M; Richter, Nancy L; Luginaah, Isaac N; Hamm, Caroline; Holowaty, Eric J; Zou, GuangYong; Balagurusamy, Madhan K


    This historical study estimated the protective effects of a universally accessible, single-payer health care system versus a multi-payer system that leaves many uninsured or underinsured by comparing breast cancer care of women living in high poverty neighborhoods in Ontario or California between 1996 and 2011. Women in Canada experienced better care particularly as compared to women who were inadequately insured in the United States. Women in Canada were diagnosed earlier (rate ratio [RR] = 1.12) and enjoyed better access to breast conserving surgery (RR = 1.48), radiation (RR = 1.60) and hormone therapies (RR = 1.78). Women living in high poverty Canadian neighborhoods even experienced shorter waits for surgery (RR = 0.58) and radiation therapy (RR = 0.44) than did such women in the US. Consequently, women in Canada were much more likely to survive longer. Regression analyses indicated that health insurance could explain most of the better care and better outcomes in Canada. Over this study's 15-year timeframe 31,500 late diagnoses, 94,500 sub-optimum treatment plans and 103,500 early deaths were estimated in high poverty US neighborhoods due to relatively inadequate health insurance coverage. Implications for social work practice, including advocacy for future reforms of US health care are discussed.

  10. Traditional Education of Aboriginal People in Canada: Principles, Methods and Characteristic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapotichna Maria


    Full Text Available In the article the period of traditional education of aboriginal people in Canada in precolonial times has been presented. The main objectives have been defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature, which highlights different aspects of the problem under research; characteristic of theoretical framework in understanding the concept of traditional aboriginal pedagogy and main principles underlying the education of younger generations of the indigenous people in Canada. The major components of teaching methods (practical, visual and oral have been specified. Practical, visual and oral methods of imparting knowledge have been discussed and peculiarities of the traditional education of native population in Canada in precolonial period have been identified. The problem of traditional education of aboriginal people in Canada has been studied by scientists: aboriginal education (M. Battiste, J. Henderson, J. Lambe; development of aboriginal education (J. Friesen, V. Friesen, J. Miller, E. Neegan; tertiary education of aboriginal people (V. Kirkness; traditional education of aboriginal people (L. McGregor. The research methodology comprises theoretical methods (comparative-historical method; logical and comparative methods; methods of induction and deduction, synthesis and analysis.

  11. The Evolving Role of Botanical Gardens and Natural Areas: A Floristic Case Study from Royal Botanical Gardens, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David A. GALBRAITH; Natalie E. IWANYCKI; Brechann V. McGOEY; Jamie McGREGOR; James S. PRINGLE; Carl J. ROTHFELS; Tyler W. SMITH


    As leaders calling for the conservation of the world's plants, botanical gardens protect plants within living collections. Many also study, manage and restore plants in natural habitats. Royal Botanical Gardens (Ontario,Canada) has integrated both horticultural and natural heritage in its mission for decades. Envisioned by municipal leaders in the 1920s as a combination of nature sanctuaries and civic gardens, RBG now includes forests, wetlands and other habitats, gardens and built spaces. Today RBG is Canada's largest botanical garden on the basis of area.In the 1950s RBG began to inventory plant diversity. The checklist of spontaneous vascular plants now exceeds 1 170 species, of which 752 are native. This is 37% of Ontario's native vascular plants and 19% of the native vascular flora of Canada. The RBG nature sanctuaries are among the richest locations in Canada for species-level diversity.We examine the history of fioristic exploration within RBG and compare plant species-area relationships among protected natural areas in Ontario. This comparison supports the contention that the nature sanctuaries, and in particular Cootes Paradise, could be considered an important area for plants in Canada, and relative to the nation's flora, a biodiversity hotspot. The fact that a candidate vascular plant hotspot for Canada lies within a major botanical garden presents opportunities for raising public awareness of the importance of plant diversity, as well as focusing attention on the scientific and conservation biology needs of communities and individual species in this area.

  12. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in 10 Caribbean countries. (United States)

    Forde, Martin S; Dewailly, Eric; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Dumas, Pierre; Ayotte, Pierre


    Prenatal exposures to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLC), as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), were analyzed in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries. A total of 438 samples were collected and descriptive statistics calculated and compared to comparable Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) and U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Maternal POPs blood concentrations were found to be generally relatively low in the Caribbean samples compared with the U.S. and Canada datasets. Evidence of exposure to DLC and PBDE was established. DLC levels ranged from a geometric mean low of 3.96 pg/g lipids in Antigua and Barbuda to a high of 11.4 pg/g lipids in St. Lucia. Several of the PBDEs (15, 17, 25, 28, 33, 100) were detected in less than 60% of the country' samples. For PBDE-47, significantly higher levels were found in Bermuda, while Jamaica recorded a significantly low level. The overall calculated concentration of PBDE-47 for the Caribbean (5.33 μg/kg lipids) was significantly lower than the concentrations measured for the U.S. (10.83 μg/kg lipids) and Canada (23.90 μg/kg lipids). This study confirms that prenatal expose to multiple environmental chemicals is taking place in the Caribbean and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic environmental contaminants to ensure that they are reduced as much as possible and that the health risk to humans, in particular the unborn child, are minimized.

  13. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada (United States)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.


    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  14. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.


    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  15. Exposures series


    Stimson, Blake


    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  16. Teaching global engineering in Canada, learning informality of the Global South (United States)

    Gopakumar, Govind


    Globalisation has inspired a wide assortment of curricular initiatives within engineering education in the USA and Europe. This interest could be categorised in multiple directions - international exposure, service learning, or critical understanding and praxis. In Canada, however, there has been far less consideration for integrating globalisation within the engineering curriculum. The recent episode of reform initiated by the Canadian Board of Engineering Accreditation could usher in changes on this front. Situating the development of a course titled Development and Global Engineering within these broader conceptual and organisational impulses, this paper will illuminate a pathway towards understanding globalisation, especially within the Global South, through a comprehension of complexity and informality.

  17. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications. (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E


    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  18. Lead and stable lead isotope ratios in soil, earthworms, and bones of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) from eastern Canada. (United States)

    Scheuhammer, Anton M; Bond, Della E; Burgess, Neil M; Rodrigue, Jean


    A study to discriminate among different possible sources of elevated Pb exposure for American woodcock (Scolopax minor) in eastern Canada is described. Undamaged wing bones excised from young-of-the-year woodcock collected from several locations in southern Ontario, southern Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, Canada, along with soil and earthworm (Aporrectodea tuberculata and Lumbricus rubellus) samples from the same sites, were analyzed for total Pb, and stable Pb isotopes. Ignoring six soil samples with high (> 60 microg/g) Pb concentration from the vicinity of Montreal (QC, Canada), the mean soil-Pb concentration for all sites combined was 19 microg/g (dry wt; n = 64), with a mean 206Pb:207Pb ratio of 1.19, values typical for uncontaminated rural soils in eastern North America. In earthworms, Pb concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 865 (microg/g [dry wt], mean = 24 microg/g). Concentrations of Pb in worms and soils were positively correlated (r = 0.71; p 20 microg/g) had 206Pb:207Pb ratios substantially different from worms and soils sampled from the same areas, even though woodcock feed extensively on soil invertebrates, especially earthworms. The range of 206Pb:207Pb ratios in wing bones of woodcock with elevated Pb exposure was not consistent with exposure to environmental Pb from past gasoline combustion nor Precambrian mining wastes but was consistent with ingestion of spent Pb shotgun pellets.

  19. The Disturbed Legislation of Same-sex Marriage in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In July 2005, Canada became the fourth country in the world, after the Netherlands, Belgium, and Spain, to legalize same-sex marriages nationwide. This new legal status for gays and lesbians has been a controversial issue in Canada, both in the public and in Parliament. This article provides a historical and legal overview of same-sex marriage in Canada. It outlines briefly the legal process of same-sex marriage in this country.

  20. Products of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fishes of the Athabasca/Slave river system, Canada. (United States)

    Ohiozebau, Ehimai; Tendler, Brett; Hill, Allison; Codling, Garry; Kelly, Erin; Giesy, John P; Jones, Paul D


    Concentrations of products of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PBPAH) were measured in bile of five fishes of nutritional, cultural and ecological relevance from the Athabasca/Slave river system. Samples were collected in Alberta and the Northwest Territories, Canada, during three seasons. As a measure of concentrations of PBPAHs to which fishes are exposed and to gain information on the nature and extent of potential exposures of people or piscivorous wildlife, concentrations of biotransformation products of two- and three-ringed, four-ringed and five-ringed PAHs were measured using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Spatial and seasonal differences were observed with greater concentrations of PBPAHs in samples of bile of fish collected from Fort McKay as well as greater concentrations of PBPAHs in bile of fish collected during summer compared to those collected in other seasons. Overall, PBPAHs were greater in fishes of lower trophic levels and fishes more closely associated with sediments. In particular, goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), consistently contained greater concentrations of all the PBPAHs studied.

  1. Projecting the future of Canada's population: assumptions, implications, and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaujot, Roderic


    Full Text Available After considering the assumptions for fertility, mortality and international migration, this paper looks at implications of the evolving demographics for population growth, labour force, retirement, and population distribution. With the help of policies favouring gender equity and supporting families of various types, fertility in Canada could avoid the particularly low levels seen in some countries, and remain at levels closer to 1.6 births per woman. The prognosis in terms of both risk factors and treatment suggests further reductions in mortality toward a life expectancy of 85. On immigration, there are political interests for levels as high as 270,000 per year, while levels of 150,000 correspond to the long term post-war average. The future will see slower population growth, and due to migration more than natural increase. International migration of some 225,000 per year can enable Canada to avoid population decline, and sustain the size of the labour force, but all scenarios show much change in the relative size of the retired compared to the labour force population. According to the ratio of persons aged 20-64 to that aged 65 and over, there were seven persons at labour force ages per person at retirement age in 1951, compared to five in 2001 and probably less than 2.5 in 2051. Growth that is due to migration more so than natural increase will accentuate the urbanization trend and the unevenness of the population distribution over space. Past projections have under-projected the mortality improvements and their impact on the relative size of the population at older age groups. Policies regarding fertility, mortality and migration could be aimed at avoiding population decline and reducing the effect of aging, but there is lack of an institutional basis for policy that would seek to endogenize population.

  2. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay


    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  3. Canada : oil, gas, and the new Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Centre for Military and Strategic Studies


    This presentation provided a broad overview of the geopolitical issues affecting the massive transformation of the Arctic resulting from resource development, globalization, and climate change. Two Arctics are emerging, notably one European and one North American. Oil and gas companies are investing heavily in the North, and there is continued debate over pipelines and projects, but the viability of projects can shift abruptly from technological and political change. Recent examples include the emergence of shale gas, the possibility of the United States becoming a gas exporter, and the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In terms of Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries, a comparison was presented regarding the Canadian and Russian claims to the continental shelf. International cooperation and a commitment to peaceful means can be seen in the Ilulissat Declaration, the acceptance of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea as rules, the scientific cooperation of Canada, the United States, and Denmark, and the recent boundary agreement between Russia and Norway. The positions of the main players in the new geopolitics of the North were outlined, particularly with respect to Russia, the United States, Norway, Denmark, and Canada. Their recent policy statements and developing arctic force capabilities were summarized. Canada's more assertive Arctic policy was outlined in more detail along with the country's base locations and recent security actions in the North. The main issues facing nations with interests in the North will be maritime and aerospace; understanding the new players on the scene; and new technological developments. 10 figs., 5 refs.

