Recker, Jo Ann M.
Instructions and ideas for classroom use of "Jeu de Banque" (The Bank Game), an instructional game about the French banking system developed by the French Association of Banks, are presented. The structure and content of the game are discussed in terms of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Educational Testing Service…
Ce texte porte sur les discours commerciaux qui attribuent des valeurs culturelles à une gamme de produits, facilitant leur vente sur les marchés. C’est le cas des produits alimentaires sur lesquels porte ici l’analyse. Discours commercial et marketing ne doivent pas être confondus ; le marketing est en aval, les discours commerciaux, par leurs dimensions sociale et culturelle, sont en amont. Ils se donnent à lire et à voir sur l’emballage des produits, que l’on nomme « emballage discursif »....
São Gabriel da Cachoeira, ville du nord-ouest de l’Amazonie brésilienne, est majoritairement habitée par des familles amérindiennes. Nous nous demandons dans quelle mesure les territorialités amérindiennes permettent le maintien d’une certaine diversité alimentaire. Nous couplons pour cela l’étude des systèmes de production, l’observation participative des pratiques alimentaires et l’analyse des principales filières d’approvisionnement. L’incorporation de produits alimentaires d’origine exogè...
La publication du rapport de la Société royale du Canada le 5 février 2001 marquera peut-être un tournant historique important vers une approche gourvernementale plus responsable dans le dossier des OGM (organismes génétiquement modifiés) au Canada. Pour la première fois au Canada, un groupe d’experts indépendants confirme les craintes de nombreux groupes dont Greenpeace au sujet des OGM (pour la position de Greenpeace sur les OGM voir http://www.greenpeace.fr/ , http://www.greenpeace.ca ou h...
Canada ranks ninth in the world in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Canada currently releases 1.9 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of fossil fuels, production and treatment of oil and natural gas, and cement manufacturing. Canadian carbon dioxide emissions doubled between 1956 and 1986, growing at an average rate of about 2.4 percent per year. They reached a peak in 1979 and have since fluctuated within 10 percent of that amount. Despite the significant increase in emissions, Canada's share of global carbon dioxide emissions has declined slightly since 1956. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks fourth among nations in carbon dioxide emissions, with about 4.1 tons in 1986. This rate compares with the U.S. average of 5 tons per capita emissions have grown by about 25 percent since 1956. Canada, though a relatively small source of greenhouse gases, has been deeply involved in finding ways to reduce the risk of climatic change. The nation fortunately possesses opportunities to reduce this risk by saving energy, developing nonfossil energy resources, and facilitating international cooperation for capturing these opportunities worldwide
Nuclear research and development in Canada started in the 1940s as a responsibility of the federal government. An engineering design team was established at Chalk River, Ontario, to carry out research on heavy water moderated lattices. A zero-energy heavy water moderated research reactor, ZEEP, was built and achieved criticality in September 1945; it was in fact the first human-made operating reactor outside the USA. In 1947, the 20 MW heavy water moderated national research experimental reactor (NRX) started up. It served as one of the most valuable research reactors in the world, and provided the basis for Canada's development of the very successful CANDU series of pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) for power generation. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) was established in 1952 as a federal Crown Corporation. It has both a public and a commercial mandate. AECL has overall responsibility for Canada's nuclear research and development programme (its public mandate) as well as for the Canadian reactor design (CANDU), engineering and marketing programme (its commercial mandate). Nuclear energy in Canada is a $5 billion per-year industry, representing about 150 firms, 21 000 direct jobs and 10 000 indirect jobs, and ∼$1.2 billion in exports - the value to the country's economy is much higher than the research and development funding provided by the federal government. The CANDU nuclear reactor system was developed by AECL in close collaboration with the Canadian nuclear industry, and in particular with Ontario Hydro (now Ontario Power Generation). Currently, Canada operates 17 CANDU reactors, which contribute 16% of the country's current electricity consumption. There are also 12 CANDU reactors operating abroad (in Argentina, China, India, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Romania). AECL is now developing the 'third generation plus' Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000), and also has the leading role internationally in developing the Generation IV
This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada
Dans le contexte contemporain de multiplication des crises sanitaires, de nombreux travaux en sciences économiques et sociales ont cherché à décrire et analyser le comportement des consommateurs face au risque alimentaire. Ces travaux partagent globalement deux prémisses : ils considèrent l'acte de consommation comme un comportement individuel et attribuent aux consommateurs des "perceptions du risque" qui orientent leurs choix. Une critique de ces deux axiomes amène à soulever la question de...
Nguyen, Van Hoa; Lavenier, Dominique
Une des tâches de base de la biologie moléculaire est la recherche de similarités dans les banques d'ADN. Une recherche rapide passe par une mise en oeuvre parallèle des algorithmes. Les méthodes séquentielles développées se parallélisent en général sans problème : les noeuds travaillent indépendamment sur une partie des banques et le résultat final est la fusion de l'ensemble. Un des inconvénients réside dans le parcours systématique des banques puisque leur taille influe directement sur le ...
Full Text Available São Gabriel da Cachoeira, ville du nord-ouest de l’Amazonie brésilienne, est majoritairement habitée par des familles amérindiennes. Nous nous demandons dans quelle mesure les territorialités amérindiennes permettent le maintien d’une certaine diversité alimentaire. Nous couplons pour cela l’étude des systèmes de production, l’observation participative des pratiques alimentaires et l’analyse des principales filières d’approvisionnement. L’incorporation de produits alimentaires d’origine exogène dans les repas des amérindiens est due principalement aux conditions d’accès aux ressources naturelles et de mobilisation de la main d’œuvre. Pour contourner ces contraintes, les groupes domestiques articulent les ressources urbaines et forestières grâce à des mobilités circulaires. De plus, à l’échelle de la famille élargie, les réseaux d’échange entre ville et forêt favorisent le maintien de la qualité des produits et l’agrobiodiversité.Food Diversity And Urbanization, Agrarian Transformations And Food Recomposition In The North-Western Amazon (Brazil São Gabriel da Cachoeira, a town located in the northwest of the Brazilian Amazon, is mainly inhabited by indigenous families. Our question is whether indigenous territorial practices lead to conservation of food diversity. Data were obtained by agro-economic interviews, participative observation of food practices and analysis of the main food chain supply in the town. Consumption of agroindustrial food by indigenous families is mainly due to urban conditions of access to natural resource and labor force employment. To cope with these constraints, domestic groups use multi-sited production units and circular mobility across urban and forest areas. Moreover, at a larger scale, the exchange networks between city and forest help to maintain the quality of products and agrobiodiversity conservation.
L’évolution des politiques agricoles aussi bien que les acquis scientifiques ont fortement influencé les conditions d’approvisionnement en graines oléagineuses en France. A la faveur de ces évolutions, le colza, culture déjà bien adaptée aux conditions pédo-climatiques et produite traditionnellement, se développe fortement au cours des trois dernières décennies du XXe siècle. En revanche la consommation alimentaire n’a pas répondu à ce succès de la culture puisque le doute sur l’innocuité de ...
Full Text Available En 2007 et 2008 a éclaté la plus importante crise alimentaire depuis 1974. La hausse du prix des denrées alimentaires sur le marché international, en particulier du blé, du riz, du soja et du maïs, a entraîné une augmentation sans précédent du nombre de personnes sous-alimentées. Malgré une diminution relative du prix des denrées alimentaires depuis l’été 2008, le nombre de personnes sous-alimentées a continué à augmenter en 2009. Cette crise alimentaire a remis la lutte contre la faim au cœur des préoccupations internationales. Depuis le mois de mars 2008, les Etats, les agences des Nations unies et une grande partie des mouvements sociaux ont pris position sur les causes de la crise et les moyens d’y remédier. Malheureusement, alors que ces acteurs tentent de coordonner leurs activités et de proposer des solutions nouvelles, ce sont souvent des recettes anciennes, visant à augmenter la production alimentaire, qui sont mises en avant. Les propositions faites sont souvent contradictoires et les réflexions sur les causes profondes de la faim et de la crise alimentaire – les exclusions sociales, économiques et politiques et les discriminations – ne semblent pas avoir été entendues. Le premier Objectif du Millénaire pour le développement, qui vise à réduire de moitié la proportion des personnes souffrant de sous-alimentation et vivant dans l’extrême pauvreté d’ici 2015, est devenu clairement inatteignable. Mais la crise alimentaire pourrait être à l’origine de la création d’un nouvel ordre alimentaire mondial, basé sur les trois piliers que sont l’aide alimentaire, la sécurité alimentaire et le droit à l’alimentation.
Just, Jocelyne; Amat, F.; Deschildre, A.
Les allergies alimentaires sont des maladies multiples en termes de sévérité, d’évolution et d’association à des comorbidités allergiques. Cet article aborde les différents phénotypes d’allergie alimentaire à partir de cohortes néonatales et de cohortes de patients atteints d’allergie alimentaire, en s’orientant sur les allergies alimentaires les plus préoccupantes, c’est-à-dire : (1) les allergies alimentaires à risque de passage d’une maladie atopique à l’autre au cours de l’enfance (de l’a...
A partir d’une enquête effectuée en milieu urbain taiwanais auprès de neuf Français(e)s ayant migré à Taiwan et marié(e)s avec des Taiwanais(e)s, l’auteur propose de réfléchir à la question des pratiques alimentaires en situation de mixité conjugale. Il fait l’hypothèse que ces pratiques alimentaires doivent être observées et s’apprécier en fonction des différents repas et moments alimentaires: petit-déjeuner, déjeuner, nourritures de rue, dîner conjugal, repas dans la belle famille. Ces situ...
Full Text Available Le rapport annuel de la Banque mondiale sur le développement dans le monde est un document toujours important et attendu. Il fait le point à l’échelle mondiale sur une question essentielle du développement et il permet de fonder les évolutions doctrinaires de la Banque mondiale en annonçant d’éventuelles inflexions ou changements de priorités et d’approches. Il en fut ainsi pour la priorité donnée à la lutte contre la pauvreté en 2000 après les années d’ajustements structurels. Réhabiliter la...
Le Bot, Florent
Durant un siècle l’industrie de la chaussure à Fougères (Ille-et-Vilaine) connaît un important développement reposant sur l’alliance entre les fabriques et les banques locales. Avec la crise des années 1930 cet équilibre est rompu. La liquidation d’un de ces établissements, la banque Beaucé et cie, nous permet d’observer la dynamique particulière d’un système industriel spécifique, ainsi que ses limites. For a century, the shoe industry in Fougères (Ille-et-Vilaine) went through a consider...
Cette thèse porte sur le lien entre fusions et acquisitions et création de valeur actionnariale. La problématique consiste à analyser ce paradoxe qui est le recours des banques aux fusions et acquisitions en dépit des résultats des recherches scientifiques qui en démontrent le peu d’efficacité en termes de rentabilité actionnariale. De prime abord nous procédons à une analyse théorique des fusions et acquisitions bancaires en insistant sur des aspects particuliers comme l’évolution du phénomè...
Gianfaldoni, Patrick; Richez-Battesti, Nadine; Alcaras, Jean-Robert; Ory, Jean-Noël; Dompnier, Nathalie; Rousseau, François; Jaeger, Mireille; Gurtner, Emmanuelle; Ducau, Laurent
[Rapport de recherche] Recherche financée par la DIIESES, sous la direction de Patrick Gianfaldoni et Nadine Richez-Battesti. Comment caractériser la gouvernance interne et externe des banques coopératives dans une perspective territoriale ? Et quels contenus attribuer à la gouvernance partenariale ? En interne, les processus de décisions sont-ils fondamentalement spécifiques, de par leurs caractères démocratiques ? En externe, qu'en est-il des liens de coordination et des rapports de coop...
Les acheteurs et les vendeurs qui transigent des aliments sont consentants. On ne les oblige pas à acheter ou vendre. Mais ces transactions alimentaires profitent-elles plus aux uns qu’aux autres ? Certains opérateurs seraient-t-ils plus libres que d’autres dans ce processus commercial ? La mise en concurrence des agricultures du monde fait-elle des perdants ? Entre les 2,6 milliards de paysans et les 100 entreprises qui achètent 74 % de leurs récoltes, lesquels sont avantagés ? Quel est le p...
Bonnain-Dulon, Rolande; Brochot, Aline
La demande d’authenticité est au centre de multiples préoccupations actuelles dont celles concernant l’alimentation en particulier ne sont pas les moins importantes. La mention de l’origine et la référence explicite au terroir de production d’un produit alimentaire entraînant quasi automatiquement la garantie de sa qualité, labels, indications de provenance et appellations d’origine contrôlée sont devenus des vecteurs indispensables de la démonstration de la preuve de la qualité, et des argum...
Hubert BONIN (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113 & Sciences Po Bordeaux)
The research program about the history of investment banking assesses through this text the legacy transmitted by the merchant banks (Haute Banque) to the Paris banking market. It first delimited the foibles which hindered them in the last quarter of the 19th century, but précised how they succeeded in renewing themselves and in absorbing fresh forces of initiative and creativeness. It draws the strong lines of the strategic deployment of the private bankers, of their portfolio of banking ski...
Full Text Available Les organisations confessionnelles jouent un rôle de plus en plus important en matière de coopération pour favoriser le développement international. De nombreuses institutions internationales reconnaissent ces organisations comme de précieux partenaires, déclarant qu’elles ont « contribué à valoriser la foi » dans leur propre action. Mais qu’en est-il vraiment et comment ce phénomène s’est-il produit ? Cet article s’attache aux activités de la Banque mondiale pendant la période 1995-2005 lorsque, sous la direction du président James Wolfensohn et de Katherine Marshall, alors directrice du Development Dialogue on Values and Ethics (DDVE rattaché au groupe, l’institution a entamé des relations avec une sélection d’organisations confessionnelles. Il analyse ce qui a poussé la Banque mondiale à s’intéresser à la cause religieuse et pourquoi cet intérêt a soudain disparu. La raison principale de cette adhésion à la cause religieuse tient au fait que les résultats des précédentes stratégies séculières s’étaient révélés décevants. A cela s’ajoute le sentiment que la religion a joué un rôle positif dans la lutte contre la pauvreté. Cependant, des divergences de vues sur la pauvreté et le développement ont divisé les Etats et les institutions religieuses, sans compter que certains représentants de l’Etat ont continué à se montrer suspicieux envers l’intervention de la religion dans les affaires publiques. Il s’en est suivi l’échec de la collaboration.
L'uranium, le thorium et leurs descendants se trouvent a l'état de traces dans toutes les roches sur Terre. Sous l'action de l'érosion, des mécanismes de formation des sols et des transferts sol-plante, ces radionucléides sont disséminés dans toutes les composantes de l'environnement et via les chaînes alimentaires, ils sont transmis aux animaux et à l'homme. L'objectif de cette étude consiste à améliorer les connaissances sur les niveaux et la variabilité des activités de ces radionucléides ...
Marc Dedeire; Selma Tozanli
À partir d’une problématique issue d’observations et de lectures sur la mobilité des hommes, le(s) distance(s) et l’ancrage territorial, nous nous interrogeons sur les paradoxes de l’acculturation dans la (re)construction des identités alimentaires. Pourquoi certaines populations développent-elles leur culture alimentaire locale dans des territoires d’accueil ? Quel est le rôle du migrant et de la distance sur cette diffusion appuyée par l’acculturation ? Et quelles sont les formes d’ancrages...
Delle Chiaie, S.
Lors du séminaire organisé par la Banque de France plusieurs chercheurs parmi les plus influents ont discuté les travaux analytiques récents sur les causes et les effets des fluctuations des prix du pétrole.
Full Text Available Cet article porte sur les représentations de la notion de présomption d’innocence véhiculées dans les débats politiques concernant la mise sur pied de la Banque nationale de données génétiques au Canada. Nous montrons la façon dont la logique de risque imprègne les représentations de la présomption d’innocence et comment les rapports entre l’État et les citoyens se transforment à l’ère du néolibéralisme. La mise en banque de profils de personnes condamnées constitue une forme de surveillance biotechnique faisant reculer la présomption d'innocence, en particulier pour des populations déjà identifiées par le système pénal.This article analyzes the representations of the presumption of innocence put forward in the political debate leading to the adoption of the National DNA Data Bank in Canada. We show that the risk logic is pervasive in those representations and that it transforms the relationship between the State and the citizens in the neoliberal era. The banking of the DNA profiles of people found guilt creates a type of biotechnical surveillance that weakens the right to be presumed innocent, especially for populations already known by the criminal justice system.
Claude Fischler est Directeur de recherche au CNRS. Il poursuit au sein du CETSAH (Centre d' études transdisciplinaire-sociologie, anthropologie, histoire) des recherches sur l' alimentation (pratiques, représen-tations, comparaisons transculturelles) et la perception du risque (ESB, OGM, crises alimentaires récentes).
BOUABDALLAH Ep SEBBAGH, Wassila
L’investissement direct étranger est considéré aujourd’hui comme un facteur primordial de développement des pays grâce aux effets bénéfiques qu’engendre dans ces pays. L’attractivité de l’IDE est devenue une préoccupation majeure aussi bien dans les pays développés que dans les pays en développement et touche tous les secteurs d’activités. L’internationalisation des banques est une des formes de l’IDE qui intéresse une grande partie des acteurs financiers et des régulateurs économiques. Notre...
Madji Ben Selma
Full Text Available Les assureurs qui affirment ne pas vouloir se diversifier dans les métiers de la banque se raréfient ; la majorité des grands assureurs européens se sont lancés dans la banque, et de nouvelles expériences sont en train d’être menées. Ce travail est l’un des premiers à se focaliser sur la question de la diversification des assureurs en banque. Il propose, à travers une recherche réalisée au sein de quatre assureurs européens, d’étudier les différentes facettes de la stratégie de diversification vers les métiers de banque. L’objectif est de comprendre pourquoi les assureurs ne réussissent par leurs développements en banque, de la même façon que les banquiers ont réussi leur modèle de bancassurance. Les résultats obtenus ont permis d’identifier les sources actuelles de synergies entre les métiers des assureurs et celui de la banque, ainsi que les freins et blocages à l’exploitation réelle de ces sources de synergies.Many European insurers have been engaging during the last years in banking activities, following the same reasons as the banks when they entered the bancassurance market. No study, however, treated the business diversification in the specific case of insurer -banks. The effort of our study is based principally upon carrying out cases studies. We are trying to explain why insurers have not been performing as well as bankers in a banking/ insurance industry. We discuss sources of business relatedness in the financial services and sources of value creation associated with these types of relatedness. We focus on the actual links between insurer’s core business and banking activities, and will examine factors that have a significant impact on the success or failure of this strategy.
Le premier chapitre présente les fondements théoriques relatifs au marketing des services ainsi qu'au concept de servuction et enfin au marketing mix des services dans le deuxiéme chapitre.Le troisiéme chapitre est consacré au marketing bancaire et au plan marketing dans le chapitre suivant, une étude de cas au sein de la B.A.D.R.Banque.
Vu Dinh, Ton; Phan Dang, Thang; Duquesne, Brigitte; Lebailly, Philippe
Une enquête a été menée de janvier à octobre 2009 auprès de 240 familles de deux districts situés dans la zone périurbaine de la ville de Hanoi. Il s’agissait d’évaluer l’impact de la crise économique sur les revenus des ménages et, plus particulièrement, sur leur consommation alimentaire afin de déterminer les stratégies à envisager pour garantir sécurité alimentaire et revenus. Une approche d’identification des systèmes agroalimentaires a permis de distinguer 3 typologies distinctes: activi...
Hansel Boris; Giral Philipe
Si l’hypercholestérolémie est un facteur de risque avéré des maladies cardiovasculaires, le rôle du cholestérol alimentaire dans la survenue de ces maladies reste discuté. À l’origine, les travaux d’Anitshkow chez le lapin ont montré qu’une alimentation riche en cholestérol se traduit par le développement de plaques d’athérome. Les études d’intervention chez l’homme ont examiné l’effet du cholestérol alimentaire et/ou des œufs s...
L’article s’intéresse aux modalités de diffusion, à un niveau local, d’une campagne nationale française en matière de prévention de l’obésité. Il met en évidence les difficultés rencontrées par les promoteurs d’un groupe d’éducation nutritionnelle dans leur tentative d’imposer de nouvelles normes en matière de comportement alimentaire. Leurs préceptes se heurtent aux représentations que les femmes en surpoids se font de leur propre comportement alimentaire et des moyens prescriptifs pour par...
Ismail Serageldin, Économiste en éducation et ressources humaines, directeur de la Bibliothèque d’Alexandrie, a donné sa leçon inaugurale le 18 novembre 2010. Son cours intitulé « La faim et la sécurité alimentaire dans le monde » commençera le 5 janvier 2011.
Full Text Available Si l’hypercholestérolémie est un facteur de risque avéré des maladies cardiovasculaires, le rôle du cholestérol alimentaire dans la survenue de ces maladies reste discuté. À l’origine, les travaux d’Anitshkow chez le lapin ont montré qu’une alimentation riche en cholestérol se traduit par le développement de plaques d’athérome. Les études d’intervention chez l’homme ont examiné l’effet du cholestérol alimentaire et/ou des œufs sur les lipides plasmatiques, aboutissant à des résultats contradictoires. Elles ont également fait émerger la notion complexe d’hypo- et d’hyper-répondeur au cholestérol. L’épidémiologie observationnelle ne permet pas non plus de conclure à un effet délétère du cholestérol alimentaire chez l’homme. Néanmoins, chez les sujets diabétiques, une association positive entre la consommation et l’incidence des événements cardiovasculaires est retrouvée assez constamment, sans que l’on puisse l’expliquer de manière convaincante. Il n’existe pas d’essai clinique examinant l’impact des aliments riches en cholestérol sur la survenue des événements cardiovasculaires. Toutefois, les résultats des études MRFIT et PREDIMED ne vont pas dans le sens d’un effet délétère du cholestérol alimentaire. À l’inverse, les travaux réalisés sur le transporteur intestinal du cholestérol NPC1L1 sont en faveur de l’intérêt d’inhiber l’absorption du cholestérol pour réduire l’incidence des maladies cardiovasculaires. L’ensemble des données disponibles n’est pas en faveur d’un rôle clé du cholestérol alimentaire dans la survenue des maladies cardiovasculaires. Elles ne permettent donc pas d’en faire une cible prioritaire du régime à proposer pour prévenir les maladies cardiovasculaires.
Suite à un nombre croissant de crise le risque alimentaire paraît être soudainement rentré dans la catégorie des préoccupations majeures pour l'Homme et par la suite les gouvernements et les instances internationales améliorent les systèmes de sécurité alimentaire pour réduire, prévenir ou éviter l'augmentation des maladies d'origine alimentaire. Au Liban l'industrie agroalimentaire et l'agriculture intensive connaissent un développement rapide, que les systèmes assurant la sécurité alimentai...
LE BORGNE, Guillaume
Le gaspillage alimentaire occupe une place croissante dans l'actualité et l'agenda politique. Les travaux en marketing sur le gaspillage en foyer restent relativement peu nombreux, et n'appréhendent pas la façon dont le consommateur est sensible à la question du gaspillage. Nous proposons dans cette thèse une définition de la sensibilité du consommateur au gaspillage alimentaire, et validons une échelle de mesure de ce construit. Puis nous testons un modèle décrivant les relations entre la se...
La hiérarchie sociale et les effets d’entraînement sont deux composantes importantes du comportement social qui influencent fortement le niveau d’ingestion et le comportement alimentaire des bovins conduits en groupe. Cet effet se traduit pour des animaux à besoins nutritionnels élevés (animaux laitiers ou en croissance) par des niveaux d’ingestion supérieurs et une moindre efficacité alimentaire par rapport à des situations où les animaux sont alimentés individuellement (à l’attache ou en bo...
Ce texte examine, sur le plan macro-économique, les relations entre l’agriculture, les industries agro-alimentaires, le commerce et les consommateurs, en France, entre 1978 et 2005. La méthode des comptes de surplus est appliquée aux tableaux entrées-sorties pour mesurer la productivité de l’agriculture et des industries alimentaires et apprécier les transferts de pouvoir d’achat entre les différents agents. L’agriculture inclut la sylviculture et la pÃªche. Les industries sont divisées en de...
This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)
Hladik, Claude Marcel
National audience Le comportement alimentaire des primates dépend des adaptations morphologiques (denture, tractus digestif), et physiologiques (secrétions d'enzymes et possibilité de perception) qui résultent, comme chez les autres vertébrés, d'une longue coévolution avec la structure physique et chimique des aliments potentiels disponibles dans les environnements successifs. Cependant, en plus de ces indispensables adaptations aux qualités nutritionnelles des produits de la nature ou à l...
Geraldes, Ana Maria; Coelho, M M; COLLARES-PEREIRA M. J.
Le barbeau ibérique Barbus bocagei est l’une des espèces les plus représentatives de l’icthyofaune de la rivière Sorraia (Bassin du fleuve Tejo). L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer 1) les variations spatiales du régime alimentaire et de croissance linéaire de cette espèce entre différentes stations du sous-bassin de la Sorraia et 2) les variations de ces paramètres sur l’échelle temporelle dans deux de ces stations.
McMorran, Rob; Santini, Fabien; Guri, Fatmir; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Price, Martin; Beucherie, Olivier; Monticelli, Christine; Rouby, Alexia; Vitrolles, Delphine; Cloye, Guillaume
Des recherches récentes ont mis en valeur l’existence d’une demande significative en denrées alimentaires originaires des montagnes européennes. La production de ces aliments va de pair avec des externalités positives, bien que leurs producteurs soient confrontés à de plus grandes contraintes que leurs homologues des plaines. Les marchés sont souvent défaillants pour compenser ces contraintes du fait de l’absence de définition claire des produits de montagne. Le présent article examine en quo...
Prat, G.; Mercier, F.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [French] Les consequences locales des retombees fraiches, notamment dans le cas d'explosions nucleaires atmospheriques, sont passees en revue en ce qui concerne les problemes de contamination interne du consommateur de denrees d'origine animale. La comestibilite des aliments provenant de betes de boucherie ayant pature sous les retombees est evaluee au double point de vue de la salubrite et de la radiotoxicologie. Le niveau de contamination de ces denrees est calcule en fonction de la retombee au sol, des parametres agronomiques et ecologiques pour chaque radioelement de la chaine alimentaire animale. La contamination interne du consommateur humain est calculee a partir de ce niveau en fonction des modalites d'ingestion et de divers parametres, notamment temporels. L'equivalent de dose au niveau de chaque organe critique, y compris le tube digestif, est deduit
Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Narcy, Agnès; Tran, Thanh-Son; de Verdal, Hugues; Bastianelli, Denis; Juin, Herve; Carré, Bernard
Le coût de l’aliment représente une part prépondérante des coûts de production du poulet de chair. L’efficacité alimentaire est donc un élément clé de la rentabilité de la production avicole. La sélection génétique des poulets de chair a résulté en une amélioration considérable de l’indice de consommation, en utilisant des régimes alimentaires de bonne qualité. De nos jours, alors que le prix des matières premières de bonne qualité et que la population humaine augmentent, l’intérêt d’une séle...
L'objectif principal de cette thèse est la mise au point d'une méthodologie de travail pour l'optimisation, hors ligne, des conditions opératoires applicables en conduite des procédés alimentaires. La première partie du travail est consacrée à l'élaboration d'une stratégie d'optimisation en deux étapes : la construction du problème d'optimisation et le choix de la méthode de résolution. Ce dernier point est réalisé à l'aide d'un diagramme décisionnel, qui propose une méthode d'optimisation dé...
Cette étude porte sur l'examen des contenus stomacaux de juvéniles de bars (groupe 0) et de limandes (groupes 0 et 1), péchés en septembre 1982, en baie de Somme et dans la frange littorale voisine, jusqu'à Penly. Si les crustacés constituent l'essentiel du régime alimentaire des jeunes bars, les annélides semblent être les proies préférées des limandes. Que ce soit pour l'une ou l'autre espèce, l'évolution dans le choix des proies est précoce ; cumacés puis crevette grise pour les bars, tent...
Full Text Available Le rapport aux aliments et à l’alimentation est marqué au Danemark par la recherche de produits purs, c’est-à-dire sûrs et bons pour la santé et par une politique de la santé publique présente au quotidien. Les débats médiatiques sur les peurs alimentaires font une grande place aux réflexes identitaires « défensifs », dimension confortée par la prise en compte du changement d’échelle décisionnelle au sein de l’Europe et la conscience du jeu d’harmonisation législatif nécessaire dans ce cadre.
Suite à diverses crises, l'Agence française de sécurité sanitaire alimentaire a été créée en 1999 afind'intégrer des avis scientifiques dans l'évaluation des risques sanitaires. Le principe d'expertise quiest retenu suppose d'écarter les intérêts professionnels et économiques dans le travail d'évaluation.L'observation de l'activité concrète d'un comité d'experts dont les travaux sont centrés sur le prionmontre cependant que le jugement est le produit de ressources et de démarches variées : en...
Dès les débuts du gouvernement de Juan Domingo Perón, les pratiques alimentaires constituent non seulement une dimension essentielle de la politique de l’État, mais aussi un élément central de la propagande gouvernementale. Cet article s’oppose à la séparation analytique de l’étude des politiques de celles des imaginaires afin d’ouvrir de nouvelles pistes de réflexion sur le péronisme. Dans un premier temps, nous mettons l’accent sur le rôle central joué par les dimensions économiques, politi...
Barrey, Sandrine; Teil, Geneviève
Cet article porte sur la notion d’« authenticité » appliquée au patrimoine des « vins de terroir ». Ces dix dernières années, des vignerons accusent la législation des AOC (Appellations d’Origine Contrôlées) de ne plus protéger les terroirs et de laisser les mauvaises pratiques des vignerons les pervertir. Le retour vers la qualité de terroir repose donc la question de l’identification de la nature authentique de ce patrimoine alimentaire. Pour mener cette approche réflexive, une première par...
Suremain, Charles-Édouard de
L’étude anthropologique des pratiques alimentaires de migrants boliviens de retour ayant longuement séjourné en Argentine permet d’aborder la problématique de la migration et de l’identité : la construction sociale, réelle et imaginaire, de la migration ne passe-t-elle pas aussi par l’alimentation ? Ce que l’on mange ici et là-bas éclaire, en creux, le succès ou l’échec donné à la migration par les migrants et aide à comprendre plus finement les significations locales données à la pauvreté et...
Full Text Available À partir d’une problématique issue d’observations et de lectures sur la mobilité des hommes, le(s distance(s et l’ancrage territorial, nous nous interrogeons sur les paradoxes de l’acculturation dans la (reconstruction des identités alimentaires. Pourquoi certaines populations développent-elles leur culture alimentaire locale dans des territoires d’accueil ? Quel est le rôle du migrant et de la distance sur cette diffusion appuyée par l’acculturation ? Et quelles sont les formes d’ancrages territoriaux expliquant les diffusions de certains produits locaux ?The authors base their research question on the observations and the literature concerning different forms of mobility of human beings and food products, distances and territorial anchoring. They further their analysis on the paradoxes of acculturation process that arise during the identity (reconstruction in the field of food consumption and eating habits. They focus on the place of cross-border migrations in the spreading of genuine country products and/or local eating specialities of the migrant populations in their host countries. What are the different definitions of distance(s that separate the migrant from its home country and from the host culture? What role dœs the migrant play in the spreading of these eating habits? How the acculturation process works? What are the different forms of territorial anchoring to explain the spreading of these genuine country food products?
Full Text Available La gustation est un système dynamique capable d’une adaptation physiologique rapide en réponse aux changements environnementaux permanents qui caractérisent notre alimentation (rythme, qualité, quantité. Basé sur la modulation des seuils de sensibilité gustative, ce système homéostatique contribue à la construction du comportement alimentaire en orientant les choix de consommation. On peut donc penser qu’un dysfonctionnement de ce système régulateur peut avoir un impact sur les habitudes alimentaires et donc, à terme, sur la santé. La mise en évidence récente chez le rongeur (rat, souris qu’une obésité induite par le régime non seulement entraîne une détérioration de la détection orale des lipides mais se traduit également par une préférence accrue pour le «gras», plaide en faveur de cette thèse. Chez l’homme, nos travaux indiquent que les sujets obèses, dont la détection oro-sensorielle des lipides est défectueuse, surconsomment des aliments riches en graisse. Ces données murines et humaines suscitent une question fondamentale : quel est le lien entre lipides, obésité et désordres gustatifs? Cette mini-revue se propose de faire le point des connaissances actuelles sur ce sujet.
Notre étude a été inspirée par l’observation que malgré les efforts considérables en matière de la libéralisation financière au Malawi à partir de la fin des années 1980, les résultats apparents étaient plutôt médiocres, notamment en ce qui concerne la persistance de marges d’intermédiation (spreads) élevés. L’objectif central de notre travail est d’essayer d’élucider pourquoi. Notre hypothèse centrale est que si l’on ne tient pas compte du comportement des banques en matière de leurs réactio...
Quel lien existe-t-il entre la formation des stratégies et le contexte institutionnel au sein duquel les stratèges opèrent? Pour tenter de répondre à cette question, ce travail doctoral met en œuvre un design de recherche interprétativiste qui permet d'explorer les caractéristiques de la finance islamique avant d'analyser la façon dont les banques islamiques libanaises élaborent et mettent en œuvre leurs stratégies. L'étude révèle que les possibles institutionnels du champ naissant de la fina...
Colonna, Paul; Corvol, Pierre
En 2050, la population mondiale atteindra 9 milliards de personnes. Comment s’adapter à des besoins alimentaires et énergétiques croissants tout en préservant notre environnement ? Un des défis majeurs du XXIe siècle est de développer une « bio-économie », c’est-à-dire de créer de nouveaux systèmes de production durables permettant d’articuler les filières alimentaires, énergétiques et chimiques. La « chimie verte » consiste ainsi à remplacer une partie du carbone d’origine fossile par du car...
Full Text Available Local food products, either new, “traditional”, or based on a specific conception of food heritage, play an important role in the development of the rural tourism sector in Norway. Building on different concrete Norwegian case studies, this article seeks to better understand the role tourism plays in the creation, or revival, of cultural identity based on local food products and food heritage. The paper uses the concept of the “tourist gaze” in order to analyze tourists and local consumers’ perceptions and appropriation of local food. The article highlights the consequences of the emergence of culinary and local food heritage for tourists in Norway, and concludes that tourism increases the awareness of food heritage and strengthens local identity, although these food products are not much used in ordinary food consumption.Les produits locaux, nouveaux, basés sur des recettes « traditionnelles », voire sur une conception particulière du patrimoine alimentaire, jouent un rôle important dans le développement du secteur touristique rural en Norvège. Fondé sur différents cas d’études norvégiens concrets, cet article permet de mieux comprendre le rôle joué par le tourisme dans la création, ou la construction, de l’identité culturelle basée sur le patrimoine alimentaire et le développement récent des produits locaux. Afin d’analyser la perception et l’appropriation des produits localisés par les consommateurs, nous proposons une approche fondée sur la notion de « regard touristique ». Cet article s’achève finalement sur les conséquences de l’émergence du patrimoine alimentaire local dans le tourisme, soulignant à la fois l’influence sur les pratiques alimentaires et sur la mise en valeur d’une identité culturelle locale, bien que ces produits locaux restent peu utilisés dans les habitudes alimentaires quotidiennes.
A partir d’une enquête effectuée en milieu urbain taiwanais auprès de neuf Français(e)s ayant migré à Taiwan et marié(e)s avec des Taiwanais(e)s, l’auteur propose de réfléchir à la question des pratiques alimentaires en situation de mixité conjugale. Il fait l’hypothèse que ces pratiques alimentaires doivent être observées et s’apprécier en fonction des différents repas et moments alimentaires: petit-déjeuner, déjeuner, nourritures de rue, dîner conjugal, repas dans la belle famille. Ces situ...
Chapitre de l’ouvrage collectif Penser une démocratie alimentaire Volume II – Proposition Lascaux entre ressources naturelles et besoins fondamentaux, F. Collart Dutilleul et T. Bréger (dir), Inida, San José, 2014, pp. 243-250.Programme Lascaux - DroitAlimentsterre (www.droit-aliments-terre.eu) International audience Pour tenter de construire une démocratie alimentaire, il faut s’interroger sur ce que cela signifie. La démocratie étant définie comme « un régime politique dans lequel le ...
Full Text Available L'étude de la famille Richou de la fin du XVIIIe siècle au début du XXe siècle en Maine-et-Loire s'appuie sur ses propriétés encore conservées : moulins, fermes, châteaux, hôtels particuliers, banque. L'évocation de certains membres de la famille permet de montrer l'évolution d'une famille bourgeoise au cours du XIXe siècle, marqué par les révolutions agricoles et industrielles. Les Richou se sont ainsi illustrés tout d'abord dans la meunerie, participant activement à la modernisation de cette activité et au développement des minoteries modernes. Ils ont également conforté leur situation avec l'achat de nombreuses terres et la construction ou le réaménagement de fermes répondant aux nouveaux critères productifs et hygiénistes de la 2e moitié du XIXe siècle. Enfin, ils sont à l'origine d'une des premières banques angevines. A travers cette famille, ce sont donc les grands pôles d'activité du XIXe siècle qui sont étudiés (agriculture, industrie, commerce ainsi que leurs témoins architecturaux préservés.This study of the Richou family, from the end of the 18th century up to the beginning of the 20th, is based on the analysis of the family’s properties which still exist in the Maine-et-Loire department: mills, farms, chateaux, town houses and bank. A closer examination of certain members of the family illustrates the evolution of a bourgeois dynasty during the 19th century characterised by its agricultural and industrial revolutions. The Richous first came to the fore as millers, actively participating in the modernisation of milling techniques and constructing modern industrial flourmills. They consolidated their wealth by land purchases and the construction or modernisation of farm buildings corresponding with the new criteria of agricultural production and hygiene during the second half of the 19th century. Finally, the Richous were at the origins of one of the first banking houses in the Anjou region. The
Full Text Available Cet article vise à examiner les pratiques alimentaires quotidiennes dans le contexte des contraintes normatives exercées par la politique d’Etat dans les années quatre-vingt en Roumanie. A partir d’une démarche basée sur l’analyse micro anthropologique (observation des pratiques quotidiennes des habitants, entretiens, recueil de témoignages accrédités du point de vue scientifique sur le ravitaillement pendant la période historique en discussion, nous nous proposons d’examiner la manière dont l’accès aux aliments a structuré l’expérience sociale et nutritionnelle de l’individu, dans le cas de la société roumaine pendant sa dernière décennie communiste.This paper explores everyday food practices in the context of austerity measures, through normative constraints imposed by the Romanian government in the 1980s, as applied by State policies. Based on a micro-anthropological approach (observation of everyday food practices, focused interviews and accounts concerning the historical period above-mentioned, this work proposes to examine how food accessibility structured the social and nutritional experience of individuals, in the case of the Romanian society during the last decade of the Romanian Communist regime.
Souleymane Nouréini Sayouti
Full Text Available La présente étude a pour objectif d’analyser les effets probables de la nouvelle stratégie agricole marocaine (le Plan Maroc Vert sur la situation alimentaire (dépendance ou autosuffisance alimentaire du Maroc à l’horizon 2020. Elle a concerné sept produits de base indispensables à la diète marocaine à savoir : le lait, le sucre, l’huile de table, la viande rouge, la viande blanche, le blé tendre et le blé dur. L’approche méthodologique utilisée consiste à prévoir la demande alimentaire du pays, pour l’horizon 2020, en ces denrées. La méthode utilisée pour la prévision de la demande prend en compte la taille de la population, l’élasticité-revenu et l’évolution du niveau de revenu par habitant. La demande projetée est comparée aux niveaux de production prévus par le Plan Maroc Vert pour le même horizon. Ces prévisions ont révélé que malgré les efforts d’augmentation des niveaux de production prévus dans le cadre du Plan Maroc Vert, le Maroc ne pourrait pas atteindre une autosuffisance alimentaire pour le blé tendre, le blé dur, le sucre et les huiles de table à l’horizon 2020. Par contre, cette autosuffisance serait possible pour le lait, les viandes rouges et les viandes blanches. Ces résultats montrent que les décideurs politiques devraient mieux orienter l’intervention de l’Etat pour améliorer l’offre du pays pour le premier groupe des produits. En revanche, les possibilités d’exportation devraient être encouragées pour le deuxième groupe de produits notamment vers les marchés émergents tels que ceux de l’Afrique Subsaharienne.
Orient Pérez, Ester; Amezcua Valmala, Nerea; Guillén Salazar, Federico; Colmenares, Fernando
Parmi les animaux, les primates se caractérisent par leur flexibilité comportementale, connue comme la capacité à s'adapter à de nouvelles conditions ou à des conditions très variables à travers de nouveaux comportements. Cette caractéristique définit particulièrement le comportement du macaque de Barbarie. Traditionnellement, la plupart des études réalisées chez cette espèce ont eu comme objectif principal l'étude de la variabilité de son régime alimentaire dans leur aire de répartition natu...
Desbois, D.; Fauquet, Claude; Fargette, Denis; Vidal, G.
Cet article présente un exemple d'utilisation des banques de données moléculaires, comme source d'information, et de l'analyse factorielle des correspondances, comme technique d'analyse, pour la recherche taxinomique, ceci dans un pays en développement. L'application de cette technique statistique multivariée à la classification des virus de plantes permet de dégager des critères taxinomiques cohérents basés sur la composition en acides aminés, dinucléotides et codons de la protéine capsidair...
MOTTE BAUMVOL, Benjamin; BELTON CHEVALLIER, Leslie; SCHOELZEL, Miriam; CARROUET, Guillaume
L’accessibilité des populations aux Grandes Surfaces Alimentaires (GSA) est différenciée selon les espaces. Si une très grande majorité de périurbains n’éprouvent pas de difficultés pour y accéder, certains y font face plus difficilement. Pour ces ménages en particulier, la livraison à domicile, constitue un moyen d’améliorer leur accès en supprimant les difficultés liées aux déplacements. A partir d’une recension de l’offre et d’une enquête par entretiens ...
Cercado Quezada, Bibiana
Les piles à combustible microbiennes (PACM) permettent la production directe d'électricité par l'oxydation de matière organique ; à l'anode les combustibles organiques sont oxydés grâce à des microorganismes adhérés qui jouent le rôle d'électro-catalyseurs. Utiliser comme combustible la matière organique issue d'effluents ou de déchets des industries agro-alimentaires présente un double bénéfice : la réduction de l'impact environnemental et la génération d'énergie. Le travail réalisé dans le ...
Aubert, S.; Daunay, M.C.; Pochard, E.
Le fruit de l’aubergine possède une saveur caractéristique pouvant déplaire aux consommateurs. Des risques, mais aussi des avantages, pour la qualité alimentaire de ce légume, sont liés à la présence dans la pulpe, de deux types de saponosides à noyau stéroïdique : d’une part, des glycoalcaloïdes du type solasonine, dans la zone placentaire, et , d’autre part, des composés saponosides sans noyau hétérocyclique azoté, localisés plus particulièrement dans les graines, mais trouvés aussi dan...
Full Text Available Runar Døving, anthropologue spécialiste des habitudes alimentaires en Norvège, répond dans cet entretien à des questions sur le craquant, le croquant et le croustillant dans la culture de l’alimentation norvégienne. Réponses et questions s’enchainent au fil de l’interview et permettent un certain nombre de réflexions et d’éclaircissements sur le craquant comme caractéristique alimentaire, culinaire et culturelle. Le craquant semble essentiellement reposer sur une structure binaire, souvent dichotomiste, opposant le craquant au mou, le croquant au doux et par la même le masculin au féminin, voire le croustillant moderne et décadent des chips à la sécurisante douceur culturelle des pommes de terres à l’eau.Runar Døving is an anthropologist who has been working for many years on food habits in Norway. In this paper he answers questions about the value that crunchy and crispy food may have in Norwegian food culture. The text links questions and answers together in a way that presents thoughts and perspectives about the culinary and cultural aspects of the crunchy and the crispy. The crunchy seems to be built on a dual structure based on the many oppositions between the crunchy and the soft, the crispy and the mushy, which actually remind one of masculine and feminine, and even the modern decadent aspects of potato crisps that contrasts with the secure smoothness of boiled potatoes.
Nzossié, Éric Joël Fofiri; Ndamè, Joseph-Pierre; Temple, Ludovic; Dury, Sandrine,; Ndjouenkeu, Robert; Kamdem, Michel Simeu
Le système alimentaire du Nord-Cameroun est basé sur les céréales principalement mil et sorgho. Pourtant, l’accroissement de la population urbaine se traduit par une croissance de la production de maïs. Pour l’expliciter nous analysons les dynamiques alimentaires des populations urbaines par deux enquêtes réalisées en août 2007 et janvier 2008 sur 550 ménages. Les résultats soulignent que l’augmentation de la consommation du maïs est importante en période de soudure. Deux explications sont so...
Cette thèse porte sur la modernité des modèles de consommation en méditerranée. Le type de recherche est une synthèse et analyse du cas Algérien. Une revue de littérature à été réalisée sur la modernité alimentaire et les approches conceptuelles de la consommation alimentaire. Elle nous à permis de ressortir les principaux déterminants de la modernité. L’analyse des enquêtes nationales sur les évolutions globales de long terme nous ont aidées à montrer les mutations de l’environne...
L’Inra a défini un cadre méthodologique commun pour permettre la réalisation de son étude transversale sur les pertes alimentaires. Quatre filières végétales et six filières animales ont été analysées. Ont été considérées comme des pertes alimentaires les denrées destinées à la consommation humaine, mais écartées, perdues ou retirées, exception faite de celles recyclées au travers d’une valorisation en alimentation animale (hors animaux de compagnie). Pour autant, les autres usages des denrée...
A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs
International Monetary Fund
The issue of productivity growth in Canada has received considerable attention reflecting its marked slowdown since the early 1970s and concerns about its implications for Canadian competitiveness. To better understand productivity developments in Canada, it is useful to decompose total factor productivity (TFP) into investment-specific productivity change (ISP) and technologically neutral productivity change (TNP). The gap in manufacturing productivity growth between Canada and the United St...
Full Text Available La sensibilisation de l’organisme par des allergènes d’origine alimentaire s’exprime par l’apparition d’immunoglobulines spécifiques (IgE. Ces allergies sont provoquée dans la quasi totalité des cas par des protéines. De nombreux aliments sont susceptibles de provoquer des allergies chez certains sujets sensibles. On trouve ainsi des allergies aux Drupacée (approximativement 16% de la fréquences des allergies alimentaires, aux Ombellifères (11%, à l’œuf (8%, aux Légumineuses (3%, aux crustacés (8%, au poisson (7%, à l’avocat et au kiwi (5%, au lait (5%, à la farine de blé (4%, à la banane (3%. Parmi les allergies alimentaires, l’allergie à l’arachide est particulièrement fréquente. Dans le cas des réactions croisées, l’organisme est sensibilisé par un premier contact avec un allergène distinct de celui qui va induire les réactions immunitaires excessives et aberrantes. Afin d’évaluer le potentiel allergénique de protéines alimentaires il est nécessaire de disposer de tests permettant de contrôler les matières premières et d’évaluer les moyens technologiques permettant de réduire l’allergénicité de certains produits. Des modèles d’allergie à l’arachide par sensibilisation orale, nasale ou intrapéritonéale sont développés chez la souris. Les données disponibles indiquent qu’il est possible de reproduire certains aspects de la sensibilisation et des réactions croisées observées chez l’homme. Ces modèles de sensibilisation permettent d’évaluer le potentiel allergénique de protéines alimentaires.
Full Text Available This mixed methods study examines whether the rural/urban distribution of credit union/caisse populaire branches differs significantly from the general urban/rural demographic pattern in Canada. It also explores whether their distribution is different from that of banks, looking at the cases of Québec and Atlantic Canada. The study finds a rural tilt among financial cooperatives in Canada, and seven key informants present their views on the results. Their responses are categorized in two main themes: why financial cooperatives are overrepresented in rural and small town areas, and why they are under-represented in urban ones. A discussion follows, and directions for further study are provided. / Cette étude utilisant des méthodes combinées examine si la distribution des succursales de coopératives d’épargne et de crédit / caisses populaires en milieu rural et urbain diffère de façon importante de la tendance démographique générale des milieux urbains et ruraux au Canada. Elle aborde aussi la question de savoir si leur distribution est différente de celle des banques en observant le cas du Québec et du Canada atlantique. L’étude révèle une tendance rurale chez les coopératives financières du Canada, et sept répondants clés donnent leur opinion sur les résultats. Les réponses des intervenants sont divisées en deux thèmes principaux : pourquoi les coopératives sont surreprésentées dans les milieux ruraux et les petites villes et pourquoi elles sont sous-représentées dans les milieux urbains. Un débat s’ensuit, et des lignes directrices sont fournies aux fins d’une étude plus approfondie.
Ce projet a consisté à constituer une banque de 261 images d'objets familiers. Pour chaque image, plusieurs normes ont été établies auprès de plus de 6000 enfants de 3 à 8 ans (6 normes enfants pour 5 ou 6 classes d'âge, 80 enfants par classe d'âge). Il s'agit de mesures concernant d'une part les images isolées : pourcentage d'identification, de dénomination et score de typicalité catégorielle et d'autre part des paires d'images : pourcentage de reconnaissance de l'association, type de justif...
Cette communication traite, à partir de l’exemple de ce qu’il est convenu d’appeler les ONG-Bankwatch,qui œuvrent pour une réforme de la Banque mondiale à Washington D.C., d’un déficit empirique et théorique de la recherche sur les ONG, qui est d’un intérêt géographique spécifique. On y montre que les conditions contextuelles socio-spatiales dans lesquelles les acteurs agissent doivent être intégrées dans l’analyse des potentiels d’influence des ONG. En se fondant sur des théories de la struc...
A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs
A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs
This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector
Communication au Colloque Histoire des innovations alimentaires (XIXe-XXe siècles), J.-P. Williot et A. Drouard dir., CRHI (Centre de Recherches en Histoire de l'Innovation) Paris IV, Paris, 3 et 4 décembre 2002, Actes à paraître en 2005 A partir de la moitié du XIXe siècle, deux productions alimentaires traditionnelles de la Bretagne - le cidre, le beurre - sont remis en cause par des agronomes qui souhaitent en améliorer la qualité. Cependant, ces démarches n'aboutiront pas ou alors très...
Contribution a la connaissance du regime alimentaire de la seiche (Sepia officinalis L.) (Mollusque Cephalopode) dans le nord du golfe de Gascogne et dans le golfe du Morbihan: Resultats preliminaires
Pinczondusel, G; DAGUZAN, J.
L'analyse spécifique des proies permet de déterminer la composition du régime alimentaire des seiches en milieu naturel. Cette analyse basée sur l'exploitation des contenus stomacaux montre une consommation majoritaire de Poissons et de Crustacés Brachyoures. Le régime alimentaire à dominance Poisson en zone d'hivernage (large de Belle-Ille) devient à dominance Crustacé lorsque les seiches adultes entrent dans le Golfe du Morbihan, en mars, pour s'y reproduire. Par contre, les nouveau-nés ...
Full Text Available Les nouvelles technologies de manipulation génétique ont été présentées par certaines entreprises comme une opportunité pour l’humanité d’en finir avec la malnutrition, grâce au développement de la production agricole que cela pouvait entraîner. Le débat qui s’en est suivi n’est pas le fruit de résistances archaïques de nos sociétés au « progrès » mais offre une nouvelle fois l’occasion de rappeler des réalités incontournables sur la politique agricole. Premièrement, la priorité encore aujourd’hui reste pour chaque pays d’assurer à la population une sécurité alimentaire aussi bien sur le plan quantitatif que qualitatif sans attendre son salut des importations en provenance des pays les plus compétitifs. Deuxièmement, les agriculteurs ne peuvent utiliser les techniques disponibles que dans un contexte économique et politique favorable. Troisièmement, le patrimoine génétique de l’humanité était jusqu’à maintenant un bien collectif. Il serait dangereux qu’il soit désormais privatisé.
Full Text Available Les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques ont récemment défrayé la chronique à plusieurs reprises. Cet article se propose de faire le point sur les propriétés de ces molécules en vue de donner un aperçu des voies pour la recherche d’outils d’évaluation et de gestion des risques liés à ces molécules. De nombreuses molécules peuvent prétendre appartenir à cette famille. Nous traiterons de celles les plus communément impliquées dans les problèmes de sécurité alimentaire, à savoir la famille des dioxines-furanes ou polychloro-dibenzo-paradioxines/furanes (PCDD/F, celle des composés polychlorés biphényles (PCB et enfin celle des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP que nous réserverons dans ce texte aux composés non chlorés.
La banque de données de l'Institut Français du Pétrole sur les déversements accidentels de pétrole en mer (1955-1980). Nouveaux résultats The Institute Français du Pétrole Databank on Accidental Oil Spills At Sea (1955-1980). New Results
Bertrand A. R. V.
La banque de données de l'Institut Français du Pétrole contient maintenant 621 cas d'accidents principaux survenus du ler janvier 1955 à fin août 1980 dont 481 arrivés à des tankers. Un nouveau traitement de cette banque améliorée, joint à des statistiques extérieures plus précises, a permis de mieux cerner certaines corrélations et en particulier celle entre le vieillissement de la flotte des petits tankers et la fréquence d'accidents survenus à cette catégorie de navires. The IFP databan...
The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)
This paper describes the current and planned activities of Canada's Neutron Beam Laboratory which is managed by the National Research Council of Canada. In 1994, Professor Bertram Brockhouse shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for his pioneering work carried out in this laboratory. He developed neutron scattering as a powerful and versatile tool for investigating materials at the level of molecules and nano structures. The neutron source for this work is Canada's NRU reactor located at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. This neutron source is also used for the production of medical isotopes, testing of components for the nuclear power stations and neutron scattering experiments on materials
McFarland, Ernie; Hirsch, Alan
Provides an overview of physics teaching in Canada. Responds to questions involving the curriculum, efforts to promote gender equity, teaching methods, high school physics teachers, physics teaching organizations, and educational trends. (27 references) (MDH)
Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs
Le but de ce papier est de proposer des éléments de réflexion pour analyser certaines tendances en matière de consommation alimentaire et de caractéristiques des produits, en mettant l'accent sur le rôle des interactions entre acteurs économiques. La théorie des conventions permet de réfléchir sur l'importance de la coordination qui résulte des interactions entre producteurs. Cette coordination repose sur des conventions de qualification des produits, rendues visibles grâce aux signes officie...
Full Text Available A partir d’une enquête effectuée en milieu urbain taiwanais auprès de neuf Français(es ayant migré à Taiwan et marié(es avec des Taiwanais(es, l’auteur propose de réfléchir à la question des pratiques alimentaires en situation de mixité conjugale. Il fait l’hypothèse que ces pratiques alimentaires doivent être observées et s’apprécier en fonction des différents repas et moments alimentaires: petit-déjeuner, déjeuner, nourritures de rue, dîner conjugal, repas dans la belle famille. Ces situations sont riches d’ambivalences : attachement aux habitudes mais aussi passage du dégoût au goût ou bien de la méfiance à la curiosité, double appréciation pour la nourriture dont la présentation n’est pas estimée de la même façon que les produits eux-mêmes, efforts pour accepter les manières de table dans le cadre d’un rapport de force social et/ou affectif, enfin ‘‘oubli’’ de la question alimentaire au profit du lien social qu’il produit.From an investigation made in urban zones with nine male and female French people having migrated to Taiwan and married with Taiwaneses, the author studies the issue of food tensions in situation of mixed couples. He presents the hypothesis that these tensions vary according to food grips: breakfast, lunch, street foods, conjugal dinner, meals with allies. Such food tensions provoke varied practices and judgments: attachment to habits but also the passage of disgust to appreciation, distrust regarding curiosity, double appreciation for food displayed which is not esteemed in the same way as the products themselves, efforts to accept table manners within the framework of a social or emotional balance of power, finally ‘‘forgetting’’ the issue for the benefit of the social link which it produces.
In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper reviews the factors that may explain high and persistent unemployment in Canada, with particular emphasis on the role that a decline in the relative cost of capital may have had on trend unemployment. The analysis suggests that in Canada a declining trend in the cost of capital, associated with technological changes and innovations, has been an important factor in explaining the rise and persistence of unemployment. The paper also analyzes recent trends in personal ...
Thomas Crossley; Lori Curtis
A 1989 all-party motion of parliament called for the elimination of child poverty in Canada by the year 2000. Despite a series of policy initiatives, recent reports suggest that the child poverty rate may now be comparable to that in 1989. The apparent persistence of child poverty in Canada might reflect socioeconomic developments, or something about the way that child poverty is measured. Using micro data covering the period 1986 to 2000 we find little support for these explanations.
In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine
Full Text Available Le théâtre de la Banque asiatique de développement présente un aperçu de la nouvelle évolution de la Chine par rapport à son « multilatéralisme intéressé ». Il permet aussi de vérifier, ou d’avancer, un certain nombre d’hypothèses sur l’avenir des relations sino-japonaises, très souvent réduites au présupposé d’un inévitable conflit d’intérêts qui ne peut déboucher que dans une lutte entre les deux puissances asiatiques pour l’hégémonie régionale. Depuis son entrée à la BAD en 1986 la Chine a fait du chemin à l’intérieur de cette institution : jusqu’où ira-t-elle ? Les visions chinoises et japonaises, qui différent dans le cas du développement de la Région du Grand Mékong, programme phare de la Banque, vont-elles se contredire ou se rejoindre ? Enfin, les « styles diplomatiques » de la Chine et du Japon, très éloignés, ne se rapprocheront-ils pas à terme dans une approche partagée pour une diplomatie plus constructive, plus consensuelle, et plus « douce », une soft diplomacy ?The Asian Development Bank provides an overview of the new developments on China’s “self-interested multilateralism”. It also allows us to verify certain assumptions about the future of Sino-Japanese relations, often reduced to a presupposed inevitable conflict of interests that would lead to a struggle between two Asian powers for regional hegemony. Since joining ADB in 1986, China has come a long way within this institution. In the case of the Greater Mekong Subregion development, a flagship programme of the bank, Chinese and Japanese visions differ. Will they contradict each other or converge? Finally, the diplomatic “styles” of China and Japan are poles apart. Will they come together in a common approach to a more efficient and more consensual “soft diplomacy”?
Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E
Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.
Hochstadt, John Webster
Gift planning is increasing in Canada's colleges and universities to offset effects of retrenchment. New annuity vehicles and the emergence of university Crown Foundations offer tax breaks that support private giving to institutions. In addition, a simplified process for gifts is anticipated. (MSE)
The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)
A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs
This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed
A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs
A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs
Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs
In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in
Cottrill, Cheryl [Bruce Power, 3394 County Road 20 - RRH2, N0G 2T0 Tiverton ON (Canada)
1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility
1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario
Charles-Édouard de Suremain
Full Text Available L’étude anthropologique des pratiques alimentaires de migrants boliviens de retour ayant longuement séjourné en Argentine permet d’aborder la problématique de la migration et de l’identité : la construction sociale, réelle et imaginaire, de la migration ne passe-t-elle pas aussi par l’alimentation ? Ce que l’on mange ici et là-bas éclaire, en creux, le succès ou l’échec donné à la migration par les migrants et aide à comprendre plus finement les significations locales données à la pauvreté et à la richesse, au bien-être et au mal-être. L’observation et les « récits de vie alimentaires » menés dans une perspective intergénérationnelle – sur l’importance de la consommation attribuée au pain, à la viande et au soda– conduisent finalement à s’interroger sur la situation sociale et symbolique des migrants de retour dans leur société d’origine comme dans la société d’accueil. Au-delà, l’étude montre que les pratiques et les représentations alimentaires reflètent et structurent à la fois des relations sociales, des relations de sexe et des rapports au corps, et qu’elles permettent d’induire des processus de construction d’identités complexes.The anthropological study of Bolivian returnees’ food practices, who have spent a long time in Argentina, leads us to deal with the problematic of migration and identity: as a matter of fact, the social construction of migration, either real or imaginary, is also based on alimentation. What is eaten here and there enlightens, in a way, the success or failure of their migration, as perceived from the migrants’ point of view; it helps to deeply understand the local significations given to poverty and wealth, to well-being and discontent. Observation and « intergenerational food life stories », conducted on the importance of consumption of bread, meat and sodas, finally lead to question the social and symbolic situation of returnees
Many years ago, a group of insurance companies founded an organization offering nuclear insurance, called Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada. The passage of Order-in-Council P.C. 1960-555 gave Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. the power to indemnify suppliers, contractors, etc. against liability claims. The situation has remained essentially unchanged. In 1970 Parliament passed the Nuclear Liability Act, but it has never been proclaimed. The act sets mandatory levels of nuclear insurance as high as $75 million for firms involved in nuclear activity. It is expected that agreement between the insurers and government will be reached later this year (1976), so that the act can be proclaimed. (N.D.H.)
Full Text Available L’étiquetage et les allégations possibles pour les produits alimentaires ont fait l’objet de nombreuses évolutions en Europe depuis moins d’une dizaine d’années. Concernant la question du cholestérol, on peut noter tout d’abord que les attentes consommateurs ont naturellement évolué, en lien avec les différents messages de santé publique et les modifications du discours ambiant. Le contexte réglementaire s’est également considérablement contraint, en ouvrant cependant la possibilité à de nouveaux produits pour communiquer sur le cholestérol, sous réserve de respecter les conditions d’emploi de ces mentions et de composition des produits.
Ayigah, Koffi Raoul; Mudry Gillioz, Mireille; Farine, Antonina
Fortement interpellés par des situations de refus de soins émanant de personnes âgées institutionnalisées capables de discernement et par la façon dont les équipes y répondaient, nous avons décidé d’explorer cette thématique sous l’angle du refus alimentaire, puisque l’alimentation en gériatrie est un soin à part entière. La question à laquelle nous avons cherché à répondre par cette revue de littérature est : Comment prendre en soin une personne âgée institutionnalisée ayant sa capacité de d...
Stanojlovic Davidovic, Andréa
Dans un contexte où le développement durable apparaît comme une priorité majeure, la mise au point de matériaux biodégradables, représente un enjeu majeur qui offre une alternative aux polymères synthétiques. L'objectif de cette thèse est donc de développer un système multicouche biodégradable susceptible de se substituer au polystyrène expansé dans le domaine de la barquette alimentaire. Ce multicouche est constitué de deux films de polycaprolactone en tant que couches externes et d'une âme ...
Bernard, Stéphane; Bissonnette, Jean-François
Depuis les années 1960, plusieurs pays d’Asie du Sud-Est ont réussi à atteindre, surtout grâce à l’augmentation de la production agricole, une plus grande sécurité alimentaire. L’État postcolonial a été au cœur de l’essor de l’agriculture en Indonésie et en Malaisie, mais son rôle tend à se modifier surtout depuis le tournant du millénaire. Pour cerner les transformations des politiques agricoles contemporaines en Indonésie et en Malaisie, nous abordons la question suivante : quelles sont les...
/ Contribution à la gestion de la pérennité des entreprises de l’agriculture et de l’agro-alimentaire Dans certaines régions rurales françaises, les exploitations agricoles redéfinissent leurs contours et leurs activités à chaque génération. Au point qu’on ne saurait identifier une « entité exploitation » stable au-delà de quelques dizaines d’années. Mais il arrive qu’une certaine exploitation agricole perdure dans son identité, de génération en génér...
I. — Introduction La notion de marque de distributeur, ou MDD, recouvre une variété de formes dont le point commun est que la marque (ou tout au moins le « label ») accolée au produit ressort de la responsabilité du distributeur qui, de fait, jouit du monopole de sa commercialisation. Phénomène qui remonte au moins au début du 20ème siècle, les MDD ont bénéficié dans l’alimentaire d’un nouvel élan au milieu des années 1970, avec le lancement par Carrefour de ses « Produits libres », puis l’in...
Delobel, Alex; Tran, Maurice
Les insectes étudiés dans cet ouvrage nuisent à une grande variété de produits emmagasinés dans les régions tropicales et subtropicales : céréales, légumineuses, oléagineux, racines et tubercules, denrées d'origine animale (viandes et poissons séchés), café, cacao, épices, etc. D'autres productions, non alimentaires, sont également évoquées : livres, cuirs et peaux, laine et soie, collections d'insectes. Pour chacune des 30 familles de Coléoptères traitées, une clé d'identification des genres...
M.C. Blé; Alla, Y.L.; Kervarec, F.