  4. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada. (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph


    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  5. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  6. Canada Aids Chinese Women~! s Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    "THE Canada-China Women in Development Project is like a seed which, after being nurtured by women’s federations across China, has grown, fruited and expanded." Diane Tyler, co-manager of the CCWID Project, which was established in 1990 and is slated to be completed this late year, described the project to our staff reporter at the end of March. Tyler comes from the Association of Canadian Community Colleges; she had just finished her work on the project and was leaving for her home country. In 1994, at the CCWID Project’s

  7. Black gold rush in Canada[Tar sand oil]; Svart gullrush i Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundersen, Ina


    In Alberta, Canada, oil companies are competing for licences to extract oil from the tar sand deposits. The occurrences cover an area equal to Belgium, and the total of recoverable oil is estimated to around 1700 million barrels. Descriptions of the recovery process and the competing companies are given.

  8. Identifying spatial and temporal variations in seismicity in eastern Canada (United States)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Atkinson, G. M.; Fereidoni, A.; Bhattacharya, P.; Cho, N.; Kazemian, J.; Vincent, P.; Gonzalez, P. J.


    correlation between earthquake concentration and underlying geological structures suggests a possible control on the spatial distribution of earthquakes (Adams and Basham, 1991; Wheeler, 1995). Our results suggest that the ability to identify anomalous seismicity in intraplate regions is related not only to the underlying structure of faulting and damage, but also to the amplitude of the underlying driving stress and the available observation time. Of particular interest is a linear pattern of seismic anomalies that runs northeast-southwest between Montreal and Ottawa in eastern Canada, suggesting higher seismic hazard. In addition, the results are compared with a variety of active tectonic regions such as California, Nevada and Taiwan and numerical simulations.

  9. Bringing patient centricity to diabetes medication access in Canada (United States)

    Glennie, Judith L; Kovacs Burns, Katharina; Oh, Paul


    Canada must become proactive in addressing type 2 diabetes. With the second highest rate of diabetes prevalence in the developed world, the number of Canadians living with diabetes will soon reach epidemic levels. Against international comparisons, Canada also performs poorly with respect to diabetes-related hospitalizations, mortality rates, and access to medications. Diabetes and its comorbidities pose a significant burden on people with diabetes (PWD) and their families, through out-of-pocket expenses for medications, devices, supplies, and the support needed to manage their illness. Rising direct and indirect costs of diabetes will become a drain on Canada’s economy and undermine the financial stability of our health care system. Canada’s approach to diabetes medication assessment and funding has created a patchwork of medication access across provinces. Access to treatments for those who rely on public programs is highly restricted compared to Canadians with private drug plans, as well in contrast with public payers in other countries. Each person living with diabetes has different needs, so a “patient-centric” approach ensures treatment focused on individual circumstances. Such tailoring is difficult to achieve, with the linear approach required by public payers. We may be undermining optimal care for PWD because of access policies that are not aligned with individualized approaches – and increasing overall health care costs in the process. The scope of Canada’s diabetes challenge demands holistic and proactive solutions. Canada needs to get out from “behind the eight ball” and get “ahead of the curve” when it comes to diabetes care. Improving access to medications is one of the tools for getting there. Canada’s “call to action” for diabetes starts with effective implementation of existing best practices. A personalized approach to medication access, to meet individual needs and optimize outcomes, is also a key enabler. PWD and

  10. Some Numbers behind Canada's Decision to Adopt an Orphan Drug Policy: US Orphan Drug Approvals in Canada, 1997-2012. (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Krahn, Timothy Mark


    We examined whether access to US-approved orphan drugs in Canada has changed between 1997 (when Canada chose not to adopt an orphan drug policy) and 2012 (when Canada reversed its policy decision). Specifically, we looked at two dimensions of access to US-approved orphan drugs in Canada: (1) regulatory access; and (2) temporal access. Whereas only 63% of US-approved orphan drugs were granted regulatory approval in 1997, we found that regulatory access to US-approved orphan drugs in Canada increased to 74% between 1997 and 2012. However, temporal access to orphan drugs is slower in Canada: in a head-on comparison of 40 matched drugs, only two were submitted and four were approved first in Canada; moreover, the mean review time in Canada (423 days) was longer than that in the US (mean = 341 days), a statistically significant difference (t[39] = 2.04, p = 0.048). These results raise questions about what motivated Canada's apparent shift in orphan drug policy.

  11. Virtual Reality Exposure and Imaginal Exposure in the Treatment of Fear of Flying: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Rus-Calafell, Mar; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Jose; Botella, Cristina; Banos, Rosa M.


    Fear of flying (FF) is an impairing psychological disorder that is extremely common in developed countries. The most effective treatment for this particular type of phobia is exposure therapy. However, there are few studies comparing imaginal exposure (IE) and virtual reality (VR) exposure for the treatment of FF. The present study compared the…

  12. The osteoporosis care gap in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulos P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of a fragility fracture is a major risk factor for osteoporosis, and should be an indicator for osteoporosis diagnosis and therapy. However, the extent to which patients who fracture are assessed and treated for osteoporosis is not clear. Methods We performed a review of the literature to identify the practice patterns in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in adults over the age of 40 who experience a fragility fracture in Canada. Searches were performed in MEDLINE (1966 to January 2, 2003 and CINAHL (1982 to February 1, 2003 databases. Results There is evidence of a care gap between the occurrence of a fragility fracture and the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in Canada. The proportion of individuals with a fragility fracture who received an osteoporosis diagnostic test or physician diagnosis ranged from 1.7% to 50%. Therapies such as hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates or calcitonin were being prescribed to 5.2% to 37.5% of patients. Calcium and vitamin D supplement intake was variable, and ranged between 2.8% to 61.6% of patients. Conclusion Many Canadians who experience fragility fracture are not receiving osteoporosis management for the prevention of future fractures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Simeon


    Full Text Available This article analyses the capacity of Canadian federalism to articulate andaccommodate the dual and regionalist character defining Canada througha range of arguments and opinions both for and against that have been generatedboth within the Canadian Federation and abroad. From the standpointof the Quebec sovereignists, federalism is highly restrictive of the Quebecnation’s freedom to express itself, by itself, within the Canadian contextas well as within international ambits; for Quebec nationalists, the termQuebec “nation” implies—indeed, requires—a “Quebec state”. But, fromthe standpoint of the Quebec federalists (a good number of whom understandQuebec as a sociological and political nation, the future of Quebeclies with its membership of the Canadian Federation, however much this hasto recognise Quebec as a “differential society” within Canada, and howevermuch it has to ensure that Quebec will develop and promote its interests asa nation. For yet others, the decentralist character of Canadian federalism,and the extensive provisions for asymmetry built into the system, mean that Quebec is already perhaps the most powerful sub-national government inthe world, such that it already has the powers necessary to fulfil its nationaldestiny, within the federation. Opinion outside Quebec ranges from thosewho accept this view, and embrace asymmetry, to those who argue that Quebecis simply one of ten existing provinces, each of which is distinct, andwhich should all be treated as equals in accordance with the constitutionaland political framework.

  14. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany


    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (, and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  15. Glacier and hydrology changes in future climate over western Canada (United States)

    Winger, Katja; Sushama, Laxmi; Marshall, Shawn


    Glaciers are frozen fresh water reservoirs that respond to changes in temperature and snowfall. Concern is growing about the impact that changes in glaciers may have on water resources in regions such as western Canada that derive a lot of their summer streamflow from glacier melt. Given that RCM projections are an important tool and are increasingly being used in assessing projected changes to water resources, particularly due to its high resolution compared with GCMs, realistic representation of glaciers in RCMs is very important. Currently, glaciers are only represented in an extremely simplified way in the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). This simple approach of representing glaciers as static glacier masks is appropriate for short-term integrations, where the response of glacier to changing atmospheric conditions might still be small due to glacier response times and therefore the feedback of changing glacier extent on large-scale atmospheric flow conditions might be negligible. A new dynamic glacier scheme has been developed for use within CRCM5, based on volume-area relationships. Simulations have been performed with this glacier model and Land Surface Scheme CLASS for the 2000-2100 period over a domain covering western Canada. These simulations were driven by outputs from a CRCM5 transient climate change simulation driven by CanESM2 at the lateral boundaries, for RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. Preliminary results suggest significant decreases to glacier fractions in future climate. Though the glacier contribution to streamflows is found to dramatically decrease in future climate, the total streamflows did not show any dramatic decreases due to the increase in precipitation for these regions.

  16. World-Wide Indoor Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) and other PFASs in Household Dust. (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Kärrman, Anna


    Human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is ongoing and in some cases increasing, despite efforts made to reduce emissions. The role of precursor compounds such as polyfluorinated phosphate esters (PAPs) has received increasing attention, but there are knowledge gaps regarding their occurrence and impact on human exposure. In this study, mono-, di-, and triPAPs, perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), saturated, and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCA/FTUCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, and sulfonamidethanols (FOSA/FOSEs), and one fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (FTSA)) were compared in household dust samples from Canada, the Faroe Islands, Sweden, Greece, Spain, Nepal, Japan, and Australia. Mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including several diPAP homologues, were frequently detected in dust from all countries, revealing an ubiquitous spread in private households from diverse geographic areas, with significant differences between countries. The median levels of monoPAPs and diPAPs ranged from 3.7 ng/g to 1 023 ng/g and 3.6 ng/g to 692 ng/g, respectively, with the lowest levels found in Nepal and the highest in Japan. The levels of PAPs exceeded those of the other PFAS classes. These findings reveal the importance of PAPs as a source of PFAS exposure worldwide.

  17. Assessment of the exposure to and dose from radon decay products in normally occupied homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, P.K.; Jensen, B.; Li, C.S.; Montassier, N.; Wasiolek, P. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States); Cavallo, A.J.; Gatsby, K.; Socolow, R.H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); James, A.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    The exposure to radon decay products has been assessed in seven homes in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. In two of the houses, there was a single individual who smoked cigarettes. There were a variety of heating and cooking appliances among these homes. These studies have provide 565 measurements of the activity-weighted size distributions in these houses. The median value for the equilibrium factor was 0.408 as compared with the previously employed value of 0.50. Using the recently adopted ICRP lung deposition and dosimetry model, the hourly equivalent lung dose rate per unit, radon exposure was estimated for each measured size distribution. Differences between houses with smokers present and absent were noted in the exposure conditions, but the resulting dose rate per unit of radon gas concentration was essentially the same for the two groups. Expressed in terms of ICRP`s unit of effective dose for members of the public, the mean dose rate conversion coefficient with respect to radon gas concentration found in this study was 3.8 nSv h{sup -} Bq{sup -} m{sup -3}. 26 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. A preliminary spatial assessment of risk: Marine birds and chronic oil pollution on Canada's Pacific coast. (United States)

    Fox, C H; O'Hara, P D; Bertazzon, S; Morgan, K; Underwood, F E; Paquet, P C


    Chronic oil pollution poses substantial risks to marine birds and other marine wildlife worldwide. On Canada's Pacific coast, the negative ecological consequences to marine birds and marine ecosystems in general remain poorly understood. Using information relating to oil spill probability of occurrence, areas of overall importance to marine birds, and the at-sea distribution and density of 12 marine bird species and seven bird groups, including multiple Species at Risk, we undertook a spatial assessment of risk. Our results identify two main areas important to marine birds potentially at higher risk of exposure to oil. For individual bird species or species groups, those predicted to have elevated bird densities near the mainland and the northeast coast of Vancouver Island were identified as being at higher potential risk of exposure. Our results, however, should be considered preliminary. As with other anthropogenic stressors, in order to better understand and subsequently mitigate the consequences of chronic oil pollution on marine birds, improved information relating to marine birds and the occurrence of oil spills on Canada's Pacific coast is needed.

  19. Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project: International Partnerships in Education. (United States)

    Yule, Alix

    The Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project (CIICP) is a joint venture by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges and the governments of India and Canada designed to contribute to human resource development in India's polytechnic system. Specifically, the project seeks to develop replicable models of institutional development in 13…

  20. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 2. (United States)

    Sullivan, Susan, Ed.; Bose, Kathy, Ed.; Levesque, Lise, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  1. Revisiting Academic Capitalism in Canada: No Longer the Exception (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott


    In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and perhaps never…

  2. Revisiting Academic Capitalism in Canada: No Longer the Exception (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott


    In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and…

  3. Quality of Life and Perceptions of Crime in Saskatoon, Canada (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison


    This article investigates the relationship between crime and quality of life in Saskatoon, Canada. The city has one of the highest crime rates in the country and has been referred to as the "Crime Capital of Canada", a label that comes as a surprise to many residents and causes considerable concern among others. The aim of this research…

  4. The DELF in Canada: Perceptions of Students, Teachers, and Parents (United States)

    Vandergrift, Larry


    The "Diplôme d'études de langue française" (DELF) has recently gained attention in Canada for its potential as a national French second language (FSL) proficiency test. This article explores the perceptions of students, teachers, and parents in various school jurisdictions across Canada on a range of issues related to the DELF test and…

  5. Epidemiology of the Antibiotic Resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo A Fallone


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rate of Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics determines the cure rate of treatment regimens containing such antibiotics. AIMS: To review the literature to determine the rates of H pylori resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin in Canada, and whether these rates vary in different regions of Canada.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Air Canada, together with its regional airline subsidiary, Air Canada Jazz, provides scheduled and charter air transportation for passengers and cargo to more than 150 destinations,vacation packages to over 90 destinations, as well as maintenance, ground handling and train ing services to other airlines.

  7. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada (United States)


    .... 319.40-3 of the regulations lists the IPPC requirements, which include either heat treatment or... of Wood Packaging Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... unmanufactured wood articles to remove the exemption that allows wood packaging material from Canada to enter...

  8. Female First Nations Chiefs and the Colonial Legacy in Canada (United States)

    Voyageur, Cora J.


    The social, economic, and political regulation of Canada's First Nations was codified in the Indian Act. Rooted in colonialism and paternalism, the Indian Act was created by the government of Canada to fulfill three functions: (1) to define who was and was not an Indian; (2) to civilize the Indian; and (3) to manage the Indian people and their…

  9. Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome: Gastric Involvement Diagnosed by MDCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Samet


    Full Text Available Chronkhite-Canada is a rare nonfamilial polyposis syndrome that usually presents as chronic malabsorption in adults. We present a case of a-73-year old woman with chronic gastrointestinal bleeding and malnutrition. On CT imaging she was found to have massive gastric polyps, which on biopsy was most consistent with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome.

  10. Synoptic Variability of Extreme Snowfall in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada


    Andin, Caroline


    Glaciers of southwestern Yukon (Canada) and southeastern Alaska (USA) are presently experiencing high rates of annual mass loss. These high melt rates have mainly been investigated with respect to regional temperature trends, but comparatively little is known about how climate variations regulate snow accumulation on these glaciers. This study examines the synoptic weather patterns and air flow trajectories associated with extreme snowfall events in the central St. Elias Mountains (Yukon). Th...

  11. Skills required of dairy veterinarians in western Canada: A survey of practicing veterinarians


    Luby, Christopher D.; McIntyre, Katelyn; Jelinski, Murray D.


    This study determined skills required of entry-level veterinarians for dairy practice in western Canada and compared mixed and dairy practitioners in the skills that they perform. We surveyed western Canadian veterinarians involved in dairy practice, focusing primarily on clinical activity of respondents. Response rate was 39.4% (281/714). Respondents were classified as either mixed practitioners ( 75% time in dairy practice). For both gr...

  12. Arsenic levels in wipe samples collected from play structures constructed with CCA-treated wood: Impact on exposure estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraj, Leila M. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)], E-mail:; Scrafford, Carolyn G. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Eaton, W. Cary [RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Rogers, Robert E.; Jeng, Chwen-Jyh [Toxcon Health Sciences Research Centre Inc., 9607 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6E 5X7 (Canada)


    Lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been used in residential outdoor wood structures and playgrounds. The U.S. EPA has conducted a probabilistic assessment of children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated structures using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for the wood preservative scenario (SHEDS-Wood). The EPA assessment relied on data from an experimental study using adult volunteers and designed to measure arsenic in maximum hand and wipe loadings. Analyses using arsenic handloading data from a study of children playing on CCA-treated play structures in Edmonton, Canada, indicate that the maximum handloading values significantly overestimate the exposure that occurs during actual play. The objective of our paper is to assess whether the dislodgeable arsenic residues from structures in the Edmonton study are comparable to those observed in other studies and whether they support the conclusion that the values derived by EPA using modeled maximum loading values overestimate hand exposures. We compared dislodgeable arsenic residue data from structures in the playgrounds in the Edmonton study to levels observed in studies used in EPA's assessment. Our analysis showed that the dislodgeable arsenic levels in the Edmonton playground structures are similar to those in the studies used by EPA. Hence, the exposure estimates derived using the handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures are more representative of children's actual exposures than the overestimates derived by EPA using modeled maximum values. Handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures should be used to reduce the uncertainty of modeled estimates derived using the SHEDS-Wood model.

  13. Twelve years' experience with direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs in Canada: a cautionary tale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mintzes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA of prescription drugs is illegal in Canada as a health protection measure, but is permitted in the United States. However, in 2000, Canadian policy was changed to allow 'reminder' advertising of prescription drugs. This is a form of advertising that states the brand name without health claims. 'Reminder' advertising is prohibited in the US for drugs that have 'black box' warnings of serious risks. This study examines spending on DTCA in Canada from 1995 to 2006, 12 years spanning this policy shift. We ask how annual per capita spending compares to that in the US, and whether drugs with Canadian or US regulatory safety warnings are advertised to the Canadian public in reminder advertising. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prescription drug advertising spending data were extracted from a data set on health sector spending in Canada obtained from a market research company, TNS Media Inc. Spending was adjusted for inflation and compared with US spending. Inflation-adjusted spending on branded DTCA in Canada grew from under CAD$2 million per year before 1999 to over $22 million in 2006. The major growth was in broadcast advertising, accounting for 83% of spending in 2006. US annual per capita spending was on average 24 times Canadian levels. Celebrex (celecoxib, which has a US black box and was subject to three safety advisories in Canada, was the most heavily advertised drug on Canadian television in 2005 and 2006. Of 8 brands with >$500,000 spending, which together accounted for 59% of branded DTCA in all media, 6 were subject to Canadian safety advisories, and 4 had US black box warnings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Branded 'reminder' advertising has grown rapidly in Canada since 2000, mainly due to a growth in television advertising. Although DTCA spending per capita is much lower in Canada than in the US, there is no evidence of safer content or product choice; many heavily-advertised drugs in Canada

  14. Antibodies to avian influenza viruses in Canada geese (Branta canadensis): a potential surveillance tool? (United States)

    Kistler, Whitney M; Stallknecht, David E; Deliberto, Thomas J; Swafford, Seth; Pedersen, Kerri; Van Why, Kyle; Wolf, Paul C; Hill, Jerry A; Bruning, Darren L; Cumbee, James C; Mickley, Randall M; Betsill, Carl W; Randall, Adam R; Berghaus, Roy D; Yabsley, Michael J


    Traditionally, the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds has been defined by detection of virus or viral RNA through virus isolation or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our goals were to estimate AIV antibody prevalence in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and measure effects of age and location on these estimates. We collected 3,205 samples from nine states during June and July 2008 and 2009: Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Washington, and West Virginia. Serum samples were tested for AIV antibodies with the use of a commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 483 (15%) Canada geese had detectable antibodies to AIV. Significantly higher prevalences were detected in geese collected from northeastern and upper midwestern states compared with southeastern states. This trend is consistent with results from virus isolation studies reporting AIV prevalence in North American dabbling ducks. Within Pennsylvania, significantly higher antibody prevalences were detected in goose flocks sampled in urban locations compared to flocks sampled in rural areas. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in after-hatch-year geese compared to hatch-year geese. No significant differences in prevalence were detected from 10 locations sampled during both years. Results indicate that Canada geese are frequently exposed to AIVs and, with resident populations, may potentially be useful as sentinels to confirm regional AIV transmission within wild bird populations.

  15. Use of the LIULIN detector for the determination of aircrew radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitching, F.W


    As a result of ICRP-60 (1990) recommendations, countries throughout the world have recognized the fact that, as a result of their occupation, aircrew are exposed to levels of radiation higher than that received by the general population. Some countries have implemented legislation to monitor aircrew exposure while others have implemented a system of education by issuing advisories and circulars. In Canada, legislation is not yet in place to ensure that aircrew are properly monitored, but Transport Canada has initiated studies into how the problem of monitoring all aircrew personnel can be effectively and efficiently undertaken. ICRP-60 recommended the use of predictive codes to monitor exposure with the caveat that the code be periodically verified through the use of instrument measurements. In this thesis, three different methods of determining the ambient dose equivalent using the LIULIN instrument are investigated. All three methods require that the quality factor be determined in order to calculate the ambient dose equivalent given the absorbed dose. The first method is dependent upon the aircraft's position (latitude and longitude) and the cut-off rigidity associated with this geographical position. The second method determines a quality factor based on the complete linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum of the incident radiation recorded by the LIULIN. The third method uses probability distribution analysis to determine the dose mean LET, which can also be related to a quality factor. All three methods satisfactorily calculate the ambient dose equivalent when compared with the reference HAWK instrument. The preferred method of determining the ambient dose equivalent was found to be a direct analysis of the LIULIN LET spectrum. As a result of this study, the LIULIN was found to be capable of providing an accurate indication of ambient dose equivalent and can be used for periodic validation of predictive codes. (author)

  16. Open Source in Canada's Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Leibovitch


    Full Text Available The story of the growth of open source use in Canada has been far more a matter of evolution than revolution, so quiet in its pace that its progress has been difficult to measure. This has posed many challenges to Canadian open source advocates in their efforts to ensure that their country does not lag behind the rest of the world in understanding the social and business benefits open source provides. Perhaps some of the leading soldiers in the trenches might be our civil servants who protect the public purse. In addition to managing and minimizing the costs of delivering necessary services, public sector projects should also advance the social good through the delicate balance of transparency and efficiency.