Lors de l'introduction d'une espèce en élevage, outre la maîtrise de sa reproduction, il convient de déterminer ses besoins nutritionnels en vue de définir un aliment adapté. La connaissance préalable du régime alimentaire de l'espèce concernée dans son habitat naturel est alors indispensable. La nature même de ce régime est très variable et fonction du milieu, de la saison, de l'espèce et de son stade physiologique. Cette fiche technique a pour but de présenter succinctement trois espèces de...
Rosoux, René; Libois, Roland; Schweyer, Jean Baptiste; de Bellefroid, Marie des Neiges
La population nicheuse de balbuzards pêcheurs en région Centre, principalement établie en forêt d'Orléans et en Sologne, a fait l'objet d'une prémière étude sur le choix des proies et la stratégie alimentaire. L'analyse a été menée sur un échantillon d'une quinzaine de couples. Les premiers résultats montrent que les rapaces consomment une large gamme de poissons, évaluéenà plus de 20 espèces. Quels que soient la méthode utilisée et le nid étudié, ce sont les cyprinidés qui constituent la gra...
Mérat P; Bordas A; El-Attar A
Les performances de ponte et d’efficacité alimentaire ont été comparées pour des poules Leghorn de taille normale (Dw+) ou naines (dw) en présence de 2 régimes à teneurs différentes en lipides totaux. Le régime le plus riche a, dans l’ensemble, un effet négatif sur la variation de poids corporel des pondeuses, du moins pour les poules de taille normale. Pour les poules naines, d’autre part, l’intensité de ponte semble comparativement un peu plus améliorée par le régime enrichi en lipides q...
Dervin, Sébastien; Baret, Samuel; Penin, Lucie; Sanchez, Mickaël
Phelsuma grandis Gray, 1870 est un gecko introduit sur l'île de La Réunion. Le régime alimentaire de ce reptile, considéré comme invasif, a été étudié afin d'évaluer la menace qu'il pourrait représenter pour la faune indigène. Le contenu stomacal de 171 individus a été analysé. À La Réunion, P. grandis se nourrit principalement d'Arthropodes. Les ressources végétales occupent également une part non négligeable de son alimentation et il consomme régulièrement d'autres espèces de geckos. P. gra...
Le système olfactif partage de nombreux liens moléculaires, neuroanatomiques et fonctionnels avec le système de régulation de l'homéostasie énergétique. L'exploration de ces interactions nous a conduit à démontrer que la détection olfactive est modulée par les états alimentaires et métaboliques : des animaux affamés présentent une meilleure sensibilité olfactive que des animaux rassasiés. Cette modulation persiste chez les rats Zucker fa/fa obèses et disparaît chez les rats LouC résistants à ...
Kobou Ngani, Patrick
L’optimisation énergétique des procédés de transformation constitue une des réponses les plus efficaces et adoptées face aux nouvelles contraintes européennes dans le secteur de l’énergie et de l’environnement. Ce travail présente comment la brasserie artisanale de Rulles (PME agro-alimentaire) peut, par une installation de biométhanisation couplée à une unité de micro-cogénération, faire de la dépollution de ses rejets d’eaux usées une production énergétique. Le bioréacteur aura comme matièr...
Charles-Édouard de Suremain
L’étude anthropologique des pratiques alimentaires de migrants boliviens de retour ayant longuement séjourné en Argentine permet d’aborder la problématique de la migration et de l’identité : la construction sociale, réelle et imaginaire, de la migration ne passe-t-elle pas aussi par l’alimentation ? Ce que l’on mange ici et là-bas éclaire, en creux, le succès ou l’échec donné à la migration par les migrants et aide à comprendre plus finement les significations locales données à la pauvreté et...
This paper details Canada's medical isotope strategy and the role of the Canadian Government in the security of the isotope supply chain. The government's role is to promote health and safety of Canadians, establish appropriate regulatory framework, allow the markets to work, facilitate international collaboration, fund high-risk early stage research and development, encourage private sector investment in innovation and support and respect environmental and non-proliferation goals.
Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)
A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management
OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.
Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. PMID:25308235
Centro Cultural del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo: Programa de Dearrollo Cultural Title: Centre Culturel de la Banque Interaméricaine de Développement: Programme de Developpement Culturel Title: Centro Cultural do Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento: Programa de Desenvolvimiento Cultural
Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID); Banque Interaméricaine de Développement (BID); Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento (BID)
Presenta las características y objetivos, reglamentos y requisitos del Programa de Desarrollo Banco de Desarrollo propuesto, y las oficinas en los países de la región.Abstract: Présente les caractéristiques et les objectifs, les règlements et les exigences de la Banque de développement du programme de développement proposé, ainsi que des bureaux dans les pays de la région.Abstract: Apresenta as características e objetivos, regulamentos e exigências da proposta de Banco de Desenvolvimento de D...
De nos jours, la traçabilité des produits alimentaires s'est imposée comme un facteur de compétitivité dans le secteur agroalimentaire, tout en étant obligatoire depuis janvier 2005. Face aux multiples crises alimentaires et aux productions de masse, le consommateur, situé au terme de la chaîne d'approvisionnement, ressent un besoin de transparence. La traçabilité est donc devenue un élément essentiel pour assurer la qualité et la sécurité de la production et la fiabilité de l'étiquetage et d...
François Joseph Cabral
L’objet de cet article est de vérifier si les facteurs d’insécurité alimentaire qui exercent une influence clé en milieu urbain ont un impact tout aussi significatif en milieu rural au Sénégal. A cette fin, un modèle logit binomial appliqué aux données de l’enquête ménage du Sénégal (Esam I) est utilisé afin d’identifier les déterminants qui influencent le plus la probabilité d’insécurité alimentaire dans ces zones. Les résultats de l’analyse montrent que tous les déterminants clés de l’inséc...
GONE BI, Zoro Bertin
Nous avons étudié le régime alimentaire de trois communautés de chimpanzés non approvisionnés par l’homme et parfaitement habitués à la présence d’observateurs humains dans le Parc National de Taï, en Côte d’Ivoire, entre octobre 1999 et décembre 2000. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer le temps alloué par les chimpanzés aux différentes ressources alimentaires disponibles dans leur territoire. Cette étude révèle que les chimpanzés de Taï ont passé plus de la moitié de leur temps actif ...
Bauer Raposo, Benjamin; Pantazi, Myrto; Klein, Olivier
L'objectif de cette étude consiste à étudier l'influence de la prise alimentaire sur la crédulité par rapport aux théories du complot. Nous nous proposons d'étudier cette question dans un cadre télévisuel. Des travaux récents (Topolinski, Lindler, et Freudenberg, 2013) suggèrent que la prise alimentaire pendant l'exposition à des messages persuasifs est susceptible d'influencer l'adhésion à ces messages. L'étude a été menée auprès d'étudiants universitaires (N = 66). Dans la condition "contrô...
Allan, B. B.; Brant, R; Seidel, J E; Jarrell, J F
OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends in the proportion of annual live births that were male in Canada and to compare the trends with those in the United States. DESIGN: Analysis of census data. SETTING: Canada as a whole and 4 main regions (West, Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic). SUBJECTS: All live births from 1930 to 1990. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sex ratio (expressed as the proportion of total live births that were male [male proportion]) overall and by region. RESULTS: The male proportion in Canada decr...
Determination of diets for the populations of eleven regions of the European community to be used for obtaining radioactive contamination levels. First results concerning the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la Communaute Europenne et vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive. Premiere serie de resultats concernant la consommation alimentaire des individus groupes en neuf classes d'ages
Ledermann, S.; Lacourly, G.; Garnier, A.; Cresta, M.; Lombardo, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
The present document continues the report CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. The processing of the data given by the family food enquiry carried out in eleven regions of the European Community, has permitted to determine the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups, in order to study the radioactive contamination levels in the food-chain. The used statistical method is described, and the obtained results are presented in form of double-entry tables giving for each region and for each age-group the mean weekly food-consumption and the contribution of each diet in nutrition principles, in minerals, vitamins, trace elements and calories. (authors) [French] Ce rapport fait suite au rapport CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. Le traitement de l'information apportee par les enquetes alimentaires familiales realisees dans onze regions de la Communaute Europeenne a permis de determiner les consommations alimentaires des individus groupes en neuf classes d'age, en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive dans les chaines alimentaires. La methode statistique employee est decrite et les resultats obtenus sont presentes sous forme de tableaux a double entree donnant pour chacune des regions etudiees et pour chacune des neuf classes d'age, les consommations moyennes hebdomadaires, ainsi que les apports en principes nutritifs, mineraux, vitamines et oligo-elements, et calories de chaque regime. (auteurs)
A concept for the safe and permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes from Canada's CANDU reactors has been developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). The waste would be placed in an engineered disposal vault 500 to 1000 m below the surface in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The multiple barriers to retain the waste and retard the release of radioactivity would be the waste form, the containers, buffer and backfill, and the rock overlying the vault. Numerous research programmes have been carried out to develop the technology for the concept. These include work on materials corrosion and failure mechanisms to assess the performance of the used fuel containers. Predictive modelling has shown that more than 97% of ASTM Grade 2 titanium containers will retain their integrity, even under pessimistic assumptions, for 1200-6000 years after emplacement, and even longer times may be achieved with other grades of titanium or copper. Other research has been aimed at vault sealing, at site characterization for an underground research laboratory and at the development of a methodology for assessing radiological and environmental effects after closure of the facility. A review of the safety and environmental impacts of the concept is now being carried out by an independent panel appointed by the government. (2 figures, 3 references) (UK)
This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs
Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)
La banque de données de l'Institut Français du Pétrole sur les déversements accidentels de pétrole en mer (1955-1980. Nouveaux résultats The Institute Français du Pétrole Databank on Accidental Oil Spills At Sea (1955-1980. New Results
Bertrand A. R. V.
Full Text Available La banque de données de l'Institut Français du Pétrole contient maintenant 621 cas d'accidents principaux survenus du ler janvier 1955 à fin août 1980 dont 481 arrivés à des tankers. Un nouveau traitement de cette banque améliorée, joint à des statistiques extérieures plus précises, a permis de mieux cerner certaines corrélations et en particulier celle entre le vieillissement de la flotte des petits tankers et la fréquence d'accidents survenus à cette catégorie de navires. The IFP databank now contains 621 principal accidents occurring between 1 January 1955 and 31 August 1980, including 481 tanker accidents. Further work with this improved databank coupled with more accurate outside statistics have made it possible to bring out various correlations more clearly, and especially the correlation between the aging of the small-tanker fleet and the frequency of accidents occurring to this category of ship.
This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs
OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012
Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…
Love, Ann; Drake, Jane
This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…
Unconventional Food Resources. Concepts of ethnobotany, ethnozoology and ethnoecology are defined and their respective development recounted. The geographic frame is afterwards specified: Tropical Africa. Diversity of wild edible vegetable products is illustrated by some examples: cyanobacteria from Chad, mushroom consumption in the Zambezian region and pteridophagy. Upper plants are approached according to six ensembles, namely starchy fruits and seeds, oilseeds and nuts, fleshy fruits, rese...
Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)
Full Text Available Unconventional Food Resources. Concepts of ethnobotany, ethnozoology and ethnoecology are defined and their respective development recounted. The geographic frame is afterwards specified: Tropical Africa. Diversity of wild edible vegetable products is illustrated by some examples: cyanobacteria from Chad, mushroom consumption in the Zambezian region and pteridophagy. Upper plants are approached according to six ensembles, namely starchy fruits and seeds, oilseeds and nuts, fleshy fruits, reserve organs, flowers and vegetable species. After recalling the diversity of insects eating at world scale, four orders are briefly presented: coleoptera, isoptera (termites, lepidoptera (mainly caterpillars or campeophagy and orthoptera. Finally the nutritional input of unconventional foods is underlined as well as the urgent need of their further studies.
Full Text Available Although public policies have for many years spearheaded information campaigns about how eating affects health, rising obesity rates show that the expected effects have yet to be achieved. Why consumers do not practically comply with nutritional recommendations? This question lead the ministry in charge of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries to require in 2010 an updated state of knowledge for peer-reviewed literature and to commission INRA to undertake a collective scientific expertise on dietary behaviours. The aim was to investigate the multiple determinants of behaviours and how behaviours form and change in individuals according to social class and age, but also collectively over a long period of time. The expertise reports that the consumer is subjected to different environmental stimuli which can bias opinion and that dietary behavior can be affected by information strategies combining different tools and targeting individuals or specific groups. This article sets out the conclusions of the expertise report which draws on nearly 1,600 scientific articles from around the world and was prepared by some twenty experts from fields as diverse as epidemiology, nutrition, sociology and economics.
The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U3O8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)
MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C
This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922
The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
Full Text Available EnglishThe individual decision to immigrate is made in the context of larger socialstructures that influence the composition of the economic immigrant populationover time. Over the last 20 years, economic immigrants to Canada have facedchanging selection policies, cycles of economic recession and growth, increaseddemand for information technology skills, women's increased labour forceparticipation and an aging labour force. Using data from Statistics Canada'sLongitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB, this paper examines the flow ofeconomic immigrants to Canada by their occupational composition from 1980 to2000. Relative to Canadians, when all immigrants from this period are groupedtogether, their economic integration is slow and does not reach parity withCanadians before 16 years. Among skilled worker immigrants, whereas theearlier cohorts did well but did not improve much over time, later cohorts startedoff in a relatively worse position, but early indications show a fairly steep slopeto better relative average earnings. These differences support the need toexamine immigrant integration by both the class of immigrant and the context atthe time of immigration.FrenchLa décision d’immigrer est une décision personnelle prise dans le plus largecontexte des structures sociales qui, à leur tour, exercent une influence sur lacomposition de la population immigrante selon les époques. Pendant les vingtannées dernières, les immigrants économiques au Canada ont dû faire face à deschangements de polices de sélection, à des cycles de récession et de croissanceéconomique, à une demande accrue des techniques d’informatiques, à laparticipation accrue des femmes dans la population active et à une populationactive plus âgée. En s’appuyant sur les données de la Banque de donnéeslongitudinales sur les immigrants (BDIM, cet article examine le fluxd’immigrants économiques au Canada entre 1980 et 2000, selon la compositionde leurs m
Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. PMID:23628429
Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la manière dont la prohibition de mêler nourritures lactées et carnées dans le judaïsme se matérialise par les objets de la cuisine et leurs usages quotidiens, à partir d’une recherche réalisée à Londres auprès de couples juifs ashkénazes qui se définissent presque tous comme orthodoxes (modern orthodox et dont la scolarisation dans des écoles juives a parfois pu contribuer à revivifier les pratiques religieuses. Par delà la diversité des habitudes culinaires et de leurs formes (ex : végétarisme, par delà les éventuelles variations individuelles de l’observance religieuse au cours du cycle de vie, l’interdit alimentaire de mêler lait et viande est respecté par l’ensemble des personnes rencontrées. Il s’agit alors d’en comprendre le sens et la portée. Les conséquences matérielles de cet interdit alimentaire permettent de saisir l’importance de la religion dans le logement et les activités de tous les jours. Elles conduisent à articuler le plan matériel et le plan symbolique en suggérant une interprétation anthropologique de cette prohibition, en lien avec les écrits bibliques et les analyses déjà menées sur le sujet.This article is based upon research on Ashkenazi Jewish families living in London. It deals with the way, in Judaïsm, the prohibition of eating meat and dairy foods together is materialised through the use of kitchen utensils on a day to day basis. Material consequences of this dietary law allow us to understand the importance of religion in the Jewish home and in everyday life. Consequences which lead to the linking of material uses and their symbolic significance by suggesting an anthropological interpretation of this dietary law in accordance with Biblical writings.
Canada has for the fifth time in a row been chosen the best industrialized country in the world in which to initiate and run a business. The Norwegian interest in Canada has grown strongly the last years and Norwegian companies have invested over 20 billion NOK there. Canada is the perfect gateway to the large markets in the USA. Norway is currently Canada's 15th largest trading partner. In addition to low costs and strategic location, Canada has the most highly educated workforce in the world. A company on the Canadian side of the US border has the same access to the American market as a US-based company. There is even a Norwegian company in Canada that exports 100 per cent of its products across the border to the USA. The trade between the USA and Canada is more extensive than between the USA and all the EU countries together. Furthermore, Canadian companies concentrating on research and education are given a generous tax credit
Full Text Available Dans un travail précédent  nous avons montré que, globalement, au terme de la période de gestation-lactation chez des rats de 21 jours, la carence alimentaire en acide oléique entraîne une diminution de la concentration en 18:1(n-9; la synthèse endogène ne compense donc pas l’absence d’acide oléique dans les aliments. Afin de déterminer exactement l’effet de la présence et de la concentration de l’acide oléique dans l’alimentation sur la composition en acides gras de divers organes, les huiles végétales commerciales n’étant pas utilisables (car contenant toujours de l’acide oléique, des triglycérides ont été synthétisés par voie chimique et enzymologique; ils ont été formés soit d’acide oléique, soit d’acide alpha-linolénique, soit d’acide linoléique. La détermination de l’effet-dose a été réalisée avec un protocole expérimental portant sur 7 groupes de rats ayant reçu chacun des aliments de composition identique (en particulier au niveau des acides gras indispensables : les acides linoléique et alpha-linolénique mais dont la teneur, variable, en acide oléique était située entre 0 et 6 000 mg pour 100 g d’aliments. Les rates ont été nourries avec les régimes à partir de 2 semaines avant l’accouplement, leurs portées ont été sacrifiées soit à 21, soit à 60 jours. Quand la teneur de l’acide oléique augmente dans les aliments, les principales modifications observées chez les animaux de 21 jours sont les suivantes.– Concernant le 18:1(n-9 : dans le foie, le muscle, le coeur, les reins et les testicules, sa concentration constante (le plateau de la courbe est atteinte aux environs de 4 g d’acide oléique pour 100 g d’alimentation. En deçà de cette dose, la réponse est croissante. Dans le cerveau, la myéline et les terminaisons nerveuses (mais non le nerf sciatique, la teneur en acide oléique reste optimale et constante.– La concentration du 16:1(n-7 diminue
RésuméLa carpologie qui rassemble principalement les études des fruits et des graines et la palynologie qui étudie la forme et la signification des spores et des grains de pollen, permettent de reconstituer les environnements végétaux du passé mais aussi les régimes alimentaires des hommes préhistoriques.Certains sédiments archéologiques du Paléolithique inférieur et moyen du Sud-Est de la France ont livré des spectres polliniques ayant fait l’objet d’un inventaire des plantes alimentaires su...
Rutas Alimentarias: una estrategia de negocios inclusivos que vincula las políticas agrarias y turísticas Food routes : an inclusive business strategy that links the agricultural and tourism policies Les routes alimentaires : des stratégies de développement liant les politiques agricoles et les politiques touristiques
Ernesto Barrera; Olivia Bringas Alvarado
Les routes alimentaires sont des itinéraires touristiques qui offrent des services et produits touristiques qui permettent de découvrir de manière ludique la culture et l'histoire alimentaire des territoires en accordant une attention particulière à la signification symbolique des aliments et aux ressources culturels locales. Ces itinéraires sont le support d’une offre touristique construite autour des ressources du terroir. Bien conçus, ils peuvent participer au développement rural. Nous con...
Nuclear fuel activities in Canada are considered in the presentation on the following directions: Canadian utility fuel performance; CANDU owner's group fuel programs; AECL advanced fuel program (high burnup fuel behaviour and development); Pu dispositioning (MOX) activities. 1 tab
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese use four divisions of the Mark Twin NWR: Louisa, Delair, Cannon, and Calhoun. There was a shortage of cultivated crops, corn and soybeans, on all...
Michael J. Harper; Nakamura, Alice O.; Lu Zhang
In 2011, Canada's business sector multifactor productivity (MFP) index, as estimated by Statistics Canada, was below that for 1977, a third of a century earlier. Over these years, public policies were enacted to try to improve Canada's productivity. Yet the nation's MFP continued to fall, relative to both the past and Canada's main trading partners. Policymakers and business decision makers need to know whether Canada's MFP statistics accurately reflect the nation's productivity. We argue tha...
A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig
Current petroleum industry activities on Canada's east coast, and future potential were discussed. Offshore drilling activity is proceeding in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin, in addition to the Sable and Terra Nova Offshore Energy Projects. Future potential for Newfoundland and Nova Scotia has been estimated at 30 billion BOE and 13 billion BOE respectively. Natural gas potential off Labrador was estimated at 37 Tcf, offshore Newfoundland at 41 Tcf, and offshore Sable Island at 49 Tcf with varying amounts of oil associated with each field. Cumulative industry spending is expected to reach $ 10 billion by the year 2000, and could reach $20 billion by 2005. Prospects for Mobil Oil, number One in discoveries and industry influence, and number Two in acreage among the partners, were reviewed. Some details of the Sable Offshore Energy Project were outlined. The estimated cost of the project is $2 billion. It is expected to be on stream in late 1999 with a total of 27 wells (11 in phase 1). Reserves are estimated at 3.5 TCF or more. Hibernia was on stream in November 1997. Total recoverable reserves at Hibernia are estimated at 750 MMBls. Peak production of 180,000 b/d is expected by 2000-2001. Life expectancy of 20 years is predicted. The Terra Nova project, located 25 miles southeast of Hibernia, was also reviewed. It will be on stream in late 2000 with total reserves of 350-450 MMBls of oil, peak production at 115,000 to 135,000 b/d with a life expectancy of 15 years. 21 figs
AECL is designing the Canadian SCWR concept, which has evolved from the well-established pressuretube type CANDU® reactor. The Canadian SCWR is designed to produce electrical energy as the main product, plus process heat, hydrogen, industrial isotopes, and drinking water (through the desalination process) as supplementary products, all within a more compact reactor building. Another potential application of the available co-generated process heat is the extraction and refining of oil sands, which is presently achieved using co-generation with natural gas turbines and process heat. The extraction and upgrading process requires: thermal power to lower the viscosity and extract the oil; electric power for separation and refining equipment; and hydrogen gas for upgrading the oil product prior to transport. A National Program has been established in Canada to support R&D studies for the Canadian SCWR design. It covers key areas of interest (such as thermal hydraulics, safety, materials, and chemistry) to participants in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) SCWR designs. Results generated from the program are contributed to the GIF SCWR project management boards (PMBs). For example, heat transfer correlations have been derived using experimental data primarily obtained from fossil-plant related studies (which were started as early as 1930s. Materials and chemistry studies have evolved from operating experience of fossil-fired power plants to a) develop, and perform targeted testing of, materials for key components, in particular in-core reactor components that will be exposed to conditions not encountered in a fossil-fired boiler (such as irradiation and water radiolysis), and b) develop a suitable water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport
Dans un contexte de crise alimentaire grandissante et où plus d’un milliard de personnes souffrent de la faim, l’étude de l’optimisation du secteur de l’agriculture, au travers du renforcement des moyens de financement en vue de desservir un grand nombre de pauvres, révèle toute son importance. Il s’agit ainsi d’analyser la manière dont la microfinance peut contribuer favorablement à améliorer le financement de l’agriculture en vue de favoriser une amélioration des conditions de vie des popul...
L'ochratoxine A (OTA) est une mycotoxine (métabolite secondaire de moisissures), contaminant alimentaire ubiquitaire. Elle est mise en cause dans la néphropathie endémique des Balkanset des tumeurs du tractus urinaire associées à cette maladie. Le but de notre travail était d'établir une relation entre l'exposition humaine à l'OTA et l'induction des cancers des voies urinaires. La présence des mycotoxines dans les aliments pose un problème réel de santé publique. Chez l'homme, la contaminat...
N'Dri, Yao Denis
Cette étude a contribué à la valorisation de certains aliments locaux d'origine végétale qui entrent dans les habitudes alimentaires des populations de Côte d'Ivoire par la détermination du contenu en substances antioxydantes et nutritives de ces plantes, légumes et céréales afin que, avec conscience, tout consommateur tienne compte de leur importance. In particulier, on a conduit une étude sur quelques produits locaux de la Côte d'Ivoire: Ricinodendron heudelotii, Vigna subterranea, Solanum ...
Bouillaud, Christophe; Fontan, Clément
Après avoir rappelé les raisons historiques qui ont amené la France à disposer au début des années 2010 d’un système bancaire dominée par un tout petit nombre de banques universelles too big to fail, très fortement intégrées aux flux financiers européens et mondiaux, on étudie la manière dont le modèle économique de ces dernières a joué un rôle central dans les causes de ce qui a été communément appelé après 2010 la « crise des dettes souveraines » en Europe » ou, plus communément, la « crise...
Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs
Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse aux mécanismes de construction de la légitimité des productions alimentaires locales. Les données présentées sont issues d’une enquête qualitative portant sur les processus de valorisation dans le département de la Drôme. Nous présenterons la construction des normes internes au système d’action de valorisation repéré sur ce territoire à travers trois de ses fondements : l’adhésion à des normes de production, l’adhésion à des normes de distribution ainsi qu’à une inscription dans la vie culturelle locale. À travers ces trois aspects, nous verrons se profiler la logique de valorisation caractérisant ce système. Cette logique de valorisation transmet des valeurs spécifiques aux productions et participe ainsi à les légitimer. La mise en relief de cette forme de légitimité est l’objectif de la réflexion proposée.The aim of this article is to highlight the way in which local food products are given legitimacy, presenting qualitative data from a survey of product enhancement activities in the department of the Drôme. It describes the internal standards defined by three tenets underlying those activities: adherence to production standards; adherence to standards of distribution; and adherence to local cultural life. Our aim is to outline the rationale behind the system - a rationale that in conferring particular values to particular products also helps to give them legitimacy.
Banque Cantonale de Genève
7e Salon Immobilier BCGE le samedi 3 septembre 2011, de 8 h 30 à 13 h 00, au Centre de formation de Conches À cette occasion, les meilleurs spécialistes professionnels genevois de l’immobilier seront réunis en un seul et même lieu. Si vous le souhaitez, un conseiller spécialisé dans les financements hypothécaires évaluera vos possibilités d’investissement immobilier adaptées à votre situation personnelle. En parallèle, les plus importantes régies immobilières de Genève seront à votre disposition pour vous présenter leurs offres actuelles, ainsi que les projets immobiliers futurs et discuter avec vous de la meilleure stratégie à adopter pour trouver l’objet de vos rêves. De plus, vous aurez la possibilité...
Le Maux, Laurent
Smith is the forerunner of the free banking theory. Smith develop the law of reflux which asserts that private banks cannot over-issue because the convertibility rule and the market mechanism induce banks to supply just the amount of money that public want to hold. The real bills doctrine of Adam Smith has been misinterpreted and just propose a solution to the law of reflux. Smith is a forerunner too of information asymmetry theory. He shows that banks are confronted with information asymmetr...
..., NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining Company, LLC, Pennzoil-Quaker... Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining... party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate. The Respondent's...
This paper gives a broad update on all facets of the Canadian nuclear industry and demonstrates Canada's continuing commitment to nuclear technology. Canada has developed a global leadership position in nuclear technology for power generation, uranium production and isotope supply. This commitment is being further enhanced by successes in international markets with Candu technology, new uranium mine developments in our province of Saskatchewan, and expanding isotope capabilities including the construction of two new production reactors. Korea's economy is benefiting through collaboration with Canada's leading nuclear companies, both in Korea and Canada. These collaborations have the potential to expand considerably with the implementation of the Kyoto Framework Convention on Climate Change and the anticipated increased demand for new nuclear power generation installations in all major global markets. Much has been publicized about the situation surrounding Ontario Hydro Nuclear and its nuclear recovery program. This paper gives the background and highlights the actions within Ontario and Ontario Hydro designed to ensure the long term recovery of all twenty nuclear units in Ontario. The presentation at the conference will bring the audience completely up-to-date on recent events. (author)
Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).
It is the purpose of the committee responsible for this document to study, report, and make recommendations on the financing of universities and colleges of Canada, with particular reference to the decade ending 1975, including: (1) prospective financial requirements of universities and colleges, for operation, research, physical facilities and…
International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology
This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…
Canada is a nation rich in fossil fuel resources. Canada has a large, well-developed forest sector and is one of the world's largest exporters of wood products. Although national bioenergy policies exist, provincial policies regarding forest resources are necessary because 77 per cent of Canada's forests are under provincial jurisdiction. This report presented an update on Canada's bioenergy policy and resources. The report discussed biomass resources such as woody biomass; agricultural residues; and municipal waste. The use of biomass was presented with particular reference to heat and power; biofuels production; pyrolysis oil; wood pellets; and trends in biomass production and consumption. Current biomass users and biomass prices were also examined. Last, the report addressed imports and exports of ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets as well as barriers and opportunities to trade. A list of Canadian bioenergy initiatives and programs was also provided. It was concluded that the greatest opportunities for trade are to succeed in research on super-densified pellets; raise ocean shipping capacity to bring down rates; and to establish and entire biomass industry in Newfoundland Labrador. 20 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix
High Performance Computing (HPC) is redefining the way that research is done. Compute Canada's HPC infrastructure provides a national platform that enables Canadian researchers to compete on an international scale, attracts top talent to Canadian universities and broadens the scope of research.
This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.
Fusion Canada is a bulletin of the National Fusion Program, this is the last edition. Included in this July edition are articles on Funding for Canada's fusion program, Research and Development on TdeV-96 , Divertor Maintenance Robotics and reference listing for Canada's Fusion research and development sites
The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. During 1986 the program was strongly influenced by radioactive fallout on Canada resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986 in the Soviet Ukraine. The Environmental Radiation Hazards Division (ERHD) increased its frequency of analyses of environmental samples immediately following the accident. Interim screening limits for foodstuffs were developed. A measurement program for radioactivity in domestic and imported foods was implemented. The ERHD measurement program was supplemented by additional measurements conducted by many other private and government laboratories. Radiation doses to Canadian from Chernobyl fallout were extremely low with no group in the population receiving more than 10 microsieverts
Wallace, J F
THE NATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF CIVILIAN EMERGENCY PLANNING ARE: (1) protection and preservation of life and property; (2) maintenance of governmental structure; and (3) conservation of resources. The Canada Emergency Measures Organization (E.M.O.) has been developed to accomplish these objectives. E.M.O. co-ordinates other departments and agencies of federal government and its organization is reflected within provincial and municipal governments.Present E.M.O. accomplishments include: an attack warning system; an emergency broadcasting system; emergency government facilities; 400 emergency measure organizations across Canada; plans to implement general readiness; a medical stockpile; and "shadow agencies" for control of housing, food and manpower.PRESENT UNDERTAKINGS INCLUDE: a national survey of fallout shelters; the equipping of the radiation defence (RADEF); the pre-positioning of the items of the medical stockpile; and the training at the Canadian Emergency Measures College at Arnprior. PMID:6015737
Fusion is the process of releasing energy from matter which occurs in our sun. Canada is contributing to the development of technology which will permit this process to be harnessed and made available on earth. The international effort has increased from a modest beginning in the 1950s to a level of approximately two billion dollars annually in the 1980s. The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the concept of fusion energy as a technology which should make an important addition to the mix of energy sources for our future. Through a co-ordinated approach, Canada has established several projects which will contribute significantly to the development of technologies in specific areas leading to opportunities now for Canadian industry in the international effort
Xu, Li-Hong; Ghose, Shohini; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; McKenna, Janis; Bhadra, Sampa; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Dasgupta, Arundhati; Campbell, Melanie; Barkanova, Svetlana; Steinitz, Michael
While the overall climate for women physicists both in academia and industry has improved significantly over the past decade in Canada, it will be some time before women are well represented. Numbers of women in physics at all academic levels have increased, but are less than ideal at the full professor level. Organizations such as the Canadian Association of University Teachers and local initiatives are striving to minimize the socio-economic and professional gaps between women and men. The Canadian Association of Physicists, through its Committee to Encourage Women in Physics, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council are supportive and serve as catalysts, bringing together men and women to discuss and address issues concerning women in physics across Canada.
The approach taken to nuclear criticality safety in Canada has been influenced by the historical development of participants. The roles played by governmental agencies and private industry since the Atomic Energy Control Act was passed into Canadian Law in 1946 are outlined to set the scene for the current situation and directions that may be taken in the future. Nuclear criticality safety puts emphasis on the control of materials called special fissionable material in Canada. A brief account is given of the historical development and philosophy underlying the existing regulations governing special fissionable material. Subsequent events have led to a change in emphasis in the regulatory process that has not yet been fully integrated into Canadian legislation and regulations. Current efforts towards further development of regulations governing the practice of nuclear criticality safety are described. (auth)
This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)
This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (78 tabs., 27 figs.)