  17. ATLAS Canada lightpath data transfer trial

    CERN Document Server

    Kost, C J; Caron, B; Hong, W


    Emerging grids play a significant role in the computational, data, storage, and network requirements of high energy physics experiments coming online in the next few years. One such requirement, the bulk transfer of data over advanced high speed optical networks is necessary as such experiments are highly distributed with resources and participants from research laboratories and institutions spanning the globe. This trial at the iGrid 2002 conference attempts to stress the feasibility of high speed bulk data transfer over an end-to-end lightpath, a dedicated point-to-point optical link. Specifically, the objective was to transfer 1 TB of Monte Carlo data from TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, to CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. A rate equivalent to transferring a full CD of data every 8 s was achieved. (15 refs).

  18. Future directions of dam safety in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verzeni, Gerard [Hydro Quebec, QC, (Canada)


    Gerard Verzeni, former director of the dam safety & environment at Hydro-Quebec introduced the future directions of dam safety in Canada. New and numerous challenges are emerging for the dam safety community. Measurable effects of climate changes illustrate that hydraulic forecasts would change drastically. Loads with times and amplitudes which are different from the actual knowledge will apply on dams. The development of new types of dams using recent technologies raises several issues, for example the longevity of such installations. The installations are becoming old and soon will require complete renovation and update for regulation and standards compliance. Concrete dams already need efforts and investment to maintain then in a safe state. Various factors will influence these challenges such as human resources in the dam safe community. In these conditions, it is important that organizations like CDA play an important role in providing support and reference and in being a driver for the whole industry.

  19. Hydrail : a parade Canada can lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S. [Mooresville-South Iredell Economic Development Corp., NC (United States). Hydrogen Economy Advancement Team


    This paper suggested that Canada can play a leading role in the development of hydrogen railways. Canadian scientists were among the first to test and develop the world's first hydrogen locomotive, and Canadian rail firms are now in a position to play a prominent role in the passenger hydrogen rail equipment market. A hydrogen railway will be built as part of Vancouver's 2010 winter olympics infrastructure. The Fraser Valley Heritage Railway Society is planning to use hydrogen to power vintage inter-urban trolley cars connecting Surrey communities. A Canadian manufactured hybrid locomotive will be modified to create the world's first hydrogen rail switch engine. It was concluded that hydrogen's storage capacity makes it an enabling technology for other other renewable energy technologies. Future hydrogen storage technologies will probably be hybridized with fuel cells in highly efficient applications. 1 ref.

  20. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)


    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  1. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred


    BACKGROUND: Monitoring of human exposure to mercury is important due to its adverse health effects. This study aimed to determine the extent of mercury exposure among mothers and their children in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated levels. It formed part of the Demonstration...... of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. METHODS: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES...... guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. RESULTS: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children's samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair) and children (0.149 µg /g hair) did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were...

  2. Distributive justice and infertility treatment in Canada. (United States)

    Nisker, Jeff


    An exploration of distributive justice in Canadian infertility treatment requires the integration of ethical, clinical, and economic principles. In 1971, American philosopher John Rawls proposed a theoretical model for fair decision-making in which "rational" and "self-interested" citizens are behind a "veil of ignorance" with respect to both their own position and the position of other decision-makers. Rawls proposed that these self-interested decision-makers, fearing that they are among the least advantaged persons who could be affected by the decision, will agree only upon rules that encode equality of opportunity and that bestow the greatest benefit on the least advantaged citizens. Regarding health policy decision-making, Rawls' model is best illustrated by Canadian philosopher Warren Bourgeois in his panel of "volunteers." These rational and self-interested volunteers receive an amnestic drug that renders them unaware of their health, social, and financial position, but they know that they are representative of diverse spheres of citizens whose well-being will be affected by their decision. After describing fair decision-making, Bourgeois considers the lack of a distributive justice imperative in Canada's Assisted Human Reproduction Act, in contrast to legislation in European nations and Australia, summarizes the economic and clinical considerations that must be provided to the decision-makers behind the "veil of ignorance" for fair decisions to occur, and considers altruism in relation to equality of access. He concludes by noting that among countries with legislation governing assisted reproduction Canada is alone in having legislation that is void of distributive justice in providing access to clinically appropriate infertility care.

  3. Transforming the market : recent developments with Canada Green Building Council and LEED{sup R} Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, A. [Canada Green Building Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Green buildings use design and construction practices that reduce or eliminate the negative impact of buildings on the environment and their occupants. This paper discusses the aims of the Green Building Council and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), and the current contexts in which both organizations operate in the Canadian construction industry. Some of the reasons to use green building practices were discussed, including moral obligations, compliance and the opportunity for increased revenue and profits. LEED informs purchasing decisions, and its certification process signals environmental credentials about the public sector to voters, linking well to policy instruments. A list of projects and accredited buildings was provided, as well as a forecast for future projects and market shares. A comprehensive list of adaptations to Canadian building codes, standards and regulations was provided, with reference to site selection, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, and indoor environmental quality. Some of the challenges facing both organizations include the existence of other rating systems already extant in Canada, partnership with federal government, the size of non-residential buildings in Canada, and residential market challenges. Case studies of projects in Canada and internationally were provided, with an overview of construction techniques and sustainable development programs. tabs., figs.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012 (United States)

    Higley, Debra


    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  5. Pedagogical and Political Encounters in Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Primary Classrooms: Examples from Quebec, Canada, and Gauteng, South Africa (United States)

    Breton-Carbonneau, Gabrielle; Cleghorn, Ailie; Evans, Rinelle; Pesco, Diane


    Comparative research in multilingual urban primary schools indicates that the pedagogical and political goals of schooling may operate at cross-purposes. Classroom observations and teacher interview-discussions were conducted in classes for immigrant children in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where the language of instruction is French, and in classes…

  6. Exploring Career-Life Success and Family Social Support of Successful Women in Canada, Argentina and Mexico (United States)

    Lirio, Pamela; Lituchy, Terri R.; Monserrat, Silvia Ines; Olivas-Lujan, Miguel R.; Duffy, Jo Ann; Fox, Suzy; Gregory, Ann; Punnett, B. J.; Santos, Neusa


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine career-life issues of successful women in the Americas. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 30 interviews were conducted with successful women in Canada, Argentina and Mexico. Themes were pulled from the interview transcripts for each country, analyzed and then compared across countries, looking…

  7. Public and Private Regulation of the Forestry Sector: The Cases of The United States and Canada : Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, H.Z.A.; Alimov, Andrey


    This paper discusses and compares public and private forestry regulation practices in Canada and the United States. The analyses focuses on industry layout, sustainability policies and new and alternative forms of environmental governance. It concludes with an eye towards Russia, its public forestry

  8. Public and Private Regulation of the Forestry Sector: The Cases of The United States and Canada : Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, H.Z.A.; Alimov, Andrey


    This paper discusses and compares public and private forestry regulation practices in Canada and the United States. The analyses focuses on industry layout, sustainability policies and new and alternative forms of environmental governance. It concludes with an eye towards Russia, its public forestry

  9. Aircrew Exposure from Cosmic Radiation on Commercial Airline Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; McCall, M.J.; Green, A.R.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Pierre, M.; Schrewe, U.J.; O' Brien, K.; Felsberger, E


    As a result of the recent recommendations of the ICRP 60, and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of Canadian-based aircrew, an extensive study was carried out by the Royal Military College of Canada over a one-year period to measure the cosmic radiation at commercial jet altitudes. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter was used to measure the ambient total dose equivalent rate on 62 flight routes, resulting in over 20,000 data points at one-minute intervals at various altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes (i.e. which span the full cut-off rigidity of the Earth's magnetic field). These data were then compared to similar experimental work at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, using a different suite of equipment, to measure separately the low and high linear energy transfer components of the mixed radiation field, and to predictions with the LUIN transport code. All experimental and theoretical results were in excellent agreement. From these data, a semi-empirical model was developed to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position, altitude and date (i.e. heliocentric potential). Through integration of the dose rate function over a great circle flight path, a computer code was developed to provide an estimate of the total dose equivalent on any route worldwide at any period in the solar cycle. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.M., E-mail: [Consultant in Toxicology, Geneva (Switzerland); Rogers, R.A., E-mail: [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA (United States); Sepulveda, R. [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA (United States); Kunzendorf, P., E-mail: [GSA Gesellschaft für Schadstoffanalytik mbH, Ratingen (Germany); Bellmann, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Ernst, H., E-mail: [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Creutzenberg, O. [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Phillips, J.I., E-mail: [National Institute for Occupational Health, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg South Africa and Department of Biomedical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa)


    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  11. Comparative Analysis of Whole-Genome Gene Expression Changes in Cultured Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Response to Low, Clinical Diagnostic Relevant, and High Doses of Ionizing Radiation Exposure (United States)

    Sokolov, Mykyta; Nguyen, Van; Neumann, Ronald


    The biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) exposure in humans are not comprehensively understood, generating a high degree of controversy in published literature. The earliest stages of human development are known to be among the most sensitive to stress exposures, especially genotoxic stresses. However, the risks stemming from exposure to LDIR, particularly within the clinical diagnostic relevant dose range, have not been directly evaluated in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Here, we describe the dynamics of the whole genome transcriptional responses of different hESC lines to both LDIR and, as a reference, high-dose IR (HDIR). We found that even doses as low as 0.05 Gy could trigger statistically significant transient changes in a rather limited subset of genes in all hESCs lines examined. Gene expression signatures of hESCs exposed to IR appear to be highly dose-, time-, and cell line-dependent. We identified 50 genes constituting consensus gene expression signature as an early response to HDIR across all lines of hESC examined. We observed substantial differences in biological pathways affected by either LDIR or HDIR in hESCs, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms underpinning the responses of hESC may fundamentally differ depending on radiation doses. PMID:26133243

  12. Illicit traffic and abuse of cannabis in Canada. (United States)

    Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C; Vigeant, H


    In 1984 cannabis derivatives, in particular marijuana, hashish and liquid hashish, continued to be the most readily available drugs of abuse in Canada. Marijuana originating in Colombia decreased on the illicit marijuana market in Canada from an estimated 45 per cent in 1983 to 30 per cent in 1984, but it remained the largest source of marijuana supply. Marijuana originating in Thailand remained at approximately the same level (20 per cent) in 1984 as in 1983, while marijuana of Jamaican origin increased its share in the illicit market from 10 per cent in 1983 to 20 per cent in 1984. Approximately 10 per cent of marijuana on the illicit market originated in Canada, 10 per cent in Mexico, and 10 per cent in the United States of America. In 1984 an estimated 85 per cent of hashish on the illicit market in Canada originated in Lebanon (55 per cent in 1983), 10 per cent in India or Pakistan (31 per cent in 1983) and 5 per cent in Jamaica (2 per cent in 1983). Illicit shipments in tonnes of hashish originating in Lebanon made this the dominant source of supply of the drug. Liquid hashish originating in Jamaica shared 88 per cent of the illicit market of this drug in Canada during 1984, while 10 per cent of the drug originated in Lebanon and 2 per cent in Canada. In 1984 an estimated 40 per cent of smuggled marijuana entered the illicit market in Canada by air and approximately the same amount by sea, while 20 per cent was smuggled over land. During the same year, hashish was smuggled into Canada primarily by sea, while air accounted for 5 per cent and land for 1 per cent only. Liquid hashish, in contrast, entered Canada primarily by air, and only 9 per cent by land and 1 per cent by sea.

  13. Focal mechanisms and variations in tectonic stress fields in eastern Canada (western Quebec and southern Ontario) (United States)

    Asgharzadeh Sadegh, Parisa

    Earthquakes in western Quebec and southern Ontario present a major contribution to the natural hazards in south eastern Canada due to their proximity to major population centres. However, the seismic characteristics of the events in these regions have not been well documented. Improved knowledge of earthquake distribution and seismic controlling mechanisms provides a great benefit for earthquake hazard analysis in eastern Canada. The available information about the tectonic stress indicators, including focal mechanisms, was compiled for Canada prior to 1994. The present research is concentrated mainly on determination of the focal mechanisms and hypocentre locations of the earthquakes after 1993 with M > 3.5 to characterize the present-day regional and local stress fields in southern Ontario and western Quebec. An attempt was also made to differentiate local zones with comparatively homogeneous tectonic stresses orientation and seismic regimes, thus providing information for future re-assessment of the seismic hazard in each region. Considering seismic parameters such as the trend of the epicentres, focal depths and the state of stress of the events along with their tectonic settings, ten distinct clusters have been proposed for western Quebec and two clusters of events were determined for southern Ontario with comparatively consistent focal mechanisms. The locations and characteristics of seismicity clusters appear to be consistent with the hypothesis that they are near the locations of large historic and prehistoric events, and represent exceptionally persistent aftershocks of past large earthquakes.

  14. Loneliness of Older Immigrant Groups in Canada: Effects of Ethnic-Cultural Background. (United States)

    De Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Van der Pas, Suzan; Keating, Norah


    This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determinants of loneliness included country of birth, ethnic background (cultural context); belongingness (community context) and social networks (social context). Results showed that only some immigrant groups are significantly lonelier than older adults born in Canada. Immigrants with similar language and culture are not lonelier; while those from countries that differ in native language/culture are significantly higher on loneliness. Multivariate analyses showed the importance of cultural background, of composition of the network of relatives and friends, and of local participation and feelings of belonging to the Canadian society in explaining loneliness of older immigrants.

  15. Productivity Gap and Asymmetric Trade Relations: The Canada-United States of America Integration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán H. Gonzalez


    Full Text Available The usefulness of the European model of integration is currently subject to debate and the North American integration process has been largely ignored as a comparative framework. The asymmetrical relationship between Canada and the United States began a long time before NAFTA, and the study of this process could shed light on the usual problems faced by Latin American countries. This article attempts to encourage discussion about this topic. Particularly,there is evidence for a substantial and positive change in Canadian productivity at the time of the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA. However, the enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA does not seem to have had the same effect as the earlier treaty.

  16. Skills required of dairy veterinarians in western Canada: a survey of practicing veterinarians. (United States)

    Luby, Christopher D; McIntyre, Katelyn; Jelinski, Murray D


    This study determined skills required of entry-level veterinarians for dairy practice in western Canada and compared mixed and dairy practitioners in the skills that they perform. We surveyed western Canadian veterinarians involved in dairy practice, focusing primarily on clinical activity of respondents. Response rate was 39.4% (281/714). Respondents were classified as either mixed practitioners ( 75% time in dairy practice). For both groups, individual animal medicine and surgery skills were performed more commonly than herd health skills. The most important skills identified were those required for basic theriogenology, physical examination, treatment of common disorders, and general surgery. These results underscore the continued importance of individual animal skills in food animal practice in western Canada.

  17. Morphological Comparison of U3O8 Ore Concentrates from Canada Key Lake and Namibia Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Uranium ore concentrates from two different sources were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The ore powders are referred to as Namibia (id. no. 90036, LIMS id. no. 18775) and Canada Key Lake (id. no. 90019, LIMS id. no. 18774). Earlier work identified the ores as the U₃O₈ phase of uranium oxide using x-ray diffraction. Both sets of powders were in the form of dark brown to black powder fines. However, the Canada Key Lake concentrates contained larger chunks of material on the millimeter scale that were easily visible to the unaided eye. The powders were mounted for SEM examination by hand dispersing a small amount onto conductive sticky tape. Two types of applicators were used and compared: a fine-tipped spatula and a foam-tipped applicator. The sticky tape was on a standard SEM “tee” mount, which was tapped to remove loose contamination before being inserted into the SEM.

  18. Local impacts of coal mines and power plants across Canada. 1. Thallium in waters and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V.; Garbai, G.; Lechner, J.; Rajkumar, J. [Environment of Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). National Water Research Institute


    A Canada-wide survey was undertaken of sites associated with coal mines and coal-fired electrical generating stations. Several water samples were found to contain very high concentrations of thallium, iron and manganese. High thallium concentrations were found in several sites in Eastern Canada, in spite of the greater coal consumption and production in the western and central regions. The data suggest that coal type (rather than quantity) and/or regional geological contributions are responsible for the high Tl concentrations observed. The findings, coupled with others around the world, strongly indicate that Tl is an environmental pollutant. In sediments, the observed high ratios of Tl/Hg suggest there is an enrichment of Tl by at least 25% when compared to crustal concentration ratios.

  19. Exposure of Inuit in Greenland to organochlorines through the marine diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P


    High organochlorine concentrations have been found among the Inuit in eastern Canada and in Greenland. The present study was undertaken to assess the exposure to organochlorines in relation to age, sex, and diet in a general population sample of Inuit from Greenland. Survey data and plasma concen...

  20. The pathological response and fate in the lung and pleura of chrysotile in combination with fine particles compared to amosite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure: interim results. (United States)

    Bernstein, D M; Rogers, R A; Sepulveda, R; Donaldson, K; Schuler, D; Gaering, S; Kunzendorf, P; Chevalier, J; Holm, S E


    The pathological response and translocation of a commercial chrysotile product similar to that which was used through the mid-1970s in a joint compound intended for sealing the interface between adjacent wall boards was evaluated in comparison to amosite asbestos. This study was unique in that it presents a combined real-world exposure and was the first study to investigate whether there were differences between chrysotile and amosite asbestos fibers in time course, size distribution, and pathological response in the pleural cavity. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either sanded joint compound consisting of both chrysotile fibers and sanded joint compound particles (CSP) or amosite asbestos. Subgroups were examined through 1-year postexposure. No pathological response was observed at any time point in the CSP-exposure group. The long chrysotile fibers (L > 20 microm) cleared rapidly (T(1/2) of 4.5 days) and were not observed in the pleural cavity. In contrast, a rapid inflammatory response occurred in the lung following exposure to amosite resulting in Wagner grade 4 interstitial fibrosis within 28 days. Long amosite fibers had a T(1/2) > 1000 days and were observed in the pleural cavity within 7 days postexposure. By 90 days the long amosite fibers were associated with a marked inflammatory response on the parietal pleural. This study provides support that CSP following inhalation would not initiate an inflammatory response in the lung, and that the chrysotile fibers present do not migrate to, or cause an inflammatory response in the pleural cavity, the site of mesothelioma formation.

  1. A meeting of minds: interdisciplinary research in the health sciences in Canada. (United States)

    Hall, Judith G; Bainbridge, Lesley; Buchan, Alison; Cribb, Alastair; Drummond, Jane; Gyles, Carlton; Hicks, T Philip; McWilliam, Carol; Paterson, Barbara; Ratner, Pamela A; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth; Solomon, Patty


    . Although intended to maintain professional scopes of practice, these policies also serve to entrench disciplinary boundaries in research. We conclude by suggesting a number of research questions for a more rigorous assessment of the climate for IDHR in Canada. We call for an inventory and comparative analysis of academic centres, institutes and consortiums in Canada that strive to facilitate IDHR; an examination of the impact of professional organizations on health research, and on IDHR in particular; and a systematic review of research training opportunities that promote IDHR, with a view to identifying and replicating proven models.

  2. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  3. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD (United States)


    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (SESCO Canada) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...-297, which authorized SESCO Canada to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as...

  4. Averting Canada's water Armageddon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrilli, J. F.


    Water conservation policies in Canada are examined in expectation of an imminent water crisis in the world, a crisis resulting from scarcity and aggravated by deteriorating quality. Despite Canada's seemingly abundant water resources, recent events, particularly in Ontario, give reason to be concerned that the province that spawned the common sense revolution is quite capable of sparking a national water crisis all by itself. Significant drop in water levels in the Great Lakes, the Walkerton debacle of E. coli contamination of the water supply which resulted in at least seven deaths and over 1000 serious illnesses, the massive housing development proposal that threatens the area known as the Oak Ridges Moraine, a source of groundwater that supplies much of southern Ontario, and the government's action (later reversed) to issue a licence to an Ontario company to withdraw 600 million litres of water annually from Lake Superior for export to Asia, are some of the examples cited as indicators of the fragile state of water supply and the many threats posed to both water quantity and quality. Having examined some of the dangers facing our water supply, the author provides some suggestions of how to resolve first, the issue of overlapping jurisdictions and the tangled constitutional framework for managing the nation's water resources and second, some steps that should be taken to stop mega-diversions and mega-consumptive use, and to make certain that even the most modest project in this area proceeds only after the fullest environmental and public scrutiny. Provincial laws must also link land use changes and development to protection of provincial waters, proactively encourage water conservation, repair past mistakes by requiring the restoration and enhancement of the water regime where it has been damaged by human activity, establish a water superfund to pay for effective water conservation planning, and recognize the public's right to a significant

  5. Biology of nesting Aleutian Canada goose, summer 1975 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1974 and 1975 breeding Aleutian Canada geese, Branta canadensis leucopareia, were studied at Buldir Island, western Aleutian Islands. Buldir is the only known...