Despite all the current difficulties, previous erroneous forecasts and other mistakes, the longer term future looks good for uranium mining and for Canada's industry in particular. Saskatchewan continues to offer the most exciting new prospects, the huge and fabulously high grade Cigar Lake deposits being the most spectacular of the recent discoveries. Notwithstanding continuous mining for 30 years from Elliot Lake there still remain there significant uncommitted reserves which can be developed when the market for uranium is in better balance
The author argues that the nuclear debate in Canada is concerned less with the safety of nuclear power plants and more with arguments of economics and social decision-making. The nuclear industry cannot afford to neglect the continuing need to inform the public about nuclear risks. But there is also a need to develop specific arguments to increase public acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic, democratic and equitable energy option
Full Text Available Food habits and cultures are constantly evolving – changing in response to new innovations that are driven by agribusiness players large and small. As the ‘actors of innovation’ these people reinvent their relationship with tradition. This article is based on a study of three rural areas in the department of the Midi-Pyrenees: Southern Aveyron, Pays du Haut Rouergue (North Aveyron and Pays d’Armagnac in the Gers. It highlights three main profiles of innovators in the field of food heritage, each one corresponding to a form of organization that in turn flows from a particular relationship with the territory and its local players. It also highlights the importance of local perceptions and attitudes towards these innovators, demonstrating the pivotal role of local companies in the appropriation of innovative process.Les cultures alimentaires sont évolutives et font l’objet de différentes formes d’innovation. Qu’ils soient artisans, industriels ou institutionnels, reconnus ou plus marginaux, les différents acteurs de la filière agro-alimentaire portent ces mouvements d’innovation, renouvellant ou inversant ainsi leur rapport à la « tradition ». Cette dernière se trouve alors remaniée dans le projet de valorisation. L’étude fait ressortir trois principaux profils d’innovateurs dans le champ de la patrimonialisation alimentaire. Chacun de ces profils correspond à une forme d’organisation, elle-même inscrite dans un rapport particulier au territoire et au système d’acteurs local. Cette typologie souligne par ailleurs l’importance du regard de la population locale sur ces innovateurs ; elle montre le rôle central des sociétés locales dans l’appropriation des processus d’innovation, participant ou non à leur légitimation. Si le processus d’innovation a longtemps été porté par des groupes d’acteurs structurés, reconnus par la société locale, il est également, le fait de petits groupes ou
Catherine E. Gordon
Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.
Kisely, Steve; Adair, Carol E; Lin, Elizabeth; Marriott, Brian
Canada is a federal country of 10 provinces and three territories. High level information on mental health conditions and service use has mostly been generated from administrative data collected by provinces and territories. These include four major types - hospital admissions and discharges, physician billings, ambulatory care services, and drug databases. At the national level, the Canadian Institute for Health Information brings together this information to produce indicators of outcome. Although these data provide information on patient and health system characteristics, they do not capture the full spectrum of formal and informal mental healthcare. These include changes in health status, functioning, community integration and quality of life. As a result, some jurisdictions have begun to implement more standardized measures of outcome such as the clinician-rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales or the inpatient Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health. In this paper we provide an overview of mental-health-related data sources in Canada, highlight some of the more progressive practices beginning to emerge, and conclude with some thoughts about how the routine measurement and reporting of mental health outcomes in Canada might be advanced including efforts at engaging both clinicians and decision-makers. PMID:25738745
This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries
Austin, Zubin; Ensom, Mary H H
In Canada, the education of pharmacists is built upon a foundation of strong, research-intensive publicly funded universities and a universal health-care system that balances government and private financing for prescription medications. The evolution of pharmacy education and practice in Canada has laid the foundation for a variety of emerging trends related to expanded roles for pharmacists, increasing interprofessional collaboration for patient-centered care, and emergence of pharmacy technicians as a soon-to-be regulated professional group in parts of the country. Current challenges include the need to better integrate internationally educated pharmacists within the domestic workforce and tools to ensure continuous professional development and maintenance of competency of practitioners. Academic pharmacy is currently debating how best to manage the need to enhance the pharmacy curriculum to meet current and future skills needs, and whether a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree ought to become the standard entry-to-practice qualification for pharmacists in Canada. PMID:19325948
Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.
Ton Nu, Christine; Martin, Nicolas
Lettre de Veille CIHEAM N°34 Depuis 2007, le CIHEAM publie chaque trimestre une "Lettre de veille" dédiée aux grandes problématiques agricoles, alimentaires et rurales en Méditerranée. L'objectif est de fournir une information synthétique et actualisée qui puissent nourrir la connaissance sur les dynamiques de cette région et faciliter la prise de décision. Chaque numéro est composé d'un dossier central sur une thématique stratégique et d'une série de renseignements sur des activités en cours...
Sané, B.; Laveissière, Claude; Meda, H. A.
Une analyse rétrospective des préférences trophiques de #Glossina palpalis palpalis$, vecteur majeur de la Trypanosomiase humaine africaine (THA) a été faite à partir des données recueillies entre 1984 et 1994 dans cinq foyers du secteur forestier, dans le centre-ouest de la Côte d'Ivoire. Les auteurs ont comparé le régime alimentaire de ce vecteur dans ces différents foyers. L'objectif est de vérifier s'il existe une relation entre les préférences trophiques du vecteur et la prévalence de la...
Burri, Elena Maria Elisabeth
Etude ethnoarchéologique portant sur la recherche de relations entre habitudes culinaires et spécialités soci-économique dans le Delta intérieur du Niger. Le contexte ethnologique de la région, où se côtoient plusieurs ethnies économiquement spécialisées dans la production de biens alimentaires spécifiques et les enquêtes de la MAESAO sur la céramique permettent d'aborder cette question. Il s'agit d'abord de montrer la possibilité de déterminer sur un plan archéologique l'utilisation de céram...
Full Text Available Taux d'abroutissement, indicateur de la charge et du régime alimentaire des ongulés sauvages en milieu tempéré et/ou tropical : cas du chevreuil (Capreolus capreolus L.. The grazing habitat of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L. had been surveyed during spring, summer and automn seasons of 1988 in Lauzelle Woods using 24 enclosed and unenclosed areas in order to measure the degree of stress on the vegetation exerted by the animal and to establish its alimentary regime. In general, in the woods the availability of the vegetation was sufficient for the roe deer and hence they do not exert any stress on the vegetation. Nevertheless, they exert some stress on some vegetation that had low rate of regrowth. The examination of the chemical composition of the fecal matter revealed that the vegetation of Lauzelle Woods provided a good quality forage with 21 % crude protein.
La présente étude porte sur la structure trophique des communautés de poissons subsistant dans quelques mares résiduelles du Baoulé (haut bassin du Sénégal) au Mali. Il est d'abord montré que les espèces limnivores et phytophages possèdent un intestin significativement plus long que les espèces des autres catégories trophiques, notamment les carnivores et les omnivores. Ce sont ces dernières espèces qui, d'un strict point de vue alimentaire, devraient s'adapter le mieux puisque peu spécialisé...
Le présent travail consiste à étudier la bioécologie des Orthoptères dans les régions d'El Aricha et de Maghnia dans la wilaya de Tlemcen. L'inventaire Orthoptérologique et les relevés floristiques ont été réalisés avec une systématique linéaire dévoilant ainsi la présence de quatorze espèces de Caelifères et dix neuf espèces végétales. L'étude de la structure du peuplement Orthoptérologique démontre que la diversité est plus ou moins faible. Le régime alimentaire révèle ...
TAVERNY C.; ELIE P.
L’examen de contenus stomacaux de 193 spécimens d’Alosa alosa (longueur totale Lt 181 à 538 mm / 2 à 4 ans) et de 175 d’Alosa fallax (Lt 204 à 486 mm / 2 à 6 ans) pêchés au niveau du plateau continental océanique français de l’Atlantique Ouest montre que les aloses sont en mer des prédateurs sélectifs d’espèces essentiellement pélagiques. A. alosa est à dominante zooplanctonophage. Les euphausiacés sont la composante alimentaire principale avec les copépodes, dans une moindre part. Les po...
Intégrée dans le cadre du suivi de la population d'ours brun introduite entre 1996 et 1997 dans les Pyrénées, cette étude du régime alimentaire est basée sur l'analyse de 89 laissées récoltées entre 1996 et 1999. Des facteurs correctifs (correction factors) prenant en compte les différences de digestibilité existant entre les aliments sont utilisés pour traiter les données issues de la reconnaissance microscopique des éléments figurés. Ils permettent d'établir la tendance carnivore marquée du...
Ce mémoire réalisé sur 1342 #L. nebulosus$ (Forskall), capturés à la ligne à main dans 129 stations du lagon d'Uvéa (Nouvelle Calédonie) a pour but de préciser un certain nombre de points de la biologie de ce poisson, et de son comportement alimentaire en particulier. La relation taille-poids ...., la distribution des classes de taille (75% des poissons sont compris entre 300 et 450mm), les variations de sex-ratio (prépondérance des femelles dans les classes de tailles supérieures), et la rép...
Chez les indiens BARI, du Nord de la Colombie, le système d'organisation de la production tend à se destructurer avec l'émergence d'un modèle de domination masculine entraînant un recul de la position économique de la femme. Cette modification étroitement liée à la transformation de la reproduction sociale, s'est appuyée sur un affaiblissement du système de subsistance et du modèle domestique. Il s'ensuit une dégradation du régime alimentaire des Bari et de leurs conditions matérielles d'exis...
Kerdchuen, N.; Legendre, Marc
L'influence de la période (jour, nuit) et de la fréquence d'alimentation (1 à 4 repas fractionnés ou alimentation continue) a été étudiée sur la croissance et l'efficacité alimentaire chez un silure africain (#Heterobranchus longifilis$). L'expérience, d'une durée de 56 jours, a été réalisée sur des poissons de 74 g de poids moyen initial. Avec un même taux de rationnement (3% du poids moyen vif/jour), les poissons nourris la nuit ont une croissance significativement plus élevée que ceux nour...
Dans les entrepôts de la grande distribution alimentaire, l’introduction d’un nouvel outil de travail, le guidage par commande vocale, a considérablement modifié le travail des préparateurs de commande. Auparavant caractérisée par l’absence d’enchaînement et la possibilité de prendre de l’avance, l’activité de préparation a évolué vers une temporalité restrictive comparable à celle d’un ouvrier sur chaîne. Sous guidage vocal, « le nez dans le micro », le savoir-faire des préparateurs est rédu...
Geneviève Teil; Sandrine Barrey
Cet article porte sur la notion d’« authenticité » appliquée au patrimoine des « vins de terroir ». Ces dix dernières années, des vignerons accusent la législation des AOC (Appellations d’Origine Contrôlées) de ne plus protéger les terroirs et de laisser les mauvaises pratiques des vignerons les pervertir. Le retour vers la qualité de terroir repose donc la question de l’identification de la nature authentique de ce patrimoine alimentaire. Pour mener cette approche réflexive, une première par...
There is growing belief in many developed countries, including Canada, that the large influx of the foreign-born population increases crime. Despite the heated public discussion, the immigrant-crime relationship is understudied in the literature. This paper identifies the causal linkages between immigration and crime using panel data constructed from the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and the master files of the Census of Canada. This paper distinguishes immigrants by their years in Canada an...
As Canada's fusion programs have grown, Canadian capabilities in fusion science and technology have grown and matured with them. The fusion capabilities described in this booklet have come from a coordinated national effort. The Government of Canada is committed to continuing its fusion energy program, and to supporting global fusion efforts. These first pages provide an overview of Canada's fusion work and its underlying basis of science and technology
Shrubb, Eric F.
Although there are numerous chiropractic institutions, one which receives little acclaim, but contributes significantly to chiropractic life in Canada, is the Chiropractic College of Radiologists (Canada) Inc. The following presentation represents a brief historical perspective of this most prestigious organization.
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012
The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…
Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.
Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion
Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (1015 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring
The classification of radioactive wastes in Canada involves two categories - waste of such a nature or in such amounts that it could be hazardous to the public, and waste which can be dealt with safely by methods available to individual institutions having at their disposal only conventional methods for getting rid of unwanted material. It is easy to provide for long-term retention of radioactive wastes if no account need be taken of expense. However, it is unreasonable (and discouraging to progress) to insist upon techniques of waste management that are applicable to multi-curie sources when the amounts to be dealt with are in the millicurie range. (author)
Full text: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has reported that work has continued on the decommissioning of old structures on the Chalk River laboratory site. An environmental assessment was approved in 2006 for the decommissioning of the NRX reactor fuel bays (A and B). The regulator approved two work packages for the removal of water and the wooden structure over the bays. The A bays were cleaned as far as possible and were emptied in 2007. Decontamination work will continue. Sections of the B bays were filled with sand and other parts filled with water. NRX is currently in storage (i.e. a dormant state) with surveillance. (author)
The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection
The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection
The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and asessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1980 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format is used with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection
Annotates 122 publications from the Canadian federal government and from 9 Canadian provinces. Topics include environmental programs and problems, gambling, crime, young offenders, health and welfare issues, use of electronic information, materials on education, employment, tourism, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and issues relating to…
This annotated bibliography lists 110 Canadian federal and provincial government documents published in 1991 that address a wide range of topics, including demographics; constitutional law; social issues, including problems of women, children, and minorities; education; the environment; and standard of living. A list of reviewers is included. (MES)
Cormier, J.P.; Baillon, François
Cet article porte sur la densité des busards cendrés #Circus pygargus$ et leur répartition en fonction des types de végétation dans la région située au nord du delta du Saloum (Sénégal), sur les rythmes d'activités de ces oiseaux et leur régime alimentaire
Published airborne gamma ray survey data from 33 areas of Canada were used to compile information on the average ground level exposure from natural radiation. The exposures at ground level were calculated from the surface concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. The highest levels of radioactivity were found in northern Canada and were generally related to granitic rocks; the lowest levels with the Athabasca sandstone. Summer outdoor exposure rates have a population-weighted average of 3.7 +- 2.3 μR.h-1, of which 48 percent orginated from potassium, 43 percent from the thorium series and 9 percent from the uranium series. This low level of radioactivity, compared to worldwide data, has resulted from erosion of a geologically old continental crust in which radioactivity decreases with depth. When seasonal variations of soil moisture and snow cover are considered, the annual population-weighted average outdoor exposure rate decreases to 2.8 +- 1.7 μR.h-1 corresponding to an annual outdoor dose-equivalent of 150 +- 90 μSV. Factors increasing the annual outdoor dose-equivalent are cosmic radiation (320 +- 30 μSV) and the internal radioactivity of the body (190 μSV). Using the ratio between indoor and outdoor values for worldwide published data, the average annual Canadian whole-body dose-equivalent from all sources of natural radiation is estimated to be 690 +-130 μSV
All wells drilled in Western Canada during the first nine months of 1999 are listed and sorted into 12 geographical areas used in the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) well cost study. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Area totals for well counts and meters drilled were determined from the sorting process. Previous years' activities are reviewed and various operators and PSAC members contacted to review upcoming programs. In addition, trends and other projections were consulted to develop an estimate of drilling activity for the rest of 1999 as well as a projection of drilling activity for 2000. The historical and projected drilling activities were tabulated and plotted for each area. Average drilling costs for each area were determined, and the total expenditures were calculated for each area by multiplying the the projected meterage by the adjusted drilling costs. All costs were allocated to various services and products utilizing percentages determined in the Well Cost Study. During the sorting process, a list was developed of the major operators in each area, which list is included in the report along with average depths and types of wells drilled by the various operators in each area. The costs included in the report include only drilling and completion operations, starting with the building of the location prior to drilling, and ending with the installation of the wellhead after construction. 5 tabs
The forecasts contained in this report are based on a review of the drilling activity through the first eight months of 1998 in twelve geographic areas of Western Canada. The forecasts incorporate current operator activity and trends into an estimate of well counts and meters drilled for the entire year of 1998. The estimates produced in this manner serve as the basis for the activity forecast for 1999. This projection, and cost data developed for the Association's 1998 Well Cost Study released in September 1998, provide the foundation for calculating the anticipated expenditure for various products and services in each of the specified geographical areas. Major operators in each area, and the type of drilling activities conducted by them, are also included. For Western Canada as a whole, a total of 9,885 wells are predicted to be drilled in 1999, at a total expenditure of $3.939 billion. The predicted average well depth will be 1,171 m, at an average cost of $ 219/m
The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs
This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs
Recent changes in the North American natural gas industry are discussed, with a focus on how these changes will affect the ability of Alberta and Canadian natural gas supply to meet market growth. These changes include a decline in the merchant role of many of the major interstate pipelines, resulting in a larger number of smaller-sized purchasers for natural gas marketers to deal with; a greater extent of direct purchasing by local distribution companies and large industrial users, combined with a preference for spot sales rather than long-term commitments; direct marketing of uncontracted gas by many producers and brokers; a bidding type of sales process rather than a negotiated process; and price deregulation. It is foreseen that long term security of supply will again become an important factor to North American buyers, and Canada can offer substantial supplies under secure long term contracts. Marketers will have to seek new market targets such as cogeneration plants and the transportation sector. Access to pipeline transport will be one of the major factors in obtaining new markets. The Canada-USA free trade agreement is viewed as a positive development which should help Canadian gas marketers to gain and retain U.S. customers
A biomass inventory for Canada was undertaken to address the data needs of carbon budget modelers, specifically to provide estimates of above-ground tree components and of non-merchantable trees in Canadian forests. The objective was to produce a national method for converting volume estimates to biomass that was standardized, repeatable across the country, efficient and well documented. Different conversion methods were used for low productivity forests (productivity class 1) and higher productivity forests (productivity class 2). The conversion factors were computed by constructing hypothetical stands for each site, age, species and province combination, and estimating the merchantable volume and all the above-ground biomass components from suitable published equations. This report documents the procedures for deriving the national biomass inventory, and provides illustrative examples of the results. 46 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs
Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada.......Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada....
The discovery of Canada means rolling out a new map, giving meaning to the land and its heritage. Experientially discovering Canada is at the heart of teaching and learning. It is necessary to balance experiential exploration with classroom and library exploration. In order to achieve this, the student must be a traveler. Programs that attempt to…
This paper traces the history of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. For 60 years AECL has contributed world class science and technology to Canada, while assisting Government on policy issues, enabling business innovation and technology transfer, and generating highly qualified workforce for Canadian industry.
McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne
Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…
Elder, John [Department of Finance and Real Estate, 1272 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)
Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)
Oil and gas drilling activity for the final quarter of 1998 and the first quarter of 1999 for 12 specific geographical areas in Western Canada is reviewed. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Current operator activity and trends are incorporated into an estimate of well counts for 1999. Average drilling costs for each area are also calculated. Drilling of about 8920 wells is projected for 1999. The anticipated drilling and completion expenditures will be about $3.2 (Cdn) billion. While horizontal drilling activity appears to have decreased slightly in 1998, an increase to over 1200 horizontal and directionally drilled wells is projected for 1999. A list of the major operators in each geographical area is also provided. 8 tabs., 3 figs
Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)
The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.)
In response to the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the Canadian Government required: — Ongoing environmental monitoring on Canadian territory from coast to coast. — Deployment of experts to the IAEA. —Issuance of a directive pursuant to the regulatory requirements to all major nuclear facilities to review initial lessons learned. — Re-examination of the safety cases with a focus on: ● External hazards and measures to prevent or mitigate severe accidents; ● Emergency preparedness; ● Implementation of immediate short term and long term measures. At the regulatory level, the CNSC carried out reviews of the safety status of the plants in Canada and abroad. The CNSC site staff carried out focused inspection on seismic, fire, flooding, backup power, hydrogen igniters and passive recombiners, in addition to ongoing inspections against external hazards. The CNSC conducted inspections of spent fuel bays, their components and equipment, heat sinks and alarms, as well as the availability of on-site and off-site resources
Canada's non-proliferation and safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote the emergence of a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to assure the Canadian people and the international community that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the NPT, by promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, by treating nuclear weapon and non-nuclear weapon states alike regarding Canadian nuclear exports, by working for new approaches covering the sensitive phases (e.g. reprocessing) of the nuclear fuel cycle, Canada's policy promotes attainment of the first objective. The latter objective is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its nuclear partners. Those agreements provide assurance that Canada's nuclear exports are used solely for legitimate, peaceful, nuclear energy production purposes. At the same time, Canada, having formulated its non-proliferation and safeguards policy during the period 1945 to 1980, has recognized that it has gone as far as it can on its own in this field and that from this point on any further changes should be made on the basis of international agreement. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums such as the Committee on Assurances of Supply is to exert Canada's best efforts to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers might subsume their national requirements
In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium; five primary uranium producers reported concentrate output containing 12,400 MT of uranium, or about one-third of Western production. Uranium shipments made by these producers in 1988 exceeded 13,200 MT, worth Canadian $1.1 billion. Because domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian output, most of Canada's uranium production is available for export. Despite continued market uncertainty in 1988, Canada's uranium producers signed new sales contracts for some 14,000 MT, twice the 1987 level. About 90% of this new volume is with the US, now Canada's major uranium customer. The recent implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade agreement brings benefits to both countries; the uranium industries in each can now develop in an orderly, free market. Canada's uranium industry was restructured and consolidated in 1988 through merger and acquisition; three new uranium projects advanced significantly. Canada's new policy on nonresident ownership in the uranium mining sector, designed to encourage both Canadian and foreign investment, should greatly improve efforts to finance the development of recent Canadian uranium discoveries
Taxi and limousine service plays an important role in the movement of people within a city. In 2004, the total revenue in this industry in Canada was $1.305 billion, and an estimated 35,339 carriers served the industry. In Canada, economic and safety regulations of taxi supply were imposed in most cities during the 1930s and 1940s and continue to this date. Although the industry is regulated, the competition law also applies. The appropriateness of these regulations continues to be challenged and regulatory reforms in the major cities in Canada have concentrated their efforts on increasing the rate of services, improving the quality of vehicles and enhancing the training of taxi drivers. Indicators for the 1999-2004 period reveal that the taxi and limousine industry in Canada did not perform very well. Revenue increased by only 1.7 per cent per year and margins deteriorated by -1.78 per cent together with the operating ratio. The purpose of this paper was to examine the taxi and limousine industry in Canada. First, the structure of the industry in Canada was examined followed by a review of the economic regulation of the industry. Recent regulatory developments in Canada and in other countries were then reviewed with arguments for or against deregulation. 28 refs., 2 tabs
Petro-Canada is a dominant player in the petroleum industry in Western Canada as well as on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. This report presents a review of operations, provides detailed statements of the corporation's finances, and a wealth of information of interest to shareholders. The report states that in 1997 Petro-Canada achieved record financial results, following a dramatic turnaround over the past five years. Net earnings for 1997 were $306 million, a $59 million increase over 1996. The company's share price appreciated 34 per cent in 1997 and was one of the most heavily traded stocks in Canada. The company plans to maximize shareholder value by reducing its interests in conventional oil from mature fields in western Canada and by re-investing the proceeds in natural gas development. Petro-Canada is also committed to an expansion that will double production at the Syncrude oil sands plant over the next decade and has tested large in-situ oil sands resources for potential development in northeastern Alberta. On the Atlantic coast too, Petro-Canada is delivering leadership with increasing production from Hibernia, and final approvals in place to proceed with development of the Terra Nova field. International operations are also contributing to the Corporation's profitability by delivering new production from oil fields offshore Norway and from the Sahara Desert in North Africa. tabs., figs
This paper discusses the role that Canada plays in nuclear medicine worldwide. Canada supplies over 75% of the world's Cobalt-60 which sterilizes 45% of all single-use medical supplies in the world. Cobalt-60 teletherapy delivers 45000 cancer treatments daily. It is used in non-destructive testing. Canada also supplies over 50% of the world's medical isotopes. NRU reactor-produced isotopes include Molybdenum 99, iodine 131, Iodine 125, Xenon 133 and Cobalt 60. MDS Nordion maintains a strategic supply agreement with AECL
Canada has a great national asset in its ability to generate electricity economically from its abundant hydro, coal, and uranium resources. Its nuclear industry has an excellent product. Despite lack of orders for now, the CANDU will be a competitive force when the reactor market recovers. Canada has a proven record of reliability for electricity trade with the United States. There appear to be some opportunities for plants in Canada dedicated to the export of electric power. The federal government is prepared to work closely with the provinces to develop projects which will be attractive to customers in the United States
Suen, Ching Y
This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric
Gloria Patricia Diaz Barrero.
Full Text Available This article is the product of exploratory field research conducted in Toronto, Canada. It consists of in-depth interviews of Latin American women from diverse countries who obtained temporary work visas as exotic dancers. The objective of the study is to determine the ways in which women are recruited in their countries of origin, transported to Canada and what happens to them upon arrival. The author proposes that the conditions inherent to migration, more than women's legal status, determines their emotional, economic and legal well-being. However, upon obtaining legal residency in Canada, abuse committed by employers and state agents is significantly reduced.
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development
Zügel, N P; Hehl, J A; Jechart, G; Tannapfel, A; Wienbeck, M; Witte, J
We report a 63-year-old lady with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, who developed colorectal cancer. A hemicolectomy was performed, and the tumor specimen was prepared for DNA-analysis and immunohistochemical screening. We found a mutation of p53 gene without APC- and ras-gene alteration and expression of erbB2-protooncogen. The polyps in non-hereditary Cronkhite-Canada-syndrom are neither adenomatous nor hyperplastic, but patients often develop colorectal cancers. The steps of mutation do not follow the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, first described by Vogelstein 1988. This and previous observations suggest that carcinogenesis in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome follows another independent sequence. PMID:11413916
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011
The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009
The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...
A review of operations in 1998 and financial information from Gulf Canada Resources Limited is provided to keep shareholders abreast of company performance. Gulf Canada Resources Limited explores for, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1998, the company's main operating centres were in western Canada (where it owns a nine per cent interest in the Syncrude Joint Venture), Indonesia, the North Sea and Australia. The report summarizes the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed review of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Although Gulf Canada Resources sold $ 1.2 billion worth of non-producing assets during the year, year end proved reserves of 838 million barrels of oil equivalent were less than ten per cent lower than a year earlier, reflecting reserve additions of 100 million barrels of oil equivalent. tabs., figs
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...
Canada's non-proliferation safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to ensure that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, treating nuclear weapon and non-weapon states alike, and working for new approaches covering reprocessing, Canada promotes attainment of the first objective. The second is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its partners. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums is to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers may subsume their national requirements
Full Text Available The traditional mainline and evangelical churches in Canada, as in most western countries, are either in decline or static. Taken as a measure of the future, the prospects for Christianity in Canada, and more broadly the West, are bleak. Post-Christian Canada, however, contains thriving alternative and innovative forms of church, often called ‘emerging’ churches. They take many forms of expression, but share common theological convictions. Based on site research and personal interviews, this article describes the various types and contexts of these churches in Canada. It then highlights three of their central theological characteristics. First, rejecting the ‘culture wars’ social involvement of Christendom churches, they embrace practices and initiatives that transform their local communities. Second, they embrace an incarnational and contextual understanding of Christian life and ministry. Eschewing mega-church franchise models, they endeavor to shape their ministry to the their local communities. Third, they adopt a comprehensive rather than compartmental spirituality.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Number of potential territories, number of cackling Canada Goose nests, and percent occupancy of available territories from CCG plots on the Yukon Delta National...
This paper investigates the impact that a federal government structure has on strategic selection of renewable energy policy instruments. The context for this study centers on wind power development in Canada. Canada is a nation that is blessed by all the attributes necessary to catalyze global leadership in installed wind power capacity. Unfortunately, the constitutional separation of powers that underpins Canada's federal system impedes the creation of a national wind power development strategy because Canada's provinces have constitutional authority over electricity governance. The insights gleaned from the case study are used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the impact that federal structure has on policy instrument selection and efficacy under areas of federal, regional and concurrent policy jurisdiction. Finally, this framework is re-applied to identify specific approaches the Canadian federal government could take to resolve what currently amounts to be a fragmented, ineffective approach to wind power development planning.
Williams, Mark; Burke, Danita Catherine
Canada is often characterised as a mosaic for world cultures while contending with the difficulty of defining its national identity. Canada’s confederation in 1867 was influenced by the fear that then-British North America was at risk from the United States’ internal conflicting forces. This sense...... component of Canada’s domestic politics. Understanding the relationship dynamics of the Canadian Armed Forces, the Government of Canada and the idea of the North in Canada has broader implications for states wishing to cooperate or negotiate with Canada on matters pertaining to Canada’s Northern region....... of vulnerability bred the desire to strengthen the position of the British North American colonies while avoiding the violent internal conflicts which plagued its southern neighbour. In the decades since its formation, Canadian political parties have learnt that national campaigns, not regional or...
This document updates Natsource's previous briefing on the October 24 Climate change draft plan' outlining significant changes and modifications incorporated in the November 21, 2002 version of the Climate change plan for Canada' as tabled in the House of Commons by the Minister of the Environment. The changes in the new version of the Plan are the result of continued consultations with industry and the provinces. The revised Plan addresses nine of the 12 concerns expressed by the provinces. Key changes include: (1) establishment of sectoral emissions reduction targets through negotiated covenants with a regulatory or financial backstop; (2) guaranteeing a limit of 55 Megatonnes reductions for covered sectors under the covenants and trading system; (3) introducing flexibility in timing by signaling willingness on the part of the Government to discuss acceptance of commitments over a longer term; (4) promising to work with industry on options for providing protection against risks associated with sustained carbon prices above certain levels; (5) designing implementation system in such a way as to not disadvantage those companies that have taken early action in emission reductions; (6) building in contingencies, assessing progress and adjusting the Federal approach and level of investment; (7) remaining engaged in joint efforts with the United States to minimize impacts on Canadian competitiveness. The Federal Government also recognizes the need for further research in addressing climate model uncertainties, in providing regional-scale climate change information, in future evolution of the climate in the Arctic, and in determining the record of past climate variability and extremes
After three years of evaluating prospects and negotiating with government and industry representatives, Gulf Canada established its first joint venture in the Russian Federation with Komineft, a production association from the Komi autonomous republic. Komineft has a 50% share of the venture, and the rest is shared equally between Gulf and British Gas. The operating area is at the Vozey and Upper Vozey fields in the Timan-Pechora Basin, some 1,500 km northeast of Moscow just inside the Arctic Circle. An attractive feature of the Upper Vozey project is low development costs of ca $2/bbl. In the Vozey field, the venture will set up an enhanced oil recovery demonstration project to test techniques perfected in Alberta. About 60 Canadians are involved on the project, and headquarters are in Usinsk, ca 100 km south of the oil fields. In the first half of 1992, oil production in the first phase of the venture averaged around 10,000 bbl/d and continues to increase
This brochure is designed to help consumers understand how gasoline is priced and explained why prices increase, fluctuate and vary by location, city or region. The price of a litre of gasoline reflects the costs of crude oil, refining, retailing and taxes. Taxes are usually the largest single component of gasoline prices, averaging 40 to 50 per cent of the pump price. The cost of crude oil makes up another 35 to 45 per cent of the price. Refining costs make up 10 to 15 per cent while the remaining 5 to 10 per cent represents retail costs. Gasoline retailers make a profit of about 1 cent per litre. The latest network technology allows national and regional retail chains to constantly monitor price fluctuations to change their prices at gasoline stations at a moments notice to keep up with the competition and to protect their market shares. Several government studies, plus the Conference Board of Canada, have reported that competition is working in favour of Canadian motorists. This brochure also explained the drawbacks of regulating crude and pump prices with the reminder that crude prices were regulated in the 1970s with many negative consequences. 2 tabs., 1 fig
The theme for the Fifth Canadian Conference on Nondestructive Testing was 'NDT in Canada - The Next 20 years'. The three day conference with 42 presentations provided a short overview of NDT in Canada, a look at NDT in pipeline, materials, offshore, nuclear and training applications, and a glimpse into the next 20 years with recent advances in research and development as related to this 'hi-tech' field of work
Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John
BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married a...
This is the seventeenth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. As in the past, this report presents the following data by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. (author). 17 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs
Shannon Kindornay; Centre for the Study of Living Standards
As the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) reach their end date in 2015, negotiations are ramping up at the United Nations for the establishment of a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs, to be announced in September this year, will replace the MDGs and serve as a universal framework for achieving sustainable development outcomes in all countries by 2030, including Canada. This report takes an in-depth look at what the SDGs could mean for Canada, providing a concise overv...
Paper investigates educational choices of visible minorities in Canada, educational attainment and choices over fields of study. Using 2001 Canada Census data and multinomial logistic regression, research finds that choices over level of education and field of study significantly differ among visible minorities. The choices of visible minorities’ males and females differentiate substantially; insights into visible minorities` culture and role of education might explain those differences. Math...
An overview of the activities and business prospects of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry for 1996 was provided. Canada's hydrocarbon resource base, reserve potential, crude oil and natural gas markets, pipeline transportation system, business and investment climate, deregulation and environmental health and safety concerns were summarized. A profile of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the principal industry organization representing upstream producers in Canada, was also provided
An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs
Bertrand A. R. V.
Full Text Available La banque de données PLATFORM de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP concerne les accidents survenus depuis 1955 aux engins pétroliers de forage, de production et d'habitation en mer, de type fixe (plates-formes en acier, en béton . . . ou mobile (submersibles, auto-élévatrices, semi-submersibles, navires, barges . . . et ayant donné lieu à un arrêt de travail ni programmé, ni prévisible, d'au moins 24 heures. Ce critère, éliminant les nombreux incidents mineurs, peu ou mal connus, lui confère une certaine homogénéité indispensable à la validité de toute banque de données d'accidents. Comportant : - une banque de connaissanceconstituée de fiches détaillées sur le déroulement et des conséquences de chaque accident, et - une banque informatiséebasée sur les seuls paramètres principaux mis en mémoire d'ordinateur, la banque PLATFORM présente le double avantage de : - regrouper, sous une forme ramassée et facilement interrogeable, l'ensemble des accidents connus d'une branche industrielle, - fournir des résultats chiffrés (comptages, statistiques, . . . qui, même approximatifs, sont irremplaçables pour les études de risque, de sécurité et de fiabilité. Différents exemples d'application illustrent les possibilités de PLATFORM en s'appuyant sur des paramètres aussi variés que les types d'engin, d'accident, d'activité au moment de l'accident, de facteurs préliminaires, de zones géographiques. IFP's PLATFORM databank concerns accidents since 1955 to all kinds of off-shore drilling, production or accomodation platforms, both fixed (steel, cement, etc. and mobile (jackups, submersibles, semi-submersibles, drillships, barges, etc. having caused an unplanned and unforeseen work stoppage of at least 24 hours. The databank is designed to underline the homogeneity of the data gathered, which is an indispensible condition for obtaining valid statistics. PLATFORM consists of (1 a knowledge base made up of an ongoing
Waines, W. J.
The purpose of this report is to help the people and governments of Canada face the financial problems of university development over the next decade. The report deals with: (1) enrollment projections of Canada's universities and colleges; (2) projection of operating expenditures; (3) projection of capital expenditures; (4) estimated total…
Investment in Canada's wind sector is projected to reach $8 billion by 2012, and growth of the sector is expected to create over 16,000 jobs. Canada's wind energy capacity grew by 54 per cent in 2005 alone, aided in part by supportive national policies and programs such as the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI); the Canadian Renewable Conservation Expense (CRCE) and Class 43.1 Capital Cost Allowance; and support for research and development. Major long-term commitments for clean power purchases, standard offer contracts and renewable portfolio standards in several provinces are encouraging further development of the wind energy sector. This paper argued that the development of a robust Canadian wind turbine manufacturing industry will enhance economic development, create opportunities for export; and mitigate the effects of international wind turbine supply shortages. However, it is not known whether Canadian wind turbine firms are positioned to capitalize on the sector's recent growth. While Canada imports nearly all its large wind turbine generators and components, the country has technology and manufacturing strengths in advanced power electronics and small wind systems, as well as in wind resource mapping. Wind-diesel and wind-hydrogen systems are being developed in Canada, and many of the hybrid systems will offer significant opportunities for remote communities and off-grid applications. Company partnerships for technology transfer, licensing and joint ventures will accelerate Canada's progress. A recent survey conducted by Industry Canada and the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) indicated that the total impact of wind energy related expenditures on economic output is nearly $1.38 billion for the entire sector. Annual payroll for jobs in Canada was estimated at $50 million, and substantial employment growth in the next 5 years is expected. Canada offers a strong industrial supply base capable of manufacturing wind turbine generators and
Canada's environmental performance is compared to the 28 other nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Twenty-five environmental indicators in ten categories are examined. These are: air, water, energy, biodiversity, waste, climate change, ozone depletion, agriculture, transportation and miscellaneous. Results show Canada with the poorest environmental record of all OECD countries, except the United States. The statistical information, compiled from data verified and published by the OECD, shows Canada among the worst three countries on nine indicators (per capita GHG emissions, CO and VOCs emissions, water consumption, energy consumption, energy efficiency, volume of timber logged, generation of nuclear waste, and the highest amount of energy consumed per unit of GDP). Tracking Canada's energy performance over the past two decades reveals that the situation is worsening in terms of water and energy consumption, production of nuclear and hazardous waste, greenhouse gas emissions, the number of endangered species, decline of fish populations, commercial fertilizer use, timber logging, number of motor vehicles, kilometres travelled by road, higher population and lower official development assistance (foreign aid). On the positive side, Canada's environmental performance was found to be poor but improving on ten indicators, including reduced air pollution, improved sewage treatment, reduced municipal waste, increased recycling, improved energy efficiency, decreased production of ozone-depleting substances and an increase in parks and protected areas
Determination of the food consumption in eleven regions of the european community with a view to studying the radioactive contamination level: Methods used. Results of family enquiries; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la communaute europeenne en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive: Methodologie. Resultats des enquetes familiales
Cresta, M.; Lacourly, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [French] Dans le present rapport sont rassembles les premiers resultats des enquetes alimentaires effectuees pendant la periode 1963-1965, aupres de 9000 familles, dans onze regions reparties dans les six pays de la Communaute Europeenne. L'exploitation partielle des donnees obtenues porte sur un echantillon reduit a 3725 familles et permet d'etablir la composition du regime alimentaire moyen individuel, mensuel et annuel de chacune des onze regions. L'organisation des enquetes, la methode de traitement des donnees et l'expression des resultats sont exposees dans la premiere partie du rapport. La seconde reunit, sous forme de tableaux numeriques, les consommations des differents aliments et principes alimentaires par region d'enquetes. Des tableaux recapitulatifs permettent, en outre, une comparaison des consommations moyennes, individuelles des differentes regions etudiees. (auteur)
As a large northern country, Canada will change significantly as a result of climate change. Global warming is expected to cause diminutions of snow and ice changes in the Arctic, as well as changes to glaciers, and the mountain snowpacks that feed rivers, and provide sources of fresh water. This book argued that the effects of global warming have been apparent in Canada for many years. Water levels in lakes and rivers have been falling, and a thawing permafrost has led to difficulties in building and maintaining winter roads in the far north. Disturbances such as the mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in British Columbia have also been attributed to global warming, the beetles are only killed by cold weather. The book also considered Canada's current climate change policies, and discussed attempts to arrive at meaningful and effective strategies. 30 refs
In light of the new recommendations of the ICRP in Report 60 on dose quantities and dose limits, this working group was set up to examine the implications for external dosimetry in Canada. The operational quantities proposed by the ICRU are discussed in detail with regard to their applicability in Canada. The current occupational dosimetry services available in Canada are described as well as the several performance intercomparisons that have been carried out within the country as well as internationally. Recommendations are given with respect to standards for dosimetry, including accuracy and precision. More practical advice is given on the choice of dosimeter to use for external dosimetry, frequency of monitoring, and who should be monitored. Specific advice is given on the monitoring of pregnant workers and problem of non-uniform irradiation. Accident and emergency dosimetry are dealt with briefly. Suggestions are given regarding record keeping both for employers and for the national dose registry. 48 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig
DiCenso, Alba; Auffrey, Lucille; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Donald, Faith; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Matthews, Sue; Opsteen, Joanne
Canada, like many countries, is in the midst of primary health care reform. A key priority is to improve access to primary health care, especially in remote communities and areas with physician shortages. As a result, there is an increased emphasis on the integration of primary health care nurse practitioners. As of March 2006, legislation exists in all provinces and two territories in Canada that allows nurse practitioners (NPs) to implement their expanded nursing role. In this paper, we will briefly review the historical development of the NP role in Canada and situate it in the international context; describe the NP role, supply of NPs in the country, and the settings in which they work; propose an NP practice model framework; summarize facilitators and barriers to NP role implementation in primary health care delivery; and outline strategies to address the barriers. PMID:18041990
Business decisions relating to the electric power sector are a provincial responsibility in Canada. The federal government looks to the three nuclear utilities to manage their nuclear assets and maintain them in a way that maximizes their reliability, efficiency and overall performance. A significant development in Canada's nuclear sector in the past year was the Ontario Hydro Nuclear Asset Optimization Plan. Structural change in the North American electricity market is a major impetus for decisions regarding nuclear assets by Canada's electric power utilities. The Ontario government is now taking steps to introduce competition in the Ontario Electricity market. The province of New Brunswick, which has one reactor at Point Lepreau which supplies one-third of the province's electricity, is also taking measures to introduce competition in its electricity market. (author)
Full Text Available Canada's postsecondary institutions are becoming increasingly involved with technology enhanced learning, generally under the rubric of distance education. Growth and activity in distance education stems from rapid developments in communication and information technologies such as videoconferencing and the Internet. This case study focuses on the use of new technologies, primarily within the context of higher education institutions operating in Canada's English speaking provinces. Capitalising on the interactive capabilities of "new" learning technologies, some distance education providers are starting to behave more like conventional educational institutions in terms of forming study groups and student cohorts. Conversely, new telecommunications technologies are having a reverse impact on traditional classroom settings, and as a result conventional universities are beginning to establish administrative structures reflective of those used by distance education providers. When viewed in tandem, these trends reflect growing convergence between conventional and distance learning modes, leading to the hybridisation of higher education in Canada.
Electric mobility is an important emerging industry in Canada, where there is significant expertise in electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries, hybrid technologies, grid-connected technologies and fuel cell vehicles. This paper presented a case for the formation of Electric Mobility Canada, a proposed network of private companies and public sector agencies that aims to stimulate industry and provide support to government agencies involved with meeting Canada's obligations under the Kyoto Protocol, as well as in new industry sectors. The environmental, health, economic and industrial benefits of electric mobility were outlined. Current programs for electric mobility were reviewed, and details of financial incentives and initiatives were presented. An overview of electric mobility programs in the United States and Europe was provided. Research and development needs were evaluated. The former Electric Vehicle Association of Canada was discussed. An organizational structure for the proposed network was presented, along with a mission statement and outline of future goals. Recommendations for the future of the network included identifying short and long-term market opportunities for electric mobility technologies for all surface transport modes in Canada; determining research and development needs and appropriate funding and investment opportunities; determining other actions necessary to allow the electric mobility industry to play a growing role in meeting Canada's transport needs; and raising public awareness of the importance of electric mobility trends. It was concluded that the federal government should be approached for start-up funds for the network, which will be followed by further investment from provincial and business interests once the network is in place and functioning. 84 refs
The energy scene in Canada has been confused by a changing industrial and economic pattern, a proliferation of energy options, a conflict of energy priorities, and possibly a media and anti-nuclear inspired perception that electricity is expensive and not a good substitute for oil. In spite of an economic down-turn, in 1982-83 five new CANDU reactors with a combined capacity of 3000 MW were completed in Canada. Opportunities exist for increased use of electricity both in households and in industry. The benefits of nuclear power have extended beyond a reliable and economic energy supply to research advances, job creation, and the overall industrial development of the country
Shell Canada Resources Limited is one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, sulphur and bitumen. This annual report for 1996 presented a summary review of operations and a summary of the Company's audited consolidated financial statements. Overall, the resources business delivered exceptional results in 1996. The oil products and chemicals businesses did not perform as well as expected. This less than satisfactory performance of the oil products and chemicals divisions of the the Company is reflected in the financial returns which, after excluding revenues from asset sales, left operating earnings $ 59 million below those of 1996. tabs., figs
Canada's Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan's goal is 'to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.' It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan's short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities
Chandrasena, R; Beddage, V; Fernando, M L
Ninety-four Canadian-born psychiatric patients who committed suicide were compared with 23 foreign-born patients committing suicide in Canada. East Europeans were over-represented, and significant differences were found in the age distribution, stress, level of education, social isolation, and methods of suicide. Most foreign-born patients had come to Canada for family or economic reasons but were unemployed, with poor social integration. Employment, housing, education, social integration and a support network seem to be important in preventing these deaths. Cultural evaluation of the patient and early intervention is recommended. PMID:1756350
Dodds, L; Armson, B A
In this issue (see pages 37 to 41) Dr. Bruce B. Allan and associates report a small but statistically significant decrease--of about 0.2%--in the proportion of male live births in Canada over the period 1970-90. In this editorial, factors that have been reported in the literature to influence sex ratio are examined within a Canadian context. The authors suggest that although the reasons for the apparent decline in the sex ratio in Canada are unclear, the increasing use of ovulation induction ...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...
Les conditions du développement des banques d’actifs naturels en FranceAnalyse du régime institutionnel de la première Réserve d’Actifs Naturels française What conditions to enlarge habitat banks in France ?Institutional regime analysis of the first French habitat bank
Full Text Available Les marchés d’actifs naturels sont encore rares en Europe, mais les premières expériences permettent de s’interroger sur le dispositif mis en place au regard de l’objectif de conservation des milieux naturels. Nous avons analysé la première expérience française de banque d’actifs naturels, mise en place dans le cadre des dispositifs de compensation des impacts écologiques des aménagements. Ce projet repose sur d’importants travaux de réhabilitation écologique pour faire retourner un verger intensif vers une végétation herbacée méditerranéenne. Les résultats en écologie de la restauration sont encourageants. En revanche, ils sont encore à évaluer dans les champs politiques ou économiques. Une analyse du régime institutionnel régissant les usages du site montre que l’action mercantile entreprise, tout autant que l’incomplétude du dispositif public de régulation, ne confèrent pas d’assurances définitives quant à la pérennité du dispositif de conservation environnementale du site.Habitat banks are not numerous in Europe but the first experiments allow wondering about the device in relation to the conservation purpose. We analyzed the first French experience of habitat banking introduced in the mitigation regulatory framework. This project is based on important ecological rehabilitation of an intensive orchard to Mediterranean herbaceous vegetation. Results in ecological restoration are good ; however, they are still assessing in the political and economic fields. An analysis of the institutional regime of site uses shows that the mercantile action as well as the public device incompleteness does not provide insurance about the site’s conservation sustainability.
Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs
Mccalla, Gordon; Cercone, Nick
Canadians have made many contributions to artificial intelligence over the years. This article presents a summary of current research in artificial intelligence in Canada and acquaints readers with the Canadian organization for artificial intelligence -- the Canadian Society for the Computational Studies of Intelligence / Societe Canadienne pour l' Etude de l'Intelligence par Ordinateur (CSCSI/ SCEIO).
@@ Facing the current global financial storm,more posSible economic and trade cooperation and promotion worldwide is being sought by nations to walk out the hard time.The 2nd Canada China Business Forum held in Beijing,on November 3,is an example to a closer tie of both countries.
This report describes the major effects of climatic change being experienced in different parts of Canada, and emphasizes those that they are likely to become so severe that they may disrupt social, ecological and economic systems. The report notes that the driving force behind these impacts is change in temperature, precipitation, and in extreme weather events. The report strongly suggests that greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide will likely continue to increase due to human activities such as burning of fossil fuels for heating, cooling and transportation. Loss of tropical forests is also listed as a cause for increased greenhouse gases. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, Canada must use energy much more efficiently, use more alternative renewable energy source and substitute natural gas for coal and oil whenever possible. It was emphasized that the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol would slow down the rate of increase of the world's greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn affect atmospheric concentrations. The author states that Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol is key to global success, particularly since some countries have backed away from it and some are wavering. The report outlined the following major impacts of climate change in various parts of Canada: sea ice, permafrost, forest fires, transportation, toxic contaminants, storminess, precipitation, water supply, water quality, fisheries, hydropower, agriculture and human adaptation. refs., tabs
Asghar, M.; Rogge, R.
In reply to a post on the physicsworld.com blog about the forthcoming closure of the National Research Universal reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada (“Lament for ‘the reactor that can do everything’”, 16 June, http://ow.ly/On9VN).
Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander; Staempfli, Henry R.; Duffield, Todd; Weese, J. Scott
Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12 (20%) of 60 retail ground meat samples purchased over a 10-month period in 2005 in Canada. Eleven isolates were toxigenic, and 8 (67%) were classified as toxinotype III. The human health implications of this finding are unclear, but with the virulence of toxinotype III strains further studies are required.
Huntley, June Leath
Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482
Huntley, J L
Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482
This paper surveys Canada's official response to the responsibilities it took on with the Kyoto Protocol. In order to meet Kyoto targets for the timeframe 2008-2012, greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced by 33 percent below what they currently are. Two billion Canadian dollars have been allocated to this effort. The government of Canada's official stance is that carbon dioxide levels have been rising more rapidly than at any other time in the last half million years. Canada's main efforts in the mining and minerals sector have been to find a replacement for sulphur hexafluoride, reduce emissions of perfluorocarbons, and demonstrate the use of hydrogen as a fuel for underground mining vehicles. According to the author, the most important contribution has been the use of supplementary cementing material such as fly ash, ash, and ground blast furnace slag. These materials have partially replaced cement in concrete. Canada expects to reduce carbon dioxide emissions this way by about 1.5 million tonnes per year. EcoSmart, a non-profit organization, is the main vehicle for this effort. 8 refs., 7 figs
A survey of the research projects in radiation biology being carried out in Canada during the fiscal year 1962-63. The report includes the names of the investigators, their location, a brief description of the projects and information on the financial support being provided. A classification of the projects into areas of specific interest is also included. (author)
Petro-Canada is Canada's national energy corporation, formed by an Act of Parliament in 1975. Operations began in January 1976. In 1991, Petro-Canada became a public company, issuing 19.5% of its common shares for net proceeds of $523 million. Heavy losses in the first half of the year were driven by price volatility following the Persian Gulf war. Cash flow return on capital employed was 7.2%, and a net loss of $598 million was posted. The Klua gas field was brought on stream only 30 months after discovery, an important gas discovery was made in British Columbia, and production and sales of natural gas increased. This annual report presents a corporate profile, a statement of corporate responsibility, and the year's activities in production and sales of natural gas, synthetic and natural crude oil and gasoline. Details are also provided of Petro-Canada's financial and operational restructuring in view of the declining revenues being obtained. A financial review from 1986 to the present is included, along with a glossary of financial terms, a financial statement, and a 5-year summary. Reserves information comparing the current to the previous year is given. 11 figs., 12 tabs
This annual report presents financial information from TransCanada Corp., along with a review of its operations throughout 2003 and a summary of the how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2003, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations by 7 per cent. It maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. More than 1.2 billion was invested and dividends were increased by 7 per cent in January 2004, for a total return to shareholders of 27 per cent, including dividends. In 2003, TransCanada also increased its ownership interest in Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd. to 100 per cent from 50 per cent. It secured a position in the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project and progressed the development of multiple liquefied natural gas projects in the northeast United States and eastern Canada. The company acquired 31.6 per cent interest in Bruce Power, adding nearly 1,500 megawatts base load generation to its portfolio. Plans are underway for cogeneration plants in Quebec, New Brunswick and Alberta. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs
Vision: Western Canada will become an international centre for stationary power generation technology using high temperature fuel cells that use a wide variety of fossil and biomass fuels. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Clean efficient use of hydrocarbons 2. Large-scale electricity generation 3. CO2 sequestration 4. Direct alcohol fuel cells 5. Solid oxide fuel cells. (author)
Jambor, Paul Z.
TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…
The Regulations applicable to the control of radioisotopes in Canada are reviewed. The administrative procedures are described, the definition of atomic radiation workers clarified and the means for inspections and compliance indicated. An outline is provided of the main revisions currently under consideration. (author)
el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon
In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties has not been…
Full Text Available Soine of the developmental stages of Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (I. emergence and early growth, II. shooting, II. budding, IV. flowering, V. fructification, VI. shedding of fruits on the background of development stages of broad-bean, weeded by herbicides and without that weed-killing substances, were presented in the paper. Phenological observations were carried out on the plants growing on alluvial soil developed from light loam in Zakrz6w near Tarnobrzeg. It was proved that phenological development of Canada thistle, during broad-bean vegetation, depended on course of weather conditions and method of crop care. Emergence of the weed occurred earlier than broad-bean plants during warm and rather dry seasons. In every vegetation period, emergence and early vegetation stage (to 4 leaves seedling of Canada thistle lasted about 3 months, until broad-bean got full pod setting. During wet and cold season (in 2001 the weed emerged also early under herbicide (Afalon 1,5 kg ha-1 condition. Until to broad-bean harvest, Canada thistle attained the finish developmental stages, that means fruiting and fruit shedding. Herbicide treatment delayed the last two stages and limited fruit shedding by plants of Cirsium arvense.
The Russell C. Gordon Elementary School (Nova Scotia, Canada) offers the Enriched Students Program (ESP) for academically gifted students. ESP goals include: fostering and developing individual interests of students; initiating higher level thinking skills; strengthening task commitment; stimulating creativity; promoting leadership qualities; and…
Financial information from TransCanada PipeLines Limited and a review of the company's 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. TransCanada's pipeline system transports natural gas and crude oil from Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to North America's major energy markets. Net earnings from continuing operations for 1998, before unusual charges, were $575 million ($ 355 million after unusual charges) compared to $522 million for 1997. Solid performances from the energy transmission and international business, when compared to 1997, were more than offset by a decreased contribution from energy processing. TransCanada recorded integration costs of $166 million, after tax, related to the merger with NOVA in 1998, which was the major operational accomplishment during the year, creating a seamless economic energy delivery, processing and marketing system from the wellhead to the market. tabs., figs
Hunter, William T.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.
One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on Canada's role in the world economy. Ten sections contain readings and suggestions for activities related to Canadian trade, tariffs, the Canada-United States automobile pact, Canada-United…
@@ The Government of Canada is providing assistance to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) via the Canada/China Oil and Gas Technology Transfer Programme. Canada is represented by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in this Programme, while China's interests are administered by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (MOFTEC).
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section 123.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments...
In 1992, Canada committed to developing a national sustainable development strategy (NSDS). Canada has chosen a decentralized approach to NSDS in which each federal department creates its own sustainable development strategy (SDS). Federal legi slation and environmental initiatives provide additional environmental protection. These three components - SDS, environmental legislation and initiatives - represent Canada's environmental sustainability planning system (CESPS). This report uses an in...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…
Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.
Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…
In recent years there has been a growing interest in smaller, simpler reactors for generating electricity and process heat. This is evidenced in the growing body of literature and the increasingly frequent meetings and conferences on the subject. The interest in Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) is driven to a large extent by the desire to reduce capital costs, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to replace retiring fossil plants that do not meet today's environmental standards, and to provide power in locations away from large electrical grids. These drivers are as important in Canada as they are in the U.S., where the design and licensing of SMRs is being most vigorously pursued. They have led to a growing interest in Canada as a potentially significant market for SMRs, particularly in the Western Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and in the remote First Nations communities of Northern Canada. There is a growing body of literature addressing the regulation and licensing of Small Modular Reactors in the U.S. Issues being identified in there can generally be categorized as licensing framework issues, licensing application issues, and design and manufacturing issues. Many of these issues are embedded in the US regulatory framework and can only be resolved through changes in the regulations. For the most part these issues are equally applicable in Canada and will need to be addressed in introducing SMRs here. A significant difference, however, is that these issues can be addressed within the Canadian regulatory framework without requiring changes in the regulations. The CNSC has taken a very proactive stance regarding the licensing of small reactors in Canada. They have published two new Regulatory Documents stipulating the requirements for licensing small reactors. A key feature is that they allow the application of a 'graded approach' in which the stringency of the design measures and analyses applied are commensurate with the level of risk posed by
The Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change, dated December 10, 1997 committed Canada to reduce greenhouse gases to 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Subsequently the federal government initiated a broad review of the implications of such a reduction across all sectors of the Canadian economy to identify options for eventual implementation. The Canadian nuclear industry participated in this review. This paper examines the status of this review to date and identifies options, which may significantly influence the use of nuclear energy domestically and internationally. This paper provides a review of options established by the three key Issue Tables in the context of implications to the nuclear industry. Several of the other Issue Tables have also identified options, which have major future implications for the use of nuclear energy. For example the Transportation Table has addressed the possible production and use of hydrogen fuel as an energy carrier. Biological and geological sinks are emerging technologies which will likely lead to increased energy demand. Development of the necessary infrastructure to support these new technologies could lead to a substantial need for increased production of electricity from greenhouse gas free sources in Canada in coming decades. In conclusion, international concern with climate changes re-focuses attention to human application of nature's energy sources. The studies implemented by the climate change secretariat have resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of opportunities for Canada to contribute to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in Canada and abroad. The ability of Canada's nuclear industry to provide greenhouse gas free energy in the large quantities needed by modern society is recognized. (author)
A technical history of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited written by sixteen of Canada's pioneering nuclear scientists, Canada Enters the Nuclear Age focuses on Canada's nuclear program at AECL's laboratories at Chalk River, Ontario and Whiteshell, Manitoba between the years 1943 and 1985. Topics include the organization and operations of AECL's laboratories, nuclear safety and radiation protection, radioisotopes, basic research, development of the CANDU reactor, and management of radioactive wastes. 7 tabs., 132 figs
Wong, Suzy L; Gilmour, Heather; Ramage-Morin, Pamela L
This article provides information on Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, using the 2010/2011 Canadian Community Health Survey, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. Among Canadians aged 45 or older, an estimated 0.8% in private households and 45% in long-term residential care facilities had a diagnosis of dementia. Prevalence rose with age. The vast majority of people with dementia in private households received assistance with medical care (81%), housework and home maintenance (83%), meal preparation (88%), emotional support (90%), transportation (92%), and managing care (92%). Among those receiving assistance, 85% relied, at least in part, on family, friends or neighbours. The primary caregiver tended to be a spouse (46%) or an adult child (44%), most of whom were daughters (71%). The majority of primary caregivers lived in the same household (83%) and provided daily care (86%). PMID:27192206
Climate change has a wide range of implications for the health, well-being, and economic prospects for Canadians, and for the ecological systems that sustain life on this planet. The overwhelming scientific opinion, world leaders and even a growing number of corporate leaders now agree that the Earth is undergoing a significant and unusual warming period as a result of the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. There is also wide agreement that much of this build-up is anthropogenic, and that a global effort is required to slow this trend. Because climate change is a global problem, it requires global solutions by way of reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the Kyoto Agreement of 1997 constitutes a major breakthrough, even though it takes only a small step towards towards altering the human impact on global climate. Although some 80 states, plus the European Union signed the Kyoto Protocol, it remains unclear when it will come into force because the majority of states have failed to ratify it, pending the resolution of a variety of technical and operational details. Canada is the second highest emitter of greenhouse gases (16 tonnes per capita, compared to world average of 3.6 tonnes per capita). This, combined with Canada's foreign policy goals of playing a leading role in taking action and preserving its reputation as an honest broker, makes the challenge of meeting Canada's Kyoto commitments especially pressing. The purpose of this paper is to explain Canada's climate change policy in the context of these international and domestic pressures. The paper identifies the main climate change-related policy challenges, international responses to date and the constraints and opportunities open to Canada in the light of its economy, its federalist political structure, and place in the world as a middle power, as well as its geographic situation, natural resources and environmental endowment. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto
This report is the second in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1979 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may be changing. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increased over the corresponding values for 1977 and 1978
The history of providing public information on nuclear energy in Canada for more than 40 years is described. Information centers are part of all nuclear power plants and they receive many thousands of visitors each year. Until the 1970s public information programs were relatively easy. There was a lot of interest in nuclear energy, and there was little debate about it or opposition to it. But times have changed, and Canadian public information strategies and tactics have evolved to meet challenge of answering increasing public concerns. In the past 20 years Canada has gone through three phases in relationship with the public: information, communication, participation. Activities on implementation of these phases are outlined
Chouinard, Isabelle; Scott, Richard E
We performed a qualitative study of the practice of informed consent for videoconsultation in Canada. Fourteen cases were examined: the 13 provinces and territories, and the Federal jurisdiction representing aboriginal groups. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted with key informants (14 telehealth experts, 13 legal experts). The telehealth experts were people with direct experience of telehealth practice. The majority of the telehealth experts agreed that videoconsultations had not been integrated into the health-care system. An interesting finding of the study was that the integration status of videoconsultations was not indicative of informed consent practices. Telehealth providers favoured express written consent, or risk management practices, although there was a desire to move towards implied consent models for videoconsultations. The study also showed that the legal ramifications of the electronic transmission of non-recorded, real-time, personal health information had not been explored. This represents an important factor in guiding future consent for videoconsultations in Canada. PMID:19471027
The carbon disclosure project conducts an annual survey to determine the strategies and actions of major cap companies in relation to climate change. This report discussed initiatives implemented by Canada's largest companies to prepare for a carbon-constrained future. The report documented results from 97 companies. The aim of the report was to help companies make use of the disclosures as reference points for future carbon markets and regulations relating to reporting requirements. Results of the survey demonstrated that Canada's low-carbon and high-carbon impact sectors have implemented several significant initiatives and best practices for operations. However, widespread engagement in a comprehensive manner has yet to be achieved. Many respondents were in the process of developing a more balanced risk-opportunity agenda in relation to climate change, and nearly half of all respondents have implemented governance arrangements or personal incentives in both both the high-carbon and low-carbon impact sectors. 5 tabs., 26 figs.
This 1978 report is the first in a series of annual reports on occupational radiation exposures in Canada. The data are derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of overexposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1978 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may have changed. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increasd over the corresponding values for 1977
Vladimir Klyuev; Martin Mühleisen; Tamim Bayoumi
Robust GDP growth, declining unemployment, low and stable inflation, and a string of fiscal and current account surpluses -- it's a record to be envied. These outcomes in Canada owe much to sound macroeconomic policies, as well as to a favorable external environment. This book focuses on these policies and the economy's salient features, including its close trade integration with the United States, large commodity sector, and substantial decentralization and regional diversity. It outlines wh...
The 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste established the approach in Canada for dealing with all radioactive waste, and defined the respective roles of Government and waste producers and owners. The Policy Framework sets the stage for the development of institutional and financial arrangements to implement long-term waste management solutions in a safe, environmentally sound, comprehensive, cost-effective and integrated manner. For nuclear fuel waste, a 10-year environmental review of the concept to bury nuclear fuel waste bundles at a depth of 500 m to 1000 m in stable rock of the Canadian Shield was completed in March 1998. The Review Panel found that while the concept was technically safe, it did not have the required level of public acceptability to be adopted at this time as Canada's approach for managing its nuclear fuel waste. The Panel recommended that a Waste Management Organization be established at arm's length from the nuclear industry, entirely funded by the waste producers and owners, and that it be subject to oversight by the Government. In its December 1998 Response to the Review Panel, the Government of Canada provided policy direction for the next steps towards developing Canada's approach for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. The Government chose to maintain the responsibility for long-term management of nuclear fuel waste close with the producers and owners of the waste. This is consistent with its 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste. This approach is also consistent with experience in many countries. In addition, the federal government identified the need for credible federal oversight. Cabinet directed the Minister of NRCan to consult with stakeholders, including the public, and return to ministers within 12 months with recommendations on means to implement federal oversight. (author)
Sole, T D; Croll, N A
Labrador, a previously unsurveyed area of Canada, has been sampled for human intestinal parasites. Four hundred and one asymptomatic volunteers between 1 and 72 years of age, including Inuit, Naskapi and whites, were examined during the summer of 1977. They harboured: Entamoeba coli, E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, Giardia lamblia and Diphyllobothrium sp. The infection rates are considerably lower than those found in other studies of Northern Canadian communities. PMID:6966896
On 5 and 6 November a series of five Workshops were held in Canada that provided thirty international ITER participants with significant background on various aspects of the Canadian offer. The public-private sector partnership basis for the Canadian offer is unique, and the Workshops provided an opportunity for participants from the EU, Japan and the Russian Federation to broaden their understanding of the offer and to share and discuss issues that may be relevant in the preparation of other site offers
The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. This report summarizes the results obtained during 1973-1976 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides. During this period, all radioactivity levels were below the maximum permissible limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (Auth)
Christopher S. Carpenter
We provide the first evidence on sexual orientation and economic outcomes in Canada using confidential data that ask adults a direct question about their sexual orientation. Gay men have 12% lower personal incomes and lesbians have 15% higher personal incomes than otherwise similar heterosexual men and women, respectively. Different labour force patterns can account for some of the income differentials. We also document large differences in educational attainment, childrearing, and urbanicity...