  6. [Analysis of Canada goose banding at Fish Springs NWR (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing an analysis of the Canada goose banding data from Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Banding data is analyzed for the following...

  7. Transatlantic Cooperation in Space: Eu-Canada Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Weber-Steinhaus


    Full Text Available National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA, and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of the Canada-European Union (EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA. The agreement covers most aspects of the EU-Canada bilateral economic relationship and includes space. The paper focuses on international space policies, strategic bilateral co-operation, and technical accomplishments. It takes a closer look at German-Canadian collaboration in space programs and offers some reflection on the effect of both the EU and ESA’S transatlantic involvement in space.

  8. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada. (United States)

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others


    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  9. Pacific Flyway management plan for the dusky Canada goose (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan for the dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) is a revision of earlier plans adopted by the Pacific Flyway Council (1973, 1985,...

  10. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  11. Ecology of Aleutian Canada geese at Buldir Island, Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....

  12. Dusky Canada goose breeding population survey, May 16 1989 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dusky Canada goose breeding ground surveys were initiated on the Copper River Delta near Cordova, Alaska during the 1970's by the Waterfowl Division of the Alaska...

  13. Dusky Canada goose breeding population survey, May 18 1990 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dusky Canada goose breeding ground surveys were initiated on the Copper River Delta near Cordova, Alaska during the 1970's by the Waterfowl Division of the Alaska...

  14. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada. (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J


    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence.

  15. 78 FR 38546 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters (United States)


    ... Information The subject of this AD is addressed in Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) AD No. CF-2009-07, dated March 6, 2009. You may view the TCCA AD at by searching for...

  16. Second Language Education in Canada: Innovation, Research, and Policies. (United States)

    Stern, H. H. (David)


    This paper gives an overview of language teaching in Canada today and describes some general trends in language pedagogy. Current issues in the field are highlighted. Included is a two-page comment by Birgit Harley. (MT)

  17. Canada goose transplant program progress report - May 1964 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Following is a report of progress on the Canada goose transplant program involving certain Federal and State refuges in the Mississippi Flyway in 1963-64.

  18. Canada's constitutional separation of (wind) power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Scott Victor [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)


    This paper investigates the impact that a federal government structure has on strategic selection of renewable energy policy instruments. The context for this study centers on wind power development in Canada. Canada is a nation that is blessed by all the attributes necessary to catalyze global leadership in installed wind power capacity. Unfortunately, the constitutional separation of powers that underpins Canada's federal system impedes the creation of a national wind power development strategy because Canada's provinces have constitutional authority over electricity governance. The insights gleaned from the case study are used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the impact that federal structure has on policy instrument selection and efficacy under areas of federal, regional and concurrent policy jurisdiction. Finally, this framework is re-applied to identify specific approaches the Canadian federal government could take to resolve what currently amounts to be a fragmented, ineffective approach to wind power development planning. (author)

  19. Status of southern James Bay population of Canada geese (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides background on the southern James Bay population (SJBP) of Canada geese, as well as a summary of problems confronting SJBP and recommendations...

  20. Canada Goose Production Workshop draft proceedings : May 1971 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary and review of the Canada Goose Production Workshop held in Jamestown, North Dakota on May 4th, 5th, and 6th, 1971. This workshop provided sessions about...

  1. [Hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies in Eastern Canada]. (United States)

    Dupré, N; Chrestian, N; Thiffault, I; Brais, B; Rouleau, G A; Bouchard, J-P


    It has been demonstrated, for many inherited diseases, that historical events have shaped the various regional gene pools of Eastern Canada. In so doing, it has given rise to the increased prevalence of some rare diseases due, to founder effects. The following neurogenetic disorders were first identified in patients from Eastern Canada: AOA-2, Arsacs, HSN-2, Arca-1, HMSN/ACC and Arsal. The population of Eastern Canada, we are convinced, will still allow the identification of new rare forms of hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies as well as contribute to the uncovering of their mutated genes. We have summarized our current knowledge of the various hereditary ataxias, spastic parapareses and neuropathies in Eastern Canada. The study of the more common and homogenous features of these diseases has been largely completed.

  2. Snowfall and Snow Depth for Canada 1943-1982 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data include monthly snowfall and end-of-month snow depth for 140 stations across Canada. Stations that maintained at least 20 years of data were chosen. The...

  3. A report on the Agassiz flock of Canada geese (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the history of Canada goose production by the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) flock from 1955 to 1964. Attached is a nesting structure...

  4. CANADA: designing nucleic acid sequences for nanobiotechnology applications. (United States)

    Feldkamp, Udo


    The design of nucleic acid sequences for a highly specific and efficient hybridization is a crucial step in DNA computing and DNA-based nanotechnology applications. The CANADA package contains software tools for designing DNA sequences that meet these and other requirements, as well as for analyzing and handling sequences. CANADA is freely available, including a detailed manual and example input files, at

  5. Air Canada Selects Boeing 777s and 787 Dreamliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.,the parent company of Air Canada, and Boeing today announced a wide-body fleet renewal plan for the airline that includes up to 36 Boeing 777s and up to 60 Boeing 787Dreamliners. Air Canada will use the airplanes to modernize its existing fleet and improve operating efficiencies, creating one of the world's youngest and most simplified airline fleets.……

  6. Air Canada Selects Boeing 777s and 787 Dreamliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.,the parent company of Air Canada, and Boeing today announced a wide-body fleet renewal plan for the airline that includes up to 36 Boeing 777s and up to 60 Boeing 787Dreamliners. Air Canada will use the airplanes to modernize its existing fleet and improve operating efficiencies, creating one of the world's youngest and most simplified airline fleets.

  7. The Estimation of Food Demand Elasticities in Canada


    Pomboza, Ruth; Mbaga, Msafiri Daudi


    Changing consumer and market demands is an important driver behind the challenges and opportunities that are facing the agriculture and agri-food sector in Canada and that will influence the sector's profitability and competitiveness in the future. It is therefore important to understand developments in the consumer demand for agriculture and agri-food products. The report provides updated demand elasticities for fourteen food groups in Canada. The estimates are useful for conducting analysis...

  8. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.


    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a >700,000 sq. km. remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed across the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-83.5 Ma. Canada Basin was filled by Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Beaufort-Mackenzie Deltaic System, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. The basin contains roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. Three fourths or more of this volume generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemipelagic deposits, which contain lenses to extensive interbeds of moderate amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits.Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin is correlative with stratigraphic sequences in these areas that contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks. In addition, worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas windows. Structural, stratigraphic and combined structural and stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin, and at least one of these contains bright spots. However, deep water (to almost 4000 m), remoteness from harbors and markets, and thick accumulations of seasonal to permanent sea ice (until its possible removal by global warming later this century) will require the discovery of very large deposits for commercial success in most parts of Canada Basin. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Framework for US-Canada Defense and Security Cooperation (United States)


    scores of departments and agencies. Bringing to mind President George H. Bush’s “thousand points of light”, Allan Gotlieb (1991, p. 191), former...US and Canada have established nothing that far reaching (McDougall 2006, p. 190). Allan Gottlieb (2003, p. 20-21) writes that throughout the post...inspections at the point of entry ( POE ) and their mission includes detaining people who may pose a threat 45 to Canada, removing people who are inadmissible

  10. PASC ⅩⅩⅦ held in Vancouver Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The 27th Pacific Area Standards Congress (PSAC ⅩⅩⅦ) was held in Vancouver Canada on May 24-27. It was hosted by SCC (Standards Council of Canada). About 70 delegates from 20 countries attended the meeting and representatives of the international standards organizations like ISO, IEC and ITU were invited. Chinese delegation led by is Mr. Shi Baoquan from the Standardization Administration of China attended the meeting.

  11. Assessing evidence, arguments, and inequality in Bedford v. Canada


    Waltman, Max


    Until recently, Canada criminalized anyone who lived "wholly or in part on the avails of prostitution of another person,” and anyone who kept, controlled, or knowingly permitted a “bawdy-house” for prostitution. The Supreme Court of Canada found that these laws prevented brothel management, escort agencies, bodyguards, or drivers from enhancing the safety and well-being of prostituted persons in indoor locations. This article assesses the evidence relied on by courts to strike down the laws, ...

  12. Evaluating the Cost-effectiveness of Pharmaceuticals in Canada


    Katherine Boothe


    Canada adopted guidelines for the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in 1994, and a central process for drug assessment in 2003. The context and the way the issue reached the agenda in the two time periods differed. The guidelines were adopted amidst growing academic interest in methods for economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in Canada and internationally, and were first promoted by an entrepreneur from the pharmaceutical industry. The Common Drug Review (CDR) was adopted in a context ...

  13. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  14. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Byrnes


    Full Text Available Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories, injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objective: To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design: Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11–15 years were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078. Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results: The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001 and fighting (p=0.02 injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01. Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.94, average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97 or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.91, not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.85, not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.97 and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.98 were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33–1.59. Conclusions: Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are

  15. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada (United States)

    Byrnes, Jessica; King, Nathan; Hawe, Penelope; Peters, Paul; Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen


    Background Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objectives To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11–15 years) were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078). Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001) and fighting (p=0.02) injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01). Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.94), average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97) or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.91), not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.85), not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.97) and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.98) were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33–1.59). Conclusions Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are essential to

  16. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization. (United States)

    Riley, R; Paddon, P


    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  17. Upper Paleozoic evaporites of southeastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howie, R.D.


    Atlantic Canada's evaporites were deposited on folded and faulted Lower Paleozoic rocks in a series of basins during two extended intervals of the Late Paleozoic. Minor salt deposits containing glauberite accumulated locally and are preserved as part of continental sequences in Horton Group rocks. The overlying Windsor Group contains thick deposits of salt. Temporary tectonic stability, abnormally high temperatures, a nearly land-locked marine setting and semiarid conditions resulted in the rhythmic deposition of Windsor Group evaporites over a wide area. These evaporites, preserved as outliers in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and in a northeast-trending basin beneath the Gulf of St. Lawrence, are erosional remnants of a much larger evaporite basin. The salt occurs as bedded deposits or within flow structures that vary in thickness from a few centimetres to over 4,573 m in structurally thickened sections. The variation in local thickness of these rocks is a function of both environment of deposition and tectonism. In some areas the salt is pure enough to be mined and, locally, contains significant amounts of potash. Some of these mines have the potential for development of underground storage sites for hydrocarbons and industrial waste. 261 refs., 94 figs.

  18. Black-White Health Inequalities in Canada. (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry; Patterson, Andrew C


    Little is known about Black-White health inequalities in Canada or the applicability of competing explanations for them. To address this gap, we used nine cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey to analyze multiple health outcomes in a sample of 3,127 Black women, 309,720 White women, 2,529 Black men and 250,511 White men. Adjusting for age, marital status, urban/rural residence and immigrant status, Black women and men were more likely than their White counterparts to report diabetes and hypertension, Black women were less likely than White women to report cancer and fair/poor mental health and Black men were less likely than White men to report heart disease. These health inequalities persisted after controlling for education, household income, smoking, physical activity and body-mass index. We conclude that high rates of diabetes and hypertension among Black Canadians may stem from experiences of racism in everyday life, low rates of heart disease and cancer among Black Canadians may reflect survival bias and low rates of fair/poor mental health among Black Canadian women represent a mental health paradox similar to the one that exists for African Americans in the United States.