Henderson, B M; Winterfield, R W
Acute copper toxicosis resulted in Canada geese, Branta canadensis, following ingestion of copper sulfate at about 600mg/kg from a small man-made pond on a game farm. The lesions were those associated with copper toxicosis in other avian species. The primary pathologic change was necrosis and sloughing of the proventriculus and gizzard. A greenish discoloration of the lungs also occurred. PMID:1156262
Andrea Da Porto
Full Text Available We present the case of an 80-year old woman affected by the Cronkhite-Canada syndrome. This rare disease was described for the first time in 1955. It is characterized by the growth of multiple polyps in the gastroenteric tract, leading to diarrhea, alopecia, dystrophy of nails and hyper-pigmented skin. In this article, we describe the patient’s clinical picture and report the results of laboratory tests and imaging assessments.
A compilation of whole-body counting existing across Canada was prepared by AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board) staff. This work was initiated so that AECB staff and other concerned parties would have this information readily available, especially during urgent situations. This report is to be used for reference purposes only, as it makes no attempt to judge the present state of the art of whole-body counting
This is the seventh in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of National Health and Welfare. As in the past this report presents by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form
This is the tenth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices, Department of National Health and Welfare. This report presents by occupation average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form
Mary L. Grant
Previous studies of the labour market experience of male immigrants to Canada have uncovered two disturbing trends: declining entry earnings for successive new immigrant cohorts and low assimilation rates. These findings suggest that many of these cohorts may never assimilate. The 1991 Census provides a first look at the immigrant cohorts arriving in the 1980s. These immigrants appear to avoid the plight of their predecessors; entry earnings have stopped falling, and those immigrants arriving...
Rourke, J. T.; Rourke, L. L.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the status of postgraduate family medicine training that occurs in rural family practice settings in Canada and to identify problems and how they are addressed. DESIGN: A retrospective questionnaire sent to all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs followed by a focus group discussion of results. SETTING: Canadian university family medicine training programs. PARTICIPANTS: Chairs or program directors of all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs and people...
Rasouli, K.; M. A. Hernández-Henríquez; S. J. Déry
The 271 000 km2 Lake Athabasca drainage in Northern Canada encompasses ecologically-rich and sensitive ecosystems, intensive agricultural lands, vast forests, glacier-clad mountains, and abundant oil reserves in the form of tar-sands. In this study, streamflow variability and trends in eight rivers feeding the 7800 km2 Lake Athabasca are investigated over the period 1960–2010. Hydrological regimes and trends are established using a robust r...
Haws, I J; Anthony, J .M.
Small animal dentistry is a rapidly growing area of interest and specialization internationally, offering tremendous benefits to patients, clients, and practitioners. To date, no studies have been done to determine the standard of small animal dental care in Canada. A national mail survey was designed to document the prevalence of dental disease in small animal patients, the types of veterinary dental procedures being provided by practitioners, as well as home care recommendations and complia...
This project develops business and marketing strategies for the expansion of Adigy Canada, a medical heart telemetry device developer, into the golfing market. It researches the needs of this market, analyzes industry forces and recommends target market segments, a business model, distribution channels, and marketing strategies. The design and marketing of a training aid product is recommended as this segment of the golf industry seems to have a medium to high level of attractiveness. The rec...
POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for
A systematic analysis of urban congestion in Canada was presented. The analysis developed congestion indicators for the 9 largest urban areas in Canada. An engineering approach was used to define and to develop the congestion indicators and to estimate the social costs of congestion associated with extra time wasted due to congestion and the cost associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The approach focused on direct and physical characteristics of congestion which linked vehicle flow and traffic speed to road capacity. An economic approach recognized that there is an economically efficient level of congestion caused by impeding users, and that some congestion is already internalized for some users. The study estimated that the total annual cost of congestion in 2002 ranged from $2.3 billion to $3.7 billion for the major urban areas in Canada. More than 90 per cent of the cost represented the value of the time lost to automobile travellers in congestion. Seven per cent of the cost represented the value of fuels consumed, and 3 per cent represented the amount of GHGs emitted under congestion conditions. The study estimated an increase of 1.2 to 1.4 megatonnes of GHG due to congestion every year. It was concluded that estimates provided in the report did not include data of costs associated with non-recurrent congestion caused by bad weather, accidents and other congestion-related costs such as noise and stress. 14 refs., 8 tabs.
The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups
Petro-Canada is Canada's national energy corporation, formed by an Act of Parliament in 1975. Operations began in January 1976. In 1993 net earnings were improved by $153 million to $162 million, and cash flow from operations was increased by $113 million to $630 million. The consolidation of conventional upstream activities to 150 producing entities in 26 strategic areas was completed, and remaining non-core upstream assets were grouped into a separate unit for sale. The refinery capacity reduction program was completed, and retail rationalization neared completion. Total capital and exploration expenditures of $639 million were less than cash flow of $630 million. Credit ratings and market valuation improved in recognition of the company's increased strength. This annual report presents a corporate profile, a statement of corporate responsibility, and the year's activities in production and sales of natural gas, synthetic and natural crude oil and gasoline. Details are also provided of Petro-Canada's financial and operational restructuring in view of the declining revenues being obtained. A financial review from 1986 to the present is included, along with a glossary of financial terms, a financial statement, and a 5-year summary. Reserves information comparing the current to the previous year are given. 2 figs., 12 tabs
TransCanada is a leading North American energy company dealing with natural gas transmission, power generation and marketing opportunities. Financial information from TransCanada was presented in this annual report along with a review of its operations in 2004 and a summary of how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2004, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations and maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. Achievements in 2004 included the acquisition of the Gas Transmission Northwest Pipeline System and the North Baja Pipeline System; the purchase of hydroelectric generation assets in New England with a total generating capacity of more than 500 MW; and the completed construction of two new gas-fired cogeneration plants, the 165 MW MacKay River facility in Alberta and the 90 MW Grandview facility in New Brunswick. The challenges in 2004 included the performance of the company's existing asset-based businesses and the new initiatives to produce another year of solid operating and financial results. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs
Raisa B. Deber
Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.
The goal of the Canadian nuclear power program when it began twenty years ago was to reduce Canadian dependence on imported coal. This goal has been met, with 35 percent of Ontario's electricity being produced by CANDU reactors. These reactors have been proven reliable and safe, and provide a considerable cost advantage over coal. The CANDU reactor was developed with the strengths and limitations of Canadian industry in mind, the newest stations have over 85 percent Canadian-manufactured components. A similar benefit should be found in many countries with manufacturing capabilities comparable to Canada's. The use of natural uranium as a fuel has been a wise choice both technically and economically. A new industry was created in Canada in order to gain an assured supply of heavy water. The personnel brought to or trained in Canada to work in all parts of the nuclear industry represent a valuable asset in themselves. Radioisotope exports are making a significant contribution. Nuclear power is likely to make its greatest impact in the next century, when it will be a necessity
Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch
A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.
In 1998, over twelve papers were published on emissions trading regimes in Canada by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), a federal government agency whose members represent stakeholders as varied as business, environmental groups, academics, aboriginal groups and others. One of the recommendations that emerged was for the computer modelling of the possibilities that had been identified for a domestic trading regime in Canada for greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether the modelling was ever performed as the file was taken over by the Finance Department under the umbrella of a special emission trading table that examined Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. The author examined questions pertaining to whether a domestic trading regime is essential, and what its characteristics should be in case it was deemed essential or advisable to have one. The upstream versus downstream application was looked at, as well as grand-fathering versus auction. Provincial issues were then addressed, followed by meshing with a credit system. International systems were reviewed. Early action was discussed, whereby an emitter seeks credit for action taken toward reductions since the original reference year of 1990. The case of emitters having bought or sold permits since the original reference years will also want those trades recognized under a trading regime. The author indicated that it seems probable that an emission trading system will eventually be implemented and that a debate on the issue should be initiated early
One of the leading oil and gas companies in Canada, Petro-Canada is committed to the Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program. In this document, the major initiatives undertaken by Petro-Canada with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions were highlighted. The successes in improving energy efficiency in the process of reducing greenhouse gas emissions were reviewed. A major accomplishment in 2000 was the total greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the operations of Petro-Canada that were below the level of 1990, even in the face of a one-third increase in production over the last ten years. As a result, a reduction in excess of 45,000 tonnes of ongoing annual emissions was achieved. The targets that were set are a one per cent reduction every year from 2000 to 2005 through reductions in fuel consumption. The Production Energy Intensity (PEI) of the upstream was improved in 2000 by 11 per cent when compared to 1999 value. Energy efficiency projects have been allocated a total of 4 million dollars in capital funds, and emerging technologies in alternate fuels are being monitored to enable Petro-Canada to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. Several education projects are being funded to enhance public awareness of climate change issues. 4 tabs., 7 figs
The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and
Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.
Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and
The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in
Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les
Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth in...... Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...
Berrang-Ford, L; Maclean, J D; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Ford, J D; Ogden, N H
This article examines the potential for changes in imported and autochthonous malaria incidence in Canada as a consequence of climate change. Drawing on a systems framework, we qualitatively characterize and assess the potential direct and indirect impact of climate change on malaria in Canada within the context of other concurrent ecological and social trends. Competent malaria vectors currently exist in southern Canada, including within this range several major urban centres, and conditions here have historically supported endemic malaria transmission. Climate change will increase the occurrence of temperature conditions suitable for malaria transmission in Canada, which, combined with trends in international travel, immigration, drug resistance, and inexperience in both clinical and laboratory diagnosis, may increase malaria incidence in Canada and permit sporadic autochthonous cases. This conclusion challenges the general assumption of negligible malaria risk in Canada with climate change. PMID:19277107
N. H. Ogden
Full Text Available This article examines the potential for changes in imported and autochthonous malaria incidence in Canada as a consequence of climate change. Drawing on a systems framework, we qualitatively characterize and assess the potential direct and indirect impact of climate change on malaria in Canada within the context of other concurrent ecological and social trends. Competent malaria vectors currently exist in southern Canada, including within this range several major urban centres, and conditions here have historically supported endemic malaria transmission. Climate change will increase the occurrence of temperature conditions suitable for malaria transmission in Canada, which, combined with trends in international travel, immigration, drug resistance, and inexperience in both clinical and laboratory diagnosis, may increase malaria incidence in Canada and permit sporadic autochthonous cases. This conclusion challenges the general assumption of negligible malaria risk in Canada with climate change.
Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la notion d’« authenticité » appliquée au patrimoine des « vins de terroir ». Ces dix dernières années, des vignerons accusent la législation des AOC (Appellations d’Origine Contrôlées de ne plus protéger les terroirs et de laisser les mauvaises pratiques des vignerons les pervertir. Le retour vers la qualité de terroir repose donc la question de l’identification de la nature authentique de ce patrimoine alimentaire. Pour mener cette approche réflexive, une première partie est consacrée à une revue de littérature sur la notion d’« authenticité ». Une seconde partie analyse les questions et les pratiques déployées par les vignerons pour retrouver l’« authenticité » des terroirs exprimée par les vins ; et enfin les difficultés rencontrées au moment de concevoir une procédure de jugement de cette dernière. L’article montre que loin d’être une donnée objective non discutable, ou bien une simple illusion, l’« authenticité » des vins de terroir est un résultat attaché à l’ensemble des activités qui la font advenir.This article focuses on the notion of authenticity attributed to terroir wines as part of food heritage. Over the past ten years, the AOC system (protected designation of origin has come under attack from wine growers on the grounds that it no longer protects lands and vineyards, leaving them at the mercy of bad practice. The return of quality terroir therefore brings us back to the problem of proving the authenticity of this particular food heritage. The present study begins with a review of literature based on the notion of authenticity. It then explores the different methods used by wine growers to rediscover the ‘genuine’ taste of terroir and express it in their wines. It concludes by looking into the difficulties of designing a wine-tasting procedure capable of judging whether or not a wine really does express its terroir. The article shows
Full Text Available This article explores some of the strategies applied by consumers for making-do during the Second World War in Norway. By reducing waste, using various substitutes and exploiting underused natural resources such as wild plants, birds, and alternative marine sources of nutrition, Norwegian consumers adapted their diet to a situation of food scarcity. However, their everyday consumption was primarily governed by the regulatory framework installed for dealing with the crisis, namely the rationing system. By 1942, almost all common foods had been placed under rationing. Despite of the many bureaucratic inconveniences of this system, it was largely supported by consumers, who accepted it as a socially just mechanism for distributing scarce resources. The article brings up the question of how far the willingness of consumers to accept rationing was a unique experience of the war, or whether one might imagine a similar design for purposes of sustainable consumption.Cet article explore quelques unes des stratégies utilisées par les consommateurs pour survivre pendant la 2è guerre mondiale en Norvège. En limitant les déchets, en utilisant des produits de substitution ainsi que les ressources de la nature telles que plantes sauvages, oiseaux et aliments marins alternatifs, les consommateurs norvégiens ont pu adapter leur alimentation à cette période de pénurie alimentaire. La nourriture quotidienne était toutefois essentiellement encadrée par la réglementation mise en place afin de faire face à la crise, c’est à dire le système de rationnement. En 1942, presque tous les aliments étaient rationnés. En dépit de ses nombreux inconvénients administratifs, le rationnement fut quand même soutenu par les consommateurs, qui l’acceptèrent comme un système socialement équitable pour la distribution des maigres ressources. L’article développe la question suivante : l’acceptation du rationnement par les consommateurs norvégiens est
In July 2005, Canada became the fourth country in the world, after the Netherlands, Belgium, and Spain, to legalize same-sex marriages nationwide. This new legal status for gays and lesbians has been a controversial issue in Canada, both in the public and in Parliament. This article provides a historical and legal overview of same-sex marriage in Canada. It outlines briefly the legal process of same-sex marriage in this country.
Rock Lefebvre; Philip Gans
There has been increasing concern in Canada with respect to over-regulation; and specifically to what it means to smaller entities. Seeking to advance the understanding of the impacts of regulations on the SME sector, CGA-Canada commissioned a Small and Medium-sized Entities (SME) survey, a Practitioner survey, and held a public consultation on this topic. The results of the research show that individual regulatory requirements applicable to publicly-traded SMEs in Canada are seen as reasonab...
Lin, Zhengxi; Picot, Garnett; Beach, Charles M.
This paper outlines the structure of payroll taxes and documents evidence on the level, growth and role of each component over the last three decades for Canada and for each province. Levied by both the federal and provincial governments, payroll taxes in Canada include four major components: i) unemployment insurance (UI) premiums; ii) Canada/Quebec Pension Plan (C/QPP) contributions; iii) workers compensation (WC) premiums; and iv) the provincial health/post-secondary education (H/E) tax le...
Someshwar Rao; Jianmin Tang; Weimin Wang
A key objective of economic policy in Canada is to reduce the productivity gap with the United States. The development of appropriate policies to attain this goal requires a thorough understanding of the nature of the gap, including its industry dimensions. Unfortunately, statistical agencies do not currently produce estimates of Canada-U.S. productivity gaps by industry. To fill this data lacuna, Someshwar Rao, Jianmin Tang, and Weimin Wang of Industry Canada in the first article present ben...
Leanne C. Findlay
Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.
In this report, the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) presents the results of its study on how the system of the transport of radioactive material (TRM) in Canada is regulated, how it operates, and how it performs. The report deals with the transport of packages, including Type B packages which are used to carry large quantities of radioactive material, but not with the transport of spent nuclear fuel or with the transport of low-level historical waste. The ACNS has examined the Canadian experience in the TRM area, the regulatory framework in Canada with respect to the TRM some relevant aspects of training workers and monitoring compliance with regulatory requirements, the state of the emergency preparedness of organizations involved in the TRM and the process of updating present regulations by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). As a result of this study, the ACNS concludes that the current Canadian regulatory system in the TRM is sound and that the TRM is, for the most part, conducted safely. However, improvements can be made in a number of areas, such as: determining the exposures of workers who transport radioactive material; rewording the proposed Transport Regulations in plain language; training all appropriate personnel regarding the AECB and Transport Canada (TC) Regulations; enforcing compliance with the regulations; and increasing the level of cooperation between the federal agencies and provincial authorities involved in the inspection and emergency preparedness aspects of the TRM. It is also noted that Bill C-23, the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, imposes a new requirement, subject to the Regulations, for a licence for a carrier to transport some types of radioactive material
A report of operational and financial achievements is reported. Shell Canada's Resources Division is one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, sulphur and bitumen. This report presents an operations review, provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information, and summarizes revenue and expenditure statements. The company was one of Canada's most profitable integrated oil and gas companies in 1998. It was the second most profitable year in the company's history for continuing operations. Oil products earnings for 1998 were a record $275 million, mostly because of strong sales volumes and increased retail market share. The company also confronted several environmental issues in 1998, including climate change and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Construction of the Sable Project, offshore Nova Scotia, continued on budget and on schedule to bring natural gas to market by early 2000. Plans for the three elements of the Oil Sands project (the Muskeg River mine in the Athabaska Region, an upgrader at Shell's Scotford site and the Corridor Pipeline) proceeded on schedule. The Caroline complex made its expected contribution to the company's overall performance. Improved seismic technology helped to add new reserves through Shell's interest in wells in southern Alberta. Exploration activity in northeastern British Columbia and northern Alberta produced encouraging results. The work will continue in 1999. The company plans to invest some 4.9 billion dollars over the next five years in capital expenditures. Shell remains committed to the Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program. Annual reduction of CO2 emissions increased by an estimated 800,000 tonnes
Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))
Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land
The rise in global energy consumption is driven by economic growth, particularly in developing countries. It is expected that by 2030, the world population will consume 50 per cent more energy than today. This increase in global energy demand can no longer be met through the business as usual approach. Graphs depicting emerging energy demand in Asia were presented for nuclear energy, coal, natural gas, oil and renewables. The issue of how China can meet it's growing energy demand was discussed with reference to energy consumed by its industrial, agricultural, commercial, residential and transportation sectors. The author emphasized the uneven distribution of resources, where consuming areas do not coincide with producing areas. It is expected that traditional energy sources will still supply most of the world's energy need for the foreseeable future, but they will leave less of an environmental impact. The author suggested that renewable energy sources will also increase but will comprise less than 20 per cent of the world supply in 2050. The author also discussed the issue of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Kyoto obligations and projections of what will happen with Kyoto post 2012. Canada's GHG record and recent environmental findings were also discussed with reference to Arctic ice coverage and the decline in average winter temperature. It was suggested that technology is the key to the energy shortage the environment and security. With declining conventional oil reserves, old nuclear technology and aging electric power technology, new technology must be used to address supply issues, distribution, interconversion, environmental impacts and risks. It was emphasized that since the energy sector is Canada's greatest economic driver, Canada should focus on energy technologies to build a more competitive energy sector. Huge export opportunities also exist for energy technologies. The role of industry and governments in achieving this goal was also discussed. figs
Huebert, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Centre for Military and Strategic Studies
This presentation provided a broad overview of the geopolitical issues affecting the massive transformation of the Arctic resulting from resource development, globalization, and climate change. Two Arctics are emerging, notably one European and one North American. Oil and gas companies are investing heavily in the North, and there is continued debate over pipelines and projects, but the viability of projects can shift abruptly from technological and political change. Recent examples include the emergence of shale gas, the possibility of the United States becoming a gas exporter, and the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In terms of Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries, a comparison was presented regarding the Canadian and Russian claims to the continental shelf. International cooperation and a commitment to peaceful means can be seen in the Ilulissat Declaration, the acceptance of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea as rules, the scientific cooperation of Canada, the United States, and Denmark, and the recent boundary agreement between Russia and Norway. The positions of the main players in the new geopolitics of the North were outlined, particularly with respect to Russia, the United States, Norway, Denmark, and Canada. Their recent policy statements and developing arctic force capabilities were summarized. Canada's more assertive Arctic policy was outlined in more detail along with the country's base locations and recent security actions in the North. The main issues facing nations with interests in the North will be maritime and aerospace; understanding the new players on the scene; and new technological developments. 10 figs., 5 refs.
Le programme BCGE Business partner destiné aux membres de l’Association du personnel CERN offre des solutions bancaires personnalisées à des conditions préférentielles. Il s’agit d’avantages liés au compte salaire (frais de tenue de compte offerts, Netbanking, Carte Maestro et Carte de crédit offertes, …), au financement hypothécaire, aux solutions de prévoyance, aux placements, aux crédits. Le détail du programme et les conditions préférentielles sont disponibles ici. Pour bénéficier de ces avantages, il vous faut remplir le formulaire de demande de souscription, puis le faire viser par l’Association du personnel attestant que vous êtes membre de l’Association, à jour de cotisation. Malheureusement, cette offre n’est pas valable pour les retraites se...
The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)
The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare determines levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assesses the resulting population exposures. In this Report, the results for the second quarter of 1977 from the analyses of air, water vapour, drinking water and milk for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format used in the last quarterly report has been retained with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this quarter are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection. (auth)
Rogers, G. C.; Meldrum, R. D.; Heesemann, M.; Mulder, T. L.; Brillon, C. D.; Cassidy, J. F.
NEPTUNE Canada is the world's first deep-sea regional multi-disciplinary scientific cabled ocean observatory. In the fall of 2007 an 800 kilometer ring of powered fiber optic cable was laid on the seafloor over the northern part of the Juan de Fuca plate and connected to a shore facility near Port Alberni on Vancouver Island. In September 2009, three broadband OBS packages were deployed in the form of a large triangle with apexes at mid plate near ODP 1027 (water depth of 2654m) and two sites on the continental slope, near ODP 889 (1256m) and Barkley Canyon (396m). The broadband systems comprise a broadband seismometer and strong motion accelerometer in a spherical titanium case surficially buried in a caisson backfilled with glass beads. Noise levels observed are as expected with the spectra being similar to, or quieter than, coastal seismograph stations in approximately the 10 to 20 second period range. The OBS's have higher noise levels at longer periods where ocean swells and the resultant infragravity waves dominate the noise spectra, and in the 1-10 Hz bandwidth typically used for locating local earthquakes. The shallowest site at Barkley Canyon has the highest noise levels. A small array, about 6 km in maximum dimension, is under construction on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge to record earthquake activity in the vicinity of the many NEPTUNE Canada multi-disciplinary ridge experiments. Two short period instruments were installed there in 2010. A broadband instrument and two additional short period instruments are planned to complete the initial ridge array. Even though the NEPTUNE Canada seismograph network is not yet complete, measured by the use of its data, it is a success already. The data are routinely used along with data from land seismographs of the Canadian National Seismograph Network for locating earthquakes in the region. However, the smallest seismic arrivals picked on the land stations cannot be routinely picked on the OBS
This report is the third in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to be changing. In some occupational categories a consistent upward trend is observed
This report is the fifth in a series of annual reports in Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which contains dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included, and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded
Acidic drainage resulting from base metal, precious metal, and uranium mining is the largest single environmental problems facing the Canadian mining industry today. Technologies to prevent acidic drainage from occurring in waste rock piles and tailings sites, and on the walls of open pits and underground mines, need to be developed and demonstrated. There are two grounds in Canada which have accepted this challenge: the national Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) program and the British Columbia Acid Mine Drainage (BC AMD) Task Force. This paper summarizes the activities of these two organizations
Mario Fortin; Andre Leclerc
Mortgage indebtedness has risen considerably in Canada in recent years, pushing households’ debt-to-income ratio to an all time high. In order to identify what variables explains these changes in the stock of debt, we analyze the inflow and outflow of mortgage financing. We show that the number of new mortgage loans is mostly influenced by nominal interest rates while their average value reacts only to housing price. As to the outflow of debt repayment it is sensitive to more variables. Since...
This is the sixth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of National Health and Welfare. As in the past this report presents by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. The format has been changed to provide more detailed information regarding the various occupations. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form
Leclair, Daniel; Fung, Joe; Isaac-Renton, Judith L.; Proulx, Jean-Francois; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Ellis, Andrea; Ashton, Edie; Bekal, Sadjia; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Blanchfield, Burke; Austin, John W.
During 1985–2005, a total of 91 laboratory-confirmed outbreaks of foodborne botulism occurred in Canada; these outbreaks involved 205 cases and 11 deaths. Of the outbreaks, 75 (86.2%) were caused by Clostridium botulinum type E, followed by types A (7, 8.1%) and B (5, 5.7%). Approximately 85% of the outbreaks occurred in Alaska Native communities, particularly the Inuit of Nunavik in northern Quebec and the First Nations population of the Pacific coast of British Columbia. These populations w...
The Canadian regulatory approach to ensuring the implementation of effective AMPs for nuclear power plants is summarized as follows. Canada currently has 22 CANDU nuclear power reactors under operating licenses issued by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). The reactors began operation between 1971 and 1993. Through operating licenses, the CNSC requires licensees to comply with a number of in-service inspection standards and regulatory documents under CNSC Safety and Control Area ‘Fitness for Service’ of SSCs. These provide extensive requirements related to understanding, controlling and managing ageing
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).
The final volume in a series on educational policy and planning in Canada, this review concentrates on the western provinces--British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Sections of the document discuss the educational foundations of the Canadian west; the educational system as it was in 1974--its purposes and institutions, attendance,…
Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010
As the national and international voice representing over 150 publicly-funded colleges, institutes, polytechnics, cegeps, university colleges and universities with a college mandate, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) welcomes the opportunity to provide input to Industry Canada's consultation on a Digital Economy Strategy for…
Spence, John C; Faulkner, Guy; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S
Physical inactivity is a pressing public health concern. In this commentary we argue that Canada's approach to increasing physical activity (PA) has been fragmented and has lacked coordination, funding and a strategic approach. We then describe a potential solution in Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20), which provides both a national plan and a commitment to action from non-government and public sectors with a view to engaging corporate Canada and the general public. It outlines a road map for initiating, coordinating and implementing proactive initiatives to address this prominent health risk factor. The identified actions are based on the best available evidence and have been endorsed by the majority of representatives in the relevant sectors. The next crucial steps are to engage all those involved in public health promotion, service provision and advocacy at the municipal, provincial and national levels in order to incorporate AC 20/20 principles into practice and planning and thus increase the PA level of every person in Canada. Further, governments, as well as the private, not-for-profit and philanthropic sectors, should demonstrate leadership and continue their efforts toward providing the substantial and sustained resources needed to recalibrate Canadians' habitual PA patterns; this will ultimately improve the overall health of our citizens. PMID:26986905
Les principaux accidents de déversements pétroliers en mer et la banque de données de l'Institut Français du Pétrole sur les accidents de navires (1955-1979 The Principal Offshore Oil-Spill Accidents and the Tanker Casualties Data-Bank(1955-1979 Compiled by Institut Français du Pétrole
Bertrand A. R. V.
Full Text Available Après avoir exposé les principaux problèmes posés par le déversement accidentel de pétrole en mer sous ses aspects qualitatifs et quantitatifs, puis rappelé un certain nombre de données tirées d'études antérieures, nous indiquons les résultats de l'activité documentaire de l'Institut Français du Pétrole dans ce domaine : -liste d'accidents ayant donné lieu à un déversement supérieur à 500 t et d'origines diverses (navires, plates-formes, oléoducs, installations côtières; - banque de données sur les accidents de navires. Cette banque concernant plus de 400 accidents survenus de 1955 à 1979 a permis d'établir plusieurs corrélations et de préciser quelques points. En particulier si le nombre d'accidents « principaux » ne semble pas avoir augmenté d'une façon significative au cours de ces dernières années ainsi que le déversement global dû aux accidents, celui-ci nous paraît avoir été sous-estimé dans les évaluations antérieures. II devrait s'élever à 500 000 t/an au lieu de 300 000 t/an, chiffre donné en 1973 par la National Academy of Sciences américaine et constamment repris depuis dans de nombreux rapports et publications. After describing the main problems raised by occidental offshore oil spills from a qualitative and quantitative standpoint and then reviewing various data token from previous reports, this article goes on to describe the results of documentary activity by Institut Français du Pétrole in this field - list of accidents resulting in a spill of more than 500 t and coming from various origins (ships, platforms, pipelines, coastal installations; - data bank on ship accidents. This data bank includes more thon 400 accidents occurring between 1955 and 1979. It reveals various correlations and specific points. In particular, whereas the number of « principal » accidents does not seem to have appreciably increased in the last few years nor has the overall amount thus spilled, these data
Quantité, qualité et distribution des protéines alimentaires pour combattre la sarcopénie : Concept du seuil anabolique musculaire au cours du vieillissement : la clé pour des stratégies nutritionnelles efficaces contre la sarcopénie ?
La sarcopénie est la perte de masse et de fonctionnalité musculaire associées avec le vieillissement. Celle-ci est le résultat d’une perte de protéines musculaires soit lente et progressive, soit la conséquence d’un défaut de récupération de la masse protéique après un état catabolique. Il est aujourd’hui bien établi que l’anabolisme protéique musculaire devient déficient après la prise alimentaire et ceci malgré un apport proté...
L’oxytocine (OT) est principalement connue pour son rôle pendant l’accouchement et l’allaitement. Cependant, au cours de cette dernière décennie, il a été montré que l’OT est impliquée dans de nombreux autres processus biologiques. Notamment, différentes études rapportent que l’OT participe à la régulation de l’homéostasie métabolique. D’autre part, la littérature suggère que, dans l’hypothalamus, les systèmes OT et endocannabinoïde pourraient interagir pour réguler la prise alimentaire. L’en...
A corporate review of ENMAX, Calgary's electric system was presented as one of the business case studies. This distribution utility provides service to more than 300,000 residential and commercial customers. The company also has contracts with Natural Resources Canada and Environment Canada to supply them with 'greenpower' for use in their own facilities. In an effort to meet the customer and global demand for environmental protection, and to sharpen the company's corporate image, ENMAX decided to become fully 'EcoLogo' certified. The company conducted a survey among residential consumers and found that nearly 40 per cent of the respondents were willing to pay a premium of up to $ 15 per month for green energy, if it leads to emissions reduction. Encouraged by these results, ENMAX launched a residential customer program with Vision Quest Wind Electric. Details of the promotion campaign to popularize wind energy among prospective customers is described. Success of the residential program has led to current plans to also develop a commercial program
MacDonald, K. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada). BP Alaska Canada Gas Pipelines
The Alaska natural gas pipeline project was discussed in relation to the Canadian oil and gas industry and pipeline infrastructure. Total project costs for the pipeline were estimated at approximately $20 billion. Options out of Alberta include increasing existing capacity to the west coast, as well as expanding pipeline capacity to supply midwest and east coast markets. Existing pipeline systems will be expanded, and a new pipeline from Alaska to Chicago has been proposed. The gas pipeline project is expected to be the largest private construction project in the history of North America, and will provide 6500 jobs in both the United States and Canada. Project challenges to date have included the development of relationships with Aboriginals and First Nations groups in Canada and the United States, as well as ensuring access to efficient, competitive market-based regulatory processes. Project risks to date have included capital and operating cost over-runs, regulatory and legal delays, completion risks, and commodity price risks. Stranded gas act processes were discussed, as well as fiscal contracts related to the legislative and public process. Elements of the fiscal contract were provided, as well as details of First Nations relationships and Crown consultation processes. tabs., figs.
The US federal objectives for a national energy grid are presented. The objectives include an effective, large liquid market with a dramatic improvement in transmission capability and economics. Other objectives include market confidence and excellent reliability and safety. This Power Point presentation describes the management of super regional transmission organizations (RTOs), and large international transmission companies (ITCs) with reference to the benefits of fully functioning ITCs. A graph depicting UK congestion costs reveals that since April 1994, customers have saved at least $700 million and shareholders have gained at least $150 million. UK controllable operating costs have halved, with a 37 per cent real reduction in transmission costs to customers. Canada is a major exporter of electricity to the United States with most of the exports going to the Northeast USA. A graph depicting Canadian versus US electricity volumes indicates that net exports have declined since 2000. Total next export in 2001 was C$2.4 bn. In 2000 it was C$3.4 bn. The Canada-Northeast USA interface capability was also presented for New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec with exports to Main, Vermont and New York. The constraints within US transmission is the fact that transmission networks limit power flows. The author also discusses regulatory developments in the United States, with reference to RTOs, standard market design, procedural standardization, and focus by the Northeast transmission owners on developing an ITC. 2 tabs., 4 figs
Browne, Alister; Russell, J S
The Criminal Code of Canada prohibits persons from aiding or abetting suicide and consenting to have death inflicted on them. Together, these provisions have prohibited physicians from assisting patients to die. On February 6, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada declared void these provisions insofar as they "prohibit physician-assisted death for a competent adult person who (1) clearly consents to the termination of life and (2) has a grievous and irremediable medical condition (including an illness, disease or disability) that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition." This declaration of invalidity was scheduled to take effect one year (later extended by six months) after the ruling, to give the government time to put legislation in place. We trace the history of this decision, discuss how it has forever changed the debate on physician-assisted dying, and identify the issues that must be resolved to write the legislation. Of special importance here are the topics of access, safeguards, and conscientious objection. PMID:27348822
In 1980 the National Research Council asked DSMA ATCON Ltd., in collaboration with Ontario Hydro, the University of Toronto, and McMaster University, to evaluate concepts for a national fusion engineering program, to define a facility that could be constructed in Canada to meet the program goals, and to suggest a strategy for encouraging industrial participation. The central element of the proposed fusion engineering and development program is tritium technology, with additional emphasis on the broader field of all hydrogen isotopes and their interactions with materials. The Canadian program in the initial phase would concentrate on fusion fuel systems, materials development, equipment development, and safety and the environment. A preliminary concept for the facility required has been developed, and key organizational activities identified. The total program costs should be $1 million in the first year, rising to a steady state of $5 million from the fourth year onward. The capital cost of the research facility is estimated to be $20 million spread over three years, and its operating budget around $7 million. The program as envisioned would make use of Canada's existing tritium resources and handling experience to contribute to worldwide fusion research
Dolling, G.; Lidstone, R. F.
Canada's pre-eminent neutron source since 1957 has been the NRU reactor at Chalk River. It is unlikely to operate beyond the year 2005. In 1994, AECL prepared the case and concept for a new research reactor, the Irradiation Research Facility (IRF), to replace NRU. The IRF was developed with the dual purpose of meeting the needs of both R&D programs to support existing and advanced CANDU® designs and also of condensed matter science and materials research using extracted neutron beams. In November 1995, AECL began a pre-project engineering programme to develop the design of the facility and to begin the safety analysis and “up-front” licensing process. The dual-purpose concept continues to be pursued and the design modified, to achieve maximum performance in the most cost-effective manner. The planned neutron-beam facilities, which include a cold source and a guide hall, will greatly enhance Canada's programs of neutron-beam research and applications. The current status of the IRF design and of efforts to secure funding for the neutron-beam components will be presented.
This booklet provides a variety of useful facts as general public information about gasoline, the most widely used transportation fuel in Canada. Issues such as price, quality, availability, safety and the environmental impact of gasoline are discussed. Like any unregulated commodity, gasoline prices are determined by the market forces of supply and demand. Prices can vary from place to place because of taxes, the number of service stations, delivery costs, labour costs and land costs. Taxes play the biggest role in price differences between countries. In Canada, there are 18 gasoline-producing refineries and about 13,500 service station which are owned by 30 major retail gasoline marketing companies. Currently, propane is the most common alternative to gasoline. Alcohol fuels such as ethanol and methanol are also being used more and more frequently. Refiners are working with vehicle manufacturers to find cost-effective ways to reduce emissions from cars and trucks. Blends of gasoline with ethanol or methanol reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions, but may increase nitrogen oxides and other emissions. Refiners are also working to define a new national standard for sulphur levels in gasoline. refs., figs
In 1978, the governments of Canada and Ontario established the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program. As of the time of the conference, the research performed by AECL was jointly funded by AECL and Ontario Hydro through the CANDU owners' group. Ontario Hydro have also done some of the research on disposal containers and vault seals. From 1978 to 1992, AECL's research and development on disposal cost about C$413 million, of which C$305 was from funds provided to AECL by the federal government, and C$77 million was from Ontario Hydro. The concept involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Used fuel (or possibly solidified reprocessing waste) would be sealed into containers (of copper, titanium or special steel) and emplaced (probably in boreholes) in the vault floor, surrounded by sealing material (buffer). Disposal rooms might be excavated on more than one level. Eventually all excavated openings in the rock would be backfilled and sealed. Research is organized under the following headings: disposal container, waste form, vault seals, geosphere, surface environment, total system, assessment of environmental effects. A federal Environmental Assessment Panel is assessing the concept (holding public hearings for the purpose) and will eventually make recommendations to assist the governments of Canada and Ontario in deciding whether to accept the concept, and how to manage nuclear fuel waste. 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs
This study compared the impact of taxation on the economic viability and competitive position of uranium mining in Canada and Australia. The evaluation is based on four types of uranium deposit and four hypothetical project models. The deposits are assumed to have been discovered and delineated, and are awaiting a mine development decision. The models, initially appraised on a before-tax basis, are then subjected to taxation in each of six jurisdictions. Several taxation criteria are assessed in each case, including after-tax measures of investment incentive, discounted tax revenues, effective tax rates, intergovernmental tax shares, and comparative tax levels. The impact of taxation is shown to be both high and variable. The taxation systems in Saskatchewan and Australia's Northern Territory generate the most government revenue and provide the lowest incentive for investment. Canada's Northwest Territories and Ontario provide the best investment incentive and collect the least amount of taxes. South Australia and Western Australia tend to be positioned between these extremes. The study demonstrates that only the very best uranium mining projects have a chance of being developed under current market conditions, and even these can be rendered uneconomic by excessive taxation regimes. It follows that exceptionally good quality targets will have to be identified to provide the economic justification for uranium exploration. These realities will likely restrict uranium exploration and development activities for some time, not an unexpected response to a market situation where low prices have been caused largely by excess supply. (L.L.)
Organized screening for breast cancer in Canada began in 1988 and has been implemented in all provinces and 2 of the 3 territories. Quality initiatives are promoted through national guidelines which detail best practices in various areas, including achieving quality through a client-service approach, recruitment and capacity, retention, quality of mammography, reporting, communication of results, follow-up and diagnostic workup, and program evaluation; it also offers detailed guidelines for the pathological examination and reporting of breast specimens. The Canadian Breast Cancer Data Base is a national breast cancer screening surveillance system whose objective is to collect information from provincial-screening programs. These data are used to monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and allow comparison with national and international results. A series of standardized performance indicators and targets for the evaluation of performance and quality of organized breast cancer screening programs have been developed from the data base. Although health care is a provincial responsibility in Canada, the collective reporting and comparison of results both nationally and internationally is beneficial in evaluating and refining both screening programs and individual radiologist performance. The results of Canadian performance indicators compare favourably with those of other well-established international screening programs. There are variations in performance indicators across the provinces and territories, but these differences are not extreme. (author)
The objective of this conference was to help energy companies understand what deregulation of the electricity industry means and to meet the challenges of the increasingly competitive and volatile market environment that will inevitably follow deregulation. Accordingly, individual speakers and panels addressed the likely impacts of deregulation on energy markets, strategies to capitalize on restructuring, world market developments in the post monopoly era, strategies for gas buyers, and new opportunities for small co-generation companies and independent power producers using natural gas. Other topics dealt with included predictions about the role of the regulator in the new electricity market, the allocation of stranded costs, and the effects of FERC ruling in the USA on competition in Canada. Consumer concerns were also addressed by presentations about the bottom line for consumers, the operation of the Independent Market Operator, the influence of major power consumers on restructuring, the question of reliability in the new regime, and the effects of convergence. Experiences gained with industry restructuring in California, in the United Kingdom, in the New England States, in Scandinavian countries and in New Zealand were also reviewed as background for understanding the restructuring about to go into effect in various provinces of Canada. tabs., figs
An overview an update of PanCanadian's exploration operations in Atlantic Canada was presented along with market delivery options. PanCanadian is one of Canada's largest natural gas producers and the most active Canadian driller with 2,479 wells. With its' 94 per cent success rate, the company is emerging as an international exploration success and is marketing energy throughout North America. In terms of marketing natural gas, PanCanadian is ranked twelfth of 68 suppliers in customer satisfaction. The company also markets about 10 per cent of western crude production and is the second largest Canadian marketer for natural gas liquids. Also, with the deregulation of electricity in Alberta, PanCanadian is constructing two 106 megawatt power plants in Alberta to provide electricity to Southern Alberta and to take advantage of the economics of energy conversion. PanCanadian also has a dominant, 20 per cent position in the Scotia Shelf and has plans for offshore processing. Graphs depicting its Deep Panuke operations and pipeline routes to market the natural gas were included. Forecast charts for natural gas demand show a steady increase in demand from 2000 to 2010. tabs., figs
During the first half of June, heavy rains inundated northern Minnesota and southern Canada, giving rise to floods that drove hundreds of people from their homes and drenched more than 300,000 acres of prime farmland. This false-color image of the flood (right) was acquired on June 15, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The worst of the flooding occurred on the border of Canada and Minnesota along the Roseau River, which now resembles a lake in the center of the image. The town of Roseau, Minnesota, which sits in the eastern end of the newly formed lake, was hit the hardest. Nearly all the buildings in the town took heavy water damage and many residents were forced to leave. Widespread flooding across an eight county region in Minnesota has drenched nearly 300,000 to 500,000 acres of farmland altogether. Many of the farmers hit lost 100 percent of their crops and will be unable to plant again for the season. Last week, President Bush declared northern Minnesota a disaster area. Normally, the Roseau River cannot even be seen on a MODIS image (left, acquired May 21, 2002), and the surrounding area is dry. In the false-color images, sage green, rusty orange, and blue is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC
Syncrude Canada Ltd. operates the Syncrude Project which is a joint venture of 10 partners responsible for operating the largest crude oil-producing oil sands facility in the world. The facility provides more than 13 per cent of Canada's annual oil requirements. Syncrude's product is Syncrude Sweet Blend (SSB) which is a high quality, light, sweet crude oil. SSB is produced through an integrated process that begins with the surface mining of the oil sands. Annual SSB shipments for 1998 were 76.7 million barrels, the 17th annual record in 20 years of operation. In 1998, construction also began on the second ore train of the North Mine and its associated hydrotransport facilities. The report presents an overview of financial highlights and operating results for 1998, paying appropriate tribute to innovation that has been responsible for the continuous improvements made by the Consortium. The report also expresses the Joint Venture Partners' long-term commitment to applying the latest technology, improving workforce productivity, environmental performance, an even higher quality product, and more cost-effective ways to do business. 2 tabs
Uranium is a unique commodity. It is both a metal and a fuel. It has both commercial and military uses. It yields 'clean energy' but presents environmental concerns. All of these factors have an impact on the commerce of uranium. Being a metal, uranium is extracted from ore like many other metallic minerals. As a fuel, it is subject to the vagaries of energy commodity market forces. The history of uranium in the first nuclear weapons has led to national governments carefully controlling production and sale of uranium. The spectre of radioactive contamination of the environment adds further to the public concern over the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from uranium processing and use. There have been a number of excellent reviews on the commercial aspects of the uranium industry. In this discussion, these aspects will be briefly summarized to provide a general picture of the strengths of the Canadian uranium industry and the pressures to which it is being subjected currently. The principal thrust of this paper will be to outline Canada's resource strength and to identify some factors which will affect Canada's ability to continue holding a sizeable share of the world uranium market
... requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...
Sullivan, Susan, Ed.; Bose, Kathy, Ed.; Levesque, Lise, Ed.
Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…
The objective of this paper is to explain the contribution of energy efficiency to the evolution of secondary energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Canada. Promoting greater energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy is an important element of Canada's National Action Program on Climate Change--the federal-provincial strategy to achieve Canada's commitment to work toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. In this regard, an improved understanding of the relationship between energy efficiency, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions will assist policy makers in assessing the progress being made in addressing the issues of global climate change and sustainable development. Natural Resources Canada has developed indicators of changes in the principal factors which influence secondary energy use and emissions over time. This paper utilizes these indicators to review energy use trends in the four secondary energy use sectors (residential, commercial, industrial and transportation), with particular emphasis on the industrial sector., This review covers the period from 1990 to 1995. The year 1995 was chosen because it is the most recent year for which actual energy use data are available. The year 1990 is the base year of Canada's environmental goal, in accordance with the Framework Convention on Climate Change. A more comprehensive and detailed presentation of these indicators can be found in ''Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada'' 1990 to 1995. This report is an update of ''Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada'' which was published by Natural Resources Canada in April 1996
Henriques, I; Vaillancourt, F.
This Paper Examines the Determinants of the Demand for Child Care Services in Canada. Using Survey Data Collected for 1981 by Statistics Canada and Probit Analysis We Find That the Likelihood of Using Child Care Services Increases with Variables Such As the Education of the Mother and the Age of the Child and Decreases with the Number of Children in the Family.
Information on the research programs of eight Canadian electrical utilities and the Canadian Electrical Association has been compiled. Work done by the National Research Council of Canada is included, but the research done by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. is excluded. Projects in the area of nuclear power include work on heat transfer and fluid flow, waste management, materials, and corrosion. (L.L.)
Metcalfe, Amy Scott
In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and perhaps never…
Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2011
Applied research at Canada's colleges and institutes has expanded rapidly over the last five years. This report provides an overview of the current context and positions colleges and institutes as key players in Canada's innovation system. The report builds upon findings of previous research and reports on the results of the 2009-2010 "Applied…
Full Text Available In the article the problem of adult immigrants’ learning in Canada has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as: analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; analysis of the adult immigrants’ learning system in Canada; and the perspectives for creative implementation of Canadian experience in Ukraine.
Cumming, Peter A.
Presenting the critical elements for a new and meaningful relationship between the Inuit and the emerging industrial society of Northern Canada, this publication includes: (1) Canada as a Nation State and Northern Development; (2) Northern Development and Institutions in Decision-Making; (3) The Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory as…
Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison
This article investigates the relationship between crime and quality of life in Saskatoon, Canada. The city has one of the highest crime rates in the country and has been referred to as the "Crime Capital of Canada", a label that comes as a surprise to many residents and causes considerable concern among others. The aim of this research is to…
Cornell, Peter M.
Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…
The current energy situation in Canada is shortly reviewed with a focus on the history of nuclear power in Ontario. An aoutlook for the Canadian nuclear program is given. Finally, same of the major considerations in financing Canada's nuclear power growth is outlined, particularly with respect to sources of funds and their competing uses. (author)
The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1986 covers the following subjects: report from the chairman and the president; research company; CANDU operations; radiochemical company; employee performance; nuclear Canada; Financial section; and board of directors and officers
Rutas Alimentarias: una estrategia de negocios inclusivos que vincula las políticas agrarias y turísticas Food routes : an inclusive business strategy that links the agricultural and tourism policies Les routes alimentaires : des stratégies de développement liant les politiques agricoles et les politiques touristiques
Full Text Available Les routes alimentaires sont des itinéraires touristiques qui offrent des services et produits touristiques qui permettent de découvrir de manière ludique la culture et l'histoire alimentaire des territoires en accordant une attention particulière à la signification symbolique des aliments et aux ressources culturels locales. Ces itinéraires sont le support d’une offre touristique construite autour des ressources du terroir. Bien conçus, ils peuvent participer au développement rural. Nous considérons les routes alimentaires (ou gastronomiques comme un instrument au service du développement rural ; les productions alimentaires, les ressources vernaculaires, la culturel sont au cœur du projet territorial.En Amérique latine, ces initiatives associant développement rural et tourisme, dans le cadre de routes alimentaires, se développement depuis le début des années 2000. Cet article propose une analyse comparative des diverses stratégies de développement pour les routes alimentaire, autour d’expérience sud-américaines, nord-américaines et européennes.Food Routes are routes that offer tourist services and tourist products that reveal the culture and history of food in areas with special attention to the symbolic meaning of foods and local culturalresources.These routes are the support of a tourism built around local resources. Properly designed, they can participate in rural development. We consider the road food (or gourmet as an instrument for rural development, food production, resources vernacular culture are at the heart of the territorial project.In Latin America, these initiatives involving rural development and tourism in the context of road maintenance to development since the early 2000s. This article offers a comparative analysis of various development strategies for road food experience around South America, North American and EuropeanLas Rutas Alimentarias son itinerarios turísticos que ofrecen servicios y
A significant level of trade integration exists between Canada and the United States. For this reason, climate and energy policies in one country have economic and environmental impacts in the other. The two nations have embarked on a clean energy dialogue for the development of a clean energy strategy for Canada and this document aims at providing information and context. This paper showed that the trade relationship with the United States is important to maintaining Canada's level of prosperity. Although climate and energy policies in one country have impacts on the other, significant differences exist between their respective energy sources and emissions and a common policy would affect Canada's competitiveness. This paper showed that Canada and the United States need to discuss their clean energy and climate policies with each other but that it is not possible to implement a common policy.
The challenge facing Canada regarding climate change was discussed with reference to federal initiatives and the Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) extension. Phase 1 of Canada's strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was also discussed. The national process from 1998 to 2000 involved 450 experts from government, industry and non-governmental organizations who created 16 working groups to develop analysis and policy options for reducing emissions. Each working group produced foundation papers regarding the state of various sectors of the Canadian economy. They also directed option reports describing a full range of options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Graphs depicting greenhouse gas emissions by province and by sector for 1990 and 2010 showed that Alberta and Ontario are the provinces that emit, and will continue to emit, the most greenhouse gases. The transportation sector is responsible for the greatest amount of emissions into the atmosphere, followed by the industrial, power generation and agricultural sectors. The action plan for budget 2000 called for $1.1 billion over 5 years to reduce emissions, increase understanding of climate science, and build a foundation for future action. The federal measures are designed to obtain 65 Mt/year during 2008-2012 commitment period, taking Canada one third of the way towards the Kyoto target. For the transportation sector, this means an objective of increasing fuel efficiency of vehicles and having a supply of lower emitting fuels. New fuels include ethanol produced from biomass. The use of fuel cell vehicles that emit low or no emissions will require the development of a refuelling infrastructure. Energy efficiencies and technologies are also encouraged in aviation, rail, marine and trucking industries. Energy efficiency in urban transportation is encouraged through best urban transportation practices and strategies to reduce greenhouse gases. The CCAF structure is extended to 2004. The hydrogen and fuel
Canada is a major producer and shipper of radioactive material. Each year more than a million packages are transported in Canada. The safety record with the transport of RAM in Canada has historically been excellent. There have never been any serious injuries, overexposure or fatality or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of such material being transported or being involved in a transport accident. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the prime agency of the federal government entrusted with regulating all activities related to the use of nuclear energy and nuclear substances including the packaging and transport of nuclear substances. The mission of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of the person and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The division of responsibility for the regulation of transport of radioactive material has been split between Transport Canada and the CNSC. The governing Transport Canada's regulations are Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Regulations and the CNSC regulations are Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations (PTNSR). Canada has actively participated in the development of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material since 1960. As an IAEA member state, Canada generally follows the requirements of IAEA regulations with few deviations. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) strongly supports Canada's international obligations to ensure safe packaging, transport, storage and disposal of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information. Prescribed equipment and prescribed information are defined in the CNSC General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations. This paper presents the current CNSC regulatory requirements and initiatives taken by the CNSC to improve its effectiveness and efficiency
Syncrude Canada supplies 11% of total Canadian crude oil production, over 60 million bbl/y, from oil sand deposits in northern Alberta. Syncrude is the world's largest synthetic crude oil producer, and its operating costs are comparable to the costs of finding and producing new conventional oil sources. Some 200 billion bbl of oil are recoverable from the oil sands using present extraction techniques, but more research and development is needed for the northern Alberta deposits to realize their full potential. A key to much of Syncrude's success is its personnel policies, which include involvement in working with local native communities to hire and train aboriginal employees, establishment of partnerships with educational institutions, on-the-job education, and employment equity programs for women and minority groups. 2 figs
Full Text Available The story of the growth of open source use in Canada has been far more a matter of evolution than revolution, so quiet in its pace that its progress has been difficult to measure. This has posed many challenges to Canadian open source advocates in their efforts to ensure that their country does not lag behind the rest of the world in understanding the social and business benefits open source provides. Perhaps some of the leading soldiers in the trenches might be our civil servants who protect the public purse. In addition to managing and minimizing the costs of delivering necessary services, public sector projects should also advance the social good through the delicate balance of transparency and efficiency.
This study examines economic and environmental impacts of uranium mining in Canada and compares these impacts with those of other extractive and energy industries. The uranium industry generates taxes and royalties, income, employment, foreign exchange earnings, security of energy supply, and technological spinoffs. The indirect impacts of the industry as measured by employment and income multipliers are lower than those for other types of mining and comparable to oil and gas because of the high proportion of costs withdrawn from the economy in the form of taxes and operator margin. Social costs are primarily occupational hazards. Uranium mining probably has a lower non-health environmental impact than other mining industries due to much smaller throughputs and transportation requirements. Residents of the area surrounding the mine bear a disproportionate share of the social costs, while non-residents receive most of the benefits
The decision to continue operation in Canada depends ultimately on economic factors. This decision is made for each unit independently, even if the unit is part of a multiunit station. An effective PLiM implementation programme plays a pivotal role in LTO decisions because it is capable of integrating ageing management and economic planning. The use of an economic model allows PLiM to evaluate implementation alternatives, such as optimizing the staffing curve to shorten the LTO outage, helping to decide on capital upgrades if it can be shown they can increase capacity factors or the maximum continuous rating. Plant life management can also help select the optimum conditions and the best time for an extended LTO outage
After having outlined what is at stake in energy storage in the world (brief presentation of storage methods, overview of world electricity production and its storage challenges), and given an overview of the Canadian energy sector, this report gives an overview of the Canadian key and particularly innovating actors: main organisations, scientific research (in the fields of advanced batteries, of fuel cells, and of thermal storage), industrial sector (leaders in electricity production, in the electric or hybrid automotive sector and in the field of portable electronic devices, in the Li-ion battery sector, and in the hydrogen fuel cell sector, innovating actors in other energy storage methods). The author then discusses the innovation momentum in Canada: examples of energy storage projects by public organisations (CNRC, RNC), industrial projects in energy projects, investment dynamics
This report is the fourth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes those records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to have resumed after an interruption during 1979 to 1980. A brief summary of extremity dose data is also included
Inquiry is a teaching strategy in which student work mirrors authentic scientific research: students have ownership over their learning path, and learning scientific concepts (e.g., properties of light, motion in a gravitational field) is intertwined with learning scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning an investigation, constructing explanations). I will describe inquiry and education research showing its effectiveness; and I will present inquiry-based astronomy curricula and assessment strategies we have designed for undergraduate and graduate courses in Nigeria and Canada: an activity on the cosmic distance ladder (part of a short course in Abuja); a course on order-of-magnitude astronomy problem solving (Toronto); and new education research from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia (where I am a new postdoc).
Wiegand, D.A. [Canadian Standards Association, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
A new standard issued by the Canadian Standards Association, CSA C802, imposes maximum losses on transformers 10 MVA and below. Included are Distribution Transformers, small Power Transformers, and Dry Types. Implementation will start though the publishing in mid 1994 of the Gazette by Ontario`s Ministry of Energy. The Gazette will call for conformance to C802 after a lead time of one year to eighteen months, depending on the type of transformer. Other provincial energy ministries have been awaiting this development and are expected to follow suit shortly thereafter. The federal department, Natural Resources Canada, is also attuned to these actions and is expected to issue supportive legislation which will control movement of transformers across provincial and national borders.
Oil-well and gas-well drilling activities to the end of the third quarter of 1996 were reviewed in twelve specific geographical areas in Western Canada. Major operators for each area were determined and the information was tabulated showing the number, the type, and the depth of wells drilled in each area for the top 50 operators. An estimate of well counts for twelve months of 1996 was used to forecast activity for 1997 (12,300 wells). The projections include anticipated expenditure for various products and services in each of the geographical areas. Total expenditures in 1997 were estimated at $5.85 billion ($6.5 billion in 1996).5 tabs., 3 figs
The impacts of climatic change on Canada's forestry sector are discussed, in the context of major research priorities relating to forecasting climate, forecasting forest responses, monitoring changes, mitigating effects, and understanding the forest carbon balance. There are five major concerns that affect policy decisions: effects of climatic change on forests; adaptation to climate change; impacts of changing crops on forestry; changing forestry values in changing sociological settings; and international implications of the changing climate. A scientific program to respond to climate change issues is required, and should include the following concentrations of research effort. Planning requires projections of likely future climates, and efforts should concern relations between pre-historic climates and forest ecosystems and integrating data into predictive models. Forecasting of response of forests should include tree physiology, factors controlling reforestation, variations in forest trees, effects of pollutants, damage to forests, and forest decline
Over the past two decades, society has increasingly demanded more public participation and public input into decision-making by governments. Development of the Canadian concept for deep geological disposal of used nuclear fuel has proceeded in a manner that has taken account of the requirements for social acceptability as well as technical excellence. As the agency responsible for development of the disposal concept, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has devoted considerable effort to consultation with the various publics that have an interest in the concept. This evolutionary interactive and consultative process, which has been underway for some 14 years, has attempted to keep the public informed of the technical development of the concept and to invite feedback. This paper describes the major elements of this evolutionary process, which will continue throughout the concept assessment and review process currently in progress. (author)
Bouchard, Louise; Desmeules, Martin
Official language minorities (Francophones outside of Quebec and Anglophones in Quebec) make up about 6.4% of the Canadian population. Even though the Canadian constitution gives legal equality status to French and English, there is still room to ask if this equality is maintained in the health sector. In other words, do Francophone and Anglophone communities of Canada have the same health profiles regardless of their minority or majority status? Do they have access to the same health services and in the same conditions? The objective of this paper is to identify the health issues associated with belonging to a linguistic minority. Our research allows us to highlight the social and health disparities that can be attributed to belonging to a minority. In the Canadian context, which has two official languages, an equitable health policy will have to take into consideration language as a determinant of health. PMID:24289938
A report by the Canadian Energy Research Institute suggests that by 2017, production from the Athabasca Oil Sands could reach as high as 3.5 million barrels per day (mbpd), or it could be as low as 1.1 mbpd. This uncertainty in production is due to several variables such as capital costs, project size, reservoir quality, pipeline capacity and workforce productivity. Other factors that influence production include marginal economics, markets and prices, investor confidence, stakeholder concerns and the Kyoto Protocol. The production level that will be achieved by 2017 will depend on how industry address these emerging issues. The author discussed these issues in detail with particular reference to the approach that Petro-Canada has taken to address the challenges. Suggestions to reduce the potential impacts of these challenges were also presented. tabs., figs
At this 2006 workshop hosted by the Bank of Canada, an international group of market participants, regulators, and policy-makers gathered to assess recent developments in the derivatives market. Among the topics discussed were the recent prodigious growth in risk-transfer instruments, including credit derivatives and inflation-linked derivatives, as well as the accompanying challenges and benefits. Overall, the development of derivatives markets was seen as providing broad economic benefits, ...
Hauser, C.E.; Runge, M.C.; Cooch, E.G.; Johnson, F.A.; Harvey, W.F., IV
Management of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) can be a balance between providing sustained harvest opportunity while not allowing populations to become overabundant and cause damage. In this paper, we focus on the Atlantic population of Canada geese and use stochastic dynamic programming to determine the optimal harvest strategy over a range of plausible models for population dynamics. There is evidence to suggest that the population exhibits significant age structure, and it is possible to reconstruct age structure from surveys. Consequently the harvest strategy is a function of the age composition, as well as the abundance, of the population. The objective is to maximize harvest while maintaining the number of breeding adults in the population between specified upper and lower limits. In addition, the total harvest capacity is limited and there is uncertainty about the strength of density-dependence. We find that under a density-independent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at the highest acceptable abundance. However if harvest capacity is limited, then the optimal long-term breeding population size is lower than the highest acceptable level, to reduce the risk of the population growing to an unacceptably large size. Under the proposed density-dependent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at an intermediate level between the bounds on acceptable population size; limits to harvest capacity have little effect on the optimal long-term population size. It is clear that the strength of density-dependence and constraints on harvest significantly affect the optimal harvest strategy for this population. Model discrimination might be achieved in the long term, while continuing to meet management goals, by adopting an adaptive management strategy.
To document the existing radiology services available to emergency physicians in hospitals across Canada and to preview future trends and needs. Questionnaires (n = 130) regarding the type, availability and satisfaction with radiology services were distributed to radiologists and emergency physicians at 65 hospitals across Canada. Fifty-three (41%) questionnaires were returned, and 45 (35%) completed questionnaires from 35 hospitals were used for analysis (24 from radiologists and 21 from emergency physicians). Plain radiographs were available in all hospitals at all times. Ultrasonography, intravenous pyleograms and computed tomography (CT) were available in all departments during normal working hours; after hours, CT was unavailable in 1 hospital and ultrasonography was unavailable in 2. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) was routinely performed for blunt abdominal trauma in 6 centres, and 10 centres had teleradiology services. Regarding the quality of emergency service, 7 of 45 responded 'poor,' 4 'average,' 14 'good,' and 17 of 45 rated service 'excellent.' Interestingly, most radiologists answered 'good' or 'excellent,' and most of the 'poor' responses came from emergency physicians. Regarding staff coverage after 5 pm, 34 hospitals provided CT services, 20 had ultrasonography staff available, and there was radiology nursing coverage in 14 hospitals. Clinical details on requisitions were generally rated 'adequate' or 'poor.' Although most radiograph reports were available within 48 hours, some took longer. Hot-seat reporting was available in 11 centres. During normal working hours, radiologists were the first to read films in 5 of 35 hospitals. After hours, emergency physicians were the first to read films in all hospitals, but only 14 hospitals indicated they were 'formally' trained to do so. This survey documents the strengths and weaknesses of the radiology services available to emergency physicians. The perceptions of emergency physicians
This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs
Malkoske, G. [MDS Nordion, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)
This paper discusses the role that Canada plays in nuclear medicine worldwide. Canada supplies over 75% of the world's Cobalt-60 which sterilizes 45% of all single-use medical supplies in the world. Cobalt-60 teletherapy delivers 45000 cancer treatments daily. It is used in non-destructive testing. Canada also supplies over 50% of the world's medical isotopes. NRU reactor-produced isotopes include Molybdenum 99, iodine 131, Iodine 125, Xenon 133 and Cobalt 60. MDS Nordion maintains a strategic supply agreement with AECL.
This fact sheet outlines the principles underlying Canada's position at the sixth Conference of Parties (COP6) regarding climate change. Capsule descriptions of the Canadian view on carbon sinks (advocating a broader inclusion of sink activities), application of the flexibility mechanisms (the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and International Emissions Trading), the issue of compliance (Canada favoring strong incentives to ensure compliance), and strengthening the capacity of developing countries to enhance their contribution to fighting climate change (Canada acknowledging that capacity building and technology transfer needs to be a central part of the global approach to combating climate change)
This article gives a review of the Canadian nuclear sector and examines the opportunities that may lie ahead for this sector. Canada is amongst a small number of countries with a comprehensive nuclear sector. With its commitment to nuclear energy it has nuclear utilities operating in three provinces. These utilities are consistently rated amongst the best in the world for safe reliable performance. Canada has internationally respected, independent regulator operating in a coherent legislative and legal framework which meets and exceeds international expectations. Canada has a robust supply chain from mining through manufacturing and services anchored by a domestic reactor original equipment manufacturer (OEM).