  19. Women in academic psychiatry in Canada. (United States)

    Penfold, P S


    A comparison of numbers of women psychiatrists with faculty appointments and women residents in Departments of Psychiatry in Canada in 1975 and 1985 showed that the average percentage of women faculty has increased from 11.4% to 14.3% and of women residents from 23.5% to 43.4%. Some departments appeared to be oblivious to the special educational role of women faculty and had not discussed the discrepancy between the numbers of faculty and residents. Only two departments were actively recruiting women faculty. The study also demonstrated a continued concentration of women in the lower ranks. Barriers to recruiting women faculty include lack of academic role models, job advertising not specifically designed to attract women candidates, rigid requirements for appointments, women's lack of access to male corridors of power, pervasive underlying doubts about women's abilities and competence based on cultural stereotypes, female socialization which does not lend itself readily to roles of authority, assertiveness and leadership, and the role strain that ensues when women psychiatrists try to combine career, marriage and motherhood. If women psychiatrists are to fill some of the positions in Departments of Psychiatry, which will fall vacant over the next decade, much more attention must be paid to eliminating or diminishing the multiple obstacles for women who chose a career in academic psychiatry.

  20. Writing requirements across nursing programs in Canada. (United States)

    Andre, Jo-Anne D; Graves, Roger


    The emphasis on scholarship in nursing, demands for evidence-based practice, and attention to writing have raised the profile of academic writing within nursing curricula. This article provides a comprehensive review of English and writing course requirements across 81 English-language baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada. The data were gathered from a review of nursing programs and curriculum information from university and college Web sites. Of the 81 programs, 39 (48.1%) require neither an English literature course nor a writing course, 15 (18.5%) require an English literature course, and 32 (39.5%) require a writing course, including five programs that require a discipline-specific writing course. Discipline-specific writing courses appear to be useful adjuncts to writing-across-the-curriculum initiatives in nursing and will help students to develop the research and writing skills needed to succeed both academically and in a career in which nursing scholarship and evidence-informed practice are increasingly valued and expected.

  1. The beginnings of mineral processing research in Canada (part 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habashi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering


    This article presented the historical aspects regarding Canadian research in mineral processing and ore refining. It highlighted the career of Eugene Haanel, the first director of Canada's Department of Mines. The events that led to the creation of the Canadian Bureau of Mines and the Energy Branch at the turn of the 1900s were described along with the creation of the first assay office to deal with the large amounts of gold produced in British Columbia and the Yukon. In order to encourage the exploitation of Canada's iron ore deposits and the abundant electrical energy from Niagara Falls, Haanel organized a mission to Europe to study steel production using electric furnaces. He sought ways to secure a supply of the reducing agent and the fuel that metallurgical processes required in great quantities. Noting that Canada was spending millions to import coal and coke, he promoted the exploitation of the large deposits of peat in Ontario and Quebec. He also drew attention to the need to stop using wood as a fuel to conserve the forests. In 1905, the Mining Section was commissioned to evaluate nonferrous metal deposits in Canada, including lead-zinc, cobalt, asbestos, mica, graphite and raw materials for cement manufacture. Serious hydrometallurgical research in Canada began in 1921 at the Ministry of Mines, followed by pyrometallurgical research in 1922. The radioactivity division was created in 1948. The article also described the reorganization of extractive metallurgical research in Canada. 9 figs.

  2. Impact of coal-carrying trains on particulate matter concentrations in South Delta, British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Akaoka, K; McKendry, I; Saxton, J; Cottle, P W


    Transport of coal by train through residential neighborhoods in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada may increase the possibility of exposure to particulate matter at different size ranges, with concomitant potential negative health impacts. This pilot study identifies and quantifies train impacts on particulate matter (PM) concentrations at a single location. Field work was conducted during August and September 2014, with the attributes of a subset of passing trains confirmed visually, and the majority of passages identified with audio data. In addition to fixed ground based monitors at distances 15 and 50 m from the train tracks, an horizontally pointing mini-micropulse lidar system was deployed on three days to make backscatter and depolarization measurements in an attempt to identify the zone of influence, and sources, of train-generated PM. Ancillary wind and dust fall data were also utilized. Trains carrying coal are associated with a 5.3 (54%), 4.1 (33%), and 2.6 (17%) μgm(-3) average increase in concentration over a 14 min period compared to the average concentrations over the 10 min prior to and after a train passage ("control" or "background" conditions), for PM3, PM10, and PM20, respectively. In addition, for PM10 and PM20, concentrations during train passages of non-coal-carrying trains were not found to be significantly different from PM concentrations during control conditions. Presence of coal dust particles at the site was confirmed by dust fall measurements. Although enhancements of PM concentrations during 14 min train passages were generally modest, passing coal trains occasionally enhanced concentrations at 50 m from the tracks by ∼100 μgm(-3). Results showed that not every train passage increased PM concentrations, and the effect appears to be highly dependent on wind direction, local meteorology and load related factors. LiDAR imagery suggests that re-mobilization of track-side PM by train-induced turbulence may be a significant

  3. Video Lottery is the Most Harmful Form of Gambling in Canada. (United States)

    MacLaren, Vance Victor


    This paper summarizes the degree to which different forms of legal gambling contribute to Problem and Pathological Gambling (PPG) in Canada. Legal gambling activities were compared using meta-analysis of publicly available data concerning Canada's legal gambling industry. The majority of revenues in the decade spanning 2002-2012 were drawn from Video Lottery Terminals and casino slot machines. Population surveys indicated that three quarters of Canadians reported some form of past-year gambling participation, but most did not play Electronic Gambling Machines. Annual revenues divided by estimated numbers of participants in various gambling activities showed that Video Lottery players spent more money on average than did participants in other forms of gambling. The relative risk of PPG was higher among Video Lottery players than it was for other common forms of gambling. Results from a community study of frequent Video Lottery players showed that the risk of frequent players reporting symptoms of PPG was elevated if they reported playing weekly, spending $50 or more per session, or playing for more than an hour per session. These studies provide converging evidence that Video Lottery is more hazardous to consumers than other forms of gambling that are commonly practised in Canada.

  4. Graduate education in Canada and China: What enrolment data tells us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony DiPetta


    Full Text Available China’s emergence as a global economic and political power is in part due to the country’s renewed involvement with, and commitment to, graduate higher education (Harris, 2005. Graduate education in China is viewed as the means of producing the essential scientists, engineers and skilled workforce needed to sustain the country’s rapid industrial growth and economic development. But how does China’s graduate education system compare with North American graduate higher education and what can each learn from the other? This paper examines the trends and patterns in Master’s level graduate education programs in China and Canada based on enrolment data gathered from 1999 to 2005. Initial comparisons of the data find that Master’s level enrolments in China are growing faster than in Canada; enrolment pattern distributions for both countries are unbalanced geographically and from a disciplinary perspective the highest number of Master’s level enrolments in Canada were in the business and management disciplines while in China the greatest Master’s level enrolments were in engineering. The comparisons provided by this study help identify some of the trends and challenges of graduate education at both the national and the regional levels of both countries.

  5. Air Canada to Introduce non-Stop Flight from Beijing to Toronto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      Air Canada, one of the largest Airlines worldwide recently announced that effective from June 2, 2005 (June3 Beijing Time), the Airline will launch its nonstop flight service from Beijing to Toronto. This new air routine,the first scheduled flight connecting China mainland with Eastern Canada, is established to serve the demands of the continuous growth of the aviation market in the two countries. Air Canada will offer 3flights per week in June growing to 4 flights in July. The flight eastbound from Beijing to Toronto will be numbered AC032 and the returning westbound flight from Toronto to Beijing is numbered AC031, the time in the air will be 13 hours and 13 hours and 20 minutes respectively saving over three and half hours compared with the traditional routing through Vancouver.AC032 departs every Tuesday, Wednesday,Friday and Sunday at 13:20 local time from Beijing, arriving Toronto the same day at 14:20 local time. AC031 takes off every Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at 10:00 local time from Toronto, arriving Beijing the next day at 11:20 local time.……

  6. Air Canada to Introduce non-Stop Flight from Beijing to Toronto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Air Canada, one of the largest Airlines worldwide recently announced that effective from June 2, 2005 (June3 Beijing Time), the Airline will launch its nonstop flight service from Beijing to Toronto. This new air routine,the first scheduled flight connecting China mainland with Eastern Canada, is established to serve the demands of the continuous growth of the aviation market in the two countries. Air Canada will offer 3flights per week in June growing to 4 flights in July. The flight eastbound from Beijing to Toronto will be numbered AC032 and the returning westbound flight from Toronto to Beijing is numbered AC031, the time in the air will be 13 hours and 13 hours and 20 minutes respectively saving over three and half hours compared with the traditional routing through Vancouver.AC032 departs every Tuesday, Wednesday,Friday and Sunday at 13:20 local time from Beijing, arriving Toronto the same day at 14:20 local time. AC031 takes off every Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at 10:00 local time from Toronto, arriving Beijing the next day at 11:20 local time.

  7. Governing the energy challenge : Canada and Germany in a multi-level regional and global context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, B. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Schulich School of Business; Doern, G.B. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Public Policy and Administration; Exeter Univ., (United Kingdom). Dept. of Politics] (eds.)


    This book features essays by leading energy and public policy specialists from Canada and Germany. It originated in the Transatlantic Energy Conference which was hosted by the Canadian Centre for German and European Studies at Toronto's York University in September 2005. The conference was attended by leading energy scholars and experts from Canadian and European universities, research institutes and governmental and non-governmental organizations. The purpose of this book was to compare the dynamics of multi-level energy regulatory governance in Germany and Canada, notably the energy policy challenges that include energy security, environmental sustainability and a competitive resource economy. Many strategies to produce more efficient and sustainable energy are presented in the book. Part 1 of the book focuses on the energy industry, with particular emphasise on electricity, nuclear energy and natural gas. Part 2 of the book focuses on domestic patterns of multi-level energy governance and regulation in the two countries. As a member of the European Union, Germany is more advanced in dealing with multi-level governmental and sustainability constraints than Canada is as a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The book focuses on the influence that the energy sector and multi-level institutional arrangements have on energy governance, with particular attention to the link between environmental study, climate change issues and economic market reforms. The growing differences between NAFTA and European Union member countries were highlighted. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. How consistent is cloudiness over Canada from satellite observations and modeling data? (United States)

    Trishchenko, A. P.; Khlopenkov, K.; Latifovic, R.


    Being one of the major modulators of radiation budget and hydrological cycle, clouds are still significant challenge for modeling and satellite retrievals. For example, our analysis shows that for Western Canada the systematic difference in total cloud amounts between NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis-2 and ISCCP reaches 20-30 per cent. Especially difficult are satellite retrievals for Northern climate regions over snow-covered surface and during night-time. To understand better these differences and their influence on earth radiation budget in Northern latitudes, we are attempting to undertake the re-analysis of satellite AVHRR data over Canada using improved data processing and cloud detection algorithms. Details of cloud detection algorithm for day-time and night-time conditions over snow-free and snow-covered surfaces are discussed. Selected results of satellite retrievals for typical summer and winter conditions over Canada are compared to previous analyses, such as ISCCP and Pathfinder projects. Consistency between our cloud retrievals using AVHRR data and those available from MODIS will be also considered.

  9. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay


    Full Text Available Objectives. Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Study design and methods. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Results. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. Conclusions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  10. A Prehistorical Record of Cultural Eutrophication from Crawford Lake, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, E J; Teranes, J; Guilderson, T; Turton, C L; McAndrews, J H; Wittkop, C A; Stoermer, E F


    Cultural eutrophication--the process by which human activities increase nutrient input rates to aquatic ecosystems and thereby cause undesirable changes in surface-water quality--is generally thought to have begun with the start of the industrial era. The prehistoric dimension of human impacts on aquatic ecosystems remains relatively undescribed, particularly in North America. Here we present fossil plankton data (diatoms and rotifers), organic and inorganic carbon accumulations, and carbon isotope ratios from a 1000-yr sediment core record from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada. The data documents increased nutrient input to Crawford Lake caused by Iroquoian horticultural activity from A.D. 1268 to 1486 and shows how this increased nutrient input elevated lake productivity, caused bottom-water anoxia, and irreversibly altered diatom community structure within just a few years. Iroquoian settlement in the region declined in the fifteenth century, yet diatom communities and lake circulation never recovered to the predisturbance state. A second phase of cultural eutrophication starting in A.D. 1867, initiated by Canadian agricultural disturbance, increased lake productivity but had comparatively less of an impact on diatom assemblages and carbon-storage pathways than the initial Iroquoian disturbance. This study deepens our understanding of the impact of cultural eutrophication on lake systems, highlights the lasting influence of initial environmental perturbation, and contributes to the debate on the ecological impacts of density and agricultural practices of native North American inhabitants.

  11. Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America (United States)

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Joseph, R.A.; O'Brien, M.


    The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

  12. Improved assessment of gross and net primary productivity of Canada's landmass (United States)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M.; Price, David T.; Kurz, Werner A.; Liu, Jane; Boisvenue, Céline; Hember, Robbie A.; Wu, Chaoyang; Chang, Kuo-Hsien


    assess Canada's gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) using boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) at 250 m spatial resolution with improved input parameter and driver fields and phenology and nutrient release parameterization schemes. BEPS is a process-based two-leaf enzyme kinetic terrestrial ecosystem model designed to simulate energy, water, and carbon (C) fluxes using spatial data sets of meteorology, remotely sensed land surface variables, soil properties, and photosynthesis and respiration rate parameters. Two improved key land surface variables, leaf area index (LAI) and land cover type, are derived at 250 m from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor. For diagnostic error assessment, we use nine forest flux tower sites where all measured C flux, meteorology, and ancillary data sets are available. The errors due to input drivers and parameters are then independently corrected for Canada-wide GPP and NPP simulations. The optimized LAI use, for example, reduced the absolute bias in GPP from 20.7% to 1.1% for hourly BEPS simulations. Following the error diagnostics and corrections, daily GPP and NPP are simulated over Canada at 250 m spatial resolution, the highest resolution simulation yet for the country or any other comparable region. Total NPP (GPP) for Canada's land area was 1.27 (2.68) Pg C for 2008, with forests contributing 1.02 (2.2) Pg C. The annual comparisons between measured and simulated GPP show that the mean differences are not statistically significant (p > 0.05, paired t test). The main BEPS simulation error sources are from the driver fields.

  13. Is Canada odd? A comparison of European and Canadian approaches to choice and regulation of the public/private divide in health care. (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Haugan, Amanda


    Choice is often touted as a means for change within health care systems. Yet 'choice', in this context, takes at least three distinct forms: choice between providers within a publicly funded health care system; choice between competing insurers within a universal plan; and, lastly, choice as between privately financed health care and universal public coverage. In Canada, it is this last form of choice that is under active debate; particularly in light of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in Chaoulli, which found a regulation banning private health insurance for medically necessary care was unconstitutional. The argument is frequently made that Canada is an outlier from other countries in having regulation that effectively precludes this kind of choice. This issue is likely to become of concern again in upcoming constitutional challenges where applicants are looking to overturn through judicial challenges Canada's medicare system. This article tests that argument of whether Canada truly is 'odd' from a comparative policy perspective by exploring regulation of choice of privately financed health care in several European countries - the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, England and France. We highlight commonalities as well as differences, showing the extent to which these countries employ regulation to fetter growth of a large privately financed sector. The article's thesis is that Canada, in employing more intrusive forms of regulation, is not an outlier per se but at one point in a regulatory spectrum.

  14. Asthma, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease amongst South Asian immigrants to Canada and their children: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric I Benchimol

    Full Text Available There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children.Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants.Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61 and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65. Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49, as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42. Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71 and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67 was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81 and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22.Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children.

  15. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 06: Canada's National Computed Tomography (CT) Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardlaw, GM; Martel, N [Medical Imaging Division, Consumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada (Canada); Blackler, W; Asselin, J-F [Data Analysis and Information Systems, Applied Research and Analysis Directorate, Strategic Policy Branch, Health Canada (Canada)


    The value of computed tomography (CT) in medical imaging is reflected in its' increased use and availability since the early 1990's; however, given CT's relatively larger exposures (vs. planar x-ray) greater care must be taken to ensure that CT procedures are optimised in terms of providing the smallest dose possible while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. The development of CT Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) supports this process. DRLs have been suggested/supported by international/national bodies since the early 1990's and widely adopted elsewhere, but not on a national basis in Canada. Essentially, CT DRLs provide guidance on what is considered good practice for common CT exams, but require a representative sample of CT examination data to make any recommendations. Canada's National CT Survey project, in collaboration with provincial/territorial authorities, has collected a large national sample of CT practice data for 7 common examinations (with associated clinical indications) of both adult and pediatric patients. Following completion of data entry into a common database, a survey summary report and recommendations will be made on CT DRLs from this data. It is hoped that these can then be used by local regions to promote CT practice optimisation and support any dose reduction initiatives.

  16. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals in primiparous women: a comparison from Canada and Mexico☆ (United States)

    Adlard, Bryan; Davis, Karelyn; Liang, Chun Lei; Curren, Meredith S.; Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Foster, Warren; Needham, Larry; Wong, Lee-Yang; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Marro, Leonora; Leech, Tara; Van Oostdam, Jay


    Under the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) and its Sound Management of Chemicals (SMOC) program, a tri-national human contaminant monitoring initiative was completed to provide baseline exposure information for several environmental contaminants in Canada, Mexico and the United States (U.S). Blood samples were collected from primiparous women in Canada and Mexico, and were analysed for a suite of environmental contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene(p,p′-DDE),beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), mercury and lead. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted using data from Canadian and Mexican primiparous mothers, adjusting for ethnicity group, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, years at current city and ever-smoking status. Concentrations of p,p′-DDE, β-HCH, and lead were found to be higher among Mexican participants; however, concentrations of most PCBs among Mexican participants were similar to Canadian primiparous women after adjusting for covariates. Concentrations of total mercury were generally higher among Mexican primiparous women although this difference was smaller as age increased. This initial dataset can be used to determine priorities for future activities and to track progress in the management of the selected chemicals, both domestically and on a broader cooperative basis within North America. PMID:25233368

  17. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals in primiparous women: a comparison from Canada and Mexico. (United States)

    Adlard, Bryan; Davis, Karelyn; Liang, Chun Lei; S Curren, Meredith; Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Foster, Warren; Needham, Larry; Wong, Lee-Yang; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Marro, Leonora; Leech, Tara; Van Oostdam, Jay


    Under the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) and its Sound Management of Chemicals (SMOC) program, a tri-national human contaminant monitoring initiative was completed to provide baseline exposure information for several environmental contaminants in Canada, Mexico and the United States (U.S). Blood samples were collected from primiparous women in Canada and Mexico, and were analysed for a suite of environmental contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene(p,p'-DDE),beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), mercury and lead. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted using data from Canadian and Mexican primiparous mothers, adjusting for ethnicity group, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, years at current city and ever-smoking status. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE, β-HCH, and lead were found to be higher among Mexican participants; however, concentrations of most PCBs among Mexican participants were similar to Canadian primiparous women after adjusting for covariates. Concentrations of total mercury were generally higher among Mexican primiparous women although this difference was smaller as age increased. This initial dataset can be used to determine priorities for future activities and to track progress in the management of the selected chemicals, both domestically and on a broader cooperative basis within North America.

  18. National Surveillance of Occupational Exposure to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ricketts


    Full Text Available In September 1985, a prospective study was initiated to monitor the occurrence of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected blood and body fluids in Canada. This program was coordinated by the Federal Centre for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (now the Division of HIV/AIDS Epidemiology at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. The objective was to determine the risk to workers of acquiring HIV infection as a result of exposure to HIV-infected blood and other body fluids. To be eligible, a worker must have sustained a documented parenteral, mucous membrane or skin contact exposure to blood or body fluids from an HIV-infected person. A baseline specimen was collected within a week of the exposure and then at six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months. Information concerning the type of exposure, precautions used and post exposure treatment was submitted to the Federal Centre for AIDS on standard data collection forms. All information was anonymous, identified only by a code number. Guidelines for counselling an exposed employee were provided with enrollment material. As of July 29, 1991, 414 employees have been included in the study. Two hundred and thirty-seven of the 414 exposures (57% were needlestick injuries of which 167 (70% were sustained by nurses. Other exposures consisted of open wound contamination, eye splashes, scalpel wounds and skin contact with blood and body fluids. To date, there have been no seroconversions among workers enrolled in the surveillance program.

  19. Medium wave exposure characterisation using exposure quotients. (United States)

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Pinar, Iván


    One of the aspects considered in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines is that, in situations of simultaneous exposure to fields of different frequencies, exposure quotients for thermal and electrical stimulation effects should be examined. The aim of the present work was to analyse the electromagnetic radiation levels and exposure quotients for exposure to multiple-frequency sources in the vicinity of medium wave radio broadcasting antennas. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyser and a monopole antenna. Kriging interpolation was used to prepare contour maps and to estimate the levels in the towns and villages of the zone. The results showed that the exposure quotient criterion based on electrical stimulation effects to be more stringent than those based on thermal effects or power density levels. Improvement of dosimetry evaluations requires the spectral components of the radiation to be quantified, followed by application of the criteria for exposure to multiple-frequency sources.

  20. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.


    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.