Over the past decade, the cattle industry has experienced practically a full circle. With the promising beef prices in the early 1970s, with the glut of grain and a generous assist from government incentive programs, the forage acreage and cattle population have increased at a record rate. By 1974, the tide began to turn - grain prices went up sharply and beef prices became sluggish - and by 1976 a major crisis faced the producers. The cattle industry which had been developing on a cheap grain economy was now obliged to rely more on forage for its survival. Unfortunately, the forage was not existent and the only salvation of the industry was the gift of Providence - weather patterns that provided ample moisture conditions and above normal forage crops, the utilization of cereals and the intervention of government cow-calf support programs. Over the past year, the cycle was completed and record beef prices again prevail. The barley bins are full again and the cattlemen are gearing up for a few fat years. Demands for forage seed are brisk and the seeding down of forage acreage is bound to increase substantially over the next few years. And with this increase, cattle population expansion is bound to follow: how much expansion can the economy support? The production cost factors will determine the extent, but one can almost be certain that any expansion will either be modest or of short duration. At least, it should be. If the cattle industry is to establish solid foundations, it cannot be dependent upon the instability of a grain surplus-shortage position. With the present resources and the potential for developing it in direct competition with other crops, one can only expect a small and steady expansion over a long time span. One must agree with the range researchers and specialists of the Canada Research Stations at Lethbridge and Swift Current that pasture and range will continue to be the limiting factors of cattle expansion as they have been for the past 50
This long-term projection of energy supply, demand, consumption, production and greenhouse gas emissions from now until 2020 identified pressure points and emerging issues in Canadian energy markets. It contributed to public discussions on energy and related economic and environmental issues in Canada and provided a reference scenario from which new energy and climate change policies can be evaluated. Energy projections were developed based on the relationships between energy production, consumption and prices, as well as economic, technological and policy factors. The report included government implemented initiatives that promote energy efficiency or increase the use of alternative energy. This Outlook to 2020 is sensitive to key assumptions about economic growth, oil sands development and the electricity generation mix. It is based on a specific set of assumptions regarding oil price and economic growth. This outlook assumes crude oil prices to be nearly twice that of the last outlook in 1999 and natural gas prices are assumed to be three times higher. The outlook also assumes that the Mackenzie Delta gas pipeline will be in service by 2011. Other principal assumptions used to develop this outlook were that population will grow by 0.7 percent annually and that all but two of Canada's nuclear power plants will stay in service for at least eight more years. The outlook revealed that total energy demand is projected to grow by 1.3 percent per year. The fuel mix will not change much over this period because the prices of different energy sources will remain the same. Energy intensity is expected to improve by about 0.25 per cent annually in the residential and commercial sectors due to stock turn over and appliance regulations. Total energy demand will increase by 1 per cent per year for the residential sector, and at 2.4 percent per year for the commercial sector. Transportation demand is expected to grow by 1.6 per cent per year, while industrial energy intensity
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Population control of resident Canada... Populations § 21.61 Population control of resident Canada geese. (a) Which Canada geese are covered by this regulation? This regulation addresses the population control of resident Canada geese, as defined in §...
... Application To Export Electric Energy; SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (SESCO Canada) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...-297, which authorized SESCO Canada to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...
Dans ce rapport, on examine les facteurs des immigrants dans les regions metropolitaines de recensement (RMR) au Canada, les repercussions sur les services publics offerts dans les regions urbaines et les caracteristiques de l'emploi des immigrants.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1974 and 1975 breeding Aleutian Canada geese, Branta canadensis leucopareia, were studied at Buldir Island, western Aleutian Islands. Buldir is the only known...
Smyth, Stuart J
Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238
Experience with road pricing generally — and congestion pricing specifically — is growing around the world. Research and planning in Canada should begin now on road pricing for heavily congested highways and streets.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....
This paper summarizes information on costs associated with regulation of nuclear power reactors in Canada. The AECB perspective on the benefits of such regulation, both to the public and to the nuclear industry itself, is presented
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following recommendations concern the designation of critical habitat on Federal lands in Alaska for the Endangered Species, Aleutian Canada goose (Branta...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the history of Canada goose production by the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) flock from 1955 to 1964. Attached is a nesting structure...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data include monthly snowfall and end-of-month snow depth for 140 stations across Canada. Stations that maintained at least 20 years of data were chosen. The...
The development and implementation of a climate change policy could be among the most far-reaching environmental initiatives ever embarked upon in Canada and abroad. If Canada is to stabilize or reduce its Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over the long term, a significant adjustment to Canadian industry will be required as we move away from fossil fuel-intensive and GHG producing activities. Future hydroelectric projects provide Canada with a unique opportunity to significantly reduce the costs associated with stabilizing its GHG emissions. In addition, the energy storage and dispatchability associated with hydropower can support development of other low emitting renewable resources such as wind and solar. This document discusses the potential role of hydropower as a tool to reduce emissions, recommends action to reduce barriers facing hydropower and comments on some of the policy tools available to manage Canada's GHG emissions. (author)
Full Text Available National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA, and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of the Canada-European Union (EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA. The agreement covers most aspects of the EU-Canada bilateral economic relationship and includes space. The paper focuses on international space policies, strategic bilateral co-operation, and technical accomplishments. It takes a closer look at German-Canadian collaboration in space programs and offers some reflection on the effect of both the EU and ESA’S transatlantic involvement in space.
The electricity sector is Canada's largest single source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper discussed electricity and carbon pricing approaches to reducing GHG emissions in the electricity sector. An overview of the links between electricity pricing and climate change was presented, and current and emerging trends in electricity pricing related to encouraging energy conservation were reviewed. Market prices and failures were discussed. Approaches to pricing electricity included an increase in block prices; time-of-use prices; demand-side management and energy efficiency; and carbon pricing in Canada and electricity pricing signals. The study showed that several provincial utilities in Canada are experimenting with market-based pricing approaches for electricity and carbon that may help to reduce GHG emissions over time. Concerns over electricity supply and the negative environmental impacts of electricity production may lead to the full social pricing of electricity in some regions of Canada. 46 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.
As an investigation report on environmental protection, the author introduces the management, treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes in Canada, and research and evaluation of their effects on the environment
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan for the dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) is a revision of earlier plans adopted by the Pacific Flyway Council (1973, 1985,...
A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)
The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1988 covers: Research Company; CANDU Operations; Radiochemical Company; Medical Products Division; The Future; Financial Sections; Board of Directors and Officers; and AECL locations
Veenstra, Gerry; Patterson, Andrew C
Little is known about Black-White health inequalities in Canada or the applicability of competing explanations for them. To address this gap, we used nine cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey to analyze multiple health outcomes in a sample of 3,127 Black women, 309,720 White women, 2,529 Black men and 250,511 White men. Adjusting for age, marital status, urban/rural residence and immigrant status, Black women and men were more likely than their White counterparts to report diabetes and hypertension, Black women were less likely than White women to report cancer and fair/poor mental health and Black men were less likely than White men to report heart disease. These health inequalities persisted after controlling for education, household income, smoking, physical activity and body-mass index. We conclude that high rates of diabetes and hypertension among Black Canadians may stem from experiences of racism in everyday life, low rates of heart disease and cancer among Black Canadians may reflect survival bias and low rates of fair/poor mental health among Black Canadian women represent a mental health paradox similar to the one that exists for African Americans in the United States. PMID:25894533
Full Text Available The Lake Athabasca drainage area in northern Canada encompasses ecologically rich and sensitive ecosystems, vast forests, glacier-clad mountains, and abundant oil reserves in the form of oil sands. The basin includes the Peace–Athabasca Delta, recognized internationally by UNESCO and the Ramsar Convention as a biologically rich inland delta and wetland that are now under increasing pressure from multiple stressors. In this study, streamflow variability and trends for rivers feeding Lake Athabasca are investigated over the last half century. Hydrological regimes and trends are established using a robust regime shift detection method and the Mann–Kendall (MK test, respectively. Results show that the Athabasca River, which is the main contributor to the total lake inflow, experienced marked declines in recent decades impacting lake levels and its ecosystem. From 1960 to 2010 there was a significant reduction in lake inflow and a significant recession in the Lake Athabasca level. Our trend analysis corroborates a previous study using proxy data obtained from nearby sediment cores suggesting that the lake level may drop 2 to 3 m by 2100. The lake recession may threaten the flora and fauna of the Athabasca Lake basin and negatively impact the ecological cycle of an inland freshwater delta and wetland of global importance.
Penfold, P S
A comparison of numbers of women psychiatrists with faculty appointments and women residents in Departments of Psychiatry in Canada in 1975 and 1985 showed that the average percentage of women faculty has increased from 11.4% to 14.3% and of women residents from 23.5% to 43.4%. Some departments appeared to be oblivious to the special educational role of women faculty and had not discussed the discrepancy between the numbers of faculty and residents. Only two departments were actively recruiting women faculty. The study also demonstrated a continued concentration of women in the lower ranks. Barriers to recruiting women faculty include lack of academic role models, job advertising not specifically designed to attract women candidates, rigid requirements for appointments, women's lack of access to male corridors of power, pervasive underlying doubts about women's abilities and competence based on cultural stereotypes, female socialization which does not lend itself readily to roles of authority, assertiveness and leadership, and the role strain that ensues when women psychiatrists try to combine career, marriage and motherhood. If women psychiatrists are to fill some of the positions in Departments of Psychiatry, which will fall vacant over the next decade, much more attention must be paid to eliminating or diminishing the multiple obstacles for women who chose a career in academic psychiatry. PMID:3690482
Canada has demonstrated its ability to successfully manage Candu projects. It has been shown domestically by Ontario Hydro over a period of many years. It has been demonstrated abroad by private sector service companies, under Nuclear Construction Managers, on the 600 MW Wolsung project in South Korea, where NPM companies carried out virtually all project and construction management, the plant was in service only 60 months after the first concrete was poured for the reactor building. In the past, however, the project management team for Candu nuclear plants overseas, and for some at home, was often assembled ad hoc. Though this approach can be successful, it does not guarantee success in project and construction management. Because of the size, diversity and flexibility of the private owners of NPM, they have been able to keep their experienced nuclear power teams on staff even though the nuclear power industry has been going through slow times, assigning these people to large projects in other industries that call for the same high level of project, construction and commissioning management skills. Yet they are in a position to reassemble this team at very short notice, and have them ready to go to work on a major project within weeks of the green light
Andre, Jo-Anne D; Graves, Roger
The emphasis on scholarship in nursing, demands for evidence-based practice, and attention to writing have raised the profile of academic writing within nursing curricula. This article provides a comprehensive review of English and writing course requirements across 81 English-language baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada. The data were gathered from a review of nursing programs and curriculum information from university and college Web sites. Of the 81 programs, 39 (48.1%) require neither an English literature course nor a writing course, 15 (18.5%) require an English literature course, and 32 (39.5%) require a writing course, including five programs that require a discipline-specific writing course. Discipline-specific writing courses appear to be useful adjuncts to writing-across-the-curriculum initiatives in nursing and will help students to develop the research and writing skills needed to succeed both academically and in a career in which nursing scholarship and evidence-informed practice are increasingly valued and expected. PMID:23316890
The upgrader design at Mobil's Kearl Oil Sands Mine were described. Included were feed characteristics, upgrader products, process schemes and their overall economics and upgrader technologies in use, including coking, deasphalting, hydrocracking, hydrotreating and visbreaking. Advantages and disadvantages of the upgrader technologies were highlighted. As far as the product is concerned, much of it is destined to U.S. refineries that are equipped to process the material. The Kearl Oil Sands Mine upgrading facility will likely use a combination of coker/hydrotreating, which is a well proven process for high value products that has been used in all five of Mobil's refineries in the U.S., and visbreaker/deasphalting, which has shown promise in bench-scale testing, but at present still has some potential commercial difficulties. Foremost among these are the high softening product of asphalt from visbroken products, questionable commercial feasibility of the low yield of pitch, and problems in the disposal of asphalt. Severe visbreaking also yields unstable products. Details of Mobil Canada's oil sands project were also summarized 2 tabs., 9 figs
The National Energy Board hosted this Energy Futures Workshop as a follow-up to its report entitled Canada's Energy Future: Reference Case and Scenarios to 2030, which focused on emerging trends in energy supply and demand. Various energy futures that may be available to Canadians up to the year 2030 were examined. This workshop addressed issues regarding the growing demand for energy, the adequacy of future energy supplies, and related issues of greenhouse gas emissions, emerging technologies, energy infrastructure and energy exports. The workshop was attended by 18 experts who presented their diverse views on long-term energy issues. The sessions of the workshop focused on external and key geopolitical issues that will influence Canadian energy markets; the adoption of alternative and emerging sources of energy; outlook for Canadian oil supply, including oil sands development, reservoir quality, and financial, environmental and technological issues; issues in electricity generation and transmission; gas market dynamics; and carbon dioxide capture and storage and the associated benefits and challenges. There was general consensus that global and Canadian energy markets will remain in a state of flux. Crude oil prices are likely to remain high and volatile. The combination of maturing energy resource basins and geopolitical tensions has created uncertainty about future availability and access to global energy resources. 2 figs., 3 appendices
The 23rd Canadian Nuclear Society Annual Conference was held in Toronto, Ontario on June 2-5, 2002. The theme of the conference was '40 Years of Nuclear Power in Canada: Celebrating the Past, Looking to the Future'. This was the third national nuclear meeting organized by the CNS. Over the previous two decades the annual gathering had been a joint effort of the Canadian Nuclear Association (CNA) and the Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) with the CNA taking on the major role. Prior to the formation of the CNS, the meetings had been solely a CNA affair. The overall format was basically the same as the successful previous two with a combination of plenary sessions, in which senior members of the nuclear community provided overview of various sectors of the nuclear program, and sets of parallel sessions in which many technical papers were presented. Also, the CNS/CNA Student Conference was held on the first day, an arrangement that proved successful as it had the previous year
In June 1992 one of the largest international conferences ever held took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It was attended by the heads of state of more than 100 countries. The ambitious aim of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) -- the Earth Summit -- was to try to reconcile the need for global environmental protection with the need for continuing economic development. The purpose of this document is to provide a brief account of the results of Rio and the way Canadians participated. In addition, this document outlines the immediate priorities of the Government of Canada and the actions under way. It is not meant to be a comprehensive response to the entire Rio agenda. Rather, it is intended to report to Canadians on the steps the government has taken so far and, where possible, the direction in which it is headed. On the number of important issues, the government's plans are well advanced. For example, action is well under way on the Convention on Climate Change, as high-lighted in the Green Plan's National Action Strategy on Global Warming. On a number of other issues, it is clear that there is work to be done. The government is committed to completing the task through continuing action and leadership
Caisse, G. [Laval University, Dept. of Plant Biology, Sainte-Foy, PQ (Canada)
Rehabilitation of ombrotrophic bogs in Eastern Canada is discussed. Cutaway bogs are characterized by a remaining peat layer, usually less than one metre in thickness, that is humified, extremely nutrient-poor, very acidic and highly unstable due to peat oxidation, erosion and frost heaving. Peatlands are wetlands that accumulate organic matter in the form of peat because of slower organic matter decomposition than production. The anoxic conditions promoted by water logging impair microbial activity, which slows the decomposition processes. Restoration is the favoured rehabilitation option, however, when this is not possible, reclamation, like berry cultivation or tree plantation, is of great importance. Methods for the cultivation of cranberries on cutaway peatlands are well developed. Experiments are now underway on the cultivation of cloudberries with field and greenhouse studies on optimal water level, depth of rhizome plantation, fertilization and selection of best performing cultivars. With respect to tree plantation, much of the research has been done in Europe, although since the beginning of the nineties, several plantations of residual peat have been done in New Brunswick and Quebec, with some afforestation of cutaway peatlands also occurring in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Studies are also being done on the choice of tree species, fertilization and tree nutrition. Black spruce, tamarack, and jack pine appear to have the best survival and initial growth rate. Growth appears to improve by interplanting nitrogen fixing species, like alder. Nitrogen, phosphorus and lime fertilization at planting also help to ensure maximum growth of the trees. 16 refs., 5 figs.
Canada adopted guidelines for the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in 1994, and a central process for drug assessment in 2003. The context and the way the issue reached the agenda in the two time periods differed. The guidelines were adopted amidst growing academic interest in methods for economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in Canada and internationally, and were first promoted by an entrepreneur from the pharmaceutical industry. The Common Drug Review (CDR) was adopted in a context ...
d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Bosman, J.A.M.
This article is devoted to the nature of recent news coverage of Canada in the on-line versions of eight Dutch newspapers. The research literature points to five recurrent frames in news reporting: conflict, human interest, economic impact, morality, and responsibility. Our central research question concerned the nature of recent news reporting on Canada in Dutch newspapers in terms of amount of coverage and themes dealt with - and whether this news reflects the news frames. Two periods of st...
Christian Calmès; Raymond Théoret; François-Éric Racicot
Since the subprime crisis, securitization by financial institutions has been threatened, both in the U.S. and in Canada. In the U.S., private financial institutions have almost completely stopped their securitization activities. In Canada, the asset-backet commercial paper market is moribund and the new accounting rules (IFRS) hamper the future of residential mortgage securitization. Nevertheless, in spite of obvious weaknesses, securitization contributes to decrease the procyclicality of cre...
Raine, Kim; Wolbeck Minke, Sharlene; Khalema, Ernest; Smith, Cynthia; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.
Background Recognition of the common risk factors for leading chronic diseases in Canada has contributed to the development of integrated chronic disease prevention and health promotion approaches. The Alberta Heart Health Project studied the capacity of health organizations in Alberta, Canada, to engage in heart health promotion. This article describes how the Alberta Heart Health Project acted on emerging research findings describing the preliminary stages of integrated chronic disease prev...
The economic assimilation of immigrants in Norway is analyzed in this thesis. Since Norway and Canada have different immigration policies, the economic assimilations of immigrants in these two countries are compared. Unlike Norway, Canada uses a “point system” to target economic and demographic growth which results in a large class of economic immigrants. The entry effect, the years effect, the cohort effect and the period effect, as defined in previous academic literature, are considered....
Michael Buzzelli; Michael Jerrett
Environmental justice research in the United States has coalesced around the notion that visible-minority status, along with socioeconomic position (SEP), conditions exposure to environmental health hazards. In the context of long-standing debates over Canada - USA urban differences, we address the question of whether racial gradients exist in air pollution across Hamilton, Canada. Monitored air quality data are spatially interpolated with a kriging algorithm. These interpolated exposures are...
Julia Abelson; Mita Giacomini; John Lavis; John Eyles
This background paper was prepared to inform discussion at CHEPA's Health Policy Symposium Field of Dreams: Strengthening Health Policy Scholarship in Canada on November 2, 2007. We reflect on the characteristics of Canada's health policy community in relation to the larger and more mature international health policy community: its contributions, opportunities and constraints for growing into a well institutionalized Canadian academic field. Sources consulted in preparing this document includ...
In Canada and other developed countries, many steps are taken to minimize the risk of infection from transfusion of blood or blood products (1). However, the infection risk can never be zero because these are biological products taken from living donors who are never 'germ free' (2). This is in contrast to drugs that can be manufactured de novo under sterile conditions in a laboratory. The present note provides an update on transfusion infection risks in Canada. It replaces the 2005 note (3) ...
MacDonald, Noni E; O’Brien, Sheila F.; Delage, Gilles
Although multiple critical steps are taken to minimize the risk of infection from transfusion of blood or blood products in developed countries, this risk can never be entirely eliminated. In Canada, the risks of noninfectious transfusion reactions, such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and major allergic or anaphylactic reactions, are greater than that of infection. This updated practice point provides an overview of transfusion infection risks in Canada. Infectious agents, systemic ...
National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA), and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of th...
Anna Yusa; Peter Berry; Cheng, June J; Nicholas Ogden; Barrie Bonsal; Ronald Stewart; Ruth Waldick
Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impact...
@@ ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.,the parent company of Air Canada, and Boeing today announced a wide-body fleet renewal plan for the airline that includes up to 36 Boeing 777s and up to 60 Boeing 787Dreamliners. Air Canada will use the airplanes to modernize its existing fleet and improve operating efficiencies, creating one of the world's youngest and most simplified airline fleets.
ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.,the parent company of Air Canada, and Boeing today announced a wide-body fleet renewal plan for the airline that includes up to 36 Boeing 777s and up to 60 Boeing 787Dreamliners. Air Canada will use the airplanes to modernize its existing fleet and improve operating efficiencies, creating one of the world's youngest and most simplified airline fleets.……
The recent publications of the combined analyses of residential radon studies in Europe and North America have shown that there is a significant risk of lung cancer at residential radon levels. In order to assess the population risk due to radon, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of indoor radon levels is essential. Here a preliminary radon map for Canada is presented, based on historical radon measurements collected in 6016 locations across Canada with the health region as the basic geographic units. (authors)
Lalonde, A N; Taylor, E.
The use of different standards for coding diagnoses and procedures has been identified as a major obstacle to the collection and analysis of data across the various jurisdictions in Canada. In this article the authors briefly describe the current and future situation of medical classification systems in Canada and discuss some of the potential benefits and implications of adopting the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and a r...
Joseph W. Gruber
This study examines the impact of productivity growth on the relationship between inflation and unemployment in Canada. Recently it has been suggested that higher productivity growth is responsible for a shift in the U.S. Phillips curve that occurred in the late 1990s. This paper examines whether the Phillips curve in Canada shifted in a manner similar to that of the United States, and the degree to which higher productivity growth explains this shift.
Sheehy, Elizabeth A.
"Sexual Assault in Canada" is the first English-language book in almost two decades to assess the state of sexual assault law and legal practice in Canada. Gathering together feminist scholars, lawyers, activists and policy-makers, it presents a picture of the difficult issues that Canadian women face when reporting and prosecuting sexual violence. The volume addresses many themes including the systematic undermining of women who have been sexually assaulted, the experiences of marginalized w...
Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.
This book is a history of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, a Canadian federal government crown corporation, from its creation to the present day. It explores the development of nuclear technology in Canada from its original military objectives to the present day. Peaceful applications in electrical power generation and medical radioisotope production. It chronicles a major international scientific development and the domestic industrial and political strategies that accompanied it
The nutritional disturbances are frequent by adolescents. That is a psychological defense against dependance toward the mother but also a middle to remain in a childish position i.e. either as a fat baby - in the fall of obesity- or as the ideal pre- or bisexual great child - in the case of anorexia.
The need for forward-thinking energy sector policies that promote Canada as a leader in the responsible and effective management of energy resources was discussed. This paper proposed a set of strategies and policy options designed to ensure that Canada becomes an energy superpower with the ability to control access to supplies and leverage energy resources in order to extend its sphere of political influence. The historical evolution of energy provision was examined in order to better define the criteria needed to attain energy superpower status. The paper also examined current global energy markets and provided a summary of Canada's current energy industry. The impact of the oil sands industry on the Canadian economy was also discussed. It was concluded that although Canada does not qualify as an energy super-power, the energy sector will play an important role in Canada's future. The implementation of forward-thinking policies may mean that Canada will emerge as a superpower in the future. 42 refs
Nuclear electric power amounts to >15% of the electric power in Canada with 12,750-MW Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy-water reactors installed and 3,500 MW under construction. Three nuclear utilities, Ontario Hydro, Quebec Hydro, and New Brunswick Power, together with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and the nuclear industries share the burden of radioactive waste management in Canada. Radioactive wastes in Canada include uranium mine and mill tailings, low- and intermediate-level wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle and the Canadian nuclear industry, and used fuel from the once-through CANDU fuel cycle. In all cases, the objective is to manage these wastes in a way that creates minimal detriment to humans and the environment. In Canada, plans are for a gradual transition from interim facilities to long-term facilities, meeting the requirements of protection of humans and the environment in the long term. As in most nations, the solutions are evolving in a methodological manner, taking into account public sensitivities and concerns
Rowe, Ian H.
This paper outlines the history of Canada's involvement in space science. An early interest in upper atmosphere phenomena resulted from the influence of the north magnetic pole on long distance radio communication. With the launch of the ionospheric sounder, Alouette 1, in 1962, Canada became the third nation to have a spacecraft in space. Canada was the first country to provide domestic satellite service for commercial communications with the Anik series of satellites. The latest satellite, the M-SAT will provide two way voice and data services. ( Primarily as a result of the work of the Canada Center for Remote Sensing, Canada has been a leader in airborne remote sensing. This interest has continued in the data acquisition and interpretation of space based remote sensing. Radarsat, a remote sensing satellite which will provide synthetic aperture radar imagery at 10 meter resolution is currently in the design stage. The final role has been in the development of STEM (extendable member) devices for manned space flights. The most notable contribution is the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System first flown on Columbia in 1981. Canada's contribution to Space Station Freedom will be the Mobile Servicing System. The current space science program involves study of the universe and solar system, of the near earth environment, and of physical and biological processes occurring in space.
This first annual report on renewable energy in the Canadian electricity sector includes records from 629 power plants across Canada. Renewable energy sources include wind, hydroelectricity, wood residue biomass, landfill/sewage gas, solar photovoltaic, municipal solid waste, and tidal energy. The data in this report was acquired from Statistics Canada and other public information sources. For each of the 629 renewable energy power plants, this report states its type of renewable energy, the province, the name of the project, its location, its operator, electrical generating capacity, number of generating units, average annual electricity production, and the year it began operation. The majority (64 per cent) of Canada's total installed power capacity comes from renewable energy sources, with the dominant source being hydroelectricity. Manitoba has the highest portion of renewable energy at almost 98 per cent of its installed electrical capacity. Nearly half of Canada's renewable power capacity is in Quebec, followed by 18 per cent in British Columbia. Nova Scotia has Canada's only tidal power plant. Approximately 80 per cent of the total installed renewable energy power capacity in Canada is owned by integrated electric utilities. Eleven per cent is owned by renewable electricity generating companies, 5 per cent is owned by aluminium companies, and 3 per cent is owned by pulp and paper companies. The rest is owned by diversified electricity generators. It is expected that with the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol interest in renewable energy will grow. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix
Studies have shown that Canada's national parks are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. A wide range of biophysical climate change impacts could affect the integrity of conservation lands in each region of Canada. This report examines the potential impact of climate change on landscape alterations and vegetation distribution in Canada's wide network of conservation lands. It also presents several ways to integrate climate change into existing conservation policy and adaptation strategies. Canada's conservation lands include provincial parks, migratory bird sanctuaries, national wildlife areas and wildlife protected areas. This is the first study to examine biome changes by applying an equilibrium Global Vegetation Model (GVM) to Canada's network of national park systems. Some of the policy and planning challenges posed by changes in landscape level vegetation were also addressed. The report indicates that in terms of potential changes to the biome classification of Canada's national forests, more northern biomes are projected to decrease. These northern biomes include the tundra, taiga and boreal conifer forests. 56 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs
EP Canada Limited Partnership, a wholly owned subsidiary of Rainmaker Income Fund, is the leading full service provider of payroll and employer-of-record services to the film and television industry in Canada. The size of the payroll volume outsourced in the film and television industry in Canada is directly correlated to the level of production activity in Canada. After several consecutive years of growth, the production of feature films and television programs, in Canada, is in ...
This expert panel report was commissioned by the Royal Society of Canada to provide a comprehensive evidence-based assessment of the environmental and health impacts of Canada's oil sands industry. The report evaluated the feasibility of land reclamation and the impacts of oil sands contaminants on downstream residents. Health impacts on residents living in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo were assessed, and the impacts on regional water supplies were evaluated. Regional water and ground water quantities were examined, and issues related to tailing pond operations and reclamation were examined. Ambient air quality impacts were assessed, as well as potential impacts of the oil sands industry on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The environmental regulatory performance of operators in the industry was also evaluated. A summary of economic and policy issues related to the industry was also provided. The study identified major gaps in the process of assessment, prevention, and mitigation of the health impacts of oil sands exploitation, as as major indirect health impacts linked to past exploitation activities. 672 refs., 11 tabs., 11 figs. 10 appendices.
Breiner, Ari; Widdifield, Jessica; Katzberg, Hans D; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Tu, Karen
Incidence and prevalence estimates in myasthenia gravis have varied widely. Recent studies based on administrative health data have large sample sizes but lack rigorous validation of MG cases, and have not examined the North American population. Our aim was to explore trends in MG incidence and prevalence for the years 1996-2013 in the province of Ontario, Canada (population 13.5 million). We employed a previously validated algorithm to identify MG cases. Linking with census data allowed for the calculation of crude- and age/sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates for the years 1996-2013. The regional distribution of MG cases throughout the province was examined. Mean age at the first myasthenia gravis encounter was 60.2 ± 17.1 years. In 2013, there were 3611 prevalent cases in Ontario, and the crude prevalence rate was 32.0/100,000 population. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates rose consistently over time from 16.3/100,000 (15.4-17.1) in 1996 to 26.3/100,000 (25.4-27.3) in 2013. Standardized incidence rates remained stable between 1996 (2.7/100,000; 95% CL 2.3-3.0) and 2013 (2.3/100,000; 2.1-2.6). Incidence was highest in younger women and older men, and geographic variation was evident throughout the province. In conclusion, this large epidemiological study shows rising myasthenia gravis prevalence with stable incidence over time, which is likely reflective of patients living longer, possibly due to improved disease treatment. Our findings provide accurate information on the Canadian epidemiology of myasthenia gravis and burden for health care resources planning for the province, respectively. PMID:26573434
There has been a flurry of activity in the Ontario electricity sector over the last 2 years as the government continued to work at averting a major crisis of supply in Canada's most populous province.As stated by the Ministry of Energy in 2004, Ontario needs to refurbish, rebuild, replace or conserve 25,000 megawatts of generating capacity by the year 2020 to meet growing demand while replacing its polluting coal-fired generating plants. That represents 80 per cent of Ontario's current generating capacity and would require an investment of $25 to $40 billion. Action has been taken. The government has completed a restructuring of the electricity market with new legislation and has undertaken a number of major procurement initiatives to enable the system to operate until about 2015. These include contracts for significant wind generation and other renewables supply, new gas generation, conservation and demand management and the refurbishment of idled nuclear units. The Ontario Power Authority as now issued it ''Supply Mix Advice'' to address the needs of the province for the long term (20 years). The recommendations would ''increase the share of renewable sources' in Ontario's supply mix, maintain the share of nuclear generation, and replace coal by increasing the share of gas-fired generation and renewable resources.'' It clearly recognizes the importance of nuclear power as a clean and economic option to meet the ongoing base load requirements and states that the nuclear share can be achieved through refurbishing existing units, rebuilding on existing sites and undertaking ''new build'' plants. This paper will examine government's plan to maintain the share of nuclear power at about 50% of electricity generated, and address the important issues required to make decisions on future refurbishments and new build
Sabbag, J.N. [Total Petroleum and Oil Co., State of Anzoategui, (Venezuela)
This presentation outlined the Sincor heavy oil alchemy project, one of four upgrading projects in the Orinoco Basin in the Zuata Region in the State of Anzoategui, Venezuela. The objective is to turn 200,000 barrels per day of extra heavy oil into high quality, very low sulfur synthetic crude. The construction and start-up were outlined along with operating results and marketing issues. Production of the highly viscous oil has been enhanced through 3D seismic, horizontal drilling, multi-phase pumps, and real-time monitoring. Several viewgraphs were included with this presentation, depicting the Sincor well design, project development scheme, the industrial complex, and the upgrader facility. Since its launch in March 2002, approximately 25 million barrels of crude have been produced. The project is within budget and the planning and design concepts are on target. Market value and qualities have met expectations. The remaining challenge is to find ways to transfer the good experience of Sincor to Alberta. Total Petroleum Oil and Co. does not have a refinery in Canada and favours the same choice as the one made for Sincor. The Sincor project meets international specifications for air emissions, water effluent quality and noise level. Carbon dioxide emissions were not a design parameter at the onset of the Sincor project. It was noted that the conditions in Alberta include a higher CAPEX, hot versus cold production, higher gas price and inland location. For these reasons, the size of an upgrader in Alberta will have to be maximized. 7 tabs., 12 figs.
Kerr, D L
A case study of 1 of the 3 school boards approving in 1989 installation of condom machines is presented: The Lisgar Collegiate Institute, Ottawa, Canada. The school is characterized as having 1000 college preparatory students from middle and upper middle class homes and university educated parents. The project was student initiated and involved 1) meeting with communication consultants to determine feasibility, 2) conducting an informal peer consultation to seek out interest and support, 3) meeting with public health officials to gain support and ideas, and 4) conducting research. Condom machine installation (2) was only 1 component; a pilot sexuality education program was included as well. The student proposal was presented and rejected by the principal and the Superintendent of Student Services. Students then lobbied the school board trustees. 2 students lobbies each school board member. Letters of support were obtained from parents' advisory groups, parents, the student council, and other influential people. The media provided coverage in a popular morning television show. The student proposal was submitted to the Board of Education's Education Committee in June 1989; students were assisted by teachers and the Parents Advisory Committee. The school board approved. In the fall of 1989, sexuality awareness week was designated as October 30-November 3. Parents were asked for comments on the designated program, but only 50 contributed in a supportive way. During this week lunch-hour displays and videos, peer-facilitated discussion groups, informal talks by experts, and student theater presentations were sponsored activities. Following this event, the school board arranged for the installment of machines in the men's and women's washrooms near where social events were held and in toilet cubicles in order to provide privacy, as requested by students. The individual cost is US$1/condom. Evaluation is planned. Students have been amused by the amount of public response